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Sample records for fonctions entires algbriques

  1. La composition comme fonction

    OpenAIRE

    Ginot, Isabelle

    1998-01-01

    International audience; Une étude sur le statut de la composition dans l'œuvre du chorégraphe Dominique Bagouet. La composition est y proposée comme fonction transversale de l'œuvre, c'est-à-dire non seulement comme méthodes successives d'agencement de différentes parties dans les pièces, mais aussi comme construction du corps (composite), de l'espace (à mesurer), et de l'autre (l'interprète).

  2. Entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Markushevich, A I

    1966-01-01

    Entire Functions focuses on complex numbers and the algebraic operations on them and the basic principles of mathematical analysis.The book first elaborates on the concept of an entire function, including the natural generalization of the concept of a polynomial and power series. The text then takes a look at the maximum absolute value and the order of an entire function, as well as calculations for the coefficients of power series representing a given function, use of integrals, and complex numbers. The publication elaborates on the zeros of an entire function and the fundamen

  3. La gestion de la fonction maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R

    2000-01-01

    Le présent article a pour objet d'analyser la fonction maintenance au sein de la division ST. Seront d'abord évoqués, les principaux facteurs qui ont marqué ladite fonction tels que sa décentralisation au niveau de chaque groupe, organisé par spécialité, et l'externalisation des activités jugées non stratégiques. En rapprochant la fonction maintenance de la fonction études et travaux, la décentralisation a sans doute permis de développer, par spécialité, un niveau de compétence accru. La sous-traitance de plus en plus importante de nos activités et les recrutements à un niveau plus élevé ont permis de faire face aux diminutions de personnel CERN. Cependant, ces aspects positifs s'accompagnent d'effets pervers tels que le manque de communication entre les services de maintenance de chaque spécialité, la disparité des approches dans la façon de gérer les activités et d'organiser le travail, et une difficulté à analyser globalement les performances des contractants. Ces différentes ...

  4. Croissance des fonctions sous-harmoniques et des fonctions entières dans $C^N$

    CERN Document Server

    Supper, R; Ramis, J P

    2005-01-01

    Ce mémoire d'habilitation présente une synthèse de mes travaux de ces dernières années et expose quelques projets de recherche. Il aborde différentes questions relatives à la croissance des fonctions sous-harmoniques (dans la boule unité ou dans l'espace tout entier) et des fonctions entières de type exponentiel, par exemple: caractérisation des fonctions sous-harmoniques avec une croissance de type Bloch, étude de la mesure de Riesz d'une fonction sous-harmonique, minoration des fonctions sous-harmoniques d'ordre au plus un, détermination des fonctions entières de plusieurs variables complexes dont la partie réelle s'annule en certains poin

  5. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  6. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  7. NR 512 Entire Class

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

     NR 512 Entire Class   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/nr-512-entire-class/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com   NR512 Week 1 Discussion Latest 2017 Integration of Nursing Informatics Skills and Competencies (graded) • Reflect on your own practice. Discuss how informatics is used in your practice. What is your primary area where you would use informatics? NR512 Week 2 Discussion Latest 2017 Wisdom Versus Judgment (graded) How does the conc...

  8. Acides gras poly-insaturés et fonctions cognitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalon Sylvie

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available L’influence des AGPI sur les fonctions cognitives peut être abordé par le biais de tests comportementaux réalisés chez des animaux soumis à des régimes alimentaires à teneurs variables et contrôlées en AGPI n-6 et n-3. Plusieurs études montrent que la déficience en AGPI n-3 induit une diminution des capacités d’apprentissage tandis que la supplémentation en DHA améliore ces fonctions. Cependant, il est difficile de distinguer entre des effets directs sur l’apprentissage et/ou sur des paramètres de performances tels que les fonctions visuelles, la motivation, l’attention, la réactivité aux stimuli. Les mécanismes impliqués dans ces effets sont encore mal élucidés. Les AGPI peuvent agir sur les fonctions cognitives via des effets sur les propriétés physiques des membranes cérébrales, entraînant des conséquences sur les protéines incluses dans ces membranes telles que les récepteurs et les transporteurs. Les AGPI peuvent aussi agir directement sur le génome. Par ailleurs, les effets des AGPI peuvent passer par les systèmes de signalisation cellulaire, puisqu’ils sont des précurseurs des eicosanoïdes. De plus, on dispose de plus en plus d’arguments en faveur de l’influence des AGPI sur les processus de neurotransmission, notamment dopaminergique, sérotoninergique et cholinergique. Chez l’homme, il est plus difficile d’évaluer l’influence des AGPI sur les fonctions cognitives que chez l’animal. Cependant, des données concernant l’évaluation mentale au cours de la période de développement et les relations entre le statut en AGPI et les désordres neuropsychiatriques sont en faveur d’un réel impact des AGPI sur le fonctionnement cérébral. Ce champ d’investigation illustre parfaitement le rôle potentiel des facteurs environnementaux sur la santé mentale.

  9. Métabolisme et fonctions de l’acide myristique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux Vincent

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available L’acide myristique (C:14:0 est un acide gras saturé d’origine alimentaire ou d’origine endogène, encore peu connu. Il a des spécificités métaboliques et fonctionnelles qui sont présentées ici. Il possède un avenir court dans la cellule puisqu’il est majoritairement beta-oxydé et/ou allongé en acide palmitique. Il a également, en acylant plusieurs protéines (myristoylation, des rôles fonctionnels très importants dans la régulation de certaines fonctions cellulaires.

  10. Métabolisme et fonctions de l’acide myristique

    OpenAIRE

    Rioux Vincent; Legrand Philippe

    2001-01-01

    L’acide myristique (C:14:0) est un acide gras saturé d’origine alimentaire ou d’origine endogène, encore peu connu. Il a des spécificités métaboliques et fonctionnelles qui sont présentées ici. Il possède un avenir court dans la cellule puisqu’il est majoritairement beta-oxydé et/ou allongé en acide palmitique. Il a également, en acylant plusieurs protéines (myristoylation), des rôles fonctionnels très importants dans la régulation de certaines fonctions cellulaires.

  11. Les géotextiles : fonctions, caractéristiques et dimensionnement

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, S.

    2000-01-01

    En trente ans les géotextiles ont gagné tous les ouvrages du génie civil pour y remplir de nombreuses fonctions. Cet article a pour but de présenter rapidement les géotextiles dans une approche pratique. Il rappelle toutes les possibilités que les géotextiles peuvent offrir au maître d'oeuvre ou au concepteur à travers une présentation des six fonctions élémentaires. Il définit ensuite les caractéristiques pertinentes pour ces fonctions et décrit quelques-uns des essais s'y rapportant. Enfin,...

  12. Métalexicographie culturelle, fonctions lexicographiques et finalité pragmatique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Résumé: Le but de cet article est de replacer le traitement des données culturelles dans les dictionnaires dans le cadre d’une méthodologie guidée par les fonctions lexicographiques et par la finalité pragmatique du dictionnaire : le dictionnaire est-il monofonctionnel ou polyfonctionnel ? Est-il...

  13. Approximation diophantienne et approximants de Hermite-Pad\\'e de type I de fonctions exponentielles

    CERN Document Server

    Khémira, Samy

    2010-01-01

    En utilisant des approximants de Hermite-Pad\\'e de fonctions exponentielles, ainsi que des d\\'eterminants d'interpolation de Laurent, nous minorons la distance entre un nombre alg\\'ebrique et l'exponentielle d'un nombre alg\\'ebrique non nul. ----- We use Hermite-Pad\\'e approximants of exponential functions along with Laurent's interpolation determinants to obtain lower bounds for the distance between an algebraic number and the exponential of another non-zero algebraic number.

  14. Le renouvellement de la fonction de trésorerie au sein de la fonction financière de la firme

    OpenAIRE

    Koulayom, Henri

    1996-01-01

    National audience; Depuis les années 80, la gestion financière a pris une place accrue dans les firmes, en particulier en ce qui concerne la fonction de trésorerie. Cependant, la finalité des firmes est bien restée industrielle et n’est pas devenue financière. Après les années 70 axées sur la trésorerie zéro, le trésorier est chargé essentiellement de la gestion des risques financiers, notamment des risques de taux et de change. Il n’a pas en général vocation à s’ériger en centre de profit ; ...

  15. Eléments de mathématiques fonctions d'une variable réelle : théorie élémentaire

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    chapitre I : dérivés ; chapitre II : primitives et intégrales ; chapitre III : fonctions élémentaires ; chapitre IV : équations différentielles ; chapitre V : étude locale des fonctions ; chapitre VI : développements tayloriens généralisés, formule sommatoire d'Euler-Maclaurin ; chapitre VII : la fonction gamma.

  16. La pérennisation du contrat dans la fonction publique

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The research deals with the perennial contract, or the contract of indefinite duration in the public service . It is to seek the reasons for the gradual integration of the contract in the public service and to determine whether the indefinite contract actually secures , or whether, instead , it should be seen as a status circumvention attempt.; La recherche traite du contrat pérenne, soit le contrat à durée indéterminée, dans la fonction publique. Il s’agit de rechercher les raisons expliquan...

  17. Convergence of Infinite Composition of Entire Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Shota

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to obtain the condition that the function defined by infinite composition of entire functions becomes an entire function. Moreover, as an example of such functions, we study a function called Poincare function.

  18. Métaphores terminologiques : fonctions et statut dans les langues de spécialité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Micaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La terminologie spécialisée a été longtemps considérée par la théorie wustérienne comme un territoire interdit à la rhétorique : selon les manuels des années 70 et 80, la langue de spécialité est de par sa nature essentiellement dénotative, le terme étant une unité monosémique, liée par un lien biunivoque à son concept de référence. De même, les textes spécialisés se présentent dans ces études comme des unités essentiellement informatives, à visée purement référentielle, ce qui exclut la présence de toute figure rhétorique. Cette hypothèque d'objectivité limite l'analyse des textes de spécialité pendant quelques décennies. Ce n'est qu'à la fin des années 90 que de nouvelles visions de la terminologie se manifestent : les courants de la terminologie textuelle (Bourigault / Slodzian 1999, de la terminologie variationniste et culturelle (Diki Kidiri 1999, de la terminologie communicative (Cabré 1999 mettent l'accent sur la variété des textes et discours spécialisés, ainsi que sur leur dimension discursive et - par conséquent - rhétorique. On assiste ainsi à la redécouverte de la fonction des figures dans les textes de spécialité, comme en témoignent entre autres les études de Lerat (1995, Jacobi (1995. Dans la même lignée d'études, les années 90 marquent la naissance d'un courant spécifique, focalisé sur le rôle, la fonction et l'évolution de la métaphore dans les langues spéciales. Les essais d'Assal (1994 peuvent être considérés comme le point de départ de cette nouvelle orientation des terminologues : dans le sillage des cognitivistes, notamment des études fondatrices de Richards (1936 et Black (1962, mais également des études plus récentes de Lakoff et Johnson (1990 et de Fauconnier et Turner (1997, l'analyse des métaphores terminologiques est conduite dans leur dimension de figures conceptuelles, fruit d'une incohérence dérivant de l'interaction de domaines apparemment

  19. On a Class of Prime Entire Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuldeep Singh CHARAK; Ilpo LAINE

    2009-01-01

    In this note it is proved that entire functions of the form Fa(z) = H(z)-aα(z),where H and α are entire functions, with α having at least one zero, H' and α' having no common zeros and T(r, α) = S(T, H), are prime in entire sense for most values of α. The class of these functions is seen to contain examples of both periodic and non-periodic prime entire functions found by Noda,Qiao, Urabe and by Singh and Charak. Another result due to Singh and Charak will be improved as well.

  20. Hamiltonian constants for several new entire solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the Hamiltonian identities and the corresponding Hamilto- nian constants for entire solutions of elliptic partial differential equations, we investigate several new entire solutions whose existence were shown recently, and show interesting properties of the solutions such as formulas for contact angles at infinity of concentration curves.

  1. Du statut au contrat : vers une fonction publique “déstatufiée” ?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Le statut général de la fonction publique est octroyé par la loi générale2 et par des décrets d’application et des décrets portant statut particulier des différents corps ou cadres d’emplois. Pareil légalisme porte un objectif pratique clair : rendre applicable un droit dérogatoire au droit commun, le droit commun du travail en particulier. Il est la conséquence logique, comme l’exposait le député Yves Fagon devant l’Assemblée nationale constituante dans son rapport su...

  2. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  3. Entire functions sharing one small function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-tong; CAO Yao

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions sharing one small function was studied. By Picard's Theorem, we proved that for two transcendental entire functions f (z) and g(z), a positive integer n≥9, and a(z) (not identically eaqual to zero) being a common small function related to f (z) and g(z), if f n(z)(f(z)-1)f'(z) and gn(z)(g'z)-1)g'(z) share a(z) CM, where CM is counting multiplicity, then g(z)≡f (z). This is an extended version of Fang and Hong's theorem [ Fang ML, Hong W, A unicity theorem for entire functions concerning differential polynomials, Journal of Indian Pure Applied Mathematics, 2001, 32 (9): 1343-1348].

  4. Uniqueness of entire functions concerning weighted sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yao-qiang; MA Chao-wei

    2007-01-01

    The uniqueness problem of entire functions concerning weighted sharing was discussed, and the following theorem was proved. Let f and g be two non-constant entire functions, m, n and k three positive integers, and n>2k+4. If Em(1,(f n)(k))= Em(1,(gn)(k)), then either f (z)=c1ecz and g(z)= c2e-cz, or f =tg, where c, c1 and c2 are three constants satisfying (-1)k(c1c2)n(nc)2k=1, and t is a constant satisfying t n=1. The theorem generalizes the result of Fang [Fang ML, Uniqueness and value sharing of entire functions, Computer & Mathematics with Applications, 2002, 44: 823-831].

  5. An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardy, Gust H.; Smith, Warren M.; Hood, Margaret A.; Crozier, Ian G.; Melton, Iain C.; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic; Park, Robert E.; Wright, David J.; Connelly, Derek T.; Fynn, Simon P.; Murgatroyd, Francis D.; Sperzel, Johannes; Neuzner, Joerg; Spitzer, Stefan G.; Ardashev, Andrey V.; Oduro, Amo; Boersma, Lucas; Maass, Alexander H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Wilde, Arthur A.; van Dessel, Pascal F.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Barr, Craig S.; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo; Grace, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS First, we conducted tw

  6. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. Bardy (Gust); W.M. Smith (Warren); A.M. Hood (Margaret); I.G. Crozier (Ian); I.C. Melton (Iain Craig); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); E. Park (Robert); D.J. Wright (David Justin); D.T. Connelly (Derek); S.P. Fynn (Simon Patrick); F.D. Murgatroyd (Francis); J. Sperzel (Johannes); J. Neuzner (Jörg); S.G. Spitzer (Stefan); A.V. Ardashev (Andrey); A. Oduro (Amo); L. Boersma (Lucas); A.H. Maass (Alexander); I.C. van Gelder (Isabelle); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); P.F.H.M. van Pascal; R.E. Knops (Reinoud); C.S. Barr (Craig); P. Lupo (Pierpaolo); R. Cappato (Riccardo); A.A. Grace (Andrew)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS: First, w

  7. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. Bardy (Gust); W.M. Smith (Warren); A.M. Hood (Margaret); I.G. Crozier (Ian); I.C. Melton (Iain Craig); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); E. Park (Robert); D.J. Wright (David Justin); D.T. Connelly (Derek); S.P. Fynn (Simon Patrick); F.D. Murgatroyd (Francis); J. Sperzel (Johannes); J. Neuzner (Jörg); S.G. Spitzer (Stefan); A.V. Ardashev (Andrey); A. Oduro (Amo); L. Boersma (Lucas); A.H. Maass (Alexander); I.C. van Gelder (Isabelle); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); P.F.H.M. van Pascal; R.E. Knops (Reinoud); C.S. Barr (Craig); P. Lupo (Pierpaolo); R. Cappato (Riccardo); A.A. Grace (Andrew)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS: First,

  8. An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardy, Gust H.; Smith, Warren M.; Hood, Margaret A.; Crozier, Ian G.; Melton, Iain C.; Jordaens, Luc; Theuns, Dominic; Park, Robert E.; Wright, David J.; Connelly, Derek T.; Fynn, Simon P.; Murgatroyd, Francis D.; Sperzel, Johannes; Neuzner, Joerg; Spitzer, Stefan G.; Ardashev, Andrey V.; Oduro, Amo; Boersma, Lucas; Maass, Alexander H.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Wilde, Arthur A.; van Dessel, Pascal F.; Knops, Reinoud E.; Barr, Craig S.; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo; Grace, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS First, we conducted

  9. Zeros of entire functions of finite order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supper Raphaële

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Given , , let be the set of all entire functions , with , for which there exists some constant such that . It is shown that the zero set of a function of satisfies and that the union of the zero sets of two functions of is not necessarily the zero set of a function of . Some uniqueness results of Carlson's type are also obtained.

  10. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang

    2002-01-01

    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$

  11. Uniqueness of entire functions and fixed points

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jianming; Fang, Mingliang

    2002-01-01

    Let $f$ be a nonconstant entire function. %If $f(z)=z$ $\\Longleftrightarrow $ $f'(z)=z$, and %$f'(z)=z$ $\\Longrightarrow $ $f''(z)=z$, then $f\\equiv f'$. In particular, If $f$, $f'$ and $f''$ have the same fixed points, then $f\\equiv f'.$

  12. UNIQUENESS OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS SHARING ONE VALUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiuqing; Lin Weichuan

    2011-01-01

    We deal with the problem of entire functions sharing one value weakly. More- over, we improve and generalize some former results obtained by J.-F.Chen, et al. [6], Y.Xu and H.L.Qiu [4], M.L. Fang [5], C.C. Yang, and X.H. Hua [3].

  13. Deformation of Entire Functions with Baker Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We consider entire transcendental functions f with an invariant (or periodic) Baker Domain. First, we classify these domains into three types (hyperbolic, simply parabolic and doubly parabolic) according to the surface they induce when we take the quotient by the dynamics. Second, we study...

  14. Fonction des comportements parentaux: révision de la notion de sensibilité maternelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gosselin

    Full Text Available Le rôle exercé par la mère dans l'adaptation de l'enfant et la prépondérance des soins maternels prodigués à l'enfant en bas âge représentent une des pierres d'assise de la théorie de l'attachement. Bien que les études empiriques aient largement démontré le lien entre la sécurité de l'attachement et le développement des compétences chez l'enfant, peu d'information sur les comportements liés à la continuité de la fonction parentale est disponible. Dans la perspective d'une meilleure compréhension de la continuité du rôle de protection parentale chez la mère, cet article théorique propose une révision de la sensibilité maternelle selon un modèle de régulation des buts empathiques, socialisants et personnels. La présentation de ce modèle s'appuie sur la théorie de l'attachement élaborée par John Bowlby, sur le concept de sensibilité maternelle développée par Mary Ainsworth et sur le modèle de la régulation des buts parentaux de Théodore Dix.

  15. La vitamine D : les nouvelles fonctions d’une ancienne vitamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabedian Michèle

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Au début des années 80, on croyait tout connaître ou presque de la vitamine D [1, 2]. Sa fonction antirachitique et sa double origine, alimentaire et endogène, étaient des données classiques depuis le début des années 20. L’essentiel de son métabolisme et des facteurs contrôlant ce métabolisme était connu depuis 1970, de même qu’avaient été identifiées sa forme de réserve, la 25-hydroxyvitamine D, et sa forme active, la 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D (1,25-(OH2D. De plus, le mode d’action de la 1,25-(OH2D sur la minéralisation du squelette et le métabolisme phosphocalcique était en grande partie élucidé. Enfin, dès le début des années 80, on savait que l’action de la 1,25-dihydroxyvitamine D sur ses cellules cibles, dans l’intestin, l’os, les reins, les parathyroïdes, nécessite la présence d’un récepteur spécifique intracellulaire, le VDR (Vitamin D Receptor et le transfert du couple 1,25-(OH2D-VDR vers le noyau cellulaire.

  16. Fonction des comportements parentaux: révision de la notion de sensibilité maternelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Le rôle exercé par la mère dans l'adaptation de l'enfant et la prépondérance des soins maternels prodigués à l'enfant en bas âge représentent une des pierres d'assise de la théorie de l'attachement. Bien que les études empiriques aient largement démontré le lien entre la sécurité de l'attachement et le développement des compétences chez l'enfant, peu d'information sur les comportements liés à la continuité de la fonction parentale est disponible. Dans la perspective d'une meilleure compréhension de la continuité du rôle de protection parentale chez la mère, cet article théorique propose une révision de la sensibilité maternelle selon un modèle de régulation des buts empathiques, socialisants et personnels. La présentation de ce modèle s'appuie sur la théorie de l'attachement élaborée par John Bowlby, sur le concept de sensibilité maternelle développée par Mary Ainsworth et sur le modèle de la régulation des buts parentaux de Théodore Dix.

  17. Optimal growth of frequently hypercyclic entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Drasin, David

    2011-01-01

    We solve a problem posed by A. Bonilla and K.-G. Grosse-Erdmann by constructing an entire function $f$ that is frequently hypercyclic with respect to the differentiation operator, and satisfies $M_f(r)\\leq\\displaystyle ce^r r^{-1/4}$, where $c>0$ be chosen arbirarily small. The obtained growth rate is sharp. We also obtain optimal results for the growth when measured in terms of average $L^p$-norms. Among other things, the proof applies Rudin-Shapiro polynomials and heat kernel estimates.

  18. Figurer la dystopie pour éclairer l’utopie : une fonction de l’exemple historique

    OpenAIRE

    Danblon, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Dans cet article, on analyse la dystopie comme la mise en récit de l’EH comme dans sa fonction de guide vers une utopie. Les figures de l’énigme et de l’amplification sont analysées ici à partir de deux cas particuliers qui entretiennent un rapport différent à la mémoire orale. In this paper, dystopia is analyzed as the storytelling of a historical example in its function of guide towards utopia. Enigma and amplification as rhetorical figures are analyzed from two case studies that carry o...

  19. Les syndicats de la Fonction publique et les réformes managériales depuis 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Siwek-Pouydesseau, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Panorama des argumentaires de la presse syndicale Force Ouvrière, CGT et CFDT sur les principales réformes managériales depuis 2002 : Statut, Dialogue social, Loi organique relative aux lois de finances, Révision générale des politiques publiques. Toutes les organisations se situent plus ou moins entre ces trois « modèles » : d'une résistance sans concession, à la défense d'une fonction publique citoyenne, ou à des analyses centrées sur des méthodes jugées inadéquates.

  20. Conséquences du stress sur la fonction immunitaire chez les animaux d'élevage

    OpenAIRE

    Merlot, Elodie

    2004-01-01

    Cet article présente comment des situations de stress aigu (un transport, un regroupement) ou chronique (conditions de logement contraignantes) affectent la fonction immunitaire chez les animaux d’élevage. La réponse de stress est caractérisée par l’activation de l’axe corticotrope, dont les hormones inhibent l’activité des leucocytes, et la libération de nombreuses autres hormones et neuromédiateurs immunoactifs et immunosuppresseurs (hormone de croissance, prolactine, enképhalines…). Ainsi,...

  1. Dentofacial Composition: An Entire Aesthetic Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Michael; Peleska, Barbara; Hmaidouch, Rim; Mehrhof, Jürgen; Weigel, Dana

    2015-10-01

    The aesthetic appearance of the mouth region, in addition to the eye and nose area, is the impressive element for facial aesthetics. Therefore, the reconstruction of the intraoral region is very important for the facial aesthetics in the case of genetic dysplasia, trauma, or even in cases for rejuvenating purposes only. The entire region is complex so that in many patient cases only the team work of restorative dentists, surgeons, and orthodontists will be effective. A key role is played here by the dental technician. Besides the frequent necessity of osseous augmentation, the mucogingival complex needs to be, in most cases, harmonized and reconstructed, respectively. There is often a lack of keratinized gingiva and disturbing cicatrice tracks. Quite frequently the mucogingival appearance is also unsatisfactory due to preceding operations and attempted plastic coverages. The aim of this report is to describe the successful surgical and prosthetic treatment of aesthetically and functionally impaired intraoral hard and soft tissue. For surgeons who are interested in aesthetics, it is advisable to learn from experiences of a specialized restorative dentist, oral surgeon, and orthodontist. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Rapid Electromagnetic Analysis of Entire Accelerator Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Simon

    2005-01-01

    We present results of a new method for fast, accurate calculation, in 3-D, of the electromagnetic mode spectrum of long, tapered accelerator structures. Instead of discretizing the entire structure directly and solving a huge matrix eigenvalue problem, we use a new two-step technique that scales much better to long, multi-cavity structures. In the first step we compute a small number of eigenmodes of individual cavities, achieving 0.05% frequency accuracy using a new second-order finite-element code. In the second step we use these 3-D mode solutions as field basis functions to obtain a reduced matrix representation of Maxwell's equations for the complete structure. Solving the reduced system takes just a few minutes on a desktop PC even with more than 100 non-identical cavities, and gives the complete mode spectrum in the first few bands of the structure. By judicious choice of the basis modes, we retain 0.05% frequency accuracy for these global solutions, and can reconstruct the complete 3-D field of each m...

  3. Fast escaping points of entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rippon, P J

    2010-01-01

    Let $f$ be a transcendental entire function and let $A(f)$ denote the set of points that escape to infinity `as fast as possible' under iteration. By writing $A(f)$ as a countable union of closed sets, called `levels' of $A(f)$, we obtain a new understanding of the structure of this set. For example, we show that if $U$ is a Fatou component in $A(f)$, then $\\partial U\\subset A(f)$ and this leads to significant new results and considerable improvements to existing results about $A(f)$. In particular, we study functions for which $A(f)$, and each of its levels, has the structure of an `infinite spider's web'. We show that there are many such functions and that they have a number of strong dynamical properties. This new structure provides an unexpected connection between a conjecture of Baker concerning the components of the Fatou set and a conjecture of Eremenko concerning the components of the escaping set.

  4. The first glacier inventory for entire Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastner, P.; Bolch, T.; Mölg, N.; Le Bris, R.; Paul, F.

    2012-04-01

    approximately 1'684'000 km2. The entire ice-covered area on Greenland is thus 1'813'000 km2. We will present the results of the GIC mapping along with an analysis of glacier inventory statistics.

  5. Télémonitorage des grandes fonctions physiologiques chez les primates vigiles Remote monitoring of physiologic functions in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Germain

    2011-02-01

    besoins accrus de caractériser des individus très mobiles ou des groupes d’animaux dans des environnements complexes, toujours en utilisant des systèmes portables et les moins invasifs possible. Ces systèmes devraient permettre de caractériser les tendances évolutives de certains états physiologiques (études éthophysiologiques, études de terrain ou expérimentaux (physiologie, pharmacologie et d'alerter suffisamment rapidement les observateurs pour qu'ils puissent appliquer en retour des actions correctives si nécessaire. Des pans entiers des grandes fonctions physiologiques, régulations métaboliques et régulations hormonales, pour ne citer que celles-là, ne peuvent pas encore être explorés directement par télémonitorage. Des concepts plus avancés tels que ceux des biocapteurs métaboliques ou hormonaux sont en cours de validation en laboratoire et pourraient devenir accessibles aux acquisitions télémétriques dans le futur.The common difficulties of the study of nonhuman primates are close to the constraints encountered in implementing the principles of human telemedicine. They stem from the remote localization of animals and of their geographical dispersion, in field studies. They also stem from the need to control in the laboratory, experimental treatments with a minimal disturbance of their social behavior. Radio waves are an excellent transmission signal to monitor the animals because they can spread information rapidly and over long distances through the air. All telemetry devices operate on the same basic principle which consists in one or more sensors coupled to a radio-encoder transmitter and an antenna system coupled to an analog or digital, receiver-decoder. Progress in remote transmission also stems from the miniaturization of electronic emitting- and acquisition-devices that are less energy demanding and therefore have much greater transmission range and autonomy. Many telemetric devices, often totally implantable in the body of the

  6. Solution of the transfer functions and the linear networks by an analog computer; Resolution des fonctions de transfert et des reseaux lineaires sur calculateur analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, D

    1967-09-27

    This study presents five methods used to realize a transfer function on analog computer - method of operational amplifiers - method of successive integrations - method of the auxiliary variable - method of the Horner decomposition - method of the direct analog transposition. The method that seems to us the most interesting, this one of Horner, is exposed with some complements. The last method presents the study of a linear network (mechanical, electronic) by direct analog transposition, without having to calculate its transfer function. Several aspects are studied the economy or the material type, the simpleness of implementing the adaptation of coefficients to the computer, the introduction of initial conditions of input and output functions. Every method presented is discussed in function of these problems. The precision of the result is not studied here, but we can indicate that the methods treated here, do not include approximations other than these ones of the computer elements. [French] Cette etude presente cinq methodes utilisees pour realiser une fonction de transfert quelconque sur calculateur analogique - methode des Amplificateurs operationnels - methode des integrations successives - methode de la variable auxiliaire - methode de la decomposition de Horner - methode de la transposition analogique directe. La methode qui nous semble la plus interessante, celle de Horner, est exposee avec quelques complements. La derniere methode presente l'etude d'un reseau lineaire (mecanique, electronique...) par transposition analogique directe, sans avoir a calculer sa fonction de transfert. Plusieurs aspects sont etudies l'economie ou le type de materiel, la simplicite de mise en oeuvre l'adaptation des coefficients au calculateur, l'introduction des conditions initiales des fonctions d'entree et de sortie. Chaque methode presentee est discutee en fonction de ces problemes. La precision du resultat n'est pas etudiee ici, mais on

  7. Solution Analytique De L'equation De Schroedinger Pour Un Potentiel Coulombien-plus-lineaire: Les Fonctions D'onde (french Text)

    CERN Document Server

    Plante, G

    2005-01-01

    Nous résolvons l'équation de Schrödinger indépendante du temps pour le cas d'un système quark-antiquark interagissant via un potentiel donné par la somme d'un potentiel coulombien et d'un potentiel linéaire. La solution en série de l'équation de Schrödinger pour ce potentiel mène à une équation récursive linéaire homogène à quatre termes et à coefficients variables reliant les coefficients du développement en série de puissances. Nous obtenons la solution de cette équation récursive en termes de fonctions appelées fonctions combinatoires. Les fonctions combinatoires sont définies par rapport à l'ensemble des partitions d'un intervalle en parts. Les parts disponibles pour la partition de l'intervalle sont les différences d'ordre entr...

  8. 46 CFR 78.37-10 - Official log entires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Official log entires. 78.37-10 Section 78.37-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Logbook Entries § 78.37-10 Official log entires. (a) In addition to other items required to be entered in the...

  9. THE PITS PROPERTY OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS DEFINED BY DIRICHLET SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Lina; Gao Zongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The value distribution of entire functions defined by Dirichlet series are studied in this present article. It is proved that entire functions defined by Dirichlet series have the pits property, which improve the relative results on lacunary Taylor series obtained by Littlewood J.E. and Offord A.C.

  10. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  11. $Q_{\\alpha}$-Normal Families and entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Shai

    2010-01-01

    For every countable ordinal number $\\alpha$ we construct an entire function $f=f_\\alpha$ such that the family $\\left\\{f(nz):n\\in\\mathbb{N}\\right\\}$ is exactly $Q_\\alpha$-normal in the unit disk.

  12. Semigroups of transcendental entire functions and their dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DINESH KUMAR; SANJAY KUMAR

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of semigroups of transcendental entire functions using Fatou–Julia theory. Several results of the dynamics associated with iteration of a transcendental entire function have been extended to transcendental semigroups. We provide some condition for connectivity of the Julia set of the transcendental semigroups. We also study finitely generated transcendental semigroups, abelian transcendental semigroups and limit functions of transcendental semigroups on its invariant Fatou components.

  13. Front-like entire solutions for equations with convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, E. C. M.; Tsai, Je-Chiang

    We construct families of front-like entire solutions for problems with convection, both for bistable and monostable reaction-diffusion-convection equations, and, via vanishing-viscosity arguments, for bistable and monostable balance laws. The unified approach employed is inspired by ideas of Chen and Guo and based on a robust method using front-dependent sub and supersolutions. Unlike convectionless problems, the equations studied here lack symmetry between increasing and decreasing travelling waves, which affects the choice of sub and supersolutions used. Our entire solutions include both those that behave like two fronts coming together and annihilating as time increases, and, for bistable equations, those that behave like two fronts merging to propagate like a single front. We also characterise the long-time behaviour of each family of entire solutions, which in the case of solutions constructed from a monostable front merging with a bistable front answers a question that was open even for reaction-diffusion equations without convection.

  14. Fonctions de Valeurs Distribuées sous Contraintes de Communication pour la Coordination Décentralisée d'Agents Décisionnels

    OpenAIRE

    Matignon, Laëtitia; Jeanpierre, Laurent; Mouaddib, Abdel-Illah

    2012-01-01

    National audience; De récents travaux relatifs aux modèles décisionnels exploitent les interactions locales et la coordination pour résoudre les processus décisionnels de Markov partiellement observables. Dans cet article, nous proposons une approche basée sur ces techniques de résolution orientée-interaction et motivée par une application réelle d'agents décisionnels décentralisés pour l'exploration et la cartographie d'un environnement inconnu. Cette approche utilise des fonctions de valeur...

  15. Propriétés fonctionnelles - Modifications chimiques des protéines alimentaires et étude des relations structure/fonction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Véronique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Les modifications chimiques des protéines alimentaires sont réalisées dans le but d’ améliorer leurs propriétés fonctionnelles. Elles sont également pratiquées pour des études fondamentales des relations structure/fonction des protéines. Les principales modifications chimiques des protéines alimentaires sont présentées ainsi que leurs incidences sur les propriétés fonctionnelles telles les propriétés émulsifiantes, moussantes, visqueuses, d’hydratation et de gélification.

  16. Identification des fonctions et des contraintes principales liées à la réalisation des systèmes de sûreté du LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E

    2000-01-01

    Dans la perspective de la spécification des systèmes de sûreté du LHC (systèmes de contrôle d'accès et de verrouillage des faisceaux), les études actuelles consistent à identifier les contraintes et les performances pour la définition des différentes fonctions requises. Du concept d'accès aux ouvrages souterrains du LHC et de l'expérience acquise dans la réalisation et l'exploitation de systèmes de sûreté découlent les spécifications des fonctions à implanter au niveau des couches Equipement, Contrôle et Supervision. Les fonctions des systèmes de sûreté sont soumises à un nombre élevé de contraintes et doivent satisfaire des critères de performances précis. Le présent document a pour objectif d'identifier les fonctions et les contraintes principales, de les classer selon leur nature, d'exprimer certains critères de performance et enfin de décrire leur impact sur les fonctions requises au niveau des couches énoncées ci-dessus. De cette analyse découleront des propositions con...

  17. Histopathologic assessment of the entire endometrium in asymptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Tilborg, A.A. Van; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the nature of the endometrium in women without symptoms of endometrial disease is poor. Therefore, the aim of this prospective study was to describe the endometrium of a cohort of asymptomatic women. The entire endometrium of premenopausal and postmenopausal women was embedded for histo

  18. Generalized Order and Best Approximation of Entire Function in -Norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Harfaoui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the characterization of the generalized growth of entire functions of several complex variables by means of the best polynomial approximation and interpolation on a compact with respect to the set Ω={∈;exp(≤}, where =sup{(1/ln||,polynomialofdegree≤,‖‖≤1} is the Siciak extremal function of a -regular compact .

  19. Evaluation of producing and marketing entire male pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backus, G.B.C.; Broek, van den E.M.F.; Fels, van der J.B.; Heres, L.; Immink, V.M.; Kornelis, M.; Mather, P.K.; Peet-Schwering, van der Carola; Riel, van Johannes; Snoek, H.M.; Smet, de A.; Tacken, G.M.L.; Valeeva, N.I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.

    2016-01-01


    This paper presents the results of a research program that was aimed at evaluating: (1) sensory evaluation of meat from entire male pigs, (2) preventive measures to reduce boar taint prevalence, (3) accuracy of detection for boar taint, and (4) the relationship between farm management

  20. Normal Families and Uniqueness of Entire Functions and Their Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Ming CHANG; Ming Liang FANG

    2007-01-01

    Let f be a nonconstant entire function; let κ≥2be a positive integer; and let α be a nonzero complex umber. If f(z)=(→)f(κ)(z)=α,then either proof is based on the Wiman-Valiron theory and the theory of normal failies in an essential way.

  1. Teaching Discrete Mathematics Entirely from Primary Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2016-01-01

    We describe teaching an introductory discrete mathematics course entirely from student projects based on primary historical sources. We present case studies of four projects that cover the content of a one-semester course, and mention various other courses that we have taught with primary source projects.

  2. Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...us RAP-DB genome browser. Data file File name: rmg_seq.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/rmg/...n Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Entire Sequence - RMG | LSDB Archive ...

  3. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  4. ON THE SINGULARITIES OF COMPOSITION OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. P. Singh; R. Sharma

    2005-01-01

    Let f be an entire function. A point zo is called a critical point of f if f'(zo) = 0, and f(zo) is called a critical value (or an algebraic singularity) of f. Next a ∈ (C^) is said to be an asymptotic value (or a transcendental singularity) of f if there exists a curve Γ:[0,1]→(C^) such that limt→1Γ(t)=∞ and limt→1(foΓ)(t)=a. In this paper we find relations between the asymptotic values of f, g and f o g, relations between critical points of f, g and f o g and also in the case when the two functions f and g are semi-conjugated with another entire function.

  5. Entire hemithorax irradiation for Masaoka stage IVa thymomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, André; Louro, Luís Vasco; Almeida, Marta; Sousa, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Thymomas are rare neoplasms that have an indolent growth with a preferentially intra-thoracic dissemination pattern. Surgery is currently the standard treatment of thymomas; however radiotherapy is often used in an adjuvant setting due to a high sensitivity of these tumors to such treatment. Postoperative entire hemithoracic irradiation has been used in selected Masaoka stage IVa cases after complete surgical excision of metastatic lesions. In the present article, the authors report three cases of Masaoka stage IVa thymoma that underwent entire hemithorax irradiation after surgical excision of metastatic lesions. The first two patients presented as stage IVa thymomas. The third case consisted of a pleural recurrence of a thymoma. Hemithoracic irradiation with low doses has been used by different authors; the available data shows that it is a well-tolerated treatment that could potentially lead to better loco-regional control and increased overall survival.

  6. On $L^1$ extremal problem for entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Yuditskii, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We generalized the Korkin-Zolotarev theorem to the case of entire functions having the smallest $L^1$ norm on a system of intervals $E$. If $\\bbC\\setminus E$ is a domain of Widom type with the Direct Cauchy Theorem we give an explicit formula for the minimal deviation. Important relations between the problem and the theory of canonical systems with reflectionless resolvent functions are shown.

  7. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  8. ENGINES: exploring single nucleotide variation in entire human genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next generation ultra-sequencing technologies are starting to produce extensive quantities of data from entire human genome or exome sequences, and therefore new software is needed to present and analyse this vast amount of information. The 1000 Genomes project has recently released raw data for 629 complete genomes representing several human populations through their Phase I interim analysis and, although there are certain public tools available that allow exploration of these genomes, to date there is no tool that permits comprehensive population analysis of the variation catalogued by such data. Description We have developed a genetic variant site explorer able to retrieve data for Single Nucleotide Variation (SNVs, population by population, from entire genomes without compromising future scalability and agility. ENGINES (ENtire Genome INterface for Exploring SNVs uses data from the 1000 Genomes Phase I to demonstrate its capacity to handle large amounts of genetic variation (>7.3 billion genotypes and 28 million SNVs, as well as deriving summary statistics of interest for medical and population genetics applications. The whole dataset is pre-processed and summarized into a data mart accessible through a web interface. The query system allows the combination and comparison of each available population sample, while searching by rs-number list, chromosome region, or genes of interest. Frequency and FST filters are available to further refine queries, while results can be visually compared with other large-scale Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP repositories such as HapMap or Perlegen. Conclusions ENGINES is capable of accessing large-scale variation data repositories in a fast and comprehensive manner. It allows quick browsing of whole genome variation, while providing statistical information for each variant site such as allele frequency, heterozygosity or FST values for genetic differentiation. Access to the data mart

  9. Entire Functions Sharing One Polynomial with their Derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Min Li; Cun-Chen Gao

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we study the growth of solutions of -th order linear differential equation and that of +1-th order linear differential equation. From this we affirmatively answer a uniqueness question concerning a conjecture given by Brück in 1996 under the restriction of the hyper order less than 1/2, and obtain some uniqueness theorems of a nonconstant entire function and its derivative sharing a finite nonzero complex number CM. The results in this paper also improve some known results. Some examples are provided to show that the results in this paper are best possible.

  10. The entire regularization path for the support vector domain description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Larsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    -class support vector machine classifier. Recently, it was shown that the regularization path of the support vector machine is piecewise linear, and that the entire path can be computed efficiently. This pa- per shows that this property carries over to the support vector domain description. Using our results......The support vector domain description is a one-class classi- fication method that estimates the shape and extent of the distribution of a data set. This separates the data into outliers, outside the decision boundary, and inliers on the inside. The method bears close resemblance to the two...

  11. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Krönig

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence.

  12. Océan et climat : les fonctions thermiques de l'océan dans la dynamique du climat : une revue des idées actuelles

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Jacques

    1980-01-01

    La variabilité climatique à court terme peut être considérée comme une résultante de l'autovariation du système couplé océan-atmosphère en dehors de toutes actions extérieures à ce système. A cette échelle et dans ce concept du système climatique réduit aux deux seuls milieux océaniques et atmosphériques, l'océan devient une source potentielle de variabilité très importante. Trois fonctions océaniques sont primordiales : stocker, échanger avec l'atmosphère et transporter de l'énergie. Ces tro...

  13. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W

    2015-03-11

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases.

  14. Delineating riparian zones for entire river networks using geomorphological criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for riparian and river ecosystem management, however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is, however, not usually available for entire river corridors, and is only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. One of the requirements for catchment planning is to establish the most appropriate location of zones to conserve or restore riparian buffer strips for whole river networks. This issue could be solved by using geomorphological criteria extracted from Digital Elevation Models. In this work we have explored the adjustment of surfaces developed under two different geomorphological criteria with respect to the flooded area covered by the 50-yr flood, in an attempt to rapidly delineate hydrologically-meaningful riparian zones for entire river networks. The first geomorphological criterion is based on the surface that intersects valley walls at a given number of bankfull depths above the channel (BFDAC, while the second is based on the surface defined by a~threshold value indicating the relative cost of moving from the stream up to the valley, accounting for slope and elevation change (path distance. As the relationship between local geomorphology and 50-yr flood has been suggested to be river-type dependant, we have performed our analyses distinguishing between three river types corresponding with three valley morphologies: open, shallow vee and deep vee valleys (in increasing degree of valley constrainment. Adjustment between the surfaces derived from geomorphological and hydrological criteria has been evaluated using two different methods: one based on exceeding areas (minimum exceeding score and the other on the similarity among total area values. Both methods have pointed out the same surfaces when looking for those that

  15. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for Returning Entire Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, John R.; Oleson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In situ resource utilization (ISRU) in general, and asteroid mining in particular are ideas that have been around for a long time, and for good reason. It is clear that ultimately human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit will have to utilize the material resources available in space. Historically, the lack of sufficiently capable in-space transportation has been one of the key impediments to the harvesting of near-Earth asteroid resources. With the advent of high-power (or order 40 kW) solar electric propulsion systems, that impediment is being removed. High-power solar electric propulsion (SEP) would be enabling for the exploitation of asteroid resources. The design of a 40-kW end-of-life SEP system is presented that could rendezvous with, capture, and subsequently transport a 1,000-metric-ton near-Earth asteroid back to cislunar space. The conceptual spacecraft design was developed by the Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team at the Glenn Research Center in collaboration with the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) team assembled to investigate the feasibility of an asteroid retrieval mission. Returning such an object to cislunar space would enable astronaut crews to inspect, sample, dissect, and ultimately determine how to extract the desired materials from the asteroid. This process could jump-start the entire ISRU industry.

  16. An Exon-Capture System for the Entire Class Ophiuroidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugall, Andrew F; O'Hara, Timothy D; Hunjan, Sumitha; Nilsen, Roger; Moussalli, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Exon-capture studies have typically been restricted to relatively shallow phylogenetic scales due primarily to hybridization constraints. Here, we present an exon-capture system for an entire class of marine invertebrates, the Ophiuroidea, built upon a phylogenetically diverse transcriptome foundation. The system captures approximately 90% of the 1,552 exon target, across all major lineages of the quarter-billion-year-old extant crown group. Key features of our system are 1) basing the target on an alignment of orthologous genes determined from 52 transcriptomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity and trimmed to remove anything difficult to capture, map, or align; 2) use of multiple artificial representatives based on ancestral state reconstructions rather than exemplars to improve capture and mapping of the target; 3) mapping reads to a multi-reference alignment; and 4) using patterns of site polymorphism to distinguish among paralogy, polyploidy, allelic differences, and sample contamination. The resulting data give a well-resolved tree (currently standing at 417 samples, 275,352 sites, 91% data-complete) that will transform our understanding of ophiuroid evolution and biogeography.

  17. Does natural selection explain the selforganization of the entire cosmos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Claycomb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Because only enduring systems ultimately persist, physicist D. B. Kelley’s theory of universalselection, or “preservation of the stable,” expounds enormously upon the genesis of every lastingphenomenon in history, making it arguably the most interdisciplinary discovery ever made in science. Inhis new book, The Origin of Everything, Kelley thus shows Darwin’s principle of natural selection, orsurvival of the fittest, to explain not only the origin of species as exposed in 1859, but the genesis ofevery steadfast assemblage ever to have endured. In other words, it isn’t just stable species that arenaturally selected to exist, as all of Nature’s many unwavering systems are ultimately selected. Kelleytherefore demonstrates that preservation of the stable is not an innate characteristic of being, but anextremely powerful process, or deterministic mechanism, which absolutely demands fitness from all suchensembles. It therein explains the tremendous amount of variation among Nature’s many assemblages,as well as their stability, or order. However extraordinary, it even unites Darwinism and Einsteinianrelativity, as it further clarifies the relative formation of every phenomenon ever to have been.Consequently, our Earth isn’t the only ecology governed by survival of the fittest, for our entire cosmosis an astronomical ecosystem determined in full via preservation of the stable itself. These findings arealso in perfect accord with the stringent demands of modern biology’s three-part algorithm, or the threefundamental mechanisms responsible for life’s stability and evolution. Remarkably, universal selectionhas even been confirmed at reputable laboratories through numerous experiments in physics, quantumphysics, chemistry and more. While Darwin thus revolutionized all of our various biological sciences byrevealing the immense logic behind every adaptation of every species, Kelley holds that universalselection revolutionizes science in its

  18. Des limbes du symbolique a l’acte d’auteurisation ou de la fonction sinthomatique de l’usage des tests en psychologie clinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Sublime

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour origine une pratique de psychologue clinicienne auprès de patients séropositifs que j’ai choisi de situer hors d’une sémiologie classique en postulant une “pathologie des limbes du symbolique”. Je montrerai comment l’usage des tests ne saurait se déprendre des exigences d’une clinique de la subjectivité en restituant à ces outils – considérés comme autant de “renversements dialectiques” et de scansions du discours – leur place légitime dans une clinique de la parole et du langage. L’offre de supports narratifs prothétiques pourrait encourager l’advenue d’une fonction sinthomatique, acte d’auteurisation par la relance de l’élaboration symbolique autour du trauma, appel au travail de la mémoire et à la reconstruction d’une histoire demeurée jusque là sans destinataire, dans les limbes.

  19. Un stress oxydant chronique est associé à une amelioration de la sensibilité à l’insuline et des fonctions mitochondrialesdans le muscle squelettique de souris SAMP8

    OpenAIRE

    Barquissau, Valentin; Denis, Philippe; Jouve, Chrystele; Patrac, Véronique; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Feillet Coudray, Christine; Galinier, A; Rieusset, Jennifer; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Morio, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    De nombreuses études suggèrent que les espèces réactives del’oxygène participent à l’étiologie du diabète de type 2. Ce travail a pour objectifd’étudier l’effet d’un stress oxydant chronique sur le développement de l’insulino-résistance et sur les adaptations des fonctions mitochondriales musculaires.

  20. L’appariement forme-fonction en FL2 : le développement de l’emploi des formes verbales du passé et la primauté du marquage de l’aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michot Marie-Eve

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Une dimension clef du processus d’acquisition d’une langue seconde (L2 est la mise en relation d’une forme et d’une fonction. Cet appariement forme-fonction ne se met néanmoins en place que fort tardivement. Ainsi, pour exprimer certaines fonctions, l’apprenant L2 a dans un premier temps recours à des principes discursifs et sémantico-pragmatiques, à des structures préfabriquées et à des formes intermédiaires avant de grammaticaliser progressivement ses énoncés et enfin d’utiliser adéquatement la grammaire pour marquer, entre autres, les différentes catégories grammaticales (nombre, genre, temps, etc.. Bref, le processus acquisitionnel passe d’un stade premier de lexicalisation vers un stade de morphologisation, qui ouvre la perspective d’un emploi adéquat, d’un appariement donc entre la forme et sa/ ses fonction(s (Noyau 1997. En ce qui concerne l’analyse du processus d’appropriation des formes verbales, les études acquisitionnelles se sont avant tout intéressées à l’appariement entre les formes conjuguées des verbes et l’expression du temps et de l’aspect. En français, le marquage de ces deux fonctions est intrinsèquement lié. En particulier, l’exploitation émergente des conjugaisons du passé (passé composé, imparfait, passé simple offre un champ d’observation particulièrement riche qui a suscité de nombreuses études (cf. e.a. Kaplan 1987 ; Noyau et al. 1995 ; Kihlstedt 2002 ; Ayoun 2001, 2004, 2005. Plusieurs études ont ainsi indiqué que les formes de la conjugaison du passé se limitent dans un premier stade au passé composé qui est par conséquent souvent suremployé à des contextes où devraient apparaître des formes de l’imparfait. L’imparfait s’impose ensuite progressivement, d’abord avec les verbes être et avoir et plus tard avec les autres verbes lexicaux. Le plus-que-parfait est la conjugaison du passé qui surgit en dernier lieu dans l’interlangue des

  1. Modeling of Multiphase with Respect to Low Interfacial Tension by Pseudo-Two-Phase Relative Permeability Functions Modélisation d'un écoulement polyphasique à faible tension interfaciale par des fonctions pseudo-biphasiques de perméabilité relative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusch G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new 2-parameter desaturation function is introduced which offers a broader range of applicability to reservoir rock. Based on this function two-phase relative permeabilities are derived for oil phase and microemulsion flow. These functions are used to match a laboratory experiment by using surfactant flooding for a single surfactant system. Les auteurs présentent une nouvelle fonction de désaturation à deux paramètres qui offre une plus large gamme de possibilités d'application aux roches réservoir. On tire de cette fonction des perméabilités relatives biphasiques pour l'écoulement de la phase pétrole et d'une microémulsion. Ces fonctions sont utilisées pour reproduire une expérience de laboratoire avec injection de surfactant pour un seul système surfactant.

  2. UNIFORM APPROXIMATION OF ENTIRE FUNCTIONS OF SLOW GROWTH ON COMPACT SETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.S.Srivastava; S.Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper,we study the polynomial approximation of entire functions of several complex variables.The characterizations of generalized order and generalized type of entire functions of slow growth are obtained in terms of approximation and interpolation errors.

  3. Uniqueness Theorems on Entire Functions and Their Difference Operators or Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the uniqueness problems on entire functions and their difference operators or shifts. Our main result is a difference analogue of a result of Jank-Mues-Volkmann, which is concerned with the uniqueness of the entire function sharing one finite value with its derivatives. Two relative results are proved, and examples are provided for our results.

  4. Entire solutions for a mono-stable delay population model in a 2D lattice strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Qin Zhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the entire solutions of a mono-stable age-structured population model in a 2D lattice strip. In a previous publication, we established the existence of entire solutions related to traveling wave solutions with speeds larger than the minimal wave speed $c_{\\rm min}$. However, the existence of entire solutions related to the minimal wave fronts remains open open question. In this article, we first establish a new comparison theorem. Then, applying the theorem we obtain the existence of entire solutions by mixing any finite number of traveling wave fronts with speeds $c\\geq c_{\\rm min}$, and a solution without the $j$ variable. In particular, we show the relationship between the entire solution and the traveling wave fronts that they originate.

  5. Complex analysis I entire and meromorphic functions polyanalytic functions and their generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Havin, V; Nikolski, N

    1997-01-01

    The first part of the volume contains a comprehensive description of the theory of entire and meromorphic functions of one complex variable and its applications. It includes the fundamental notions, methods and results on the growth of entire functions and the distribution of their zeros, the Rolf Nevanlinna theory of distribution of values of meromorphic functions including the inverse problem, the theory of completely regular growth, the concept of limit sets for entire and subharmonic functions. The authors describe the interpolation by entire functions, to entire and meromorphic solutions of ordinary differential equations, to the Riemann boundary problem with an infinite index and to the arithmetic of the convolution semigroup of probability distributions. Polyanalytic functions form one of the most natural generalizations of analytic functions and are described in Part II. They emerged for the first time in plane elasticity theory where they found important applications (due to Kolossof, Mushelishvili e...

  6. Bounded index, entire solutions of ordinary differential equations and summability methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Fricke

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief survey of recent results on functions of bounded index and bounded index summability methods is given. Theorems on entire solutions of ordinary differential equations with polynomial coefficients are included.

  7. Entire solutions of nonlocal dispersal equations with monostable nonlinearity in space periodic habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Tong; Wang, Jia-Bing; Zhang, Li

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the new types of entire solutions other than traveling wave solutions of nonlocal dispersal equations with monostable nonlinearity in space periodic habitats. We first establish the existence and properties of spatially periodic solutions connecting two steady states. Then new types of entire solutions are constructed by combining the rightward and leftward pulsating traveling fronts with different speeds and a spatially periodic solution. Finally, for a class of special heterogeneous reaction, we further establish the uniqueness of entire solutions and the continuous dependence of such an entire solution on parameters, such as wave speeds and the shifted variables. In other words, we build a five-dimensional manifold of solutions and the traveling wave solutions are on the boundary of the manifold.

  8. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies......To investigate the extent to which the level of androstenone and skatole decreases with a decrease in live weight and/or age at slaughter of entire male pigs produced under organic standards, 1174 entire male pigs were raised in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches...... in summer and winter. The median androstenone level was high for organic entire male pigs (1.9 μg/g), but varied greatly both within and between herds. Median skatole level was 0.05 μg/g, also with a wide range both within and between herds. Decreasing live weight over the range of 110 ± 15.6 kg s...

  9. Uniqueness Theorems of Entire Functions with Shared-set in an Angular Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chuan LIN; Seiki MORI; Hong Xun YI

    2008-01-01

    There have been lots of papers on the uniqueness theory of entire functions concerning shared-sets in the whole complex plane.However,it seems that the uniqueness theory in an angular domain is not widely investigated.In this paper,we study the uniqueness of entire functions concerning shared-sets in an angular domain instead of the whole complex plane,and we supply examples to show that Theorem 1 is sharp.

  10. Some Results on Unicity of Entire Functions Related to Normal Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the connection between normal family and unicity, and proved some results on unicity of entire functions. Mostly, it was proved: Let f be a nonconstant entire function, and let a, c be two nonzero complex numbers. If E(a,f)=E(a,f), and f"(z)=c whenever f' (z)=a, then f(z)=Aecz/a+ac-a2/c. The proof uses the theory of normal families in an essential way.

  11. Entire radial solutions of elliptic systems and inequalities of the mean curvature type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippucci, Roberta

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we study first nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems of the mean curvature type with a singular or degenerate diffusion depending on the solution u. In particular we extend a previous result given in [R. Filippucci, Nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems, J. Differential Equations 188 (2003) 353-389]. Moreover, in the scalar case we obtain nonexistence of all entire solutions, radial or not, of differential inequalities involving again operators of the mean curvature type and a diffusion term. We prove that in the scalar case, nonexistence of entire solutions is due to the explosion of the derivative of every nonglobal radial solution in the right extremum of the maximal interval of existence, while in that point the solution is bounded. This behavior is qualitatively different with respect to what happens for the m-Laplacian operator, studied in [R. Filippucci, Nonexistence of radial entire solutions of elliptic systems, J. Differential Equations 188 (2003) 353-389], where nonexistence of entire solutions is due, even in the vectorial case, to the explosion in norm of the solution at a finite point. Our nonexistence theorems for inequalities extend previous results given by Naito and Usami in [YE Naito, H. Usami, Entire solutions of the inequality div(A(=u)=u)[greater-or-equal, slanted]f(u), Math. Z. 225 (1997) 167-175] and Ghergu and Radulescu in [M. Ghergu, V. Radulescu, Existence and nonexistence of entire solutions to the logistic differential equation, Abstr. Appl. Anal. 17 (2003) 995-1003].

  12. Quality Characteristics and Composition of the Muscle from Entire and Castrate Elk in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the chemical composition as well as the physicochemical properties of the longissimus muscle from Korean entire and castrate elk. Twelve elk stags were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were equally divided into castrated and non-castrated (entire males, and slaughtered at 5 year of age. It was found that entire elk, in comparison with castrate elk, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p<0.05. Compared with entire males, the castrates had lower pH and shear force values (p<0.05. However, castrates had higher L*, a*, and b* values compared with entires (p<0.05. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the muscles of entire and castrate elk had the most abundant concentrations of the following fatty acids: palmitic acid (C16:0 of the saturated fatty acid, and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 of the unsaturated fatty acid. The entire elk contains higher proportions of linoleic acid (C18:3n6, eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6 (p<0.05. Cholesterol content in elk was not affected by castration. The predominant free amino acid was glutamic acid related to umami taste. It is apparent that the castrate animals carried higher content of histidine, isoleucine, and leucine than those of the entire group (p<0.05. In this study, it was concluded that venison quality of elk is affected by castration and these results can provide fundamental information for venison production.

  13. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts.

  14. Analysis of Poverty Alleviation Model of Advancing Entire Villages——A Case Study of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the development-oriented poverty alleviation of advancing entire villages in Ningxia, and then relates the implementation of "1 000-village poverty alleviation program" of Ningxia by stages as follows: at the first stage (2005-2006), 203 villages began to implement the first development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages; at the second stage (2007-2008), the second development-oriented poverty alleviation program of advancing entire villages was implemented. By empirical analysis, the main experience in the process of implementing poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages is generalized as follows: strengthen the support and help degree and frame feasible implementation planning; develop characteristic industries and expand export of labor services; support poor areas by using technology. Through five years of support, the poverty alleviation model of advancing entire villages achieves initial results: the specific sample survey shows that in the poor villages with smooth development of advancing entire villages and great investments, the farmers’ income per capita in whole village can be increased by more than 50% within one year or two years; due to the improvement of road, communication and other conditions, many poor villages can explore new possibilities for production, and better give play to the comparative advantages; the improvement of infrastructure also promotes export of labor services in the poor villages, so as to indirectly increase the income of farmers in poor villages.

  15. Rupture prématurée des membranes entre 34 et 35 + 6 SA : étude sur le devenir néonatal en fonction de la prise en charge, déclenchement vs expectative

    OpenAIRE

    Viars, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    La rupture prématurée des membranes (RPM) avant terme complique 2 à 3% des grossesses. À partir de 34 SA, la prise en charge est controversée : déclencher le travail ou adopter une attitude expectative ? Notre étude, portant sur 55 grossesses ayant présenté une RPM avant terme, réalisée au CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, a pour objectif de comparer l'état néonatal en fonction de la prise en charge, déclenchement versus expectative. La différence entre le taux de détresse respiratoire et le taux d'in...

  16. Etude des mécanismes des réactions induites par les noyaux à halo de neutrons $^{11}Be$ (49,2 MeV/nucléon) et $ ^{6}He$ (41,5 MeéV/nucléon) sur le plomb en fonction de l'inélasticité des collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Patois, Y

    2001-01-01

    Etude des mécanismes des réactions induites par les noyaux à halo de neutrons $^{11}Be$ (49,2 MeV/nucléon) et $ ^{6}He$ (41,5 MeéV/nucléon) sur le plomb en fonction de l'inélasticité des collisions

  17. Evaluation de la fonction hépatique au cours du paludisme grave chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans à Kinshasa en République Démocratique du Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabamba, Arsène Tshikongo; Mukuku, Olivier; Shamashanga, Laurent Kwete; Kamunga, Daniel Badibanga; Bokanya, Alex Impele; Lukumwena, Zet Kalala; Longanga, Albert Otshudi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme est toujours compté parmi les problèmes de santé publique prioritaires en République Démocratique du Congo suite au nombre de malades et de décès qu'il provoque. Cette étude évalue l'atteinte de la fonction hépatique au cours du paludisme grave chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude cas-témoins menée de janvier à juin 2013 à Kinshasa (République Démocratique du Congo) où le dosage des bilirubines totale, directe et indirecte et la mesure de l'activité enzymatique de la Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT), de la Glutamate Oxaloacétate Transaminase (GOT) et du taux d'hémoglobine ont été faits chez 46 enfants âgés de moins de 5 ans atteints de paludisme grave (groupe I) et chez 46 autres considérés sains avec une goutte négative (groupe II). Les résultats obtenus ont été comparés dans les deux groupes et le seuil de signification a été fixé à p bilirubine directe, la bilirubine indirecte et la bilirubine totale chez les enfants atteints du paludisme grave. Ces analyses montrent une différence significative en défaveur de ces derniers (p < 0,001). Conclusion En effet, cette augmentation des taux plasmatiques des paramètres biologiques analysés observée chez les enfants gravement impaludés traduit ainsi une altération de la fonction hépatique au cours d'un paludisme grave chez l'enfant de moins de cinq ans. PMID:25870721

  18. High-throughput continuous hydrothermal synthesis of an entire nanoceramic phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaole; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Hyett, Geoffrey; Vickers, Martin; Boldrin, Paul; Tang, Chiu C; Thompson, Stephen P; Parker, Julia E; Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Parkin, Ivan; Evans, Julian R G; Darr, Jawwad A

    2009-01-01

    A novel High-Throughput Continuous Hydrothermal (HiTCH) flow synthesis reactor was used to make directly and rapidly a 66-sample nanoparticle library (entire phase diagram) of nanocrystalline Ce(x)Zr(y)Y(z)O(2-delta) in less than 12 h. High resolution PXRD data were obtained for the entire heat-treated library (at 1000 degrees C/1 h) in less than a day using the new robotic beamline I11, located at Diamond Light Source (DLS). This allowed Rietveld-quality powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data collection of the entire 66-sample library in <1 day. Consequently, the authors rapidly mapped out phase behavior and sintering behaviors for the entire library. Out of the entire 66-sample heat-treated library, the PXRD data suggests that 43 possess the fluorite structure, of which 30 (out of 36) are ternary compositions. The speed, quantity and quality of data obtained by our new approach, offers an exciting new development which will allow structure-property relationships to be accessed for nanoceramics in much shorter time periods.

  19. La función de los vínculos textuales en un corpus lingüístico de aprendientes de español como segunda lengua (La fonction des liens textuels dans un corpus linguistique des apprenants d’espagnol comme langue étrangère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alonso Chacón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la función de los vínculos textuales paratácticos e hipotácticos, que surgen en fragmentos de un corpus lingüístico de aprendientes de español como segunda lengua. Metodológicamente, se identifican las proposiciones que contenían dichos vínculos textuales, luego se analizó el contexto en el cual se insertan estos, a fin de determinar su función dentro de un grupo proposicional. Se descubre que unen proposiciones y, en oportunidades, sustituyen a vínculos hipotácticos, según el contexto; y se jerarquizan proposiciones. Se concluye que la función de los vínculos paratácticos abarca y anticipa rasgos inherentes de la función hipotáctica del corpus lingüístico. L’objectif de cette communication c’est décrire la fonction des liens textuels paratactiques et hipotactiques, qui se manifestent dans quelques fragments d’un corpus linguistique des apprenants d’espagnol comme langue étrangère. Méthodiquement, on a identifié les propositions qui contiennent ces liens textuels, ensuite on a analysé le contexte dans lequel ils apparaissent, afin de déterminer leur fonction dans un groupe propositionnel. D’une part, on découvre que les liens paratactiques font l’union des propositions et qu’ils remplacent, parfois, la fonction des liens hipotactiques; d’autre part, que les liens hipotactiques hiérarchisent les propositions. On conclut que la fonction des liens paratactiques possède et anticipe des caractéristiques inhérentes de la fonction hipotactique, selon notre corpus linguistique.

  20. On entire functions restricted to intervals, partition of unities, and dual Gabor frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    Partition of unities appears in many places in analysis. Typically it is generated by compactly supported functions with a certain regularity. In this paper we consider partition of unities obtained as integer-translates of entire functions restricted to finite intervals. We characterize the entire...... functions that lead to a partition of unity in this way, and we provide characterizations of the “cut-off” entire functions, considered as functions of a real variable, to have desired regularity. In particular we obtain partition of unities generated by functions with small support and desired regularity....... Applied to Gabor analysis this leads to constructions of dual pairs of Gabor frames with low redundancy, generated by trigonometric polynomials with small support and desired regularity....

  1. Automatic quality classification of entire electrocardiographic recordings obtained with a novel patch type recorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Recently, new patch type electrocardiogram (ECG) recorders have reached the market. These new devices possess a number of advantages compared to the traditional Holter recorders. This forms the basis of questions related to benefits and drawbacks of different ambulatory ECG recording techniques....... One of the important questions is the ability to obtain high clinical quality of the recordings during the entire monitoring period. It is thus desirable to be able to obtain an automatic estimate of the global quality of entire ECG recordings. The purpose of this pilot study is therefore to design...

  2. On entire f-maximal graphs in the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, H. V. Q.; Cuong, D. V.; Duyen, N. T. M.; Hieu, D. T.; Nam, T. L.

    2017-04-01

    In the Lorentzian product Gn ×R1, we give a comparison theorem between the f-volume of an entire f-maximal graph and the f-volume of the hyperbolic Hr+ under the condition that the gradient of the function defining the graph is bounded away from 1. This condition comes from an example of non-planar entire f-maximal graph in Gn ×R1 and is equivalent to the hyperbolic angle function of the graph being bounded. As a consequence, we obtain a Calabi-Bernstein type theorem for f-maximal graphs in Gn ×R1.

  3. Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kim K;

    2011-01-01

    The ectodomain of olfactory cell adhesion molecule (OCAM/NCAM2/RNCAM) consists of five immunoglobulin (Ig) domains (IgI-V), followed by two fibronectin-type 3 (Fn3) domains (Fn3I-II). A complete structural model of the entire ectodomain of human OCAM has been assembled from crystal structures...... of six recombinant proteins corresponding to different regions of the ectodomain. The model is the longest experimentally based composite structural model of an entire IgCAM ectodomain. It displays an essentially linear arrangement of IgI-V, followed by bends between IgV and Fn3I and between Fn3I and Fn3...

  4. Extension of Inverses of Entire Functions of Genus 1 and 2 to the Upper Half Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2013-01-01

    Any entire function of genus 1 which is positive on the positive real axis and which has only negative zeros decreases on some unbounded interval of the positive axis. The inverse of its reciprocal is shown to have an extension from that interval to a Pick-function in the upper half plane...

  5. Concentration of the L{sub 1}-norm of trigonometric polynomials and entire functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malykhin, Yu V [Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ryutin, K S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-30

    For any sufficiently large n, the minimal measure of a subset of [−π,π] on which some nonzero trigonometric polynomial of order ≤n gains half of the L{sub 1}-norm is shown to be π/(n+1). A similar result for entire functions of exponential type is established. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  6. T1rho mapping of entire femoral cartilage using depth- and angle-dependent analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Yu, Hon J.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi [University of California Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Kaneshiro, Kayleigh [University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Schwarzkopf, Ran [University of California Irvine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Irvine, CA (United States); Hara, Takeshi [Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Intelligent Image Information, Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To create and evaluate normalized T1rho profiles of the entire femoral cartilage in healthy subjects with three-dimensional (3D) angle- and depth-dependent analysis. T1rho images of the knee from 20 healthy volunteers were acquired on a 3.0-T unit. Cartilage segmentation of the entire femur was performed slice-by-slice by a board-certified radiologist. The T1rho depth/angle-dependent profile was investigated by partitioning cartilage into superficial and deep layers, and angular segmentation in increments of 4 over the length of segmented cartilage. Average T1rho values were calculated with normalized T1rho profiles. Surface maps and 3D graphs were created. T1rho profiles have regional and depth variations, with no significant magic angle effect. Average T1rho values in the superficial layer of the femoral cartilage were higher than those in the deep layer in most locations (p < 0.05). T1rho values in the deep layer of the weight-bearing portions of the medial and lateral condyles were lower than those of the corresponding non-weight-bearing portions (p < 0.05). Surface maps and 3D graphs demonstrated that cartilage T1rho values were not homogeneous over the entire femur. Normalized T1rho profiles from the entire femoral cartilage will be useful for diagnosing local or early T1rho abnormalities and osteoarthritis in clinical applications. (orig.)

  7. &timation of Body ~ Gain of Entire and Castrated Male ~ at Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of tissue gain and body composition of 18 entire (E) and 18 castrated (C) ... mals were slaughtered at 95 kg and their body composition was determined. ... trated (C) male pigs, fed at one of two feeding, ... Each batch of pigs was se-.

  8. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...

  9. Entire functions whose Julia sets include any finitely many copies of quadratic Julia sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagata, Koh

    2017-06-01

    We prove that for any finite collection of quadratic Julia sets, a polynomial and a transcendental entire function exist whose Julia sets include copies of the given quadratic Julia sets. In order to prove the result, we construct quasiregular maps with required dynamics and employ the quasiconformal surgery to obtain the desired functions.

  10. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  11. Homomorphisms and functional calculus on algebras on entire functions on Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Pryimak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study homomorphisms of algebras of entire functionson Banach spaces to a commutative Banach algebra. In particular, it is proposed amethod to construct homomorphisms vanishing on homogeneouspolynomials of degree less or equal that a fixed number $n.$

  12. Certain operators in the space of entire functions represented by Dirichlet series of several complex variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Daoud

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the space X of all Entire functions represented by Dirichlet series equipped with various topologies. The main result is concerned with finding certain continuous linear operators which are used to determine the proper bases in X.

  13. La Madonna della Clemenza, l’incidence de la réintégration picturale sur le maintien des fonctions portées par l’œuvre restaurée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Ricordeau

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la basilique Santa Maria in Trastevere à Rome est conservée la Madone de la Clémence,  encaustique sur support mixte datée du VIe ou VIIe siècle. Cette peinture, toujours objet de culte et support de dévotion, apparaît aujourd’hui comme l’une des œuvres majeures de l’Occident chrétien, tant par sa facture que par le témoignage historique qu’elle représente. Sa restauration, entreprise à l’Istituto Centrale di Restauro alors dirigé par Cesare Brandi, a confronté les restaurateurs à des choix d’intervention qui apparaissent comme autant de problèmes méthodologiques fondamentaux. Parmi les nombreuses interrogations auxquelles elle a donné lieu, le choix du mode de réintégration picturale de cette œuvre hautement lacunaire occupe une place particulière. Partant du postulat qu’on ne peut penser la restauration des œuvres, et notamment celle des œuvres religieuses, sans tenir compte de leurs fonctions et de leur valeur d’usage, il est nécessaire de se demander dans quelle mesure la fonction religieuse est affectée ou non par les choix de réintégration picturale. Cet impératif suppose l’identification des éléments « signifiants » de l’œuvre, à savoir ce qui en elle fait sens pour le fidèle, puisque c’est leur  lisibilité qui assurera le maintien de la fonction religieuse. Ceci nous apparait comme un préalable méthodologique devant guider l’élaboration du protocole de restauration.In the Basilica Santa Maria in Trastevere in Rome is kept the Madonna della Clemenza, an encaustic on canvas and wood, from  the sixth or seventh century. This painting, still an object of worship and devotion, has emerged as a major work of the Christian Occident, both by its beautiful realization and  by the historical testimony that it represents. The restoration, done at the Istituto Centrale di Restauro directed at the time by Cesare Brandi, confronted the restorers to intervention options that

  14. EMERGENCE OF ENTIRELY NEW POISONING IN RURAL INDIA; AN UPCOMING HEALTH HAZARD TO THE COMMUNITY HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.

  15. Limb salvage surgery in a patient with macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving an entire upper extremity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bo; ZHENG Long-po; CAI Zheng-dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital localized gigantism, which is characterized by slowly progressive overgrowth of the mesenchymal elements, especially the fibroadipose tissue,in a limb. Frequently, multiple contiguous digits are involved on the lateral side of the hand or the medial side of the foot. Overabundance of the fibroadipose tissue and osseous overgrowth are most remarkable at the distal ends of the extremity. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving an entire limb has been previously reported for only one case in a 45-year-old adult male;1 however, no details of treatment were described. Here, we present the first report of successful limb salvage surgery of macrodystrophia lipomatosa in an adolescent involving an entire upper extremity.

  16. Filamentation and Forward Brillouin Scatter of Entire Smoothed and Aberrated Laser Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, C.H.; Berger, R.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.

    1999-10-29

    Laser-plasma interactions are sensitive to both the fine-scale speckle and the larger scale envelope intensity of the beam. For some time, simulations have been done on volumes taken from part of the laser beam cross-section, and the results from multiple simulations extrapolated to predict the behavior of the entire beam. However, extrapolation could very well miss effects of the larger scale structure on the fine-scale. The only definitive method is to simulate the entire beam. These very large calculations have been infeasible until recently, but they are now possible on massively parallel computers. Whole beam simulations show the dramatic difference in the propagation and break up of smoothed and aberrated beams.

  17. The Existence of Positive Bounded Entire Solutions of Second Order Quasilinear Elliptic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the existence of positive entire solutions of second order quasilinear elliptic equations of the type div(|Du|p-2Du)+f(x,u)=0, x∈RN, (1) where f(x, u) is a continuous function on RN×(0,∞). This problem appears in the study of non-Newtonian fluids and non-Newtonian filtration. The quantity p is a characteristic of the madium. Media with p>2 are called dilatant fluids and those with p<2 are called pseudoplastics. If p=2, they are Newtonian fluid. In the present paper we give new sufficient conditions which ensure the existence of positive entire solutions of (1).When p=2, the related results have been obtained by [1,2]. Our theorem for existence complement and extent to the results by [1,2].

  18. A study on bornological properties of the space of entire functions of several complex variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushtaq Shaker Abdul-Hussein

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Spaces of entire functions of several complex variables occupy an important position in view of their vast applications in various branches of mathematics, for instance, the classical analysis, theory of approximation, theory of topological bases etc. With an idea of correlating entire functions with certain aspects in the theory of basis in locally convex spaces, we have investigated in this paper the bornological aspects of the space $X$ of integral functions of several complex variables. By $Y$ we denote the space of all power series with positive radius of convergence at the origin. We introduce bornologies on $X$ and $Y$ and prove that $Y$ is a convex bornological vector space which is the completion of the convex bornological vector space $X$.

  19. Irregular sampling, Toeplitz matrices, and the approximation of entire functions of exponential type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröchenig, Karlheinz

    In many applications one seeks to recover an entire function of exponential type from its non-uniformly spaced samples. Whereas the mathematical theory usually addresses the question of when such a function in L^2(R) can be recovered, numerical methods operate with a finite-dimensional model. The numerical reconstruction or approximation of the original function amounts to the solution of a large linear system. We show that the solutions of a particularly efficient discrete model in which the data are fit by trigonometric polynomials converge to the solution of the original infinite-dimensional reconstruction problem. This legitimatizes the numerical computations and explains why the algorithms employed produce reasonable results. The main mathematical result is a new type of approximation theorem for entire functions of exponential type from a finite number of values. From another point of view our approach provides a new method for proving sampling theorems.

  20. WHK Interns Sweep Entire Category at Frederick County Science Fair | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The competitors in the cellular and molecular biology category of the Frederick County Science and Engineering Fair on March 22–23 didn’t stand a chance against the Werner H. Kirsten student interns at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick. These interns swept the entire category, with Madelyne Xiao, a rising intern, winning first place; Maria Hamscher, second place; Ashley Babyak and Dahlia Kronfli tying for third place; and Maham Ahmed receiving an honorable mention.

  1. Use of Entire Eigenstructure Assignment with High-Gain Error-Actuated Flight Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    release; distribution unlimited Acknowledgements I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Captain James Silverthorn , and my thesis committee consisting of...32) Therefore, [i] lies in the null space of [XiI-All A121. Using the method of singular value decomposition suggested by Silverthorn and Reid (Ref 6...October 1981, Vol. 12, No. 10, 1169-1180. 6. Silverthorn , J. and Reid, J. G. "Computation of the Subspaces for Entire Eigenstructure Assignment Via

  2. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks....

  3. Characterisations of Partition of Unities Generated by Entire Functions in Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2017-01-01

    Collections of functions forming a partition of unity play an important role in analysis. In this paper we characterise for any N∈N the entire functions P for which the partition of unity condition ∑n∈ZdP(x+n)χ[0,N]d(x+n)=1 holds for all x∈Rd. The general characterisation leads to various easy ways...... such that the functions in the partition of unity belong to the Feichtinger algebra....

  4. Spiders' webs and locally connected Julia sets of transcendental entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J W

    2011-01-01

    We show that, if the Julia set of a transcendental entire function is locally connected, then it takes the form of a spider's web in the sense defined by Rippon and Stallard. In the opposite direction, we prove that a spider's web Julia set is always locally connected at a dense subset of buried points. We also show that the set of buried points (the residual Julia set) can be a spider's web.

  5. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  6. Infarction of the entire corpus callosum as a complication in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takahashi, M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum is the major commissural pathway connecting the cerebral hemispheres. This pathway receives its blood supply from anterior communicating artery, pericallosal artery, and posterior pericallosal artery. However, in some cases, the entire corpus callosum is supplied by median callosal artery; thus, occlusion of this artery can lead to infarction of the entire corpus callosum. Few reports have described this type of infarction, and no reports after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH exist. Here, we report on a 42-year-old female who was diagnosed with SAH after two aneurysms were discovered in bifurcation of left anterior cerebral artery (A1-A2. After successful clipping was performed, the patient was alert and had no neurological deficits; moreover, the computed tomography images that were acquired after the operation showed no evidence of infarction. Nine days after admittance to the hospital, drowsiness and weakness of the left limbs with brain swelling appeared and decompressive hemi-craniectomy was performed. Diagnostic cerebral angiography revealed vasospasms in both anterior and middle cerebral arteries, thus fasudil hydrochloride was administered intra-arterially. While blood flow in all arteries improved, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detected infarction along the entire length of the corpus callosum and in the medial region of the right frontal lobe. We believe this infarction was due to secondary ischemia of median callosal artery. This case reminded us of the anatomical variation wherein median callosal artery is the sole blood supply line for the corpus callosum and demonstrated that infarction of the entire corpus callosum is possible.

  7. Reconstitution of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Nonhepatic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Da Costa, Daniel; Turek, Marine; Felmlee, Daniel,; Girardi, Erika; Pfeffer, Sébastien; Long, Gang; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Zeisel, Mirjam,; Baumert, Thomas,

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a human hepatotropic virus, yet the relevant host factors restricting HCV infection to hepatocytes are only partially understood. We demonstrate that exogenous expression of defined host factors reconstituted the entire HCV life cycle in human non-hepatic 293T cells. This study shows robust HCV entry, RNA replication, and production of infectious virus in human non-hepatic cells, and highlights key host factors required for liver tropism of HCV.

  8. Indium-Free Fully Transparent Electronics Deposited Entirely by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pradipta K; Wang, Zhenwei; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-09-01

    Indium-free, fully transparent thin-film transistors are fabricated entirely by the atomic layer deposition technique on rigid and flexible substrates at a low temperature of 160 °C. The transistors show high saturation mobility, large switching ratio, and small subthreshold swing value. The inverters and ring oscillators show large gain value and small propagation delay time, indicating the potential of this process in transparent electronic devices.

  9. The little brown bat nuclear genome contains an entire mitochondrial genome: Real or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Xing, Yutong; Mao, Xiuguang

    2017-09-20

    Nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences (NUMTs) have been documented in almost all eukaryotic genomes studied. Recently, with the number of sequenced genomes increasing, extremely large NUMTs, even a nearly entire mitochondrial genome, have been reported in some plants and animals. However, few such studies provided strong experimental evidences for these important discoveries. In this study using a computer-based search method an entire mitochondrial genome (NUMT-1) was found in the nuclear genome of a bat species (Myotis lucifugus). This super-large NUMT shared a same scaffold with a 754bp nuclear genomic sequence and a second NUMT (NUMT-2, 3292bp). If NUMT-1 was real, it will be the largest NUMT found in animals and this finding will provide valuable insights into the mode of generation of NUMTs in the nuclear genome. Unfortunately, although the initial sequencing technology of the published M. lucifugus genome makes the possibility of artifact less likely, our results from both the PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing and mapping method based on the whole-genome resequencing datasets suggested that the scaffold containing the entire mitochondrial genome was artifact possibly due to a misassembly of mitochondrial and the nuclear DNA sequences. Our current study highlights the necessity to validate the authenticity of extremely large NUMTs identified in previous searches on whole-genome sequence assemblies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Micro-CT examination of human bone: from biopsies towards the entire organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Perilli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-CT systems are available that facilitate ex vivo examinations of human specimens as big as entire vertebrae, with spatial resolutions in the 10-micrometer range. This opens a new way for looking at entire bones in 3D. Accurate description of the internal microarchitecture of the entire organ can be obtained, at spatial resolutions previously achievable only on excised biopsies. These high resolution scans produce large datasets and come with costs and benefits, which have to be considered in the successful planning of an experiment. The aim of this paper is to present examples of human vertebrae scanned at high resolution (17 μm/pixel, allowing the visualization and quantification of the microarchitecture, and to discuss some aspects of using high resolution scans of such large specimens. The datasets were down-sampled to 34 μm and 68 μm pixel size, and their morphometric parameters compared to those obtained at 17 μm pixel size, in relation to data size and calculation time.

  11. [Molecular phylogeny of the gayal inferred from the analysis of cytochrome b gene entire sequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Ping; Chang, Hong; Ma, Guo-Long; Chen, Hong-Yu; Ji, De-Jun; Geng, Rong-Qing

    2008-01-01

    The gayal (Bos frontalis) is a very rare, semi-wild and semi-domestic bovine species. There still exist remarkable divergences on the gayal's origin and phylogenetic status. The cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene entire sequences (1,140 bp) of 11 gayals were sequenced and analyzed. Combined with other bovine Cyt b entire sequences cited in GenBank, the phylogenetic trees of genus Bos were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods with Bubalus bubalis as outgroup. Sequence analysis showed that, among 1,140 sites of Cyt b gene entire sequences of 11 gayals, 95 variable sites (8.33% of all sites) and 6 haplotypes were found, showing abundant genetic diversity in mitochondrial Cyt b gene of the gayals. Both NJ and MP trees demonstrated that the gayals in this study were markedly divided into three embranchments: one embranchment clustering with Bos taurus, another clustering with Bos indicus, and the third clustering with Bos gaurus. The result of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the gayal might be the domesticated form of the gaur (Bos gaurus), and a great proportion of the gayal bloodline was invaded by other bovine species.

  12. Research of Optimization Method of Swabbing Parameters of All Rods Pumping Wells in the Entire Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xishun

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the drawbacks of the optimization and design methods and the practical production goal of least energy consumption, a new theory is raised that the gas of the layer released energy in the lifting process including two parts: dissolved-gas expansion energy and free-gas expansion energy. The motor’s input power of rod pumping system is divided into hydraulic horse power, gas expansion power, surface mechanical loss power, subsurface loss power. Using the theory of energy-conservation, the simulation model of free-gas expansion power has been established, the simulating models of the motor’s input power which are based on the energy method have been improved and the simulation precision of system efficiency has been enhanced. The entire optimization design models have been set up in which the single-well output is taken as the optimum design variable, the planed production of all oil wells in an overall oilfield as the restraint condition and the least input power of the overall oilfield as the object. Synthesizing the optimization design results of the single well and the entire oilfield, the optimal output and the optimal swabbing parameters of all wells can be got. The actual optimizing examples show that the total power consumption designed by the entire optimization method is less 12.95% than that by the single optimization method.

  13. Evaluation of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.

  14. La résistance de vague des carènes. Calcul de la fonction de Green par intégration numérique et par une méthode asymptotique. 1° Partie Hull Resistance to Wave? Computing the Green Function by Numerical Integration and by an Asymptotic Method. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le calcul de la résistance de vague d'une carène par éléments finis concentrés sur un ouvert borné nécessite la connaissance de la fonction de Green du problème à grande distance. Cette fonction est très difficile à calculer numériquement. On justifie dans ce travail une méthode asymptotique rapide, remplaçant avantageusement l'intégration numérique. Computing wave resistance -by finite elements concentrated on a bounded open set requires the prior knowledge of the Green function of the problem at a great distance. Computing this function is numerically very difficult. A fast asymptotic method is iustified in this article, and it can be used ta advantage as a replacemenf for numerical integration.

  15. An algorithm for seeking the optimum value of a function: 'random' method; Un algorithme de recherche de l'optimum d'une fonction: la methode random

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guais, J.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a brief survey of classical techniques for static optimization, we present a Random seeking method for any function, of an arbitrary number of variables, with constraints. The resulting program is shown and illustrated by some examples. The comparison with classical methods points out the advantages of Random in some cases where analytic procedures fail or require too much calculation time. (author) [French] Apres une rapide revue des differents procedes actuels d'optimisation statique, on expose une methode de recherche aleatoire du minimum (ou du maximum) d'une fonction quelconque, definie sur un nombre theoriquement illimite de parametres independants, avec contraintes. Le programme resultant est presente. Il est illustre par quelques exemples simples et compare a des methodes d'optimisation classiques; Ceci montre en particulier que le programme RANDOM permet une recherche aisee d'extrema dans certains cas ou d'autres programmes ne conduisent pas a des solutions satisfaisantes ou bien demandent un temps calcul prohibitif. (auteur)

  16. Partager la fonction répressive : la collaboration entre la police et une compagnie de sécurité privée dans un quartier aisé du Cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roumet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Basé sur une étude qualitative menée dans une banlieue aisée du Cap, cet article examine les mutations de la fonction policière induites par le recrutement d’une compagnie de sécurité privée pour assurer, au quotidien, l’ordre public et la sécurité. Libérés des patrouilles assurées par la compagnie de sécurité, les policiers voient leur action recentrée sur le développement de services administratifs et de campagnes de prévention. La police locale et une entreprise privée collaborent ainsi pour former, avec la participation active des habitants, un exemple atypique de recomposition de la gouvernance sécuritaire en Afrique du Sud.Based on a qualitative study launched in a wealthy suburb to the South of Cape Town, this article analyses the transformations in the role of the police caused by appealing to a private security company for maintaining public order. The private security company is in charge of the patrols, which has allowed policemen to reallocate their activities towards the development of community services and crime prevention. The local police and a private company collaborate one with another to form, together with the active participation of inhabitants, an outstanding example of the transformation of security governance in South Africa.

  17. Contenu de la fréquence de l'E.E.G. en fonction de l'effort physique et mental chez des malades présentant une insuffisance cérébrovasculaire (Communication préliminaire)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, J.; Kamp, A.; Kamphuisen, A.H.C.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    Le contenu de la fréquence de l'E.E.G. en fonction de l'effort physique et mental chez des malades présentant une insuffisance cérébro-vasculaire (une communication préalable). La méthode consiste en une analyse spectrale digitale de l'E.E.G., qui est enregistré à l'aide d'un système

  18. Complexes assembled from TMV-derived spherical particles and entire virions of heterogeneous nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Ekaterina; Nikitin, Nikolai; Gmyl, Anatoly; Lazareva, Ekaterina; Karpova, Olga; Atabekov, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we described some structural features of spherical particles (SPs) generated by thermal remodelling of the tobacco mosaic virus. The SPs represent a universal platform that could bind various proteins. Here, we report that entire isometric virions of heterogeneous nature bind non-specifically to the SPs. Formaldehyde (FA) was used for covalent binding of a virus to the SPs surface for stabilizing the SP-virus complexes. Transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy showed that the SPs surface was covered with virus particles. The architecture of SP-virion complexes was examined by immunologic methods. Mean diameters of SPs and SP-human enterovirus C and SP-cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) compositions were determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) in liquid. Significantly, neither free SPs nor individual virions were detected by NTA in either FA-crosslinked or FA-untreated compositions. Entirely, all virions were bound to the SPs surface and the SP sites within the SP-CaMV complexes were inaccessible for anti-SP antibodies. Likewise, the SPs immunogenicity within the FA-treated SPs-CaMV compositions was negligible. Apparently, the SP antigenic sites were hidden and masked by virions within the compositions. Previously, we reported that the SPs exhibited adjuvant activity when foreign proteins/epitopes were mixed with or crosslinked to SPs. We found that immunogenicity of entire CaMV crosslinked to SP was rather low which could be due to the above-mentioned masking of the SPs booster. Contrastingly, immunogenicity of the FA-untreated compositions increased significantly, presumably, due to partial release of virions and unmasking of some SPs-buster sites after animals immunization.

  19. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Haraldsson, Matilda; Bolte, Sören; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.; Thygesen, Uffe H.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The comb jelly Mertensia ovum, widely distributed in Arctic regions, has recently been discovered in the northern Baltic Sea. We show that M. ovum also exists in the central Baltic but that the population consists solely of small-sized larvae (less than 1.6 mm). Despite the absence of adults, eggs were abundant. Experiments revealed that the larvae were reproductively active. Egg production and anticipated mortality rates suggest a self-sustaining population. This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure. PMID:22535640

  20. Quaternary alloy semiconductor nanobelts with bandgap spanning the entire visible spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Anlian; Liu, Ruibin; Sun, Minghua; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2009-07-15

    We used an improved cothermal evaporation route for the first time to achieve quaternary semiconductor nanostructured alloys, using an example of Zn(x)Cd(1-x)S(y)Se(1-y) nanobelts. The PL (bandgap) of these as-grown nanostructured alloys can be continuously tunable across the entire visible spectrum through experimentally controlling their compositions. Such widely controlled alloy nanostructures via composition/light emission provide a new material platform for applications in wavelength-tunable lasers, multicolor detectors, full-spectrum solar cells, LEDs, and color displays.

  1. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac;

    2016-01-01

    are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean......Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...

  2. Entire functions for which the escaping set is a spider's web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, D. J.

    2011-11-01

    We construct several new classes of transcendental entire functions, f, such that both the escaping set, I(f), and the fast escaping set, A(f), have a structure known as a spider's web. We show that some of these classes have a degree of stability under changes in the function. We show that new examples of functions for which I(f) and A(f) are spiders' webs can be constructed by composition, by differentiation, and by integration of existing examples. We use a property of spiders' webs to give new results concerning functions with no unbounded Fatou components.

  3. Entire functions for which the escaping set is a spider's web

    CERN Document Server

    Sixsmith, D J

    2010-01-01

    We construct several new classes of transcendental entire functions, f, such that both the escaping set, I(f), and the fast escaping set, A(f), have a structure known as a spider's web. We show that some of these classes have a degree of stability under changes in the function. We show that new examples of functions for which I(f) and A(f) are spiders' webs can be constructed by composition, by differentiation, and by integration of existing examples. We use a property of spiders' webs to give new results concerning functions with no unbounded Fatou components.

  4. Nanoelectromechanical switch operating by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danilov, Andrey V.; Hedegård, Per; Golubev, Dimitrii S.;

    2008-01-01

    We present a solid state single molecule electronic device where switching between two states with different conductance happens predominantly by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule. This conclusion is based on a novel statistical analysis of similar to 10(5) switching events. The analysis yields...... (i) the relative contribution of tunneling, current induced heating and thermal fluctuations to the switching mechanism, (ii) the voltage dependent energy barrier (similar to 100-200 meV) separating the two states of the switch and (iii) the switching attempt frequency, omega(0) corresponding to a 2...

  5. La résistance de vagues de carènes. Calcul de la fonction de Green par intégration mumérique et par une méthode asymptotique. Deuxième Partie Hull Resistance to Waves. Computing the Green Hunction by Numerical Integration to Flow Metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est le prolongement de deux publications dejà parues dans cette revue [I] [5]. On rappelle que le calcul de la résistance de vague d'une carène par éléments finis sur un ouvert borné nécessite la connaissance de la fonction de Green du problème à grande distance. Cette fonction est très difficile à calculer par une intégration numérique classique. Dans ce qui suit on rappelle donc les résultats et les méthodes des précédents articles et on achève la justification d'une méthode asymptotique pour le calcul de la fonction de Green. This article is the second of two already published in this journal. The wave resistance of a hull is calculated by finite elements on a bounded domain. For this, the Green function of the problem atgreat distance must be known. It is very difficult to calculate this function by a conventional numerical integration. This article reviews the results and methods of the preceding articles, and an asymptotic method for colculating the Green function ïs justified.

  6. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  7. Entire deformational characteristics and strain localization of jointed rock specimen in plane strain compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shear band (SB),axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of anisotropic jointed rock specimen (JRS) were modeled by Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC). Failure criterion of rock was a composited Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off. An inclined joint was treated as square elements of ideal plastic material beyond the peak strength. Several FISH functions were written to automatically find the addresses of elements in the joint and to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of plane strain JRS. The results show that for moderate joint inclination (JI), strain is only concentrated into the joint governing the behavior of JRS,leading to ideal plastic responses in axial and lateral directions. For higher JI, the post-peak stress-axial and lateral strain curves become steeper as JI increases owing to the increase of new SB's length. Lateral expansion and precursor to the unstable failure are the most apparent, resulting in the highest Poisson's ratio and even negative volumetric strain. For lower JI, the entire post-peak deformational characteristics are independent of JI. The lowest lateral expansion occurs, leading to the lowest Poisson's ratio and positive volumetric strain all along. The present prediction on anisotropic strength in plane strain compression qualitatively agrees with the results in triaxial tests of rocks.The JI calculated by Jaeger's formula overestimates that related to the minimum strength. Advantages of the present numerical model over the Jaeger's model are pointed out.

  8. Micron-scale resolution optical tomography of entire mouse brains with confocal light sheet microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Bria, Alessandro; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Peng, Hanchuan; Iannello, Giulio; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2013-10-08

    Understanding the architecture of mammalian brain at single-cell resolution is one of the key issues of neuroscience. However, mapping neuronal soma and projections throughout the whole brain is still challenging for imaging and data management technologies. Indeed, macroscopic volumes need to be reconstructed with high resolution and contrast in a reasonable time, producing datasets in the TeraByte range. We recently demonstrated an optical method (confocal light sheet microscopy, CLSM) capable of obtaining micron-scale reconstruction of entire mouse brains labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Combining light sheet illumination and confocal detection, CLSM allows deep imaging inside macroscopic cleared specimens with high contrast and speed. Here we describe the complete experimental pipeline to obtain comprehensive and human-readable images of entire mouse brains labeled with fluorescent proteins. The clearing and the mounting procedures are described, together with the steps to perform an optical tomography on its whole volume by acquiring many parallel adjacent stacks. We showed the usage of open-source custom-made software tools enabling stitching of the multiple stacks and multi-resolution data navigation. Finally, we illustrated some example of brain maps: the cerebellum from an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all Purkinje cells are selectively labeled, and the whole brain from a thy1-GFP-M mouse, characterized by a random sparse neuronal labeling.

  9. On the uniqueness of entire functions%整函数的惟一性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏珠

    2004-01-01

    研究了涉及导函数的整函数的惟一性, 主要证明了以下结果. 设 f(z) 和 g(z)为非常数整函数, n, k为满足n>2k+4的2个正整数. 若f(z)和g(z)的零点重数均至少为n, 且f(k)(z)和g(k)(z) CM分担1, 则或者f(z)=c1ecz, g(z)=c2e-cz, 其中c1, c2 和 c 为满足 (-1)kc1c2c2k= 1的常数; 或者f(z)≡g(z).%We study the uniqueness of entire functions and prove the following theorem: Let f(z) and g(z) be two nonconstant entire functions; n and k two positive integers with n>2k+4. If the zeros of both f(z) and g(z) are of multiplicity at least n, and f(k)(z) and g(k)(z) share 1 CM, then either f(z)=c1ecz, g(z)=c2e-cz, where c1, c2 and c are three constants satisfying (-1)kc1c2c2k= 1, or f(z)≡g(z).

  10. Entire papilla preservation technique in the regenerative treatment of deep intrabony defects: 1-Year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the clinical outcomes of a novel tunnel-like surgical technique in the treatment of isolated deep intrabony defects. Twelve patients presenting with at least one isolated deep intrabony defect received regenerative periodontal treatment with "entire papilla preservation (EPP)" technique. Access to the intrabony defect for debridement was provided by a bevelled vertical releasing incision positioned in the buccal gingiva of the neighbouring inter-dental space. Following the elevation of a buccal flap, an inter-dental tunnel was prepared undermining the defect-associated papilla. Granulation tissue was removed, root surfaces were carefully debrided and bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative were applied. Microsurgical suturing technique was used for optimal wound closure. Early healing was uneventful in all cases, and 100% wound closure was maintained during the entire healing period. At 1-year, there was significant attachment gain of 6.83±2.51 mm (p<0.001). The 7±2.8 mm reduction in probing depth was also significant (p<0.001), which was associated with minimal increase in gingival recession (0.16±0.38 mm, p=0.166). Tunnel-like "EPP" technique may limit the risk of wound failure particularly in the early healing phase, thereby preventing exposure of regenerative biomaterials, possibly enhancing stabilization of blood clot in deep intrabony defects and leading to optimal clinical outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Centimeter-scale high-resolution metrology of entire CVD-grown graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Guvenc, Ali; Wang, Wei; Ghazinejad, Maziar; Lin, Jian; Guo, Shirui; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2011-09-19

    A high-throughput metrology method for measuring the thickness and uniformity of entire large-area chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene sheets on arbitrary substrates is demonstrated. This method utilizes the quenching of fluorescence by graphene via resonant energy transfer to increase the visibility of graphene on a glass substrate. Fluorescence quenching is visualized by spin-coating a solution of polymer mixed with fluorescent dye onto the graphene then viewing the sample under a fluorescence microscope. A large-area fluorescence montage image of the dyed graphene sample is collected and processed to identify the graphene and indicate the graphene layer thickness throughout the entire graphene sample. Using this metrology method, the effect of different transfer techniques on the quality of the graphene sheet is studied. It is shown that small-area characterization is insufficient to truly evaluate the effect of the transfer technique on the graphene sample. The results indicate that introducing a drop of acetone or liquid poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) on top of the transfer PMMA layer before soaking the graphene sample in acetone improves the quality of the graphene dramatically over immediately soaking the graphene in acetone. This work introduces a new method for graphene quantification that can quickly and easily identify graphene layers in a large area on arbitrary substrates. This metrology technique is well suited for many industrial applications due to its repeatability and flexibility.

  12. Snow depth and snow persistence patterns in the Arctic from analysis of the entire Landsat archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Parr, C.; Sturm, M.; Selkowitz, D.; Larsen, C.

    2016-12-01

    The entire archive of Landsat 5 TM, Landat 7 ETM+, and Landsat 8 OLI imagery collected between March 1 and August 31, 1999-2016 was analyzed to map the presence or absence of snow, with consideration given to clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and canopy cover. Google Earth Engine was utilized to rapidly classify and summarize the entire time-series. The time-series of observations were then pooled across all the years and a binary classification tree determined the day of year that based split the observations into a snow-covered and a snow-free season. The analysis was completed for arctic Alaska and covers approximately one million square kilometers. The snow persistence product was validated using SNOTEL sites and MODIS time series metrics. The snow persistence patterns are highly correlated with end of winter snow depth patterns. We compared the Landsat snow persistence to the normal snow depth from repeat LIDAR surveys and field snow depth measurements and applied the results to estimate snow distribution over much larger regions. A nonlinear relationship between normal snow-free day of year and mean end of winter snow depth was observed. A polynomial model (r-squared = 0.95) was developed and was extrapolated to the surrounding area to produce a regional map of modeled mean end of winter snow depth.

  13. Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS): A Time Domain Resource for the Entire Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djorgovski, Stanislav G.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Graham, Matthew; Donalek, Ciro; Christensen, Eric J.; Larson, Stephen M.; CRTS Team

    2016-01-01

    Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS; http://crts.caltech.edu) is systematically exploring and characterizing the faint, variable sky. It uses data streams generated by the Catalina Sky Survey, which searches for near-Earth asteroids, to search for variable objects and transient events. The CRTS survey has been in operation since 2008, with the archival data going back to 2005. The survey covers the total area of ~33,000 deg2, down to ~19-21 mag per exposure, with time baselines from 10 min to ~10 years, and growing; there are now typically ~ 200-400 exposures per pointing, and coadded images reach deeper than ~ 23 mag. The area coverage rate will increase substantially as new cameras are being deployed, and possible new data streams opened. The survey has so far detected nearly 11,000 unique, high-amplitude transients, including ~3,000 confirmed or likely supernovae (for the 5 years in a row we published more supernovae than any other survey), at least 1,500 CVs (the great majority of them previously uncatalogued), >3,000 of blazars and other AGN, and a broad variety of other types of objects.CRTS is intended to be a data resource for the entire astronomical community. We have a completely open data policy: all discovered transient events are published in real time with no proprietary delay period, and all data are made public, in order to better serve the entire community, and maximize the scientific returns. This includes an archive of ~500 million light curves, which are being updated continuously. This is an unprecedented data set for the exploration of the time domain, in terms of the area, depth, and temporal coverage.Numerous scientific projects have been enabled by this data stream, including: discoveries of ultraluminous and otherwise peculiar SNe; unusual CVs and dwarf novae; mapping of the structure in the Galactic halo using RR Lyrae; variability-based discovery of AGN and probes of their physics; etc. We also have a major effort on the automated

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of sensitivity and NECR of an entire-body PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi; Yoshida, Eiji; Yamaya, Taiga

    2014-07-01

    The current positron emission tomography (PET) design is aimed toward establishing an entire-body PET scanner. An entire-body PET scanner is a scanner whose axial field of view (FOV) covers the whole body of a patient, whereas whole-body PET scanner can be of any axial FOV length, but was designed for a whole-body scan. Despite its high production cost, an entire-body depth-of-interaction PET scanner offers many benefits, such as shorter and dynamic PET time acquisition, as well as higher sensitivity and count rate performance. This PET scanner may be cost-effective for clinical PET scanners with high scan throughput. In this work, we evaluated the sensitivity and count rate performance of a 2-m-long PET scanner with conventional data acquisition (DAQ) architecture, using Monte Carlo simulation, and we evaluated two ring diameters (60 and 80 cm) to reduce the scanner cost. From simulation of scanning with a 2-m axial FOV, the sensitivity for a 2-m-long PET scanner of 60 and 80-cm diameter is around 80 and 68 times higher, respectively, than that of the conventional PET scanner. In addition, for the 2-m-long PET scanner with 60-cm diameter, the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was 843 kcps at 125 MBq, whereas the peak for the 80-cm diameter was 989 kcps at 200 MBq. This shows gains of 15.3 and 17.95, respectively, in comparison with that of the conventional PET scanner. The 2-m-long PET scanner with 60-cm ring diameter could not only reduce the number of detectors by 21 %, but also had a 17 % higher sensitivity compared to that with an 80-cm ring diameter. On the other hand, despite the higher sensitivity, the NECR of the 60-cm ring diameter was smaller than that of the 80-cm ring diameter. This results from the single data loss due to dead time, whereas grouping of axially stacked detectors was used in the conventional DAQ architecture. Parallelization of the DAQ architecture is therefore important for the 2-m-long PET scanner to achieve its optimal

  15. The Entire Quantile Path of a Risk-Agnostic SVM Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    A quantile binary classifier uses the rule: Classify x as +1 if P(Y = 1|X = x) >= t, and as -1 otherwise, for a fixed quantile parameter t {[0, 1]. It has been shown that Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in the limit are quantile classifiers with t = 1/2 . In this paper, we show that by using asymmetric cost of misclassification SVMs can be appropriately extended to recover, in the limit, the quantile binary classifier for any t. We then present a principled algorithm to solve the extended SVM classifier for all values of t simultaneously. This has two implications: First, one can recover the entire conditional distribution P(Y = 1|X = x) = t for t {[0, 1]. Second, we can build a risk-agnostic SVM classifier where the cost of misclassification need not be known apriori. Preliminary numerical experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Endoscopic biopsy of a B-cell lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    QIN, JIA-ZHEN; WU, YUE-KUI; YANG, ZHI-JUN; LV, JUN; DANG, YUAN-YUAN; ZHANG, HONG-TIAN; DAI, YI-WU

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old male suffering from vomiting and mild preceding nausea for 15 days was examined in the present case report. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a homogeneously enhancing cluster-like lesion involving the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. An endoscopic biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination led to the diagnosis of a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. To the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the first case of a primary lymphoma involving the entire ventricular system. Therefore, primary lymphomas should be considered in the list of ventricular tumors. An endoscopic biopsy requires minimal invasion to obtain an adequate tissue sample, and frequently leads to the correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment protocols. PMID:26889262

  17. Two Y genes can replace the entire Y chromosome for assisted reproduction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Ward, Monika A

    2014-01-03

    The Y chromosome is thought to be important for male reproduction. We have previously shown that, with the use of assisted reproduction, live offspring can be obtained from mice lacking the entire Y chromosome long arm. Here, we demonstrate that live mouse progeny can also be generated by using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome contribution limited to only two genes, the testis determinant factor Sry and the spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Sry is believed to function primarily in sex determination during fetal life. Eif2s3y may be the only Y chromosome gene required to drive mouse spermatogenesis, allowing formation of haploid germ cells that are functional in assisted reproduction. Our findings are relevant, but not directly translatable, to human male infertility cases.

  18. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Villanueva, Hector; Brønnum, Niels F.; Kruse, Emil K.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean, but also that the loads are almost neutral when vortex generators are installed if there is leading edge roughness on the blades. Finally, it was shown that there was a good agreement between the measurements and the predictions from the design tool.

  19. A pyrometric feedback system covering the entire temperature program for electrothermal atomization-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herber, R. F. M.; Pieters, H. J.; Roelofsen, A. M.; Van Deijck, W.

    A new pyrometric temperature feedback control system for ETA-AAS is introduced which controls the entire temperature range needed for analysis. The system consists of a single infrared sensitive detector and independent feedback control circuitry for the three separate heating stages of a Varian CRA 63 or CRA 90 power supply to which it was added. The temperature region covered by the system encompassed from 300 to 3300 K. The precision of the temperature control amounts to ±20 K at 330 K., ±5 K at 700 K and ±2 K at 2300 K. In order to test the performance of the system, lead in blood and cadmium in urine were determined. Substantial improvements as compared to the conventional system were obtained with respect to optimization of the temperature program, precision and sensitivity. Patent pending.

  20. A WRF Simulation of an Episode of Contrails Covering the Entire Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mazon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On 21 September 2012 the entire sky was covered by contrails over the Gulf of Lyon (NW of the Mediterranean basin. These clouds were well recorded by ground observers as well as by Meteosat imagery. The atmospheric characteristics at the levels where these anthropic clouds formed are analyzed by performing a WRF simulation in the area where Meteosat recorded contrail clouds. According to the vertical profiles of temperature and the relative humidity respect to the ice (RHI, the environmental condition favors that the water vapor exhaust emitted by the aircraft engines reaches the deposition point and form crystal clouds, which spread out because the temperature remained below 230 K and the RHI was higher than 70% during the whole episode.

  1. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobet Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1 separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2 scan these pieces one by one, (3 analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4 combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  2. Further Considerations Regarding the Aharonov-Bohm Effect and the Wavefunction of the Entire System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, Allan

    2017-03-01

    In an earlier paper it was demonstrated that the hypothesized electrostatic version of the Aharonov-Bohm ("AB") effect does not exist. The conclusion follows straightforwardly once one recognizes that interference takes place in the configuration space of the entire system, including the experimental apparatus, and the wavefunction of the apparatus cannot be ignored. Two additional results are presented here. 1. Observations of interference that had been attributed to an analogue of the electrostatic AB effect (or "scalar effect") are actually due to a magnetic AB effect. 2. In the original magnetic AB effect itself, there is no phase shift if it is possible effectively to shield the solenoid from the influence of the passing electron. This result is not in conflict with the landmark experiments of Tonomura and colleagues if Wang's recent claim is correct, that superconductive shielding could not have isolated the toroidal magnet from the magnetic pulse of the passing electron.

  3. Suprasellar ganglioglioma with unusual diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gangliogliomas (GG are mixed glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, occurring mostly in the pediatric population, with common sites being temporal lobes and less commonly in the frontal and parietal lobes. We report a case of a 7-year-old child who presented with bilateral visual defects for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed an intensely enhancing mass lesion with calcification in the sellar and suprasellar region involving the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve. The mass showed almost bilaterally symmetrical diffuse spread along the optic tracts posteriorly and hypothalamus, temporal lobes, thalami and the basal ganglia. The lesion was radiologically indistinguishable from chiasmatic astrocytoma or a germ cell tumor but histopathological features were of a ganglioglioma. While a few optic apparatus gangliogliomas have been reported in the literature, such widespread diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway is unusual.

  4. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  5. OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Thomas; Freyss, Joel; von Korff, Modest; Reich, Jacqueline Renée; Rufener, Christian

    2009-02-01

    We present OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system. Its components cover all information handling aspects from compound synthesis via biological testing to preclinical development. Its design principles are platform and vendor independence, a consistent look and feel, and complete coverage of the drug discovery process by custom tailored applications. These include electronic laboratory notebook applications for biology and chemistry, tools for high-throughput and secondary screening evaluation, chemistry-aware data visualization, physicochemical property prediction, 3D-pharmacophore comparisons, interactive modeling, computing grid based ligand-protein docking, and more. Most applications are developed in Java and are built on top of a Java library layer that provides reusable cheminformatics functionality and GUI components such as chemical editors, structure canonicalization, substructure search, combinatorial enumeration, enhanced stereo perception, force field minimization, and conformation generation.

  6. Completion of the Entire Hepatitis C Virus Life Cycle in Vero Cells Derived from Monkey Kidney

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    Asako Murayama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hepatitis C virus (HCV cell culture system incorporating the JFH-1 strain and the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 enabled the production of infectious HCV particles. Several host factors were identified as essential for HCV replication. Supplementation of these factors in nonhepatic human cell lines enabled HCV replication and particle production. Vero cells established from monkey kidney are commonly used for the production of vaccines against a variety of viruses. In this study, we aimed to establish a novel Vero cell line to reconstruct the HCV life cycle. Unmodified Vero cells did not allow HCV infection or replication. The expression of microRNA 122 (miR-122, an essential factor for HCV replication, is notably low in Vero cells. Therefore, we supplemented Vero cells with miR-122 and found that HCV replication was enhanced. However, Vero cells that expressed miR-122 still did not allow HCV infection. We supplemented HCV receptor molecules and found that scavenger receptor class B type I (SRBI was essential for HCV infection in Vero cells. The supplementation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE, a host factor important for virus production, enabled the production of infectious virus in Vero cells. Finally, we created a Vero cell line that expressed the essential factors miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE; the entire HCV life cycle, including infection, replication, and infectious virus production, was completed in these cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that miR-122, SRBI, and ApoE were necessary and sufficient for the completion of the entire HCV life cycle in nonhuman, nonhepatic Vero cells.

  7. A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range.

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    Erwan Quéméré

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the

  8. ENTIRE FUNCTIONS THAT SHARE POLYNOMIALS%分担多项式的整函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇惠玲

    2007-01-01

    本文研究了整函数的唯一性,证明了如下结果:设p(z)为n1多项式,f(z)和g(z)是两个超越亚纯函数,n≥max{6,n1}是一个正整数,如果fn(z)f'(z),gn(z)g'(z)分担多项式p(z)CM,则f(z)=ciecfp(z)dz,g(z)=c2e-cfp(z)dz,这里c1,c2和c是三个常数且满足(c1c2)n+1c2=-1;或者f(z)≡tg(z),其中t是一个常数且满足tn+1=1.%In this paper, we study the uniqueness of entire functions and prove the following result: Let f(z) and g(z) be two transcendental entire functions, p(z) a polynomial of degree n1; n ≥ max{6, n1 } a positive integer. If fn(z)f'(z) and gn(z)g'(z)share p(z) CM, then either f(z) = c1ec∫p(z)dz,g(z) = c2e-c∫p(z)dz, where c1,c2 and c are three constants satisfying (c1c2)n+1c2 = -1; or f(z) ≡ tg(z) for a constant t such that tn+1 = 1.

  9. On determinants of modified Bessel functions and entire solutions of double confluent Heun equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Glutsyuk, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the question on existence of entire solutions of well-known linear differential equations that are linearizations of nonlinear equations modeling the Josephson effect in superconductivity. We consider the modified Bessel functions I j (x) of the first kind, which are Laurent series coefficients of the analytic function family {{\\text{e}}\\frac{x{2}≤ft(z+\\frac{1}{z}\\right)}} . For every l≥slant 1 we study the family parametrized by k,n\\in {{{Z}}l} , {{k}1}>\\cdots >{{k}l} , {{n}1}>\\cdots >{{n}l} of (l× l) -matrix functions formed by the modified Bessel functions of the first kind {{a}ij}(x)={{I}{{kj}-{{n}i}}}(x) , i,j=1,\\ldots,l . We show that their determinants f k, n (x) are positive for every l≥slant 1 , k,n\\in {{{Z}}l} as above and x  >  0. The above determinants are closely related to a sequence (indexed by l) of families of double confluent Heun equations, which are linear second order differential equations with two irregular singularities, at zero and at infinity. Buchstaber and Tertychnyi have constructed their holomorphic solutions on {C} for an explicit class of parameter values and conjectured that they do not exist for other parameter values. They have reduced their conjecture to the second conjecture saying that if an appropriate second similar equation has a polynomial solution, then the first one has no entire solution. They have proved the latter statement under the additional assumption (third conjecture) that {{f}k,n}(x)\

  10. Résines et asphaltènes : évolution en fonction des types de matière organique et de leur enfouissement Resins and Asphaltenes: Evolution As a Function of Organic-Matter Type and Burial

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    Castex H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 151 résines et 175 asphaltènes d'extraits de roche de plusieurs bassins ont été étudiés par analyse élémentaire. On montre que : - les résines ont des valeurs moyennes en carbone et en hydrogène plus élevées ainsi qu'un rapport C/H plus faible que celui des asphaltènes; elles présentent donc une structure plus aliphatique et/ou plus alicyclique. Par contre, les asphaltènes contiennent plus de soufre, d'oxygène et d'azote ; - le soufre et l'oxygène sont des paramètres permettant de différencier des bassins ; - différents types de matière organique sont mis en évidence sur un diagramme H/C, O/C ; leur évolution chimique avec l'enfouissement est caractérisée par une décroissance des teneurs en hydrogène, oxygène et soufre. La résonance magnétique nucléaire du proton et la spectroscopie infrarouge ont été utilisées pour suivre l'évolution structurale des résines et asphaltènes provenant de différents types de matière organique (algaire, marine et terrestre enfouie à des profondeurs croissantes. La résonance magnétique nucléaire permet de calculer plusieurs paramètres structuraux tels que l'aromaticité FA et le degré de substitution sigma du système aromatique. Le facteur FA semble augmenter en fonction de l'enfouissement et du type de matière organique tandis que sigma semble décroître. La spectroscopie infrarouge compléte ces informations. Les surfaces de bandes correspondant aux fonctions suivantes ont été calculées : - OH dans la région 3700-2700 cm-1 - C=O carbonyl vers 1700 cm-1 - C-H aliphatiques à 2900, 1455 et 1380 cm-1 - C=C aromatique à 1610 cm-1. Les variations d'intensité des bandes : - décroissance des C-H aliphatiques, des fonctions C=O ; - augmentation des C-H et C=C aromatiques sont en relation d'une part avec le type de matière organique, d'autre part avec sa catagénèse. Elemental analysis was used to investigate 151 resins and 175 asphaltenes extracted from rocks from

  11. A near-infrared survey of the entire R Coronae Australis cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M.; Heymann, F.; Domke, I.; Drass, H.; Chini, R.; Hoffmeister, V.

    2008-09-01

    Aims: To understand low- to intermediate-mass star-formation in the nearby R Cr A molecular cloud, we try to identify the stellar content that is accessible with near-infrared observations. Methods: We obtained a JHKs band mosaic of ~10 arcmin × 60 arcmin covering the entire R CrA molecular cloud with unprecedented sensitivity. We present a catalogue of about 3500 near-infrared sources fainter than the saturation limit Ks ˜ 10 mag, reaching Ks ˜ 18 mag. We analysed the extended sources by inspecting their morphology and point sources by means of colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams. Additionally, we compared the extinction inferred from the NIR data with the line-of-sight dust emission at 1.2 mm. Sources towards high dust emission but relatively low H-Ks show a projected mm-excess; these sources are either immediately surrounded by cold circumstellar material or, if too red to be a true foreground object, they are embedded in the front layer of the 1.2 mm emitting dust cloud. In both cases they are most likely associated with the cloud. Results: By means of the projected mm-excess technique we find 33 new faint near-infrared sources deeply embedded in the Coronet cluster around R CrA, for which so far about 20 bright infrared stars have been known. In contrast to the Coronet region, both the northwestern dust ridge and the southeastern cloud condensation “C” appear to be devoid of associated stars detectable with our near-infrared data. Furthermore, about a dozen sources, which are spread over the entire molecular cloud region, exhibit a possible K-band excess, but only with marginal statistical significance (indicated K-band excess as real. Finally, while the Herbig-Haro-like objects seen on our maps are concentrated around the Coronet, we find four new nebulae also located farther down to the southeast. At the position of IRAS 18595-3712, an X-shaped bipolar nebula is resolved; its exciting star is hidden behind an edge-on disc. Conclusions: The

  12. Anomalous behavior of nearly-entire visible band manipulated with degenerated image dipole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Jiaming; Qiu, Min; Zouhdi, Said; Yang, Joel Kwang Wei; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the control of anomalous light bending via flat gradient-phase metasurfaces has enabled many unprecedented applications. However, either low manipulation efficiency or challenging difficulties in fabrication hinders their practical applications, in particular in the visible range. Therefore, a concept of degenerated image dipole array is reported to realize anomalous light bending with high efficiency. A continuous phase delay varying rather than a discrete one, along with an in-plane wave vector is utilized to achieve anomalous light bending, by controlling and manipulating the mutual coupling between dipole array and the dipole array of its image. The anomalous light bending covers almost the entire visible range with broad incident angles, accompanied with preserved well-defined planar wavefront. In addition, this design is feasible to be fabricated with recent nanofabrication techniques due to its planarized surface configuration. The concept of imperfect image dipole array degenerated from ideal metamaterial absorbers surprisingly empowers significant enhancement in light manipulation efficiency for visible light in a distinct fashion.Recently, the control of anomalous light bending via flat gradient-phase metasurfaces has enabled many unprecedented applications. However, either low manipulation efficiency or challenging difficulties in fabrication hinders their practical applications, in particular in the visible range. Therefore, a concept of degenerated image dipole array is reported to realize anomalous light bending with high efficiency. A continuous phase delay varying rather than a discrete one, along with an in-plane wave vector is utilized to achieve anomalous light bending, by controlling and manipulating the mutual coupling between dipole array and the dipole array of its image. The anomalous light bending covers almost the entire visible range with broad incident angles, accompanied with preserved well-defined planar wavefront. In

  13. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  14. Evaluation of ergonomic postures of dental professions by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, in Birjand, Iran

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    Nasl Saraji J.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are major parts of the occupational diseases in workplaces. Protection from such diseases is dependent on assessment and improvement of job postures by using job analysis methods in ergonomics. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate ergonomic conditions in dental professions by rapid entire body assessment (REBA in Birjand city and also to assess the relation between MSDS in different parts of the body and work conditions. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical approach performed on 48 persons working at different professions by using REBA method. The prevalence of MSDs was obtained by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square and Fisher tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In this investigation, the prevalence of disorders for different parts of the body was as follows: 65% for neck, 60% for back, 38% for shoulders, and 31% for wrist. These disorders were higher in women than men except for the back. There were significant correlation between disorders of femur and foreleg with work history, ankle and sole with body mass index (BMI, and MSDs with work conditions (P<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that the work conditions and postures need to be improved. In addition the level of dental professional education regarding biomechanical hazardous effects as well as correct work conditions and postures should be increased.

  15. Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants and high-performance mass spectrometry for quantitative plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Mills, Davinia J S; Cramer, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants (HILEP) combines hydroponic plant cultivation and metabolic labeling with stable isotopes using (15)N-containing inorganic salts to label whole and mature plants. Employing (15)N salts as the sole nitrogen source for HILEP leads to the production of healthy-looking plants which contain (15)N proteins labeled to nearly 100%. Therefore, HILEP is suitable for quantitative plant proteomic analysis, where plants are grown in either (14)N- or (15)N-hydroponic media and pooled when the biological samples are collected for relative proteome quantitation. The pooled (14)N-/(15)N-protein extracts can be fractionated in any suitable way and digested with a protease for shotgun proteomics, using typically reverse phase liquid chromatography nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-nESI-MS/MS). Best results were obtained with a hybrid ion trap/FT-MS mass spectrometer, combining high mass accuracy and sensitivity for the MS data acquisition with speed and high-throughput MS/MS data acquisition, increasing the number of proteins identified and quantified and improving protein quantitation. Peak processing and picking from raw MS data files, protein identification, and quantitation were performed in a highly automated way using integrated MS data analysis software with minimum manual intervention, thus easing the analytical workflow. In this methodology paper, we describe how to grow Arabidopsis plants hydroponically for isotope labeling using (15)N salts and how to quantitate the resulting proteomes using a convenient workflow that does not require extensive bioinformatics skills.

  16. The Entirely Subcutaneous Defibrillator – A New Generation and Future Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Cappato, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Although conventional implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have proved effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD), they still appear to be limited by non-trivial acute and long-term complications. The recent advent of an entirely subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) represents a further step in the evolution of defibrillation technology towards a less-invasive approach. This review highlights some historical and current issues concerning the S-ICD that may offer a viable therapeutic option in selected patients at high risk of SCD and in whom pacing is not required. After the CE Mark and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals, the S-ICD is being implanted worldwide with growing clinical data regarding its safety and efficacy (the EFFORTLESS Registry). The recently developed new generation of S-ICD (EMBLEM, Boston Scientific) demonstrates favourable features including a smaller device, longer longevity and remote-monitoring compatibility. Further innovations in the S-ICD system and potential integration with leadless pacing may play an important role in defibrillation therapy and prevention of SCD in the near future. PMID:26835112

  17. A software for parameter optimization with Differential Evolution Entirely Parallel method

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    Konstantin Kozlov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Differential Evolution Entirely Parallel (DEEP package is a software for finding unknown real and integer parameters in dynamical models of biological processes by minimizing one or even several objective functions that measure the deviation of model solution from data. Numerical solutions provided by the most efficient global optimization methods are often problem-specific and cannot be easily adapted to other tasks. In contrast, DEEP allows a user to describe both mathematical model and objective function in any programming language, such as R, Octave or Python and others. Being implemented in C, DEEP demonstrates as good performance as the top three methods from CEC-2014 (Competition on evolutionary computation benchmark and was successfully applied to several biological problems. Availability. DEEP method is an open source and free software distributed under the terms of GPL licence version 3. The sources are available at http://deepmethod.sourceforge.net/ and binary packages for Fedora GNU/Linux are provided for RPM package manager at https://build.opensuse.org/project/repositories/home:mackoel:compbio.

  18. Stoichiometry of Site-specific Lysine Acetylation in an Entire Proteome*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A.; Smallegan, Michael J.; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism. PMID:24917678

  19. Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2 binds to entire mitochondrial DNA and negatively regulates mitochondrial gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Huang; Min Yu; Yang Jiao; Jie Ma; Mingxing Ma; Zehua Wang; Hong Wu; Deyong Tan

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2 (mTERF2) is a mitochondriai matrix protein that binds to the mitochondriai DNA.Previous studies have shown that overexpression of mTERF2 can inhibit cell proliferation, but the mechanism has not been well defined so far.This study aimed to present the binding pattern of mTERF2 to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in vivo, and investigated the biological function of mTERF2 on the replication of mtDNA, mRNA transcription, and protein translation.The mTERF2 binding to entire mtDNA was identified via the chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis.The mtDNA replication efficiency and expression levels of mitochondria genes were significantly inhibited when the mTERF2 was overexpressed in HeLa cells.The inhibition level of mtDNA content was the same with the decreased levels of mRNA and mitochondrial protein expression.Overall, the mTERF2 might be a cell growth inhibitor based on its negative effect on mtDNA replication, which eventually own-regulated all of the oxidative phosphorylation components in the mitochondria that were essential for the cell's energy metabolism.

  20. Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia A: entire population study in a National Haemophilia Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, A L; Pedersen, L H; Hvas, A-M; Poulsen, L H; Thykjaer, H; Ingerslev, J

    2009-01-01

    Assay discrepancy in mild haemophilia, here defined by a significantly higher factor VIII (FVIII):C response by the one-stage procoagulant assay as compared with a two-stage enzymatic method, has repeatedly been reported in literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the overall prevalence of this phenomenon amongst mild haemophilia families from a population of 2.95 million inhabitants in the Western Danish region. Information was collected retrospectively through a thorough search of archives of the National Haemophilia Centre in Aarhus. We identified 109 patients with mild haemophilia A amongst whom 92 were eligible to enter the study. These represent a total of 53 unrelated families. Our data illustrate that this assay discrepancy pattern is found quite frequently amongst our mild haemophilia A families. While the ratio of FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot values was quite consistent amongst patients belonging to same family pattern, ratios in the entire cohort of families ranged from 0.18 to 1.00. Selecting a cut-off level for the FVIII:C chromogenic/FVIII:C clot ratios at 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively, we found that 38 (72%), 27 (51%) and 19 (36%) of families, respectively, displayed this assay discrepancy. In 10 patients, the FVIII:C chromogenic level was inside the category of moderate haemophilia at >0.01-area.

  1. The entire organization of transcription units on the Bacillus subtilis genome

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    Ogasawara Naotake

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the post-genomic era, comprehension of cellular processes and systems requires global and non-targeted approaches to handle vast amounts of biological information. Results The present study predicts transcription units (TUs in Bacillus subtilis, based on an integrated approach involving DNA sequence and transcriptome analyses. First, co-expressed gene clusters are predicted by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients of adjacent genes for all the genes in a series that are transcribed in the same direction with no intervening gene transcribed in the opposite direction. Transcription factor (TF binding sites are then predicted by detecting statistically significant TF binding sequences on the genome using a position weight matrix. This matrix is a convenient way to identify sites that are more highly conserved than others in the entire genome because any sequence that differs from a consensus sequence has a lower score. We identify genes regulated by each of the TFs by comparing gene expression between wild-type and TF mutants using a one-sided test. By applying the integrated approach to 11 σ factors and 17 TFs of B. subtilis, we are able to identify fewer candidates for genes regulated by the TFs than were identified using any single approach, and also detect the known TUs efficiently. Conclusion This integrated approach is, therefore, an efficient tool for narrowing searches for candidate genes regulated by TFs, identifying TUs, and estimating roles of the σ factors and TFs in cellular processes and functions of genes composing the TUs.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Minima of 41 binaries from entire Kepler mission (Gies+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    We embarked on a search for eclipse timing variations among a subset of 41 eclipsing binaries that were identified prior to the start of Kepler observations (see our first paper, Gies et al. 2012, cat. J/AJ/143/137). Our first paper documented the eclipse times in observations made over quarters Q0-Q9 (2009.3-2011.5). Now with the Kepler mission complete with observations through Q17 (ending 2013.4), we present here the eclipse timings for our sample of 41 binaries over the entire duration of the mission. The associated times given in our first paper were based upon UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) while the current set uses TDB (Barycentric Dynamical Time), and here we report the times in reduced Barycentric Julian Date (BJD-2400000 days). We used the Simple Aperture Photometry (SAP) flux except in the case of KIC04678873. The list of targets appears in Table1. The eclipse timing measurements were made in almost the same way as described in our first paper. Our measurements appear in Table2. (2 data files).

  3. Penile Injuries in Immunocastrated and Entire Male Pigs of One Fattening Farm

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    Simon Reiter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile injuries in boars have been discussed as a relevant welfare problem in pork production with entire males (EM. The incidence of penile injuries with immunocastrated boars has not been described so far. Thus, it was the aim of this study to systematically compare frequency and severity of penile injuries in EM and IC. Incidence and size of penile injuries (wounds, scars, hematomas were evaluated in 192 IC and 215 EM from one farm after slaughter (120 kg live weight; four batches (BA in at least weekly intervals over five weeks. 75.8% EM and 48.4% IC showed injuries at the pars libra of the penis. Scars were observed in 71.2% EM and 44.8% IC. Scars/animal were significantly influenced by treatment (IC vs. EM, B and treatment x B and increased with age in EM (BA1: 2.61 ± 3.05; BA4: 3.59 ± 3.47, but not in IC (BA1: 2.00 ± 3.02; BA4: 1.22 ± 1.91. Wounds were obvious in 17.2% EM and 8.3% IC. Wounds/animal were only influenced significantly by treatment and were lower in IC than in EM. Thus, it is concluded that immunocastration reduces the frequency and severity of penile injuries in IC when compared to EM of same age and weight.

  4. Intraspecific variation in social organization by genetic variation, developmental plasticity, social flexibility or entirely extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2013-05-19

    Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredictable and short-term (one generation) predictable environments, which is mediated by organizational physiological effects during early ontogeny; (iii) social flexibility evolved in highly unpredictable environments, which is mediated by activational physiological effects in adults; (iv) entirely extrinsic factors such as the death of a dominant breeder. Variation in social behaviour occurs between individuals in the case of genetic variation and developmental plasticity, but within individuals in the case of social flexibility. It is important to study intraspecific variation in social organization to understand the social systems of species because it reveals the mechanisms by which species can adapt to changing environments, offers a useful tool to study the ultimate and proximate causes of sociality, and is an interesting phenomenon by itself that needs scientific explanation.

  5. TOOTH CURVES AND ENTIRE CONTACT AREA IN PROCESS OF SPLINE COLD ROLLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In spline rolling process, the contact area between roller and workpiece plays an important role in calculating rolling-force and rolling-moment. For the purpose of studying the contact area, contact state between roller and workpiece in process of spline cold rolling based upon cross rolling is analyzed. According to the suitable hypothesis, the mathematic model of roller-tooth-curve in optional position of rolling process is established. Combing the theory of conjugate curves with the theory of envelope curve, the corresponding mathematic model of workpiece-tooth-curve is established. By utilizing establishing mathematic models, the algorithm of entire contact area in rolling process is created. On the basis of the algorithm, calculation-program is compiled under MATLAB program language environment. The calculation-program actualizes quantitative analysis and quantitative calculation of contact areas. Utilizing the calculation-program, the influence of parameters on contact area is analyzed, and the tendency is consistent with the manufacturing experience. In consideration of rolling-force optimization, the primary process parameters may be selected according to results of calculation. The result of the present study may provide basis for research on rolling-force and rolling-moment.

  6. Long-distance dispersal via ocean currents connects Omani clownfish populations throughout entire species range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Simpson

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a crucial ecological process, driving population dynamics and defining the structure and persistence of populations. Measuring demographic connectivity between discreet populations remains a long-standing challenge for most marine organisms because it involves tracking the movement of pelagic larvae. Recent studies demonstrate local connectivity of reef fish populations via the dispersal of planktonic larvae, while biogeography indicates some larvae must disperse 100-1000 s kilometres. To date, empirical measures of long-distance dispersal are lacking and the full scale of dispersal is unknown. Here we provide the first measure of long-distance dispersal in a coral reef fish, the Omani clownfish Amphiprion omanensis, throughout its entire species range. Using genetic assignment tests we demonstrate bidirectional exchange of first generation migrants, with subsequent social and reproductive integration, between two populations separated by over 400 km. Immigration was 5.4% and 0.7% in each region, suggesting a biased southward exchange, and matched predictions from a physically-coupled dispersal model. This rare opportunity to measure long-distance dispersal demonstrates connectivity of isolated marine populations over distances of 100 s of kilometres and provides a unique insight into the processes of biogeography, speciation and adaptation.

  7. Reconstruction and dissection of the entire human visual pathway using diffusion tensor MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hofer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system comprises elongated fiber pathways that represent a serious challenge for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fiber tractography: while tracking of frontal fiber bundles may be compromised by the nearby presence of air-filled cavities, nerves, and eye muscles, the anatomic courses of the three main fiber bundles of the optic radiation are subject to pronounced inter-subject variability. Here, tractography of the entire visual pathway was achieved in 6 healthy subjects at high spatial accuracy, that is at 1.8 mm isotropic spatial resolution, without susceptibility-induced distortions, and in direct correspondence to anatomic MRI structures. Using a newly developed diffusion-weighted single-shot STEAM MRI sequence, we were able to track the thin optic nerve including the nasal optic nerve fibers, which cross the optic chiasm, and to dissect the optic radiation into the anterior ventral bundle (Meyer’s loop, the central bundle, and the dorsal bundle. Apart from scientific applications these results in single subjects promise advances in the planning of neurosurgical procedures to avoid unnecessary damage to the visual fiber system.

  8. Physical properties of molecular clouds for the entire Milky Way disk

    CERN Document Server

    Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Lee, Eve J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a catalog of 8107 molecular clouds that covers the entire Galactic plane and includes 98% of the $^{12}$CO emission observed within $b\\pm5^\\circ$. The catalog was produced using a hierarchical cluster identification method applied to the result of a Gaussian decomposition of the Dame et al. data. The total H$_2$ mass in the catalog is $1.2\\times10^9$ M$_\\odot$ in agreement with previous estimates. We find that 30% of the sight lines intersect only a single cloud, with another 25% intersecting only two clouds. The most probable cloud size is $R\\sim30$ pc. We find that $M\\propto R^{2.2\\pm0.2}$, with no correlation between the cloud surface density, $\\Sigma$, and $R$. In contrast with the general idea, we find a rather large range of values of $\\Sigma$, from 2 to 300 M$_\\odot$ pc$^{-2}$, and a systematic decrease with increasing Galactic radius, $R_{\\rm gal}$. The cloud velocity dispersion as well as the normalization $\\sigma_0=\\sigma_v/R^{1/2}$ both decrease systematically with $R_{\\rm gal}$...

  9. Functional thermoplastics from linear diols and diisocyanates produced entirely from renewable lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojabri, Leila; Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2010-04-12

    An unsaturated terminal diol, 1,18-octadec-9-endiol (ODEDO), and a saturated terminal diol, 1,9-nonanediol (NDO), were synthesized from oleic acid. The feasibility of utilizing these new diols for the production of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) was demonstrated by reacting them with a fatty acid-derived diisocyanate, 1,7-heptamethylene diisocyanate (HPMDI), and a commercially available petroleum-derived diisocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). One type of phase structure was obtained for both TPUs in this study, owing to the similarity between the ODEDO and NDO molecular structure. In addition, double yielding behavior (observed for the first time in polyurethanes) was observed in the stress-strain curves for both TPU systems. Compared to the TPUs prepared from HDI, the totally biobased TPUs (ODEDO-NDO-HPDMI) demonstrated comparable properties within acceptable tolerances, considering the impacts on physical properties due to the odd-even effect introduced by the HPDMI. This work is the first that establishes the production of linear thermoplastic polyurethanes entirely from lipid feedstock.

  10. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-04-05

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  12. Cellular resolution models for even skipped regulation in the entire Drosophila embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilsley, Garth R; Fisher, Jasmin; Apweiler, Rolf; DePace, Angela H; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional control ensures genes are expressed in the right amounts at the correct times and locations. Understanding quantitatively how regulatory systems convert input signals to appropriate outputs remains a challenge. For the first time, we successfully model even skipped (eve) stripes 2 and 3+7 across the entire fly embryo at cellular resolution. A straightforward statistical relationship explains how transcription factor (TF) concentrations define eve’s complex spatial expression, without the need for pairwise interactions or cross-regulatory dynamics. Simulating thousands of TF combinations, we recover known regulators and suggest new candidates. Finally, we accurately predict the intricate effects of perturbations including TF mutations and misexpression. Our approach imposes minimal assumptions about regulatory function; instead we infer underlying mechanisms from models that best fit the data, like the lack of TF-specific thresholds and the positional value of homotypic interactions. Our study provides a general and quantitative method for elucidating the regulation of diverse biological systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00522.001 PMID:23930223

  13. Determination of interference fit value on entire roller embedded shapemeter roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海淼; 刘宏民; 于丙强; 杨利坡

    2014-01-01

    For entire roller embedded shapemeter roll, the relationship between the value of interference fit and the sensor pre-pressure, and the pressure transfer performance of shapemeter roll were analyzed by elasticity theory during the cold reversible rolling process. Considering the influence of strip temperature on the interference fit, the distributions of contact pressure of the framework’s top surface and the sensor pre-pressure on different values of interference fit were analyzed by the finite element technology. The results show that the contact pressure of the framework’s top surface and the sensor pre-pressure increase with the increase of the value of interference fit. When the value of interference fit is between 0.05 mm and 0.09 mm, roll body’s inner hole surface, the framework and pressure magnetic sensitive component don’t separate from each other, and the sensor works in the linear segment of characteristic curve, so the normal operation of shapemeter roll is guaranteed.

  14. Friction factor for aerosol fractal aggregates over the entire Knudsen range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, James; Mulholland, George W.; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    We develop an approach for computing the hydrodynamic friction tensor and scalar friction coefficient for an aerosol fractal aggregate in the transition regime. Our approach involves solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation for the velocity field around a sphere and using the velocity field to calculate the force on each primary sphere in the aggregate due to the presence of the other spheres. It is essentially an extension of Kirkwood-Riseman theory from the continuum flow regime to the entire Knudsen range (Knudsen number from 0.01 to 100 based on the primary sphere radius). Our results compare well to published direct simulation Monte Carlo results, and they converge to the correct continuum and free molecule limits. Our calculations for clusters with up to 100 spheres support the theory that aggregate slip correction factors collapse to a single curve when plotted as a function of an appropriate aggregate Knudsen number. This self-consistent-field approach calculates the friction coefficient very quickly, so the approach is well-suited for testing existing scaling laws in the field of aerosol science and technology, as we demonstrate for the adjusted sphere scaling method.

  15. Binaural Active Audition for Humanoid Robots to Localise Speech over Entire Azimuth Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Don Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied motion theory to robot audition to improve the inadequate performance. Motions are critical for overcoming the ambiguity and sparseness of information obtained by two microphones. To realise this, we first designed a sound source localisation system integrated with cross-power spectrum phase (CSP analysis and an EM algorithm. The CSP of sound signals obtained with only two microphones was used to localise the sound source without having to measure impulse response data. The expectation-maximisation (EM algorithm helped the system to cope with several moving sound sources and reduce localisation errors. We then proposed a way of constructing a database for moving sounds to evaluate binaural sound source localisation. We evaluated our sound localisation method using artificial moving sounds and confirmed that it could effectively localise moving sounds slower than 1.125 rad/s. Consequently, we solved the problem of distinguishing whether sounds were coming from the front or rear by rotating and/or tipping the robot's head that was equipped with only two microphones. Our system was applied to a humanoid robot called SIG2, and we confirmed its ability to localise sounds over the entire azimuth range as the success rates for sound localisation in the front and rear areas were 97.6% and 75.6% respectively.

  16. Flow-Structure-Acoustic Interaction Computational Modeling of Voice Production inside an Entire Airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2015-11-01

    Human voice quality is directly determined by the interplay of dynamic behavior of glottal flow, vibratory characteristics of VFs and acoustic characteristics of upper airway. These multiphysics constituents are tightly coupled together and precisely coordinate to produce understandable sound. Despite many years' research effort, the direct relationships among the detailed flow features, VF vibration and aeroacoustics still remains elusive. This study utilizes a first-principle based, flow-structure-acoustics interaction computational modeling approach to study the process of voice production inside an entire human airway. In the current approach, a sharp interface immersed boundary method based incompressible flow solver is utilized to model the glottal flow; A finite element based solid mechanics solver is utilized to model the vocal vibration; A high-order immersed boundary method based acoustics solver is utilized to directly compute sound. These three solvers are fully coupled to mimic the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. The geometry of airway is reconstructed based on the in-vivo MRI measurement reported by Story et al. (1995) and a three-layer continuum based vocal fold model is taken from Titze and Talkin (1979). Results from these simulations will be presented and further analyzed to get new insight into the complex flow-structure-acoustic interaction during voice production. This study is expected to improve the understanding of fundamental physical mechanism of voice production and to help to build direct cause-effect relationship between biomechanics and voice sound.

  17. Tunable photoluminescence across the entire visible spectrum from carbon dots excited by white light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengliang; Trinchi, Adrian; Atkin, Paul; Cole, Ivan

    2015-03-02

    Although reports have shown shifts in carbon dot emission wavelengths resulting from varying the excitation wavelength, this excitation-dependent emission does not constitute true tuning, as the shifted peaks have much weaker intensity than their dominant emission, and this is often undesired in real world applications. We report for the first time the synthesis and photoluminescence properties of carbon dots whose peak fluorescence emission wavelengths are tunable across the entire visible spectrum by simple adjustment of the reagents and synthesis conditions, and these carbon dots are excited by white light. Detailed material characterization has revealed that this tunable emission results from changes in the carbon dots' chemical composition, dictated by dehydrogenation reactions occurring during carbonization. These significantly alter the nucleation and growth process, resulting in dots with either more oxygen-containing or nitrogen-containing groups that ultimately determine their photoluminescence properties, which is in stark contrast to previous observations of carbon dot excitation-dependent fluorescence. This new ability to synthesize broadband excitable carbon dots with tunable peak emissions opens up many new possibilities, particularly in multimodal sensing, in which multiple analytes and processes could be monitored simultaneously by associating a particular carbon dot emission wavelength to a specific chemical process without the need for tuning the excitation source.

  18. Trends in Mesospheric Dynamics and Chemistry: Simulations With a Model of the Entire Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, G. P.

    2005-05-01

    The cooling resulting from infrared CO2 radiative transfer is a major contribution to the energy budget of the middle atmosphere and thermosphere. The rapid increase of the atmospheric CO2 concentration resulting from anthropogenic emissions is therefore expected to lead, in general, to a substantial cooling in this height range. This can potentially be counteracted by heating due to absorption of near infrared radiation by CO2. Changes in ozone as a consequence of increasing methane and water vapor may also have an impact on the energy budget as dynamical changes caused by increased tropospheric temperatures. By means of numerical simulations with a general circulation and chemistry model of the entire atmosphere we will address the following questions: 1.) Can state-of-the-art atmospheric modeling explain the mesospheric temperature trends observed during the last decades? 2.)Which part of the temperature changes resulting from an increase of atmospheric CO2 is caused by local changes in the radiative budget and which part is influenced by remote dynamical effects? The model used is the newly developed Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMONIA) that resolves the atmosphere from the Earth's surface up to about 250 km altitude, and is based on the 3-D dynamics from the ECHAM5 general circulation model and the chemistry scheme from MOZART-3. Results from different time slice experiment representative of years 1970 and 2000, and for a doubling of CO2 will be presented.

  19. The entire mean weighted first-passage time on infinite families of weighted tree networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqiu; Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Su, Weiyi

    2017-03-01

    We propose the entire mean weighted first-passage time (EMWFPT) for the first time in the literature. The EMWFPT is obtained by the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues on weighted networks. Simplified calculation of EMWFPT is the key quantity in the study of infinite families of weighted tree networks, since the weighted complex systems have become a fundamental mechanism for diverse dynamic processes. We base on the relationships between characteristic polynomials at different generations of their Laplacian matrix and Laplacian eigenvalues to compute EMWFPT. This technique of simplified calculation of EMWFPT is significant both in theory and practice. In this paper, firstly, we introduce infinite families of weighted tree networks with recursive properties. Then, we use the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues to calculate EMWFPT, which is equal to the average of MWFPTs over all pairs of nodes on infinite families of weighted networks. In order to compute EMWFPT, we try to obtain the analytical expressions for the sum of the reciprocals of all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues. The key step here is to calculate the constant terms and the coefficients of first-order terms of characteristic polynomials. Finally, we obtain analytically the closed-form solutions to EMWFPT on the weighted tree networks and show that the leading term of EMWFPT grows superlinearly with the network size.

  20. Offshore wind turbine foundation monitoring, extrapolating fatigue measurements from fleet leaders to the entire wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijtens, Wout; Noppe, Nymfa; Verbelen, Tim; Iliopoulos, Alexandros; Devriendt, Christof

    2016-09-01

    The present contribution is part of the ongoing development of a fatigue assessment strategy driven purely on in-situ measurements on operational wind turbines. The primary objective is to estimate the remaining life time of existing wind farms and individual turbines by instrumenting part of the farm with a load monitoring setup. This load monitoring setup allows to measure interface loads and local stress histories. This contribution will briefly discuss how these load measurements can be translated into fatigue assessment of the instrumented turbine. However, due to different conditions at the wind farm, such as turbulence, differences in water depth and foundation design this turbine will not be fully representable for all turbines in the farm. In this paper we will use the load measurements on two offshore wind turbines in the Northwind offshore wind farm to discuss fatigue progression in an operational wind farm. By calculating the damage equivalent loads on the two turbines the fatigue progression is quantified for every 10 minute interval and can be analyzed against turbulence and site conditions. In future work these results will be used to predict the fatigue life progression in the entire farm.

  1. Meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade cerebral "Meningioma en plaque" involving the entire cerebral convexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Almeida

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado caso de extenso meningioma em placa atingindo toda a convexidade e determinando grande hiperostose da calota craniana. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por aumento do volume do crânio, cefaléia, déficit de visão e convulsões. As radiografias e o estudo necroscópico mostraram que as tábuas ósseas foram substituídas por espículas dispostas radialmente. O aspecto histológico, típico de meningioma, não sugeria malignidade.The case of a patient with hystologically confirmed meningeoma is reported. The tumor extended continuously over the entire cerebral convexity and promoted remarkable hyperostosis of the skull. Headache, blindness, increased skul and convulsions were the main clinical manifestations. The two laminae of the skull were replaced by spikes radially arranged, as suggested by the X-ray picture and confirmed at necropsy. The hystologic aspect of the tumor did not show evidence of malignity.

  2. Analysis of mutations in the entire coding sequence of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidichadani, S.I.; Lanyon, W.G.; Connor, J.M. [Glascow Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X-linked recessive disorder of bleeding caused by deleterious mutations in the gene for clotting factor VIII. The large size of the factor VIII gene, the high frequency of de novo mutations and its tissue-specific expression complicate the detection of mutations. We have used a combination of RT-PCR of ectopic factor VIII transcripts and genomic DNA-PCRs to amplify the entire essential sequence of the factor VIII gene. This is followed by chemical mismatch cleavage analysis and direct sequencing in order to facilitate a comprehensive search for mutations. We describe the characterization of nine potentially pathogenic mutations, six of which are novel. In each case, a correlation of the genotype with the observed phenotype is presented. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of the five missense mutations detected, we have analyzed them for evolutionary sequence conservation and for their involvement of sequence motifs catalogued in the PROSITE database of protein sites and patterns.

  3. Stoichiometry of site-specific lysine acetylation in an entire proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Josue; Dowell, James A; Smallegan, Michael J; Fan, Jing; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Khan, Zia; Denu, John M

    2014-08-01

    Acetylation of lysine ϵ-amino groups influences many cellular processes and has been mapped to thousands of sites across many organisms. Stoichiometric information of acetylation is essential to accurately interpret biological significance. Here, we developed and employed a novel method for directly quantifying stoichiometry of site-specific acetylation in the entire proteome of Escherichia coli. By coupling isotopic labeling and a novel pairing algorithm, our approach performs an in silico enrichment of acetyl peptides, circumventing the need for immunoenrichment. We investigated the function of the sole NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, CobB, on both site-specific and global acetylation. We quantified 2206 peptides from 899 proteins and observed a wide distribution of acetyl stoichiometry, ranging from less than 1% up to 98%. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that metabolic enzymes, which either utilize or generate acetyl-CoA, and proteins involved in transcriptional and translational processes displayed the highest degree of acetylation. Loss of CobB led to increased global acetylation at low stoichiometry sites and induced site-specific changes at high stoichiometry sites, and biochemical analysis revealed altered acetyl-CoA metabolism. Thus, this study demonstrates that sirtuin deacetylase deficiency leads to both site-specific and global changes in protein acetylation stoichiometry, affecting central metabolism.

  4. [Understanding of immune system by visualization of spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells in the entire body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomura, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Immune system is high-dimensional integrated system distributed in the whole body. Many kinds of, total 10(11) of immune cells are regulated by receiving appropriate signals in appropriate places. We have been attempting to understand immune system by revealing spatiotemporal regulation of immune cells at the whole body level by "Visualization of immune response in vivo". Photoconvertible protein, "Kaede"-Tg mice allowed us to monitor cell-replacement and cell-movement in the whole body by marking cells with color of Kaede from green to red with exposure to violet light. It is applicable to small cell number populations in both lymphoid organs and also peripheral tissues under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. By using this system, we have demonstrated novel findings that "Naive CD4(+) T cell recirculation is an active process that they recirculate through lymphoid organs to seek limited niche for interacting with endogenous antigens and upregulate their function." and "Activated regulatory T cells emigrating from cutaneous immune response is responsible for termination of immune reponse." I will introduce these new tools of us and would like to discuss what is needed to understand immune system in the entire body.

  5. Crop water stress maps for an entire growing season from visible and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Jensen, Rasmus; Thomsen, Anton; Nieto, Hector; Rasmussen, Jesper; Friborg, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates whether a water deficit index (WDI) based on imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide accurate crop water stress maps at different growth stages of barley and in differing weather situations. Data from both the early and late growing season are included to investigate whether the WDI has the unique potential to be applicable both when the land surface is partly composed of bare soil and when crops on the land surface are senescing. The WDI differs from the more commonly applied crop water stress index (CWSI) in that it uses both a spectral vegetation index (VI), to determine the degree of surface greenness, and the composite land surface temperature (LST) (not solely canopy temperature).Lightweight thermal and RGB (red-green-blue) cameras were mounted on a UAV on three occasions during the growing season 2014, and provided composite LST and color images, respectively. From the LST, maps of surface-air temperature differences were computed. From the color images, the normalized green-red difference index (NGRDI), constituting the indicator of surface greenness, was computed. Advantages of the WDI as an irrigation map, as compared with simpler maps of the surface-air temperature difference, are discussed, and the suitability of the NGRDI is assessed. Final WDI maps had a spatial resolution of 0.25 m.It was found that the UAV-based WDI is in agreement with measured stress values from an eddy covariance system. Further, the WDI is especially valuable in the late growing season because at this stage the remote sensing data represent crop water availability to a greater extent than they do in the early growing season, and because the WDI accounts for areas of ripe crops that no longer have the same need for irrigation. WDI maps can potentially serve as water stress maps, showing the farmer where irrigation is needed to ensure healthy growing plants, during entire growing season.

  6. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak.Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after surgery. These variations can provide

  7. River discharge estimation at daily resolution from satellite altimetry over an entire river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourian, M. J.; Schwatke, C.; Sneeuw, N.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges of hydrological modeling is the poor spatiotemporal coverage of in situ discharge databases which have steadily been declining over the past few decades. It has been demonstrated that water heights over rivers from satellite altimetry can sensibly be used to deal with the growing lack of in situ discharge data. However, the altimetric discharge is often estimated from a single virtual station suffering from coarse temporal resolution, sometimes with data outages, poor modeling and inconsistent sampling. In this study, we propose a method to estimate daily river discharge using altimetric time series of an entire river basin including its tributaries. Here, we implement a linear dynamic model to (1) provide a scheme for data assimilation of multiple altimetric discharge along a river; (2) estimate daily discharge; (3) deal with data outages, and (4) smooth the estimated discharge. The model consists of a stochastic process model that benefits from the cyclostationary behavior of discharge. Our process model comprises the covariance and cross-covariance information of river discharge at different gauges. Combined with altimetric discharge time series, we solve the linear dynamic system using the Kalman filter and smoother providing unbiased discharge with minimum variance. We evaluate our method over the Niger basin, where we generate altimetric discharge using water level time series derived from missions ENVISAT, SARAL/AltiKa, and Jason-2. Validation against in situ discharge shows that our method provides daily river discharge with an average correlation of 0.95, relative RMS error of 12%, relative bias of 10% and NSE coefficient of 0.7. Using a modified NSE-metric, that assesses the non-cyclostationary behavior, we show that our estimated discharge outperforms available legacy mean daily discharge.

  8. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Milind N NaikInstitute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis.Results: A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60 years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13 showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15 and 40% (six of 15, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15. One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium.Conclusion: An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR.Keywords: lacrimal sac, ethmoid sinus, endoscopic, DCR

  9. Public outreach supports the entire life-cycle of the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sonja; Kollersberger, Tanja; Möller, Fabian; Liebscher, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany contributes to the understanding of the geological CO2 storage since 2004. In addition to the research activities, public outreach has been a key element through the entire life-cycle of the project including site assessment, characterization, development as well as operation (2008-2013) and post-closure. From the very beginning of the project, the research activities were accompanied by an open dialogue with the general public including locals and interested people from all over Germany and the world. The visitor centre at the Ketzin site is run by GFZ and the most important contact point to inform about first-hand experiences from the project. Up to now, about 3,000 visitors came to the Ketzin site for guided tours and the annual open house days. In addition, project status and progress are disseminated in brochures and on the public website www.co2ketzin.de. The Ketzin project is also presented in short films, e.g. on monitoring, drilling and well closure. As the post-closure and pre-transfer phase started after the cease of CO2 injection in August 2013 and the injection facility was dismantled in December 2013, we were looking for a tool to further inform about the previous operation and site infrastructure. A virtual tour was set up for the Ketzin site which is accessible via the website. This tour includes several videos which virtually guide you on site and provide information on the (former) facilities. Public acceptance is a key issue for the Ketzin project as it is for any other CO2 storage project. For example, an open communication with the local residents helped to conduct large-scale seismic campaigns without severe restrictions. The experience from the Ketzin pilot site shows that honest communication and a diverse dissemination program is able to overcome critical public perception even for highly debated technologies.

  10. Effect of height of rock specimen on strain localization, precursor to failure and entire deformational characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of shear band, precursors to shear failure occurring in strain-softening stage, axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of plane strain rock specimens in compression for different heights were investigated by use of Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua(FLAC). A material imperfection closer to the lower-left comer of the specimen was prescribed. For finer mesh, the imperfection was modeled by four null elements, while it was modeled by a null element for coarser mesh. FISH functions were written to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of the specimen. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. Height of rock specimen does not influence shear band's pattern (including the thickness and inclination angle of shear band). The slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve,lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poisson's ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve depend on the height. Hence, the slopes of these curves cannot be considered as material properties. Nonlinear deformation prior to the peak stress is a kind of precursors to shear failure, which is less apparent for shorter specimen. For the same axial strain, lower lateral expansion is reached for shorter specimen, leading to lower Poisson's ratio and higher volumetric strain. The maximum volumetric strain of longer specimen is less than that of shorter specimen. The conclusions drawn from numerical results using finer mesh qualitatively agree with those using coarser mesh.

  11. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  12. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP): Engaging an Entire Community in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Kinner, F.

    2008-12-01

    Native Americans are poorly represented in all science, technology and engineering fields. This under- representation results from numerous cultural, economic, and historical factors. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP), initiated in 2007, strives to construct a culturally-integrated, geoscience education program for Native American young people through engagement of the entire tribal community. The ESEP has developed a unique approach to informal geoscience education, using environmental restoration as a centerpiece. Environmental restoration is an increasingly important goal for tribes. By integrating geoscience activities with community tradition and history, project stakeholders hope to show students the relevance of science to their day-to-day lives. The ESEP's strength lies in its participatory structure and unique network of partners, which include Olympic National Park; the non-profit, educational center Olympic Park Institute (OPI); a geologist providing oversight and technical expertise; and the Lower Elwha Tribe. Lower Elwha tribal elders and educators share in all phases of the project, from planning and implementation to recruitment of students and discipline. The project works collaboratively with tribal scientists and cultural educators, along with science educators to develop curriculum and best practices for this group of students. Use of hands-on, place-based outdoor activities engage students and connect them with the science outside their back doors. Preliminary results from this summer's middle school program indicate that most (75% or more) students were highly engaged approximately 90% of the time during science instruction. Recruitment of students has been particularly successful, due to a high degree of community involvement. Preliminary evaluations of the ESEP's outcomes indicate success in improving the outlook of the tribe's youth towards the geosciences and science, in general. Future evaluation will be likewise participatory

  13. A 30m resolution hydrodynamic model of the entire conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C.; Johnson, K.; Wing, O.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development and validation of a 30m resolution hydrodynamic model covering the entire conterminous United States. The model can be used to simulate inundation and water depths resulting from either return period flows (so equivalent to FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps), hindcasts of historic events or forecasts of future river flow from a rainfall-runoff or land surface model. As topographic data the model uses the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset or NED, and return period flows are generated using a regional flood frequency analysis methodology (Smith et al., 2015. Worldwide flood frequency estimation. Water Resources Research, 51, 539-553). Flood defences nationwide are represented using data from the US Army Corps of Engineers. Using these data flows are simulated using an explicit and highly efficient finite difference solution of the local inertial form of the Shallow Water equations identical to that implemented in the LISFLOOD-FP model. Even with this efficient numerical solution a simulation at this resolution over a whole continent is a huge undertaking, and a variety of High Performance Computing technologies therefore need to be employed to make these simulations possible. The size of the output datasets is also challenging, and to solve this we use the GIS and graphical display functions of Google Earth Engine to facilitate easy visualisation and interrogation of the results. The model is validated against the return period flood extents contained in FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps and real flood event data from the Texas 2015 flood event which was hindcast using the model. Finally, we present an application of the model to the Upper Mississippi river basin where simulations both with and without flood defences are used to determine floodplain areas benefitting from protection in order to quantify the benefits of flood defence spending.

  14. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: use the entire menu of constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-11-22

    In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT), an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a 'menu of constructs' approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise) from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. The 'menu of constructs' notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  15. Developmental Stage Annotation of Drosophila Gene Expression Pattern Images via an Entire Solution Path for LDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jieping; Chen, Jianhui; Janardan, Ravi; Kumar, Sudhir

    2008-03-01

    Gene expression in a developing embryo occurs in particular cells (spatial patterns) in a time-specific manner (temporal patterns), which leads to the differentiation of cell fates. Images of a Drosophila melanogaster embryo at a given developmental stage, showing a particular gene expression pattern revealed by a gene-specific probe, can be compared for spatial overlaps. The comparison is fundamentally important to formulating and testing gene interaction hypotheses. Expression pattern comparison is most biologically meaningful when images from a similar time point (developmental stage) are compared. In this paper, we present LdaPath, a novel formulation of Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for automatic developmental stage range classification. It employs multivariate linear regression with the L(1)-norm penalty controlled by a regularization parameter for feature extraction and visualization. LdaPath computes an entire solution path for all values of regularization parameter with essentially the same computational cost as fitting one LDA model. Thus, it facilitates efficient model selection. It is based on the equivalence relationship between LDA and the least squares method for multi-class classifications. This equivalence relationship is established under a mild condition, which we show empirically to hold for many high-dimensional datasets, such as expression pattern images. Our experiments on a collection of 2705 expression pattern images show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Results also show that the LDA model resulting from LdaPath is sparse, and irrelevant features may be removed. Thus, LdaPath provides a general framework for simultaneous feature selection and feature extraction.

  16. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine

    2016-01-01

    four batches in a 2×2 factorial design in order to test the influence of social mixing (presence or absence of social mixing at relocation) and group size (15 and 30 animals). Animals were able to socialise with piglets from other litters during the lactation period, and were all mixed across litters......Alternatives to surgical castration are needed, due to stress and pain caused by castration of male pigs. One alternative is production of entire male pigs. However, changed behaviour of entire males compared with castrated males might adversely affect the welfare of entire males and changes...... frequency (Panimals as compared...

  17. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  18. A Multi-molecular Line Study of an Entire Giant Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Nadia

    2009-05-01

    A unified theory of star formation remains one of the major unsolved issues in astrophysics. Presented here are the results of multi-molecular lines mapping of the entire giant molecular cloud G333, comprised sites of low- and high-mass star forming regions in various evolution stages of star formation. The result shows the spatial distribution of CS, HCO+, HCN and HNC are similar on large scales, while N2H+ seems to trace preferentially the very densest regions, possibly due to the chemical difference, that N2H+ is sensitive to temperature and readily destroyed by CO. Two analysis methods were used to characterise this large set of data cubes: GAUSSCLUMPS and principal component analysis (PCA). We found the clumps are heavily fragmented with a beam filling factor of 0.2. We found no correlation between clump radius and line width, contradicts to Larson's Law. Possible explanation is the clumps are fragmented and unresolved with the resolution of Mopra beam, thus the decomposed clump radius is blended and no physical properties can be interpreted. PCA of the velocity dimension found no significant differences among CS, HCO+, HNC and C2H line emissions, suggesting these four molecules are `well-mixed' on large scale, possibly by turbulence. PCA of the integrated emission maps separates molecules into low (13CO and C18O) and high (the rest) density tracers, identifies anti-correlation between HCO+ and N2H+ (due to the depletion of CO). The possibility of removing the scanning patterns of the `on-the-fly' mapping with PCA was also explored. The detection of broad thermal SiO from the massive dense cold core G333.125-0.562, along with other collected transitions, suggesting the core will host massive star formation and the SiO emission arises from shocks associated with an outflow in the cold core. Result of the modelling infall with 3D radiative transfer code using the derived physical parameters have successfully reproduce the line profiles. Recent observation of the

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions

  20. TOPEX El Nino/La Nina - Entire Pacific is out of Whack, April 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    New sea surface height measurements from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite show that the sea level and temperature of the entire Pacific is 'out of balance,' including a large area of abnormally cool water along the west coast of North America that scientists say will influence regional weather patterns along the west coast of the Americas this summer. Southern California's seasonal 'June gloom' weather, caused by a marine layer that traps smog over the Los Angeles basin, may linger throughout the summer as a result, according to oceanographer Dr. William Patzert of JPL. 'Our data certainly show that the unusual oceanic climatic conditions that gave rise to El Nino and La Nina are not returning to a normal state.' he said. 'Our planet's climate system continues to exhibit rather wild behavior. These large warm and cold, high and low sea levels are slow-developing and long-lasting, and will certainly influence global climate and weather for the coming summer and into next fall.' The unusually cool water (areas of lower sea level shown in blue and purple) extends from the Gulf of Alaska along the North American coast, sweeping south-westward from Baja California, where it merges with the remnants of La Nina. The La Nina phenomenon's cool, lower sea levels across the equator continue to weaken and break into (purple) patches. The northwest Pacific continues to be warmer than normal, though the variations from normal are not as great as in recent months. Areas where the Pacific Ocean is normal appear in green. The data represented in the image were collected from May 12-22.TOPEX/Poseidon's sea-surface height measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1998-99 La Nina and the 1997-98 El Nino because the satellite's altimeter measures the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision. In this image, the purple areas are about 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal, creating a deficit in the heat supply to the surface waters. The white areas

  1. Full-Thickness Entire Nasal Alar Reconstruction Using a Forehead Flap in Asians: No Cartilaginous Infrastructural Lining Is Necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Emi; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Murao, Naoki; Shichinohe, Ryuji; Yamao, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Oyama, Akihiko

    2017-05-01

    Full-thickness defects of the entire nasal ala, including the rim, can be challenging to reconstruct. A forehead flap may provide a more imperceptible and natural-appearing reconstructed nasal ala. Previously, many authors have insisted adding cartilaginous infrastructural support for an entire, full-thickness defect to keep the postoperative alar structure symmetrical. They finally use a forehead flap after thinning of the distal covering portion subcutaneously, possibly for a Caucasian-type nasal ala. However, Asian skin has a thicker and more compact dermis than that of Caucasian skin, and the Asian ala is rounder and thicker. There may be another approach for an Asian-type nasal ala. The authors propose the possibility of nasal alar reconstruction for an entire, full-thickness defect in Asians using a forehead flap without structural support. Six patients with entire full-thickness nasal alar defects treated with full-thickness forehead flaps above the periosteum without structural support were reviewed. Five patients demonstrated esthetically good to excellent outcomes in color, texture, and symmetry. Their nasal linings were reconstructed using mucoperiosteal flaps or mucosal grafts. One patient treated with a nasal lining using a local flap showed a fair result esthetically. Asians forehead above the periosteum has adequate thickness and supportability to reconstruct the entire full-thickness nasal ala in Asians. No cartilage support is necessary.

  2. A report on the antioxidant activity of the powder of the entire plant of Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthappan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we determined the antioxidant activity of the entire plant of Phyllanthus reticulatus by performing different in vitro antioxidant assays, including 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power and metal chelating assay at different concentrations (100, 200 and 400 μg/ml. The entire plant powder of P. reticulatus shows good antioxidant activity of about 90.0% when compared with standard Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT (85% at a concentration of 400 μg/ml. Results obtained reveal that methanolic extracts of entire plant of P. reticulatus possess higher antioxidant activity when compared with ethanolic extracts. Thus, this study suggests that P. reticulatus plant can be used as a potent source of natural antioxidants.

  3. On Partition of Unities Generated by Entire Functions and Gabor Frames in L2(Rd) and ℓ2(Zd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the entire functions P of d variables, d≥2, for which the Zd-translates of Pχ[0,N]d satisfy the partition of unity for some N∈N. In contrast to the one-dimensional case, these entire functions are not necessarily periodic. In the case where P is a trigonometric polynomial, we char...... of matrix-generated Gabor frames in L2(Rd), with small support and high smoothness. By sampling this yields dual pairs of finite Gabor frames in ℓ2(Zd)....

  4. Rapidities and Observable 3-Velocities in the Flat Finslerian Event Space with Entirely Broken 3D Isotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yu. Bogoslovsky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the geometric phase transitions that accompany the dynamic rearrangement of vacuum under spontaneous violation of initial gauge symmetry. The rearrangement may give rise to condensates of three types, namely the scalar, axially symmetric, and entirely anisotropic condensates. The flat space-time keeps being the Minkowski space in the only case of scalar condensate. The anisotropic condensate having arisen, the respective anisotropy occurs also in space-time. In this case the space-time filled with axially symmetric condensate proves to be a flat relativistically invariant Finslerian space with partially broken 3D isotropy, while the space-time filled with entirely anisotropic condensate proves to be a flat relativistically invariant Finslerian space with entirely broken 3D isotropy. The two Finslerian space types are described briefly in the extended introduction to the work, while the original part of the latter is devoted to determining observable 3-velocities in the entirely anisotropic Finslerian event space. The main difficulties that are overcome in solving that problem arose from the nonstandard form of the light cone equation and from the necessity of correct introducing of a norm in the linear vector space of rapidities.

  5. How systemic innovations require alterations along the entire supply chain: the case of animal-derived functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, S.

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that different types of innovation have different implications for the whole innovation process. However, less is known about how the specific type of innovation may affect the entire supply chain. In order to explore how the character of innovations affects supply chain

  6. 20 CFR 404.991 - Finality of determinations and decisions to suspend benefit payments for entire taxable year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of determinations and decisions to... Revising Determinations and Decisions § 404.991 Finality of determinations and decisions to suspend benefit payments for entire taxable year because of earnings. A determination or decision to suspend...

  7. How systemic innovations require alterations along the entire supply chain: the case of animal-derived functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröring, S.

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that different types of innovation have different implications for the whole innovation process. However, less is known about how the specific type of innovation may affect the entire supply chain. In order to explore how the character of innovations affects supply chain

  8. 75 FR 62439 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ...-00006] The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan..., and the Military Reservist and Veteran Small Business Reauthorization Act of 2008, this notice establishes the application filing period for the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan...

  9. On the Iterated Exponent of Convergence of Solutions of Linear Differential Equations with Entire and Meromorphic Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Bouabdelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the zeros of the difference of the derivative of solutions of the higher-order linear differential equations f(k+Ak-1(zf(k-1+⋯+A1(zf′+A0(zf=0 and small functions, where A0(z,…,Ak-1(z are entire or meromorphic functions of finite iterated p order.

  10. Voxel-based approach to generate entire human metacarpal bone with microscopic architecture for finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C Y; Tsui, C P; Tang, Y M; Wei, L; Wong, C T; Lam, K W; Ip, W Y; Lu, W W J; Pang, M Y C

    2014-01-01

    With the development of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) technology, it is possible to construct three-dimensional (3D) models of human bone without destruction of samples and predict mechanical behavior of bone using finite element analysis (FEA). However, due to large number of elements required for constructing the FE models of entire bone, this demands a substantial computational effort and the analysis usually needs a high level of computer. In this article, a voxel-based approach for generation of FE models of entire bone with microscopic architecture from micro-CT image data is proposed. To enable the FE analyses of entire bone to be run even on a general personal computer, grayscale intensity thresholds were adopted to reduce the amount of elements. Human metacarpal bone (MCP) bone was used as an example for demonstrating the applicability of the proposed method. The micro-CT images of the MCP bone were combined and converted into 3D array of pixels. Dual grayscale intensity threshold parameters were used to distinguish the pixels of bone tissues from those of surrounding soft tissues and improve predictive accuracy for the FE analyses with different sizes of elements. The method of selecting an appropriate value of the second grayscale intensity threshold was also suggested to minimize the area error for the reconstructed cross-sections of a FE structure. Experimental results showed that the entire FE MCP bone with microscopic architecture could be modeled and analyzed on a personal computer with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Use of Pulsed Nmr Spectroscopy to Measure the Amount of Solid Deposits As a Function of Temperature in Waxy Crudes Utilisation de la spectroscopie RMN pulsée pour mesurer la quantité de dépôts solides en fonction de la température dans les bruts paraffiniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffier-Meray V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin crystallization in crude oils and in gas condensates is a major problem for petroleum exploitation. Thermodynamic models are used to evaluate the risk. With them, one calculates the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT as well as the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature, for temperatures below the WAT. During development, these models are tested against experimental data. Although different methods for measuring the WAT are available in the literature and at petroleum companies, such methods unfortunately do not exist for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. In this work, we have developed a low resolution NMR method for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. The method was first evaluated using pure samples and was then applied to crude oils. The results were compared to those obtained both from differential calorimetry and from the model. La cristallisation des paraffines dans les pétroles bruts et même dans les gaz à condensat est un problème majeur dans le domaine de l'exploitation pétrolière. Afin d'évaluer ce risque, on utilise des modèles thermodynamiques. Ils permettent de calculer la température de cristallisation commençante (TCC ou Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT ainsi que la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température (pour des températures inférieures à la TCC. Lors de leur développement, ces modèles doivent être évalués sur des données expérimentales. Il existe dans la littérature et chez les pétroliers différentes méthodes pour mesurer la TCC, malheureusement il n'en est pas de même pour la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Dans cet article, nous avons développé une méthode de RMN basse résolution afin de mesurer la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Elle a d'abord été évaluée sur des mélanges de corps purs puis elle a été appliquée à des pétroles bruts. Les r

  12. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Rock and pop musicians attired in military uniforms belong to our collective visual memory of the popular music scene since the 1960s. There has been a tendency to overestimate the subversive and erotic appeal of the uniforjmed look; subversion and fetishistic eroticism need not have been all...

  13. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Rock and pop musicians attired in military uniforms belong to our collective visual memory of the popular music scene since the 1960s. There has been a tendency to overestimate the subversive and erotic appeal of the uniformed look; subversion and fetishistic eroticism need not have been all...

  14. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2011-01-01

    ' is followed by analysis of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews and contextual...

  15. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ' is followed by analyses of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews, song lyrics...

  16. Entire CAPN3 gene deletion in a patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaka, Oihane; Azpitarte, Margarita; Paisán-Ruiz, Coro; Zulaika, Miren; Casas-Fraile, Leire; Sanz, Raúl; Trevisiol, Nathalie; Levy, Nicolas; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin; López de Munain, Adolfo; Sáenz, Amets

    2014-09-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) due to mutations in the CAPN3 gene is one of the most common of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. We describe a patient who had a typical LGMD2A phenotype and posterior compartment involvement on MRI. Different genetic analyses were performed, including microarray analysis. There was an apparently homozygous mutation in exon 24, c.2465G>T, p.(*822Leuext62*), and a lack of correlation in the disease segregation analyses. This suggested the presence of a genomic rearrangement. In fact, a heterozygous deletion of the entire CAPN3 gene was found. This novel deletion comprised the terminal region of the GANC gene and the entire CAPN3 gene. This finding points out the need to reconsider and adapt our current strategy of molecular diagnosis in order to detect these types of genomic rearrangements that escape standard mutation screening procedures.

  17. Theory of excluded volume equation of state: higher approximations and new generation of equations of state for entire density range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanov, Anatoly I

    2004-07-22

    A novel theory of an equation of state based on excluded volume and formulated in two preceding papers for gases and gaseous mixtures is extended to the entire density range by considering higher (beginning from the third) approximations of the theory. The algorithm of constructing higher approximations is elaborated. Equations of state are deduced using the requirement of maximum simplicity and contain a single free parameter to be chosen by reason of convenience or simplicity or to be used as a fitting parameter with respect to the computer simulation database. In this way, precise equations of state are derived for the hard-sphere fluid in the entire density range. On the side, the theory reproduces most known earlier equations of state for hard spheres and determines their place in the hierarchy of approximations. Equations of state for van der Waals fluids are also presented, and their critical parameters are estimated.

  18. Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 with multiple neurofibromas of the entire spinal nerve roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, David O; Hunn, Andrew W; Peters-Willke, Jens

    2013-07-13

    The coexistence of polyneuropathy which has the definite clinical and electromyographical findings consistent with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has infrequently been reported. We describe a patient with both CMT and NF1, who had multiple neurofibromas involving the entire spinal neural axis. In addition, he had multiple neurofibromas distributed within the ileopsoas and gluteus muscles and subcutaneous tissues. These lesions were detected readily by MRI and the patient underwent successful surgical resection of the largest tumours compressing bilateral C2 nerve roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CMT syndrome coexisting with NF1 in which multiple neurofibromas involved the entire spinal nerve roots. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, emphasising the role of MRI and electrophysiology in such cases and provide a literature review.

  19. Paternal uniparental isodisomy of the entire chromosome 20 as a molecular cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Altug-Teber, Ozge; Agarwal, Chhavi; Oberfield, Sharon E; Bonin, Michael; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-03-01

    Pseudohypoparathyoridism type Ib (PHP-Ib) typically defines the presence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone in the absence of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Patients affected by this disorder present with imprinting defects in the complex GNAS locus. Microdeletions within STX16 or GNAS have been identified in familial cases with PHP-Ib, but the molecular cause of the GNAS imprinting defects in sporadic PHP-Ib cases remains poorly defined. We now report a case with sporadic PHP-Ib for whom a SNPlex analysis revealed loss of the maternal GNAS allele. Further analysis of the entire genome with a 100K SNP chip identified a paternal uniparental isodisomy affecting the entire chromosome 20 without evidence for another chromosomal abnormality. Our findings explain the observed GNAS methylation changes and the patient's hormone resistance, and furthermore suggest that chromosome 20 harbors, besides GNAS, no additional imprinted region that contributes to the clinical and laboratory phenotype.

  20. Uniqueness Theorems for Some Special Entire Functions%几类整函数中函数的唯一性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉华

    2012-01-01

    利用值分布理论中的展布关系对滋长级小于1的整函数的唯一性进行了研究,得到了一些结果。%In this paper,we study the uniqueness of non-constant entire functions whose orders are less than 1 on the basis of the value distribution theory of meromorphic function and then get some findings in this aspect.

  1. Quantifying the Contribution of Entire Free-Living Nematode Communities to Carbon Mineralization under Contrasting C and N Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Tsegaye Gebremikael

    Full Text Available To understand the roles of nematodes in organic matter (OM decomposition, experimental setups should include the entire nematode community, the native soil microflora, and their food sources. Yet, published studies are often based on either simplified experimental setups, using only a few selected species of nematode and their respective prey, despite the multitude of species present in natural soil, or on indirect estimation of the mineralization process using O2 consumption and the fresh weight of nematodes. We set up a six-month incubation experiment to quantify the contribution of the entire free living nematode community to carbon (C mineralization under realistic conditions. The following treatments were compared with and without grass-clover amendment: defaunated soil reinoculated with the entire free living nematode communities (+Nem and defaunated soil that was not reinoculated (-Nem. We also included untreated fresh soil as a control (CTR. Nematode abundances and diversity in +Nem was comparable to the CTR showing the success of the reinoculation. No significant differences in C mineralization were found between +Nem and -Nem treatments of the amended and unamended samples at the end of incubation. Other related parameters such as microbial biomass C and enzymatic activities did not show significant differences between +Nem and -Nem treatments in both amended and unamended samples. These findings show that the collective contribution of the entire nematode community to C mineralization is small. Previous reports in literature based on simplified experimental setups and indirect estimations are contrasting with the findings of the current study and further investigations are needed to elucidate the extent and the mechanisms of nematode involvement in C mineralization.

  2. The statistical extended-range (10-30-day) forecast of summer rainfall anomalies over the entire China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The extended-range (10-30-day) rainfall forecast over the entire China was carried out using spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Using a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis of intraseasonal (10-80-day) rainfall anomalies, China is divided into ten sub-regions. Different predictability sources were selected for each of the ten regions. The forecast skills are ranked for each region. Based on temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) and Gerrity skill score, useful skills are found for most parts of China at a 20-25-day lead. The southern China and the mid-lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley show the highest predictive skills, whereas southwestern China and Huang-Huai region have the lowest predictive skills. By combining forecast results from ten regional STPMs, the TCC distribution of 8-year (2003-2010) independent forecast for the entire China is investigated. The combined forecast results from ten STPMs show significantly higher skills than the forecast with just one single STPM for the entire China. Independent forecast examples of summer rainfall anomalies around the period of Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 and Shanghai World Expo in 2010 are presented. The result shows that the current model is able to reproduce the gross pattern of the summer intraseasonal rainfall over China at a 20-day lead. The present study provides, for the first time, a guide on the statistical extended-range forecast of summer rainfall anomalies for the entire China. It is anticipated that the ideas and methods proposed here will facilitate the extended-range forecast in China.

  3. Entire Nursing in Out-Patient Department%如何开展门诊整体护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽; 施妙萍

    2002-01-01

    To Practise entire nursing in the Out - Patient department is to foster nuses with the high quality and love of theCareer. The requirement for the nurses is not only mastery of professional and systematic knowledge, but horizontal and cubic knowledgewith include modem, ancient, natural, philosophical, artic , and political knowledge for Communication with different Patients from allwalks of life and realization of high - qualitied nursing.

  4. A graphical simulation model of the entire DNA process associated with the analysis of short tandem repeat loci

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Peter; Curran, James; Elliot, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The use of expert systems to interpret short tandem repeat DNA profiles in forensic, medical and ancient DNA applications is becoming increasingly prevalent as high-throughput analytical systems generate large amounts of data that are time-consuming to process. With special reference to low copy number (LCN) applications, we use a graphical model to simulate stochastic variation associated with the entire DNA process starting with extraction of sample, followed by the processing associated wi...

  5. The statistical extended-range (10-30-day) forecast of summer rainfall anomalies over the entire China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The extended-range (10-30-day) rainfall forecast over the entire China was carried out using spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Using a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis of intraseasonal (10-80-day) rainfall anomalies, China is divided into ten sub-regions. Different predictability sources were selected for each of the ten regions. The forecast skills are ranked for each region. Based on temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) and Gerrity skill score, useful skills are found for most parts of China at a 20-25-day lead. The southern China and the mid-lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley show the highest predictive skills, whereas southwestern China and Huang-Huai region have the lowest predictive skills. By combining forecast results from ten regional STPMs, the TCC distribution of 8-year (2003-2010) independent forecast for the entire China is investigated. The combined forecast results from ten STPMs show significantly higher skills than the forecast with just one single STPM for the entire China. Independent forecast examples of summer rainfall anomalies around the period of Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 and Shanghai World Expo in 2010 are presented. The result shows that the current model is able to reproduce the gross pattern of the summer intraseasonal rainfall over China at a 20-day lead. The present study provides, for the first time, a guide on the statistical extended-range forecast of summer rainfall anomalies for the entire China. It is anticipated that the ideas and methods proposed here will facilitate the extended-range forecast in China.

  6. Comprehensive framework for visualizing and analyzing spatio-temporal dynamics of racial diversity in the entire United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dmowska, Anna; Stepinski, Tomasz F.; Netzel, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    The United States is increasingly becoming a multi-racial society. To understand multiple consequences of this overall trend to our neighborhoods we need a methodology capable of spatio-temporal analysis of racial diversity at the local level but also across the entire U.S. Furthermore, such methodology should be accessible to stakeholders ranging from analysts to decision makers. In this paper we present a comprehensive framework for visualizing and analyzing diversity data that fulfills suc...

  7. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    OpenAIRE

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus...

  8. A Giant Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Encasing the Entire Left Kidney and Adherent to Adjacent Structures: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Don  Oh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroperitoneal liposarcoma is a rare tumor. The dimension and weight of liposarcoma are variable; those over 20 kg are called ‘giant liposarcoma’. Herein, we report giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma measuring 45 cm in diameter and 25 kg in weight encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures. A 71-year-old woman presented for a regular checkup. Image study revealed a huge mass probably indicative of retroperitoneal liposarcoma encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures. We performed an organ-preserving surgical removal. The pathologic report was liposarcoma. At postoperative month 16, a follow-up CT revealed a locally recurrent tumor. The patient underwent surgical removal of the newly discovered mass. After the second surgery, the patient underwent regular follow-up CT for approximately 12 months, and to date, there has been no evidence of tumor recurrence. High-grade liposarcoma shows sensitivity to radiation therapy. However, the toxic effect of radiation therapy limits this option by treatment modality. The use of chemotherapy is also controversial. As a result, complete resection is the gold standard treatment. Here, we report a giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma encasing the entire left kidney and adherent to adjacent structures, describe successful organ-preserving surgical removal and discuss prognosis.

  9. Feeding Jerusalem artichoke reduced skatole level and changed intestinal microbiota in the gut of entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhile, S G; Kjos, N P; Sørum, H; Overland, M

    2012-05-01

    Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the hindgut. Five experimental groups (n = 11) were given different dietary treatments 7 days before slaughtering: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 9% chicory-inulin), basal diet + 4.1% Jerusalem artichoke, basal diet + 8.1% Jerusalem artichoke and basal diet + 12.2% Jerusalem artichoke. Samples from colon, rectum, faeces and adipose tissue were collected. Effect of dietary treatment on skatole, indole and androstenone levels in adipose tissue and on skatole, indole, pH, dry matter (DM), microbiota and SCFA in the hindgut was evaluated. Feeding increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke to entire male pigs reduced skatole in digesta from colon and in faeces (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke decreased DM content in colon and faeces and pH in colon (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a reduced level of Clostridium perfringens in both colon and rectum (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke to diets for entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in skatole levels in the hindgut and adipose tissue. The reduced skatole levels might be related to the decrease in C. perfringens and the increase in SCFA with subsequent reduction in pH.

  10. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, R; Edwards, S A; Rousing, T; Labouriau, R; Sørensen, J T

    2016-07-01

    Alternatives to surgical castration are needed, due to stress and pain caused by castration of male pigs. One alternative is production of entire male pigs. However, changed behaviour of entire males compared with castrated males might adversely affect the welfare of entire males and changes in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions, hypothesising that procedures that disrupt the social stability (e.g. regrouping) will have a larger negative effect in small groups compared with large groups. Approximately 1600 organic entire male pigs of the breed (Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc were reared in parallel in five organic herds, distributed across four batches in a 2×2 factorial design in order to test the influence of social mixing (presence or absence of social mixing at relocation) and group size (15 and 30 animals). Animals were able to socialise with piglets from other litters during the lactation period, and were all mixed across litters at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting frequency (Pskin lesions, but more lesions were observed in large groups (P<0.036). This could indicate that keeping entire male pigs in groups of 30 animals as compared

  11. Tunnel diode amplifiers and their background noise as a function of the polarization point, the temperature, and the bandwidth; Amplificateurs a diode tunnel et leur bruit de fond, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozveaminian, K. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The author presents mathematical and graphical methods for the study of the stability of tunnel diode circuits. He gives an application to the realization of three amplifiers. Then he describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of these amplifiers and of its variations with the bias, the temperature and the bandwidth. (author) [French] L'auteur presente deux methodes, l'une theorique l'autre graphique, pour l'etude de la stabilite des circuits a diode tunnel, dont il fait une application a la realisation de trois amplificateurs. Il effectue ensuite une etude theorique et experimentale du bruit de fond de ces amplificateurs, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante. (auteur)

  12. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  13. Diminution de la teneur en cardiolipide, un phospholipide clé dans la régulation de la fonction énergétique, dans un modèle d’hypertrophie musculaire lié à l’invalidation de la myostatine

    OpenAIRE

    Baati, Narjes; Fouret, Gilles; Vernus, Barbara; Goustard, Benedicte; Barea, Bruno; Coudray , Charles; Bonnieu, Anne; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Feillet Coudray, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction et but de l’étude : La mitochondrie est la centrale énergétique de nos cellules, leur fournissant l’énergie nécessaire à son activité métabolique. Toute altération de cette centrale énergétique a pour conséquence une baisse de production d’énergie et affecte préférentiellement les tissus qui en sont fortement consommateurs. Des travaux récents montrent un rôle central du cardiolipide (CL), un phospholipide exclusivement mitochondrial, dans la régulation de la fonction énergétique...

  14. Etude du comportement chimique des additifs dispersants sur les surfaces métalliques. Réaction des fonctions amide sur l'alumine Study of the Chemical Behavior of Dispersant Additives on Metal Surfaces. Reaction of Amide Functions on Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechtschein J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail a pour objet la mise en évidence des réactions chimiques qui apparaissent entre les fonctions amides qui entrent dans la constitution de nombreuses formules de dispersants pour carburants et lubrifiants et la surface de l'aluminium. On montre que la réaction des amides sur la surface de l'alumine s'opère en deux étapes: La première étape, ou étape de chimisorption, fait intervenir les sites de Lewis et les groupements OH voisins de l'alumine pour fixer la fonction amide par le groupement carbonyle (liaison acide-base de Lewis et par l'azote (liaison hydrogène. La deuxième étape, ou étape d'hydrolyse, conduit à la formation d'un carboxylate de surface et d'une amine. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical reactions that appear between the amide functions entering into the composition of numerous dispersant formulas for fuels and lubricants and the surface of aluminum. The reactions of amides on an aluminum surface is shown to take place in two stages. The first stage, or chemisorption stage, involves Lewis sites and the OH groups next to the aluminum oxide sa as to fix the amide function by the carbonyl group (Lewis acid-basic bonds and by nitrogen (hydrogen bond. The second stage, or hydrolysis stage, leads to the formation of a surface carboxylate and an amine.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Endovascular Intervention for the Management of Primary Entire-Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingqiao, E-mail: 1427286069@qq.com; Huang, Qianxin, E-mail: 18705206105@163.com; Shen, Bin, E-mail: 753021357@qq.com; Sun, Jingmin, E-mail: 383937658@qq.com; Wang, Xiaolong, E-mail: 781198238@qq.com; Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: hongtao6@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Department of Interventional Radiology and Vascular Surgery (China)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endovascular intervention for the treatment of primary entire-inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion.MethodsEndovascular interventions were performed in six patients for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion. IVC and hepatic venography were performed via the jugular and femoral veins. Balloon angioplasty was used to revascularize the hepatic vein and IVC and a stent was placed in the IVC to maintain patency. Postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then annually, to monitor the patency of the hepatic vein and IVC.ResultsThe IVC and one or two hepatic veins were successfully revascularized in five patients. Revascularization was successful in the right and left hepatic veins in one patient; however, IVC patency could not be established in this patient. Eleven Z-type, self-expanding stents were placed into the IVCs of five patients (three stents in two patients, two stents in two patients, and one stent in one patient). There were no instances of postoperative bleeding or mortality. Follow-up was conducted for 18–90 months (42.8 ± 26.5 months). None of the five patients suffered restenosis of the IVC or hepatic veins. However, there was one of the six cases of right hepatic vein restenosis at 18 months postprocedure that was revascularized after a second balloon dilatation.ConclusionsEndovascular intervention is safe and efficacious for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion.

  16. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  17. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  18. The use of double-balloon enteroscopy in retrieving mucosal biopsies from the entire human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) as a new tool for collecting mucosal biopsies from well-defined parts of the entire small and large bowel in patients with type 2 diabetes and in matched healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve su...... possibility to access hitherto unexplored human anatomy and physiology....... subjects with type 2 diabetes and 12 body mass index and age-matched healthy subjects underwent anterograde and retrograde DBE under nurse-administered propofol sedation on two separate days. We attempted to collect two mucosal biopsies from every 30 cm from pylorus to rectum. RESULTS: A mean of 21 biopsy...

  19. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Joseph; Gertner, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach) in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract. PMID:28203138

  20. Lupus Gastrointestinal Tract Vasculopathy: Lupus “Enteritis” Involving the Entire Gastrointestinal Tract from Esophagus to Rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Bert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal symptoms are very common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Lupus “enteritis” is very responsive to treatment but can have devastating consequences if not detected. Most descriptions of enteritis involve the small and large bowel. This is the first report of lupus “enteritis” involving the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus and stomach to the rectum. Lupus “enteritis” is another cause of upper gastrointestinal involvement in SLE (involving even the esophagus and stomach in addition to involvement of the lower intestinal tract.

  1. D-HPLC analysis of the entire FLT3 gene in MLL rearranged and hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Ronald W; den Boer, Monique L; Schneider, Pauline; Meier, Marrit; Beverloo, H Berna; Pieters, Rob

    2007-11-01

    MLL rearranged and hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are characterized by high-level FLT3 expression and constitutive FLT3 activation. As known activating FLT3 mutations are often absent in these patients, we screened the entire FLT3 coding sequence in MLL rearranged and hyperdiploid ALL cases for yet unidentified additional genetic alterations using denaturing D-HPLC. Both in MLL rearranged and hyperdiploid ALL we found that a small minority of samples, 7% and 10% respectively, carried genetic alterations. Although some of these alterations may induce FLT3 activation, the majority of these patients carry wild-type FLT3 genes.

  2. Imaging calcium microdomains within entire astrocyte territories and endfeet with GCaMPs expressed using adeno-associated viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Bushong, Eric A; Haustein, Martin D; Tong, Xiaoping; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Kracun, Sebastian; Xu, Ji; Sofroniew, Michael V; Ellisman, Mark H; Khakh, Baljit S

    2013-05-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) transients are considered a primary signal by which astrocytes interact with neurons and blood vessels. With existing commonly used methods, Ca(2+) has been studied only within astrocyte somata and thick branches, leaving the distal fine branchlets and endfeet that are most proximate to neuronal synapses and blood vessels largely unexplored. Here, using cytosolic and membrane-tethered forms of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs; cyto-GCaMP3 and Lck-GCaMP3), we report well-characterized approaches that overcome these limitations. We used in vivo microinjections of adeno-associated viruses to express GECIs in astrocytes and studied Ca(2+) signals in acute hippocampal slices in vitro from adult mice (aged ∼P80) two weeks after infection. Our data reveal a sparkling panorama of unexpectedly numerous, frequent, equivalently scaled, and highly localized Ca(2+) microdomains within entire astrocyte territories in situ within acute hippocampal slices, consistent with the distribution of perisynaptic branchlets described using electron microscopy. Signals from endfeet were revealed with particular clarity. The tools and experimental approaches we describe in detail allow for the systematic study of Ca(2+) signals within entire astrocytes, including within fine perisynaptic branchlets and vessel-associated endfeet, permitting rigorous evaluation of how astrocytes contribute to brain function.

  3. Entire Papilla Preservation Technique: A Novel Surgical Approach for Regenerative Treatment of Deep and Wide Intrabony Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Serhat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Cortellini, Pierpaolo

    Primary wound closure and uneventful early wound stability over the biomaterials are the most critical elements of successful periodontal regeneration. Yet the surgical elevation of the interdental papilla to access deep and wide intrabony defects entails an impairment of the papillary blood supply that can result in difficult healing due to a lack of primary closure in the early healing period. This negative event might complicate the healing process, favoring bacterial contamination. A novel modified tunnel surgical technique designed to maintain the integrity of the interdental papilla is presented in this article, with the aim of providing an optimal environment for wound healing in regenerative procedures. Entire papilla preservation is described and applied in three different cases, in association with the use of a combination of bone substitutes and enamel matrix derivative for periodontal regeneration. The entire papilla preservation technique was successfully applied to the three selected cases, resulting in an uneventful postsurgical period and a substantial defect fill over the 8-month follow-up. This tunnel-like technique can be recommended for further research to support the success identified in this case series.

  4. A graphical simulation model of the entire DNA process associated with the analysis of short tandem repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Peter; Curran, James; Elliot, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The use of expert systems to interpret short tandem repeat DNA profiles in forensic, medical and ancient DNA applications is becoming increasingly prevalent as high-throughput analytical systems generate large amounts of data that are time-consuming to process. With special reference to low copy number (LCN) applications, we use a graphical model to simulate stochastic variation associated with the entire DNA process starting with extraction of sample, followed by the processing associated with the preparation of a PCR reaction mixture and PCR itself. Each part of the process is modelled with input efficiency parameters. Then, the key output parameters that define the characteristics of a DNA profile are derived, namely heterozygote balance (Hb) and the probability of allelic drop-out p(D). The model can be used to estimate the unknown efficiency parameters, such as pi(extraction). 'What-if' scenarios can be used to improve and optimize the entire process, e.g. by increasing the aliquot forwarded to PCR, the improvement expected to a given DNA profile can be reliably predicted. We demonstrate that Hb and drop-out are mainly a function of stochastic effect of pre-PCR molecular selection. Whole genome amplification is unlikely to give any benefit over conventional PCR for LCN.

  5. Liposomal leakage induced by virus-derived peptides, viral proteins, and entire virions: rapid analysis by chip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Victor U; Bilek, Gerhard; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Subirats, Xavier; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Valenta, Rudolf; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

    2010-10-01

    Permeabilization of model lipid membranes by virus-derived peptides, viral proteins, and entire virions of human rhinovirus was assessed by quantifying the release of a fluorescent dye from liposomes via a novel chip electrophoretic assay. Liposomal leakage readily occurred upon incubation with the pH-sensitive synthetic fusogenic peptide GALA and, less efficiently, with a 24mer peptide (P1-N) derived from the N-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 of human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) at acidic pH. Negative stain transmission electron microscopy showed that liposomes incubated with the rhinovirus-derived peptide remained largely intact. At similar concentrations, the GALA peptide caused gross morphological changes of the liposomes. On a molar basis, the leakage-inducing efficiency of the P1 peptide was by about 2 orders of magnitude inferior to that of recombinant VP1 (from HRV89) and entire HRV2. This underscores the role in membrane destabilization of VP1 domains remote from the N-terminus and the arrangement of the peptide in the context of the icosahedral virion. Our method is rapid, requires tiny amounts of sample, and allows for the parallel determination of released and retained liposomal cargo.

  6. Dysplastic Ichthyosis Uteri-like changes of the entire endometrium associated with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadare Oluwole

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ichthyosis uteri is an exceedingly rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium. We describe herein a heretofore undescribed example of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri-like changes of the entire adjacent endometrium. Additionally, the squamous epithelium of the latter also showed multifocal changes diagnostic of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The potential genesis of this composite of findings is discussed, as is the neoplastic potential of ichthyosis uteri. It is concluded that a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix extended proximally into the endometrium, and that there was a colonization of a pre-existing ichthyosis uteri by associated human papillomavirus. The possibility of significant cervical pathology should be considered when plaques of squamous epithelium with low grade dysplastic changes are identified in an endometrial biopsy or curettage.

  7. Automated Identification of the Heart Wall Throughout the Entire Cardiac Cycle Using Optimal Cardiac Phase for Extracted Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    In most methods for evaluation of cardiac function based on echocardiography, the heart wall is currently identified manually by an operator. However, this task is very time-consuming and suffers from inter- and intraobserver variability. The present paper proposes a method that uses multiple features of ultrasonic echo signals for automated identification of the heart wall region throughout an entire cardiac cycle. In addition, the optimal cardiac phase to select a frame of interest, i.e., the frame for the initiation of tracking, was determined. The heart wall region at the frame of interest in this cardiac phase was identified by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, and heart wall regions in the following frames were identified by tracking each point classified in the initial frame as the heart wall region using the phased tracking method. The results for two subjects indicate the feasibility of the proposed method in the longitudinal axis view of the heart.

  8. Periodic metallic stepped-slits for entire transmission of optical wave and efficient transmission of terahertz wave

    CERN Document Server

    Khorshidi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Metallic structures with periodic array of slits are well-known to lead to extraordinary power transmission, when slits have dimensions much less than the wavelength of incident optical wave. Excellent power transmission originates from surface waves excited by incident transverse magnetic wave. Here we show that metallic structure with array of stepped-slits can transmit power of incident wave into the substrate at desired optical frequency entirely and simultaneously in terahertz frequency band by 70%, for In0.53Ga0.47As substrate. Transmitted power of the proposed structure is studied both in a closed-form by an analytical model as well as numerically by finite element method. It is found that with the increase of field intensity in the substrate, structure with array of stepped-slits (as opposed to uniform-slits) favorably has no reduction of frequency range at maximum transmitted power.

  9. Recovery of entire shocked samples in a range of pressure from ~100 GPa to Hugoniot Elastic Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaki, Keita; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiro; Kondo, Tadashi; Kurosawa, Kosuke; Hironaka, Yoichiro; Shigemori, Keisuke; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We carried out laser shock experiments and wholly recovered shocked olivine and quartz samples. We investigated the petrographic features based on optical micrographs of sliced samples and found that each recovered sample comprises three regions, I (optically dark), II (opaque) and III (transparent). Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron back-scattered diffraction shows that there are no crystal features in the region I; the materials in the region I have once melted. Moreover, numerical calculations performed with the iSALE shock physics code suggest that the boundary between regions II and III corresponds to Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL). Thus, we succeeded in the recovery of the entire shocked samples experienced over a wide range of pressures from HEL (~ 10 GPa) to melting pressure (~ 100 GPa) in a hierarchical order.

  10. Mapping the entire universe: a goal for gigapixel arrays, 3D spectro-imagers, and large telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John; Kilston, Steven

    2002-11-01

    Visual-wavelength focal plane mosaics with 10 to 100 gigapixels may become available within the next several decades. Silicon sensor read-outs may also enable the reliable detection of individual visual wavelength photons in the near future. Such solid-state photon-counting mosaics, fed by integral-field spectrographs (IFSs) which simultaneously record the spectrum of every image element, may enable astronomers to chart the 3D structure of the entire visible Universe, and trace its physical and chemical evolution from soon after the birth of the first stars to the present. We explore the requirements of a 'cosmic atlas' sensitive to objects having 0.1 times the luminosity of the Milky Way. The proposed cosmic survey has a spatial resolution of about 0.1", a spectral resolution of R ≍ 102 to 103, and cover the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR.

  11. Computer Simulation Study of Human Locomotion with a Three-Dimensional Entire-Body Neuro-Musculo-Skeletal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Kazunori; Obinata, Goro

    It is essential for the biomechanical study of human walking motion to consider not only in vivo mechanical load and energy efficiency but also aspects of motor control such as walking stability. In this study, walking stability was investigated using a three-dimensional entire-body neuro-musculo-skeletal model in the computer simulation. In the computational experiments, imaginary constraints, such as no muscular system, were set in the neuro-musculo-skeletal model to investigate their influence on walking stability. The neuronal parameters were adjusted using numerical search techniques in order to adapt walking patterns to constraints on the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Simulation results revealed that the model of the normal neuro-musculo-skeletal system yielded a higher stability than the imaginary models. Unstable walking by a model with a time delay in the neuronal system suggested significant unknown mechanisms which stabilized walking patterns that have been neglected in previous studies.

  12. Computer Simulation Study of Human Locomotion with a Three-Dimensional Entire-Body Neuro-Musculo-Skeletal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Kazunori; Yokoi, Takashi

    In the present study, the computer simulation technique to autonomously generate running motion from walking was developed using a three-dimensional entire-body neuro-musculo-skeletal model. When maximizing locomotive speed was employed as the evaluative criterion, the initial walking pattern could not transition to a valid running motion. When minimizing the period of foot-ground contact was added to this evaluative criterion, the simulation model autonomously produced appropriate three-dimensional running. Changes in the neuronal system showed the fatigue coefficient of the neural oscillators to reduce as locomotion patterns transitioned from walking to running. Then, when the running speed increased, the amplitude of the non-specific stimulus from the higher center increased. These two changes indicate mean that the improvement in responsiveness of the neuronal system is important for the transition process from walking to running, and that the comprehensive activation level of the neuronal system is essential in the process of increasing running speed.

  13. Gallium nitride nanorod arrays as low-refractive-index transparent media in the entire visible spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ying; Lin, Hon-Way; Wu, Chen-Ying; Chen, Wei-Chun; Chen, Jyh-Shin; Gwo, Shangjr

    2008-05-26

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanorod arrays grown by the catalyst-free, self-organized method based on plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy are shown to behave as subwavelength optical media with low effective refractive indices. In the reflection spectra measured in the entire visible spectral region, strong reflectivity modulations are observed for all nanorod arrays, which are attributed to the effects of Fabry-Pérot microcavities formed within the nanorod arrays by the optically flat air/nanorods and nanorods/substrate interfaces. By analyzing the reflectivity interference fringes, we can quantitatively determine the refractive indices of GaN nanorod arrays as functions of light wavelength. We also propose a model for understanding the optical properties of GaN nanorod arrays in the transparent region. Using this model, good numerical fitting can be achieved for the reflectivity spectra.

  14. Simultaneous shaping of amplitude and phase of light in the entire output plane with a phase-only hologram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    An iterative beam shaping algorithm is proposed to simultaneously shape the amplitude and phase of an optical beam. The proposed algorithm consists of one input plane and two completely overlapped output planes which refer to the output plane in real space. The two output planes are imposed with both amplitude and phase constraints, and the constrained areas in the two output planes are complementary. As a result, both the amplitude and phase in the entire output plane are controllable and arbitrary target complex amplitudes can be achieved with the proposed algorithm. The computing result of the proposed algorithm is a phase-only distribution which can be conveniently realized with a spatial light modulator or a fabricated diffractive optical element. Both simulations and experiments have verified the high performance of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Deuterium-Tritium Pulse Propulsion with Hydrogen as Propellant and the Entire Spacecraft as a Gigavolt Capacitor for Ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2012-01-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) nuclear pulse propulsion concept for fast interplanetary transport is proposed utilizing almost all the energy for thrust and without the need for a large radiator: 1. By letting the thermonuclear micro-explosion take place in the center of a liquid hydrogen sphere with the radius of the sphere large enough to slow down and absorb the neutrons of the DT fusion reaction, heating the hydrogen to a fully ionized plasma at a temperature of ~ 105 K. 2. By using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated gigavolt capacitor, igniting the DT micro-explosion with an intense GeV ion beam discharging the gigavolt capacitor, possible if the space craft has the topology of a torus.

  16. Using the δ13C of ecosystem respiration to monitor ecosystem metabolism of entire watersheds in complex terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypker, T. G.; Hauck, M.; Sulzman, E. W.; Unsworth, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; Kayler, Z.; Conklin, D.; Kennedy, A.; Barnard, H.; Phillips, C.; Bond, B. J.

    2007-12-01

    Complex terrain presents formidable challenges to ecosystem studies. Valleys, steep slopes, and windswept ridges impose wide variations in microclimate, soil properties, and plant communities; this variability greatly hinders strategies for systematic sampling and up-scaling. Our recent work in a deeply incised watershed (20 to 33° slopes) in Oregon's Cascade Mountains suggested the possibility of using the δ13CO2 of ecosystem respiration (δ13CER) in mountainous ecosystems as a tool to monitor seasonal and interannual variations in physiological processes in vegetation of entire watersheds. We demonstrated that nocturnal cold air drainage is persistent, occurs on greater than 80% of summer nights and is well mixed. Furthermore, nighttime air samples collected from the base of the watershed contain a representative sample of respired CO2 from most of the watershed. We also found that on most clear nights the range of CO2 concentrations over a single night is sufficient for using the Keeling Plot approach to determine the carbon isotopic composition of δ13CER. The goals of the current study were to determine if variations in δ13CER were correlated to environmental variables and could be used to predict expected variations in canopy-average stomatal conductance ( gs). As reported by other researchers, changes in δ13CER were significantly correlated to measured soil matric potential (ψm) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) measured on the same day and six days earlier, respectively. Midday gs was estimated using a simple hydraulic model with only ψm and VPD as predictive variables. Midday gs from zero and five days earlier were correlated to δ13CER. To examine direct relationships between δ13CER and recent gs, we used models relating isotope discrimination to stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity at the leaf level to estimate values of stomatal conductance ("gs-I") that would be expected if respired CO2 were derived entirely from recent photosynthate

  17. The Direct Anterior Approach for Hip Revision: Accessing the Entire Femoral Diaphysis Without Endangering the Nerve Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogler, Michael M; Thaler, Martin R

    2017-02-01

    The direct anterior approach (DAA) to the hip has been criticized as an approach that is limited to primary arthroplasty only. Our study objective was to demonstrate, in a cadaveric setting, that an alternate extension of the DAA can be used to reach the femur at the posterior border of the lateral vastus muscle without endangering the nerve supply. The iliotibial tract is split anteriorly and pulled laterally, thereby opening the interval to the lateral-posterior aspect of the vastus muscle. The muscle fascia is incised at the posterior border to access the femoral diaphysis. The vastus mobilization is started distally and laterally to the greater trochanter, leaving a muscular bridge between the vastus and the medial gluteal muscle intact. If it is necessary to open the femoral cavity for implant retrieval, we perform an anterior wall osteotomy instead of an extended trochanteric osteotomy. It was possible to split the iliotibial band and pull it laterally, thereby exposing the entire vastus lateralis muscle. The junction of the vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius was not encountered in all cases, nor was the nerve supply with all nerve fibers in that interval. The alternate technique described here for accessing the femoral diaphysis allows for easy access to the lateral aspect of the vastus lateralis and the femoral diaphysis. Using this technique, it should also be possible to access the femur and perform all necessary reconstructive procedures on it without damaging the surrounding nerve structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanism of the entire overdischarge process and overdischarge-induced internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries connected in series are prone to be overdischarged. Overdischarge results in various side effects, such as capacity degradation and internal short circuit (ISCr). However, most of previous research on the overdischarge of a cell was terminated when the cell voltage dropped to 0 V, leaving the further impacts of overdischarge unclear. This paper investigates the entire overdischarge process of large-format lithium-ion batteries by discharging the cell to -100% state of charge (SOC). A significant voltage platform is observed at approximately -12% SOC, and ISCr is detected after the cell is overdischarged when passing the platform. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the overdischarge-induced ISCr is caused by Cu deposition on electrodes, suggesting possible Cu collector dissolution at the voltage platform near -12% SOC. A prognostic/mechanistic model considering ISCr is used to evaluate the resistance of ISCr (RISCr), the value of which decreases sharply at the beginning of ISCr formation. Inducing the ISCr by overdischarge is effective and well controlled without any mechanical deformation or the use of a foreign substance.

  19. Moisture flux changes and trends for the entire Arctic in 2003-2011 derived from EOS Aqua data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, L. N.; Markus, T.; Vihma, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice acts as a barrier between the ocean and lower atmosphere, reducing the exchange of heat and moisture. In recent years the ice pack has undergone many changes, in particular a rapid reduction in sea ice extent and compactness in summer and autumn. This, along with modeling studies, would cause one to believe that the moisture flux would be increasing. We estimate the daily moisture flux from 2003-2011 using geophysical data from multiple sensors onboard NASA's Aqua satellite, taking advantage of observations being collected at the same time and along the same track. Our findings show the moisture flux, averaged over the entire Arctic, has had large interannual variations. Increases in air specific humidity tend to reduce the moisture flux, whereas the decrease in sea ice cover tends to increase the flux. Statistically significant seasonal decreasing trends are seen in December, January and February because of the dominating effect of increase in 2m air specific humidity increasing, reducing the surface-air specific humidity difference by -0.0547 kg/kg in the Kara/Barents Seas, E. Greenland Sea and Baffin Bay regions where there is some open water year round. Our results also show that the contribution of the sea ice zone to the total moisture flux has increased by 3.6% because the amount of open water within the sea ice has increased by 4.3%.

  20. Computer Simulation Study of Human Locomotion with a Three-Dimensional Entire-Body Neuro-Musculo-Skeletal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi

    A model having a three-dimensional entire-body structure and consisting of both the neuronal system and the musculo-skeletal system was proposed to precisely simulate human walking motion. The dynamics of the human body was represented by a 14-rigid-link system and 60 muscular models. The neuronal system was represented by three sub-systems: the rhythm generator system consisting of 32 neural oscillators, the sensory feedback system, and the peripheral system expressed by static optimization. Unknown neuronal parameters were adjusted by a numerical search method using the evaluative criterion for locomotion that was defined by a hybrid between the locomotive energy efficiency and the smoothness of the muscular tensions. The model could successfully generate continuous and three-dimensional walking patterns and stabilized walking against mechanical perturbation. The walking pattern was more stable than that of the model based on dynamic optimization, and more precise than that of the previous model based on a similar neuronal system.

  1. The Entire Virial Radius of the Fossil Cluster RXJ1159+5531: II. Dark Matter and Baryon Fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Buote, David A; Gastaldello, Fabio; Brighenti, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    In this second paper on the entire virial region of the relaxed fossil cluster RXJ1159+5531, we present a hydrostatic analysis of the hot intracluster medium (ICM). For a model consisting of ICM, stellar mass from the central galaxy (BCG), and an NFW dark matter (DM) halo, we obtain good descriptions of the projected radial profiles of ICM emissivity and temperature. The BCG stellar mass is clearly detected with M_star/L_K = 0.61 +/- 0.11 solar, consistent with stellar population synthesis models for a Milky-Way IMF. We obtain a halo concentration, c_200 =8.4 +/- 1.0, and virial mass, M_200 = 7.9 +/- 0.6 x 10^13 M_sun. For its mass, the inferred concentration is larger than most relaxed halos produced in cosmological simulations with Planck parameters, consistent with RXJ1159+5531 forming earlier than the general halo population. The baryon fraction at r_200, f_b,200 = 0.134 +/- 0.007, is slightly below the Planck value (0.155) for the universe. When we account for the stellar baryons associated with non-cent...

  2. First-degree AV block-an entirely benign finding or a potentially curable cause of cardiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Daubert, James P

    2013-05-01

    First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay within the AV conduction system and is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of what is considered normal (generally 0.20 s). Up until recently, first-degree AV block was considered an entirely benign condition. In fact, some complain that it is a misnomer since there is only delay and no actual block in the AV conduction system (usually within the AV node). However, it has long been acknowledged that extreme forms of first-degree AV block (typically a PR interval exceeding 0.30 s) can cause symptoms due to inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, similar to the so-called pacemaker syndrome. Consequently, the current guidelines state that permanent pacemaker implantation is reasonable for first-degree AV block with symptoms similar to those of pacemaker syndrome or with hemodynamic compromise, but also stresses that there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV block. Recent reports suggest that it may be time to revisit the impact of first-degree AV block. Also, several findings in post hoc analyses of randomized device trials give important insights in possible treatment options. The present review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge concerning the impact of first-degree AV block and also to address the issue of pacing in patients with this condition. ©2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multi-mode controller IC for soft-switched flyback converter with high efficiency over the entire load range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai CHEN; Meng-lian ZHAO; Xiao-bo WU; Xiao-lang YAN

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-mode control scheme for a soft-switched flyback converter to achieve high efficiency and excellent load regulation over the entire load range. At heavy load, critical conduction mode with valley switching (CCMVS) is employed to realize soft switching so as to reduce turn-on loss of power switch as well as conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI). At light load, the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with valley switching and adaptive off-time control (AOT) to limit the switching frequency range and maintain load regulation. At extremely light load or in standby mode,burst mode operation is adopted to provide low power consumption through reducing both switching frequency and static power dissipation of the controller. The multi-mode control is implemented by an oscillator whose pulse duration is adjusted by output feedback. An accurate valley switching control circuit guarantees the minimum turn-on voltage drop of power switch. The pro-totype of the controller IC was fabricated in a 1.5um BiCMOS process and applied to a 310 V/20 V, 90 W flyback DC/DC converter circuitry. Experimental results showed that all expected functions were realized successfully. The flyback converter achieved a high efficiency of over 80% from full load down to 2.5 W, with the maximum reaching 88.8%, while the total power consumption in standby mode was about 300 mW.

  4. ENTIRE FUNCTIONS THAT SHARE ONE SMALL FUNCTIONS%分担一个小函数的整函数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方明亮; 华歆厚

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the following result: Let f(z) and g(z) be two transcendental entire functions, n≥6 be a positive integer. Assume that a(z) (≡0) is a common small function related to f(z) and g(z). If fn(z)f′(z) and gn(z)g′(z) share a(z)CM, then either fnf′gng′≡[α(z)]2 or f≡cg for a constant c with cn+1=1.%本文证明了:设f(z)和g(z)是两个超越整函数,n≥6是一个正整数,d(z)(≡/0)是f(z)和g(z)的公共小函数.若fn(z)f′(z)和gn(z)g′(z)分担α(z),则或者fn(z)f′(z)gn(z)g′(z)≡[α(z)]2,或者f(z)≡cg(z),这里c是一个常数满足cn+1=1.此结果推广了[5]的结果.

  5. SunFlash -- An entirely new concept for building-integrated PV. Final technical report, October 1997--June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    This project team has investigated an innovative and entirely new building product concept, the SunFlash, incorporating a photovoltaic module with integral mounting and sealing for watertight building integration. It can be used as a roof-integrated shingle for slant roofs, for vertical curtain walls, or in other applications. Key features of the SunFlash include the following: an integrated module concept whereby the module, backskin, edge seal and mounting and sealing are all a single molded unit of the same material; an extension of this concept to include the possibility of molded-in electrical connections; a novel encapsulant material with better adhesion, sealing, thermal creep, and UV stability properties than EVA; a crystalline silicon, glass-front module incorporating the advanced string ribbon solar cells; and accessories and features, including a module-integrated inverter, laminated exit wiring, mounting, and raceway wiring, that provide high-performance consistent with building practice. The objective of the SunFlash is a standardized, cost-effective, long-lasting solution to integrating and water-sealing modules into residential and commercial buildings, both new and retrofit.

  6. On the Possible Properties of Small and Cold Extrasolar Planets: Is OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb Entirely Frozen?

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, D; Beaulieu, J P; Grasset, O; Ehrenreich, David; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier Des; Beaulieu, Jean-Philippe; Grasset, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Extrasolar planets as light as a few Earths are now being detected. Such planets are likely not gas or ice giants. Here, we present a study on the possible properties of the small and cold extrasolar planets, applied to the case of the recently discovered planet OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb (Beaulieu et al. 2006). This planet (5.5[+5.5/-2.7] Earth masses) orbits 2.6[+1.5/-0.6]-astronomical units away from an old M-type star of the Galactic Bulge. The planet should be entirely frozen given the low surface temperature (35 to 47 K). However, depending on the rock-to-ice mass ratio in the planet, the radiogenic heating could be sufficient to make the existence of liquid water within an icy crust possible. This possibility is estimated as a function of the planetary mass and the illumination received from the parent star, both being strongly related by the observational constraints. The results are presented for water-poor and water-rich planets. We find that no oceans can be present in any cases at 9-10 Gyr, a typical age...

  7. The entire dural sinus tree is compressed in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a longitudinal, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, Axel; Bindeballe, Jan; Riedel, Christian; Jansen, Olav [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuroradiology, Kiel (Germany); Baalen, Andreas van [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuropediatrics, Kiel (Germany); Bartsch, Thorsten [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurology, Kiel (Germany); Doerner, Lutz [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurosurgery, Kiel (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the volumetric alterations of dural sinuses in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Standardized cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in 17 patients prior to and following treatment of IIH and in seven controls. Magnetic resonance venographies (MRV) were employed for (a) judgement of circumscript dural sinus stenoses and (b) computation of sinus volumes. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the superior sagittal sinuses (SSS) were measured on T2-weighted images. Results of the initial MRIs were compared to those on follow-up MRIs and to results of controls. Stenoses of the transverse sinuses (TS) resulting in cranial venous outflow obstruction (CVOO) were present in 15/17 (88%) patients, normalizing in 7/15 cases (47%) after treatment of IIH. CVOO was not detected in the control group. Segmentation of MRV revealed decreased dural sinus volumes in patients with IIH as compared to controls (P = 0.018). Sinus volumes increased significantly with normalization of intracranial pressure independent from disappearing of TS stenoses (P = 0.007). The CSA of the SSS were normal on the initial MRIs of patients with IIH and increased on follow-up after treatment (P < 0.001). However, volumetries displayed overlap in patients and controls. Patients with IIH not only exhibit bilateral stenoses of the TS as has been reported, but volume changes of their entire dural sinus system also occur. The potential etiopathological and diagnostic roles of these changes are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Mammalian chromosomes contain cis-acting elements that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Mathew J

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes. Disruption of the large non-coding RNA gene ASAR6 results in late replication, an under-condensed appearance during mitosis, and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Similarly, disruption of the mouse Xist gene in adult somatic cells results in a late replication and instability phenotype on the X chromosome. ASAR6 shares many characteristics with Xist, including random mono-allelic expression and asynchronous replication timing. Additional "chromosome engineering" studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes display this abnormal replication and instability phenotype. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain "inactivation/stability centers" that control proper replication, condensation, and stability of individual chromosomes. Therefore, mammalian chromosomes contain four types of cis-acting elements, origins, telomeres, centromeres, and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to ensure proper replication, condensation, segregation, and stability of individual chromosomes.

  9. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  10. Growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana through an entire life cycle under simulated microgravity conditions on a clinostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, R; Fujii, S; Soga, K; Hoson, T; Shimazu, T; Masuda, Y; Kamisaka, S; Ueda, J

    1999-12-01

    The effects of simulated microgravity conditions produced by a horizontal clinostat on the entire life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia and Landsberg erecta were studied. Horizontal clinorotation affected little germination of seeds, growth and development of rosette leaves and roots during early vegetative growth stage, and the onset of the bolting of inflorescence axis and flower formation in reproductive growth stage, although it suppressed elongation of inflorescence axes. The clinorotation substantially reduced the numbers of siliques and seeds in Landsberg erecta, and completely inhibited seed production in Columbia. Seeds produced in Landsberg erecta on the clinostat were capable of germinating and developing rosette leaves normally on the ground. On the other hand, growth of pin formed mutant (pin/pin) of Arabidopsis ecotype Enkheim, which has a unique structure of inflorescence axis with no flower and extremely low levels of auxin polar transport activity, was inhibited and the seedlings frequently died during vegetative stage on the clinostat. Seed formation and inflorescence growth of the seedlings with normal shape (pin/+ or +/+) were also suppressed on the clinostat. These results suggest that the growth and development of Arabidopsis, especially in reproductive growth stage, is suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a clinostat. To complete the life cycle probably seems to be quite difficult, although it is possible in some ecotypes.

  11. Expression profile of the entire family of Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors in mouse and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebendal Ted

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are membrane-bound receptors with long N termini. This family has 33 members in humans. Several Adhesion GPCRs are known to have important physiological functions in CNS development and immune system response mediated by large cell surface ligands. However, the majority of Adhesion GPCRs are still poorly studied orphans with unknown functions. Results In this study we performed the extensive tissue localization analysis of the entire Adhesion GPCR family in rat and mouse. By applying the quantitative real-time PCR technique we have produced comparable expression profile for each of the members in the Adhesion family. The results are compared with literature data and data from the Allen Brain Atlas project. Our results suggest that the majority of the Adhesion GPCRs are either expressed in the CNS or ubiquitously. In addition the Adhesion GPCRs from the same phylogenetic group have either predominant CNS or peripheral expression, although each of their expression profile is unique. Conclusion Our findings indicate that many of Adhesion GPCRs are expressed, and most probably, have function in CNS. The related Adhesion GPCRs are well conserved in their structure and interestingly have considerable overlap in their expression profiles, suggesting similarities among the physiological roles for members within many of the phylogenetically related clusters.

  12. Electrokinetic effect of the Loma Prieta earthquake calculated by an entire-Earth FDTD solution of Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamesina J.; Taflove, Allen

    2005-05-01

    We report what we believe to be the first three-dimensional computational solution of the full-vector Maxwell's equations for hypothesized pre-seismic electromagnetic phenomena propagated within the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. Periodic boundary conditions are used in conjunction with a variable-cell finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) space lattice wrapping around the complete Earth-sphere and extending +/-100 km radially from sea level. This technique permits a direct time-domain calculation of round-the-world ULF/ELF propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities/anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. In this study, we model electrokinetic currents at depths of 2.5 km and 17 km near the hypocenter of the Loma Prieta earthquake and compare the FDTD-calculated surface magnetic field to analytical results and measurements previously reported in the literature. We accommodate the complete physics introduced by impulsive electromagnetic wave propagation through the conductive Earth, and hence illustrate the importance of solving the full Maxwell's equations when modeling current sources within the Earth's crust. Our calculated spectra agree qualitatively with those reported by Fraser-Smith et al. (1990).

  13. Comparative study on semen quality of one-and two-year-old ganders during the entire reproductive season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EwaLukaszewiczl; HirokiFuruta; Yong-MeiXi; NoboruFujihara

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of semen produced by one- and two-years old White Italian ganders during the entire reproductive season, in order to clarify whether the young ganders are responsible for a low fertility rate in young geese. Methods: Males were kept individually in cages under natural light. Semen was collected by dorso-abdominal massage three times a week and routine examination was performed. Results: The mean ejaculate volume (2.1 and 1.6 mL, respectively) and sperm concentration (323 and 281 x 106/mL, respectively) in one-year-old ganders were higher than those of two-year-old ones. The percentages viable spermatozoa of one- and two-year-old ganders were similar (91.4 and 92.3%, respectively), but the percentage of normally formed viable spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older ganders than in the younger (47.8 and 42.9%, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The semina from one- or two-year-old Ganders were similar in regard to volume, sperm density and sperm motility, but the percentage of normally formed viable spermatozoa, which is critical for fertilization, was significantly higher in the older ganders. It appears that the ganders are responsible for the low fertility rate in young geese.

  14. Dunkl’s Theory and Best Approximation by Entire Functions of Exponential Type in L2-metric with Power Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ping LIU; Chun Yuan SONG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the sharp Jackson inequality for the best approximation of f ∈L2,κ(Rd) by a subspace E2κ(σ) (SE2κ(σ)), which is a subspace of entire functions of exponential type (spherical exponential type) at most σ. Here L2,κ(Rd) denotes the space of all d-variate functions f endowed with the L2-norm with the weight vκ(x)=? ξ∈R+|(ξ, x)|2κ (ξ), which is defined by a positive subsystem R+ of a finite root system R ⊂ Rd and a function κ(ξ) : R → R+ invariant under the reflection group G(R) generated by R. In the case G(R)=Zd2 , we get some exact results. Moreover, the deviation of best approximation by the subspace E2κ(σ) (SE2κ(σ)) of some class of the smooth functions in the space L2,κ(Rd) is obtained.

  15. Growth of mitral annulus in the pediatric patient after suture annuloplasty of the entire posterior mitral annulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Takeshi; Huebler, Michael; Berger, Felix; Hetzer, Roland

    2009-08-01

    When mitral annuloplasty is performed in small children, room for annular growth should be allowed. However, it has not been reported how the valve develops after mitral annuloplasty of the entire posterior annulus. We report a case showing traces of annular growth at redo surgery. A female patient suffering from mitral valve insufficiency due to annular dilatation underwent modified Paneth plasty with Kay-Wooler commissural plication annuloplasty at the age of two years one month. In redo surgery 8.4 years after initial repair, enlargement of the commissural portion of the posterior annulus in addition to enlargement of the anterior leaflet and anterior annulus was observed. Modified Paneth plasty reinforced with a pericardial strip and Kay-Wooler annuloplasty of the posteromedial commissure were performed. Mitral orifice size measured with the Hegar dilator was 18 mm after the re-repair, increasing from 16 mm after the initial repair. Taking into account the normal mitral annulus diameter related to body surface area (BSA) of 16 mm at initial operation and 20 mm at redo surgery, the increase in mitral orifice size from 16 mm to 18 mm in this patient may be regarded as the annular growth in 8.4 years.

  16. Mechanism of the entire overdischarge process and overdischarge-induced internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries connected in series are prone to be overdischarged. Overdischarge results in various side effects, such as capacity degradation and internal short circuit (ISCr). However, most of previous research on the overdischarge of a cell was terminated when the cell voltage dropped to 0 V, leaving the further impacts of overdischarge unclear. This paper investigates the entire overdischarge process of large-format lithium-ion batteries by discharging the cell to −100% state of charge (SOC). A significant voltage platform is observed at approximately −12% SOC, and ISCr is detected after the cell is overdischarged when passing the platform. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the overdischarge-induced ISCr is caused by Cu deposition on electrodes, suggesting possible Cu collector dissolution at the voltage platform near −12% SOC. A prognostic/mechanistic model considering ISCr is used to evaluate the resistance of ISCr (RISCr), the value of which decreases sharply at the beginning of ISCr formation. Inducing the ISCr by overdischarge is effective and well controlled without any mechanical deformation or the use of a foreign substance. PMID:27444934

  17. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski

    Full Text Available Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C, mild and severe water stress (MS, SS. The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio and growth (aerial and root biomass traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air

  18. Isoprene emissions from downy oak under water limitation during an entire growing season: what cost for growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, Anne-Cyrielle; Ormeño, Elena; Boissard, Christophe; Fernandez, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the production of terpene- and phenolic-like compounds in plant species under abiotic stress conditions have been interpreted in physiological studies as a supplementary defense system due to their capacity to limit cell oxidation. From an ecological perspective however, these increases are only expected to confer competitive advantages if they do not imply a significant cost for the plant, that is, growth reduction. We investigated shifts of isoprene emissions, and to a lesser extent phenolic compound concentration, of Quercus pubescens Willd. from early leaf development to leaf senescence under optimal watering (control: C), mild and severe water stress (MS, SS). The impact of water stress was concomitantly assessed on plant physiological (chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, water potential) functional (relative leaf water content, leaf mass per area ratio) and growth (aerial and root biomass) traits. Growth changes allowed to estimate the eventual costs related to the production of isoprene and phenolics. The total phenolic content was not modified under water stress whereas isoprene emissions were promoted under MS over the entire growing cycle despite the decline of Pn by 35%. Under SS, isoprene emissions remained similar to C all over the study despite the decline of Pn by 47% and were thereby clearly uncoupled to Pn leading to an overestimation of the isoprene emission factor by 44%. Under SS, maintenance of isoprene emissions and phenolic compound concentration resulted in very significant costs for the plants as growth rates were very significantly reduced. Under MS, increases of isoprene emission and maintenance of phenolic compound concentration resulted in moderate growth reduction. Hence, it is likely that investment in isoprene emissions confers Q. pubescens an important competitive advantage during moderate but not severe periods of water scarcity. Consequences of this response for air quality in North

  19. Somatic mutations throughout the entire mitochondrial genome are associated with elevated PSA levels in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Schäfer, Georg; Erhart, Gertraud; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Coassin, Stefan; Seifarth, Christof; Summerer, Monika; Bektic, Jasmin; Klocker, Helmut; Kronenberg, Florian

    2010-12-10

    The genetic etiology of prostate cancer, the most common form of male cancer in western countries, is complex and the interplay of disease genes with environmental factors is far from being understood. Studies on somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have become an important aspect of cancer research because these mutations might have functional consequences and/or might serve as biosensors for tumor detection and progression. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (16,569 bp) from 30 prospectively collected pairs of macrodissected cancerous and benign cells from prostate cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. Given recent concerns regarding the authenticity of newly discovered mtDNA mutations, we implemented a high-quality procedure for mtDNA whole-genome sequencing. In addition, the mitochondrial genes MT-CO2, MT-CO3, MT-ATP6, and MT-ND6 were sequenced in further 35 paired samples from prostate cancer patients. We identified a total of 41 somatic mutations in 22 out of 30 patients: the majority of these mutations have not previously been observed in the human phylogeny. The presence of somatic mutations in transfer RNAs (tRNAs) was found to be associated with elevated PSA levels (14.25 ± 5.44 versus 7.15 ± 4.32 ng/ml; p = 0.004). The level and degree of heteroplasmy increased with increasing tumor activity. In summary, somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome are frequent events in prostate cancer. Mutations mapping to mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs, and protein coding genes might impair processes that occur within the mitochondrial compartment (e.g., transcription, RNA processing, and translation) and might finally affect oxidative phosphorylation.

  20. Uniparental disomy of the entire X chromosome in Turner syndrome patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yumei; Zhu, Detu; Du, Rong; Gong, Yu; Xie, Chun; Xu, Xiangye; Fan, Yong; Yu, Bolan; Sun, Xiaofang; Chen, Yaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technique promises to provide an unlimited, reliable source of genetically matched pluripotent cells for personalized therapy and disease modeling. Recently, it is observed that cells with ring chromosomes 13 or 17 autonomously correct the defects via compensatory uniparental disomy during cellular reprogramming to iPSCs. This breakthrough finding suggests a potential therapeutic approach to repair large-scale chromosomal aberrations. However, due to the scarceness of ring chromosome samples, the reproducibility of this approach in different individuals is not carefully evaluated yet. Moreover, the underlying mechanism and the applicability to other types of chromosomal aberrations remain unknown. Here we generated iPSCs from four 45,X chorionic villous fibroblast lines and found that only one reprogrammed line acquired 46,XX karyotype via uniparental disomy of the entire X chromosome. The karyotype correction was reproducible in the same cell line by either retroviral or episomal reprogramming. The karyotype-corrected iPSCs were subject to X chromosome inactivation and obtained better colony morphology and higher proliferation rate than other uncorrected ones. Further transcriptomic comparison among the fibroblast lines identified a distinct expression pattern of cell cycle regulators in the uncorrectable ones. These findings demonstrate that the iPSC technique holds the potential to correct X monosomy, but the correction rate is very low, probably due to differential regulation of cell cycle genes between individuals. Our data strongly suggest that more systematic investigations are needed before defining the iPSC technique as a novel means of chromosome therapy.

  1. Genotype-phenotype correlation in a cohort of Portuguese patients comprising the entire spectrum of VWD types: impact of NGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Teresa; Salvado, Ramon; Corrales, Irene; Pinto, Silva Catarina; Borràs, Nina; Oliveira, Ana; Martinho, Patricia; Ferreira, Gisela; Almeida, Helena; Oliveira, Cristina; Marques, Dalila; Gonçalves, Elsa; Diniz, MJoão; Antunes, Margarida; Tavares, Alice; Caetano, Gonçalo; Kjöllerström, Paula; Maia, Raquel; Sevivas, Teresa S; Vidal, Francisco; Ribeiro, Leticia

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common inherited bleeding disorder, is characterised by a variable bleeding tendency and heterogeneous laboratory phenotype. The sequencing of the entire VWF coding region has not yet become a routine practice in diagnostic laboratories owing to its high costs. Nevertheless, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has emerged as an alternative to overcome this limitation. We aimed to determine the correlation of genotype and phenotype in 92 Portuguese individuals from 60 unrelated families with VWD; therefore, we directly sequenced VWF. We compared the classical Sanger sequencing approach and NGS to assess the value-added effect on the analysis of the mutation distribution in different types of VWD. Sixty-two different VWF mutations were identified, 27 of which had not been previously described. NGS detected 26 additional mutations, contributing to a broad overview of the mutant alleles present in each VWD type. Twenty-nine probands (48.3 %) had two or more mutations; in addition, mutations with pleiotropic effects were detected, and NGS allowed an appropriate classification for seven of them. Furthermore, the differential diagnosis between VWD 2B and platelet type VWD (n = 1), Bernard-Soulier syndrome and VWD 2B (n = 1), and mild haemophilia A and VWD 2N (n = 2) was possible. NGS provided an efficient laboratory workflow for analysing VWF. These findings in our cohort of Portuguese patients support the proposal that improving VWD diagnosis strategies will enhance clinical and laboratory approaches, allowing to establish the most appropriate treatment for each patient.

  2. Vkappa polymorphisms in NOD mice are spread throughout the entire immunoglobulin kappa locus and are shared by other autoimmune strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel A; Kendall, Peggy L; Woodward, Emily J; Hulbert, Chrys; Thomas, James W

    2010-08-01

    The diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes available to form the lymphocyte repertoire has the capacity to produce a broad array of both protective and harmful specificities. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), the presence of antibodies to insulin and other islet antigens predicts disease development in both mice and humans, and demonstrate that immune tolerance is lost early in the disease process. Anti-insulin T cells isolated from T1D-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice use polymorphic TCRalpha chains, suggesting that the available T cell repertoire is altered in these autoimmune mice. To probe whether insulin-binding B cells also possess polymorphic V genes, Ig light chains were isolated and sequenced from NOD mice that harbor an Ig heavy chain transgene. Three insulin-binding Vkappa genes were identified, all of which were polymorphic to the closest germline sequence matches present in the GenBank database. Additional analysis of over 300 light chain sequences from multiple sources, including germline DNA, shows that polymorphisms are spread throughout the entire NOD Igkappa locus, as these polymorphic sequences represent 43 distinct Vkappa genes which belong to 14 Vkappa families. Database searches reveal that a majority of polymorphic Vkappa genes identified in NOD are identical to Vkappa genes isolated from SLE-prone NZBxNZW F1 or MRL strains of mice, suggesting that a shared Igkappa haplotype may be present. Predicted amino acid changes preferentially occur in CDR, and thus could alter antigen recognition by the germline B cell repertoire of autoimmune versus non-autoimmune mouse strains.

  3. Vκ polymorphisms in NOD mice are spread throughout the entire immunoglobulin kappa locus and are shared by other autoimmune strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Rachel A.; Kendall, Peggy L.; Woodward, Emily J.; Hulbert, Chrys

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) genes available to form the lymphocyte repertoire has the capacity to produce a broad array of both protective and harmful specificities. In type 1 diabetes (T1D), the presence of antibodies to insulin and other islet antigens predicts disease development in both mice and humans, and demonstrate that immune tolerance is lost early in the disease process. Anti-insulin T cells isolated from T1D-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice use polymorphic TCRα chains, suggesting that the available T cell repertoire is altered in these autoimmune mice. To probe whether insulin-binding B cells also possess polymorphic V genes, Ig light chains were isolated and sequenced from NOD mice that harbor an Ig heavy chain transgene. Three insulin-binding Vκ genes were identified, all of which were polymorphic to the closest germline sequence matches present in the GenBank database. Additional analysis of over 300 light chain sequences from multiple sources, including germline DNA, shows that polymorphisms are spread throughout the entire NOD Igκ locus, as these polymorphic sequences represent 43 distinct Vκ genes which belong to 14 Vκ families. Database searches reveal that a majority of polymorphic Vκ genes identified in NOD are identical to Vκ genes isolated from SLE-prone NZBxNZW F1 or MRL strains of mice, suggesting that a shared Igκ haplotype may be present. Predicted amino acid changes preferentially occur in CDR, and thus could alter antigen recognition by the germline B cell repertoire of autoimmune versus non-autoimmune mouse strains. PMID:20556377

  4. Shear Modulus Estimation on Vastus Intermedius of Elderly and Young Females over the Entire Range of Isometric Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Li, Tian-Jie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI), one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7±4.9 yr) and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6±5.0 yr). The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999) over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state) to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p>0.1). However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (pmuscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly’s muscle diseases. PMID:24991890

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

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    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  6. The massive mitochondrial genome of the angiosperm Silene noctiflora is evolving by gain or loss of entire chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Cuthbert, Jocelyn M; Taylor, Douglas R; Sloan, Daniel B

    2015-08-18

    Across eukaryotes, mitochondria exhibit staggering diversity in genomic architecture, including the repeated evolution of multichromosomal structures. Unlike in the nucleus, where mitosis and meiosis ensure faithful transmission of chromosomes, the mechanisms of inheritance in fragmented mitochondrial genomes remain mysterious. Multichromosomal mitochondrial genomes have recently been found in multiple species of flowering plants, including Silene noctiflora, which harbors an unusually large and complex mitochondrial genome with more than 50 circular-mapping chromosomes totaling ∼7 Mb in size. To determine the extent to which such genomes are stably maintained, we analyzed intraspecific variation in the mitochondrial genome of S. noctiflora. Complete genomes from two populations revealed a high degree of similarity in the sequence, structure, and relative abundance of mitochondrial chromosomes. For example, there are no inversions between the genomes, and there are only nine SNPs in 25 kb of protein-coding sequence. Remarkably, however, these genomes differ in the presence or absence of 19 entire chromosomes, all of which lack any identifiable genes or contain only duplicate gene copies. Thus, these mitochondrial genomes retain a full gene complement but carry a highly variable set of chromosomes that are filled with presumably dispensable sequence. In S. noctiflora, conventional mechanisms of mitochondrial sequence divergence are being outstripped by an apparently nonadaptive process of whole-chromosome gain/loss, highlighting the inherent challenge in maintaining a fragmented genome. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the question of why mitochondria, more so than plastids and bacterial endosymbionts, are prone to the repeated evolution of multichromosomal genomes.

  7. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI, one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr. The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999 over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1. However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001, especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  8. Comprehensive framework for visualizing and analyzing spatio-temporal dynamics of racial diversity in the entire United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowska, Anna; Stepinski, Tomasz F; Netzel, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    The United States is increasingly becoming a multi-racial society. To understand multiple consequences of this overall trend to our neighborhoods we need a methodology capable of spatio-temporal analysis of racial diversity at the local level but also across the entire U.S. Furthermore, such methodology should be accessible to stakeholders ranging from analysts to decision makers. In this paper we present a comprehensive framework for visualizing and analyzing diversity data that fulfills such requirements. The first component of our framework is a U.S.-wide, multi-year database of race sub-population grids which is freely available for download. These 30 m resolution grids have being developed using dasymetric modeling and are available for 1990-2000-2010. We summarize numerous advantages of gridded population data over commonly used Census tract-aggregated data. Using these grids frees analysts from constructing their own and allows them to focus on diversity analysis. The second component of our framework is a set of U.S.-wide, multi-year diversity maps at 30 m resolution. A diversity map is our product that classifies the gridded population into 39 communities based on their degrees of diversity, dominant race, and population density. It provides spatial information on diversity in a single, easy-to-understand map that can be utilized by analysts and end users alike. Maps based on subsequent Censuses provide information about spatio-temporal dynamics of diversity. Diversity maps are accessible through the GeoWeb application SocScape (http://sil.uc.edu/webapps/socscape_usa/) for an immediate online exploration. The third component of our framework is a proposal to quantitatively analyze diversity maps using a set of landscape metrics. Because of its form, a grid-based diversity map could be thought of as a diversity "landscape" and analyzed quantitatively using landscape metrics. We give a brief summary of most pertinent metrics and demonstrate how they can be

  9. Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in Mediterranean natural areas: a comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, L; Lozano-García, B; Brevik, E C; Cerdá, A

    2015-05-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Over time, some researches have analyzed entire soil profile (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researches have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) to different thickness. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km(2) forested area in southern Spain. Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The soils investigated in this study included Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. Total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C (10,604.2 Mg km(-2)) to 0.6353 Tg C (8272.1 Mg km(-2)) respectively (1 Tg = 10(12) g). However, when the topsoil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to 59.8% in SCS compared to ESP. The comparison between ESP and SCS showed the effect of mixing pedogenetic horizons when depth increments were analyzed. This indicates an overestimate of T-SOCS when sampling by SCS.

  10. Recherche de la toxicité des alcools gras supérieurs sur la truite arc-en-ciel (Salmo irideus. Étude particulière des effets de l'hexadécanol et de l'octadécanol sur la fonction respiratoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORIN J.

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une étude classique de toxicité, les effets de l'utilisation, en milieu aquatique, des alcools gras supérieurs (hexadécanol et octadécanol ont été étudiés sélectivement sur la fonction respiratoire de la truite arc-en-ciel selon deux techniques. 1. Dans les conditions du confinement aquatique, seules des concentrations massives (1000 ppm d'octadécanol provoquent en aigu un abaissement significatif du point d'oxygéno-dépendance aussi bien durant la phase d'exposition qu'après deux heures de récupération en eau pure. Par ailleurs, la consommation d'oxygène est augmentée seulement pendant la phase de récupération en eau pure et ceci 2 heures après une exposition à des concentrations de 10, 100 et 1000 ppm d'alcools gras. 2. Dans les conditions du semi-confinement aquatique, les alcools gras supérieurs ne semblent pas affecter la valeur globale du métabolisme de repos du poisson pour des concentrations de 2 à 3 ppm d'alcools gras.

  11. L’exercice fédéré des compétences locales. À propos de la fonction de «chef de file» en droit des collectivités territoriales français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Groulier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La révision constitutionnelle du 28 mars 2003 a introduit dans le droit des collectivités territoriales un dispositif que l’on pourrait qualifier d’exercice fédéré des compétences locales. Selon l’article 72 alinéa 5 de la Constitution, lorsque l’exercice d’une compétence nécessite le concours de plusieurs collectivités territoriales, la loi peut autoriser l’une d’entre elles ou un de leurs groupements à organiser les modalités de leur action commune, autrement dit à exercer les fonctions de chef de file. À travers cette figure du chef de file, la Constitution semble admettre un principe de superposition entre collectivités territoriales, dérogeant à la règle de l’interdiction des tutelles entre collectivités, liée à leur liberté d’administration. Toutefois, la portée effective de ce nouveau dispositif repose sur sa mise en œuvre législative : or, le législateur fait montre d’une grande réserve, sans doute injustifiée, qui maintient l’idée de superposition entre collectivités à l’état de virtualité.

  12. Table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{rho}) for A = 1 to 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm); Table des energies des particules chargees en fonction de la rigidite magnetique (B{rho}) pour A = 1 a 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{sub {rho}}) is presented. Particles p, d, t, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++}. Values of B{sub {rho}}: 100 to 1200 kG.cm by steps of 0.5 kG.cm. Values of energies are given in keV. (author) [French] Nous presentons une table des energies de protons, deutons, tritons, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++} en fonction de leur rigidite magnetique (B{sub {rho}}). Les valeurs de B{sub {rho}} sont comprises entre 100 et 1200 kG.cm par pas de 0.5 kG.cm. Les valeurs des energies sont donnees en keV. (auteur)

  13. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  14. Radical surgery for Budd-Chiari syndrome through exposure of the entire inferior vena cava of the hepatic segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ming; LI Qing-Le

    2007-01-01

    Background Several kinds of radical surgery for the treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) have been devised. We have described preliminary efforts to treat BCS using a novel radical resection technique to expose the entire inferior vena cava (IVC) of the hepatic segment.Methods Sixty patients with BCS were treated by radical resection, including 46 men and 14 women. BCS patients ranged in age from 11 to 62 years, with 3 months to 11 years since the BCS diagnosis. The lesions included membrane occlusion of the IVC in 16 patients, double membranes within the IVC in 2 patients, double membranes within the IVC and the hepatic vein (HV) in 3 patients, IVC membrane with distal thrombosis in 10 patients, long segment thrombosis of the IVC in 5 patients (organized thrombosis in 2 patients, fresh thrombosis in 3 patients), occlusion of the outlet of the HVs due to mural thrombosis in 2 patients, segmental occlusion of the IVC in 3 patients, membranes within the HV with IVC stenosis due to protrusion of HV stent in 1 patient, HV membranes in 11 patients, extensive occlusion of HVs in 1 patient, the whole IVC tumor thrombus with tumor thrombus of 2/3 right atrium resulting from a posterior peritoneum tumor in 1 patient, IVC leiomyosarcoma in 2 patients, IVC leiomyosarcoma with tumor thrombus into 1/2 right atrium in 1 patient, IVC thrombosis extending into right atrium in 1 patient, compression of supra-hepatic segment of IVC due to fiber trabs in 1 patient.Results All lesions were successfully resected under direct supervision. Three procedures were performed under extracorporeal circulation, 52 patients with catheterization of the right atrium, 4 patients with a cell saver, and one patient with auto-retrieval of blood. The retrieved blood was from 300 ml to 4000 ml. Transfusion of banked blood was from 400 ml to 2000 ml for 14 patients. For the other patients no transfusion of banked blood was required. One patient died of renal failure peri-operatively. Newly formed IVC

  15. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-07-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage is dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the

  16. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine S.; Pedersen, Anders N.; Persson, Gitte F.; Aarup, Lasse R.; Nystroem, Haakan; Olsen, Mikael; Tarnavski, Nikolai; Specht, Lena (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Introduction. With the purpose of implementing gated radiotherapy for lung cancer patients, this study investigated the interfraction variations in tumour size and internal displacement over entire treatment courses. To explore the potential of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) the variations were measured using a set-up strategy based on imaging of bony landmarks and compared to a strategy using in room lasers, skin tattoos and cupper landmarks. Materials and methods. During their six week treatment course of 60Gy in 2Gy fractions, ten patients underwent 3 respiratory gated CT scans. The tumours were contoured on each CT scan to evaluate the variations in volumes and position. The lung tumours and the mediastinal tumours were contoured separately. The positional variations were measured as 3D mobility vectors and correlated to matching of the scans using the two different strategies. Results. The tumour size was significantly reduced from the first to the last CT scan. For the lung tumours the reduction was 19%, p=0.03, and for the mediastinal tumours the reduction was 34%, p=0.0007. The mean 3D mobility vector and the SD for the lung tumours was 0.51cm (+-0.21) for matching using bony landmarks and 0.85cm (+-0.54) for matching using skin tattoos. For the mediastinal tumours the corresponding vectors and SD's were 0.55cm (+-0.19) and 0.72cm (+-0.43). The differences between the vectors were significant for the lung tumours p=0.004. The interfractional overlap of lung tumours was 80-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. Conclusions. Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were dependent on the set-up strategy. Set-up using IGRT was superior to set-up using skin tattoos.

  17. Road and Street Centerlines, Street centerline for the entire county, Published in 1995, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Cochise County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 1995. It is described as 'Street centerline for the entire...

  18. Some study on the growth properties of entire functions represented by vector valued Dirichlet series in the light of relative Ritt orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Datta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For entire functions, the notions of their growth indicators such as Ritt order are classical in complex analysis. But the concepts of relative Ritt order of entire functions and as well as their technical advantages of not comparing with the growths of $exp exp z$ are not at all known to the researchers of this area. Therefore the studies of the growths of entire functions in the light of their relative Ritt order are the prime concern of this paper. Actually in this paper we establish some newly developed results related to the growth rates of entire functions on the basis of their relative Ritt order (respectively, relative Ritt lower order.

  19. Boar taint, meat quality and fail rate in entire male pigs and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor as related to body weight and feeding regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K L; Mullan, B P; Dunshea, F R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the pork quality of entire male pigs and pigs immunized against GnRF (IC males) at both light (64.8kg) and heavy (106kg) liveweights and two feeding regimes (restricted at 2.5 times maintenance and ad libitum). There was no difference in objective measurements (P>0.05) or eating pork quality (P>0.1) between entire male and IC males. Fail rates were reduced by 9.1% and 12% for pork from IC males for quality grade (P=0.007) and re-purchase intention (P=0.001), respectively, compared to pork from entire males. Skatole (P=0.001) and androstenone (P<0.001) levels in belly fat were higher in entire male than IC male pigs. In addition, 37.5% of the light entire male pigs fed ad libitum showed skatole levels that exceeded the sensory threshold of 0.2μg/g. This work confirms that immunization against GnRF is effective in eliminating boar taint and reducing pork quality fail rates by approximately 10% compared to pork from entire males.

  20. Coping and back problems: analysis of multiple data sources on an entire cross-sectional cohort of Swedish military recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volinn Ernest

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the literature now stands, a bewildering number and variety of biological, psychological and social factors are, apparently, implicated in back problems. However, if and how these have a direct influence on back problems is not clear. Obesity, for example, has in many studies been shown to be associated with back problems but there is no evidence for a causal link. This could be explained by a dearth of suitably designed studies but also because obesity may be but a proxy for some other, truly explanatory variable. Coping has been linked with, particularly, persistent back problems as well as with health in general. The question is, whether coping could be the explanatory link between, for example, these two variables. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the Swedish Army, consisting of the entire cohort of males (N = 48,502 summoned in 1998 to serve in the military. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between five independent variables and two dependent variables ("outcome variables". The independent variables were two anthropomorphic variables (height and body mass index, two psychological variables (intellectual capacity and coping in relation to stress, and one social variable (type of education. The two outcome variables were back problems and ill health. In particular, we wanted to determine whether controlling for coping would affect the associations between the other four independent variables and the two outcome variables. Methods Data for the analysis come from a battery of standardized examinations, including medical examinations, a test of intellectual capacity, and a test of coping in relation to stress. Each of these examinations was conducted independently of the others. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the outcome variables of back problems and ill health. Results The associations between height, body mass index, intellectual capacity, type of

  1. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The starting point of our study was the availability of maps of rainfall quantiles available for the entire French mainland territory at the spatial resolution of 1 km². These maps display the rainfall amounts estimated for different rainfall durations (from 15 minutes to 72 hours) and different return periods (from 2 years up to 1 000 years). They are provided by a regionalized stochastic hourly point rainfall generator, the SHYREG method which was previously developed by Irstea (Arnaud et al., 2007; Cantet and Arnaud, 2014). Being calibrated independently on numerous raingauges data (with an average density across the country of 1 raingauge per 200 km²), this method suffers from a limitation common to point-process rainfall generators: it can only reproduce point rainfall patterns and has no capacity to generate rainfall fields. It can't hence provide areal rainfall quantiles, the estimation of the latter being however needed for the construction of design rainfall or for the diagnostic of observed events. One means of bridging this gap between our local rainfall quantiles and areal rainfall quantiles is given by the concept of probabilistic areal reduction factors of rainfall (ARF) as defined by Omolayo (1993). This concept enables to estimate areal rainfall of a particular frequency within a certain amount of time from point rainfalls of the same frequency and duration. Assessing such ARF for the whole French territory is of particular interest since it should allow us to compute areal rainfall quantiles, and eventually watershed rainfall quantiles, by using the already available grids of statistical point rainfall of the SHYREG method. Our purpose was then to assess these ARF thanks to long time-series of spatial rainfall data. We have used two sets of rainfall fields: i) hourly rainfall fields from a 10-year reference database of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) over France (Tabary et al., 2012), ii) daily rainfall fields resulting from a 53-year

  2. Yeast inoculation as a strategy to improve the physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced salt fermented sausages produced with entire male fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José Javier; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Yeast inoculation of dry fermented sausages manufactured with entire male fat was evaluated as a strategy to improve sausage quality. Four different formulations with entire male/gilt back fat and inoculated/non-inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii were manufactured. The use of entire male back fat produced the highest weight losses, hardness and chewiness in dry sausages. Consumers clearly distinguished samples according to drying time and D. hansenii inoculation while the use of entire/gilt back fat was not highly perceived. The presence of androstenone and skatole was close to their sensory thresholds. Androstenone was not degraded during the process but skatole was affected by yeast inoculation. D. hansenii growth on the surface regulated water release during ripening, reduced hardness and chewiness in entire male sausages and resulted with similar texture to gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation inhibited lipid oxidation providing fruity odours and less oxidized fatty sausages in the sensory analysis. The effectiveness of yeast to mask boar taint was demonstrated by sensory analysis.

  3. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seguret J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique, l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illustrée par les résultats obtenus pour un certain nombre de pays : production future de gaz aux Etats-Unis, production pétrolière future du Canada, de l'URSS, du Venezuela et de l'ensemble du monde hors Moyen-Orient. On the basis of the similarity observed between the variation in the petroleum production of a country and that of the penetration of a product into the market (logistic function, this article describes the principle of an original method that can be used, under certain conditions, to forecast the probable annual production of a producing country in 10 to 15 years. The validity of this method is first demonstrated for the example of oil production in the United States. It is then illustrated by results obtained for various other countries, i. e. future gas production in the United States, future oil production of Canada, the Soviet Union, Venezuela and the world as a whole outside of the Middle East.

  4. Le «blues de la canne et du coton» : étude comparative des fonctions socioculturelles du gwo-ka et du blues The “blues of the cane and cotton”: a comparative study of social and cultural functions of the gwo-ka and the blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Gadet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’intéresse à l’interculturalité entre deux phénomènes culturels que sont le Gwo-ka et le Blues issus de la diaspora africaine aux Amériques. Le Gwo-ka est une expression culturelle née en Guadeloupe, île française située dans la mer des Caraïbes. Le Blues est également une expression culturelle née dans le Sud des États-Unis. À partir de l’analyse de leur « matrice » sociohistorique, il s’agira de mettre en évidence les rapprochements entre les différentes fonctions socioculturelles. Nous tenterons de comprendre si la théorie de l’Atlantique Noir de Paul Gilroy, reliant les communautés afro-diasporiques du Nouveau Monde, est valable dans le cadre de notre sujet d’étude.The article deals with the intercultural exchanges between two cultural movements rooted in the African Diasporas. In Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean, Gwo-ka was born on the plantation in the 17th century. Blues appeared in the southern United-States by the end of the 19th century. In order to illustrate the similarities between these two afro-diasporic cultural phenomena, the article first examines the economic and social factors that prompted their emergence. Second, it compares their socio-cultural functions within their respective communities. Using Paul Gilroy’s theory of the Black Atlantic, the article concludes with a questioning of his thesis within the framework of the present study.

  5. 谈建设项目全寿命周期成本的优化%Discussion on the entire life circle cost optimization of construction project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜雨

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes relevant identification of the entire life circle cost optimization of construction project,expounds entire life circle cost optimization method of construction project,and shows optimization steps based on mathematical model,so as to realize the economy and rationality of entire life circle of construction project.%针对建设项目全寿命周期成本优化的相关概念分别作了叙述,并对建设项目全寿命周期成本优化方法进行了详细说明,同时给出了基于数学模型的优化步骤,以实现建设项目全寿命周期的经济性和合理性。

  6. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae):Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results to prior phylogenetic results using plastid, nuclear, and mitochondrial DNA sequences. We obtained, using Illumina sequencing, full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgrou...

  7. La invención de La Fonction Oblique

    OpenAIRE

    Fullaondo Buigas de Dalmau, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Un estudiante arquitecto disimula su espíritu burgués bajo una apariencia de vagabundo y enmascara su cinismo bajo la convención de la ironía. SIMULACRO Una joven arquitectura americana de California se revuelca complacida en el culto a la cabaña de madera y a la falsa granja de cubierta retorcida y pintoresca. Una arquitectura internacional politizada busca en el neorrealismo el sentido tan masoquista de la miseria del buen gusto y de la anécdota irrelevante para calmar su conciencia...

  8. FONCTIONS UBIQUITINE-DEPENDANTES DE LA DEACETYLASE HDAC6

    OpenAIRE

    Boyault, Cyril

    2006-01-01

    At the start of my Ph.D., the lab had discovered and characterized HDAC6, an unusual deacetylase that possesses two deacetylase domains and directly binds to ubiquitin. Moreover, the lab had found that HDAC6 interacts with UFD3/PLAP, a regulator of ubiquitin turnover, and VCP, a mouse homologue of the chaperone Cdc48. However, nothing was known about HDAC6 biological function, especially its role in the ubiquitination pathway. We first observed that HDAC6 over-expression slows down the degrad...

  9. The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion; La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudies en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion. For a fermions system, it is possible to show, by proper resummation, without approximations but under some 'regularity hypothesis', that Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) takes a form where, besides trivial dependences, {alpha} and {beta} only appear through a statistical factor F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} is a (real) self-consistent potential, generalized to all orders and can be defined by a stationary condition on Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) under variations of F{sub k}{sup -}. The thermodynamical quantities take a form analogous to the expressions Landau introduced for the Fermi liquids. The zero temperature limit (for isotropic systems) gives back Goldstone expressions for the ground state of a system. (author) [French] La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudiee en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations. Pour un systeme de fermions on peut, par des resommations adequates, sans approximations mais sous reserve d'une 'hypothese de regularite', mettre Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) sous une forme ou, en dehors de dependances triviales, {alpha} et {beta} n'interviennent que par l'intermediaire d'un facteur statistique F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} est ici un potentiel self-consistant (reel) generalise a tous les ordres et peut etre defini par une condition de stationnarite de Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) pour des variations de F{sub k}{sup -}. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques prennent une forme analogue aux expressions que LANDAU a introduites pour les liquides de FERMI. A la limite de la temperature nulle (et pour un

  10. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black.

  11. 20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

  12. Analysis of the entire nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus genotype B in the Philippines reveals a new subgenotype of genotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Futoshi; Niitsuma, Hirofumi; Cervantes, Julieta G; Chiba, Masanori; Hong, Shan; Ojima, Toshiaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Bondoc, Edgardo; Kobayashi, Koju; Ishii, Motoyasu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2006-05-01

    The entire nucleotide sequences were determined for hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype B (HBV/B) genomes extracted from five patients in the Philippines and designated GenBank AB219426, AB219427, AB219428, AB219429 and AB219430. The serotype of the first four isolates was ayw and that of GenBank AB219430 was adw. Divergences of entire sequences were 1.0-2.0 % between the first four isolates and 3.8-4.2 % between these four and GenBank AB219430. Phylogenetic-tree analysis revealed that, worldwide, HBV/B comprises five subgenotypes: B1, B2, B3, B4 and the new Philippines group, designated B5. Divergences of the entire genome sequences between four isolates in subgenotype B5 and isolates from other countries (subgenotypes) were 4.4-4.8 % with Vietnam (B4), 2.9-3.5 % with Indonesia (B3), 4.7-5.1 % with China (B2) and 5.4-6.0 % with Japan (B1). Similarly, GenBank AB219430 showed the lowest divergences: 3.4 % with the isolate from Indonesia (B3), 5.0 % with Vietnam (B4), 5.4 % with China (B2) and 6.1 % with Japan (B1). This is the first report of entire nucleotide sequences of HBV/B from the Philippines and the results show that these sequences belong to a new subgenotype, B5. The present study identified that HBV/B isolates throughout the world are divided genetically into five subgenotypes, the relationships between geographical distances and the genetic distances of HBV/B being well-correlated.

  13. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David M; Ruess, Holly; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Simon, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid (DcMP). Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data set were highly resolved, with 100% bootstrap support for most of the external and many of the internal clades, except for the clade of D. carota and its most closely related species D. syrticus. Subsets of the data, including regions traditionally used as phylogenetically informative regions, provide various degrees of soft congruence with the entire data set. There are areas of hard incongruence, however, with phylogenies using nuclear data. We extended knowledge of a mitochondrial to plastid DNA insertion sequence previously named DcMP and identified the first instance in flowering plants of a sequence of potential nuclear genome origin inserted into the plastid genome. There is a relationship of inverted repeat junction classes and repeat DNA to phylogeny, but no such relationship with nonsynonymous mutations. Our data have allowed us to (1) produce a well-resolved plastid phylogeny of Daucus, (2) evaluate subsets of the entire plastid data for phylogeny, (3) examine evidence for plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenetic incongruence, and (4) examine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertion into the plastid. © 2017 Spooner et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  14. X-ray structural studies of the entire extra-cellular region of the Ser/Thr kinase PrkC from Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Marchetti, Roberta; Molinaro, Antonio; Berisio, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial Ser/Thr kinases modulate a wide number of cellular processes. PrkC kinase from human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was also shown to induce germination of Bacillus subtilis spores, in response to cell-wall muropeptides. The presence of muropeptides in the bacterial extra-cellular milieu is a strong signal that growing conditions are promising. We report here the x-ray structure of the entire extra-cellular region of PrkC from Staphylococcus aureus. This structur...

  15. A family of vortex wakes generated by a thrush nightingale in free flight in a wind tunnel over its entire natural range of flight speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spedding, G R; Rosén, M; Hedenström, A

    2003-07-01

    In view of the complexity of the wing-beat kinematics and geometry, an important class of theoretical models for analysis and prediction of bird flight performance entirely, or almost entirely, ignores the action of the wing itself and considers only the resulting motions in the air behind the bird. These motions can also be complicated, but some success has previously been recorded in detecting and measuring relatively simple wake structures that can sometimes account for required quantities used to estimate aerodynamic power consumption. To date, all bird wakes, measured or presumed, seem to fall into one of two classes: the closed-loop, discrete vortex model at low flight speeds, and the constant-circulation, continuous vortex model at moderate to high speeds. Here, novel and accurate quantitative measurements of velocity fields in vertical planes aligned with the freestream are used to investigate the wake structure of a thrush nightingale over its entire range of natural flight speeds. At most flight speeds, the wake cannot be categorised as one of the two standard types, but has an intermediate structure, with approximations to the closed-loop and constant-circulation models at the extremes. A careful accounting for all vortical structures revealed with the high-resolution technique permits resolution of the previously unexplained wake momentum paradox. All the measured wake structures have sufficient momentum to provide weight support over the wingbeat. A simple model is formulated and explained that mimics the correct, measured balance of forces in the downstroke- and upstroke-generated wake over the entire range of flight speeds. Pending further work on different bird species, this might form the basis for a generalisable flight model.

  16. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Celine [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Ronot, Maxime; Van Beers, Bernard; Vilgrain, Valerie [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Belghiti, Jacques [Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [Pathology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. (orig.)

  17. Entire Catchment and Buffer Zone Approaches to Modeling Linkage Between River Water Quality and Land Cover——A Case Study of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahman Jabbarian AMIRI; Kaneyuki NAKANE

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the linkages between fiver water quality and land use in river catchments in Yama-guchi Prefecture, the western Japan, in order to examine the effect of land use changes of both entire catchment andbuffer zone on river water quality. Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Suspended Solids(SS), Escherichia coli, Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) were eousidered as river water quality indica-tors. Satellite images were applied to generating the land use map. Multiple regression model was applied to linkingthe changes in the fiver water quality with the land uses in both entire catchment area and buffer zone. The results in-dicate that the integrative application of land use data from the entire catchment and the buffer zone could give rise tomore robust model to predict the concentrations of Suspended Solids (r2=0.88) and Total Nitrogen (r2=0.90), ratherthan models which separately considered land use data in catchment and buffer zone.

  18. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Ronot, Maxime; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Céline; Van Beers, Bernard; Belghiti, Jacques; Paradis, Valérie; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. Peripheral ADC and D of CLMs were higher with major pathological responses. Global ADC and D of CLMs were not different according to residual tumour. Diffusion-weighted images of CLM periphery could be an interesting biomarker of MHR. Diffusion-weighted images could be used to help tailor treatment.

  19. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    . Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  20. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  1. Performance Evaluation of the Entire Personnel Performance Management%全员绩效管理之行为准则评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周谷城

    2016-01-01

    绩效管理是当今人力资源管理的重要内容,企业希望通过有效的绩效管理对员工个人素质和企业经营管理产生巨大的推动作用。全员参与的绩效管理,可以把员工自我的工作目标与企业的经营发展目标紧密的结合起来,使得企业与员工按照同一步伐前进,最终达成个人目标与企业发展双赢的结果。然而现实中的全员绩效管理因管理方式的缺陷,导致绩效管理通常很难达到预期绩效目标,甚至有可能适得其反。本文通过对五彩湾项目部全员绩效管理中的管理过程进行分析,形成一定的绩效管理经验,为今后全员绩效管理的开展提供参考。%Performance management is an important part of current human resource management. Enterprises hope that the effective performance management can have a huge role in promoting the personal quality of employees and enterprise management. The entire personnel performance management can make the employees to closely combine their work objectives with the management development of enterprises, so that enterprises and employees can in accordance with the same pace. Finally, the win-win outcome of individual goals and business development can be reached. However, in reality, because of the defects of the entire personnel performance management, performance management is often difficult to achieve the expected performance goals, and even counterproductive. Through analyzing the management process of the entire personnel performance management of Wucaiwan, the paper forms the experience of performance management, which provides reference for the development of the entire personnel performance management in the future.

  2. 人的全面发展:社会主义的最高价值目标%Personal Entire Development:The Highest Value Target of Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文斌

    2011-01-01

    在社会主义条件下,人的自由而全面发展的最高价值目标是在社会主义经济价值目标、政治价值目标、文化价值目标、社会价值目标及生态价值目标实现的基础上才能得以实现的,离开任何一个或强调任何一个价值目标,人的全面发展就无"全面"可谈。因此,经济、政治、文化的发展、社会文明的增进、生态文明的提出,都只是人自身发展的手段,都是为人的解放和全面发展这个最终目的、最高价值目标服务的。把握人的全面发展的内涵及其实现途径有利于我们更加自觉地坚定社会主义信念,建设中国特色社会主义。%The highest value target of personal free and entire development is actualized by basing on realizing the economic value target 、politic value target 、cultural value target 、social value target and eco-value target of the socialism,and there would be nothing about "entirety" for the personal entire development,if just stress one of them or being aloof from any of them.Therefore,economic 、politic 、cultural developments 、and the improvement in social civilization and the mention of eco-civilization,all of them just a means of a man's self-development,and they all service to the final target or highest value target of personal liberation and entire development.To grasp the connotation of personal entire development and its actualization avenue conduce to us to better and consciously firm the faith in socialism.

  3. EOMCC over excited state Hartree-Fock solutions (ESHF-EOMCC: An efficient approach for the entire ground state potential energy curves of higher-order bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sajeev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The equation-of-motion coupled cluster (EOMCC method based on the excited state Hartree-Fock (ESHF solutions is shown to be appropriate for computing the entire ground state potential energy curves of strongly correlated higher-order bonds. The new approach is best illustrated for the homolytic dissociation of higher-order bonds in molecules. The required multireference character of the true ground state wavefunction is introduced through the linear excitation operator of the EOMCC method. Even at the singles and doubles level of cluster excitation truncation, the nonparallelity error of the ground state potential energy curve from the ESHF based EOMCC method is small.

  4. 传统轿车搭载混合动力系统整车技术%Entire Car Technology of Traditional Car with Hybrid Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余才光; 包寿红; 马智涛; 张彤

    2012-01-01

    结合混合动力车工作原理,从动力系统、底盘、整车电子电器等方面,详细说明传统轿车改制成混合动力车所涉及到的整车技术。%Based on the working principle of hybrid EV, the entire car technology in remaking traditional car to hybrid car has been described in details from the aspects of power system, chassis and electronic apparatus.

  5. MODELING AND SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF ENTIRE VEHICLE PASSIVE SUSPENSION%整车模型被动悬架的建模与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海涛; 高洪

    2013-01-01

      Entire vehicle dynamic models of passive suspension were built on the basis of theory of system dynamics. Input model of road roughness based on white noise-integrator, non-spring loading quality model with front suspension, rear suspension, left suspension, right suspension and kinematics model of body were integrated to mode and realize properties simulation of passive suspension in MATLAB/Simulink. Analyzing simulation results verified that entire vehicle dynamic model with passive suspension and corresponding simulation model were correct. The contribution of the paper provided technical basis for design and optimization of suspension parameter.%  基于系统动力学理论建立了含被动悬架的整车动力学模型。在MATLAB/Simulink中,集成以白噪声——积分器产生的地面输入,前、后、左、右悬架非簧载质量模型和整车运动模型最终实现被动悬架特性仿真的软件建模。通过对仿真实验结果的分析,验证了被动悬架的整车动力学模型和相应的仿真模型的可行性,为悬架参数设计和优化提供了技术基础。

  6. The Technical Research of Entire Protection of Cloud Platform Information Security%云平台信息安全整体保护技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程远; 范红; 李海涛; 韩煜

    2011-01-01

    Currently,the cloud computing develops rapidly.The security of cloud platform should be also paid enough attention.This article based on the structure characteristics of cloud platform,combined with the entire protection of information system requirements,has come up with a program of the entire information security protection technology for cloud platforms.In this program,the cloud platform is composed of the cloud computing environment,cloud zone boundaries,cloud communication network,and cloud security management center.This article does a security analysis for each part and made a technical design requirement of the security indemnification.%目前云计算发展迅速,云平台的安全问题也应引起足够重视。本文根据云平台的结构特点,结合信息系统整体保护要求,提出了一种针对云平台的信息安全整体保护技术方案。该方案将云平台分为云计算环境,云区域边界,云通信网络以及云安全管理中心四个部分,分别对这四部分做了安全性分析,并提出了每一部分的安全保障技术设计要求。

  7. Hydrogeological Parameters solution Using Entire Curve Fitting Method and Aquifertest software%全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 水文地质求参

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜川; 梁秀娟; 张茜; 陈章; 李文娟

    2014-01-01

    Pumping test is the main method to obtain aquifer hydrogeological parameters and the results directly affect the recognizing and exploita-tion of the hydrogeological conditions of study area. The traditional methods have the problems of being effected easily by subjective judgment and external environmental conditions,taking long time to calculate and lacking data about pumping stage. This paper used the entire curve fitting method and Aquifertest software from the standard curve method and recovery method to calculate parameters individually,and combined with the entire curve fitting method to determine the final value. The results show that using Aquifertest software method to calculate parameters is convenient and accurate;the results have smaller differences using water level recovery method;and the entire curve fitting method has the advantage of unique-ness and reliability in deciding the parameters. Combining different methods can more truly reflect the hydrogeological conditions.%抽水试验是获取含水层水文地质参数的主要方法,求参结果直接影响对调查区水文地质条件的认识和地下水开发利用。传统求参方法存在主观影响大、求参时间长、易受外界影响和抽水阶段数据的不足等问题。通过全程曲线拟合法和 Aquifertest 软件分别从配线法和水位恢复法两个角度进行求参,并结合全程曲线拟合法确定最终取值。结果表明,采用 Aquifertest 软件求参便捷、准确,与水位恢复法求参结果的差异相对较小,全程曲线拟合法求参值具有唯一性和可靠性,多种方法结合求参能更真实反映水文地质情况。

  8. Entire 3D and Quick Response Trial-manufacture Technology for Aircraft%飞机全三维快速响应试制应用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙聪

    2013-01-01

      提出了在飞机研制中采用全三维快速响应试制技术,以全三维数字化设计数模为核心,三维设计、三维制造、三维检验的技术体系。这种技术体系设计/工艺高度并行,单一数据源时时共享,并作为唯一依据贯穿飞机研制全生命周期,“边设计、边制造”,制造技术前移。在新型研发平台上建立了以设计与制造一体化为核心的快速试制技术体系,在新技术应用上上了一个台阶,重量控制精准、试制流程简捷、技术体系先进、技术手段实用,实现了“好、快、廉”的设计目标。%The entire 3D and quick response trial-manufacture technology is based on the entire 3D digital model design including 3D design, 3D manufacture and 3D checking. The technology features concurrent and collaborative digital design and manufacture, unique real-time data source shared throughout the entire process of aircraft development, realies design and manufacturing simultaneously, and brings manufacturing forward. The trial-manufacture technology with the core of design/manufacture integration was established on a platform, which turns out to be a precise weight control, an easy and fast trial-manufacture, advanced technology system and a practical technical means. The technology can achieve the design goal of “good performance, rapid manufacturing, low cost”.

  9. Reproducible bipolar resistive switching in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor device and its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiren; Song, Hang, E-mail: songh@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaojuan; Li, Dabing, E-mail: songh@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: lidb@ciomp.ac.cn; Miao, Guoqing [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2014-11-10

    Reproducible bipolar resistive switching characteristics are demonstrated in entire nitride AlN/n-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. The mechanism involved confirms to trap-controlled space charge limited current theory and can be attributed to the nitrogen vacancies of AlN serving as electron traps that form/rupture electron transport channel by trapping/detrapping electrons. This study will lead to the development of in-situ growth of group-III nitrides by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as a candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memory device. Moreover, it will be benefit to structure monolithic integrated one-transistor-one-resistor memory with nitride high electron mobility transistors.

  10. Dystrophic calcification and stone formation on the entire bladder neck after potassium-titanyl phosphate laser vaporization for the prostate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang-Wohn; Park, Yong-Koo; Chang, Sung-Goo

    2009-08-01

    Dystrophic calcification can be defined as a calcification that occurs in degenerated or necrotic tissue. It is associated with multiple clinical conditions, such as collagen vascular diseases. It involves the deposition of calcium in soft tissues despite no generalized disturbance in the calcium or phosphorus metabolism, and this is often seen at sites of previous inflammation or damage. Potassium-titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser vaporization of the prostate is safe and relatively bloodless procedure that results in a shorter catheterization, immediate symptomatic improvement, and less severe postoperative irritative symptoms. However, longer follow-up studies or reports about complications are lacking. Here in we report a case of dystrophic calcification and stone formation on the entire bladder neck after performing KTP laser vaporization of benign prostate hyperplasia. That was treated by lithotripsy and transurethral resection.

  11. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. VII. The First Fully Uniform Catalog Based on The Entire 48 Month Dataset (Q1-Q17 DR24)

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L; Thompson, Susan E; Rowe, Jason F; Burke, Christopher J; Latham, David W; Batalha, Natalie M; Ofir, Aviv; Quarles, Billy L; Henze, Christopher E; Wolfgang, Angie; Caldwell, Douglas A; Bryson, Stephen T; Shporer, Avi; Catanzarite, Joseph; Akeson, Rachel; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J; Boyajian, Tabetha S; Campbell, Jennifer R; Christiansen, Jessie L; Girouard, Forrest R; Haas, Michael R; Howell, Steve B; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M; Li, Jie; Patil-Sabale, Anima; Quintana, Elisa V; Ramirez, Solange; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey C; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D; Zamudio, Khadeejah A

    2015-01-01

    We present the seventh Kepler planet candidate catalog, which is the first to be based on the entire, uniformly processed, 48 month Kepler dataset. This is the first fully automated catalog, employing robotic vetting procedures to uniformly evaluate every periodic signal detected by the Q1-Q17 Data Release 24 (DR24) Kepler pipeline. While we prioritize uniform vetting over the absolute correctness of individual objects, we find that our robotic vetting is overall comparable to, and in most cases is superior to, the human vetting procedures employed by past catalogs. This catalog is the first to utilize artificial transit injection to evaluate the performance of our vetting procedures and quantify potential biases, which are essential for accurate computation of planetary occurrence rates. With respect to the cumulative Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog, we designate 1,478 new KOIs, of which 402 are dispositioned as planet candidates (PCs). Also, 237 KOIs dispositioned as false positives (FPs) in previou...

  12. A Microdeletion of Chromosome 9q33.3 Encompasses the Entire LMX1B Gene in a Chinese Family with Nail Patella Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nail patella syndrome (NPS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by nail malformations, patellar apoplasia, or patellar hypoplasia. Mutations within the LMX1B gene are found in 85% of families with NPS; thus, this gene has been characterized as the causative gene of NPS. In this study, we identified a heterozygous microdeletion of the entire LMX1B gene using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA in a Chinese family with NPS. The determination of the deletion breakpoints by Illumina genome-wide DNA analysis beadchip showed that the deletion was located in chromosome 9q33.3 and spanned about 0.66 Mb in size. This heterozygous deletion provides strong evidence for haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism of NPS.

  13. A DNA fragment from Xq21 replaces a deleted region containing the entire FVIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murru, S.; Casula, L.; Moi, P. [Insituto di Clinica e Biologia dell` Eta Evolutiva, Cagliari (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    In this paper the authors report the molecular characterization of a large deletion that removes the entire Factor VIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient. Accurate DNA analysis of the breakpoint region revealed that a large DNA fragment replaced the 300-kb one, which was removed by the deletion. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the size of the inserted fragment is about 550 kb. In situ hybridization demonstrated that part of the inserted region normally maps to Xq21 and to the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). In this patient this locus is present both in Xq21 and in Xq28, in addition to the Yp, being thus duplicated in the X chromosome. Sequence analysis of the 3` breakpoint suggested that an illegitimate recombination is probably the cause of this complex rearrangement. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  14. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  15. Deuterium-tritium pulse propulsion with hydrogen as propellant and the entire space-craft as a gigavolt capacitor for ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, F.

    2013-08-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) nuclear pulse propulsion concept for fast interplanetary transport is proposed utilizing almost all the energy for thrust and without the need for a large radiator: By letting the thermonuclear micro-explosion take place in the center of a liquid hydrogen sphere with the radius of the sphere large enough to slow down and absorb the neutrons of the DT fusion reaction, heating the hydrogen to a fully ionized plasma at a temperature of ∼105 K. By using the entire spacecraft as a magnetically insulated gigavolt capacitor, igniting the DT micro-explosion with an intense GeV ion beam discharging the gigavolt capacitor, possible if the space craft has the topology of a torus.

  16. High applicability of ASO-RQPCR for detection of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma by entirely patient-specific primers/probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinlei Bai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative PCR (ASO-RQPCR is a standardized technique for detection and monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL but not multiple myeloma (MM due to a low applicability inherent with presence of somatic hypermutation. Herein, by a staged PCR approach and sequencing, clonality and tumor-specific complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 sequence were identified in 13/13 MM by sequential PCR of IgH VDJ (n = 10, IgH DJ (n = 2, or IgK VJ (n = 1. Using consensus primers/probes conventionally employed in ALL, ASO-RQPCR worked in three (23.1 % cases only. Conversely, using entirely patient-specific primers/probes, ASO-RQPCR was applicable in eight (61.5 % cases with a sensitivity of 5 × 10−4–10−5. Moreover, using standard curves constructed by serial dilution of plasmids cloned with patient-specific CDR3, ASO-RQPCR was successful in 12 (92.3 % cases with a sensitivity of 10−4–10−5, but not in a case lacking an N region, in which design of a tumor-specific ASO primer was precluded. Finally, in a patient in complete response (CR, further reduction of MRD after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT was demonstrated. In summary, using entirely patient-specific primers/probes, ASO-RQPCR was applicable in >90 % MM patients and enabled detection of dynamic changes of MRD before and after ASCT despite conventional CR.

  17. Evolutionary Analyses of Entire Genomes Do Not Support the Association of mtDNA Mutations with Ras/MAPK Pathway Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, María; Balboa, Emilia; Heredia, Claudia; Castro-Feijóo, Lidia; Rica, Itxaso; Barreiro, Jesús; Eirís, Jesús; Cabanas, Paloma; Martínez-Soto, Isabel; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Pombo, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Barros, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS) and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1), although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45), most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42). Methods/Principal Findings The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg) patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U). Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5) are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS. PMID:21526175

  18. Comparison among gilts, physical castrates, entire males, and immunological castrates in terms of growth performance, nitrogen and phosphorus retention, and carcass fat iodine value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbernd, A J; Stalder, K J; Karriker, L A; Patience, J F

    2015-12-01

    The main objective was to determine the nitrogen and P retention and energy digestibility of immunological castrates (IC), entire males (EM), physical castrates (PC), and gilts (G) during 3 growth phases. A second objective was to compare growth performance among the sexes. The final objective was to determine the carcass iodine value (IV) among the sexes. Twelve individually housed pigs (PIC 337 × C22/29) of each sex with an initial mean BW of 35.7 ± 0.6 kg and a final BW of 145.0 ± 1.3 kg were evaluated. Anti-gonadotropin-releasing factor injections were administered at d 23 and 15 for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The second injection was given on d 56 of the 98-d experiment. Nitrogen, P, and energy digestibility were measured the last 3 d of the 10-d metabolism period starting at mean BW of 39.5 ± 0.6, 73.7 ± 0.8, and 105.5 ± 0.9 kg for periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The third collection started 14 d after the second injection. Entire males and IC had superior overall ADG compared to PC and G ( 0.05). In the third collection period, nitrogen retention of IC was similar to that of both EM and PC ( sexes in the first collection; during the second collection, EM retained the greatest amount of P, G and PC retained the lowest, with IC being similar to all sexes. For the third collection, IC had P retention similar to that of EM, EM had retention similar to that of PC, and PC had retention similar to that of G ( > 0.05). However, G retained less P than EM or IC ( sexes in any of the collection periods ( > 0.05). The jowl IV was the lowest in IC and PC and highest in EM, with G being similar to all sexes ( sexes being similar. In conclusion, 2 wk after the second injection, IC transition to become more similar to PC in terms of nitrogen utilization but are still similar to EM in P utilization. These data suggest a feeding program for IC that is intermediate between EM and PC is required to meet their nutritional requirements.

  19. Evolutionary analyses of entire genomes do not support the association of mtDNA mutations with Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1, although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45, most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U. Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5 are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS.

  20. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  1. Effect of housing system, slaughter weight and slaughter strategy on carcass and meat quality, sex organ development and androstenone and skatole levels in Duroc finished entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fàbrega, E; Gispert, M; Tibau, J; Hortós, M; Oliver, M A; Furnols, M Font I

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of housing system (HS), slaughter weight (SW) and strategy (SS) on carcass a nd meat quality, sexual organ development and boar taint in entire males. Twelve pens of 10 pigs were used (two trials). Half of male pens were allowed visual contact with females (MF) and half with males (MM). Half MM or MF were slaughtered at 105 or 130 kg in trial 1, or penwise or by split marketing in trial 2 at 120 kg. Housing system showed no significant effect on carcass or meat quality. MF presented significantly longer testicles and heavier bulbourethral glands compared to MM. The distribution of androstenone and skatole levels was affected by SW but not by HS or SS, samples with androstenone >1 μg/g of the different groups falling within the range of 16 to 22%. All correlations between androstenone and sex organs were significant. Housing system and slaughter strategy did not reduce the risk of boar tainted carcasses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer.

  3. [Genetic characterization of the entire genome of an H9N2 avian influenza virus A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhong; Liu, Xiufan; Shao, Weixing; Zhang, Pinghu; Wei, Dongping

    2003-08-01

    Eight full-length genes of an H9N2 subtype avian influenza virus A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/ 98(H9N2), were amplified by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and sequenced. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 was entirely different from Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 which was directly related to human infection with avian influenza virus in Hong Kong, whereas its HA, NA, M and NS genes belonged to A/Chicken/Beijing/ 1/94-like sublineage with the nucleotide homology of 96.7%, 96.4%, 97.5% and 98.0% respectively. The homology of NA gene between A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 and A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/ 97 was 97.4% and they both lost 9 nucleotides between nt 205 to 206. However, the PB2, PB1, PA, NP genes did not show any close relationship with those of the three known sublineages and the later three didn't share immediate ancestors with available isolates whose sequences had been reported. Therefore, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/98 is a product of natural reassortment between H9N2 avian influenza viruses from different sublineages.

  4. Efficient long-term survival of cell grafts after myocardial infarction with thick viable cardiac tissue entirely from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takehiko; Masumoto, Hidetoshi; Tajima, Shuhei; Ikuno, Takeshi; Katayama, Shiori; Minakata, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi; Yamamizu, Kohei; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Ryuzo; Yamashita, Jun K

    2015-11-20

    Poor engraftment of cells after transplantation to the heart is a common and unresolved problem in the cardiac cell therapies. We previously generated cardiovascular cell sheets entirely from pluripotent stem cells with cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and vascular mural cells. Though sheet transplantation showed a better engraftment and improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction, stacking limitation (up to 3 sheets) by hypoxia hampered larger structure formation and long-term survival of the grafts. Here we report an efficient method to overcome the stacking limitation. Insertion of gelatin hydrogel microspheres (GHMs) between each cardiovascular cell sheet broke the viable limitation via appropriate spacing and fluid impregnation with GHMs. Fifteen sheets with GHMs (15-GHM construct; >1 mm thickness) were stacked within several hours and viable after 1 week in vitro. Transplantation of 5-GHM constructs (≈2 × 10(6) of total cells) to a rat myocardial infarction model showed rapid and sustained functional improvements. The grafts were efficiently engrafted as multiple layered cardiovascular cells accompanied by functional capillary networks. Large engrafted cardiac tissues (0.8 mm thickness with 40 cell layers) successfully survived 3 months after TX. We developed an efficient method to generate thicker viable tissue structures and achieve long-term survival of the cell graft to the heart.

  5. Tumor de células gigantes costal ocupando todo o hemitórax Giant cell tumor of the rib occupying the entire hemithorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Zuínglio de Biasi Cordeiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente de 28 anos de idade portadora de tumor de células gigantes originário da costela. O tumor de grandes dimensões (25 × 17 cm ocupava todo o hemitórax e causava atelectasia do pulmão esquerdo. Tratava-se de uma neoplasia mesenquimal benigna, a qual raramente acomete as costelas. Foi realizada toracotomia com ressecção em bloco da parede torácica e do tumor. O objetivo deste artigo é enfatizar que, apesar da grande dimensão do tumor, ele pôde ser completamente ressecado, e o pulmão foi reabilitado.The authors report the case of a 28-year-old female patient with a giant cell tumor originating from the rib. The tumor, measuring 25 × 17 cm, occupied the entire hemithorax and caused atelectasis of the left lung. This tumor was a benign mesenchymal neoplasm, which rarely affects the ribs. A thoracotomy involving en bloc resection of the chest wall and tumor was performed. Despite the large dimensions of the tumor, complete resection was possible, and lung function was restored.

  6. X-ray structural studies of the entire extracellular region of the serine/threonine kinase PrkC from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Alessia; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Marchetti, Roberta; Molinaro, Antonio; Berisio, Rita

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial serine/threonine kinases modulate a wide number of cellular processes. The serine/threonine kinase PrkC from the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus was also shown to induce germination of Bacillus subtilis spores, in response to cell wall muropeptides. The presence of muropeptides in the bacterial extracellular milieu is a strong signal that the growing conditions are promising. In the present paper, we report the X-ray structure of the entire extracellular region of PrkC from S. aureus. This structure reveals that the extracellular region of PrkC, EC-PrkC, is a linear modular structure composed of three PASTA (penicillin binding-associated and serine/threonine kinase-associated) domains and an unpredicted C-terminal domain, which presents the typical features of adhesive proteins. Using several solution techniques, we also found that EC-PrkC shows no tendency to dimerize even in the presence of high concentrations of muropeptides. X-ray structural results obtained in the present study provide molecular clues into the mechanism of muropeptide-induced PrkC activation.

  7. Comparison of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment and the New Zealand Manual Handling 'Hazard Control Record', for assessment of manual handling hazards in the supermarket industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Alison

    2005-01-01

    This is a case study comparing the use of two different assessment tools (Rapid Entire Body Assessment versus New Zealand Manual Handling Hazard Control Record) to assess, plan and implement changes in manual handling practices in the supermarket industry. Existing manual handling practices being used within these supermarkets were assessed using each of these tools. The most hazardous tasks were revised to improve work methods and reviewed again using both tools, to determine the usefulness and effectiveness of these tools. The process generated considerable discussion regarding the benefits and drawbacks of each tool. The usefulness of each tool appears dependant on the reason for assessment and the anticipated outcome. REBA may be more useful if specific ergonomic or biomechanical changes are being implemented to decrease risk of work-related injury (particularly if an objective numeric score is required for re-assessment following modifications, to determine their effectiveness). The New Zealand Code of Practice for Manual Handling 'Hazard Control Record' Risk Score analysis process lacks specificity and objectivity, however it is less reductionistic and takes into account many factors other than biomechanics and ergonomics. It directs the user toward implementing controls, which are thorough, multi-factorial and useful to control hazards relating to several other areas, including task, load, environment, people and management factors.

  8. Coronary imaging quality in routine ECG-gated multidetector CT examinations of the entire thorax: preliminary experience with a 64-slice CT system in 133 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, Damien; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Salem, Randa; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques [Hospital Calmette, University Center of Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Lille Cedex (France); Delannoy-Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain [University of Lille, Department of Medical Statistics, Lille Cedex (France)

    2007-04-15

    To evaluate image quality in the assessment of the coronary arteries during routine ECG-gated multidetector CT (MDCT) of the chest. One hundred and thirty three patients in sinus rhythm underwent an ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the entire chest without {beta}-blockers with a 64-slice CT system. In 127 patients (95%), it was possible to assess the coronary arteries partially or totally; coronary artery imaging failed in six patients (5%), leading to a detailed description of the coronary arteries in 127 patients. Considering ten coronary artery segments per patient, 75% of coronary segments were assessable (948/1270 segments). When the distal segments were excluded from the analysis (i.e., seven coronary segments evaluated per patient), the percentage of assessable segments was 86% (768/889 proximal and mid coronary segments) and reached 93% (474/508) when assessing proximal segments exclusively. The mean number of assessable segments was significantly higher in patients with a heart rate {<=}80 bpm (n=95) than in patients with a heart rate >80 bpm (n=38) (p<0.002). Proximal and mid-coronary segments can be adequately assessed during a whole-chest ECG-gated CT angiographic examination without administration of {beta}-blockers in patients with a heart rate below 80 bpm. (orig.)

  9. The effect of wakes on the fatigue damage of wind turbine components over their entire lifetime using short-term load measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlina-Barber, Sarah; Mechler, Sebastian; Nitschke, Mario

    2016-09-01

    A method is developed for quantifying the effect of neighboring wind turbines on the fatigue damage of the main components of a wind turbine over its entire operating time using short-term load measurements. This method could be used in the future for improving wind farm planning software that takes into account fatigue damage as well as energy yield or for improving lifetime extension calculations of wind turbines. The method is applied here to a measurement campaign on a Vestas V66 wind turbine located in northern Germany and the results are found to be plausible. Furthermore, the results show that the increase in total lifetime fatigue damage due to neighboring wind turbines for wind turbine separations of the order of 5D is significant and needs to be taken account of in wind farm planning software. The accuracy of the method is examined by investigating the sensitivity of the main assumptions on the results. It is found to be strongly dependent on the number of measured time-series in a wind speed bin as well as on the choice of wind speed frequency distribution. The method therefore needs to be standardized before it is applied to improving wind farm planning software or lifetime extension calculations of wind turbines.

  10. Latexin Inactivation Enhances Survival and Long-Term Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Expands the Entire Hematopoietic System in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural genetic diversity offers an important yet largely untapped resource to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function. Latexin (Lxn is a negative stem cell regulatory gene identified on the basis of genetic diversity. By using an Lxn knockout mouse model, we found that Lxn inactivation in vivo led to the physiological expansion of the entire hematopoietic hierarchy. Loss of Lxn enhanced the competitive repopulation capacity and survival of HSCs in a cell-intrinsic manner. Gene profiling of Lxn-null HSCs showed altered expression of genes enriched in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Thrombospondin 1 (Thbs1 was a potential downstream target with a dramatic downregulation in Lxn-null HSCs. Enforced expression of Thbs1 restored the Lxn inactivation-mediated HSC phenotypes. This study reveals that Lxn plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis, and it may lead to development of safe and effective approaches to manipulate HSCs for clinical benefit.

  11. Entire genome sequence analysis of genotype IX Newcastle disease viruses reveals their early-genotype phylogenetic position and recent-genotype genome size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shunling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six nucleotide (nt insertion in the 5'-noncoding region (NCR of the nucleoprotein (NP gene of Newcaslte disease virus (NDV is considered to be a genetic marker for recent genotypes of NDV, which emerged after 1960. However, F48-like NDVs from China, identified a 6-nt insert in the NP gene, have been previously classified into genotype III or genotype IX. Results In order to clarify their phylogenetic position and explore the origin of NDVs with the 6-nt insert and its significance in NDV evolution, we determined the entire genome sequences of five F48-like viruses isolated in China between 1946 and 2002 by RT-PCR amplification of overlapping fragments of full-length genome and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. All the five NDV isolates shared the same genome size of 15,192-nt with the recent genotype V-VIII viruses whereas they had the highest homology with early genotype III and IV isolates. Conclusions The unique characteristic of the genome size and phylogenetic position of F48-like viruses warrants placing them in a separate geno-group, genotype IX. Results in this study also suggest that genotype IX viruses most likely originate from a genotype III virus by insertion of a 6-nt motif in the 5'-NCR of the NP gene which had occurred as early as in 1940 s, and might be the common origin of genotype V-VIII viruses.

  12. Risk factors for childhood obesity: shift of the entire BMI distribution vs. shift of the upper tail only in a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyerlein Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported an increase of upper body mass index (BMI quantiles for formula fed infants compared to breastfed infants, while corresponding mean differences were low. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of known risk factors for childhood obesity on the BMI distribution. Methods Data on 4,884 children were obtained at obligatory school entry health examinations in Bavaria (Germany. Exposure variables were formula feeding, maternal smoking in pregnancy, excessive TV-watching, low meal frequency, poor parental education, maternal overweight and high infant weight gain. Cumulative BMI distributions and Tukey mean-difference plots were used to assess possible shifts of BMI distributions by exposure. Results Maternal overweight and high infant weight gain shifted the entire BMI-distribution with an accentuation on upper quantiles to higher BMI values. In contrast, parental education, formula feeding, high TV consumption, low meal frequency and maternal smoking in pregnancy resulted in a shift of upper quantiles only. Conclusion The single shifts among upper parts of the BMI distribution might be due to effect modification of the corresponding exposures by another environmental exposure or genetic predisposition. Affected individuals might represent a susceptible subpopulation of the exposed.

  13. Portrait de la compression et de l'expansion de la morbidité au Canada : évolution de l'espérance de vie et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé, 1994-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Steensma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Notre étude visait à examiner s'il y a eu une expansion ou une compression de la morbidité au Canada, à l'échelle tant nationale que provinciale, en suivant l'évolution de l'espérance de vie (EV et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé (EVAS entre 1994 et 2010. Une « compression », qui correspond à une diminution de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS augmente plus rapidement que l'EV. Inversement, une « expansion », qui désigne une augmentation de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS est stable ou augmente plus lentement que l'EV. Méthodologie : Nous avons estimé l'EV à l'aide des données de Statistique Canada sur la mortalité et sur la population. Nous avons utilisé les données sur la qualité de vie liée à la santé (c.-à-d. morbidité de l'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (1994-1999 et de l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (2000-2010 pour calculer l'EVAS. Nous avons établi des tables de mortalité abrégées pour sept intervalles de temps correspondant aux cycles d'enquête disponibles durant la période de 1994 à 2010, ainsi que pour les deux sexes et les dix provinces canadiennes. Les tendances nationales et provinciales ont été examinées à la naissance, à 20 ans et à 65 ans. Résultats : Dans l'ensemble, nous avons constaté une hausse annuelle moyenne statistiquement significative de l'EVAS chez les deux sexes aux trois âges évalués, sauf chez les nouveau-nés de sexe féminin. L'EVAS à la naissance a augmenté en moyenne par année, entre 1994 et 2010, de 0,2 % (p = 0,08 chez les sujets de sexe féminin et de 0,3% (p < 0,001 chez ceux de sexe masculin. À l'échelle nationale, les trois groupes d'âge ont présenté une augmentation annuelle moyenne non statistiquement significative de la proportion de la vie marquée par des

  14. Mapping inter-regional connectivity of the entire cortex to characterize major depressive disorder: a whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Cooper, Nicholas J; Williams, Leanne M; Grieve, Stuart M

    2012-06-20

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to study the organization of brain white matter noninvasively. The aim of this study was to present a proof of concept for integrating DTI with high-resolution anatomical (T1) images to map and assess inter-regional connectivity across the entire cortex in a cohort of healthy participants and compared with patients with major depressive disorder. We used MRI data of 23 patients and 23 matched controls, assessed as part of baseline testing in the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D). Freesurfer was used to analyze the T1 images to automatically label 35 gyral-based areas for each hemisphere. DTI tractography was performed to parcellate intercortical tracts using each of these areas in seed-target combinations. We quantified fractional anisotropy, number-of-fiber connections, and fiber path length for each DTI connection, with the goal of identifying the best measure or combination of measures to characterize major depression. The best classification accuracy for the individual measures was achieved using the number-of-fibers data, whereas the combination model provided a slight improvement. The most discriminant features between the two groups were for white matter associated with the limbic, frontal, and thalamic projection fibers and as part of cortical connections between the left inferior temporal and the postcentral cortex; the left parstriangularis and the left superior frontal; the left cuneus and the corpus callosum; the left lingual and the right lateral occipital, the right superior parietal and the right superior temporal cortices; and the right inferior parietal and the right insula and postcentral cortices.

  15. Effect of vitamin D2- and D3-enriched diets on egg vitamin D content, production, and bird condition during an entire production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Valaja, J; Rossow, L; Venäläinen, E; Tupasela, T

    2004-03-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during winter is a common problem for humans in Europe. One way to ease this problem is through the production of vitamin D-fortified eggs. To evaluate such a production process, the effects of vitamin D supplementation during an entire production period were assessed. Transfer of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from the diet to egg yolks was measured using 2 different levels of both vitamins (6,000 and 15,000 IU/kg feed) relative to a control treatment (2,500 IU vitamin D3/kg feed). During the experiment, production parameters, egg quality (egg weight, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell fracture force, and Ca content of eggshell), and the condition of hens were monitored. At the end of the experiment histopathological tests were performed. Supplementing diets with vitamin D3 increased egg yolk vitamin D content more effectively than did supplementation with vitamin D2. For groups of hens receiving 6,000 or 15,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg feed, egg yolk vitamin D3 content ranged from 9.1 to 13.6 and from 25.3 to 33.7 microg/100 g, respectively. Corresponding values for birds fed vitamin D2 were 4.7 to 7.0 and 13.3 to 21.0 microg/100 g. Both supplements enhanced vitamin D3 content of egg yolks relative to the control diet (2.5 to 5.0 microg/100 g of egg yolk). Vitamin D supplements had no effects on production parameters compared with the control diet. However, especially vitamin D3 improved bone strength (P < 0.05). Autopsy at the end of the experiment indicated no detrimental accumulation of calcium in the kidneys, liver, heart, muscles, or lungs.

  16. Targeted next generation sequencing of the entire vitamin D receptor gene reveals polymorphisms correlated with vitamin D deficiency among older Filipino women with and without fragility fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaraga, Mark Pretzel; Medina, Paul Julius; Recto, Juan Miguel; Abrahan, Lauro; Azurin, Edelyn; Tanchoco, Celeste C; Jimeno, Cecilia A; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to discover genetic variants in the entire 101 kB vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for vitamin D deficiency in a group of postmenopausal Filipino women using targeted next generation sequencing (TNGS) approach in a case-control study design. A total of 50 women with and without osteoporotic fracture seen at the Philippine Orthopedic Center were included. Blood samples were collected for determination of serum vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and as primary source for targeted VDR gene sequencing using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. The variant calling was based on the GATK best practice workflow and annotated using Annovar tool. A total of 1496 unique variants in the whole 101-kb VDR gene were identified. Novel sequence variations not registered in the dbSNP database were found among cases and controls at a rate of 23.1% and 16.6% of total discovered variants, respectively. One disease-associated enhancer showed statistically significant association to low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (Pearson chi-square P-value=0.009). The transcription factor binding site prediction program PROMO predicted the disruption of three transcription factor binding sites in this enhancer region. These findings show the power of TNGS in identifying sequence variations in a very large gene and the surprising results obtained in this study greatly expand the catalog of known VDR sequence variants that may represent an important clue in the emergence of vitamin D deficiency. Such information will also provide the additional guidance necessary toward a personalized nutritional advice to reach sufficient vitamin D status.

  17. Avoidance of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus in leaf-cutting ants: Learning can take place entirely at the colony dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Andrés; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Plants initially accepted by foraging leaf-cutting ants are later avoided if they prove unsuitable for their symbiotic fungus. Plant avoidance is mediated by the waste produced in the fungus garden soon after the incorporation of the unsuitable leaves, as foragers can learn plant odors and cues from the damaged fungus that are both present in the recently produced waste particles. We asked whether avoidance learning of plants unsuitable for the symbiotic fungus can take place entirely at the colony dump. In order to investigate whether cues available in the waste chamber induce plant avoidance in naïve subcolonies, we exchanged the waste produced by subcolonies fed either fungicide-treated privet leaves or untreated leaves and measured the acceptance of untreated privet leaves before and after the exchange of waste. Second, we evaluated whether foragers could perceive the avoidance cues directly at the dump by quantifying the visits of labeled foragers to the waste chamber. Finally, we asked whether foragers learn to specifically avoid untreated leaves of a plant after a confinement over 3 hours in the dump of subcolonies that were previously fed fungicide-treated leaves of that species. After the exchange of the waste chambers, workers from subcolonies that had access to waste from fungicide-treated privet leaves learned to avoid that plant. One-third of the labeled foragers visited the dump. Furthermore, naïve foragers learned to avoid a specific, previously unsuitable plant if exposed solely to cues of the dump during confinement. We suggest that cues at the dump enable foragers to predict the unsuitable effects of plants even if they had never been experienced in the fungus garden.

  18. Determination of the saturated film conductivity to improve the EMFX model in describing the soil hydraulic properties over the entire moisture range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunquan; Ma, Jinzhu; Guan, Huade; Zhu, Gaofeng

    2017-06-01

    Difficulty in measuring hydraulic conductivity, particularly under dry conditions, calls for methods of predicting the conductivity from easily obtained soil properties. As a complement to the recently published EMFX model, a method based on two specific suction conditions is proposed to estimate saturated film conductivity from the soil water retention curve. This method reduces one fitting parameter in the previous EMFX model, making it possible to predict the hydraulic conductivity from the soil water retention curve over the complete moisture range. Model performance is evaluated with published data of soils in a broad texture range from sand to clay. The testing results indicate that 1) the modified EMFX model (namely the EMFX-K model), incorporating both capillary and adsorption forces, provides good agreement with the conductivity data over the entire moisture range; 2) a value of 0.5 for the tortuosity factor in the EMFX-K model as that in the Mualem's model gives comparable estimation of the relative conductivity associated with the capillary force; and 3) a value of -1.0 × 10-20 J for the Hamaker constant, rather than the commonly used value of -6.0 × 10-20 J, appears to be more appropriate to represent solely the effect of the van der Waals forces and to predict the film conductivity. In comparison with the commonly used van Genuchten-Mualem model, the EMFX-K model significantly improves the prediction of hydraulic conductivity under dry conditions. The sensitivity analysis result suggests that the uncertainty in the film thickness estimation is important in explaining the model underestimation of hydraulic conductivity for the soils with fine texture, in addition to the uncertainties from the measurements and the model structure. High quality data that cover the complete moisture range for a variety of soil textures are required to further test the method.

  19. Growth and characterization of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} highly mismatched alloys over the entire composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquez, M.; Ting, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hettick, M.; Javey, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sánchez-Royo, J. F. [ICMUV, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universitat de València, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Wełna, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Dubon, O. D. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Walukiewicz, W., E-mail: w-walukiewicz@lbl.gov [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Alloys from ZnO and ZnS have been synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering over the entire alloying range. The ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} films are crystalline for all compositions. The optical absorption edge of these alloys decreases rapidly with small amount of added sulfur (x ∼ 0.02) and continues to red shift to a minimum of 2.6 eV at x = 0.45. At higher sulfur concentrations (x > 0.45), the absorption edge shows a continuous blue shift. The strong reduction in the band gap for O-rich alloys is the result of the upward shift of the valence-band edge with x as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, the room temperature bandgap of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} alloys can be tuned from 3.7 eV to 2.6 eV. The observed large bowing in the composition dependence of the energy bandgap arises from the anticrossing interactions between (1) the valence-band of ZnO and the localized sulfur level at 0.30 eV above the ZnO valence-band maximum for O-rich alloys and (2) the conduction-band of ZnS and the localized oxygen level at 0.20 eV below the ZnS conduction band minimum for the S-rich alloys. The ability to tune the bandgap and knowledge of the location of the valence and conduction-band can be advantageous in applications, such as heterojunction solar cells, where band alignment is crucial.

  20. Comparing continuous wave progressive saturation EPR and time domain saturation recovery EPR over the entire motional range of nitroxide spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Robert D; Canaan, Stephane; Gladden, James A; Gelb, Michael H; Mailer, Colin; Robinson, Bruce H

    2004-07-01

    The measurement of spin-lattice relaxation rates from spin labels, such as nitroxides, in the presence and absence of spin relaxants provides information that is useful for determining biomolecular properties such as nucleic acid dynamics and the interaction of proteins with membranes. We compare X-band continuous wave (CW) and pulsed or time domain (TD) EPR methods for obtaining spin-lattice relaxation rates of spin labels across the entire range of rotational motion to which relaxation rates are sensitive. Model nitroxides and spin-labeled biological species are used to illustrate the potential complications that arise in extracting relaxation data under conditions typical to biological experiments. The effect of super hyperfine (SHF) structure is investigated for both CW and TD spectra. First and second harmonic absorption and dispersion CW spectra of the nitroxide spin label, TEMPOL, are all fit simultaneously to a model of SHF structure over a range of microwave amplitudes. The CW spectra are novel because all harmonics and microwave phases were acquired simultaneously using our homebuilt CW/TD spectrometer. The effect of the SHF structure on the pulsed free induction decay (FID) and pulsed saturation recovery spectrum is shown for both protonated and deuterated TEMPOL. We present novel pulsed saturation recovery measurements on biological molecules, including spin-lattice relaxation rates of spin-labeled proteins and spin-labeled double-stranded DNA. The impact of structure and dynamics on relaxation rates are discussed in the context of each of these examples. Collisional relaxation rates with oxygen and transition metal paramagnetic relaxants are extracted using both continuous wave and time domain methods. The extent of the errors inherent in the CW method and the advantages of pulsed methods for unambiguously measuring collisional relaxation rates are discussed. Spin-lattice relaxation rates, determined by both CW and pulsed methods, are used to determine

  1. Characterization of the entire cystatin gene family in barley and their target cathepsin L-like cysteine-proteases, partners in the hordein mobilization during seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-11-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds.

  2. Planetary Candidates Observed by Kepler. VII. The First Fully Uniform Catalog Based on the Entire 48-month Data Set (Q1-Q17 DR24)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Mullally, F.; Thompson, Susan E.; Rowe, Jason F.; Burke, Christopher J.; Latham, David W.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ofir, Aviv; Quarles, Billy L.; Henze, Christopher E.; Wolfgang, Angie; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Shporer, Avi; Catanzarite, Joseph; Akeson, Rachel; Barclay, Thomas; Borucki, William J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Campbell, Jennifer R.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Haas, Michael R.; Howell, Steve B.; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M.; Li, Jie; Patil-Sabale, Anima; Quintana, Elisa V.; Ramirez, Solange; Seader, Shawn; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Zamudio, Khadeejah A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the seventh Kepler planet candidate (PC) catalog, which is the first catalog to be based on the entire, uniformly processed 48-month Kepler data set. This is the first fully automated catalog, employing robotic vetting procedures to uniformly evaluate every periodic signal detected by the Q1-Q17 Data Release 24 (DR24) Kepler pipeline. While we prioritize uniform vetting over the absolute correctness of individual objects, we find that our robotic vetting is overall comparable to, and in most cases superior to, the human vetting procedures employed by past catalogs. This catalog is the first to utilize artificial transit injection to evaluate the performance of our vetting procedures and to quantify potential biases, which are essential for accurate computation of planetary occurrence rates. With respect to the cumulative Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog, we designate 1478 new KOIs, of which 402 are dispositioned as PCs. Also, 237 KOIs dispositioned as false positives (FPs) in previous Kepler catalogs have their disposition changed to PC and 118 PCs have their disposition changed to FPs. This brings the total number of known KOIs to 8826 and PCs to 4696. We compare the Q1-Q17 DR24 KOI catalog to previous KOI catalogs, as well as ancillary Kepler catalogs, finding good agreement between them. We highlight new PCs that are both potentially rocky and potentially in the habitable zone of their host stars, many of which orbit solar-type stars. This work represents significant progress in accurately determining the fraction of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. The full catalog is publicly available at the NASA Exoplanet Archive.

  3. Characterization of expressed Pgip genes in rice and wheat reveals similar extent of sequence variation to dicot PGIPs and identifies an active PGIP lacking an entire LRR repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janni, Michela; Di Giovanni, Michela; Roberti, Serena; Capodicasa, Cristina; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2006-11-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. A number of PGIPs have been characterized from dicot species, whereas only a few data are available from monocots. Database searches and genome-specific cloning strategies allowed the identification of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) and two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Pgip genes. The rice Pgip genes (Ospgip1, Ospgip2, Ospgip3 and Ospgip4) are distributed over a 30 kbp region of the short arm of chromosome 5, whereas the wheat Pgip genes, Tapgip1 and Tapgip2, are localized on the short arm of chromosome 7B and 7D, respectively. Deduced amino acid sequences show the typical LRR modular organization and a conserved distribution of the eight cysteines at the N- and C-terminal regions. Sequence comparison suggests that monocot and dicot PGIPs form two separate clusters sharing about 40% identity and shows that this value is close to the extent of variability observed within each cluster. Gene-specific RT-PCR and biochemical analyses demonstrate that both Ospgips and Tapgips are expressed in the whole plant or in a tissue-specific manner, and that OsPGIP1, lacking an entire LRR repeat, is an active inhibitor of fungal polygalacturonases. This last finding can contribute to define the molecular features of PG-PGIP interactions and highlights that the genetic events that can generate variability at the Pgip locus are not only limited to substitutions or small insertions/deletions, as so far reported, but can also involve variation in the number of LRRs.

  4. The microRNAs in an ancient protist repress the variant-specific surface protein expression by targeting the entire coding sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh A Saraiya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNA have been detected in the deeply branched protist, Giardia lamblia, and shown to repress expression of the family of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs, only one of which is expressed in Giardia trophozoite at a given time. Three next-generation sequencing libraries of Giardia Argonaute-associated small RNAs were constructed and analyzed. Analysis of the libraries identified a total of 99 new putative miRNAs with a size primarily in the 26 nt range similar to the size previously predicted by the Giardia Dicer crystal structure and identified by our own studies. Bioinformatic analysis identified multiple putative miRNA target sites in the mRNAs of all 73 VSPs. The effect of miRNA target sites within a defined 3'-region were tested on two vsp mRNAs. All the miRNAs showed partial repression of the corresponding vsp expression and were additive when the targeting sites were separately located. But the combined repression still falls short of 100%. Two other relatively short vsp mRNAs with 15 and 11 putative miRNA target sites identified throughout their ORFs were tested with their corresponding miRNAs. The results indicate that; (1 near 100% repression of vsp mRNA expression can be achieved through the combined action of multiple miRNAs on target sites located throughout the ORF; (2 the miRNA machinery could be instrumental in repressing the expression of vsp genes in Giardia; (3 this is the first time that all the miRNA target sites in the entire ORF of a mRNA have been tested and shown to be functional.

  5. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is caused by the entire deletion of CLN8 in the Alpenländische Dachsbracke dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirz, M; Drögemüller, M; Schänzer, A; Jagannathan, V; Dietschi, E; Goebel, H H; Hecht, W; Laubner, S; Schmidt, M J; Steffen, F; Hilbe, M; Köhler, K; Drögemüller, C; Herden, C

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited lysosomal storage diseases that have been described in a variety of dog breeds, where they are caused by different mutations in different genes. However, the causative gene defect in the breed Alpenländische Dachsbracke remained unknown so far. Here we present two confirmed cases of NCL in Alpenländische Dachsbracke dogs from different litters of the same sire with a different dam harboring the same underlying novel mutation in the CLN8 gene. Case 1, a 2-year-old male Alpenländische Dachsbracke was presented with neurological signs including disorientation, character changes including anxiety states and aggressiveness, sudden blindness and reduction of food intake. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed cerebral atrophy with dilation of all cerebral ventricles, thinning of the intermediate mass of the thalamus and widening of the cerebral sulci. Postmortem examination of the central nervous system (CNS) showed neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord with massive intracellular deposits of ceroid pigment. Additional ceroid-lipofuscin deposits were observed in the enteric nervous system and in macrophages within spleen, lymph nodes and lung. Ultrastructural analyses confirmed NCL with the presence of osmiophilic membrane bounded lamellar-like structures. Case 2, a 1,5-year old female Alpenländische Dachsbracke was presented with progressive generalized forebrain disease including mental changes such as fearful reactions to various kinds of external stimuli and disorientation. The dog also displayed seizures, absence of menace reactions and negative cotton-ball test with normal pupillary light reactions. The clinical and post mortem examination yielded similar results in the brain as in Case 1. Whole genome sequencing of Case 1 and PCR results of both cases revealed a homozygous deletion encompassing the entire CLN8 gene as the most likely causative mutation for the NCL form

  6. HMMerThread: detecting remote, functional conserved domains in entire genomes by combining relaxed sequence-database searches with fold recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Richard Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Conserved domains in proteins are one of the major sources of functional information for experimental design and genome-level annotation. Though search tools for conserved domain databases such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are sensitive in detecting conserved domains in proteins when they share sufficient sequence similarity, they tend to miss more divergent family members, as they lack a reliable statistical framework for the detection of low sequence similarity. We have developed a greatly improved HMMerThread algorithm that can detect remotely conserved domains in highly divergent sequences. HMMerThread combines relaxed conserved domain searches with fold recognition to eliminate false positive, sequence-based identifications. With an accuracy of 90%, our software is able to automatically predict highly divergent members of conserved domain families with an associated 3-dimensional structure. We give additional confidence to our predictions by validation across species. We have run HMMerThread searches on eight proteomes including human and present a rich resource of remotely conserved domains, which adds significantly to the functional annotation of entire proteomes. We find ∼4500 cross-species validated, remotely conserved domain predictions in the human proteome alone. As an example, we find a DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal part of the A-kinase anchor protein 10 (AKAP10, a PKA adaptor that has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and premature cardiac death, which upon stress likely translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus/nucleolus. Based on our prediction, we propose that with this HLH-domain, AKAP10 is involved in the transcriptional control of stress response. Further remotely conserved domains we discuss are examples from areas such as sporulation, chromosome segregation and signalling during immune response. The HMMerThread algorithm is able to automatically detect the presence of remotely conserved domains in

  7. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.

    2011-12-01

    volcanic eruption linked to the heat, chemical, and biological fluxes. In the late stages of the event, the dissipation of the "event plume" into the surrounding water column and the plume's migration patterns in the ambient regional flow will be tracked using specifically designed mobile sensor-platforms. The presence of these assets opens the potential for more immediate, coordinated, and thorough event responses than the community has previously been able to mount. Given the relative abundance of information on many variables in a verifiable and archived spatial and temporal context, and the rapidly evolving ability to conduct real-time genomic analyses, our community may be able to secure entirely novel organisms that are released into the overlying ocean only under well-characterized eruptive conditions.

  8. Leaf ontogeny dominates the seasonal exchange of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a SRC-poplar plantation during an entire growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The declining cost of many renewable energy technologies and changes in the prices of fossil fuels have recently encouraged governments policies to subsidize the use of biomass as a sustainable source of energy. Deciduous poplars (Populus spp.) trees are often selected for biomass production in short rotation coppiced (SRC) for their high CO2 photosynthetic assimilation rates and their capacity to develop dense canopies with high values of leaf area index (LAI). So far, observations and projections of seasonal variations of many VOC fluxes has been limited to strong isoprenoids emitting evergreen ecosystems such tropical and Mediterranean forests as well as Citrus and oil palm plantation, all having constant values of LAI. We run a long-term field campaign where the exchange of VOC, together with CO2 and water vapor was monitored during an entire growing season (June - November, 2012) above a SRC-based poplar plantation. Our results confirmed that isoprene and methanol were the most abundant fluxes emitted, accounting for more than 90% of the total carbon released in form of VOC. However, Northern climates characterized by fresh summertime temperatures and recurring precipitations favored poplar growth while inhibiting the development of isoprene emission that resulted in only 0.7% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE). Besides, measurements of a multitude of VOC fluxes by PTR-TOF-MS showed bi-directional exchange of oxygenated-VOC (OVOC) such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene oxidation products (iox, namely MVK, MAC and MEK) as well as ethanol and formic acid. The application of Self Organizing Maps to visualize the relationship between the full time-series of many VOC fluxes and the observed seasonal variations of environmental, physiological and structural parameters proved the most abundant isoprene ad methanol fluxes to occur mainly on the hottest days under mid-high light intensities when also NEE and evapotraspiration reached the highest

  9. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  10. On the Estimate of Growth of Entire Solutions of Some Classes of Algebric Differential Equations%关于某类代数微分方程整函数解的增长性估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾荣美; 丁建军; 袁文俊

    2011-01-01

    该文运用正规族理论给出关于某类代数微分方程整函数解有穷增长级的一般估计,同时讨论了一类增长级为1的代数微分方程.%In this note, the authors give a general estimate of finite growth order of entire solutions of some classes of algebraic differential equations by using the normal family theory, and also discuss a specific class of algebraic differential equations, in which the order of any transcendental entire solution is one.

  11. A Comparison of the Quality of Life of Patients With an Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Defibrillator System Versus a Transvenous System (from the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Quality of Life Substudy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Carter, Nathan;

    2016-01-01

    The first clinical results from the Evaluation of Factors Impacting Clinical Outcome and Cost Effectiveness of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (EFFORTLESS S-ICD) Registry on the entirely S-ICD system are promising, but the impact of the S-ICD system on patients' quality of...

  12. Polynomials and entire functions with real zeros

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Nesta tese abordamos alguns problemas relacionados com zeros de polinômios e de funções inteiras. Estabelecemos fórmulas explícitas para os polinômios da sequência de Sturm, gerada por um polinômio e pela sua derivada. Como consequência, obtemos condições necessárias e suficientes para que um polinômio sem zeros múltiplos tenha somente zeros reais. Provamos também a veracidade de algumas condições necessárias para a hipótese de Riemann, estendendo desta forma um resultado anterior de ...

  13. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  14. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  15. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig;

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...

  16. ASIAN HIGHLANDS PERSPECTIVES 28 (Entire Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AHP's 2013 annual collection of materials contains 5 original research articles, 7 new pieces of fiction, & 20 reviews of recent books. ARTICLES. Ian G Baird-Shifting Contexts & Performances: The Brao-Kavet & Their Sacred Mountains in Northeast Cambodia. Dpa' mo skyid-The 'Descent of Blessings': Ecstasy & Revival among the Tibetan Bon Communities of Reb gong. Gerong Pincuo & Henrëtte Daudey-Too Much Loving-kindness to Repay: Funeral Speeches of the Wenquan Pumi. Wang Shiyong-Towards a Localized Development Approach for Tibetan Areas in China. William Noseworthy-The Cham's First Highland Sovereign-Po Romé (r. 1627-1651. FICTION. Bsod nams 'gyur med-Folktales from Gcig sgril. Lhundrom-Longing for Snow-covered Peaks: Deity Possession in the Philippines. Thub bstan-Elopement. Ba Lobsang Gonbo-Love in Shambala. Pad+ma skyabs-The Price of a Thesis. Pad ma rin chen-Scattered Memories of a Misspent Youth & Conflict. REVIEWS. 20 new books on Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese, & Highland Southeast Asian studies.

  17. Social Pedagogy for the Entire Lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book proposes chapters on work with adults and older people, written by authors based in Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The global dimension is covered by a chapter on the relationship between Latin American and European social pedagogy.......The book proposes chapters on work with adults and older people, written by authors based in Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The global dimension is covered by a chapter on the relationship between Latin American and European social pedagogy....

  18. One ID Card for the Entire Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, David P.; Ferguson, Linda M.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation by Indiana State University of a machine-readable photo ID system for their food services prompted an investigation into the available alternatives and requirements for a more efficient all-University ID card system. The new ID system is described. (AUTHOR/MLW)

  19. When the entire population is the sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    -based studies differs from researcher-collected data, all persons in a population are available and traditional statistical analyses focusing on sampling error as the main source of uncertainty may not be relevant. We present the main strengths and limitations of register-based studies, biases especially...

  20. Exemplary assessment of an entire and high value recovery in a MSWI with special regard on climate relevance; Beispielhafte Darstellung einer vollstaendigen, hochwertigen Verwertung in einer MVA unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Klimarelevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Mahmood, Sameh [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The 'Goal 2020' of German waste management policy defines the entire recycling/recovery of municipal waste and the abandonment of disposal above ground to a great extend. Thus an entire material recycling and re-use also of the MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) residuals is required, especially the mass-relevant slag. Apart from the material aspect the energy efficiency issue (actual substitution of primary energy carriers) is another decisive criterion as well as assurance of low pollutant discharge. Screening of all MSWI in Germany in terms of these criteria ends up with rather positive results. A large mass percentage of the mineral residues are yet conveyed to material recycling. According to energy use there is a wide bandwidth from rather high to rather low efficiency. The assessed emission levels again show an overall high standard performance. Four exemplary plants - each representing one of the three criteria in special way plus one low standard reference plant - were assessed by mass flow calculation and evaluating by the indicators CO{sub 2}, NOX, Hg and Cd emissions - caused by the plants and replaced by material and energy substitution. The energy efficiency turns out to the most decisive factor. A rough cost analysis looking at measures for entire recovery shows that cost increase as well as decrease can be figured out depending on basic presumptions. Scenarios for status quo and optimization at national scope were calculated to combine CO{sub 2} balance and costs. It concludes in a potential saving of about 3 million t CO{sub 2}/a, whereas cost won't increase in higher magnitude than preventing landfill costs for slag disposal have saved. (orig.)

  1. Rules and Features of Optional Entire Exercise Combination on Trampoline for Male Competitors%男子蹦床网上自选成套动作的编排规律与特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏申吾; 山广; 徐兰蕙

    2001-01-01

    通过对’98蹦床世界杯系列赛(丹麦站)男子蹦床运动 员完成的37套网上自选动作的录像解析和统计分析,探讨男子蹦床网上自选成套动作编排的 规律与特点。结果显示,自选成套动作的编排,应考虑到难度值计入成套最后得分这一因素 ;优秀男子蹦床运动员的单个难度动作选择,不应低于1.0难度值以下,1.6难度值的高难 动作在成套编排中应具备;为了增加成套动作难度,除每个动作加转体外,还应增加转体度 数。%This paper discusses the combination rules and features o f optional entire exercise on trampoline for male competitors by expounding and statistically analyzing the videotapes of 37 optional exercises performed by the male competitors in 98th Trampoline World Cup Series (Denmark Station). T he results show that the parameter of difficulty should be put into consideratio n during arranging the optional entire exercises, since it would affect the fina l score. Therefore, the single difficult part selected by top male competitors s hould not be lower than 1.0 fraction of difficulty degree, and there should be 1 .6 fractions for the difficult part in the combination of the entire exercises. In order to increase the degree of difficulty in the entire exercises, it is nec essary to expand the degrees of the twist in addition to very movement with a tw ist.

  2. 牛肉产业链全程质量安全追溯体系的建立与应用%Development and Application of Beef Quality and Safety Traceability System in Entire Beef Production Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾汝朋; 孟庆翔; 张峻峰; 赵金石; 任丽萍; 周振明

    2012-01-01

    为建立牛肉质量安全追溯体系并在牛肉生产全产业链实施,分别对带犊母牛、育肥牛及肉牛屠宰过程的追溯管理进行了阐述.利用RFID电子耳标标识、记录、跟踪和读取肉牛从育种、繁殖、饲养、育肥、屠宰等环节的过程信息,同时利用条码标签来承续前面的追溯信息,并标记屠宰加工、流通、仓储、分销、零售等环节的过程信息,实现从源头到餐桌的全程跟踪和追溯.消费者可以通过简单的标签承载信息、终端查询机、网站、电话、短信等多种追溯手段实现对牛肉生产过程信息的追溯与查询,奠定了牛肉生产全程质量安全追溯体系的技术基础.%In order to develop a beef quality and safety traceability system and apply it in the entire beef production chain, some details were illustrated in this article about information tracking and tracing in entire sectors including cow-calf feeding, feedlot feeding, abattoir and market, respectively. The process information coming from breeding, reproducing, feeding, finishing and slaughtering sections was identified, recorded, tracked and read by a RFID-based technique. Meanwhile, the tracking information from these sections was succeeded and delivered to the sections of package, storage, distribution and retailing by the low-cost barcode system. Beef consumers can track and inquire about the entire beef production chain information by multiple ways such as simple barcode label, pos machine, website, telephone and short messages as well. This study would supply a technical base for the implementation of beef quality and safety traceability system in the entire Chinese beef production chain.

  3. Preliminary Report and Benefit Analysis on Entire Mechanization Cultivation Techniques of Potatoes in Fuxin%阜新地区马铃薯全程机械化栽培技术初报和效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海新; 赵艳; 尤淑丽

    2012-01-01

    Fuxin, located in the northwest of Liaoning Province, is suitable for growing poatoes as it has enough sunshine and long frost-free period. It was proved by the practice in recent years that farmers could obtain remarkable benefits if they plant potatoes and then broccoli in a double cropping system. Furthermore, this planting system could increase the production efficiency or decrease labor force with entire mechanization. This paper mainly introduced the entire mechanization cultivation techniques for potatoes and benefit analysis for the following crop in Fuxin.%阜新位于辽宁省的西北部,光照时间充足,无霜期长,适宜马铃薯生长。近几年的实践证明,在当地种植上茬马铃薯、下茬西兰花等蔬菜效益显著。而且能够实现全程钡械化,既减少人工投入,又能提高生产效率。文中主要对阜新地区马铃薯全程机械化栽培技术做了阐述,对马铃薯下茬复种效益进行分析。

  4. 整函数及其差分分担有限集的唯一性%On the Uniqueness of Shared Set with Finite Complex Numbers of Differences of Entire Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡祎; 易才凤; 徐洪焱

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the uniqueness problems of sharing sets of difference polynomials of entire functions and obtain the following result. Let n(> 5),m(≥ 2) be two positive integers, c ∈ C - {0}, and Sm = {1,ω, ··· ,ωm-1}, where ω = cos(2π/m) + I sin(2π/m). If two nonconstant entire functions f(z),g(z) satisfy E(Sm, f(z)n(f(z) - 1)f(z + c)) = E(Sm,9(z)n(g(z) - l))g(z + c)), then f(z) = g(z).%研究了整函数及其差分多项式分担有限复数集的唯一性,得到了如下结果:设Sm={1,ω,…,ωm-1},其中ω=cos(2π/m)+isin(2π/m),c为非零有限复数,n(>5),m(≥2)均为正整数.如果f(z),g(z)为有限级整函数,满足E(Sm,f(z)n(f(z)-1)f(z+c))=E(Sm,g(z)n(g(z)-1))g(z+c)),那么f(z)(三)g(z).

  5. 眼球萎缩改良结膜瓣覆盖术临床观察%Clinical observation of non-orbital implantation with conjunctival flap covering the entire cornea for eyeball atrophy surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔磊; 田艳明; 李鹏; 闫希冬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical observation of non-movable coral eye-seat implantation with modified conjunctival-Tenon's capsule flap covering the entire cornea for eyeball atrophy surgery,applying thin eye model.Methods Thirteen eyes (13 light or moderate eyeball atrophy cases) who had accepted the surgical treatment including conjunctival flap covering the entire cornea,receiving thin eye-model 1 month later,which had satisfying cosmetically result.Results The surgical method of restoring mild and moderate atrophy eyeballs (especially mild atrophy eyeballs) to be the base and making a modified conjunctival-Tenon's capsule flap covering the entire cornea operation with thin eye-model fixed,restore the normally anatomy structure,had fewer complications and non-influence on eyeball movement.Conclusions The thin eye-model has good activity,satisfactory appearance and the appearance are obviously improved.%目的 探讨改良结膜瓣覆盖术治疗轻、中度萎缩眼球,术后安装薄型义眼模的临床效果.方法 对2006年1月至2014年1月在解放军第474医院就诊的13例(13只眼)轻、中度眼球萎缩患者保留完整角膜行结膜覆盖术,术后1个月配戴薄型义眼.结果 13例13只眼经过改良术式治疗配戴薄型义眼模,术后观察半年以上均达到满意的美容效果.结论 轻、中度萎缩眼球以其自身作为底座,行改良结膜瓣覆盖术并发症少,义眼模活动度良好,仿真效果逼真,明显改善患者容貌.

  6. 消毒供应中心实行集中管理及全程质控的实践与效果%Effect of Centralized management and the entire quality control for disinfection supply center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张定洁; 张爱容; 黄玉洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of Centralized management and the entire quality control for disinfection supply center ( CSSD) . Methods The hospital should strengthen its hardware construction and cultivate the quality of employees. Strengthening the management of the high risk medical instrument by callback, clean out, antisepsis, sterilization, deposit, supply the surgical instruments and sterilize items timely. Strictly follow the operation procedure and set up a quality control team carrying out entire quality control work. Results After a year of centralized management,all the quality indicators were statistically improved (P< 0.05).Conclusion Centralized management and entire quality control can provide qualified clinical sterile items and ensure the quality of medical treatment and nursing.%目的:探讨消毒供应中心( CSSD)实行集中管理及全程质控的效果。方法医院加强CSSD的硬件建设,培养员工的整体素质,对手术室、全院多个专科的手术器械及消毒物品通过及时回收、清洗、消毒、包装、灭菌、储存发放,加强对外来器械的管理,严格执行各项操作流程;并成立质控小组,开展全程质控工作。结果实行集中管理一年后的各项工作质量指标与实行集中管理前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 CSSD只有实行集中管理及全程质控,才能为临床提供合格的无菌物品,保证医疗及护理质量。

  7. Environmental impact data for fuels. Part 1: Main report. Resource consumption and emissions from the entire life cycle (New revised edition); Miljoefaktabok foer braenslen. Del 1: Huvudrapport. Resursfoerbrukning och emissioner fraan hela livscykeln (Ny reviderad upplaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Almemark, M.; Brandel, M.; Lindfors, L.G.; Marcus, H.O.; Stripple, H.; Wachtmeister, A.; Zetterberg, L.

    2001-05-01

    This report is a compilation of data concerning environmental impacts from the utilization of different fuels. The entire life cycle is studied, from the extraction of raw materials to combustion. The fuels under study are gasoline, gasoline with MTBE, diesel, fuel oil, LPG, coal, natural gas, peat, refuse, ethanol, RME, DME, methane and wood fuels (forestry residues, Salix, pellets/briquettes). Utilization areas studied are heating plants, cogeneration plants, power plants, domestic boilers, and light and heavy vehicles. In this new edition, the following changes were made: New life cycle analyses have been included, a few new fuels added, electricity from hydroelectric plants, wind power plants and nuclear power plants have been included and some other minor changes.

  8. Exploration on public interest maintenance issues in BOT project entire life cycle%BOT 项目全寿命期内公共利益维护问题的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继东; 吴俊洋

    2016-01-01

    简述了 BOT 模式的含义与特点,从项目准备、招投标、合同签订、项目建设、经营、移交等阶段,探讨了 BOT 项目全寿命周期内公共利益的维护措施,有利于实现社会福利最大化的目标。%This PaPer briefly described the meanings and characteristics of BOT mode,from the PreParation,Project bidding,contract signing, Project construction,oPeration,transition and other stage,discussed the maintenance measures of Public interest BOT Project entire life cycle,to achieve the goal of maximizing social welfare.

  9. Entire Accompanying for Deaf-and-dumb Patients by Sign Language Nurses in Operating Room%手语护士全程陪护聋哑患者手术的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗忠梅; 张洪青; 雷菊红; 张湘云

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the experience of the entire accompanying for deaf-and-dumb patients by sign language nurses inoperating room.After the sign language training it: June 2009,two nurses in operating room communicated with deaf-and-dumbpatients in sign language in different period of operation.In the past two years,all the 17 patients were satisfied with theaccompanying.The entire accompanying for deaf-and-dumb patients by sign language nurses in operating room turns to be beneficialto the communication between patients and medical staff,which enhances patients' satisfaction and it proves to be effective andpractical.%探讨手语护士全程陪护聋哑患者手术的护理经验.从2009年6月起,各科室抽调2名护士参加医院组织的手语培训.手术室2名护士学会手语后,对聋哑手术患者用手语实行术前访视、接送患者、术中护理、麻醉恢复等全程陪护.2年来,手术全程陪护17例患者,全部患者手术顺利,围术期沟通顺畅,安全返回病房.认为开展手语护士陪护聋哑患者手术全过程,减少了护患、医患沟通障碍,减少患者对手术的忧虑,提高了患者满意度,密切了护患关系,是手术室开展优质护理的一种很好的服务方式.

  10. Produção e utilização da silagem de planta inteira de soja (Glicine max para ruminantes / Production and use of the ensilage of entire soy palnt (Glicine max for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Tulio de Córdova Gobetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivou-se descrever as características quantitativas e qualitativas referentes à cultura da soja (Glicine max, com a finalidade de silagem de planta inteira. No Brasil, a área cultivada de soja na safra de 2010/2011, de acordo com dados da Embrapa (2011 foi de 24,2 milhões de hectares. A irregularidade da ocorrência de chuvas tem inviabilizado economicamente muitas lavouras de soja para a produção de grãos pela diminuição da produtividade e aumento dos custos da produção, possibilitando a utilização da planta inteira de soja como silagem para a alimentação animal. As vantagens da utilização da silagem de planta inteira de soja em comparação a de outras gramíneas como o milho e o sorgo estão nos maiores valores médios encontrados, de 18% proteína bruta, 31% de matéria seca, 32% de fibra em detergente ácido e 41% de fibra em detergente neutro, 23% de extrato etéreo e produtividade média de sete toneladas por hectare, onde a participação de grãos na silagem representa 35%, permitindo que o produtor possa agregar maior valor ao seu produto final e não ficar dependente dos preços alternados do mercado interno na safra e da elevação do preço na entressafra para compra dos subprodutos do processamento da soja, tendo como principal limitação à competição da silagem de soja com a venda dos grãos. Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the quantitative and qualitative characteristics referring to the culture of the soy (Glicine max, with the purpose of ensilage of entire plant. In Brazil, the cultivated area of soy in 2010/2011, according to data by Embrapa (2011 was 24,2 million hectares. The irregularity of the rain occurrence has made impracticable economically many soy crops for the production of grains for the reduction of the productivity and increase of the costs of the production, having made possible the use of the entire plant of soy as ensilage for the animal feeding. The advantages of

  11. Définition et fonction d’un trésor d’église

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe George

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available L’attention pour la mise en valeur et la conservation du patrimoine artistique d’un trésor d’église n’est pas neuve. Toute une série d’initiatives heureuses atteste la sollicitude envers ces témoins privilégiés d’art et d’histoire : des pionniers ont marqué leur époque que ce soit à Conques, à Reims ou Sens pour n’en citer que trois en France. Au Louvre, en 1991, l’exposition du Trésor de Saint-Denis et le colloque organisé dans la foulée ouvraient la porte à un renouveau tous azimuts dans le...

  12. Les scientifiques et les fonctions d’intellectuel Scientists and the functions of intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zaccai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le sujet de cette contribution trouve son origine dans un certain étonnement à constater la présence relativement faible de scientifiques parmi les intellectuels reconnus, en dépit de l’importance majeure des sciences dans les sociétés. Certains éléments explicatifs sont proposés tels que la moindre demande pour ce type de savoir dans le public, et du côté interne aux universités, des formations disciplinaires et méthodes d’évaluation qui n’incitent pas à ces prises de parole.L’article est construit à travers l’analyse de cinq catégories de prise de position, ou de “fonction” d’intellectuel. Trois d’entre elles concernent de larges publics et des discours influents : se prononcer sur un sujet de sa spécialité, se prononcer sur les implications de sa discipline, prendre position sur tout type de sujet. Une quatrième catégorie concerne des collaborations plus ponctuelles de type “science citoyenne”. La cinquième enfin porte sur la gestion académique et professionnelle des domaines de savoirs.The topic of this paper is rooted in some kind of astonishment at the relatively weak part of scientists among recognized intellectuals despite the major importance of sciences in societies. Some reasons are put forward, such as a lower demand for this type of knowledge among the public but also in universities, which offer disciplinary trainings as well as assessment methods that fail to encourage such expressions.The paper is based on the analysis of five categories of statements, or “functions” of intellectuals. Three of them concern a large public along with influential speeches: expressing oneself on a topic from one’s area of expertise; on the implications of one’s discipline; on any kind of issue. A fourth category concerns more occasional collaborations such as “citizen science”. The last category addresses the academic and professional management of the fields of knowledge.

  13. La métaphore dans les jugements anglais : nature et fonction

    OpenAIRE

    Galonnier, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Un des traits distinctifs des jugements anglais d’un point de vue stylistique est le nombre important de métaphores souvent inventives tirées de la vie courante et de domaines aussi divers que le sport, la guerre, la nature, la technologie, les vêtements, etc. Cet article se propose tout d’abord de regrouper les métaphores par thèmes et de tenter de définir à quelle stratégie discursive répond le recours constant à cette figure de style. Nous verrons que le juge ne s’adresse pas seulement à s...

  14. Thyroid weight with age; Le poids de la thyroide en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [French] Cette etude bibliographique rassemble la plupart des donnees actuellement disponibles sur le poids de la thyroide chez les individus normaux. On peut en deduire un poids moyen probable de 20 g pour l'adulte et de 2 g pour le nouveau-ne. Au cours de la premiere annee, la glande subit une nette regression (1 g a 6 mois); elle n'atteint a nouveau le poids a la naissance qu'au cours de la deuxieme annee. La courbe d'evolution avec l'age peut etre decompose, en premiere approximation, en trois segments de droite: de 2 a 7 ans, de 7 a 18 ans et de 18 a 25 ans, dont les pentes sont respectivement de 0.6, 0.9 et 0.5 g par an. Les variations au cours de l'age adulte sont faibles, de sorte qu'on peut admettre que le poids reste constant pour toute la periode de 25 a 55 ans. Enfin, dans la limite des informations actuelles, la difference entre les deux sexes est negligeable.

  15. Fonction constante et d\\'eriv\\'ee nulle : un r\\'esultat si trivial..

    CERN Document Server

    Delcroix, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    We study various proofs of the caracterization of constant functions, more precisely of the theorem: a derivable function, defined on a real interval, is constant if, and only if, its derivative is null. Our aim is to study the relationships of these proofs with the mathematical curriculum of secondary schools and the begining of undergraduate studies in France, from various point of views (epistemological, historical, didactical).

  16. Métalexicographie culturelle, fonctions lexicographiques et finalité pragmatique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    car de leur réponse dépend le traitement des données culturelles, qui ne sont pas simplement rattachées aux mots et expressions de la langue générale, mais aussi aux mots et expressions de la langue spécialisée, où des pans entiers de connaissances sont façonnés par la culture au travers des domaines...

  17. Ecologie, formes et fonctions des angiospermes basales en Nouvelle-Calédonie

    OpenAIRE

    Trueba, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    One of the remarkable characteristics of the New Caledonian flora is the presence of numerousangiosperm lineages recognized as the earliest divergences of the flowering plants, due to their phylogeneticpositions. Within these lineages, some species are likely to bear ancestral morpho-anatomical features.Therefore, under a comparative perspective, the study of these species can provide compelling information forunderstanding the early evolutionary stages of angiosperms. The first part of this ...

  18. Microscopy of electronic wave function; Microscopie de fonction d'onde electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harb, M.

    2010-09-15

    This work of thesis aims to visualize, on a position sensitive detector, the spatial oscillations of slow electrons ({approx} meV) emitted by a threshold photoionization in the presence of an external electric field. The interference figure obtained represents the square magnitude of electronic wavefunction. This fundamental work allows us to have access to the electronic dynamics and thus to highlight several quantum mechanisms that occur at the atomic scale (field Coulomb, electron/electron interaction..). Despite the presence an electronic core in Li atom, we have succeeded, experimentally and for the first time, in visualizing the wave function associated with the quasi-discrete Stark states coupled to the ionization continuum. Besides, using simulations of wave packet propagation, based on the 'Split-operator' method, we have conducted a comprehensive study of the H, Li and Cs atoms while revealing the significant effects of the Stark resonances. A very good agreement, on and off resonances, was obtained between simulated and experimental results. In addition, we have developed a generalized analytical model to understand deeply the function of VMI (Velocity-Map Imaging) spectrometer. This model is based on the paraxial approximation; it is based on matrix optics calculation by making an analogy between the electronic trajectory and the light beam. An excellent agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental results. (author)

  19. Acides gras polyinsaturés n-3, neurotransmission et fonctions cognitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalon Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras polyinsaturés (AGPI incorporés dans les phospholipides membranaires représentent une proportion importante (environ 20 % de la matière sèche cérébrale. Ils sont apportés par l’alimentation sous forme de précurseurs (acide a-linolénique pour la série n-3, acide linoléique pour la série n-6 ou de dérivés à longues chaînes (notamment l’acide docosahexaénoïque, ou 22 :6n-3 et l’acide arachidonique, ou 20 :4n-6. Des données récentes indiquent que le statut en AGPI constitue l’un des facteurs environnementaux capables d’affecter le fonctionnement du système nerveux central (SNC. Les résultats principaux sont, d’une part, la mise en évidence d’anomalies comportementales chez des animaux recevant des régimes déséquilibrés en AGPI et, d’autre part, la détection de taux anormaux d’AGPI chez des humains souffrant de maladies du SNC. Au cours de ces dernières années, nous avons apporté des arguments établissant que ces dysfonctionnements peuvent être reliés à des altérations des processus de neurotransmission induites par le déséquilibre en AGPI.

  20. Caractérisation des fonctions du facteur de transcription Foxp2 dans le cortex murin

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disruptions of the forkhead box transcription factor FOXP2 in humans cause a severe autosomal-dominant speech and language disorder. FOXP2 expression pattern and genomic structure are highly conserved in distant vertebrates. We hypothesized that this conservation may allow the use of animal models to identify Foxp2 dependent neuronal circuits and molecular networks involved in social behaviors. Therefore I began characterizing Foxp2 functions in the mouse cortex in conventional hetero...

  1. Investigation of Female Consumers’ Acceptability of Entire Male Pork in China%中国女性消费者公猪肉感官接受度调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振金; 张峰; 姚文

    2016-01-01

    Acceptance of boar meat by 120 Chinese females depending on their age, education level, and sensitivity to androstenone and skatole was evaluated by smelling the pure compound and testing cooked pork samples. Pork samples were classified as ‘barrow meat’,‘LL boar meat’ (boar meat with low levels of androstenone and skatole) and‘LH boar meat’ (boar meat with high levels of androstenone and skatole). Results showed that 60.9% of the consumers were highly sensitive to skatole and 18.2% were highly sensitive to androstenone. As sensitivity to androstenone increased, consumer acceptability of pure androstenone odor significantly reduced (χ2 = 22.41,P < 0.001). In addition, 47.8% of the consumers were fond/neutral of pure skatole odor, and 15.0% disliked pure androstenone odor. Consumers’ acceptability of the odor (χ2 = 3.75,P< 0.05) and taste of LH meat was higher than that of LL meat. Consumers who are highly sensitive to androstenone and like its odor gave higher score to boar meat than barrow meat. Chinese women can accept entire male pork, and this is the first survey on consumer acceptability of entire male pork in China, which is of great significance to evaluate the possibility of using entire male pig for pork production.%在测定120位中国女性消费者对雄烯酮和粪臭素的嗅觉敏感性基础上,评定其对公猪肉的接受程度。公猪肉根据雄烯酮和粪臭素水平分为两组,即高膻味肉(LH)和低膻味肉(LL)。嗅觉敏感性测试结果表明:与雄烯酮相比,女性消费者对粪臭素更敏感;随着对雄烯酮敏感性的增加,其对雄烯酮纯品气味的接受程度显著降低(χ2=22.41,P<0.001);对粪臭素气味的接受度高于雄烯酮。公猪肉品尝测试结果显示:对雄烯酮高敏感且喜欢雄烯酮气味的消费者更喜欢LH组公猪肉的气味(χ2=3.75,P<0.05)和口感,对LL组和LH组公猪肉的整体感官评分高于对去势公猪肉的感官评分。

  2. The Study of Flu Vaccine Immunity Effect between Viral Decomposition and Virus Entire Pellet%裂解与灭活流感疫苗免疫效果对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭; 代世娥; 唐伟

    2009-01-01

    Objiective To study virus entire pellet deactivation flu vaccine and the viral decomposition fluvaccine to the Chinese healthy crowd's serology immunity effect,hope to provide the scientific basis for flu vaccine choice.Methods Vaccinates these two kind of vaccines separately in two groups of healthy crowds, the different time examines its antibody titer after the immunity, calculates its antibody protection ratio and the antibody masculine gender rate. Results There has no statistics significance difference between two kinds of vaccine antibody geometric mean titer (GMT),antibody protection ratioor masculine gender rate inall various detection periods except B antibody GMT in the immunity latter 150 days (t=2.127,P<0.05).Conclusion Virus entire pellet deactivation flu vaccine and viral decomposition flu vaccine have same effect of serology immunity.%目的 了解病毒全颗粒灭活流感疫苗与病毒裂解流感疫苗对中国健康人群的血清学免疫效果,为流感疫苗选择使用提供科学依据.方法 接种两种疫苗于2组健康人群,在免疫后不同时间检测其抗体滴度,计算其抗体保护率和抗体阳性率.结果 除乙型抗体几何平均滴度(GMT)在免疫后150d2组差异有统计学意义外(t=2.127 P<0.05),其余各检测期,各型抗体GMT、抗体保护率及阳性率两种疫苗之间的差异无统计学意义.结论 病毒全颗粒灭活流感疫苗与病毒裂解流感疫苗血清学免疫效果基本相同.

  3. 关于代数微分方程的超越整解的增长性%On the growth of transcendental entire solutions of algebraic differential equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲妹; 杨德贵; 王小灵

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the growth of transcendental entire solutions of the following algebraic differential equation a(z)f ′2+(b 2(z)f2+b1(z)f+b0(z))f ′=d3(z)f3+d2(z)f2+d 1(z)f+d0(z), where a(z), bi(z) (0≤I≤2) and dj(z) (0≤j≤3) are all polynomials, and this equation relates closely to the following well -known algebraic differential equation C(z,w)w′2+B(z,w)w′+A(z,w)=0, where C(z,w)0, B(z,w) and A(z,w) are three polynomials in z and w. We give relationships between the growth of entire solutions and the degrees of the above three polynomials in detail.%研究了如下代数微分方程a(z)f ′2+(b2(z)f2+b1(z)f+b 0(z))f ′=d3(z)f3+d2(z)f2+d1(z)f+d0(z)(这里a(z),bi(z)(0≤i≤2)和dj(z) (0≤j≤3)是多项式)超越整函数解的增长性,这类方程与有名的代数微分方程C(z,w)w′2+B(z,w)w′+A(z,w)=0(C(z,w)0, B(z,w)和A(z ,w)是z和w的3个多项式)有紧密的关系.详细地给出了第1个方程的整函数解的增长性与它的3个多项式的次数之间的关系.

  4. 全程陪伴联合硬膜外阻滞麻醉用于分娩镇痛的护理%Pain relief efficacy by combined epidural block anesthesia with accompanied delivery during the entire labor process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程凤英; 许孟希

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To assess the pain relief efficacy and nursing outcomes by accompanied delivery throughout the entire labor process with epidural block analgesia.Methods:One hundred and eight primiparae expected analgesic labor were included as observational group managed by combined epidural block anesthesia and whole labor process support by a midwife,and another 100 primiparae without any analgesia at the corresponding period were included as control subjects.Two groups were compared regarding the analgesic effects,maternal and birth outcomes.Results:The analgesic effect achieved in 90.74% of the women managed by combined epidural block anesthesia and whole labor process support of a midwife .Although the observational group re-quired more dosage of oxytocin than the controls (P0.05).Conclusion:Combined epidural block analgesia with active nursing support throughout the entire labor process may produce significant pain relief effects and improve the quality of delivery .%目的:观察全程陪伴分娩联合硬膜外阻滞分娩镇痛的镇痛效果,探讨其护理意义。方法:将108名要求分娩镇痛的初产妇作为观察组,全程专责陪伴分娩联合硬膜外阻滞分娩镇痛,同期内100名无分娩镇痛要求的初产妇配以传统模式分娩作为对照组,不使用任何镇痛药物。比较两组产妇的镇痛效果及分娩结局母儿情况。结果:全程专责陪伴分娩联合镇痛产妇镇痛效果达90.74%;观察组催产素使用率较对照组高(P<0.05);产程无明显差异性(P>0.05);产后出血及新生儿窒息无明显差异性(P>0.05)。结论:硬膜外分娩镇痛效果明显,全程专责陪伴积极的护理措施有助降低分娩痛苦,提高分娩的质量。

  5. X-Linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita in a Boy due to a Novel Deletion of the Entire NR0B1 (DAX1 and MAGEB1–4 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rojek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC is caused by deletions or point mutations in the NR0B1 (DAX1 gene. We present a boy with AHC who came at the age of 25 days in a severe state due to prolonged vomiting and progressive dehydration. Laboratory studies showed prominent hyponatremia and hyperkaliemia but not hypoglycemia. Primary adrenal insufficiency was confirmed with low serum cortisol levels and high plasma ACTH levels. Hydrocortisone therapy combined with saline and glucose infusions was started immediately after blood collection. Two exons of the NR0B1 (DAX1 gene were impossible to amplify using the standard PCR method. Array CGH was used to confirm the putative copy-number variation of NR0B1 (DAX1 revealing a novel hemizygous deletion encompassing the entire NR0B1 (DAX1 gene together with the MAGEB genes. This genetic defect was also present in heterozygosity in the patient’s mother. We show that NR0B1 (DAX1 gene analysis is important for confirmation of AHC diagnosis and highlights the role of genetic counseling in families with AHC patients, particularly those with X chromosome microdeletions, covering more than NR0B1 (DAX1 alone. We hope that further clinical follow-up of this patient and his family will shed a new light on the role of MAGEB genes.

  6. A novel single gene deletion (-αMAL3.5 giving rise to silent α thalassemia carrier removing the entire HBA2 gene observed in two Chinese patients with Hb H disease: case report of two probands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidatul Syazlin Abdul Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel deletion at the HBA2 presented with Hb H disease in two Malaysian- Chinese patients. The two unrelated probands were diagnosed with Hb H disease in a primary hematological screening for thalassemia. Results from routine molecular analysis with gap-polymerase chain reaction (PCR method revealed a genotype asynchrony with the observed clinical presentation. Subsequent DNA analysis using a battery of molecular methods such as gap-PCR, multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification, DNA sequencing, confirmed the presence of a novel deletion in both the index cases removing the entire α2 globin gene. We have designated the deletion as (‒αMAL3.5. Hematological indices and clinical findings suggest that the deletion has an α+ phenotype. The molecular process of this deletion is the result from misalignment and unequal crossover event between the duplicated homologous Y-boxes within the α globin gene cluster. Uncharacterized deletions, single nucleotide polymorphism and other nucleotide indels at the primer binding sites may impede the optimum condition for its annealing and extension and therefore may invalidate the gap-PCR obscuring the real genotype.

  7. Localization and physical mapping of a plasmid-borne 23-kb nif gene cluster from Enterobacter agglomerans showing homology to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Kreutzer, R; Acker, G; Klingmüller, W

    1988-01-01

    A physical and genetical map of the plasmid pEA3 indigenous to Enterobacter agglomerans is presented. pEA3 is a 111-kb large plasmid containing a 23-kb large cluster of nif genes which shows extensive homology (Southern hybridization and heteroduplex analysis) to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) M5a1. All the nif genes on pEA3 are organized in the same manner as in K. pneumoniae, except nifJ, which is located on the left end of pEA3 nif gene cluster (near nifQB). A BamHI restriction map of pEA3 and a detailed restriction map of the 23-kb nif region on pEA3 is also presented. The nif genes of pEA3 showed a low level of acetylene reduction in Escherichia coli, demonstrating that these genes are functional and contain the whole genetic information required to fix nitrogen. The origin of vegetative replication (OriV) of pEA3 was localized about 5.5 kb from the right end of the nif gene cluster. In addition to pEA3, large plasmids from four other strains of E. agglomerans showed homology to all the Kp nif genes tested, indicating that in diazotrophic strains of E. agglomerans nif genes are usually located on plasmids. In contrast, in most of the free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria the nif genes are on chromosome.

  8. Entirely automatic on-line analysis system applied to catalytic cracking of gasoline%汽油催化裂化的全自动在线分析系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛青松; 王一萌

    2011-01-01

    With one set of idle catalyst-testing equipment and three gas chromatograph, a novel system for entirely automatic on-line analyzing gasoline catalytic cracking products was developed by re-equipping the only automatic pneumatic controller adapted for directing three way of six-channel valves simultaneously. The modified equipment results of synchronism, multitasking and high robotization of reaction-analysis system, more time and resources were saved, either. Furthermore, the six-channel valves on standby status were revised adapted for clearer analysis system.%利用实验室闲置的高压微反应装置和气相色谱仪,通过改装高压微反应装置上唯一一路自动气动控制系统,使其同时控制三路六通阀,实现高压微反应-三台色谱-三套色谱软件联动,全自动在线分析汽油催化裂解产物,不仅实现了反应-分析的同步性、多任务化和高度自动化,实验成本也大幅下降.并对六通阀原待采样模式进行了改进,大幅降低了对管道的污染.

  9. A rapid method for the differentiation of yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-limited conditions by means of partial least squares discriminant analysis employing infrared micro-spectroscopic data of entire yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Julia; Quintás, Guillermo; Herwig, Christoph; Lendl, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the ease of application and usefulness of mid-IR measurements for the investigation of orthogonal cell states on the example of the analysis of Pichia pastoris cells. A rapid method for the discrimination of entire yeast cells grown under carbon and nitrogen-limited conditions based on the direct acquisition of mid-IR spectra and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) is described. The obtained PLS-DA model was extensively validated employing two different validation strategies: (i) statistical validation employing a method based on permutation testing and (ii) external validation splitting the available data into two independent sub-sets. The Variable Importance in Projection scores of the PLS-DA model provided deeper insight into the differences between the two investigated states. Hence, we demonstrate the feasibility of a method which uses IR spectra from intact cells that may be employed in a second step as an in-line tool in process development and process control along Quality by Design principles. PMID:22967595

  10. Relations entre acides gras oméga-3, oméga-9, structures et fonctions du cerveau. Le point sur les dernières données. Le coût financier alimentaire des oméga-3 « Je chercherai à connaître les différences qui existent entre les huiles de faine, de colza, d’olive, de noix ». Honoré de Balzac. « Histoire de César Birotteau ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour ce qui concerne le cerveau, les acides gras ω3 ont été plus spécialement étudiés que les acides gras ω6 ou ω9. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique (18 :3 ω3 altère la structure et la fonction des membranes, et entraîne de légers dysfonctionnements cérébraux, comme cela a été montré sur les modèles animaux puis chez les nourrissons humains. Les résultats récents ont montré que son déficit alimentaire induit des anomalies plus marquées dans certaines structures cérébrales que dans d’autres, le cortex frontal et l’hypophyse étant les plus touchés. Ces singularités sont accompagnées de perturbations comportementales qui touchent plus particulièrement certains tests (habituation, adaptation à une situation nouvelle. Les anomalies biochimiques et comportementales sont partiellement réversées par une supplémentation avec des phospholipides, notamment extraits d’oeuf enrichis en ω3 ou de cervelle de porc. Une étude effet-dose montre que les phospholipides d’origine animale sont plus efficaces que ceux d’origine végétale pour réverser les conséquences du déficit, dans la mesure, entre autres, où ils apportent les très longues chaînes pré-formées. La déficience en acide alpha-linolénique se traduit au niveau du cortex frontal de rat par des perturbations de la neurotransmission mono-aminergique. Mais ne sont touchées ni la densité ni la fonction des transporteurs de la dopamine. Chez l’animal carencé, la réversibilité dans la neurotransmission dopaminergique (dans le cortex préfrontal, entre autres n’est que partielle après arrêt du déficit alimentaire. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique diminue la perception du plaisir, en altérant légèrement l’efficacité des organes sensoriels et en affectant certaines structures cérébrales. Cette carence modifie le métabolisme énergétique du cerveau en perturbant le transport du glucose. Au cours du vieillissement, la baisse

  11. Observation Effect of Improve Entire Nursing Operationg Room Patients in Stress and Satisfaction%全程护理在改善手术室患者术中应激与满意度中的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨全程护理在改善手术室患者术中应激反应及护理满意度中的效果.方法 选取我院2013年5月~2014年6月手术患者75例,按随机数字表法分位对照组(手术室常规护理)37例和观察组(全程护理)38例,对比两组患者术中应激反应情况及护理满意度.结果 观察组术中应激反应情况优于对照组,观察组护理满意度为94.74%高于对照组的78.38%,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 全程护理在手术室患者中的应用效果显著.%Objective To explore the stress response and nursing care throughout satisfaction of the effect in improving the operating room patients.Methods Selected 75 cases from May 2013 to June 2014 according to number table method points randomly divided into the control group routine (the operating room nursing ) had 37 cases, and the observation group ( entire nursing ) had 38 cases, compared two groups of patients who stress reaction and nursing satisfaction.Results The observation group stress response, the observation group patient care satisfaction were 94.74%, 78.38% higher than the control group, a significant difference between the two data sets,P<0.05, had difference statistically significance.Conclusion The effect of the whole nursing patients in the operating room.

  12. Characterization of the Entire Cystatin Gene Family in Barley and Their Target Cathepsin L-Like Cysteine-Proteases, Partners in the Hordein Mobilization during Seed Germination1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds. PMID:19759340

  13. An efficient plane-grating monochromator based on conical diffraction for continuous tuning in the entire soft X-ray range including tender X-rays (2-8 keV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jark, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was verified that the diffraction efficiency of reflection gratings with rectangular profile, when illuminated at grazing angles of incidence with the beam trajectory along the grooves and not perpendicular to them, remains very high for tender X-rays of several keV photon energy. This very efficient operation of a reflection grating in the extreme off-plane orientation, i.e. in conical diffraction, offers the possibility of designing a conical diffraction monochromator scheme that provides efficient continuous photon energy tuning over rather large tuning ranges. For example, the tuning could cover photon energies from below 1000 eV up to 8 keV. The expected transmission of the entire instrument is high as all components are always operated below the critical angle for total reflection. In the simplest version of the instrument a plane grating is preceded by a plane mirror rotating simultaneously with it. The photon energy selection will then be made using the combination of a focusing mirror and exit slit. As is common for grating monochromators for soft X-ray radiation, the minimum spectral bandwidth is source-size-limited, while the bandwidth can be adjusted freely to any larger value. As far as tender X-rays (2-8 keV) are concerned, the minimum bandwidth is at least one and up to two orders of magnitude larger than the bandwidth provided by Si(111) double-crystal monochromators in a collimated beam. Therefore the instrument will provide more flux, which can even be increased at the expense of a bandwidth increase. On the other hand, for softer X-rays with photon energies below 1 keV, competitive relative spectral resolving powers of the order of 10000 are possible.

  14. Un-landing Construction Technology of Entire Suspension Steel Inside Tube of Chenjiagang Power Plant Chimney%陈家港电厂烟囱整体悬吊钢内筒非落地施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瓅玮; 王德闯

    2011-01-01

    The steel inside tube of the chimney of Chenjiagang power plant is the first entire suspension steel inside tube in China. Because of the special form with high requirement of safety and quality, the method of hydraulic synchronous lifting is taken. The installation of steel inside tube, transferring of lifting points and tube hanging are introduced in detail. Through finite element analysis, the weak points of the lifting points and tube during construction are checked, and all the stiffness and strength can meet requirement. Meanwhile, according to the characteristics of thin wall, large weight and un-landing of steel inside tube, the idea that transferring lifting points in the air is put forward. By continuously monitoring, un-landing construction is completed successfully.%陈家港电厂烟囱钢内筒是国内首例整体悬吊式钢内筒.由于整体悬吊形式的安全质量要求高,采用了液压同步提升方案.重点介绍了钢内筒安装、吊点转换、筒体悬挂等施工工艺.通过运用有限元分析,对施工过程中吊点和简体的薄弱点进行验算,得出所有吊点的强度和刚度均满足要求.同时,根据钢内筒筒壁薄、质量大、不能落地的特点,提出了空中转换吊点的理念,通过施工中的不断监测,顺利完成了钢内筒的非落地施工.

  15. Application of entire information management in nursing of patients with high-risk pressure ulcers%全程信息化管理在压疮高危患者护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国红; 祝亚男; 倪斐琳; 叶会玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨全程信息化管理体系在压疮高危患者护理中的应用,评价其对压疮高危风险预防管理效果的影响。方法设立压疮管理核心组对全院压疮高危患者的护理实行专科技术指导;构建信息化管理模块,完善压疮高危风险报告表,增设压疮高危风险统计分析表,并实行智能化记录和自动统计;完善并实施压疮高危患者的护理管理流程,加强护理管理者对压疮预防措施落实情况的督查,压疮高危患者从上报到转归的全过程均通过信息系统进行动态实时管理。结果全程信息化管理体系实施后,全院压疮高危患者的压疮发生率为18.98%,较实施前的32.64%显著降低,差异有统计学意义(χ2=10.032,P<0.01);压疮高危患者上报资料正确率为98.15%,与实施前的91.71%相比显著提高,差异有统计学意义(χ2=9.084,P<0.01);护理部进行季度压疮高危风险统计所需时间由6 h 降至20 min。结论应用全程信息化管理体系,可降低压疮高危患者的压疮发生率,提高压疮高危风险上报资料的正确率,提高压疮高危风险统计分析的工作效率,有助于完善压疮预防和控制工作。%Objective To explore the application of entire information management system in nursing of patients with high-risk pressure ulcers and to evaluate its influence on the high risk of pressure ulcers prevention management.Methods Established core group of pressure ulcers management to provide professional guidance to high-risk pressure ulcers patients nursing in whole hospital, structured information management module, improved high-risk pressure ulcers report, added statistical form for it, implemented intelligent record as well as automatic statistics, improved and implemented nursing management work flow for high risk pressure ulcers patients, strengthen supervise to the practical to pressure

  16. MTU series 1600 HCCI engine with extremely low exhaust emissions over the entire engine map; HCCI-Motor der MTU Baureihe 1600 mit extrem niedrigen Abgasemissionen im gesamten Motorkennfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, Christoph; Bergmann, Dirk; Sauer, Christina; Schneemann, Arne [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Eichmeier, Johannes; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). IFKM

    2012-11-01

    The main challenge when developing off-highway engines is to keep emissions within the limits to apply in the future while maintaining low fuel consumption and low CO{sub 2} output. In the USA in particular, diesel engines in the 130 - 560 kW power range are to be subject from 2014 to EPA Tier 4 legislation, which imposes limits of 0.4 g/kWh for NO{sub x} and 0.02 g/kWh for particulate matter. Diesel units can only satisfy those requirements using a combination of in-engine measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems (SCR, particulate filters), which makes them a good deal more complex and expensive. In the face of CO{sub 2} emissions regulations and the growing demand for diesel fuel, greater emphasis is now being placed on alternative fuels. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or 'HCCI' provides an alternative to complex exhaust aftertreatment systems which generates virtually no soot or nitrous oxide emissions. It does, however, present new challenges with respect to combustion control and engine load. Up to the present, it has not been possible to exploit the full potential of this combustion process over the entire engine map, since the high ignition performance of diesel fuel at high loads results in excessively early combustion and inadmissible pressure gradients. The pre-development department of MTU Friedrichshafen worked with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to devise a research prototype for an industrial application which would allow semi-homogenous combustion with controlled self-ignition over the full engine map. The engine is based on a 6-cylinder version of the MTU Series 1600 unit and has a rated output of 300 kW. The fuels - gasoline or ethanol and diesel - are mixed in such a way as to avoid the disadvantages associated with most HCCI processes. Since the use of ethanol also enhances combustion efficiency, it has a two-fold positive effect on the CO{sub 2} situation. With

  17. A New Algorithm with Variable-Structure Multiple Model for Tracking Ballistic Missile at Entire Flight Stages%跟踪弹道导弹全阶段的可变多模型方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮俊清; 单奇; 任清安; 刘军伟

    2011-01-01

    弹道导弹跟踪是弹道导弹防御系统中最核心的问题,然而传统的基于单运动模型的跟踪方法不能适用于跟踪弹道导弹的所有阶段。提出一种新的可变多模型(VUF)的跟踪方法,该方法具有以下的优势:采用多模型的结构,适用于跟踪任意阶段的弹道导弹;可变模型集的特征有效地提高了精度,同时降低了计算复杂度;采用UKF滤波方法具有更好的跟踪精度。仿真实验中设计了三个实验场景,与传统的EKF算法相比该方法明显地提高了跟踪的精度。特别是在弹道目标飞行阶段转换时,具有一定的识别能力和更鲁棒的跟踪性能。%In missile defense system, tracking ballistic target is the most key problem. However, the traditional method based on single-state model is not suitable for tracking ballistic target at all flight stages. The paper addresses a new tracking algorithm with variable-structure multiple model. It has several advantages. It is capable of tracking ballistic target at entire flight stages due to multiple model. Based on variable-structure, it improves tracking precision effectively and makes computational complexity lower. It has better tracking precision by using unscented Kalman filtering. Three simulation scenarios had been designed. Compared to the traditional EKF algorithm it has better estimation performance. Especially, it has some identification ability and more robust tracking performance during the switch phase of ballistic target.

  18. Biomimetic Multispiked Connecting Ti-Alloy Scaffold Prototype for Entirely-Cementless Resurfacing Arthroplasty Endoprostheses—Exemplary Results of Implantation of the Ca-P Surface-Modified Scaffold Prototypes in Animal Model and Osteoblast Culture Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Uklejewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present here—designed, manufactured, and tested by our research team—the Ti-alloy prototype of the multispiked connecting scaffold (MSC-Scaffold interfacing the components of resurfacing arthroplasty (RA endoprostheses with bone. The spikes of the MSC-Scaffold prototype mimic the interdigitations of the articular subchondral bone, which is the natural biostructure interfacing the articular cartilage with the periarticular trabecular bone. To enhance the osteoinduction/osteointegration potential of the MSC-Scaffold, the attempts to modify its bone contacting surfaces by the process of electrochemical cathodic deposition of Ca-P was performed with further immersion of the MSC-Scaffold prototypes in SBF in order to transform the amorphous calcium-phosphate coating in hydroxyapatite-like (HA-like coating. The pilot experimental study of biointegration of unmodified and Ca-P surface-modified MSC-Scaffold prototypes was conducted in an animal model (swine and in osteoblast cell culture. On the basis of a microscope-histological method the biointegration was proven by the presence of trabeculae in the interspike spaces of the MSC-Scaffold prototype on longitudinal and cross-sections of bone-implant specimens. The percentage of trabeculae in the area between the spikes of specimen containing Ca-P surface modified scaffold prototype observed in microCT reconstructions of the explanted joints was visibly higher than in the case of unmodified MSC-Scaffold prototypes. Significantly higher Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP activity and the cellular proliferation in the case of Ca-P-modified MSC-Scaffold pre-prototypes, in comparison with unmodified pre-prototypes, was found in osteoblast cell cultures. The obtained results of experimental implantation in an animal model and osteoblast cell culture evaluations of Ca-P surface-modified and non-modified biomimetic MSC-Scaffold prototypes for biomimetic entirely-cementless RA endoprostheses indicate the

  19. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), LiDAR acquired and processed over the entire county to support the generation of 1"=100' scale orthophotos & 2' contours. The Lidar LAS data has been classified to bare-earth as well as first-return points., Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Non-Profit | GIS Inventory — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset current as of 2009. LiDAR acquired and processed over the entire county to support the generation of 1"=100' scale orthophotos...

  20. Urban Land Intensive Use Assessment Based on the Entire-Array- Polygon Indictor Method%基于全排列多边形图示指标法的西宁市土地集约利用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 曹银贵; 乔陆印

    2012-01-01

    研究目的:利用具有问题诊断、现状分析、模式评价和政策指导的评价方法分析西宁市土地集约利用变化特征。研究方法:采用全排列多边形图示指标法对西宁市西部开发以来城乡建设用地集约利用变化进行量化评价。研究结果:(1)全排列多边形图示指标法可用于土地集约利用的评价,其优势在于从机理上考虑了评价对象具有多因素和系统性的整合性,指标值计算减少了主观因素的影响,且评价结果数图结合;(2)单项指标显示,西宁市城乡建设用地扩张及集约利用水平提高的主要驱动力是经济增长因素,即属于经济驱动型;城乡建设用地扩张主要表现在城镇规模的增长,农村居民点规模变化不大;(3)西宁市土地集约利用综合指数总体呈增长态势,且前阶段的增长速度慢于后阶段,经济增长方式发生改变。研究结论:西宁市在未来一段时间应通过增强新增建设用地的投资强度和产出绩效,不断提高土地集约利用水平;在土地资源供应缺乏、城市空间扩张受阻的情况下,积极开展城乡增减挂钩土地综合整治,优化城乡建设用地结构,提高土地集约利用水平。%This paper aims at analyzing the variation characters of land intensive use in Xining city based on the problem diagnosis, situation analysis, pattern assessment, and policy recommendation. The entire-array-polygon indictor method, which has the merits such as problem diagnosis, current situation analysis, model evaluation and policy direction, is used to quantitatively analyze the changes of urban.- rural construction land intensity in Xining city for the period since the implementation of the so-called Western Development Program in China started. The results show that 1) the entire-array-polygon indictor method can be used in evaluating the land use intensity. It also has an advantage that it

  1. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont

  2. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. for production of silage of the entire plant Girassol (Helianthus annuus L. para produção de silagem de planta inteira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of the work was to describe the quantitative and qualitative characteristics referring to sunflower cultive (Helianthus annuus L. with the purpose of silage of the entire plant. The providence of conserved roughages is one strategy that can develop the productives and reproductives index of flocks in period of scarcity food, usually determinant by the low availability of pastures. The advantages of sunflower silage in comparison with the maize and sorghum is in the larger tolerance to drought, lower temperatures in the germination period (until 5 °C, smaller vegetative cycle, favoring more than one cultivation in summer with other culture and desired quality of the ensiled product. The lower content of dry matter (20 - 25% and the high content of ether extract (10 - 18% had been indicated as the main restrictions for sunflower silage, due to higher storage losses. Concerning the chemical composition of sunflower silage, contrasting with the maize, it is usual to meet larger levels of the crude protein (12% versus 9%, ether extract (14% versus 3%, acid detergent fiber (43 versus 32% and lesser levels of neutral detergent fiber (47% versus 56% and dry matter digestibility (49 versus 65%. The sunflower silage must not substitute totally the maize silage in ruminant diet, but it outstands as one forage plant option as source of energy and protein at situations of culture rotation, drought season and in the fall.

    Objetivou-se descrever as características quantitativas e qualitativas referentes à cultura do girassol (Helianthus annuus L., com a finalidade de silagem de planta inteira. O fornecimento de volumosos conservados é uma estratégia que pode incrementar os índices produtivos e reprodutivos de rebanhos. As vantagens da silagem de girassol em comparação a de gramíneas como o milho e sorgo está na maior tolerância ao déficit hídrico, a menores temperaturas na fase de germinação (até 5 °C, menor

  3. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction of entire vertebral bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, A.; Andersen, K.; Ullerup, R.;

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for 3-D reconstruction of large cancellous bone regions. The output is a 3-D array describing the original cancellous bone region, and the output can be used for any kind of measurement of the bone architecture. The technique was developed as a tool for researchers...... information. The technique is based on automated serial sectioning, and all steps from specimen preparation to image segmentation are described in detail. Examples of 3-D reconstructed vertebral bodies are given. By use of the described technique, between 300 and 600 sections can be made and registered per...... conducting experimental and clinical studies related to cancellous bone architecture and, ultimately, to cancellous bone quality. A set of new and unbiased methods for quantification of cancellous bone has been a stimulus for the development of the technique, as the quantification methods rely on 3-D...

  5. Forcing an entire bifurcation diagram: Case studies in chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, I. G.; Aris, R.; Schmidt, L. D.

    1986-12-01

    We study the finite amplitude periodic forcing of chemical oscillators. In particular, we examine systems that, when autonomous, (i.e. for zero forcing amplitude) exhibit a single stable oscillation. Using one of the system parameters as a forcing variable by varying it periodically, we show through extensive numerical work how the bifurcation diagram of the autonomous system with respect to this parameter affects the qualitative response of the full forced system. As the forcing variable oscillates around its midpoint, its instantaneous values may cross points (such as Hopf bifurcation poiints) of the autonomous bifurcation diagram so that the characterization of the system as a simple forced oscillator is no longer valid. Such a neighboring Hopf bifurcation of the unforced system is found to set the scene for the interaction of resonance horns and the loss of tori in the full forced system as the amplitude of the forcing grows. Our test case presented here is the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) with periodically forced coolant temperature.

  6. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  7. Entirely polytetrafluoroethylene coating for pacemaker system contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamenishi, Akinori; Usui, Akihiko; Oshima, Hideki; Ueda, Yuichi

    2008-04-01

    A 63-year-old man underwent pacemaker implantation for complete atrio-ventricular block. The patient repeated admissions for skin necrosis, and generator or pacemaker system was re-implanted each time. The patient was admitted with skin necrosis of the generator pocket three years after re-implantation. A skin patch test was positive on almost all components of the pacemaker system. The patient underwent pacemaker system removal and re-implantation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sheets coating pericardium leads and generator. There has been no recurrence. PTFE sheet coating is effective to treat pacemaker system contact dermatitis.

  8. Swimmer syndrome affecting an entire litter of kittens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Cardilli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Swimmer syndrome is a developmental abnormality characterized by a delay in the ability to walk and move about and is manifested in newborns between 15 and 20 days of age. These animals exhibit constant coxofemoral articulation abduction, and their pelvic limbs move caudally and laterally. This case reports a litter of three crossbreeds kittens (26 days old with swimmer syndrome. Each animal was treated with physical therapy and shackle bandages that kept their pelvic limbs bent and close to the body. After seven days, all of the animals exhibited normal ambulation, indicating that this treatment had a curative effect on the kittens.

  9. When the Entire World is Pushed into the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article intercultural education is discussed, cases from the Danish upper secondary school are analyzed, and some requirements for further development are proposed. First definitions of the concepts communication, communicative action, intercultural communication and intercultural education...... are given. Starting from these definitions it is argued that intercultural communication as well as intercultural education is possible. Then two cases are analyzed. Finally – in the Discussion – it is underlined that the students’ metareflection on the context dependence of the knowledge construction...... process is a pivotal precondition for successful intercultural education....

  10. A new resource for the entire LHC community

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first time I addressed the CERN community as Director-General in January 2009, I said that I wished to see the intellectual life of the Laboratory develop. With the experiments rapidly accumulating data, now is the time for that to happen. CERN is known as a global reference point for excellence in accelerator science, and our track record of providing world-class facilities is second to none. Simply stated, the division of labour between CERN and the experiments it hosts is that CERN has provided the beams and support systems from experimental areas to IT, while the experiments have done the physics. That doesn't mean, however, that CERN has no part to play in the intellectual life of the experiments. Our Theory group has always provided support to CERN's experiments, while CERN physicists, Staff and Fellows, are an essential part of every experiment conducted here. With the LHC coming on stream, the time is right to create a focal point at CERN dedicated to the LHC research programme and open to...

  11. 5 CFR 213.3102 - Entire executive civil service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pending completion of competitive examining, clearances, or other procedures required for a longer...) Executive branch employees (other than employees of intelligence agencies) who are entitled to placement... intelligence agencies defined in 5 U.S.C. 2302(a)(2)(C)(ii) who are entitled to placement under § 353.110....

  12. George Kelly: cognitive psychologist, humanistic psychologist, or something else entirely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2008-11-01

    George Kelly was regarded by some of his contemporaries as a cognitive psychologist and by others as a humanistic psychologist. Kelly himself resisted being rubricized. He did, however, name several people who had been influential in his life and work, one of whom was J.F. Herbart. A comparison of Herbart and Kelly reveals several similarities. Both shared a belief that psychology was fundamentally a mathematical discipline. Both eliminated distinctions usually taken for granted in psychology, such as emotion versus cognition. Reconstructing Kelly's relation to Herbart allows one to see more clearly why Kelly was such a unique figure in 20th century psychology.

  13. A consumer study of Danish entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... with high concentrations of the odour components as compared to the population. The uncastrated male pigs were selected in nine groups representin skatole contents in the interval 0.00 till 0.39 ppm, and androstenone contents in the interval 0.00 til 1.99 ppm. For comparison, evaluation was also done....... Skatole is a more effective parameter than androstenone for identification of the unpleasant odour of uncastrated male pigs. However, a small increase in consumer reactions was seen at extreme concentrations of androstenone 8>1.25 ppm) as the skatole content comes nearer to 0.25 ppm. situation appears...

  14. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A. [Univ. of Montana, Polson, MT (United States). Flathead Lake Biological Station; Ward, J.V. [EAWAG/ETH, Dubendorf (Switzerland). Dept. of Limnology; Liss, W.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife; Coutant, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  15. Increasingly, there are pressures to study entire eco- systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fisheries catches on a global scale are not sustainable. ... and improved linkages and communication to the fishing industry. ... Formerly Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Private Bag X2, Rogge ..... energy transfers through the foodweb, and nutrient ...... LITERATURE CITED.

  16. A curious spacetime entirely free of centrifugal acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    In the Einstein gravity, besides the usual gravitational and centrifugal potential there is an additional attractive term that couples these two together. It is fun to enquire whether the latter could fully counteract the centrifugal repulsion everywhere making the spacetime completely free of the centrifugal acceleration. We present here such a curious spacetime metric and it produces a global monopole like stresses going as $~1/r^2$ in an AdS spacetime.

  17. Implementation of RFID Tracking across the Entire Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkka, Ville

    2013-01-01

    The use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tracking to improve the supply chain management (SCM) of today’s complex and geographically dispersed supply networks has been highlighted in the past 10 years. Even if the use of RFID technology to smooth certain supply chain operations has grown rapidly, the number of supply chain-wide tracking systems, which would be highly integrated with the operations across the whole supply chain, has remained low. The aim of this thesis is threefold...

  18. Gravitational Waves: An Entirely New Window onto the Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the LIGO detectors observed the collision and fusion of two black holes by directly measuring the gravitational waves emitted during their collision.  This detection came almost exactly 100 years after Einstein developed his revolutionary general theory of relativity that predicted their existence, and 50 years after scientists began searching for them in earnest.  Since then, two more gravitational-wave events have been confidently detected. These discoveries have truly profound implications for physics and astronomy.   Gravitational waves provide unique information on the most energetic astrophysical events, revealing unique insights into the nature of gravity, matter, space, and time. LIGO has opened a new window onto the cosmos.  I will talk about how we made the detection and discuss how gravitational wave astronomy promises to change our understanding o...

  19. One-stage closure of the entire primary palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J A; Douglas, B K; Ho, W C; Husami, T W

    1990-10-01

    Timing of the closure of the anterior palate and alveolus is a subject of debate. Late repair of this defect is complicated by high fistula formation and subjects the patient to the problems of palate fistula for extended periods of time. We have utilized a single procedure performed when the child is 3 months of age that completely closes the anterior hard palate and alveolus along with the cleft lip. Our series consisted of 61 consecutive patients with unilateral clefts of the primary and secondary palate. Mucosal turnover flaps from the vomer along with lateral nasal mucosal flaps provide the nasal lining. A buccal sulcus flap with a Veau flap completes the oral repair. Ninety-five percent (58 of 61) of the patients had complete and stable closure of their anterior palate and alveolus after 1 year. The incidence of fistula formation in our series (3 of 61) is much lower than that reported with the utilization of other protocols. Excellent exposure of the anterior palate and alveolar defect during lip repair, early restoration of anatomic relationships, establishment of a good nostril floor and sill, and very low fistula formation are among the benefits of this procedure. The increase in operative time is considered minimal in light of aforementioned advantages.

  20. Books, children, dogs, artists: library programs for the entire family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Mary Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of library resources and services is a continuous process for all libraries, especially hospital family resource center libraries. Like public libraries, a family resource center can utilize programs as a pathway for connecting with and developing awareness of library resources and services available to patient families. This column describes the programs currently offered for All Children's Hospital Johns Hopkins Medicine patient families, marketing initiatives to promote these programs, and utilization of grant funding to supplement a program.

  1. 5 CFR 213.3202 - Entire executive civil service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... State or local governing body, or in a technical or vocational school, 2-year or 4-year college or... provided by the school in which the student is enrolled. Students need not be in actual physical attendance... time when a program participant is working but is unable to go to school, or neither attending...

  2. Tendinopathy: Is Imaging Telling Us the Entire Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, Sean I; Ooi, Chin Chin; Connell, David

    2015-11-01

    Synopsis Tendinopathy is frequently associated with structural disorganization within the tendon. As such, the clinical use of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for tendinopathy has been the focus of numerous academic studies and clinical discussions. However, similar to other musculoskeletal conditions (osteoarthritis and intervertebral disc degeneration), there is no direct link between tendon structural disorganization and clinical symptoms, with findings on imaging potentially creating a confusing clinical picture. While imaging shows the presence and extent of structural changes within the tendon, the clinical interpretation of the images requires context in regard to the features of pain and the aggravating loads. This review will critically evaluate studies that have investigated the accuracy and sensitivity of imaging in the detection of clinical tendinopathy and the methodological issues associated with these studies (subject selection, lack of a robust gold standard, reliance on subjective measures). The advent of new imaging modalities allowing for the quantification of tendon structure or mechanical properties has allowed new critical insight into tendon pathology. A strength of these novel modalities is the ability to quantify properties of the tendon. Research utilizing ultrasound tissue characterization and sonoelastography will be discussed. This narrative review will also attempt to synthesize current research on whether imaging can predict the onset of pain or clinical outcome, the role of monitoring tendon structure during rehabilitation (ie, does tendon structure need to improve to get a positive clinical outcome?), and future directions for research, and to propose the clinical role of imaging in tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(11):842-852. Epub 21 Sep 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5880.

  3. Room temperature syntheses of entirely diverse substituted β-fluorofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wheeler, Kraig A; Dembinski, Roman

    2012-03-28

    Synthesis of highly substituted 3-fluorofurans is reported. The sequence began with preparation of tert-butyldimethylsilyl alk-1-en-3-yn-1-yl ethers from 1,4-disubstituted alk-3-yn-1-ones. Subsequent fluorination of alkenynyl silyl ethers with Selectfluor gave 2-fluoroalk-3-yn-1-ones in almost quantitative yield. Subsequent 5-endo-dig cyclizations using chlorotriphenylphosphine gold(I)/silver trifluoromethanesulfonate (5/5 mol%), N-bromo- or N-iodosuccinimide and gold(I) chloride/zinc bromide (5/20 mol%), all at room temperature, provided a facile method for the generation of substituted 3-fluoro-, 3-bromo-4-fluoro-, and 3-fluoro-4-iodofurans in good yields. Also, 2,2-difluoroalk-3-yn-1-ones were prepared by fluorination of alk-3-yn-1-ones under organocatalytic conditions. The structures of (Z)-tert-butyldimethylsilyl but-1-en-3-yn-1-yl ether, 3-bromo-4-fluorofuran, and 3-fluoro-4-(phenylethynyl)furan were confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Percutaneous Implantation of an Entirely Intracardiac Leadless Pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Exner, Derek V; Cantillon, Daniel J; Doshi, Rahul; Bunch, T Jared; Tomassoni, Gery F; Friedman, Paul A; Estes, N A Mark; Ip, John; Niazi, Imran; Plunkitt, Kenneth; Banker, Rajesh; Porterfield, James; Ip, James E; Dukkipati, Srinivas R

    2015-09-17

    Cardiac pacemakers are limited by device-related complications, notably infection and problems related to pacemaker leads. We studied a miniaturized, fully self-contained leadless pacemaker that is nonsurgically implanted in the right ventricle with the use of a catheter. In this multicenter study, we implanted an active-fixation leadless cardiac pacemaker in patients who required permanent single-chamber ventricular pacing. The primary efficacy end point was both an acceptable pacing threshold (≤2.0 V at 0.4 msec) and an acceptable sensing amplitude (R wave ≥5.0 mV, or a value equal to or greater than the value at implantation) through 6 months. The primary safety end point was freedom from device-related serious adverse events through 6 months. In this ongoing study, the prespecified analysis of the primary end points was performed on data from the first 300 patients who completed 6 months of follow-up (primary cohort). The rates of the efficacy end point and safety end point were compared with performance goals (based on historical data) of 85% and 86%, respectively. Additional outcomes were assessed in all 526 patients who were enrolled as of June 2015 (the total cohort). The leadless pacemaker was successfully implanted in 504 of the 526 patients in the total cohort (95.8%). The intention-to-treat primary efficacy end point was met in 270 of the 300 patients in the primary cohort (90.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 86.0 to 93.2, P=0.007), and the primary safety end point was met in 280 of the 300 patients (93.3%; 95% CI, 89.9 to 95.9; P<0.001). At 6 months, device-related serious adverse events were observed in 6.7% of the patients; events included device dislodgement with percutaneous retrieval (in 1.7%), cardiac perforation (in 1.3%), and pacing-threshold elevation requiring percutaneous retrieval and device replacement (in 1.3%). The leadless cardiac pacemaker met prespecified pacing and sensing requirements in the large majority of patients. Device-related serious adverse events occurred in approximately 1 in 15 patients. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; LEADLESS II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02030418.).

  5. The entire sequence over Musielak p-metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murugesan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce fibonacci numbers of Γ2(F sequence space over p-metric spaces defined by Musielak function and examine some topological properties of the resulting these spaces.

  6. Burgess shale-type biotas were not entirely burrowed away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Droser, Mary L.; Orr, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Burgess Shale-type biotas occur globally in the Cambrian record and offer unparalleled insight into the Cambrian explosion, the initial Phanerozoic radiation of the Metazoa. Deposits bearing exceptionally preserved soft-bodied fossils are unusually common in Cambrian strata; more than 40 are now...... known. The well-documented decline of soft-bodied preservation following the Middle Cambrian represents the closure of a taphonomic window that was only intermittently open in marine environments thereafter. The prevailing hypothesis for this secular shift in taphonomic conditions of outer shelf...... environments is that soft-bodied biotas were literally burrowed away from the fossil record by increasing infaunal activity in muddy substrate environments; this would have affected geochemical gradients and increased the efficiency of organic matter recycling in sediments. New and recently published data...

  7. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding; Analyse binaire: 1ere partie: definitions et traitements des fonctions binaires; 2eme partie: applications et fonctions de transcodage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, R.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [French] L'analyse binaire a pour objet l'etude mathematique des proprietes d'ensembles binaires algebriques et pour but l'elaboration de methodes simples, rigoureuses et pratiques, destinees aux techniciens, aux ingenieurs et a tous ceux qu'interesse directement le traitement numerique de l'information, discipline en expansion rapide qui, deja, en electronique nucleaire comme dans de nombreux autres domaines de la recherche, tend a jouer un role essentiel sinon determinant. (auteurs)

  8. Analyse de la flore, de la végétation ligneuse et des fonctions des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zone péri-urbaine post-conflit (Ziguinchor, Sénégal). Maurice ... Mots clés : Vallées, végétation, flore, ménage, production agricole. Analysis of the flora, the ..... points d'eaux. La ... usées et d'un camp de la marine dans la vallée de Cobitène.

  9. Contact de langues et fonction poetique du changement linguistique (Language Contact and the Poetic Function of Linguistic Change).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Following Roman Jakobson, this article attempts to outline the affinity between linguistic change induced by language contact and conflict, and the poetic function of language. This phenomenon can be observed by studying the discourses of trilingual speakers in the Aosta Valley in Northern Italy. The problematic position of French is reflected and…

  10. Le Rapport Juridique de Travail et le Rapport Juridique de Fonction Publique. Comparativisme Communautaire (proposition de Lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica Nistor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the basic rules of the two categories of legal relationship (job and work, we noticethat both are governed by the same principles: legality, impartiality and objectivity; transparency;efficiency and effectiveness; responsibility, in compliance with the law, orientation towards the citizen;stability in exercising competencies; hierarchical subordination. Comparing the two types of legalrelationships (job and work it must be taken into account the Lege ferenda, so as the public officialswould conclude the individual employment contracts, where there are written the clauses that govern thelegal relationships. The process of closing, executing, changing and ceasing these relationships shouldbe submitted to the same procedural rules that are applied to employees by the employing units.

  11. Fonctions et enjeux du berceau dans la première moitié du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Garnier

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les représentations traditionnelles, le berceau a toujours joué le rôle d’accueil du petit enfant. Associé au bercement, il assure le bien être de l’enfant et le prépare à un sommeil réparateur, nécessaire à son repos et à celui de sa famille. Le berceau joue alors au sens propre, comme au sens figuré, un rôle essentiel de protecteur. Pourtant, en se penchant sur les traités de soins pour les nouveau-nés et les traités d’éducation rédigés par des médecins dans la première moitié du XIXe siècle, on comprend que la place du berceau dans la cellule familiale est source de différents enjeux. La question d’employer un berceau pour faire reposer l’enfant, si elle semble évidente, n’a pas toujours répondu à une volonté d’assurer plus de confort à l’enfant. Elle correspond au contraire à une demande forte de la part des différentes autorités (médecins, théologiens, moralisateurs de bannir la cohabitation au sein du même lit entre enfants et parents, afin de proscrire les risques d’étouffement et d’infanticide. Pour autant, faire reposer un enfant dans un berceau, nécessite de bien définir les rôles de chacun (mère, nouveau-né, nourrice, père. Il s’agit d’une question essentielle d’éducation.

  12. Choisir les outils d'analyse des objets géographiques en fonction de ses objectifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Arnaud

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Les objets géographiques ne peuvent pas ètre analysés sans tenir compte de leur position dans l’espace, information souvent essentielle. D’autre part, leurs influences mutuelles nombreuses et diverses entraînent leur interdépendance. La statistique classique atteint alors ses limites : il est nécessaire d’utiliser d’autres techniques plus adaptées. Après avoir défini les différents types d’objets géographiques que l’on peut rencontrer, nous passerons en revue un certain nombre d’outils et de techniques statistiques permettant de répondre aux principaux objectifs poursuivis par le chercheur : décrire, estimer, classer ou modéliser.Geographical objects cannot be analysed without taking account of their position in space, a detail that is often essential. Moreover, the many and various interactions between objects makes them interdependent. This places them beyond the scope of conventional statistics, and other, more appropriate techniques have to be used. After defining the different types of geographical objects encountered, we will go on to review a certain number of statistical techniques and tools that can be used to achieve the main objectives often set for researchers : description, estimation, classification or modeling.

  13. Etude de sensibilite du profil de durete des engrenages traites thermiquement par induction en fonction des parametres machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, Noureddine

    This project involves a study of sensitivity of the hardness profile of cylindrical bars and spur gears heated by induction using finite element models (axisymmetric and 2D) combined with experimental tests. This sensitivity study is considered as the basic step towards the development of prediction models. The study mainly aims at evaluating the effect of material properties and machine parameters on the hardness profile. As the induction heating is very fast, it is reasonable to assume that the material properties are different from those measured under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. For this reason, the study attempts to measure the effect of variations in material properties on the surface temperature using the axisymmetric model. The results show that the relative magnetic permeability is the property that most significantly influences surface temperatures and the variation of this property has a large effect on the hardness profile. The effects of specific heat and electrical conductivity are rather low, while the thermal conductivity has a negligible effect on the model developed. Moreover, the variation in temperature of austenitizing margins have limited effects on the developed model. Therefore, the use of material properties at thermodynamic equilibrium was sufficient to establish models for predicting trends. Moreover, study of global sensitivity profile of hardness as a function of machine parameters allowed, in the first place, to compare the two cases of heat to medium and high frequency, by applying them to a disc and a gear and determine the effect of the imposed current density and heating time on the hardness profile using the results of the simulations. It appears that the edge effect is smaller in the MF heating case. In addition, the 2D model can confirm that the MF power heat more the tooth root, while the HF power heat the tooth tip region. Finally, the regression models developed were used to estimate surface temperatures and depths hardened with time of heating and power received by the part. The experimental tests, performed on discs and gears with the same exterior dimensions, have confirmed a clear correlation between hardness profiles measured and those obtained by simulation. Moreover, since the power transmitted by the machine to the coil is not known and it is difficult to measure the current in the inductor, the issue was to find a method leading to a match between simulation and experimentation. Indeed, tests have allowed the calibration of developed models by evaluating the power ratio between the power received by the part and that provided by the machine. Thus, the calibrated models are able to predict global trends of the hardness profile as a function of machine parameters even if the material properties measured at thermodynamic equilibrium are used. Finally, a local sensitivity analysis was performed by varying the machine parameters slightly around the nominal values leading to a definite hardness profile. Based on the statistical tools of variance analysis, this study showed that the hardness profile is very sensitive to small variations of the power machine and the heating time in the case of the disc. With regard to the gears and considering the dual frequency sequential heating mode, HF power and HF heating time are the parameters that most affect the hardness profile. Although the study focused on the specific geometry and a given material, it is clear that the models developed can be used to develop mechanical components and they help reduce the development time. The greatest contribution of this work has been to bridge the gap between theory, simulation and practice. Therefore, it laid the groundwork to achieve a more general and robust model capable of supporting the interactions between the machine parameters, variables, dimensions and material properties. The accuracy of the model could be greatly improved by considering inductor current measurement during heating and material properties characterization in thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Dosimetric study and assessment of objective functions developed in IMRT; etude dosimetrique et evaluation de fonctions objectives developpees en RCMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servagi-Vernat, S.; Bosset, J.F. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU IFRC, Besancon (France); Ali, D.; Giraud, P. [Hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris (France); Viard, R. [Aquilab SAS, Loos-lez-Lille (France); Fenoglietto, P. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, Nantes (France); Lisbona, A.; Zetkin, S. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a prospective and comparative analysis of the main dosimetric, physical, biological and probabilistic parameters concerning tumour target volumes and organs at risk for three new types of intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT): helical tomo-therapy, VMat-type dynamic arc-therapy (volumetric modulated ar therapy), and RapidArc-type dynamic arc-therapy. They also report the validation of new predictive dosimetric parameters in patients with ENT cancers. Short communication

  15. Stochastic optimization under risk constraint and utility functions; Optimisation stochastique sous contriante de risque et fonctions d'utilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seck, B

    2008-09-15

    In a context of concurrence and emergence of energy markets, the production of electricity is affected by the new sources of risks which are the price variations on the energy markets. These new sources of risks generate a new risk: the market risk. In this research, the author explores the possibility of introducing constraints, expressed by measurements of risk, into the process of optimization of electricity production when financial contracts are signed on the energy market. The author makes the distinction between the engineering approach (taking the risk into account by risk measurements) and the economist approach (taking the risk into account by utility functions). After an overview of these both approaches in a static framework, he gives an economical formulation (a Maccheroni type one) for a static optimization problem under a risk constraint when the risk measurement is written under the form of an expected infimum like the variance, the 'conditional value at risk', and so on. The obtained results are then extended to a dynamic optimization framework under risk constraints. A numerical application of this approach is presented to solve a problem of electricity production management under a constraint of 'conditional value at risk' on a middle term.

  16. Calcul multi-caractéristique du coût du non-qualité via la fonction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La conformité aux spécifications vise uniquement la satisfaction du client. ... poor quality, every product with at least one quality characteristic exceeding the tolerance limits. ... Compliance with specifications is only customer satisfaction.

  17. Les Premieres Acquisitions De La Notion De Fonction Lineaire Chez L'Enfant De 7 A 11 Ans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Graciela

    1982-01-01

    This study, written in French, presents the hierarchy of strategies used by children in solving multiplication and division problems, as they acquire the linear function concept. It is based on analysis of the different classes of problems, of specific tasks, and of strategies actually used in solutions. (MP)

  18. La gestion des ressources humaines est un element essentiel de la dynamisation de la fonction publique - Rencontre avec Alain Eraly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DODU

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This short interview was made by Marius Dodu, Teaching Assistant of the Faculty of Political and Administrative Sciences from «Babeş-Bolyai» University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, with Professor Ph.D., Alain Eraly from the Université Libre de Bruxelles during their meeting in May 2000. It gives an interesting insight to Mr. Eraly’s professional activity in the field of Human Resources Management and reveals some of the specificity of practicing this activity in Belgium organisations, especially in Public Administration.

  19. Wavelets as basis functions in electronic structure calculations; Les ondelettes comme fonction de base dans le calcul de structures electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, C

    2005-11-15

    This thesis is devoted to the definition and the implementation of a multi-resolution method to determine the fundamental state of a system composed of nuclei and electrons. In this work, we are interested in the Density Functional Theory (DFT), which allows to express the Hamiltonian operator with the electronic density only, by a Coulomb potential and a non-linear potential. This operator acts on orbitals, which are solutions of the so-called Kohn-Sham equations. Their resolution needs to express orbitals and density on a set of functions owing both physical and numerical properties, as explained in the second chapter. One can hardly satisfy these two properties simultaneously, that is why we are interested in orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelets basis, whose properties of interpolation are presented in the third chapter. We present in the fourth chapter three dimensional solvers for the Coulomb's potential, using not only the preconditioning property of wavelets, but also a multigrid algorithm. Determining this potential allows us to solve the self-consistent Kohn-Sham equations, by an algorithm presented in chapter five. The originality of our method consists in the construction of the stiffness matrix, combining a Galerkin formulation and a collocation scheme. We analyse the approximation properties of this method in case of linear Hamiltonian, such as harmonic oscillator and hydrogen, and present convergence results of the DFT for small electrons. Finally we show how orbital compression reduces considerably the number of coefficients to keep, while preserving a good accuracy of the fundamental energy. (author)

  20. Fonctions L en g\\'eom\\'etrie rigide I: F-modules convergents ou surconvergents et conjecture de Dwork

    CERN Document Server

    Etesse, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first one of a series of three articles devoted to L-functions. In this one we give a definition of the L-functions of convergent or overconvergent F- modules with the help of Teichm\\"uller liftings and we establish the meromorphy of the L-functions of convergent F- modules in the closed unit disk. Whereas Wan established Dwork conjecture in a series of three articles, we give here a proof relying only on the generalyzed Monsky's trace formula of Wan and on an isogeny theorem of Katz. In the second article we'll give a definition of the L-functions of F-(iso)crystals by cohomological means and we'll show how it matches with the one given here: it gives back the one used in crystalline cohomology by Katz or Etesse, or the one used in rigid cohomology by Etesse-Le Stum, or the one used by Wan ; the aim is then to give a proof of Katz conjecture on p-adic unit roots and poles of these L-functions using rigid cohomology. In the third article we give an explicit form of these results for ordina...

  1. « Veille créative » : Une nouvelle expression relative à une fonction informationnelle en émergence

    OpenAIRE

    Goria, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Depuis les années 1980s, la veille informationnelle est reconnue en France par les pouvoirs publics et les entreprises. Ainsi, elle fut souvent présentée comme un atout important pour les entreprises au même titre que l’innovation. Au fil du temps et de ses applications des veilles spécialisées apparurent : veille technologique, concurrentielle, législative, stratégique, etc. En étudiant la relation qui lie veille informationnelle aux activités de création et innovatio...

  2. 睫状体冷凝联合全结膜瓣遮盖术治疗并发角膜溃疡的绝对期青光眼%Cyclocryotherapy combined with entire conjunctival flap covering operation for treatment of absolute glaucoma complicated corneal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宁; 廖伟; 刘真; 于东珍; 刘玉岭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨睫状体冷凝联合全结膜瓣遮盖术治疗并发角膜溃疡的绝对期青光眼的临床疗效.方法 并发角膜溃疡的绝对期青光眼18例(18眼)施行睫状体冷凝联合全结膜瓣遮盖术.术后观察眼部症状,角膜、结膜愈合情况及眼压等.结果 随访平均(9.4±1.9)个月.所有患眼球结膜瓣与角膜牢固贴附.术后2 d眼压开始下降,而后呈逐渐下降的趋势,至术后1个月时基本稳定.结论 在严格病例选择的基础上,睫状体冷凝联合全结膜瓣遮盖术治疗并发角膜溃疡的绝对期青光眼的初步效果良好.%Objective To explore the clinical effect of cyclocryotherapy combined with entire conjunctival flap covering operation for treatment of absolute glaucoma complicated corneal ulcer. Methods 18 cases (18 eyes) with absolute glaucoma complicated corneal ulcer had been performed cyclocryotherapy combined with entire conjunctival flap covering operation. The eye symptoms,cornealconjunctival healing and intraocular pressure (IOP) were observed. Results All patients were followed up for 9.4±1.9 months. The bulbar conjunctiva flap and cornea were attached and blend firmly. Postoperative IOP showed a gradual downward trend and it was stable in 1 month after operation. Conclusions On the basis of the indication selected strictly, cyclocryotherapy combined with entire conjunctival flap covering operation for treatment ofabsolute glaucoma complicated corneal ulcer is effectiv.

  3. An Analysis of the Promotion Effect of Entire Mechanization of Sugarcane Industry On the Scientific Development of Sugarcane Industry%推进甘蔗全程机械化对甘蔗产业科学发展的促进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小练

    2015-01-01

    The paper put forward the necessity to promote full mechanization in sugarcane industry in our country, revealed the problems existing in the process of entire mechanization of sugarcane industry and relevant solutions, , hop-ing to provide some theoretical basis for the mechanization development of sugarcane industry.%文章提出在我国推行甘蔗全程机械化的必要性,揭示了甘蔗全程机械化发展中存在的问题及相关的解决措施,希望能为甘蔗的机械化发展提供一定的理论基础。

  4. Entire cast-in-place concrete lfoor (top) analysis of the causes and prevention of cracks in the system cover%混凝土整体现浇楼(顶)盖裂缝的成因分析和系统预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐智尧

    2015-01-01

    在房屋建筑工程中,混凝土整体现浇楼盖的使用非常广泛。但混凝土整体现浇楼盖裂缝往往会引起投诉、纠纷以及索赔要求等,因此裂缝是混凝土工程中普遍存在的问题,这就要求我们对此予以足够的重视。本文主要就混凝土整体现浇楼盖出现裂缝的原因以及进行系统预防的具体措施进行了分析研究。%In building engineering, concrete pouring the whole floor is widely used. But the entire cast-in-place concrete floor cracks often give rise to complaints, disputes and claims, so the concrete crack is a common problem in the engineering, which requires us to pay enough attention to. This paper mainly embodies the specific measures of pouring concrete whole floor cracks causes and prevention system is studied.

  5. 高校仪器设备全生命周期管理模式下的采购管理初探%Study on purchase management under mode of entire lifecycle management of laboratory instruments and equipment in colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖芸; 李霞; 张玉平; 卢晨

    2012-01-01

    The purchase management is an important link of the management of laboratory instruments and equipment in colleges and universities. The situation and problem about the management of equipment are analyzed, from the entire lifecycle management mode, the purchase management of equipment is discussed, and the managements respectively in preparation phase, purchase phase, application phase and disposition phase are analyzed. The suggestion to enhance purchase management is provided in order to improve the purchase lienefit, ensure the supply, and serve the scientific research better.%高校设备采购管理是仪器设备管理的一个重要环节,影响设备采购的因素众多.该文分析了设备管理的现状和存在的问题,从设备全生命周期管理模式的角度,对设备采购管理进行探索,分别分析了设备的准备期管理、采购期管理、使用期管理、处置期管理,最后提出了加强采购管理措施的建议,旨在提高采购效益,保障供应,更好地为学校教学科研服务.

  6. Repair of degloving injury of the entire hand by bilateral combined transfer of wrap-around flap and multi-petal pedal flaps based on a single pedicle%双足带有同蒂多叶皮瓣的趾甲皮瓣移植治疗全手皮肤套脱伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯瑞兴; 王海文; 巨积辉; 郭大强; 陈宏彬; 江新民; 盛进

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore a new operative method of repairing degloving injury of the entire hand by composite transfer.Methods A total of 3 cases of hand degloving injuries were treated with flap transfers from bothfeet.Wrap-around flap from one foot combined with anterior ankle flap,dorsal pedal,medial pedal and lateral pedal flaps all based on the anterior tibial artery were transferred to reconstruct the thumb and cover skin defects of the web space and the thumb and radial side of the hand.The second toe combined with abovementioned pedal flaps were harvested from the other foot and transferred to reconstruct the index or middle finger and cover skin defects on the ulnar side of the hand.Results All the skin flaps survived postoperatively,except necrosis of a reconstructed index finger.Follow up ranged from 3 to 12 months.The appearance of the hand and functions such as pinch.grasp and grip recovered essentially.The sensation of the flaps and reconstructed digits returned to S2 to S4.Conclusion Combined transfer of wrap-around flap and multi-petal flaps based on one pedicle from both feet is an effective way to repair degloving injury of the entire hand.%目的 探讨应用组合组织移植修复全手皮肤套脱伤的方法.方法 对3例全手皮肤套脱伤患者,分别采用一侧足部以胫前动脉为蒂的带踝前皮瓣、足背皮瓣、足内侧皮瓣和足外侧皮瓣的拇甲皮瓣再造拇指,修复桡侧手掌手背及虎口区皮肤缺损;另一侧足部带以上相同皮瓣的第二趾甲皮瓣再造示指(或中指),修复尺侧手掌及手背皮肤缺损.结果 术后3例,除一再造示指坏死外,其余组织瓣全部存活.术后随访3~12个月,修复后手部外形和捏、握、抓等功能基本恢复.皮瓣及再造拇、示指(或中指)感觉恢复至S2~S4.结论 双足带有同蒂多叶皮瓣的趾甲皮瓣移植治疗全手皮肤套脱伤是一种有效的治疗方法.

  7. 护理干预对患者全程接种狂犬病疫苗依从性的影响%Influence of nursing intervention on the obedience of rabies patients in completeing the entire process of rabies vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽珍; 吴丽兰; 区慧霞; 张少雯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of systematized nursing intervention on increasing the obedience of rabies patients throughout the comprehensive vaccination.Methods 1392 cases of rabies patients who were infected by dogs or other animals treated in dog injury outpatient at our center from July 2010 to June 2011,were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group,each with 696 cases.The intervention nursing measures were implemented to the experimental group,which included vaccination record book,intensive psychological counseling and health education,enquiry hotline service and random telephone interviews etc.The conventional rabies vaccination notification advice and verbal explanation on health education were applied to the control group without random telephone interviews.Results The obedience of the experimental group during the rabies vaccination was remarkably enhanced compared to that of the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion The implement of systematized hohstic nursing intervention on the patients is of positive significance to strengthen the obedience of patients to complete the entire process of rabies vaccination.%目的 探讨系统化整体护理干预对提高患者狂犬病疫苗全程接种依从性的影响.方法 将2010年7月至2011年6月在我中心犬伤门诊就诊的1392例被犬等动物致伤患者随机分为干预组和对照组各696例.干预组实施使用预防接种记录本、加强心理护理和健康教育、提供电话咨询和进行电话随访等护理干预措施;对照组使用以往应用的狂犬病疫苗注射通知单,进行口头告知健康教育,未接受电话随访.结果 干预组与对照组比较,患者狂犬病疫苗全程接种依从性显著增强,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 对患者实施系统化整体护理干预,对于提高患者全程接种狂犬病疫苗依从性具有积极意义.

  8. Proposition de classement des sources végétales d’acides gras en fonction de leur profil nutritionnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Virginie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of isolated fatty acids on human health has long been studied by the nutritionists. The consequence of this research for the food industry was a need for a better control of the lipidic profile of manufactured food products. The purpose of the present paper was to give the nutritional profile of 53 vegetable oils in relation with their fatty acid composition and their related nutritional potential. In a first section, the role of isolated fatty acids on blood lipids (LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol and triacylglycerols has been reviewed. In a second section, the vegetable oils are gathered in relation with their similar fatty acids composition, with the aim of classifying their properties in accordance with their role on blood lipids. From a nutritional point of view, besides the major α-linolenic acid source that is rapeseed oil, the classification makes some interesting sources to stand out. They contain either mainly α-linolenic acid (camelin, linseed and perilla or both essential fatty acids as α-linolenic and linoleic acids (purslane, chia, salicorna and sea buckthorn seeds. Moreover, this collection is an interesting tool for new designed food products with a better lipid composition.

  9. Les fonctions du paradigme mélancolique dans la Préface de l’Anatomie de la Mélancolie de Robert Burton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Crignon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Au moment où paraît l’Anatomie de la Mélancolie de Robert Burton (1e édition en 1621, l’humorisme se trouve sérieusement remis en cause par les découvertes du contemporain de Burton, William Harvey, concernant la circulation du sang. Comment expliquer alors la parution de cet ouvrage qui se présente comme une somme de toutes les connaissances médicales, philosophiques ou historiques accumulées au sujet de la mélancolie depuis l’Antiquité jusqu’à la fin de la Renaissance ? L’article se donne pour objectif de comprendre quel peut être l’intérêt stratégique d’un recours au discours mélancolique et à la théorie des humeurs, lesquels deviennent sous la plume de Burton des instruments idéals permettant d’attirer l’attention sur la crise politique, sociale, économique et religieuse que traverse la monarchie anglaise de Jacques Ier.

  10. Apprentissage par démonstrations : vaut-il la peine d'estimer une fonction de récompense?

    OpenAIRE

    Piot, Bilal; Geist, Matthieu; Pietquin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Cet article propose une étude comparative entre l'Apprentissage par Renforcement Inverse (ARI) et l'Apprentissage par Imitation (AI). L'ARI et l'AI sont deux cadres de travail qui utilisent le concept de Processus Décisionnel de Markov (PDM) et dans lesquels nous cherchons à résoudre le problème d'Apprentissage par Démonstrations (AD). L'AD est un problème où un agent appelé ap- prenti cherche à apprendre à partir de l'observation des démonstrations d'un autre agent appelé expert. Dans le cad...

  11. Quality control and risk management: specific characteristics of the French health care system;Fonction qualite et gestion du risque: reflexions sur les specificites du systeme francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D. [Syndicat National des Radiotherapeutes Oncologues (SNRO), 75 - Paris (France); Bureau de la Societe Francaise de Radiotherapie Oncologique (SFRO), 75 - Paris (France); Couderc, B. [Union Nationale Hospitaliere Privee de Cancerologie (UNHPC), 75 - Paris (France); Institut National du Cancer (INCa), 75 - Paris (France); Ligue Contre le Cancer, 75 - Paris (France); Parmentier, G. [UNHPC, 75 - Paris (France); College de l' Accreditation, Haut Conseil de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    The techniques used in the field of radiotherapy are the same everywhere, but the organisation and scope of activities vary depending on the country, and sometimes depending on the specific region. The International Radiotherapy Conference held in Paris and devoted to the radiation protection of radiotherapy patients provides us with an opportunity to discuss some of the specific characteristics of the French health care system. These past years, the context of workforce shortage associated with strong government initiatives, the implementation of several successive National Cancer Plans, the transposition of European Directives into French law (EURATOM 96/29 and 97/43) and the accident in Epinal have had a rapidly restructuring effect on the French radiotherapy sector. (authors)

  12. Oocyte-somatic cell communication and microRNA function in the ovary: Communication ovocyte-cellule somatique et fonction des microRNA dans l’ovaire

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An enormous amount of knowledge about the ovary has been generated over the last two decades, due in part to the development of strategies to genetically manipulate the mouse using embryonic stem cell technology. Our group and others have identified multiple factors that are important and essential at all stages of ovarian folliculogenesis from formation of the primordial factor to ovulation. It is obvious that an oocyte, the key cargo of the ovary, and the surrounding granulosa cells, the su...

  13. Le zonage : un outil pour la gestion des forêts de montagne à fonction de protection contre les risques naturels

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, F.; F. Rey; Liévois, J.

    2003-01-01

    Les forêts peuvent jouer un important rôle de protection contre les aléas naturels en milieu de montagne, en particulier contre l`érosion et les chutes de pierres. Cet article présente dans un premier temps les connaissances concernant la capacité des forêts dans la maîtrise des aléas naturels. Ensuite, des principes de zonage sont présentés ; basés sur l`utilisation d`un SIG, ils permettent de déterminer des zones d`interventions forestières prioritaires, dans une optique de « gestion minima...

  14. Crise cotonnière en Centrafrique et choix des agriculteurs en fonction de leur localisation par rapport à la ville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbétid-Bessane, E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Crisis in Central African Republic and Choice of Farmers According to their Location to the City. A study on the choice cropping pattern by farmers as compared to their location to the city, following the cotton crisis of 1998, has been conducted in Central African Republic. After having chosen 92 producer groups around two cities distributed in 4 concentric circles, a collection of statistics and surveys have been realised during three agricultural campaigns. Regressions of surfaces and production to distances of farms to the city have been calculated. Results show the dependence between cultivated surfaces, production and distance to the city. The more a farm is far from the city, the more its cotton surface and its production increase while the share of food crops surface decreases. An increase by 10 km of the position of a farm from the city entails an increase by 5.8 ares of its cotton surface and by 58.8 kg of its cotton production while a diminution of 4% is observed in the surface of food crops. Farms located far from the city choose a cotton strategy while those located close to the city choose to develop a "food crops" strategy. The local socio-economic context of farms in term of proximity to the market plays a determining role in the decision-making of farmers.

  15. Le réalisme et la fonction esthétique du récit%现实主义与叙事关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝虹

    2002-01-01

    现实主义一直是传统主题学研究的对象,在这里,笔者尝试从文体风格学的角度对这一问题进行审视.这篇文章是笔者在2001年底所发表的、关于文体风格学与"叙事美学"之间关系思考的一个继续.

  16. La fonction de la voie de signalisation du récepteur Activin de type IIB dans le muscle squelettique adulte.

    OpenAIRE

    Relizani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Myostatin, a growth factor of the TGF-β family that signals through the activin receptor-IIB (ActRIIB), has been identified as an important negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. However, its effect on muscle energy metabolism and energy dependent muscle function remains largely unexplored. I here investigated the consequence of impaired ActRIIB signaling for muscle metabolism in two experimental models, i) the constitutive myostatin knockout mice and ii) following pharmacological admi...

  17. Evaluation des Performances Psychomotrices et Mnesiques des Pilotes en Fonction de l’Age (Pilots Memory and Psychomotor Performance Evaluation in Relation With Age)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    similarit6 de situation, soit it is quite valid to take into consideration the age of the l𔄀quivalent d’un apprentissage , il n’a pas 6t6 fait appel pilot...durgcnce engendrdes par un type de panne prdvu. S a Conine le montre la photo de l’cran de la plate-forme Z (figure 8), les instruments qui figurent

  18. De la relation entre service public et fonction publique. Etude comparée des droits français et chinois

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    In France, since the 1990s, the traditional polarity public service / civil service is questioned by privatization and public services outsourcing on the one hand, and by contracting and "managerialization" of civil service on the other hand. These trends are also observed in China in the construction of a public services system from 1990s, and in the establishment of a civil service decided in the late 1980s and endorsed by the Law of 27 April 2005 on Public Servants. In spite of the politic...

  19. La décomposition des biais de progrès technique est-elle réalisable avec une fonction production Cobb-Douglas ?

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Daw

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The neo-classic exercise of growth economic accounting for a given country leads to a quantified diagnosis of the characteristics (capital, work, total productivity of the factors) of this growth while working with a function of Cobb-Douglas production. In the presence of biased technical progress (i.e. progress not profiting identically with all the productive factors), this function is not able to separately provide the value of each bias, which can disorientate the ...

  20. Measurement of the lepton {tau} spectral functions and applications to quantum chromodynamic; Mesure des fonctions spectrales du lepton {tau} et applications a la chromodynamique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, A. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire]|[Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-04-18

    This thesis presents measurements of the {tau} vector (V) and axial-vector (A) hadronic spectral functions and phenomenological studies in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Using the hypothesis of conserved vector currents (CVC), the dominant two- and four-pion vector spectral functions are compared to the corresponding cross sections from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. A combined fit of the pion form factor from {tau} decays and e{sup +}e{sup -} data is performed using different parametrizations. The mass and the width of the {rho}{sup {+-}}(770) and the {rho}{sup 0}(770) are separately determined in order to extract possible isospin violating effects. The mass and width differences are measured to be M{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - M{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.0{+-}1.0) MeV/c{sup 2} and {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.1 {+-} 1.9) MeV/c{sup 2}. Several QCD chiral sum rules involving the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions are compared to their measurements. The Borel-transformed Das-Mathur-Okubo sum rule is used to measure the pion polarizability to be {alpha}{sub E}=(2.68{+-}0.91) x 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}. The {tau} vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure {alpha}{sub s} and non-perturbative contributions at the {tau} mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}}) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}})= 0.348{+-}0.017 giving {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1211 {+-} 0.0021 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the {tau} hadronic width to masses smaller that the {tau} mass. Using the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions allows one to directly measure the dominant non-perturbative OPE dimension to be D=6.9{+-}0.5. The vector spectral functions are used to improve the precision of the experimental determination of the hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a{sub {mu}}=(g - 2)/2 and to the running of the QED fine structure constant {alpha}{sub QED}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) at the Z mass. They are found to be a{sub {mu}}{sup had}=(701.1{+-}9.4) x 10{sup -10} and {delta}{alpha}{sub had}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=(281.7{+-}6.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the latter leads to {alpha}{sup -1}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=128.878{+-}0.085. (author)