WorldWideScience

Sample records for fonctions entires algbriques

  1. La gestion de la fonction maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R

    2000-01-01

    Le présent article a pour objet d'analyser la fonction maintenance au sein de la division ST. Seront d'abord évoqués, les principaux facteurs qui ont marqué ladite fonction tels que sa décentralisation au niveau de chaque groupe, organisé par spécialité, et l'externalisation des activités jugées non stratégiques. En rapprochant la fonction maintenance de la fonction études et travaux, la décentralisation a sans doute permis de développer, par spécialité, un niveau de compétence accru. La sous-traitance de plus en plus importante de nos activités et les recrutements à un niveau plus élevé ont permis de faire face aux diminutions de personnel CERN. Cependant, ces aspects positifs s'accompagnent d'effets pervers tels que le manque de communication entre les services de maintenance de chaque spécialité, la disparité des approches dans la façon de gérer les activités et d'organiser le travail, et une difficulté à analyser globalement les performances des contractants. Ces différentes ...

  2. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  3. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  4. Entire Agreement Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina; Neumann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , it can then be expected that the contract drafting practice will in turn influence national legal rules and the courts’ approach. This effect can already be seen in Danish legal scholarship and its presumption that the judges will not entirely disregard EA clauses, but take a middle road in interpreting......, but also the contract drafting style typical for common law countries. In this way, common law concepts and rules can be transferred to civil law jurisdictions, however, without certainty about the legal effects. This is especially pertinent to boilerplate provisions. On this background, the article aims...

  5. Métabolisme et fonctions de l’acide myristique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rioux Vincent

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available L’acide myristique (C:14:0 est un acide gras saturé d’origine alimentaire ou d’origine endogène, encore peu connu. Il a des spécificités métaboliques et fonctionnelles qui sont présentées ici. Il possède un avenir court dans la cellule puisqu’il est majoritairement beta-oxydé et/ou allongé en acide palmitique. Il a également, en acylant plusieurs protéines (myristoylation, des rôles fonctionnels très importants dans la régulation de certaines fonctions cellulaires.

  6. Les effets des antibiotiques administrés en bas âge sur la fonction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... jouent un rôle important dans le développement et la fonction normale de nos systèmes immunitaire et nerveux. Ce projet permettra d'obtenir d'importantes indications sur la façon dont les antibiotiques peuvent perturber la flore intestinale et affecter la fonction cérébrale chez les jeunes enfants. La chimie du cerveau et ...

  7. Les effets des antibiotiques administrés en bas âge sur la fonction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -organismes. La recherche a permis de constater que ces micro-organismes, qui composent la flore intestinale, jouent un rôle important dans le développement et la fonction normale de nos systèmes immunitaire et nerveux. Ce projet ...

  8. Métalexicographie culturelle, fonctions lexicographiques et finalité pragmatique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Résumé: Le but de cet article est de replacer le traitement des données culturelles dans les dictionnaires dans le cadre d’une méthodologie guidée par les fonctions lexicographiques et par la finalité pragmatique du dictionnaire : le dictionnaire est-il monofonctionnel ou polyfonctionnel ? Est-il...

  9. Original Paper Evaluation de la fonction rénale chez les patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la fonction rénale chez les patients atteints de maladie cardio vasculaire (MCV) : comparaison entre ... Mots clés : Cystatine C, créatinine, insuffisance rénale, débit de filtration glomérulaire, maladies cardiovasculaires. Evaluation of the ... L'insuffisance rénale chronique (IRC) et les maladies cardiovasculaires ...

  10. Approches plurielles du nom sans déterminant distributions, interprétations, fonctions

    CERN Document Server

    Prescod, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Réunies sous des perspectives plurielles, les contributions de cet ouvrage fournissent des appréciations diverses des distributions, interprétations et fonctions du nom sans déterminant. La pluralité des outils d'analyse adoptés permet de faire émerger le caractère composite des noms sans déterminant dans diverses langues.

  11. Caractéristiques végétales, typologie et fonctions des bois sacrés au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les bois sacrés assurent aux populations, plusieurs fonctions: écologique, cultuelle, socio-culturelle, magique et mixte. Parmi les bois sacrés, seuls ceux qui suscitent la crainte à l'endroit de la population sont intégralement protégés. Mots clés: Bois sacré, enquête ethnobotanique, caractéristiques végétales, fonctions, ...

  12. Schroedinger--Dirac spaces of entire functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Branges, L.

    1977-01-01

    A study is made of some Hilbert spaces of entire function which appear in the quantum mechanical theory of the hydrogen atoms. These spaces are examples in the theory of Hilbert spaces whose elements are entire functions and which have certain given properties. 1 reference

  13. Eléments de mathématiques fonctions d'une variable réelle : théorie élémentaire

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    chapitre I : dérivés ; chapitre II : primitives et intégrales ; chapitre III : fonctions élémentaires ; chapitre IV : équations différentielles ; chapitre V : étude locale des fonctions ; chapitre VI : développements tayloriens généralisés, formule sommatoire d'Euler-Maclaurin ; chapitre VII : la fonction gamma.

  14. Métaphores terminologiques : fonctions et statut dans les langues de spécialité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Micaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La terminologie spécialisée a été longtemps considérée par la théorie wustérienne comme un territoire interdit à la rhétorique : selon les manuels des années 70 et 80, la langue de spécialité est de par sa nature essentiellement dénotative, le terme étant une unité monosémique, liée par un lien biunivoque à son concept de référence. De même, les textes spécialisés se présentent dans ces études comme des unités essentiellement informatives, à visée purement référentielle, ce qui exclut la présence de toute figure rhétorique. Cette hypothèque d'objectivité limite l'analyse des textes de spécialité pendant quelques décennies. Ce n'est qu'à la fin des années 90 que de nouvelles visions de la terminologie se manifestent : les courants de la terminologie textuelle (Bourigault / Slodzian 1999, de la terminologie variationniste et culturelle (Diki Kidiri 1999, de la terminologie communicative (Cabré 1999 mettent l'accent sur la variété des textes et discours spécialisés, ainsi que sur leur dimension discursive et - par conséquent - rhétorique. On assiste ainsi à la redécouverte de la fonction des figures dans les textes de spécialité, comme en témoignent entre autres les études de Lerat (1995, Jacobi (1995. Dans la même lignée d'études, les années 90 marquent la naissance d'un courant spécifique, focalisé sur le rôle, la fonction et l'évolution de la métaphore dans les langues spéciales. Les essais d'Assal (1994 peuvent être considérés comme le point de départ de cette nouvelle orientation des terminologues : dans le sillage des cognitivistes, notamment des études fondatrices de Richards (1936 et Black (1962, mais également des études plus récentes de Lakoff et Johnson (1990 et de Fauconnier et Turner (1997, l'analyse des métaphores terminologiques est conduite dans leur dimension de figures conceptuelles, fruit d'une incohérence dérivant de l'interaction de domaines apparemment

  15. UOP HRM 531 Entire Course NEW

    OpenAIRE

    ADMIN

    2018-01-01

    UOP HRM 531 Entire Course NEW Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.hrm531assignment.com/hrm-531-uop/hrm-531-entire-course -latest For more classes visit http://www.hrm531assignment.com HRM 531 Week 1 Employment Law Report (2 Papers) HRM 531 Week 2 Change Management Impact (2 Papers) HRM 531 Week 3 Individual Compensation and Benefits Strategy (2 Papers) HRM 531 Week 3 Team Salary Inequities Case Study AstraZeneca (2 Papers) HRM 531 W...

  16. Entire cyclic cohomology and modular theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoytchev, O.Ts.

    1992-04-01

    We display a close relationship between C* and W*-dynamical systems with KMS states on them and entire cyclic cohomology theory. We construct a character form which assigns to each such system (A, α, R) an even entire cyclic cocycle of the subalgebra A of differentiable (with respect to the given automorphism group) elements of A. We argue that the most interesting case is the von Neumann algebra one, where the automorphism group is determined uniquely by the faithful normal state on the algebra (the modular group) and where the character may provide important information about the algebra. (author). 11 refs

  17. The class of n-entire operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luis O; Toloza, Julio H

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a classification of simple, regular, closed symmetric operators with deficiency indices (1, 1) according to a geometric criterion that extends the classical notions of entire operators and entire operators in the generalized sense due to M G Krein. We show that these classes of operators have several distinctive properties, some of them related to the spectra of their canonical self-adjoint extensions. In particular, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions on the spectra of two canonical self-adjoint extensions of an operator for it to belong to one of our classes. Our discussion is based on some recent results in the theory of de Branges spaces. (paper)

  18. The Teichmuller Space of an Entire Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagella, Nuria; Henriksen, Christian

    2008-01-01

    points of any quasiconformal automorphism that commutes with f and which is homotopic to the identity, rel. the ideal boundary of the domain. As a consequence, the general framework of McMullen and Sullivan [McMS98] for rational functions applies also to entire functions and we can apply it to study...

  19. AFM image of an entire polygene chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minqian; Takeuchi; Ikai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author present AFM images of an entire polygene chromosome of Drosophila for the first time. Comparing with conventional optical microscope, the AFM image of the polygene chromosomes provides much higher resolution and 3-D measurement capability which will lead to finer scale gene mapping and identification

  20. 26 Calcul multi-caractéristique du coût du non-qualité via la fonction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Le coût du non - qualité (CNQ) est un indicateur permettant l'estimation de la marge ..... multicritères de Taguchi en fonction de l'évolution du poids et capacité du ... A Scheduling Example; International Journal of Information and Management.

  1. Caractéristiques végétales, typologie et fonctions des bois sacrés au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. 2966- ..... dont aucun clan, aucune tribu n'a le droit d'y interférer. C'est cette ... électifs ou nominatifs, la fonction public, etc. A travers des ..... Terminologie et définition. Troisième session ...

  2. Interdits et interdictions dans le droit de la fonction publique Prohibitions in Civil Service Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le droit français de la fonction publique, les interdits découlent de la situation légale et réglementaire faite aux agents publics. Cette situation juridique objective en constitue le fondement et conduit à une forme d’indétermination de leur étendue. Pour autant, l’apparition de la notion de « déontologie du fonctionnaire » laisse apparaître une mutation de la logique d’interdiction. Cette mutation se traduit par une invitation au respect de bonnes pratiques professionnelles mais aussi à une normalisation des comportements des agents publics.In the French law concerning civil service, prohibitions originate in the situation of the civil servants according to law and regulations. This objective legal situation constitutes the basis of these prohibitions and leads to a sort of indetermination in their scope. However the apparition of the concept of “civil servant’s deontology” shows a mutation in the prohibition’s logics. This mutation is translated into an invitation to respect good professional practices but also into a normalisation of the behaviour of civil servants.

  3. Concept of transfer functions for a nuclear reactor; Notion de fonction de transfert pour un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfes, Abdi [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement d' Electronique Generale, Service d' Electronique des Reacteurs

    1966-07-01

    The solution to the correlation equations are expressed in terms of the eigenvalues and Eigen-matrices of the transport operator, for a subcritical zero power reactor. This allows to define, for each point of the reactor and for detectors detecting neutrons of given velocities, correlation and transfer functions driven by the same white-noise source. A precise meaning is also given to the importance operator, which is the adjoin of the transport operator. (author) [French] La solution des equations regissant les matrices de correlation est exprimee en fonction des valeurs et matrices propres de l'operateur de transport pour un reacteur sous-critique et de puissance nulle. Ceci permet de definir, en chaque point du reacteur et pour des detecteurs repondant a des neutrons de vitesse definie, des fonctions de correlation et de transfert dont les entrees sont attaquees par une meme source de bruit blanc. Le role joue par l'operateur importance, adjoint de l'operateur de transport, est aussi precise. (auteur)

  4. La fonction pragmatique de la ponctuation dans la rédaction professionnelle : une étude de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Christina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La ponctuation est au centre de débats qui portent notamment sur sa(es fonction(s. Bessonnat (1991:4 fait reposer l’analyse fonctionnelle de la ponctuation sur une fonction syntaxique, une fonction sémantique et une fonction communicationnelle. Anis (2004 met lui- même l’accent sur la dimension énonciative de la ponctuation en tant que lieu d’investissement du scripteur. De même, Lapacherie (2014 rappelle que trois thèses ont été mises en avant au cours des derniers siècles : la corrélation à l’oral, l’information sémantique et la cohérence syntaxique. Thèses auxquelles s’ajoute, au cours des dernières décennies, celle de l’orientation pragmatique de la dimension énonciative des signes de ponctuation qui ne se réduisent pas alors aux guillemets ou autres tirets (Dahlet, 2003:147. Dans cette perspective d’anlayse, Narjoux souligne que « La ponctuation nous dit assurément beaucoup de celui qui choisit d’y recourir. » (2010:12 et prolonge son propos de la façon suivante : « Sans doute, la ponctuation dans son ensemble a-t-elle une dimension énonciative, plus ou marquée, et qui transparait jusque dans les choix de celui qui écrit pour tel ou tel signe, à tel ou tel endroit. » (2010:59. Nous proposons de nous positionner sur l’aspect communicationnel voire interactionnel de la ponctuation en faisant reposer notre analyse sur l’étude de pratiques discursives de rédacteurs professionnels (RP. Il s’agit de comprendre l’enjeu de la ponctuation dans sa corrélation avec d’autres indicateurs de relation interdiscursive convoqués par le RP pour produire un écrit visant une relation particulière avec son destinataire. Nous entendons donc la ponctuation comme la trace d’un positionnement discursif guidé par une intention de communication spécifique (Dahlet, 2003. Notre approche est résolument empirique et nous avons constitué pour cela un corpus comprenant des écrits pour le grand public r

  5. Télémonitorage des grandes fonctions physiologiques chez les primates vigiles Remote monitoring of physiologic functions in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Germain

    2011-02-01

    besoins accrus de caractériser des individus très mobiles ou des groupes d’animaux dans des environnements complexes, toujours en utilisant des systèmes portables et les moins invasifs possible. Ces systèmes devraient permettre de caractériser les tendances évolutives de certains états physiologiques (études éthophysiologiques, études de terrain ou expérimentaux (physiologie, pharmacologie et d'alerter suffisamment rapidement les observateurs pour qu'ils puissent appliquer en retour des actions correctives si nécessaire. Des pans entiers des grandes fonctions physiologiques, régulations métaboliques et régulations hormonales, pour ne citer que celles-là, ne peuvent pas encore être explorés directement par télémonitorage. Des concepts plus avancés tels que ceux des biocapteurs métaboliques ou hormonaux sont en cours de validation en laboratoire et pourraient devenir accessibles aux acquisitions télémétriques dans le futur.The common difficulties of the study of nonhuman primates are close to the constraints encountered in implementing the principles of human telemedicine. They stem from the remote localization of animals and of their geographical dispersion, in field studies. They also stem from the need to control in the laboratory, experimental treatments with a minimal disturbance of their social behavior. Radio waves are an excellent transmission signal to monitor the animals because they can spread information rapidly and over long distances through the air. All telemetry devices operate on the same basic principle which consists in one or more sensors coupled to a radio-encoder transmitter and an antenna system coupled to an analog or digital, receiver-decoder. Progress in remote transmission also stems from the miniaturization of electronic emitting- and acquisition-devices that are less energy demanding and therefore have much greater transmission range and autonomy. Many telemetric devices, often totally implantable in the body of the

  6. Semigroups of transcendental entire functions and their dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DINESH KUMAR

    Abstract. We investigate the dynamics of semigroups of transcendental entire func- tions using Fatou–Julia theory. Several results of the dynamics associated with iteration of a transcendental entire function have been extended to transcendental semigroups. We provide some condition for connectivity of the Julia set of the ...

  7. Entire solutions of nonlinear differential-difference equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Lü, Feng; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the properties of entire solutions of a nonlinear differential-difference equation and a Fermat type equation, and improve several previous theorems greatly. In addition, we also deduce a uniqueness result for an entire function f(z) that shares a set with its shift [Formula: see text], which is a generalization of a result of Liu.

  8. Entire solutions of Fermat type q-difference differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the finite-order transcendental entire solutions of Fermat type $q$-difference and $q$-difference differential equations. In addition, we investigate the similarities and other properties among those solutions.

  9. Some notes concerning the fourier transformation of auto-correlation functions; Quelques notes sur la transformee de fourier des fonctions d'autocorrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelicher, B; Dalfes, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A study is made of the passage of the auto-correlation function to the frequency spectrum by a numerical Fourier transformation. Two principal characteristics of auto-correlation functions, the time between two points and the total time, are related to two oscillations which appear in the frequency spectrum and which deform it. Various methods are proposed for reducing the effect of these two parasitic oscillations and for re-obtaining the real spectrum. (authors) [French] On etudie le passage de la fonction d'autocorrelation au spectre de frequence par transformee de Fourier numerique. Deux caracteristiques principales des fonctions d'autocorrelation, la duree entre points et la duree totale sont reliees a deux oscillations qui apparaissent dans le spectre de frequence et le deforment. Diverses methodes sont proposees pour reduire l'effet de ces deux oscillations parasites, et retrouver le spectre reel. (auteurs)

  10. Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique

    OpenAIRE

    Kvítek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique The thesis explores complex process of first order transition of KD2PO4 crystal from tetragonal phase to ferroelectric - ferroelastic orthorhombic phase and back at temperature 209 K. The experimental set up of nitrogeneous cryostat allowes temperature and temperature gradient variations during simultaneous three axes optical sample observations, dielectric measurements. T...

  11. Solution of the transfer functions and the linear networks by an analog computer; Resolution des fonctions de transfert et des reseaux lineaires sur calculateur analogique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, D

    1967-09-27

    This study presents five methods used to realize a transfer function on analog computer - method of operational amplifiers - method of successive integrations - method of the auxiliary variable - method of the Horner decomposition - method of the direct analog transposition. The method that seems to us the most interesting, this one of Horner, is exposed with some complements. The last method presents the study of a linear network (mechanical, electronic) by direct analog transposition, without having to calculate its transfer function. Several aspects are studied the economy or the material type, the simpleness of implementing the adaptation of coefficients to the computer, the introduction of initial conditions of input and output functions. Every method presented is discussed in function of these problems. The precision of the result is not studied here, but we can indicate that the methods treated here, do not include approximations other than these ones of the computer elements. [French] Cette etude presente cinq methodes utilisees pour realiser une fonction de transfert quelconque sur calculateur analogique - methode des Amplificateurs operationnels - methode des integrations successives - methode de la variable auxiliaire - methode de la decomposition de Horner - methode de la transposition analogique directe. La methode qui nous semble la plus interessante, celle de Horner, est exposee avec quelques complements. La derniere methode presente l'etude d'un reseau lineaire (mecanique, electronique...) par transposition analogique directe, sans avoir a calculer sa fonction de transfert. Plusieurs aspects sont etudies l'economie ou le type de materiel, la simplicite de mise en oeuvre l'adaptation des coefficients au calculateur, l'introduction des conditions initiales des fonctions d'entree et de sortie. Chaque methode presentee est discutee en fonction de ces problemes. La precision du resultat n'est pas etudiee ici, mais on peut indiquer toutefois que les

  12. Pade approximants for entire functions with regularly decreasing Taylor coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusak, V N; Starovoitov, A P

    2002-01-01

    For a class of entire functions the asymptotic behaviour of the Hadamard determinants D n,m as 0≤m≤m(n)→∞ and n→∞ is described. This enables one to study the behaviour of parabolic sequences from Pade and Chebyshev tables for many individual entire functions. The central result of the paper is as follows: for some sequences {(n,m(n))} in certain classes of entire functions (with regular Taylor coefficients) the Pade approximants {π n,m(n) }, which provide the locally best possible rational approximations, converge to the given function uniformly on the compact set D={z:|z|≤1} with asymptotically best rate

  13. Entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot in CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Zhou Menglian; Zhang Jianmin; Lin Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    In the video of linear CCD camera being irradiated by 532 nm CW laser, the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot was found. The smear area does not represent the distribution of laser. Since this smear lies merely in one side of laser spot, it can not be induced by light leaking or carriers blooming, and it may be induced by charge transfer loss. However, the feature that the smear area is entirely saturated can not be explained by the current constant model of charge transfer inefficiency. Based on the inner structure and operating principle of buried channel CCD, a new model of charge transfer inefficiency that varies with charge quantity is proposed, which can explain the entirely saturated unilateral smear of laser spot. (authors)

  14. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout many responses. This task therefore involved no attentional settings for onset or indeed any dynamic changes, yet the brief onset of an entirely irrelevant distractor (a cartoon picture) resulted in significant slowing of the two (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) responses immediately following distractor appearance These findings provide a clear demonstration of attention being captured and captivated by a distractor that is entirely irrelevant to any attentional settings of the task.

  15. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  16. Study of the neutron strength function and of the diffusion radius as a function of mass number; Etude de la fonction densite de neutron et du rayon de diffusion en fonction du nombre de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-09-01

    The strength functions S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}, and the scattering length R' are studied. The values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are obtained by shape analysis of the individual resonances observed in total neutron cross-section measurements. These measurements were performed at the Saclay 45 MeV linac by the time of flight method. The best resolution achieved was equal to 0.19 ns/m. We have particularly studied the nuclei around number of mass A = 50, 90, 140 and 200. The experimental values of S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} and R' are compared with optical model calculations. A fairly good agreement is obtained using an optical potential with surface absorption. (author) [French] Nous etudions les fonctions densite S{sub 0} et S{sub 1} ainsi que le rayon de diffusion R'. Les valeurs de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' sont determinees a partir de l'analyse de forme des resonances individuelles observees lors de la mesure de la section efficace neutronique totale. Cette mesure a ete faite aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de 45 MeV de Saclay par la methode du temps de vol. La meilleure resolution atteinte etait egale a 0.19 ns/m. Nous avons particulierement etudie les noyaux situes vers les nombres de masse A 50, 90, 140 et 200. Nous comparons ensuite les valeurs experimentales de S{sub 0}, S{sub 1} et R' a differents calculs de modele optique. Un bon accord est obtenu avec un potentiel optique a absorption de surface. (auteur)

  17. Selectable six-element multicoil array for entire spine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.W.; Bluma-Walter, J.; Prorok, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article introduces a new multicoil array that can provide entire spine imaging in two acquisitions with no need to manually reposition either the coil or the patient. A selectable contoured multicoil array with six elements was used to obtain coverage of the entire spine. The first four elements were used for imaging the upper spine region (cervical/thoracic) during the first acquisition, and the last four elements were used for imaging the lower spine region (thoracic/lumbar) during the second acquisition. The overall coil length was approximately 75 cm

  18. Teaching Discrete Mathematics Entirely from Primary Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Janet Heine; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Lodder, Jerry; Pengelley, David

    2016-01-01

    We describe teaching an introductory discrete mathematics course entirely from student projects based on primary historical sources. We present case studies of four projects that cover the content of a one-semester course, and mention various other courses that we have taught with primary source projects.

  19. Entire functions sharing one polynomial with their derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    restriction of the hyper order less than 1/2, and obtain some uniqueness theorems of a nonconstant entire function and its derivative sharing a finite nonzero complex number. CM. The results in this paper also improve some known results. Some examples are provided to show that the results in this paper are best possible.

  20. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  1. Entire hemithorax irradiation for Masaoka stage IVa thymomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, André; Louro, Luís Vasco; Almeida, Marta; Sousa, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Thymomas are rare neoplasms that have an indolent growth with a preferentially intra-thoracic dissemination pattern. Surgery is currently the standard treatment of thymomas; however radiotherapy is often used in an adjuvant setting due to a high sensitivity of these tumors to such treatment. Postoperative entire hemithoracic irradiation has been used in selected Masaoka stage IVa cases after complete surgical excision of metastatic lesions. In the present article, the authors report three cases of Masaoka stage IVa thymoma that underwent entire hemithorax irradiation after surgical excision of metastatic lesions. The first two patients presented as stage IVa thymomas. The third case consisted of a pleural recurrence of a thymoma. Hemithoracic irradiation with low doses has been used by different authors; the available data shows that it is a well-tolerated treatment that could potentially lead to better loco-regional control and increased overall survival. PMID:24377042

  2. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout ...

  3. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  4. Nanometer-scale anatomy of entire Stardust tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Keller, Lindsay P.; Clemett, Simon J.; Messenger, Scott; Ito, Motoo

    2011-07-01

    We have developed new sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for entire aerogel tracks of Wild 2 sample analyses both on "carrot" and "bulbous" tracks. We have successfully ultramicrotomed an entire track along its axis while preserving its original shape. This innovation allowed us to examine the distribution of fragments along the entire track from the entrance hole all the way to the terminal particle. The crystalline silicates we measured have Mg-rich compositions and O isotopic compositions in the range of meteoritic materials, implying that they originated in the inner solar system. The terminal particle of the carrot track is a 16O-rich forsteritic grain that may have formed in a similar environment as Ca-, Al-rich inclusions and amoeboid olivine aggregates in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The track also contains submicron-sized diamond grains likely formed in the solar system. Complex aromatic hydrocarbons distributed along aerogel tracks and in terminal particles. These organics are likely cometary but affected by shock heating.

  5. A roentgenologic study of diverticular throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Lim, Kyu Yeob

    1983-01-01

    Diverticulum is considered as a common lesion involving any gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. We reviewed 5,806 cases of upper G-I series and 801 cases of double contrast barium enema during the period from Jan.1978 to Dec. 1981 in the Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Jeonbug National University Hospital to analyze diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract. The results were as follows: 1. Roentgen examination of 5,806 esophagus, stomachs, duodenums and small bowels, and 801 colons during the past four years: diverticula of the esophagus, 60 cases (1.0%); diverticula of the stomach, 42 cases (0.7%); diverticula of the duodenum, 358 cases (6.2%); diverticula of the small bowel, 20 cases (0.3%); diverticula of the colon, 26 cases (3.2%). The location of diverticula in order of frequency was duodenum, colon, esophagus, stomach and small bowel. 2. The most common site of diverticula of each gastrointestinal tract was as follows: diverticula of the esophagus, middle portion (84.7%); diverticula of the stomach, the cardia (59.5%); diverticula of the duodenum, the second portion (81.3%); diverticula of the small bowel, the jejunum (96.4%)-especially the larger percentage were observed at the upper jejunum near the ligament of Treitz; diverticula of the colon, the right sided colon (80.8%)-the cecum and ascending colon (57.1%). 3. Diverticula may occur at any age. The majority of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract were observed over 40 years of age. Especially in diverticula of the duodenum and colon, their frequency increase with age. 4. Duodenal diverticula were observed more frequently in woman than in man but in diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon, male was more frequently affected. 5. The size of diverticula of the entire gastrointestinal tract was variable. The majority of diverticula of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and small bowel were intermediate in size (10-49 mm). Diverticula of

  6. Implicit function with natural behavior over entire domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Taku; Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To generate a smooth implicit function that behaves naturally over an entire domain, a method to smoothly combine an implicit function f(x) with a global support function g(x) has been proposed. The proposed method can be applied to large scattered point data, since the implicit function f(x) is generated by a partition-of-unity-based method. The global support function g(x) is generated by a radial basis function-based method or by the least-squares method. To ensure a smooth combination of f(x) and g(x), an appropriate weight function is employed. In numerical experiments, the proposed method is applied to large point data. The results illustrate that the proposed method can generate a smooth implicit function F(x) with natural behavior over the entire domain. In addition, on the given points, the accuracy of F(x) is exactly the same as that of f(x). Furthermore, the computational cost for generation of F(x) is almost the same as that of f(x). (author)

  7. No turnover in lens lipids for the entire human lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jessica R; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Williams, Alan; Truscott, Roger J W

    2015-03-11

    Lipids are critical to cellular function and it is generally accepted that lipid turnover is rapid and dysregulation in turnover results in disease (Dawidowicz 1987; Phillips et al., 2009; Liu et al., 2013). In this study, we present an intriguing counter-example by demonstrating that in the center of the human ocular lens, there is no lipid turnover in fiber cells during the entire human lifespan. This discovery, combined with prior demonstration of pronounced changes in the lens lipid composition over a lifetime (Hughes et al., 2012), suggests that some lipid classes break down in the body over several decades, whereas others are stable. Such substantial changes in lens cell membranes may play a role in the genesis of age-related eye disorders. Whether long-lived lipids are present in other tissues is not yet known, but this may prove to be important in understanding the development of age-related diseases.

  8. Waste management aspects of entire PWR LOOP decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.P.; Roesmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The waste management parameters for decontamination of an entire PWR primary circuit have been determined for dilute alkaline-permanganate/citric acid (APCA), LOMI, ozone and cerium acid process variations. APCA processes generate the largest waste volumes; over 140 m 3 (5000 ft 3 ) in some cases. This represents a potential disposal cost of one million dollars. The cation regeneration column makes the greatest contribution to the disposal volume. In contrast, the LOMI process generates approximately half as much waste, but it is expected to contain relatively high metal concentrations (200-800 ppm). The ozone and cerium acid processes product the least waste, usually under 45 m 3 . These waste volume estimates represent considerable fractions of a utility's annual disposal volume. Consequently, improved waste processing technology is required, and several approaches are suggested

  9. The diffusion coefficient as a function of energy for usual moderators; Le coefficient de diffusion en fonction de l'energie des thermaliseurs usuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadilhac, M; Livolant, M; Pillard, D; Soule, J -L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    After a review of the definition of the energy function to be taken for the diffusion coefficient used in calculations of reactor cells, in the elementary theory of diffusion, various possible approximations of this function are given. These approximations are shown to be accurate enough for practical uses. Methods for the direct calculations of these approximations for the currently used 'normal' models (methods avoiding the calculation of differential cross sections) are described; these methods are applied to several usual moderators at various temperatures according to different models. (authors) [French] On rappelle la definition de la fonction de l'energie que l'on doit prendre pour le coefficient de diffusion dans les calculs de cellule de reacteur en theorie elementaire de la diffusion. Puis on indique diverses approximations possibles de cette fonction. On montre que ces approximations ont en pratique une precision suffisante. Enfin on decrit des methodes de calcul direct de ces approximations pour les modeles 'normaux' couramment employes (methodes qui evitent d'avoir a calculer les sections efficaces differentielles), et on les applique a plusieurs thermaliseurs usuels a differentes temperatures (selon differents modeles). (auteurs)

  10. Satellite altimetry based rating curves throughout the entire Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, A.; Calmant, S.; Paiva, R. C.; Collischonn, W.; Silva, J. S.; Bonnet, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Amazonian basin is the largest hydrological basin all over the world. In the recent past years, the basin has experienced an unusual succession of extreme draughts and floods, which origin is still a matter of debate. Yet, the amount of data available is poor, both over time and space scales, due to factor like basin's size, access difficulty and so on. One of the major locks is to get discharge series distributed over the entire basin. Satellite altimetry can be used to improve our knowledge of the hydrological stream flow conditions in the basin, through rating curves. Rating curves are mathematical relationships between stage and discharge at a given place. The common way to determine the parameters of the relationship is to compute the non-linear regression between the discharge and stage series. In this study, the discharge data was obtained by simulation through the entire basin using the MGB-IPH model with TRMM Merge input rainfall data and assimilation of gage data, run from 1998 to 2010. The stage dataset is made of ~800 altimetry series at ENVISAT and JASON-2 virtual stations. Altimetry series span between 2002 and 2010. In the present work we present the benefits of using stochastic methods instead of probabilistic ones to determine a dataset of rating curve parameters which are consistent throughout the entire Amazon basin. The rating curve parameters have been computed using a parameter optimization technique based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler and Bayesian inference scheme. This technique provides an estimate of the best parameters for the rating curve, but also their posterior probability distribution, allowing the determination of a credibility interval for the rating curve. Also is included in the rating curve determination the error over discharges estimates from the MGB-IPH model. These MGB-IPH errors come from either errors in the discharge derived from the gage readings or errors in the satellite rainfall estimates. The present

  11. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  12. Use of the entire spectrum of irradiated alanine for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolo, J.M.; Moignau, F.

    2005-01-01

    Alanine is an amino acid commonly used in ESR dosimetry as a reference detector. The classic approach for the measurement of irradiated samples is to determine the amplitude of the central peak of the first derivative spectrum. It is generally considered that this technique represents the best and most reproducible solution for achieving an accurate proportionality between the concentration of free radicals inside the resonant cavity, characterized by the amplitude, and the dose. It is also accepted that this central peak corresponds to the free radical CH 3 .CHCOO - . The hyperfine structure of this radical in the spectrum shows five main peaks with the approximate ratios 1:4:6:4:1 as regards coupling. This paper presents another approach featuring analysis of the entire spectrum: (i) ratios of identified peaks (ii) ratio variation vs time with regard to several parameters affecting fading. These variations in the alanine spectrum are probably correlated with the variation of the concentrations of different free radical species. These variations and their positions in the spectrum are very important constraints that increase the uncertainty of this type of measurement

  13. Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M.; King, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the

  14. An algorithm for seeking the optimum value of a function: 'random' method; Un algorithme de recherche de l'optimum d'une fonction: la methode random

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guais, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    After a brief survey of classical techniques for static optimization, we present a Random seeking method for any function, of an arbitrary number of variables, with constraints. The resulting program is shown and illustrated by some examples. The comparison with classical methods points out the advantages of Random in some cases where analytic procedures fail or require too much calculation time. (author) [French] Apres une rapide revue des differents procedes actuels d'optimisation statique, on expose une methode de recherche aleatoire du minimum (ou du maximum) d'une fonction quelconque, definie sur un nombre theoriquement illimite de parametres independants, avec contraintes. Le programme resultant est presente. Il est illustre par quelques exemples simples et compare a des methodes d'optimisation classiques; Ceci montre en particulier que le programme RANDOM permet une recherche aisee d'extrema dans certains cas ou d'autres programmes ne conduisent pas a des solutions satisfaisantes ou bien demandent un temps calcul prohibitif. (auteur)

  15. Application of numerical methods to the determination of molecular wave functions; Application de methodes de calcul numerique a la determination de fonctions d'onde moleculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douady, Jerome

    1969-10-01

    A simplified SCF Method is developed. The wave function of molecular systems and spin densities in the case of free radicals are computed from geometrical data. This method, including at the beginning a delocalization of electrons over all the molecular system, two methods which clear out bonding and anti-bonding interactions have been studied and programmed: a) overlap population analysis, b) localisation of molecular orbitals. These methods have been carried out in the case of organic compounds and free radicals. (author) [French] Mise en oeuvre d'une methode de champ self-consistant simplifie qui, a partir des donnees geometriques, permet de calculer la fonction d'onde des systemes moleculaires et les densites de spin dans le cas des radicaux libres. Cette methode introduisant au depart une delocalisation des electrons sur tout le systeme moleculaire, deux methodes permettant de rendre compte du caractere liant et antiliant de ces electrons ont ete etudiees et programmees: a) analyse des populations de recouvrement, b) localisation des orbitales moleculaires. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees a divers composes organiques radicalaires et non radicalaires. (auteur)

  16. Besprechung:S. LAZARIS, Art et science vétérinaire à Byzance. Formes et fonctions de l’image hippiatrique, Turnhout 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki TSAMAKDA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Besprechung: Normal 0 false false false EL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Κανονικός πίνακας"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} S. Lazaris, Art et science vétérinaire à Byzance. Formes et fonctions de l’image hippiatrique, Turnhout 2010.

  17. Bases mécanistiques des effets d'un insecticide agrovétérinaire, le fipronil,et/ou de ses métabolites sur la fonction thyroîdienne chez le rat

    OpenAIRE

    Roques, Béatrice

    2012-01-01

    Le fipronil, insecticide largement utilisé, est un perturbateur thyroïdien chez le rat modulant le catabolisme hépatique des hormones thyroïdiennes. Ses effets chez le mouton, considéré comme un modèle plus pertinent que le rat pour étudier une régulation de la fonction thyroïdienne chez l'Homme, sont plus limités. Le but de cette thèse était de caractériser au niveau hépatique le mode d'action du fipronil sur la fonction thyroïdienne en s'intéressant 1) au rôle potentiel du principal métabol...

  18. Étude de l'efficacité des modes de Lamb dans la signature acoustique en fonction du liquide de couplage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Despaux, G.; Saurel, J.-M.

    1998-06-01

    The acoustic signature allows to measure the velocity of the longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in bulk materials. From the velocities and density values the elastic properties can be calculated. For thin layer materials, these velocities are not directly measured but computed from the experimentally available velocities: the generalized Lamb waves velocities. These waves velocities are dispersive and their measurement depends on the liquid acting as a coupling fluid. In this study, the two faces of the layer are in contact with the liquid (methanol, water or aqueous solutions of potassium iodide KI_aq. 6 M and potassium hydroxyde KOH_aq. 12 M) chosen according to its acoustic parameters. The acoustic signature modeling allows to know their respective influence, the possible detection of the fast modes and, in general, the velocity measurement accuracy increase for all available modes. The experimental studies bear out that each mode characterization may be optimized by the appropriate choice of the frequency and of the coupling liquid according to its velocity, density and attenuation. L'étude de la signature acoustique permet de mesurer les vitesses de propagation des ondes acoustiques longitudinale et transverse dans les matériaux massifs, vitesses à partir desquelles on détermine leurs propriétés mécaniques. Pour des matériaux en couche mince, ces vitesses ne sont plus mesurées directement mais calculées à partir des vitesses accessibles expérimentalement : celles des modes de Lamb généralisés. Ces modes ont des vitesses dispersives et leur mesure dépend du liquide servant de couplant, dans lequel la couche est immergée. Dans cette étude, les liquides de couplage (méthanol, eau et solutions aqueuses de iodure de potassium KI_aq. 6 M et d'hydroxyde de potassium KOH_aq. 12 M) sont choisis en fonction de leurs paramètres acoustiques. La modélisation de la signature acoustique permet de prévoir leur influence respective, comment ils

  19. Analytical representation of time correlation functions and application to relaxation problems; Representation analytique des fonctions de correlation temporelle et application a des problemes de relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de physico-chimie, services des isotopes stables

    1971-07-01

    Two analytical representations of the Laplace transform of the time autocorrelation of a dynamical variable, namely the moment expansion and Mori's continued fraction expansion, are investigated from the point of view of structure and convergence properties, and the relation between them is established. The general theory is applied first to a dynamical model exactly solvable, the isotopic impurity in a linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators, and then to two stochastic models recently introduced by Gordon for the rotational diffusion of molecules. In the latter case, the continued fraction expansion yields simple analytical expressions for the infrared absorption band shapes, showing that these models contain all the features of observed shapes in compressed gases, liquids and solutions. (author) [French] Deux representations analytiques de la transformee de Laplace de la fonction d'autocorrelation temporelle d'une variable dynamique, le developpement en moments et le developpement en fraction continue recemment introduit par Mori, sont etudiees du point de vue de leurs proprietes de structure et de convergence, en meme temps que la relation qui existe entre elles est etablie. La theorie generale est appliquee, d'une part, a un modele dynamique exactement soluble, celui d'une particule isotopique dans une chaine lineaire d'oscillateurs harmoniques couples, et, d'autre part, a deux modeles stochastiques recemment proposes par Gordon pour la diffusion rotationnelle des molecules. Dans ce dernier cas, la voie de la fraction continue fournit des expressions analytiques simples pour les formes de bande d'absorption infrarouge, montrant que ces modeles possedent les caracteristiques des formes observees dans les gaz comprimes, les liquides ou les solutions. (auteur)

  20. On the growth estimates of entire functions of double complex variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Datta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently Datta et al. (2016 introduced the idea of relative type and relative weak type of entire functions of two complex variables with respect to another entire function of two complex variables and prove some related growth properties of it. In this paper, further we study some growth properties of entire functions of two complex variables on the basis of their relative types and relative weak types as introduced by Datta et al (2016.

  1. Effect of faecal soiling on skatole and androstenone occurrence in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    Production of entire male pigs could be a future strategy for organic pig production. However, production of entire males leads to increased risk of carcasses with elevated boar taint levels. It is hypothesized that skatole levels in pig meat are affected by faecal soiling and that organic housing...

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of efficient data acquisition for an entire-body PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnaini, Ismet; Obi, Takashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional PET scanners can image the whole body using many bed positions. On the other hand, an entire-body PET scanner with an extended axial FOV, which can trace whole-body uptake images at the same time and improve sensitivity dynamically, has been desired. The entire-body PET scanner would have to process a large amount of data effectively. As a result, the entire-body PET scanner has high dead time at a multiplex detector grouping process. Also, the entire-body PET scanner has many oblique line-of-responses. In this work, we study an efficient data acquisition for the entire-body PET scanner using the Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated entire-body PET scanner based on depth-of-interaction detectors has a 2016-mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and an 80-cm ring diameter. Since the entire-body PET scanner has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits, the NECR of the entire-body PET scanner decreases. But, single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into multiple parts. Our choice of 3 groups of axially-arranged detectors has shown to increase the peak NECR by 41%. An appropriate choice of maximum ring difference (MRD) will also maintain the same high performance of sensitivity and high peak NECR while at the same time reduces the data size. The extremely-oblique line of response for large axial FOV does not contribute much to the performance of the scanner. The total sensitivity with full MRD increased only 15% than that with about half MRD. The peak NECR was saturated at about half MRD. The entire-body PET scanner promises to provide a large axial FOV and to have sufficient performance values without using the full data.

  3. Impact écotoxicologique de mélanges de pesticides sur des fonctions microbiennes des sols : apport d’une prise en compte écologique dans l’évaluation des risques

    OpenAIRE

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Rouard, Nadine; Cheviron, Nathalie; Grondin, Virginie; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    L’utilisation de pesticides permet d’assurer la qualité de la production végétale mais elle contribue à la contamination des sols et des eaux et produit des effets sur des organismes noncibles. L’évaluation des risques requièrent actuellement une meilleure prise en compte des effets des pesticides sur le fonctionnement des écosystèmes. Or, les démarches et indicateurs classiques manquent de représentativité écologique. La fonction microbienne de biodégradation des pesticides est essentielle c...

  4. Entire Functions of Bounded L-Index: Its Zeros and Behavior of Partial Logarithmic Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Bandura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain new sufficient conditions of boundedness of L-index in joint variables for entire function in Cn functions. They give an estimate of maximum modulus of an entire function by its minimum modulus on a skeleton in a polydisc and describe the behavior of all partial logarithmic derivatives and the distribution of zeros. In some sense, the obtained results are new for entire functions of bounded index and l-index in C too. They generalize known results of Fricke, Sheremeta, and Kuzyk.

  5. Entire solutions of a diffusive and competitive Lotka–Volterra type system with nonlocal delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingxin; Lv, Guangying

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the entire solution of a diffusive and competitive Lotka–Volterra type system with nonlocal delays. The existence of the entire solution is proved by transforming the system with nonlocal delays to a four-dimensional system without delay and using the comparing argument and the sub-super-solution method. Here an entire solution means a classical solution defined for all space and time variables, which behaves as two wave fronts coming from both sides of the x-axis

  6. Asymptotic behavior of the logarithmic derivative for entire functions of order zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zabolotskyj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We get an approximation theorem for the logarithmic derivative $F$ of entire functions of order zero and, with it's help, establish the asymptotic of $ F $ outside the exceptional set.

  7. T helper type 1 memory cells disseminate postoperative ileus over the entire intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Daniel R.; Koscielny, Arne; Wehner, Sven; Maurer, Juliane; Schiwon, Marzena; Franken, Lars; Schumak, Beatrix; Limmer, Andreas; Sparwasser, Tim; Hirner, Andreas; Knolle, Percy A.; Kalff, Jörg C.; Kurts, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Localized abdominal surgery can lead to disruption of motility in the entire gastrointestinal tract (postoperative ileus). Intestinal macrophages produce mediators that paralyze myocytes, but it is unclear how the macrophages are activated, especially those in unmanipulated intestinal areas. Here we

  8. Quality Characteristics and Composition of the Muscle from Entire and Castrate Elk in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the chemical composition as well as the physicochemical properties of the longissimus muscle from Korean entire and castrate elk. Twelve elk stags were raised and fed on concentrate with ad libitum hay. All animals were equally divided into castrated and non-castrated (entire males, and slaughtered at 5 year of age. It was found that entire elk, in comparison with castrate elk, had higher content of moisture and lower content of fat (p<0.05. Compared with entire males, the castrates had lower pH and shear force values (p<0.05. However, castrates had higher L*, a*, and b* values compared with entires (p<0.05. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the muscles of entire and castrate elk had the most abundant concentrations of the following fatty acids: palmitic acid (C16:0 of the saturated fatty acid, and oleic acid (C18:1n-9 of the unsaturated fatty acid. The entire elk contains higher proportions of linoleic acid (C18:3n6, eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9, and arachidonic acid (C20:4n6 (p<0.05. Cholesterol content in elk was not affected by castration. The predominant free amino acid was glutamic acid related to umami taste. It is apparent that the castrate animals carried higher content of histidine, isoleucine, and leucine than those of the entire group (p<0.05. In this study, it was concluded that venison quality of elk is affected by castration and these results can provide fundamental information for venison production.

  9. Assessing treatment integrity in cognitive-behavioral therapy: comparing session segments with entire sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Grikscheit, Florian; Höfling, Volkmar; Stangier, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The evaluation of treatment integrity (therapist adherence and competence) is a necessary condition to ensure the internal and external validity of psychotherapy research. However, the evaluation process is associated with high costs, because therapy sessions must be rated by experienced clinicians. It is debatable whether rating session segments is an adequate alternative to rating entire sessions. Four judges evaluated treatment integrity (i.e., therapist adherence and competence) in 84 randomly selected videotapes of cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis (from three different treatment outcome studies). In each case, two judges provided ratings based on entire therapy sessions and two on session segments only (i.e., the middle third of the entire sessions). Interrater reliability of adherence and competence evaluations proved satisfactory for ratings based on segments and the level of reliability did not differ from ratings based on entire sessions. Ratings of treatment integrity that were based on entire sessions and session segments were strongly correlated (r=.62 for adherence and r=.73 for competence). The relationship between treatment integrity and outcome was comparable for ratings based on session segments and those based on entire sessions. However, significant relationships between therapist competence and therapy outcome were only found in the treatment of social anxiety disorder. Ratings based on segments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of treatment integrity. The findings demonstrate that session segments are an adequate and cost-effective alternative to entire sessions for the evaluation of therapist adherence and competence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Modeling of Multiphase with Respect to Low Interfacial Tension by Pseudo-Two-Phase Relative Permeability Functions Modélisation d'un écoulement polyphasique à faible tension interfaciale par des fonctions pseudo-biphasiques de perméabilité relative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusch G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A new 2-parameter desaturation function is introduced which offers a broader range of applicability to reservoir rock. Based on this function two-phase relative permeabilities are derived for oil phase and microemulsion flow. These functions are used to match a laboratory experiment by using surfactant flooding for a single surfactant system. Les auteurs présentent une nouvelle fonction de désaturation à deux paramètres qui offre une plus large gamme de possibilités d'application aux roches réservoir. On tire de cette fonction des perméabilités relatives biphasiques pour l'écoulement de la phase pétrole et d'une microémulsion. Ces fonctions sont utilisées pour reproduire une expérience de laboratoire avec injection de surfactant pour un seul système surfactant.

  11. High-throughput continuous hydrothermal synthesis of an entire nanoceramic phase diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaole; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Hyett, Geoffrey; Vickers, Martin; Boldrin, Paul; Tang, Chiu C; Thompson, Stephen P; Parker, Julia E; Knowles, Jonathan C; Rehman, Ihtesham; Parkin, Ivan; Evans, Julian R G; Darr, Jawwad A

    2009-01-01

    A novel High-Throughput Continuous Hydrothermal (HiTCH) flow synthesis reactor was used to make directly and rapidly a 66-sample nanoparticle library (entire phase diagram) of nanocrystalline Ce(x)Zr(y)Y(z)O(2-delta) in less than 12 h. High resolution PXRD data were obtained for the entire heat-treated library (at 1000 degrees C/1 h) in less than a day using the new robotic beamline I11, located at Diamond Light Source (DLS). This allowed Rietveld-quality powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data collection of the entire 66-sample library in <1 day. Consequently, the authors rapidly mapped out phase behavior and sintering behaviors for the entire library. Out of the entire 66-sample heat-treated library, the PXRD data suggests that 43 possess the fluorite structure, of which 30 (out of 36) are ternary compositions. The speed, quantity and quality of data obtained by our new approach, offers an exciting new development which will allow structure-property relationships to be accessed for nanoceramics in much shorter time periods.

  12. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  13. Existence of entire solutions of some non-linear differential-difference equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minfeng; Gao, Zongsheng; Du, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the admissible entire solutions of finite order of the differential-difference equations [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] are two non-zero polynomials, [Formula: see text] is a polynomial and [Formula: see text]. In addition, we investigate the non-existence of entire solutions of finite order of the differential-difference equation [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] are two non-constant polynomials, [Formula: see text], m , n are positive integers and satisfy [Formula: see text] except for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text].

  14. 77 FR 61650 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... given that as a result of Public Law 106-50, the Veterans entrepreneurship and Small Business... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13332 Disaster ZZ-00008] The Entire United States and U.S. Territories AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  15. Homomorphisms and functional calculus on algebras on entire functions on Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Pryimak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study homomorphisms of algebras of entire functionson Banach spaces to a commutative Banach algebra. In particular, it is proposed amethod to construct homomorphisms vanishing on homogeneouspolynomials of degree less or equal that a fixed number $n.$

  16. ON ENTIRE SOLUTIONS OF TWO TYPES OF SYSTEMS OF COMPLEX DIFFERENTIAL-DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingyun GAO

    2017-01-01

    In this paper,we will mainly investigate entire solutions with finite order of two types of systems of differential-difference equations,and obtain some interesting results.It extends some results concerning complex differential (difference) equations to the systems of differential-difference equations.

  17. T1rho mapping of entire femoral cartilage using depth- and angle-dependent analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Yu, Hon J.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi [University of California Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Kaneshiro, Kayleigh [University of California Irvine, School of Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States); Schwarzkopf, Ran [University of California Irvine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Irvine, CA (United States); Hara, Takeshi [Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Intelligent Image Information, Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    To create and evaluate normalized T1rho profiles of the entire femoral cartilage in healthy subjects with three-dimensional (3D) angle- and depth-dependent analysis. T1rho images of the knee from 20 healthy volunteers were acquired on a 3.0-T unit. Cartilage segmentation of the entire femur was performed slice-by-slice by a board-certified radiologist. The T1rho depth/angle-dependent profile was investigated by partitioning cartilage into superficial and deep layers, and angular segmentation in increments of 4 over the length of segmented cartilage. Average T1rho values were calculated with normalized T1rho profiles. Surface maps and 3D graphs were created. T1rho profiles have regional and depth variations, with no significant magic angle effect. Average T1rho values in the superficial layer of the femoral cartilage were higher than those in the deep layer in most locations (p < 0.05). T1rho values in the deep layer of the weight-bearing portions of the medial and lateral condyles were lower than those of the corresponding non-weight-bearing portions (p < 0.05). Surface maps and 3D graphs demonstrated that cartilage T1rho values were not homogeneous over the entire femur. Normalized T1rho profiles from the entire femoral cartilage will be useful for diagnosing local or early T1rho abnormalities and osteoarthritis in clinical applications. (orig.)

  18. Characterisations of Partition of Unities Generated by Entire Functions in Cd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2017-01-01

    Collections of functions forming a partition of unity play an important role in analysis. In this paper we characterise for any N∈N the entire functions P for which the partition of unity condition ∑n∈ZdP(x+n)χ[0,N]d(x+n)=1 holds for all x∈Rd. The general characterisation leads to various easy wa...

  19. On entire functions restricted to intervals, partition of unities, and dual Gabor frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    Partition of unities appears in many places in analysis. Typically it is generated by compactly supported functions with a certain regularity. In this paper we consider partition of unities obtained as integer-translates of entire functions restricted to finite intervals. We characterize the enti...

  20. T1rho mapping of entire femoral cartilage using depth- and angle-dependent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; Yu, Hon J.; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Kaneshiro, Kayleigh; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Hara, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    To create and evaluate normalized T1rho profiles of the entire femoral cartilage in healthy subjects with three-dimensional (3D) angle- and depth-dependent analysis. T1rho images of the knee from 20 healthy volunteers were acquired on a 3.0-T unit. Cartilage segmentation of the entire femur was performed slice-by-slice by a board-certified radiologist. The T1rho depth/angle-dependent profile was investigated by partitioning cartilage into superficial and deep layers, and angular segmentation in increments of 4 over the length of segmented cartilage. Average T1rho values were calculated with normalized T1rho profiles. Surface maps and 3D graphs were created. T1rho profiles have regional and depth variations, with no significant magic angle effect. Average T1rho values in the superficial layer of the femoral cartilage were higher than those in the deep layer in most locations (p < 0.05). T1rho values in the deep layer of the weight-bearing portions of the medial and lateral condyles were lower than those of the corresponding non-weight-bearing portions (p < 0.05). Surface maps and 3D graphs demonstrated that cartilage T1rho values were not homogeneous over the entire femur. Normalized T1rho profiles from the entire femoral cartilage will be useful for diagnosing local or early T1rho abnormalities and osteoarthritis in clinical applications. (orig.)

  1. Weight and season affects androstenone and skatole occurrence in entire male pigs in organic pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2015-01-01

    was found between seasons. The study concludes that decreasing live weight at slaughter could be an applicable management tool to reduce risk of boar taint and the level of tainted carcasses for a future production of entire male pigs within the organic pig production system, although further studies...... are needed as great variation in boar taint was found also for low weight animals...

  2. Estimation of body tissue gain of entire and castrated male pigs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of tissue gain and body composition of 18 entire (E) and 18 castrated (C) male pigs, fed at one of two levels of feeding (high (H) or low (L)), were investigated in a 2x2 factorial experiment. Calorimetric, energy and nitrogen balances were carried out on each animal at 30, 60 and 90 kg live weight. The animals were ...

  3. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  4. Extension of Inverses of Entire Functions of Genus 1 and 2 to the Upper Half Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2013-01-01

    Any entire function of genus 1 which is positive on the positive real axis and which has only negative zeros decreases on some unbounded interval of the positive axis. The inverse of its reciprocal is shown to have an extension from that interval to a Pick-function in the upper half plane...

  5. Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Noemi; Fodor, Benjamin; Muhammad, Ijaz; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the S-protected chitosan were evaluated regarding water uptake capacity, disintegration behaviour, residence time on vaginal mucosa, release of the encapsulated drug and antimicrobial activity. S-protected chitosan displayed 160±19 (CS-MNA-160) and 320±38 (CS-MNA-320)µmol of ligand per gram of polymer. At pH 4.2, CS-MNA-160 and CS-MNA-320 showed 5.2-fold and 6.2-fold increase in mucus viscosity in comparison to unmodified chitosan (One-way ANOVA, pchitosan remained stable against oxidation in presence of 0.5%v/v hydrogen peroxide. Metronidazole tablets consisting in S-protected chitosan showed prolonged residence time on vaginal mucosa and improved water uptake capacity and disintegration time in comparison to tablets consisting of unmodified chitosan. Moreover, CS-MNA-320 metronidazole tablets displayed prolonged drug release and antimicrobial activity. On the basis of the achieved results, entirely S-protected chitosan represents a promising excipient for the development of metronidazole vaginal tablets. S-protected thiomers are polymers modified with thiol groups protected by aromatic ligands and characterized by strong mucoadhesive properties and high stability against oxidation. Up to date, the entirely S-protection of thiol groups was achieved via the synthesis of the ligand 2-((2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)disulfanyl)nicotinic acid) which can be directly bound to the backbone of polymers bearing carboxylic moieties as pectin. However, this

  6. Electron spin resonance in neutron-irradiated graphite. Dependence on temperature and effect of annealing; Resonance paramagnetique du graphite irradie aux neutrons. Variation en fonction de la temperature et experiences de recuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Laboratoire de resonance magnetique

    1967-09-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron spin resonance signal from neutron irradiated graphite has been studied. The results lead to an interpretation of the nature of the paramagnetic centers created by irradiation. In annealing experiments on graphite samples, which had been irradiated at low temperature, two annealing peaks and one anti-annealing peak were found. Interpretations are proposed for these peaks. (author) [French] Le graphite irradie aux neutrons a ete etudie par resonance paramagnetique electronique en fonction de la temperature. La nature des centres paramagnetiques crees par irradiation est interpretee a l'aide des resultats. Des experiences de recuit sur des echantillons de graphite irradie a 77 deg. K ont permis de mettre en evidence deux pics de recuit et un pic d'anti-recuit, pour lesquels des interpretations sont proposees. (auteur)

  7. EMERGENCE OF ENTIRELY NEW POISONING IN RURAL INDIA; AN UPCOMING HEALTH HAZARD TO THE COMMUNITY HEALTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute agrochemical poisoning is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in India. Pendimethalin (herbicide and Pancycuron (fungicide are frequently used worldwide and considered quite a remarkably safe one for humans. Their acute toxicity is not yet widely known. Here we are reporting cases of their acute poisoning in young. To the best of our knowledge not a single such case of their poisoning has been reported so far in india. Such poisoning by entirely new compounds is an emerging problem in the tropics. In this communication we are reporting such unusual and entirely new toxicities and trying to highlight the need of their early recognition and timely management in rural regions where health facilities are already at the stake.

  8. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T.; Marchand, R.; Fragnaud, P.; Schleich, D.M. [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O. [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  9. The use of entire agreement clauses in contracts governed by Danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkidis, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the use of entire agreement (EA) clauses in contracts governed by Danish law. It (i) reviews the practice, based on interviews conducted with the representatives of Danish firms, judiciary and legal profession, (ii) analyses the implications of the practice under Danish...... contract law and related case law and (iii) offers recommendations on how EA clauses can be amended to minimise associated legal risks....

  10. Infarction of the entire corpus callosum as a complication in subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takahashi, M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum is the major commissural pathway connecting the cerebral hemispheres. This pathway receives its blood supply from anterior communicating artery, pericallosal artery, and posterior pericallosal artery. However, in some cases, the entire corpus callosum is supplied by median callosal artery; thus, occlusion of this artery can lead to infarction of the entire corpus callosum. Few reports have described this type of infarction, and no reports after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH exist. Here, we report on a 42-year-old female who was diagnosed with SAH after two aneurysms were discovered in bifurcation of left anterior cerebral artery (A1-A2. After successful clipping was performed, the patient was alert and had no neurological deficits; moreover, the computed tomography images that were acquired after the operation showed no evidence of infarction. Nine days after admittance to the hospital, drowsiness and weakness of the left limbs with brain swelling appeared and decompressive hemi-craniectomy was performed. Diagnostic cerebral angiography revealed vasospasms in both anterior and middle cerebral arteries, thus fasudil hydrochloride was administered intra-arterially. While blood flow in all arteries improved, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detected infarction along the entire length of the corpus callosum and in the medial region of the right frontal lobe. We believe this infarction was due to secondary ischemia of median callosal artery. This case reminded us of the anatomical variation wherein median callosal artery is the sole blood supply line for the corpus callosum and demonstrated that infarction of the entire corpus callosum is possible.

  11. Assessing Discount Rate for a Project Financed Entirely with Equity Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vintila

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating discount rate for an investment project is one of the most challenging tasks incapital budgeting. In this paper we discuss different kind of models for cost of equity capital proposed infinance literature (static CAPM, conditional CAPM, APT, build-up model, focusing especially on advantagesand disadvantages of using each of them. In the final section, we estimate the discount rate fora certain project financed entirely with equity capital, using a version of build-up model.

  12. Efficient algorithms for accurate hierarchical clustering of huge datasets: tackling the entire protein space

    OpenAIRE

    Loewenstein, Yaniv; Portugaly, Elon; Fromer, Menachem; Linial, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: UPGMA (average linking) is probably the most popular algorithm for hierarchical data clustering, especially in computational biology. However, UPGMA requires the entire dissimilarity matrix in memory. Due to this prohibitive requirement, UPGMA is not scalable to very large datasets. Application: We present a novel class of memory-constrained UPGMA (MC-UPGMA) algorithms. Given any practical memory size constraint, this framework guarantees the correct clustering solution without ex...

  13. Realization of entirely solid lithium ion batteries; Realisation d`accumulateurs a ions lithium entierement solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brousse, T; Marchand, R; Fragnaud, P; Schleich, D M [Laboratoire de Genie des Materiaux, ISITEM, 44 - Nantes (France); Bohnke, O [Universite du Maine, 72 - Le Mans (France). Laboratoire des Fluorures; West, K [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prototype of an entirely inorganic lithium ions battery cell. LiCoO{sub 2} thin film cathodes and Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} thin film anodes have been deposited on Li{sub 3x}La{sub 2/3-x}TiO{sub 3} sintered solid electrolyte pellets and the performances of these battery cells have been tested. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  14. A landing theorem for entire functions with bounded post-singular sets

    OpenAIRE

    Benini, Anna Miriam; Rempe-Gillen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    The Douady-Hubbard landing theorem for periodic external rays is one of the cornerstones of the study of polynomial dynamics. It states that, for a complex polynomial with bounded postcritical set, every periodic external ray lands at a repelling or parabolic periodic point, and conversely every repelling or parabolic point is the landing point of at least one periodic external ray. We prove an analogue of this theorem for an entire function with bounded postsingular set: every periodic dread...

  15. Massive and Reproducible Production of Liver Buds Entirely from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Takebe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Organoid technology provides a revolutionary paradigm toward therapy but has yet to be applied in humans, mainly because of reproducibility and scalability challenges. Here, we overcome these limitations by evolving a scalable organ bud production platform entirely from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC. By conducting massive “reverse” screen experiments, we identified three progenitor populations that can effectively generate liver buds in a highly reproducible manner: hepatic endoderm, endothelium, and septum mesenchyme. Furthermore, we achieved human scalability by developing an omni-well-array culture platform for mass producing homogeneous and miniaturized liver buds on a clinically relevant large scale (>108. Vascularized and functional liver tissues generated entirely from iPSCs significantly improved subsequent hepatic functionalization potentiated by stage-matched developmental progenitor interactions, enabling functional rescue against acute liver failure via transplantation. Overall, our study provides a stringent manufacturing platform for multicellular organoid supply, thus facilitating clinical and pharmaceutical applications especially for the treatment of liver diseases through multi-industrial collaborations. : With the goal of clinical translation of liver bud transplant therapy, Takebe et al. established a massive organoid production platform from endoderm, endothelial, and mesenchymal progenitor populations specified entirely from human iPSCs, reproducibly demonstrating functionality both in vitro and in vivo. Keywords: iPSC, liver bud, organoid, transplantation, self-organization, endothelial, mesenchymal, liver failure, clinical grade

  16. Celerity, pulse and wavelength of De broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron), according to its kinetic energy. - Formulas and curves; Vitesse, impulsion et longueur d'onde de de broglie d'un nucleon (proton ou neutron), en fonction de son energie cinetique. - Formules et courbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozmski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The celerity curves, pulse and wavelength of De Broglie for a nucleon (proton or neutron) have been calculated and traced accordingly to its kinetic energy. (M.B.) [French] Les courbes de vitesses, d mpulsion et de longueur d nde de Broglie d n nucleon (proton ou neutron) ont ete calcule et trace en fonction de son energie cinetique. (M.B.)

  17. Efficient algorithms for accurate hierarchical clustering of huge datasets: tackling the entire protein space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Yaniv; Portugaly, Elon; Fromer, Menachem; Linial, Michal

    2008-07-01

    UPGMA (average linking) is probably the most popular algorithm for hierarchical data clustering, especially in computational biology. However, UPGMA requires the entire dissimilarity matrix in memory. Due to this prohibitive requirement, UPGMA is not scalable to very large datasets. We present a novel class of memory-constrained UPGMA (MC-UPGMA) algorithms. Given any practical memory size constraint, this framework guarantees the correct clustering solution without explicitly requiring all dissimilarities in memory. The algorithms are general and are applicable to any dataset. We present a data-dependent characterization of hardness and clustering efficiency. The presented concepts are applicable to any agglomerative clustering formulation. We apply our algorithm to the entire collection of protein sequences, to automatically build a comprehensive evolutionary-driven hierarchy of proteins from sequence alone. The newly created tree captures protein families better than state-of-the-art large-scale methods such as CluSTr, ProtoNet4 or single-linkage clustering. We demonstrate that leveraging the entire mass embodied in all sequence similarities allows to significantly improve on current protein family clusterings which are unable to directly tackle the sheer mass of this data. Furthermore, we argue that non-metric constraints are an inherent complexity of the sequence space and should not be overlooked. The robustness of UPGMA allows significant improvement, especially for multidomain proteins, and for large or divergent families. A comprehensive tree built from all UniProt sequence similarities, together with navigation and classification tools will be made available as part of the ProtoNet service. A C++ implementation of the algorithm is available on request.

  18. An energy literacy strategy from the University of Calgary for the entire energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Heffernan, B.; Jenden, J.; Lloyd, E.R.; Toor, J.; Williams, J.E., E-mail: jason.donev@ucalgary.ca [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The public at large needs to have a better understanding of the entire energy sector in order to put the benefits and drawbacks of nuclear power into proper perspective.University science departments can and should play a more significant role in educating the public about various aspects of nuclear power, and energy in general. This paper discusses how the University of Calgary is launching initiatives to help teach the public about energy issues. These initiatives include a course for non-technical students on energy, a similar course for people within the energy industry without a technical background, and an extensive online encyclopedia to support these courses. (author)

  19. Tamoxifen-Containing Eye Drops Successfully Trigger Cre-Mediated Recombination in the Entire Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Anja; Leimbeck, Sarah V; Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic lethality in mice with targeted gene deletion is a major issue that can be circumvented by using Cre-loxP-based animal models. Various inducible Cre systems are available, e.g. such that are activated following tamoxifen treatment, and allow deletion of a specific target gene at any desired time point during the life span of the animal. In this study, we describe the efficiency of topical tamoxifen administration by eye drops using a Cre- reporter mouse strain (R26R). We report that tamoxifen-responsive CAGGCre-ER (TM) mice show a robust Cre- mediated recombination throughout the entire eye.

  20. A Patient-Matched Entire First Metacarpal Prosthesis in Treatment of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thipachart Punyaratabandhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor of the bones occurring in the first metacarpals frequently requires entire metacarpal resection due to the aggressive nature and high rate of recurrence. Bone reconstruction can be performed with autogenous bone grafts. Here we describe a new technique of reconstruction using a patient-matched three-dimensional printed titanium first metacarpal prosthesis. This prosthesis has a special design for ligament reconstruction in the proximal and distal portions. Good hand function and aesthetic appearance were maintained at a 24-month follow-up visit. This reconstructive technique can avoid donor-site complications and spare the autogenous bone grafts for revision options.

  1. Zero sequences of holomorphic functions, representation of meromorphic functions. II. Entire functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabibullin, Bulat N

    2009-01-01

    Let Λ={λ k } be a sequence of points in the complex plane C and f a non-trivial entire function of finite order ρ and finite type σ such that f=0 on Λ. Upper bounds for functions such as the Weierstrass-Hadamard canonical product of order ρ constructed from the sequence Λ are obtained. Similar bounds for meromorphic functions are also derived. These results are used to estimate the radius of completeness of a system of exponentials in C. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  2. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedregal, P.S.; Mendoza, P.A.; Ubillus, M.S.; Montoya, E.H.; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  3. Engineered barrier systems (EBS) in the context of the entire safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled 'Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project's scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  4. An energy literacy strategy from the University of Calgary for the entire energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, J.M.K.C.; Heffernan, B.; Jenden, J.; Lloyd, E.R.; Toor, J.; Williams, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The public at large needs to have a better understanding of the entire energy sector in order to put the benefits and drawbacks of nuclear power into proper perspective.University science departments can and should play a more significant role in educating the public about various aspects of nuclear power, and energy in general. This paper discusses how the University of Calgary is launching initiatives to help teach the public about energy issues. These initiatives include a course for non-technical students on energy, a similar course for people within the energy industry without a technical background, and an extensive online encyclopedia to support these courses. (author)

  5. Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled ''Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case'' was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop. (author)

  6. Nanoelectromechanical switch operating by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danilov, Andrey V.; Hedegård, Per; Golubev, Dimitrii S.

    2008-01-01

    (i) the relative contribution of tunneling, current induced heating and thermal fluctuations to the switching mechanism, (ii) the voltage dependent energy barrier (similar to 100-200 meV) separating the two states of the switch and (iii) the switching attempt frequency, omega(0) corresponding to a 2......We present a solid state single molecule electronic device where switching between two states with different conductance happens predominantly by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule. This conclusion is based on a novel statistical analysis of similar to 10(5) switching events. The analysis yields...

  7. Spectral synthesis in certain spaces of entire functions of exponential type and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odinokov, O V

    2000-01-01

    We consider certain spaces P Ω of entire functions of exponential type in C n associated with a domain Ω element of R n that are in fact Laplace transforms of distributions in Ω. It is shown that any shift-invariant subspace of these functions admits spectral synthesis, that is, coincides with the closure of the linear span of the exponential polynomials contained in it. As an application of this result, we describe the solution space in P Ω of a system of homogeneous equations of infinite order for differential operators with characteristic functions infinitely differentiable in Ω

  8. Growth of solutions of an $n$-th order linear differential equation with entire coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Bela\\"{i}di, Benharrat; Hamouda, Saada

    2002-01-01

    We consider a differential equation $f^{\\left( n\\right) }+A_{n-1}\\left( z\\right) f^{\\left( n-1\\right) }+...+A_{1}\\left( z\\right) f^{^{/}}+A_{0}\\left( z\\right) f=0,$ where $A_{0}\\left( z\\right) ,...,A_{n-1}\\left( z\\right) $ are entire functions with $A_{0}\\left( z\\right) \\hbox{$/\\hskip -11pt\\equiv$}0$. Suppose that there exist a positive number $\\mu ,$\\ and a sequence $\\left( z_{j}\\right) _{j\\in N}$ with $\\stackunder{j\\rightarrow +\\infty }{\\lim }z_{j}=\\infty ,$ \\ and also ...

  9. Full scale wind turbine test of vortex generators mounted on the entire blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac

    2016-01-01

    Measurements on a heavily instrumented pitch regulated variable speed Vestas V52 850 kW wind turbine situated at the DTU Risø Campus are carried out, where the effect of vortex generators mounted on almost the entire blade is tested with and without leading edge roughness. The measurements...... are compared to the predictions carried out by a developed design tool, where the effect of vortex generators and leading edge roughness is simulated using engineering models. The measurements showed that if vortex generators are mounted there is an increase in flapwise blade moments if the blades are clean...

  10. Association Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Determinants of Glycemic Control Across the Entire Glucose Tolerance Continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas P. J.; Malin, Steven K.; Karstoft, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) is associated with glycemic control, yet the relationship between VO2max and the underlying determinants of glycemic control is less clear. Our aim was to determine whether VO2max is associated with insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and the disp...... fitness and compromised pancreatic β-cell compensation across the entire glucose tolerance continuum provides additional evidence highlighting the importance of fitness in protection against the onset of a fundamental pathophysiological event that leads to type 2 diabetes....

  11. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  12. Entire mesodermal mantle behaves as Spemann's organizer in dorsoanterior enhanced Xenopus laevis embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, K.R.; Elinson, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The body plan of Xenopus laevis can be respecified by briefly exposing early cleavage stage embryos to lithium. Such embryos develop exaggerated dorsoanterior structures such as a radial eye and cement gland. In this paper, we demonstrate that the enhanced dorsoanterior phenotype results from an overcommitment of mesoderm to dorsoanterior mesoderm. Histological and immunohistochemical observations reveal that the embryos have a greatly enlarged notochord with very little muscle tissue. In addition, they develop a radial, beating heart, suggesting that lithium also specifies anterior mesoderm and pharyngeal endoderm. Randomly oriented diametrically opposed marginal zone grafts from lithium-treated embryos, when transplanted into ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated axis-deficient hosts, rescue dorsal axial structures. These transplantation experiments demonstrate that the entire marginal zone of the early gastrula consists of presumptive dorsal mesoderm. Vital dye marking experiments also indicate that the entire marginal zone maps to the prominent proboscis that is composed of chordamesoderm and represents the long axis of the embryo. These results suggest that lithium respecifies the mesoderm of Xenopus laevis embryos so that it differentiates into the Spemann organizer. We suggest that the origin of the dorsoanterior enhanced phenotypes generated by lithium and the dorsoanterior deficient phenotypes generated by uv irradiation are due to relative quantities of organizer. Our evidence demonstrates the existence of a continuum of body plan phenotypes based on this premise

  13. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Technical Thermodynamics], e-mail: pstephan@ttd.tu-darmstadt.de

    2009-07-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 {mu}m thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  14. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokštejn, Jakub; Musálek, Martin; Tufano, James J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS) proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6) using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p skill (p < .01), and balance scores (p < .05). There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001). These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  15. Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kokštejn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess differences in fundamental motor skills (FMS proficiency between boys and girls of each age group, independently, across the entire preschool period. Using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-second edition, FMS proficiency was tested in 325 preschoolers (4.9 ± 1.1 y, range 3-6 using a cross-sectional design. Compared to boys of the same age, 3- and 4-year-old girls had greater total (p < .01, fine motor skill (p < .01, and balance scores (p < .05. There were no sex differences for total test or balance scores in 5- and 6-year-olds, but 6-year-old boys outperformed girls in aiming and catching (p < .001. These data not only agree with previous research in that sex differences in FMS proficiency exist in preschool children, but the data also show that differences may not be uniform throughout the whole preschool period when analyzing by age. To avoid under- or overestimating FMS proficiency and subsequently prescribing inaccurate motor intervention programs, FMS proficiency normative values should be age- and sex-specific throughout the entire preschool period.

  16. Transient local heat fluxes during the entire vapor bubble life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, P.; Fuchs, T; Wagner, E.; Schweizer, N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental and numerical investigations of the nucleate boiling heat transfer process at a single active nucleation site are presented and used for an evaluation of the local heat fluxes during the entire life time of a vapor bubble from its nucleation to the rise through the thermal boundary layer. In a special boiling cell, vapor bubbles are generated at a single nucleation site on a 20 μm thin stainless steel heating foil. An infrared camera captures the temperature distribution at the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. The bubble shape is recorded with a high-speed camera. Measurements were conducted with the pure fluids FC-84 and FC-3284 and with its binary mixtures. For pure fluids, up to 50-60% of the latent heat flows through the three-phase-contact line region. For mixtures, this ratio is clearly reduced. These observations are in agreement with the numerical model of the author's group. The fully transient model contains a multi scale approach ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale for the detailed description of the relevant local and global phenomena. It describes the transient heat and fluid flow during the entire periodic cycle of a growing, detaching and rising bubble including the waiting time between two successive bubbles from a single nucleation site. The detailed analysis of the computed transient temperature profiles in wall and fluid give accurate information about the heat supply, temporal energy storage and local evaporation rates. (author)

  17. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  18. Various possible ways to express the toxicity of radioactive substances in relation with the involved practical problems; Diverses expressions possibles de la toxicite des substances radioactives en fonction des problemes pratiques poses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Vacca, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    proprietes radioactives. On peut donc etablir deux classifications toxicologiques, en fonction l'une du poids du radioelement, l'autre de son activite. Le plus frequemment les quantites maxima admissibles (QMA) dans l'organisme et les concentrations maxima admissibles (CMA) dans l'air et dans l'eau sont exprimees en microcuries par millilitre ({mu}c/ml), plus rarement en microgrammes par millilitre ({mu}g/ml). L'examen comparatif de ces tableaux de QMA et CMA fait apparaitre des differences importantes dans le classement des radioelements par ordre decroissant de toxicite. C'est ainsi que le plutonium et le radium qui se trouvent parmi les produits les plus toxiques lorsque l'activite est envisagee sont loin d'etre en tete des radioelements dangereux lorsque le poids est considere. Par contre, l'iode-131 et le manganese-56, par exemple, apparaissent parmi les corps les plus dangereux dans cette derniere eventualite. Cette double constatation correspond a deux aspects des problemes poses par la toxicite des radioelements. Si la classification par activite est presque exclusivement utilisee, cela tient a ce que les mesures toxicologiques sont basees sur les proprietes radioactives des radioelements. Elles seules permettent, en general, de detecter des traces aussi faibles de substances. Par contre, la toxicite liee a la contamination interne depend en premier lieu du metabolisme des radioelements, lequel est exclusivement fonction de leurs proprietes physico-chimiques. C'est donc la classification ponderale qui est la plus representative des dangers courus du fait d'inhalation ou d'ingestion de substances radioactives. Il en resulte que la toxicite relative des radioelements ne peut etre seulement basee sur la classification en fonction de l'activite et que la repartition des substances radioactives dans les differentes categories habituelles (tres dangereuses, moyennement dangereuses, faiblement dangereuses) devrait etre remaniee. (auteur)

  19. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobet Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1 separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2 scan these pieces one by one, (3 analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4 combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  20. Novel scanning procedure enabling the vectorization of entire rhizotron-grown root systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Guillaume; Draye, Xavier

    2013-01-04

    : This paper presents an original spit-and-combine imaging procedure that enables the complete vectorization of complex root systems grown in rhizotrons. The general principle of the method is to (1) separate the root system into a small number of large pieces to reduce root overlap, (2) scan these pieces one by one, (3) analyze separate images with a root tracing software and (4) combine all tracings into a single vectorized root system. This method generates a rich dataset containing morphological, topological and geometrical information of entire root systems grown in rhizotrons. The utility of the method is illustrated with a detailed architectural analysis of a 20-day old maize root system, coupled with a spatial analysis of water uptake patterns.

  1. Two Y genes can replace the entire Y chromosome for assisted reproduction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Ward, Monika A

    2014-01-03

    The Y chromosome is thought to be important for male reproduction. We have previously shown that, with the use of assisted reproduction, live offspring can be obtained from mice lacking the entire Y chromosome long arm. Here, we demonstrate that live mouse progeny can also be generated by using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome contribution limited to only two genes, the testis determinant factor Sry and the spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Sry is believed to function primarily in sex determination during fetal life. Eif2s3y may be the only Y chromosome gene required to drive mouse spermatogenesis, allowing formation of haploid germ cells that are functional in assisted reproduction. Our findings are relevant, but not directly translatable, to human male infertility cases.

  2. Sensory perception of meat from entire male pigs processed by different heating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda, Irene; Garrido, Ma Dolores; Egea, Macarena; Díaz, Pedro; Álvarez, Daniel; Oliver, Ma Angeles; Linares, Ma Belén

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of androstenone in pork from entire male pigs with different androstenone levels (High≥2mgkg -1 ; Medium 0.5-0.7mgkg -1 ) applying four different heating methods (vacuum, grill, oven and frying). Androstenone (AND) perception was analysed during and after cooking by a trained panel. During cooking, the highest score for AND odour (greatest perception) was obtained with the grill and vacuum, while frying was the best option for reducing its perception, which was judged to be imperceptible for androstenone medium level (Pperception, making it the best option for reducing both AND odour and flavour. In short, the use of different heating methods strongly affected AND perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Suprasellar ganglioglioma with unusual diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalali Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gangliogliomas (GG are mixed glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS, occurring mostly in the pediatric population, with common sites being temporal lobes and less commonly in the frontal and parietal lobes. We report a case of a 7-year-old child who presented with bilateral visual defects for 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed an intensely enhancing mass lesion with calcification in the sellar and suprasellar region involving the optic chiasm and the left optic nerve. The mass showed almost bilaterally symmetrical diffuse spread along the optic tracts posteriorly and hypothalamus, temporal lobes, thalami and the basal ganglia. The lesion was radiologically indistinguishable from chiasmatic astrocytoma or a germ cell tumor but histopathological features were of a ganglioglioma. While a few optic apparatus gangliogliomas have been reported in the literature, such widespread diffuse involvement of the entire optico-chiasmal hypothalamic pathway is unusual.

  4. Twisted entire cyclic cohomology, J-L-O cocycles and equivariant spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    2002-07-01

    We study the 'quantized calculus' corresponding to the algebraic ideas related to 'twisted cyclic cohomology'. With very similar definitions and techniques, we define and study 'twisted entire cyclic cohomology' and the 'twisted Chern character' associated with an appropriate operator theoretic data called 'twisted spectral data', which consists of a spectral triple in the conventional sense of noncommutative geometry and an additional positive operator having some specified properties. Furthermore, it is shown that given a spectral triple (in the conventional sense) which is equivariant under the action of a compact matrix pseudogroup, it is possible to obtain a canonical twisted spectral data and hence the corresponding (twisted) Chern character, which will be invariant under the action of the pseudogroup, in contrast to the fact that the Chern character coming from the conventional noncommutative geometry need not be invariant under the above action. (author)

  5. Consumer acceptability of differently processed bacons using raw materials from entire males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Kathrine; Skuterud, Ellen; Lindahl, Gunilla Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate consumers' acceptability of bacons produced from entire males. Three different processing technologies (brine injection, dry salting with and without fermentation) were used. The raw materials had skatole levels from 0.04 to 0.43 mg/kg. The consumers...... showed little variation in liking scores for bacon produced with the different technologies. Assessors trained for recognizing skatole flavour, nevertheless identified the odour and flavour of skatole for more samples and technologies than the consumers did. However, trained sensory panellists could...... not identify taint in all dry salted bacons fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus even at a skatole level of 0.43 mg/kg fat. Sufficient liquid smoke in brine injected bacons masked the skatole flavour of bacons having 0.43 mg skatole/kg fat. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Tire inspection machine presenting an X-ray image of the entire width of the tire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An X-ray machine for production line inspection of tires places each tire in turn with one sector of the tire inside of a U-shaped arrangement of three fluorescent screens so that one screen faces the tread and the other two face the sides of the tire. An X-ray source inside the bead circle of the tire produces X-ray shadow pictures on the screens, which are separately viewed by a video camera, with an image of the picture on each screen transferred to a third of the target of a storage tube, so that a composite image of the entire width of the tire sector can be displayed on a picture tube. The tire is rotated step-wise for display of still pictures of every sector of the tire. (Auth.)

  7. Evaluation of work posture and quantification of fatigue by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), poor body postures, and low back injuries are the most common problems occurring in many industries including small-medium industries. This study presents assessment and evaluation of ergonomic postures of material handling worker. That evaluation was carried out using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). REBA is a technique to quantize the fatigue experienced by the worker while manually lifting loads. Fatigue due to abnormal work posture leads to complaints of labor-perceived pain. REBA methods were used to an assessment of working postures for the existing process by a procedural analysis of body postures involved. This study shows that parts of the body have a high risk of work are the back, neck, and upper arms with REBA score 9, so action should be taken as soon as possible. Controlling actions were implemented to those process with high risk then substantial risk reduction was achieved.

  8. Rational points, rational curves, and entire holomorphic curves on projective varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Gasbarri, Carlo; Roth, Mike; Tschinkel, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers from the Short Thematic Program on Rational Points, Rational Curves, and Entire Holomorphic Curves and Algebraic Varieties, held from June 3-28, 2013, at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. The program was dedicated to the study of subtle interconnections between geometric and arithmetic properties of higher-dimensional algebraic varieties. The main areas of the program were, among others, proving density of rational points in Zariski or analytic topology on special varieties, understanding global geometric properties of rationally connected varieties, as well as connections between geometry and algebraic dynamics exploring new geometric techniques in Diophantine approximation.

  9. OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Thomas; Freyss, Joel; von Korff, Modest; Reich, Jacqueline Renée; Rufener, Christian

    2009-02-01

    We present OSIRIS, an entirely in-house developed drug discovery informatics system. Its components cover all information handling aspects from compound synthesis via biological testing to preclinical development. Its design principles are platform and vendor independence, a consistent look and feel, and complete coverage of the drug discovery process by custom tailored applications. These include electronic laboratory notebook applications for biology and chemistry, tools for high-throughput and secondary screening evaluation, chemistry-aware data visualization, physicochemical property prediction, 3D-pharmacophore comparisons, interactive modeling, computing grid based ligand-protein docking, and more. Most applications are developed in Java and are built on top of a Java library layer that provides reusable cheminformatics functionality and GUI components such as chemical editors, structure canonicalization, substructure search, combinatorial enumeration, enhanced stereo perception, force field minimization, and conformation generation.

  10. A system to measure the kinematics during the entire ski jump sequence using inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardonnens, Julien; Favre, Julien; Cuendet, Florian; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-01-04

    Three-dimensional analysis of the entire sequence in ski jumping is recommended when studying the kinematics or evaluating performance. Camera-based systems which allow three-dimensional kinematics measurement are complex to set-up and require extensive post-processing, usually limiting ski jumping analyses to small numbers of jumps. In this study, a simple method using a wearable inertial sensors-based system is described to measure the orientation of the lower-body segments (sacrum, thighs, shanks) and skis during the entire jump sequence. This new method combines the fusion of inertial signals and biomechanical constraints of ski jumping. Its performance was evaluated in terms of validity and sensitivity to different performances based on 22 athletes monitored during daily training. The validity of the method was assessed by comparing the inclination of the ski and the slope at landing point and reported an error of -0.2±4.8°. The validity was also assessed by comparison of characteristic angles obtained with the proposed system and reference values in the literature; the differences were smaller than 6° for 75% of the angles and smaller than 15° for 90% of the angles. The sensitivity to different performances was evaluated by comparing the angles between two groups of athletes with different jump lengths and by assessing the association between angles and jump lengths. The differences of technique observed between athletes and the associations with jumps length agreed with the literature. In conclusion, these results suggest that this system is a promising tool for a generalization of three-dimensional kinematics analysis in ski jumping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Quéméré

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the

  12. Phase-partitioning in mixed-phase clouds - An approach to characterize the entire vertical column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesse, H.; Luke, E. P.; Seifert, P.

    2017-12-01

    The characterization of the entire vertical profile of phase-partitioning in mixed-phase clouds is a challenge which can be addressed by synergistic profiling measurements with ground-based polarization lidars and cloud radars. While lidars are sensitive to small particles and can thus detect supercooled liquid (SCL) layers, cloud radar returns are dominated by larger particles (like ice crystals). The maximum lidar observation height is determined by complete signal attenuation at a penetrated optical depth of about three. In contrast, cloud radars are able to penetrate multiple liquid layers and can thus be used to expand the identification of cloud phase to the entire vertical column beyond the lidar extinction height, if morphological features in the radar Doppler spectrum can be related to the existence of SCL. Relevant spectral signatures such as bimodalities and spectral skewness can be related to cloud phase by training a neural network appropriately in a supervised learning scheme, with lidar measurements functioning as supervisor. The neural network output (prediction of SCL location) derived using cloud radar Doppler spectra can be evaluated with several parameters such as liquid water path (LWP) detected by microwave radiometer (MWR) and (liquid) cloud base detected by ceilometer or Raman lidar. The technique has been previously tested on data from Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) instruments in Barrow, Alaska and is in this study utilized for observations from the Leipzig Aerosol and Cloud Remote Observations System (LACROS) during the Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques (ACCEPT) field experiment in Cabauw, Netherlands in Fall 2014. Comparisons to supercooled-liquid layers as classified by CLOUDNET are provided.

  13. Optical properties of InGaN thin films in the entire composition range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazis, S. A.; Papadomanolaki, E.; Androulidaki, M.; Kayambaki, M.; Iliopoulos, E.

    2018-03-01

    The optical properties of thick InGaN epilayers, with compositions spanning the entire ternary range, are studied in detail. High structural quality, single phase InxGa1-xN (0001) films were grown heteroepitaxially by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on freestanding GaN substrates. Their emission characteristics were investigated by low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy, whereas variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to determine the complex dielectric function of the films, in the 0.55-4.0 eV photon range. Photoluminescence lines were intense and narrow, in the range of 100 meV for Ga-rich InGaN films (x 0.6). The composition dependence of the strain-free emission energy was expressed by a bowing parameter of b = 2.70 ± 0.12 eV. The films' optical dielectric function dispersion was obtained by the analysis of the ellipsometric data employing a Kramers-Kronig consistent parameterized optical model. The refractive index dispersion was obtained for alloys in the entire composition range, and the corresponding values at the band edge show a parabolic dependence on the InN mole fraction expressed by a bowing parameter of b = 0.81 ± 0.04. The bowing parameter describing the fundamental energy bandgap was deduced to be equal to 1.66 ± 0.07 eV, consistent with the ab initio calculations for statistically random (non-clustered) InGaN alloys.

  14. Towards a unified analysis of brain maturation and aging across the entire lifespan: A MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Pierrick; Catheline, Gwenaelle; Lanuza, Enrique; Manjón, José Vicente

    2017-11-01

    There is no consensus in literature about lifespan brain maturation and senescence, mainly because previous lifespan studies have been performed on restricted age periods and/or with a limited number of scans, making results instable and their comparison very difficult. Moreover, the use of nonharmonized tools and different volumetric measurements lead to a great discrepancy in reported results. Thanks to the new paradigm of BigData sharing in neuroimaging and the last advances in image processing enabling to process baby as well as elderly scans with the same tool, new insights on brain maturation and aging can be obtained. This study presents brain volume trajectory over the entire lifespan using the largest age range to date (from few months of life to elderly) and one of the largest number of subjects (N = 2,944). First, we found that white matter trajectory based on absolute and normalized volumes follows an inverted U-shape with a maturation peak around middle life. Second, we found that from 1 to 8-10 y there is an absolute gray matter (GM) increase related to body growth followed by a GM decrease. However, when normalized volumes were considered, GM continuously decreases all along the life. Finally, we found that this observation holds for almost all the considered subcortical structures except for amygdala which is rather stable and hippocampus which exhibits an inverted U-shape with a longer maturation period. By revealing the entire brain trajectory picture, a consensus can be drawn since most of the previously discussed discrepancies can be explained. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5501-5518, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of microinstabilities due to an anisotropic velocity distribution function of the particles of a homogeneous plasma; Etude des microinstabilities liees a l'anisotropie de la fonction de distribution des vitesses des particules d'un plasma homogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennion, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    A study is made of instabilities in a plasma with an ion velocity distribution function of the form: f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}). The plasma is assumed to have finite dimensions limited by infinitely conductive boundary surfaces. A theoretical and numerical analysis of marginal stability locates the regions of stability as a function of several parameters; i.e. plasma length, ion anisotropy ({tau}) and electron temperature (T{sub e}). A limiting plasma length is found, below which the plasma is stable regardless of its density. For the parameters of the injection experiment M.M.I.I. at Fontenay-aux-roses it is found that the type of instabilities studied here should not occur. (author) [French] L'etude est faite en choisissant une fonction de distribution des ions de la forme f{sub oi} = 1 / (2*{pi}*{alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}*{alpha}{sub p}a{sub i}) * {lambda}({nu}{sub p}e - {alpha}{sub p}e{sub i}) * e{sup -}(v{sub pa2}/{alpha}{sub pai2}) et en supposant une conductivite infinie sur les limites du plasma de dimensions finies. L'etude theorique et numerique de la stabilite marginale determine les domaines de stabilite qui sont etudies en fonction de plusieurs parametres: longueur du plasma, anisotropie des ions ({tau}), temperature electronique (T{sub e}). Il apparait une longueur limite du plasma au-dessous de laquelle le plasma est stable, independemment de la densite. L'application faite avec les valeurs des parametres de l'experience d'injection M.M.I.I, a Fontenay-aux-Roses permet de conclure a la non existence dans cet appareil du type d'instabilite etudie ici. (auteur)

  16. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  17. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagen in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Oakley, C. R.; Jefferson, Y.; Duke, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms involved in development of the embryonic limb have remained the same throughout eons of genetic and environmental evolution under Earth gravity (lg). During the spaceflight era it has been of interest to explore the ancient theory that form of the skeleton develops in response to gravity, and that changes in gravitational forces can change the developmental pattern of the limb. This has been shown in vivo and in vitro, allowing the hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space to be used as tools to increase our knowledge of limb development. In recapitulations of spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a bioreactor, and found to be shorter and less differentiated than those cultured in standard culture dishes. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes due to the skeletal elements having a more in vivo 3D shape while in suspension vs. flattened tissues compressed by their own weight. A culture system with an outcome closer to in vivo and that supports growth of younger limb buds than traditional systems will allow studies of early Hox gene expression, and contribute to the understanding of very early stages of development. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the growth and differentiation with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were cultured for six days, either in the bioreactor or in center-well organ culture dishes, fixed, and embedded for histology. E13 specimens grown in culture dishes were flat, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections showed excellent cartilage differentiation in both culture systems, with more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Younger limb buds fused together during culture, so an additional set of El 1

  18. A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herler, Jürgen; Dirnwöber, Markus

    2011-10-31

    Estimating the impacts of global and local threats on coral reefs requires monitoring reef health and measuring coral growth and calcification rates at different time scales. This has traditionally been mostly performed in short-term experimental studies in which coral fragments were grown in the laboratory or in the field but measured ex situ. Practical techniques in which growth and measurements are performed over the long term in situ are rare. Apart from photographic approaches, weight increment measurements have also been applied. Past buoyant weight measurements under water involved a complicated and little-used apparatus. We introduce a new method that combines previous field and laboratory techniques to measure the buoyant weight of entire, transplanted corals under water. This method uses an electronic balance fitted into an acrylic glass underwater housing and placed atop of an acrylic glass cube. Within this cube, corals transplanted onto artificial bases can be attached to the balance and weighed at predetermined intervals while they continue growth in the field. We also provide a set of simple equations for the volume and weight determinations required to calculate net growth rates. The new technique is highly accurate: low error of weight determinations due to variation of coral density (corals. We outline a transplantation technique for properly preparing corals for such long-term in situ experiments and measurements.

  19. Experimental investigation of photocatalytic effects of concrete in air purification adopting entire concrete waste reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yidong; Chen, Wei; Jin, Ruoyu; Shen, Jiansheng; Smallbone, Kirsty; Yan, Chunyang; Hu, Lei

    2018-07-05

    This research investigated the capacities of recycled aggregate concrete adopting entire concrete waste reuse model in degrading NO 2. Two major issues within environmental sustainability were addressed: concrete waste reuse rate and mitigation of hazards substances in the polluted air. The study consisted of two stages: identification of proper replacement rates of recycled concrete wastes in new concrete mixture design, and the evaluation of photocatalytic performance of recycled aggregate concrete in degrading NO 2 . It was found that replacement rates up to 3%, 30%, and 50% for recycled power, recycled fine aggregate, and recycled coarse aggregate respectively could be applied in concrete mixture design without deteriorating concrete strength. Recycled aggregates contained both positive attributes ("internal curing") and negative effects (e.g., lower hardness) to concrete properties. It was found that 30%-50% of natural coarse aggregate replaced by recycled coarse aggregates coated with TiO 2 would significantly improve the photocatalytic performance of concrete measured by degradation rate of NO 2 . Micro-structures of recycled aggregates observed under microscope indicated that soaking recycled aggregates in TiO 2 solution resulted in whiskers that filled the porosity within recycled aggregates which enhanced concrete strength. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of mutations in the entire coding sequence of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidichadani, S.I.; Lanyon, W.G.; Connor, J.M. [Glascow Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hemophilia A is a common X-linked recessive disorder of bleeding caused by deleterious mutations in the gene for clotting factor VIII. The large size of the factor VIII gene, the high frequency of de novo mutations and its tissue-specific expression complicate the detection of mutations. We have used a combination of RT-PCR of ectopic factor VIII transcripts and genomic DNA-PCRs to amplify the entire essential sequence of the factor VIII gene. This is followed by chemical mismatch cleavage analysis and direct sequencing in order to facilitate a comprehensive search for mutations. We describe the characterization of nine potentially pathogenic mutations, six of which are novel. In each case, a correlation of the genotype with the observed phenotype is presented. In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of the five missense mutations detected, we have analyzed them for evolutionary sequence conservation and for their involvement of sequence motifs catalogued in the PROSITE database of protein sites and patterns.

  1. The capture of attention by entirely irrelevant pictures of calorie-dense foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Egeth, Howard E

    2018-04-01

    Inborn preference for palatable energy-dense food is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation. One way this preference manifests itself is through the control of visual attention. In the present study, we investigated how attentional capture is influenced by changes in naturally occurring goal-states, in this case desire for energy-dense foods (typically high fat and/or high sugar). We demonstrate that even when distractors are entirely irrelevant, participants were significantly more distracted by energy-dense foods compared with non-food objects and even low-energy foods. Additionally, we show the lability of these goal-states by having a separate set of participants consume a small amount of calorie-dense food prior to the task. The amount of distraction by the energy-dense food images in this case was significantly reduced and no different than distraction by images of low-energy foods and images of non-food objects. While naturally occurring goal-states can be difficult to ignore, they also are highly flexible.

  2. Intraspecific variation in social organization by genetic variation, developmental plasticity, social flexibility or entirely extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten

    2013-05-19

    Previously, it was widely believed that each species has a specific social organization, but we know now that many species show intraspecific variation in their social organization. Four different processes can lead to intraspecific variation in social organization: (i) genetic variation between individuals owing to local adaptation (between populations) or evolutionarily stable strategies within populations; (ii) developmental plasticity evolved in long-term (more than one generation) unpredictable and short-term (one generation) predictable environments, which is mediated by organizational physiological effects during early ontogeny; (iii) social flexibility evolved in highly unpredictable environments, which is mediated by activational physiological effects in adults; (iv) entirely extrinsic factors such as the death of a dominant breeder. Variation in social behaviour occurs between individuals in the case of genetic variation and developmental plasticity, but within individuals in the case of social flexibility. It is important to study intraspecific variation in social organization to understand the social systems of species because it reveals the mechanisms by which species can adapt to changing environments, offers a useful tool to study the ultimate and proximate causes of sociality, and is an interesting phenomenon by itself that needs scientific explanation.

  3. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2009-07-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation.

  4. Numerical analysis of an entire ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions for the energy efficiency improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Saponelli, Roberto; Lizzano, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on the analysis of an industrial ceramic kiln in order to improve the energy efficiency and thus the fuel consumption and the corresponding carbon dioxide emissions. A lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire system is constructed to simulate the performance of the kiln under actual operating conditions. The model is able to predict accurately the temperature distribution along the different modules of the kiln and the operation of the many natural gas burners employed to provide the required thermal power. Furthermore, the temperature of the tiles is also simulated so that the quality of the final product can be addressed by the modelling. Numerical results are validated against experimental measurements carried out on a real ceramic kiln during regular production operations. The developed numerical model demonstrates to be an efficient tool for the investigation of different design solutions for the kiln's components. In addition, a number of control strategies for the system working conditions can be simulated and compared in order to define the best trade off in terms of fuel consumption and product quality. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of a new burner type characterized by internal heat recovery capability aimed at improving the energy efficiency of the ceramic kiln. The fuel saving and the relating reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulted in the order of 10% when compared to the standard burner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Postmortem diffusion MRI of the entire human spinal cord at microscopic resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Calabrese

    Full Text Available The human spinal cord is a central nervous system structure that plays an important role in normal motor and sensory function, and can be affected by many debilitating neurologic diseases. Due to its clinical importance, the spinal cord is frequently the subject of imaging research. Common methods for visualizing spinal cord anatomy and pathology include histology and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, both of which have unique benefits and drawbacks. Postmortem microscopic resolution MRI of fixed specimens, sometimes referred to as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM, combines many of the benefits inherent to both techniques. However, the elongated shape of the human spinal cord, along with hardware and scan time limitations, have restricted previous microscopic resolution MRI studies (both in vivo and ex vivo to small sections of the cord. Here we present the first MRM dataset of the entire postmortem human spinal cord. These data include 50 μm isotropic resolution anatomic image data and 100 μm isotropic resolution diffusion data, made possible by a 280 h long multi-segment acquisition and automated image segment composition. We demonstrate the use of these data for spinal cord lesion detection, automated volumetric gray matter segmentation, and quantitative spinal cord morphometry including estimates of cross sectional dimensions and gray matter fraction throughout the length of the cord. Keywords: Spinal cord, Magnetic resonance microscopy, Tractography, Human, Gray matter

  6. Patterns of failure following treatment for medulloblastoma: is it necessary to treat the entire posterior fossa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga-Johnson, Nina; Lee, Jason H.; Robertson, Patricia; Sandler, Howard M.; McNeil, Elizabeth; Goldwein, Joel W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Craniospinal radiation (CSRT) followed by a boost to the entire posterior fossa (PF) is standard post-operative therapy for patients with medulloblastoma. A large proportion of recurrences after treatment are local with approximately 50-70% of recurrences occurring in the PF. It is unclear, however, whether these failures are occurring in the original tumor bed, or outside the tumor bed but still within the PF. With improved diagnostic imaging, better definition of tumor volumes, and the use of 3D conformal therapy, we may be able to restrict the boost volume to the tumor bed plus a margin without compromising local control. This retrospective study analyzes the patterns of failure within the PF of a series of patients treated with radiation therapy (RT). Methods: From (7(86)) through (2(96)), 27 of 114 (24%) patients > 18 mo and < 18 yr with medulloblastoma, who were treated at the University of Michigan and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, with RT following surgical resection were found to have a recurrence. RT consisted of CSRT followed by a boost to the entire posterior fossa. Patient's preoperative MRI and/or CT studies were used to compare the original tumor volume with the specific region of local relapse. Failure was defined as MRI or CT evidence of recurrence or positive cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Relapse was scored as local, if it was within the original tumor bed and regional, if it was outside of the tumor bed but still within the PF. Results: The median age of the patients was 8.6 years. Three patients were < 3 years old. (21(27)) had disease localized to the PF. (19(21)) patients received chemotherapy during their treatment regimen; 6 patients did not have information on systemic treatment. The median dose of RT to the craniospinal axis was 32.5 Gy and to the PF was 55.2 Gy. The median time to recurrence was 19.5 months. Local failure within the tumor bed as any component of first failure occurred in 52% ((14(27))) of all failures but

  7. Animal breeding strategies can improve meat quality attributes within entire populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Conroy, S; Pabiou, T; Cromie, A R

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of animal breeding to changes in animal performance is well documented across a range of species. Once genetic variation in a trait exists, then breeding to improve the characteristics of that trait is possible, if so desired. Considerable genetic variation exists in a range of meat quality attributes across a range of species. The genetic variation that exists for meat quality is as large as observed for most performance traits; thus, within a well-structured breeding program, rapid genetic gain for meat quality could be possible. The rate of genetic gain can be augmented through the integration of DNA-based technologies into the breeding program; such DNA-based technologies should, however, be based on thousands of DNA markers dispersed across the entire genome. Genetic and genomic technologies can also have beneficial impact outside the farm gate as a tool to segregate carcasses or meat cuts based on expected meat quality features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal Infrared Radiometric Calibration of the Entire Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Archive (1982-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Miller, Jonathan; Padula, Francis P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2012-01-01

    Landsat's continuing record of the thermal state of the earth's surface represents the only long term (1982 to the present) global record with spatial scales appropriate for human scale studies (i.e., tens of meters). Temperature drives many of the physical and biological processes that impact the global and local environment. As our knowledge of, and interest in, the role of temperature on these processes have grown, the value of Landsat data to monitor trends and process has also grown. The value of the Landsat thermal data archive will continue to grow as we develop more effective ways to study the long term processes and trends affecting the planet. However, in order to take proper advantage of the thermal data, we need to be able to convert the data to surface temperatures. A critical step in this process is to have the entire archive completely and consistently calibrated into absolute radiance so that it can be atmospherically compensated to surface leaving radiance and then to surface radiometric temperature. This paper addresses the methods and procedures that have been used to perform the radiometric calibration of the earliest sizable thermal data set in the archive (Landsat 4 data). The completion of this effort along with the updated calibration of the earlier (1985 1999) Landsat 5 data, also reported here, concludes a comprehensive calibration of the Landsat thermal archive of data from 1982 to the present

  9. Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, S.; Fundel, F.; Zappa, M.

    2013-10-01

    Probabilistic estimates of future water levels and river discharge are usually simulated with hydrologic models using ensemble weather forecasts as main inputs. As hydrologic models are imperfect and the meteorological ensembles tend to be biased and underdispersed, the ensemble forecasts for river runoff typically are biased and underdispersed, too. Thus, in order to achieve both reliable and sharp predictions statistical postprocessing is required. In this work Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is applied to statistically postprocess ensemble runoff raw forecasts for a catchment in Switzerland, at lead times ranging from 1 to 240 h. The raw forecasts have been obtained using deterministic and ensemble forcing meteorological models with different forecast lead time ranges. First, BMA is applied based on mixtures of univariate normal distributions, subject to the assumption of independence between distinct lead times. Then, the independence assumption is relaxed in order to estimate multivariate runoff forecasts over the entire range of lead times simultaneously, based on a BMA version that uses multivariate normal distributions. Since river runoff is a highly skewed variable, Box-Cox transformations are applied in order to achieve approximate normality. Both univariate and multivariate BMA approaches are able to generate well calibrated probabilistic forecasts that are considerably sharper than climatological forecasts. Additionally, multivariate BMA provides a promising approach for incorporating temporal dependencies into the postprocessed forecasts. Its major advantage against univariate BMA is an increase in reliability when the forecast system is changing due to model availability.

  10. The developmental programme for genesis of the entire kidney is recapitulated in Wilms tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaka, Matthew R.; Morison, Ian M.; Reeve, Anthony E.

    2017-01-01

    Wilms tumour (WT) is an embryonal tumour that recapitulates kidney development. The normal kidney is formed from two distinct embryological origins: the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and the ureteric bud (UB). It is generally accepted that WT arises from precursor cells in the MM; however whether UB-equivalent structures participate in tumorigenesis is uncertain. To address the question of the involvement of UB, we assessed 55 Wilms tumours for the molecular features of MM and UB using gene expression profiling, immunohistochemsitry and immunofluorescence. Expression profiling primarily based on the Genitourinary Molecular Anatomy Project data identified molecular signatures of the UB and collecting duct as well as those of the proximal and distal tubules in the triphasic histology group. We performed immunolabeling for fetal kidneys and WTs. We focused on a central epithelial blastema pattern which is the characteristic of triphasic histology characterized by UB-like epithelial structures surrounded by MM and MM-derived epithelial structures, evoking the induction/aggregation phase of the developing kidney. The UB-like epithelial structures and surrounding MM and epithelial structures resembling early glomerular epithelium, proximal and distal tubules showed similar expression patterns to those of the developing kidney. These observations indicate WTs can arise from a precursor cell capable of generating the entire kidney, such as the cells of the intermediate mesoderm from which both the MM and UB are derived. Moreover, this provides an explanation for the variable histological features of mesenchymal to epithelial differentiation seen in WT. PMID:29040332

  11. Hybridization Capture Reveals Evolution and Conservation across the Entire Koala Retrovirus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yasuko; Cui, Pin; Vielgrader, Hanna; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Roca, Alfred L.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2014-01-01

    The koala retrovirus (KoRV) is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin. PMID:24752422

  12. Hybridization capture reveals evolution and conservation across the entire Koala retrovirus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Tsangaras

    Full Text Available The koala retrovirus (KoRV is the only retrovirus known to be in the midst of invading the germ line of its host species. Hybridization capture and next generation sequencing were used on modern and museum DNA samples of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus to examine ca. 130 years of evolution across the full KoRV genome. Overall, the entire proviral genome appeared to be conserved across time in sequence, protein structure and transcriptional binding sites. A total of 138 polymorphisms were detected, of which 72 were found in more than one individual. At every polymorphic site in the museum koalas, one of the character states matched that of modern KoRV. Among non-synonymous polymorphisms, radical substitutions involving large physiochemical differences between amino acids were elevated in env, potentially reflecting anti-viral immune pressure or avoidance of receptor interference. Polymorphisms were not detected within two functional regions believed to affect infectivity. Host sequences flanking proviral integration sites were also captured; with few proviral loci shared among koalas. Recently described variants of KoRV, designated KoRV-B and KoRV-J, were not detected in museum samples, suggesting that these variants may be of recent origin.

  13. A software for parameter optimization with Differential Evolution Entirely Parallel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kozlov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Differential Evolution Entirely Parallel (DEEP package is a software for finding unknown real and integer parameters in dynamical models of biological processes by minimizing one or even several objective functions that measure the deviation of model solution from data. Numerical solutions provided by the most efficient global optimization methods are often problem-specific and cannot be easily adapted to other tasks. In contrast, DEEP allows a user to describe both mathematical model and objective function in any programming language, such as R, Octave or Python and others. Being implemented in C, DEEP demonstrates as good performance as the top three methods from CEC-2014 (Competition on evolutionary computation benchmark and was successfully applied to several biological problems. Availability. DEEP method is an open source and free software distributed under the terms of GPL licence version 3. The sources are available at http://deepmethod.sourceforge.net/ and binary packages for Fedora GNU/Linux are provided for RPM package manager at https://build.opensuse.org/project/repositories/home:mackoel:compbio.

  14. Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants and high-performance mass spectrometry for quantitative plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Mills, Davinia J S; Cramer, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants (HILEP) combines hydroponic plant cultivation and metabolic labeling with stable isotopes using (15)N-containing inorganic salts to label whole and mature plants. Employing (15)N salts as the sole nitrogen source for HILEP leads to the production of healthy-looking plants which contain (15)N proteins labeled to nearly 100%. Therefore, HILEP is suitable for quantitative plant proteomic analysis, where plants are grown in either (14)N- or (15)N-hydroponic media and pooled when the biological samples are collected for relative proteome quantitation. The pooled (14)N-/(15)N-protein extracts can be fractionated in any suitable way and digested with a protease for shotgun proteomics, using typically reverse phase liquid chromatography nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-nESI-MS/MS). Best results were obtained with a hybrid ion trap/FT-MS mass spectrometer, combining high mass accuracy and sensitivity for the MS data acquisition with speed and high-throughput MS/MS data acquisition, increasing the number of proteins identified and quantified and improving protein quantitation. Peak processing and picking from raw MS data files, protein identification, and quantitation were performed in a highly automated way using integrated MS data analysis software with minimum manual intervention, thus easing the analytical workflow. In this methodology paper, we describe how to grow Arabidopsis plants hydroponically for isotope labeling using (15)N salts and how to quantitate the resulting proteomes using a convenient workflow that does not require extensive bioinformatics skills.

  15. La résistance de vague des carènes. Calcul de la fonction de Green par intégration numérique et par une méthode asymptotique. 1° Partie Hull Resistance to Wave? Computing the Green Function by Numerical Integration and by an Asymptotic Method. Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le calcul de la résistance de vague d'une carène par éléments finis concentrés sur un ouvert borné nécessite la connaissance de la fonction de Green du problème à grande distance. Cette fonction est très difficile à calculer numériquement. On justifie dans ce travail une méthode asymptotique rapide, remplaçant avantageusement l'intégration numérique. Computing wave resistance -by finite elements concentrated on a bounded open set requires the prior knowledge of the Green function of the problem at a great distance. Computing this function is numerically very difficult. A fast asymptotic method is iustified in this article, and it can be used ta advantage as a replacemenf for numerical integration.

  16. Impacts de la déficience maternelle modérée en fer sur le développement des fonctions auditives et le métabolisme des acides gras et eicosanoïdes de la progéniture

    OpenAIRE

    Jougleux, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Tableau d'honneur de la Faculté des études supérieures et postdorales, 2014-2015 Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer les impacts de la l’anémie ferriprive (AF) modérée durant la gestation et la lactation, sur les fonctions neurophysiologiques des voies auditives, ainsi que sur les fonctions métaboliques de la progéniture du cochon d’Inde (Cavia porcellus). Elle s’articule selon 2 volets d’études distincts (protocoles 1 et 2), basés tant sur la composition en fer des diètes, que sur l...

  17. Study of the interaction operator between two groups of particles in a completely ionised plasma. Development of the distribution functions in a series of orthogonal polynomials (1963); Etude de l'operateur d'interaction entre deux groupes de particules dans un plasma completement ionise. Developpement des fonctions de distribution en series de polynomes orthogonaux (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-05-15

    A completely ionised medium is considered in which the variations of the distribution functions for each species of particles is governed by the Fokker-Planck equation. The interaction operator is of a form given by Rosenbluth - Macdonald - Judd. The distribution functions are expanded into orthogonal polynomial series in the velocity space. In a first stage these functions are first split up into spherical harmonic series (or, in an equivalent form, into series of scalar products of irreducible cartesian tensors), with coefficients which are a function of the velocity modulus as well as space and time coordinates. In the second stage these coefficients are expanded into series of orthogonal functions of the velocity modulus; the 1 order harmonic is represented by the product of a Maxwell distribution and of a SONINE polynomial series, having an index of 1 + 1 / 2, which have as variable the reduced energy of the particles (in terms of a basic temperature), with coefficients which then only depend on the space and time coordinates. In the first part the relationship is established between the expansion coefficients and the moments of the distribution function, as well as the hydrodynamic values. In the second part the expansion using spherical harmonics is applied to the Fokker-Planck equation. The general expression for the second member is given as well as the particular expressions corresponding to the cases where the operator is linearized. In the third part the complete expansion in orthogonal polynomial series is applied to the Fokker-Planck equation. The expression of the generating functions is given for all the harmonics in the case of the linearized operator, as well as the transport equations for the first four harmonics. (author) [French] On considere un milieu completement ionise ou l'evolution des fonctions de distribution pour chaque espece de particules est regie par l'equation de FOKKER-PLANCK. L'operateur d'interaction se met sous la forme

  18. Contenu de la fréquence de l'E.E.G. en fonction de l'effort physique et mental chez des malades présentant une insuffisance cérébrovasculaire (Communication préliminaire)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, J.; Kamp, A.; Kamphuisen, A.H.C.; Storm van Leeuwen, W.

    Le contenu de la fréquence de l'E.E.G. en fonction de l'effort physique et mental chez des malades présentant une insuffisance cérébro-vasculaire (une communication préalable). La méthode consiste en une analyse spectrale digitale de l'E.E.G., qui est enregistré à l'aide d'un système

  19. Seasonal Patterns of Community Participation and Mobility of Wheelchair Users Over an Entire Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisoff, Jaimie F; Ripat, Jacquie; Chan, Franco

    2018-03-23

    To describe how people who use wheelchairs participate and move at home and in the community over an entire yearlong period, including during times of inclement weather conditions. Longitudinal mixed-methods research study. Urban community in Canada. People who use a wheelchair for home and community mobility (N=11). Not applicable. Use of a global positioning system (GPS) tracker for movement in community (number of trips per day), use of accelerometer for bouts of wheeling mobility (number of bouts per day, speed, distance, and duration), prompted recall interviews to identify supports and barriers to mobility and participation. More trips per day were taken during the summer (P= .03) and on days with no snow and temperatures above 0°C. Participants reliant on public transportation demonstrated more weather-specific changes in their trip patterns. The number of daily bouts of mobility remained similar across seasons; total daily distance wheeled, duration, and speed were higher on summer days, days with no snow, and days with temperatures above 0°C. A higher proportion of outdoor wheeling bouts occurred in summer (P=.02) and with temperatures above 0°C (P=.03). Inaccessible public environments were the primary barrier to community mobility and participation; access to social supports and private transportation were the primary supports. Objective support is provided for the influence of various seasonal weather conditions on community mobility and participation for people who use a wheelchair. Longitudinal data collection provided a detailed understanding of the patterns of, and influences on, wheelchair mobility and participation within wheelchair users' own homes and communities. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Public outreach supports the entire life-cycle of the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sonja; Kollersberger, Tanja; Möller, Fabian; Liebscher, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Interdisciplinary research at the Ketzin pilot site in Germany contributes to the understanding of the geological CO2 storage since 2004. In addition to the research activities, public outreach has been a key element through the entire life-cycle of the project including site assessment, characterization, development as well as operation (2008-2013) and post-closure. From the very beginning of the project, the research activities were accompanied by an open dialogue with the general public including locals and interested people from all over Germany and the world. The visitor centre at the Ketzin site is run by GFZ and the most important contact point to inform about first-hand experiences from the project. Up to now, about 3,000 visitors came to the Ketzin site for guided tours and the annual open house days. In addition, project status and progress are disseminated in brochures and on the public website www.co2ketzin.de. The Ketzin project is also presented in short films, e.g. on monitoring, drilling and well closure. As the post-closure and pre-transfer phase started after the cease of CO2 injection in August 2013 and the injection facility was dismantled in December 2013, we were looking for a tool to further inform about the previous operation and site infrastructure. A virtual tour was set up for the Ketzin site which is accessible via the website. This tour includes several videos which virtually guide you on site and provide information on the (former) facilities. Public acceptance is a key issue for the Ketzin project as it is for any other CO2 storage project. For example, an open communication with the local residents helped to conduct large-scale seismic campaigns without severe restrictions. The experience from the Ketzin pilot site shows that honest communication and a diverse dissemination program is able to overcome critical public perception even for highly debated technologies.

  1. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  2. Entire lacrimal sac within the ethmoid sinus: outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali MJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali, Swati Singh, Milind N NaikInstitute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Background: The aim of this study was to report the outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (PEnDCR in patients with lacrimal sac within the sinus.Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on all patients who underwent PEnDCR and were intraoperatively documented to have complete lacrimal sac in sinus. Data collected included demographics, clinical presentations, associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies, intraoperative findings, intraoperative guidance, complications, postoperative ostium behavior, and anatomical and functional success. A minimum follow-up of 6 months postsurgery was considered for final analysis.Results: A total of 17 eyes of 15 patients underwent PEnDCR using standard protocols, but with additional intraoperative guidance where required and careful maneuvering in the ethmoid sinus. The mean age of the patients was 37.2 (range 17–60 years. Of the unilateral cases, 69% (nine of 13 showed left-side predisposition; 80% of patients showed regurgitation on pressure over the lacrimal sac area. Associated lacrimal and nasal anomalies were observed in 13.3% (two of 15 and 40% (six of 15, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 6.6 months, anatomical and functional success were observed in 93.3% (14 of 15. One patient showed failure secondary to cicatricial closure of the ostium.Conclusion: An entire sac within an ethmoid sinus poses a surgical challenge. Good sinus-surgery training, thorough knowledge of endoscopic anatomy, careful maneuvering, and use of intraoperative navigation guidance result in good outcomes with PEnDCR.Keywords: lacrimal sac, ethmoid sinus, endoscopic, DCR

  3. Effects of Ankle Arthrodesis on Biomechanical Performance of the Entire Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Ankle arthrodesis is one popular surgical treatment for ankle arthritis, chronic instability, and degenerative deformity. However, complications such as foot pain, joint arthritis, and bone fracture may cause patients to suffer other problems. Understanding the internal biomechanics of the foot is critical for assessing the effectiveness of ankle arthrodesis and provides a baseline for the surgical plan. This study aimed to understand the biomechanical effects of ankle arthrodesis on the entire foot and ankle using finite element analyses. A three-dimensional finite element model of the foot and ankle, involving 28 bones, 103 ligaments, the plantar fascia, major muscle groups, and encapsulated soft tissue, was developed and validated. The biomechanical performances of a normal foot and a foot with ankle arthrodesis were compared at three gait instants, first-peak, mid-stance, and second-peak.Changes in plantar pressure distribution, joint contact pressure and forces, von Mises stress on bone and foot deformation were predicted. Compared with those in the normal foot, the peak plantar pressure was increased and the center of pressure moved anteriorly in the foot with ankle arthrodesis. The talonavicular joint and joints of the first to third rays in the hind- and mid-foot bore the majority of the loading and sustained substantially increased loading after ankle arthrodesis. An average contact pressure of 2.14 MPa was predicted at the talonavicular joint after surgery and the maximum variation was shown to be 80% in joints of the first ray. The contact force and pressure of the subtalar joint decreased after surgery, indicating that arthritis at this joint was not necessarily a consequence of ankle arthrodesis but rather a progression of pre-existing degenerative changes. Von Mises stress in the second and third metatarsal bones at the second-peak instant increased to 52 MPa and 34 MPa, respectively, after surgery. These variations can provide

  4. Expression of the entire polyhydroxybutyrate operon of Ralstonia eutropha in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozes-Koch, Rita; Tanne, Edna; Brodezki, Alexandra; Yehuda, Ran; Gover, Ofer; Rabinowitch, Haim D; Sela, Ilan

    2017-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that an entire bacterial operon (the PRN operon) is expressible in plants when driven by the Tomato -yellow-leaf-curl-virus (TYLCV) -derived universal vector IL-60.Petroleum-derived plastics are not degradable, and are therefore harmful to the environment. Fermentation of bacteria carrying operons for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produces degradable bioplastics which are environmentally friendly. However, bacterial production of bioplastics is not cost-effective, and attention is turning to their production in plants. Such "green" plastics would be less expensive and environmentally friendly. Hence, attempts are being made to substitute petroleum-derived plastics with "green" plastics. However, transformation of plants with genes of operons producing bioplastics has deleterious effects. Transformation of plastids does not cause deleterious effects, however it is a complicated procedures. We have developed another TYLCV-based vector (SE100) and show that yet another bacterial operon (the phaCAB operon) when driven by SE100 is also expressed in plants. We employed the combination of SE100 and the phaCAB operon to drive the operon to the plastids and produce in plants a biodegradable plastic [polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)].Here we indicate that the bacterial operon (phaCAB), when driven by the newly developed universal plant vector SE100 is directed to chloroplasts and produces in plants PHB, a leading PHA. The PHB-producing plants circumvent the need for complicated technical procedures. The viral vector system SE100 facilitated the production of the bio-plastic poly-3-hydroxybutyrate. This was achieved by using the full pha-CAB operon indicating that TYLCV based system can transcribe and translate genes from bacterial operons controlled by a single cis element. Our data hints to the participation of the chloroplasts in these processes.

  5. The entire mean stress relaxation effects of 0Cr18Ni10Ti piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing; Zhao Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean stress relaxation effects of the Chinese new piping material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel. Six sets of specimens are respectively fatigued under a strain-controlled mode with the six straining ratios (R ε ) of -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48 by an improved test method implied with an maximum likelihood statistical principle. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and, surprisingly, involves an entire mean stress relaxation. A challenge is then emerging to the traditional same treat of straining ratio and stressing ratio (R σ ) in fatigue analysis and assessment. There is still no effective method to describe this kind of relaxation. However the R ε effects can represent the relaxation effects appropriately by investigation on the material random cyclic stress-strain (σ-ε) relations and strain-life (ε-N) relations with different R ε . The intrinsic randomness of the responses is taken into account on a probabilistic sense. Significant differences are observed of the material cyclic responses under different R ε . For σ-ε relations, the R ε effects act as a decreasing trend to the stress amplitudes with the increasing survival probability and confidence. The strongest effect appears at R ε of 0.029, and a weaker one acts as R ε is far away from zero. For ε-N relations, R ε greater than zero exhibits a positive effect on the fatigue lives of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under a survival probability of 0.999 and a confidence of 95%, while a negative effect is exhibited in case of R ε less than zero. Present work indicates that systematic researches should be made to give a reasonable fatigue prediction in service on a basis of cyclic strain inspection of structures. (authors)

  6. Repeated CT studies of a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis during his entire clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Masahiro; Fukui, Keiji; Takeda, Sadanori; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hideki; Sakaki, Saburo.

    1985-01-01

    We encountered a patient with herpes simplex encephalitis whose cerebral lesions were studied by repeated CT scannings during his entire clinical course. The purpose of this paper is to report the earliest lesions of the brain as revealed by CT scans. A 63-year-old man was admitted to our clinic complaining of headache, nausea, fever, and disorientation. On admission, a physical examination showed a high fever, while a neurological examination revealed a stiff neck, a positive Kernig's sign, and disorientation. Laboratory examinations revealed a pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid. Electroencephalograms showed the so-called ''periodic sharp-and-slow-waves complex''. The complement fixation titer for herpes simplex virus was x32 in the serum and x128 in the cerebrospinal fluid, suggesting the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. We treated him with adenine arabinoside and gamma-globulin, but the patient did not recover; rather, he died of pneumonia and gastrointestinal bleeding three months later. Plain CT scans taken on the 12th day after the onset revealed a low-density area with signs of a slight mass in the region from the right island of Reil to the right uncus. Contrast-enhanced CT scans revealed an irregular enhancement in the low-density area. CT scans taken on the 19th day after the onset showed an extensive low-density area with a streak-like enhancement in the right temporal lobe, which is in aggreement with the findings reported by others as characteristic CT findings for herpes simplex encephalitis. In order to make an early diagnosis of a patient, we should pay attention to a low-density area with an irregular contrast enhancement in the region from the island of Reil to the uncus on a CT scan. (author)

  7. A 30m resolution hydrodynamic model of the entire conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C.; Johnson, K.; Wing, O.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development and validation of a 30m resolution hydrodynamic model covering the entire conterminous United States. The model can be used to simulate inundation and water depths resulting from either return period flows (so equivalent to FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps), hindcasts of historic events or forecasts of future river flow from a rainfall-runoff or land surface model. As topographic data the model uses the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset or NED, and return period flows are generated using a regional flood frequency analysis methodology (Smith et al., 2015. Worldwide flood frequency estimation. Water Resources Research, 51, 539-553). Flood defences nationwide are represented using data from the US Army Corps of Engineers. Using these data flows are simulated using an explicit and highly efficient finite difference solution of the local inertial form of the Shallow Water equations identical to that implemented in the LISFLOOD-FP model. Even with this efficient numerical solution a simulation at this resolution over a whole continent is a huge undertaking, and a variety of High Performance Computing technologies therefore need to be employed to make these simulations possible. The size of the output datasets is also challenging, and to solve this we use the GIS and graphical display functions of Google Earth Engine to facilitate easy visualisation and interrogation of the results. The model is validated against the return period flood extents contained in FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Maps and real flood event data from the Texas 2015 flood event which was hindcast using the model. Finally, we present an application of the model to the Upper Mississippi river basin where simulations both with and without flood defences are used to determine floodplain areas benefitting from protection in order to quantify the benefits of flood defence spending.

  8. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP): Engaging an Entire Community in Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Kinner, F.

    2008-12-01

    Native Americans are poorly represented in all science, technology and engineering fields. This under- representation results from numerous cultural, economic, and historical factors. The Elwha Science Education Project (ESEP), initiated in 2007, strives to construct a culturally-integrated, geoscience education program for Native American young people through engagement of the entire tribal community. The ESEP has developed a unique approach to informal geoscience education, using environmental restoration as a centerpiece. Environmental restoration is an increasingly important goal for tribes. By integrating geoscience activities with community tradition and history, project stakeholders hope to show students the relevance of science to their day-to-day lives. The ESEP's strength lies in its participatory structure and unique network of partners, which include Olympic National Park; the non-profit, educational center Olympic Park Institute (OPI); a geologist providing oversight and technical expertise; and the Lower Elwha Tribe. Lower Elwha tribal elders and educators share in all phases of the project, from planning and implementation to recruitment of students and discipline. The project works collaboratively with tribal scientists and cultural educators, along with science educators to develop curriculum and best practices for this group of students. Use of hands-on, place-based outdoor activities engage students and connect them with the science outside their back doors. Preliminary results from this summer's middle school program indicate that most (75% or more) students were highly engaged approximately 90% of the time during science instruction. Recruitment of students has been particularly successful, due to a high degree of community involvement. Preliminary evaluations of the ESEP's outcomes indicate success in improving the outlook of the tribe's youth towards the geosciences and science, in general. Future evaluation will be likewise participatory

  9. La résistance de vagues de carènes. Calcul de la fonction de Green par intégration mumérique et par une méthode asymptotique. Deuxième Partie Hull Resistance to Waves. Computing the Green Hunction by Numerical Integration to Flow Metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est le prolongement de deux publications dejà parues dans cette revue [I] [5]. On rappelle que le calcul de la résistance de vague d'une carène par éléments finis sur un ouvert borné nécessite la connaissance de la fonction de Green du problème à grande distance. Cette fonction est très difficile à calculer par une intégration numérique classique. Dans ce qui suit on rappelle donc les résultats et les méthodes des précédents articles et on achève la justification d'une méthode asymptotique pour le calcul de la fonction de Green. This article is the second of two already published in this journal. The wave resistance of a hull is calculated by finite elements on a bounded domain. For this, the Green function of the problem atgreat distance must be known. It is very difficult to calculate this function by a conventional numerical integration. This article reviews the results and methods of the preceding articles, and an asymptotic method for colculating the Green function ïs justified.

  10. ESO unveils an amazing, interactive, 360-degree panoramic view of the entire night sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The first of three images of ESO's GigaGalaxy Zoom project - a new magnificent 800-million-pixel panorama of the entire sky as seen from ESO's observing sites in Chile - has just been released online. The project allows stargazers to explore and experience the Universe as it is seen with the unaided eye from the darkest and best viewing locations in the world. This 360-degree panoramic image, covering the entire celestial sphere, reveals the cosmic landscape that surrounds our tiny blue planet. This gorgeous starscape serves as the first of three extremely high-resolution images featured in the GigaGalaxy Zoom project, launched by ESO within the framework of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009). GigaGalaxy Zoom features a web tool that allows users to take a breathtaking dive into our Milky Way. With this tool users can learn more about many different and exciting objects in the image, such as multicoloured nebulae and exploding stars, just by clicking on them. In this way, the project seeks to link the sky we can all see with the deep, "hidden" cosmos that astronomers study on a daily basis. The wonderful quality of the images is a testament to the splendour of the night sky at ESO's sites in Chile, which are the most productive astronomical observatories in the world. The plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, which we see edge-on from our perspective on Earth, cuts a luminous swath across the image. The projection used in GigaGalaxy Zoom place the viewer in front of our Galaxy with the Galactic Plane running horizontally through the image - almost as if we were looking at the Milky Way from the outside. From this vantage point, the general components of our spiral galaxy come clearly into view, including its disc, marbled with both dark and glowing nebulae, which harbours bright, young stars, as well as the Galaxy's central bulge and its satellite galaxies. The painstaking production of this image came about as a collaboration between ESO, the renowned

  11. Nicked apomyoglobin: a noncovalent complex of two polypeptide fragments comprising the entire protein chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi, Valeria; Spolaore, Barbara; Picotti, Paola; Zambonin, Marcello; De Filippis, Vincenzo; Fontana, Angelo

    2004-05-25

    Limited proteolysis of the 153-residue chain of horse apomyoglobin (apoMb) by thermolysin results in the selective cleavage of the peptide bond Pro88-Leu89. The N-terminal (residues 1-88) and C-terminal (residues 89-153) fragments of apoMb were isolated to homogeneity and their conformational and association properties investigated in detail. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) measurements revealed that both fragments in isolation acquire a high content of helical secondary structure, while near-UV CD indicated the absence of tertiary structure. A 1:1 mixture of the fragments leads to a tight noncovalent protein complex (1-88/89-153, nicked apoMb), characterized by secondary and tertiary structures similar to those of intact apoMb. The apoMb complex binds heme in a nativelike manner, as given by CD measurements in the Soret region. Second-derivative absorption spectra in the 250-300 nm region provided evidence that the degree of exposure of Tyr residues in the nicked species is similar to that of the intact protein at neutral pH. Also, the microenvironment of Trp residues, located in positions 7 and 14 of the 153-residue chain of the protein, is similar in both protein species, as given by fluorescence emission data. Moreover, in analogy to intact apoMb, the nicked protein binds the hydrophobic dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS). Taken together, our results indicate that the two proteolytic fragments 1-88 and 89-153 of apoMb adopt partly folded states characterized by sufficiently nativelike conformational features that promote their specific association and mutual stabilization into a nicked protein species much resembling in its structural features intact apoMb. It is suggested that the formation of a noncovalent complex upon fragment complementation can mimic the protein folding process of the entire protein chain, with the difference that the folding of the complementary fragments is an intermolecular process. In particular, this study emphasizes the

  12. Three-dimensional internal structure of an entire alpine rockglacier, detected by Electrical Resistivity Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Adrian; Kneisel, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Uertsch rockglacier (46.61° N, 9.84°E, ca. 2500m asl.) is a tongue-shaped 300m x 100m landform at the head of a small high mountain valley in the Eastern Swiss Alps. Located at the lower end of possible permafrost existence, the rockglacier shows indications of permafrost decay although borehole temperature measurements exhibit an at least partly occurrence of permanently frozen subsurface conditions. To delimit the extent of the frozen area and to characterize subsurface structures, we performed three adjacent 3-D Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) surveys consisting of data from altogether 138 merged 2-D profiles, covering nearly the entire rockglacier by an investigation area of more than 2.5 ha. More than 47000 data points of Wenner-Schlumberger and Dipol-Dipol electrode arrays grant sufficient data coverage. Ground-truthing was achieved through borehole temperature measurements and multiple comparative ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) surveys. Results show that the rockglacier today lacks a consistent permafrost table and only shows a patchy permafrost distribution. Several structures differing in geometry and electric resistivity show a complex pattern of ice-rich, ice-poor and ice-free areas. We could identify glacial influence in the root zone of the rockglacier, where a 3200m2 perennial surface ice field is visible. In a downslope direction, a shallow layer of high resistivity values, which is limited to the shallow subsurface, follows the ice field and indicates a genesis by refreezing meltwater. The central part of the rockglacier also shows traces of glacial interaction by the occurrence of a several meters thick buried ice patch in the shallow subsurface at a marginal position. Next to this position, in an area where longitudinal surface ridges are exposed, modelled resistivity values indicate frozen conditions with relatively low ice content, limited to the shallow subsurface. We assume that these structures

  13. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the

  14. DW-MRI of liver lesions: Can a single ADC-value represent the entire lesion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Dahi, F.; Jiang, Y.; Ivancevic, M.K.; Rist, C.; Sethi, I.; Oommen, J.; Oto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate whether focal liver lesions (FLLs) exhibit a homogeneous appearance on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and whether there is inter-section variation in the calculated ADC values of FLLs (inter-section range). Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients with 128 FLLs (70 benign, 58 malignant) who underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI were included. Two observers evaluated variation of signal intensity of each FLL within each ADC map image (intra-section) and among different ADC map images through the lesion (inter-section). ADC values of each FLL and neighbouring liver parenchyma were measured on all sections. The inter-section range of FLLs was compared with the neighbouring liver parenchyma. Results: Intra-section inhomogeneity was noted in 39.8% (97/244 sections) and 38.9% (95/244) of benign lesions, and 61% (114/187 sections) and 61.5% (115/187) of malignant lesions, by observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Inter-section inhomogeneity was noted in 25.7% (18/70) and 27.1% (19/70) of benign lesions, and 51.7% (30/58) and 50% (29/58) of malignant lesions, by observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. The inter-section range for both benign (0.28 × 10 −3  mm²/s) and malignant (0.25 × 10 −3  mm²/s) FLLs were significantly greater than that of liver parenchyma surrounding benign (0.16 × 10 −3  mm²/s, p < 0.001) and malignant (0.14 × 10 −3  mm²/s, p = 0.01) FLLs. Conclusion: Due to intra-/inter-section variations in ADC values of benign and malignant FLLs, a single ADC value may not reliably represent the entire lesion

  15. Development of a machine for sorting laundry according to its radioactive contamination (1962); Conception et mise en oeuvre d'une machine a trier le linge en fonction de sa contamination par des produits radioactifs (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohendy, G; Alles, M; Pellerin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A the Marcoule Plutonium Production Centre special clothing is worn, in the active zones. A large fraction of these clothes is contaminated and must therefore be subjected to specialised treatments during washing in order to be reintroduced subsequently without danger. Because of the large amount of clothes to be treated it has become necessary to install a special semi-automatic machine; the role of the operator is limited to placing the clothing in the machine and to removing the baskets of sorted clothes. The machine itself has been designed and built by the Mechanics Section. The Radiation Protection Service chose the sorting method which is based on {beta} radiation and uses Geiger counters actuating an appropriate electronic system; the Service also developed this system, depending on the various degrees of contamination of the treated clothing. (authors) [French] Le Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule utilise des vetements speciaux pour travailler dans les zones actives. Une proportion importante de ces vetements se contamine et doit, de ce fait, subir des traitements appropries au cours du lavage, de facon a pouvoir etre reintroduits sans danger dans le circuit d'utilisation. Devant l'importance des quantites a traiter, il est apparu necessaire de mettre en place une machine speciale, semi-automatique; le role de l'operateur, consiste en effet uniquement a introduire le linge dans la machine et a extraire de celle-ci les paniers de linge trie. La Section de Mecanique a concu et realise la machine proprement dite. Le Service de Protection contre les Radiations a choisi le mode de tri qui s'effectue en {beta} a l'aide de compteurs Geiger actionnant une electronique appropriee et a assure la mise au point de cette electronique, en fonction des divers degres de contamination du linge a trier. (auteurs)

  16. Supra-aortic interventions for endovascular exclusion of the entire aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrási, Terézia B; Grossmann, Marius; Zenker, Dieter; Danner, Bernhard C; Schöndube, Friedrich A

    2017-07-01

    Our aim was to analyze the outcomes of endovascular exclusion of the entire aortic arch (proximal landing in zone 0, distal landing in zone III or beyond, after Ishimaru) in which complete surgical debranching of the supra-aortic vessels (I), endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (chimney, fenestrated, or branched grafts) with partial surgical debranching (II), or total endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (III) was additionally performed. Publications describing endovascular repair of the aortic arch (2000-2016) were systematically searched and reviewed. From a total of 53 relevant studies including 1853 patients, only 1021 patients undergoing 35 different total aortic arch procedures were found eligible for further evaluation and included in group I, II, or III (429, 190, and 402 patients, respectively). Overall early mortality was higher in group I vs groups II and III (P = .001; 1 - β = 95.6%) but exceeded in group III (18.6%) and group II (14.0%) vs group I (8.0%; P = .044; 1 - β = 57.4%) for diseases involving zone 0. Mortality was higher in all subgroups treated for zone 0 disease compared with corresponding subgroups treated for zone I to zone III disease. The incidence of cerebral ischemic events was increased in groups I and II vs group III (7.5% and 11% vs 1.7%; P = .0001) and correlated with early mortality (R 2  = .20; P = .033). The incidence of type II endoleaks and endovascular reintervention was similar between groups and correlated with each other (R 2  = .37; P = .004). Type Ia endoleak occurred more often in groups II and III than in group I (7.1% and 12.1% vs 5.8%; P = .023) and correlated with midterm mortality (R 2  = .53; P = .005). Retrograde type A dissection was low in all groups, whereas aneurysm growth was higher in group III (2.6%, 4.2%, 10.7%; P = .002), correlating with midterm mortality (R 2  = .311; P = .009). Surgical revision slightly correlated with surgical complications (R 2  = .18; P = .044

  17. WE-AB-201-03: TPS Commissioning and QA: Incorporating the Entire Planning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutic, S.

    2015-01-01

    defects in the future. Finally, the Gamma test has become a popular metric for reporting TPS Commissioning and QA results. It simplifies complex testing into a numerical index, but noisy data and casual application can make it misleading. A brief review of the issues around the use of the Gamma test will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: A process orientation and application of control charts (Michael Sharpe) A framework for commissioning a treatment planning system will be presented, focusing on preparations, practical aspects of configuration, priorities, specifications, and establishing performance. The complexity of the modern TPS make modular testing of features inadequate, and modern QA tools can provide “too much information” about the performance of techniques like IMRT and VMAT. We have adopted a process orientation and quality tools, like control charts, for ongoing TPS QA and assessment of patient-specific tests. The trending nature of these tools reveals the overall performance of the TPS system, and quantifies the variations that arise from individual plans, discrete calculations, and experimentation based on discrete measurements. Examples demonstrating application of these tools to TPS QA will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: Incorporating the entire planning process (Sasa Mutic) The TPS and its features do not perform in isolation. Instead, the features and modules are key components in a complex process that begins with CT Simulation and extends to treatment delivery, along with image guidance and verification. Most importantly, the TPS is used by people working in a multi-disciplinary environment. It is very difficult to predict the outcomes of human interactions with software. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach to training, commissioning and QA will be presented, along with an approach to the physics chart check and end-to-end testing as a tool for TPS QA. The role of standardization and automation in QA will also be discussed

  18. WE-AB-201-03: TPS Commissioning and QA: Incorporating the Entire Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutic, S. [Washington University School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    defects in the future. Finally, the Gamma test has become a popular metric for reporting TPS Commissioning and QA results. It simplifies complex testing into a numerical index, but noisy data and casual application can make it misleading. A brief review of the issues around the use of the Gamma test will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: A process orientation and application of control charts (Michael Sharpe) A framework for commissioning a treatment planning system will be presented, focusing on preparations, practical aspects of configuration, priorities, specifications, and establishing performance. The complexity of the modern TPS make modular testing of features inadequate, and modern QA tools can provide “too much information” about the performance of techniques like IMRT and VMAT. We have adopted a process orientation and quality tools, like control charts, for ongoing TPS QA and assessment of patient-specific tests. The trending nature of these tools reveals the overall performance of the TPS system, and quantifies the variations that arise from individual plans, discrete calculations, and experimentation based on discrete measurements. Examples demonstrating application of these tools to TPS QA will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: Incorporating the entire planning process (Sasa Mutic) The TPS and its features do not perform in isolation. Instead, the features and modules are key components in a complex process that begins with CT Simulation and extends to treatment delivery, along with image guidance and verification. Most importantly, the TPS is used by people working in a multi-disciplinary environment. It is very difficult to predict the outcomes of human interactions with software. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach to training, commissioning and QA will be presented, along with an approach to the physics chart check and end-to-end testing as a tool for TPS QA. The role of standardization and automation in QA will also be discussed

  19. From analysis to optimisation of the entire DSK logistics chain; Von der Analyse zur Optimierung der gesamten Logistikkette DSK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkin, H.J.; Dressler, H. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany); Schmidt, A. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Supply of materials to meet requirements and on time to open-cast and deep mines is essential to observe the defined production aims for the individual mines. The board of DSK commissioned the project ''Analysis of the entire DSK logistic chain'' with the aim of investigating all processes in material management logistics. In the follow-up project ''Optimisation of the entire DSK logistics chain'' restructuring measures will be worked out and their organisational integration in the entire company described. Starting with the present contribution first the results of the analysis project and subsequently the improvement measures along the DSK logistics chain are described. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 63984 - Disaster Declaration #12871; Disaster #ZZ-00007; The Entire United States and U.S. Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... given that as a result of Public Law 106-50, the Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12871; Disaster ZZ-00007; The Entire United States and U.S. Territories AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...

  1. Research on bimodal particle extinction coefficient during Brownian coagulation and condensation for the entire particle size regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hong; Lin Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The extinction coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles influences the earth’s radiation balance directly or indirectly, and it can be determined by the scattering and absorption characteristics of aerosol particles. The problem of estimating the change of extinction coefficient due to time evolution of bimodal particle size distribution is studied, and two improved methods for calculating the Brownian coagulation coefficient and the condensation growth rate are proposed, respectively. Through the improved method based on Otto kernel, the Brownian coagulation coefficient can be expressed simply in powers of particle volume for the entire particle size regime based on the fitted polynomials of the mean enhancement function. Meanwhile, the improved method based on Fuchs–Sutugin kernel is developed to obtain the condensation growth rate for the entire particle size regime. And then, the change of the overall extinction coefficient of bimodal distributions undergoing Brownian coagulation and condensation can be estimated comprehensively for the entire particle size regime. Simulation experiments indicate that the extinction coefficients obtained with the improved methods coincide fairly well with the true values, which provide a simple, reliable, and general method to estimate the change of extinction coefficient for the entire particle size regime during the bimodal particle dynamic processes.

  2. Structural model and trans-interaction of the entire ectodomain of the olfactory cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Rasmussen, Kim K

    2011-01-01

    of six recombinant proteins corresponding to different regions of the ectodomain. The model is the longest experimentally based composite structural model of an entire IgCAM ectodomain. It displays an essentially linear arrangement of IgI-V, followed by bends between IgV and Fn3I and between Fn3I and Fn3...

  3. Extensive tumor thrombus of hepatocellular carcinoma in the entire portal venous system detected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Puranik, Ameya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2013-01-01

    Detection of thrombus is usually an incidental finding on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography studies. Nevertheless this is an important finding in terms of disease prognostication and in planning the treatment strategy. We herein report a case of a 50-years-old male, a diagnosed case of hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hypermetabolic thrombus involving the entire portal venous system. (author)

  4. Decoding the DNA Methylome of Mantle Cell Lymphoma in the Light of the Entire B Cell Lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Queirós, A.C. (Ana C.); R. Beekman (Renée); Vilarrasa-Blasi, R. (Roser); Duran-Ferrer, M. (Martí); Clot, G. (Guillem); Merkel, A. (Angelika); Raineri, E. (Emanuele); Russiñol, N. (Nuria); Castellano, G. (Giancarlo); S. Bea (Silvia); Navarro, A. (Alba); Kulis, M. (Marta); Verdaguer-Dot, N. (Núria); P. Jares (Pedro); A. Enjuanes (Anna); M.J. Calasanz (Maria); Bergmann, A. (Anke); Vater, I. (Inga); Salaverría, I. (Itziar); H.J.G. van de Werken (Harmen); W.H. Wilson (Wyndham); Datta, A. (Avik); P. Flicek (Paul); Royo, R. (Romina); J.H.A. Martens (Joost); Giné, E. (Eva); Lopez-Guillermo, A. (Armando); H. Stunnenberg (Henk); W. Klapper (Wolfram); C. Pott (Christiane); Heath, S. (Simon); I. Gut (Ivo); R. Siebert (Reiner); G. Campo (Gianluca); J.I. Martin-Subero (J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyzed the in silico purified DNA methylation signatures of 82 mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) in comparison with cell subpopulations spanning the entire B cell lineage. We identified two MCL subgroups, respectively carrying epigenetic imprints of germinal-center-inexperienced and

  5. The use of double-balloon enteroscopy in retrieving mucosal biopsies from the entire human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Nicolai Alexander; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this explorative study was to evaluate double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) as a new tool for collecting mucosal biopsies from well-defined parts of the entire small and large bowel in patients with type 2 diabetes and in matched healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve su...... possibility to access hitherto unexplored human anatomy and physiology....

  6. Inverse Scattering Problem For The Schrödinger Equation With An Additional Quadratic Potential On The Entire Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseinov, I. M.; Khanmamedov, A. Kh.; Mamedova, A. F.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the Schrödinger equation with an additional quadratic potential on the entire axis and use the transformation operator method to study the direct and inverse problems of the scattering theory. We obtain the main integral equations of the inverse problem and prove that the basic equations are uniquely solvable.

  7. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Rock and pop musicians attired in military uniforms belong to our collective visual memory of the popular music scene since the 1960s. There has been a tendency to overestimate the subversive and erotic appeal of the uniforjmed look; subversion and fetishistic eroticism need not have been all......' is followed by analysis of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews and contextual...

  8. Not Entirely Subversive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Rock and pop musicians attired in military uniforms belong to our collective visual memory of the popular music scene since the 1960s. There has been a tendency to overestimate the subversive and erotic appeal of the uniformed look; subversion and fetishistic eroticism need not have been all......' is followed by analyses of the 1960s guitar hussar look of Jimi Hendrix and the 21st century camouflaged survivor look of Destiny's Child. Elucidation of the motivation behind their respective versions of 'rock military style' is achieved through utilization of personal statements in interviews, song lyrics...

  9. Entirely Laparoscopic Gastrectomy and Colectomy for Remnant Gastric Cancer with Gastric Outlet Obstruction and Transverse Colon Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Il; Kim, Min Gyu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that gastrectomy with curative intent is the best way to improve outcomes of patients with remnant gastric cancer. Recently,several investigators reported their experiences with laparoscopic gastrectomy of remnant gastric cancer. We report the case of an 83-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with remnant gastric cancer with obstruction. She underwent an entirely laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with colectomy because of direct invasion of the transverse colon. The opera...

  10. Feeding Jerusalem artichoke reduced skatole level and changed intestinal microbiota in the gut of entire male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhile, S G; Kjos, N P; Sørum, H; Overland, M

    2012-05-01

    Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the hindgut. Five experimental groups (n = 11) were given different dietary treatments 7 days before slaughtering: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 9% chicory-inulin), basal diet + 4.1% Jerusalem artichoke, basal diet + 8.1% Jerusalem artichoke and basal diet + 12.2% Jerusalem artichoke. Samples from colon, rectum, faeces and adipose tissue were collected. Effect of dietary treatment on skatole, indole and androstenone levels in adipose tissue and on skatole, indole, pH, dry matter (DM), microbiota and SCFA in the hindgut was evaluated. Feeding increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke to entire male pigs reduced skatole in digesta from colon and in faeces (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke decreased DM content in colon and faeces and pH in colon (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a reduced level of Clostridium perfringens in both colon and rectum (linear, P Jerusalem artichoke to diets for entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in skatole levels in the hindgut and adipose tissue. The reduced skatole levels might be related to the decrease in C. perfringens and the increase in SCFA with subsequent reduction in pH.

  11. Characteristic of entire corneal topography and tomography for the detection of sub-clinical keratoconus with Zernike polynomials using Pentacam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Li, Weibo; Jiang, Jun; Zhuang, Xiran; Chen, Wei; Peng, Mei; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Fan; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2017-11-28

    The study aimed to characterize the entire corneal topography and tomography for the detection of sub-clinical keratoconus (KC) with a Zernike application method. Normal subjects (n = 147; 147 eyes), sub-clinical KC patients (n = 77; 77 eyes), and KC patients (n = 139; 139 eyes) were imaged with the Pentacam HR system. The entire corneal data of pachymetry and elevation of both the anterior and posterior surfaces were exported from the Pentacam HR software. Zernike polynomials fitting was used to quantify the 3D distribution of the corneal thickness and surface elevation. The root mean square (RMS) values for each order and the total high-order irregularity were calculated. Multimeric discriminant functions combined with individual indices were built using linear step discriminant analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined the diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve, AUC). The 3rd-order RMS of the posterior surface (AUC: 0.928) obtained the highest discriminating capability in sub-clinical KC eyes. The multimeric function, which consisted of the Zernike fitting indices of corneal posterior elevation, showed the highest discriminant ability (AUC: 0.951). Indices generated from the elevation of posterior surface and thickness measurements over the entire cornea using the Zernike method based on the Pentacam HR system were able to identify very early KC.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Endovascular Intervention for the Management of Primary Entire-Inferior Vena Cava Occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingqiao; Huang, Qianxin; Shen, Bin; Sun, Jingmin; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of endovascular intervention for the treatment of primary entire-inferior vena cava (IVC) occlusion.MethodsEndovascular interventions were performed in six patients for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion. IVC and hepatic venography were performed via the jugular and femoral veins. Balloon angioplasty was used to revascularize the hepatic vein and IVC and a stent was placed in the IVC to maintain patency. Postoperative color Doppler ultrasonography was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and then annually, to monitor the patency of the hepatic vein and IVC.ResultsThe IVC and one or two hepatic veins were successfully revascularized in five patients. Revascularization was successful in the right and left hepatic veins in one patient; however, IVC patency could not be established in this patient. Eleven Z-type, self-expanding stents were placed into the IVCs of five patients (three stents in two patients, two stents in two patients, and one stent in one patient). There were no instances of postoperative bleeding or mortality. Follow-up was conducted for 18–90 months (42.8 ± 26.5 months). None of the five patients suffered restenosis of the IVC or hepatic veins. However, there was one of the six cases of right hepatic vein restenosis at 18 months postprocedure that was revascularized after a second balloon dilatation.ConclusionsEndovascular intervention is safe and efficacious for the treatment of primary entire-IVC occlusion

  13. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  14. A complete process for production of flexible large area polymer solar cells entirely using screen printing-First public demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Norrman, Kion

    2009-01-01

    , complete processing in air using commonly available screen printing, and finally, simple mechanical encapsulation using a flexible packaging material and electrical contacting post-production using crimped contacts. We detail the production of more than 2000 modules in one production run and show......A complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere under industrial conditions is presented. The versatility of the polymer solar cell technology is demonstrated through the use of abstract forms for the active area, a flexible substrate, processing entirely from solution...

  15. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-01-01

    What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possib...

  16. Is it necessary to use the entire root as a donor when transferring contralateral C7 nerve to repair median nerve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai-Ming; Lao, Jie; Guan, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jing-Jing

    2018-01-01

    If a partial contralateral C 7 nerve is transferred to a recipient injured nerve, results are not satisfactory. However, if an entire contralateral C 7 nerve is used to repair two nerves, both recipient nerves show good recovery. These findings seem contradictory, as the above two methods use the same donor nerve, only the cutting method of the contralateral C 7 nerve is different. To verify whether this can actually result in different repair effects, we divided rats with right total brachial plexus injury into three groups. In the entire root group, the entire contralateral C 7 root was transected and transferred to the median nerve of the affected limb. In the posterior division group, only the posterior division of the contralateral C 7 root was transected and transferred to the median nerve. In the entire root + posterior division group, the entire contralateral C 7 root was transected but only the posterior division was transferred to the median nerve. After neurectomy, the median nerve was repaired on the affected side in the three groups. At 8, 12, and 16 weeks postoperatively, electrophysiological examination showed that maximum amplitude, latency, muscle tetanic contraction force, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle were significantly better in the entire root and entire root + posterior division groups than in the posterior division group. No significant difference was found between the entire root and entire root + posterior division groups. Counts of myelinated axons in the median nerve were greater in the entire root group than in the entire root + posterior division group, which were greater than the posterior division group. We conclude that for the same recipient nerve, harvesting of the entire contralateral C 7 root achieved significantly better recovery than partial harvesting, even if only part of the entire root was used for transfer. This result indicates that the entire root should be used as a

  17. Inclined-wall regular micro-pillar-arrayed surfaces covered entirely with an alumina nanowire forest and their improved superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Dongyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yongsung; Kang, Jae-Wook; Hong, Suck Won

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a multiple-scale hierarchically structured superhydrophobic surface that is composed of inclined-wall regular micro-pillar arrays covered entirely with an alumina nanowire forest (ANF) to improve the surface wettability. The multiple-scaled structures were fabricated stably using a simple batch process based on an anisotropic chemical silicon etching process and a subsequent time-controlled anodic aluminum oxide technique. The surface wetting properties of the mono-roughened surfaces with inclined-wall micro-pillar arrays, which are normally in the Wenzel wetting regime, could be transitioned perfectly to the slippery Cassie mode and enhanced greatly in the Wenzel regime in cases of a high- and low-density of the micro-pillars, respectively, by easily amplifying the intrinsic contact angle through the entire coverage of the ANF on the micro-roughened surfaces. The wettability of the proposed multiple-scaled surfaces could also be predicted using analytic surface models and the experimental results agreed greatly with the wetting trends estimated theoretically due to the geometrical regularity of the base micro-structures

  18. Variability and interaction of some egg physical and eggshell quality attributes during the entire laying hen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Zampiga, M; Berardinelli, A; Meluzzi, A

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variability and relationships between some egg physical (egg weight, width, length, shape index, and surface area) and eggshell parameters (weight and percentage, thickness, breaking strength, and L*, a*, and b* values) during the entire laying hen cycle. A total of 8,000 eggs was collected every 5 wk, from 30 to 81 wk of hen age (10 samplings of 400 eggs/house), in 2 identical poultry houses equipped with enriched cages. For the statistical analysis, ANOVA, Bivariate Correlation, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were used. An increase of egg weight, length, and eggshell lightness (L*) associated with a reduction of eggshell percentage, breaking strength, and redness (a*) was observed as the hen aged (P 10% of eggshell breaking strength and a*. According to the PCA, the highest changes during the laying cycle are related to egg physical parameters (32%) and to eggshell breaking strength, percentage, and thickness (26%). The egg physical parameters appeared to be strongly correlated to each other, whereas a slight correlation between eggshell breaking strength and color attributes were evidenced (-0.231 and 0.289, respectively, for L* and a*; P quality attributes throughout the entire laying hen cycle.

  19. Paternal uniparental isodisomy of the entire chromosome 20 as a molecular cause of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP-Ib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, Murat; Altug-Teber, Ozge; Agarwal, Chhavi; Oberfield, Sharon E; Bonin, Michael; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-03-01

    Pseudohypoparathyoridism type Ib (PHP-Ib) typically defines the presence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone in the absence of Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. Patients affected by this disorder present with imprinting defects in the complex GNAS locus. Microdeletions within STX16 or GNAS have been identified in familial cases with PHP-Ib, but the molecular cause of the GNAS imprinting defects in sporadic PHP-Ib cases remains poorly defined. We now report a case with sporadic PHP-Ib for whom a SNPlex analysis revealed loss of the maternal GNAS allele. Further analysis of the entire genome with a 100K SNP chip identified a paternal uniparental isodisomy affecting the entire chromosome 20 without evidence for another chromosomal abnormality. Our findings explain the observed GNAS methylation changes and the patient's hormone resistance, and furthermore suggest that chromosome 20 harbors, besides GNAS, no additional imprinted region that contributes to the clinical and laboratory phenotype. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque over the entire range of isometric contraction intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Jubeau, Marc; Frappart, Thomas; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Nordez, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    Muscle shear elastic modulus is linearly related to muscle torque during low-level contractions (torque over the entire range of isometric contraction and (ii) the influence of the size of the region of interest (ROI) used to average the shear modulus value. Ten healthy males performed two incremental isometric little finger abductions. The joint torque produced by Abductor Digiti Minimi was considered as an index of muscle torque and elastic modulus. A high coefficient of determination (R(2)) (range: 0.86-0.98) indicated that the relationship between elastic modulus and torque can be accurately modeled by a linear regression over the entire range (0% to 100% of MVC). The changes in shear elastic modulus as a function of torque were highly repeatable. Lower R(2) values (0.89±0.13 for 1/16 of ROI) and significantly increased absolute errors were observed when the shear elastic modulus was averaged over smaller ROI, half, 1/4 and 1/16 of the full ROI) than the full ROI (mean size: 1.18±0.24cm(2)). It suggests that the ROI should be as large as possible for accurate measurement of muscle shear modulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysplastic Ichthyosis Uteri-like changes of the entire endometrium associated with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadare Oluwole

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ichthyosis uteri is an exceedingly rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium. We describe herein a heretofore undescribed example of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri-like changes of the entire adjacent endometrium. Additionally, the squamous epithelium of the latter also showed multifocal changes diagnostic of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The potential genesis of this composite of findings is discussed, as is the neoplastic potential of ichthyosis uteri. It is concluded that a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix extended proximally into the endometrium, and that there was a colonization of a pre-existing ichthyosis uteri by associated human papillomavirus. The possibility of significant cervical pathology should be considered when plaques of squamous epithelium with low grade dysplastic changes are identified in an endometrial biopsy or curettage.

  2. Use of Pulsed Nmr Spectroscopy to Measure the Amount of Solid Deposits As a Function of Temperature in Waxy Crudes Utilisation de la spectroscopie RMN pulsée pour mesurer la quantité de dépôts solides en fonction de la température dans les bruts paraffiniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffier-Meray V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin crystallization in crude oils and in gas condensates is a major problem for petroleum exploitation. Thermodynamic models are used to evaluate the risk. With them, one calculates the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT as well as the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature, for temperatures below the WAT. During development, these models are tested against experimental data. Although different methods for measuring the WAT are available in the literature and at petroleum companies, such methods unfortunately do not exist for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. In this work, we have developed a low resolution NMR method for measuring the crystallized fraction as a function of temperature. The method was first evaluated using pure samples and was then applied to crude oils. The results were compared to those obtained both from differential calorimetry and from the model. La cristallisation des paraffines dans les pétroles bruts et même dans les gaz à condensat est un problème majeur dans le domaine de l'exploitation pétrolière. Afin d'évaluer ce risque, on utilise des modèles thermodynamiques. Ils permettent de calculer la température de cristallisation commençante (TCC ou Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT ainsi que la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température (pour des températures inférieures à la TCC. Lors de leur développement, ces modèles doivent être évalués sur des données expérimentales. Il existe dans la littérature et chez les pétroliers différentes méthodes pour mesurer la TCC, malheureusement il n'en est pas de même pour la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Dans cet article, nous avons développé une méthode de RMN basse résolution afin de mesurer la fraction cristallisée en fonction de la température. Elle a d'abord été évaluée sur des mélanges de corps purs puis elle a été appliquée à des pétroles bruts. Les r

  3. High resolution anatomical and quantitative MRI of the entire human occipital lobe ex vivo at 9.4T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S; Fritz, F J; Harms, R L; Hildebrand, S; Tse, D H Y; Poser, B A; Goebel, R; Roebroeck, A

    2018-03-01

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts are sensitive to myelin content in gray matter in vivo which has ignited ambitions of MRI-based in vivo cortical histology. Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI, at fields of 7T and beyond, is crucial to provide the resolution and contrast needed to sample contrasts over the depth of the cortex and get closer to layer resolved imaging. Ex vivo MRI of human post mortem samples is an important stepping stone to investigate MRI contrast in the cortex, validate it against histology techniques applied in situ to the same tissue, and investigate the resolutions needed to translate ex vivo findings to in vivo UHF MRI. Here, we investigate key technology to extend such UHF studies to large human brain samples while maintaining high resolution, which allows investigation of the layered architecture of several cortical areas over their entire 3D extent and their complete borders where architecture changes. A 16 channel cylindrical phased array radiofrequency (RF) receive coil was constructed to image a large post mortem occipital lobe sample (~80×80×80mm 3 ) in a wide-bore 9.4T human scanner with the aim of achieving high-resolution anatomical and quantitative MR images. Compared with a human head coil at 9.4T, the maximum Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR) was increased by a factor of about five in the peripheral cortex. Although the transmit profile with a circularly polarized transmit mode at 9.4T is relatively inhomogeneous over the large sample, this challenge was successfully resolved with parallel transmit using the kT-points method. Using this setup, we achieved 60μm anatomical images for the entire occipital lobe showing increased spatial definition of cortical details compared to lower resolutions. In addition, we were able to achieve sufficient control over SNR, B 0 and B 1 homogeneity and multi-contrast sampling to perform quantitative T 2 * mapping over the same volume at 200μm. Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling provided

  4. Endoscopic Modified Medial Maxillectomy for Resection of an Inverted Papilloma Originating from the Entire Circumference of the Maxillary Sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Wada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For treatment of a sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP, it is essential to have a definite diagnosis, to identify its origin by computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and to select the appropriate surgical approach based on the staging system proposed by Krouse. Recently, a new surgical approach named endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM was proposed. This approach can preserve the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. We successfully treated sinonasal IP with EMMM in a 71-year-old female patient. In this patient, the sinonasal IP originated from the entire circumference of the maxillary sinus. EMMM is not a difficult procedure and provides good visibility of the operative field. Lacrimation and empty nose syndrome do not occur postoperatively as the nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate are preserved. EMMM is considered to be a very favorable approach for treatment of sinonasal IP.

  5. Endoscopic Modified Medial Maxillectomy for Resection of an Inverted Papilloma Originating from the Entire Circumference of the Maxillary Sinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kota; Ishigaki, Takashi; Ida, Yutaro; Yamada, Yuki; Hosono, Sachiko; Edamatsu, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    For treatment of a sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP), it is essential to have a definite diagnosis, to identify its origin by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to select the appropriate surgical approach based on the staging system proposed by Krouse. Recently, a new surgical approach named endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) was proposed. This approach can preserve the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. We successfully treated sinonasal IP with EMMM in a 71-year-old female patient. In this patient, the sinonasal IP originated from the entire circumference of the maxillary sinus. EMMM is not a difficult procedure and provides good visibility of the operative field. Lacrimation and empty nose syndrome do not occur postoperatively as the nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate are preserved. EMMM is considered to be a very favorable approach for treatment of sinonasal IP. PMID:26146581

  6. Fournier gangrene: a rare case of necrotizing fasciitis of the entire right hemi-pelvis in a diabetic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory M; Hess, David V

    2018-02-01

    Fournier's gangrene, a rare polymicrobial infection that affects the genitals and perineum, can present as an insidious onset to a rapid and fulminant course. Early recognition, diagnosis, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and prompt surgical treatment remain the foundation of management. If treatment is not initiated aggressively, the patient will likely rapidly deteriorate, leading to organ failure and death. We present the case of a 58-year-old diabetic female presenting febrile, hypoxic, with severe respiratory distress and evidence of septic shock, found to have necrotizing fasciitis of the entire right hemi-pelvis. Despite rapid recognition, IV antibiotics and operative management, the patient went to the intensive-care unit on multiple pressors and died 24 h later.

  7. Determination of bore efficiency loss employed as powder in boral fabrication, proportionately to the dimension of grain; Determination de la reduction d'efficacite du bore ou d'un autre absorbeur employe sous forme de poudre dissemine dans un produit non absorbant, en fonction de la grosseur des grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforge, P; Millot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    Authors' mind was attracted by the importance of bore granulometry when employed as powder in boral fabrication. The calculation, object of this report, permits to give values for bore efficiency loss, proportionately to the dimension of spherical or ellipsoidal supposed grains. Grains to be employed should exceptionally only exceed 20 {mu} for a correspondent efficiency loss of 8 per cent about. (author) [French] L'attention des auteurs a ete attiree sur l'importance de la granulometrie du bore employe sous forme de poudre dans la fabrication du boral. Le calcul qui fait l'objet de ce rapport permet de chiffrer la perte d'efficacite du bore en fonction de la dimension des grains supposes spheriques ou ellipsoidaux. Les grains a employer ne devraient qu'exceptionnellement etre superieurs a 20 microns, ce qui correspond a une perte d'efficacite d'environ 8 pour cent. (auteur)

  8. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  9. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  10. Tunnel diode amplifiers and their background noise as a function of the polarization point, the temperature, and the bandwidth; Amplificateurs a diode tunnel et leur bruit de fond, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozveaminian, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The author presents mathematical and graphical methods for the study of the stability of tunnel diode circuits. He gives an application to the realization of three amplifiers. Then he describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise of these amplifiers and of its variations with the bias, the temperature and the bandwidth. (author) [French] L'auteur presente deux methodes, l'une theorique l'autre graphique, pour l'etude de la stabilite des circuits a diode tunnel, dont il fait une application a la realisation de trois amplificateurs. Il effectue ensuite une etude theorique et experimentale du bruit de fond de ces amplificateurs, en fonction du point de polarisation, de la temperature et de la bande passante. (auteur)

  11. PatternQuery: web application for fast detection of biomacromolecular structural patterns in the entire Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehnal, David; Pravda, Lukáš; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Koča, Jaroslav

    2015-07-01

    Well defined biomacromolecular patterns such as binding sites, catalytic sites, specific protein or nucleic acid sequences, etc. precisely modulate many important biological phenomena. We introduce PatternQuery, a web-based application designed for detection and fast extraction of such patterns. The application uses a unique query language with Python-like syntax to define the patterns that will be extracted from datasets provided by the user, or from the entire Protein Data Bank (PDB). Moreover, the database-wide search can be restricted using a variety of criteria, such as PDB ID, resolution, and organism of origin, to provide only relevant data. The extraction generally takes a few seconds for several hundreds of entries, up to approximately one hour for the whole PDB. The detected patterns are made available for download to enable further processing, as well as presented in a clear tabular and graphical form directly in the browser. The unique design of the language and the provided service could pave the way towards novel PDB-wide analyses, which were either difficult or unfeasible in the past. The application is available free of charge at http://ncbr.muni.cz/PatternQuery. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  13. Perpetual memory. Episode Review «The entire history of you« of Black Mirror (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Salomé LIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available What would happen if man could store and recovered all its memories at will? The entire history of you is an episode of the British television drama series which presents a futuristic scenario of a very old situation: jealousy. Human passions disturb our soul, trouble our reflections, and pushes us to action. Memory will be a privileged object for our analysis; not organic memory, but significant memory: this means the trace of memories that perform our body. We will try to analyze the possibilities of our actions against the technological dangers and “progresses”. The scope of biopolitics presented by Michel Foucault in the 70venties could be taken up by the contemporary idea of the current decline of love, desire and sexuality. We will visit some of the Freudian early works to think how memory and the possibilities of remembrance are a singular construction of human being. This significant memory is capable of knotting remembrance, fantasy and desire. But memory could also become perpetual when it is object of manipulation producing devastating effects on human´s subjectivity.

  14. ''La Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of Paris: The only museum in the world entirely devoted to biological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulin Cerceau, F.

    1995-01-01

    The new building called ''Grande Galerie de l'Evolution'' of the national Museum of natural History, in Paris-France, is the first museum in the world exclusively devoted to biological evolution. The Museum is divided in 3 parts (named ''Acts''): The aim of Act 1 is to sensibilize the visitor to the results of 4 billions years of biological evolution. This act shows some examples of biological diversity through few terrestrial and marine environments (deserts, tropical forests, polar habitats, abyssal zones ...). Act 2 is the principal part of the Museum explaining the main processes of evolution. This part shows also the story of life from the first living cells to man. Act 3, the last part offers to visitors a vision of the interactions between man and nature, and of their consequences along millions of years. A special Gallery is entirely devoted to vanished and threatened species, as a nefast consequence of human interaction on biological diversity particularly since the beginning of this century. (Abstract only)

  15. LWR FA burn up: A challenge to optimize the entire fuel cycle to assure the envisaged benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.

    1997-01-01

    Commercial LWR fuel will be limited to a maximum of U-235 content of 5% since the front end of the fuel cycle is licensed and prepared for that maximal enrichment. BWR- and PWR-reloads can be designed achieving batch average burn up over 60 GWd/tHM. In Germany the batch average burn up will presumably increase to this level, since the reload market is requesting further reductions in the fuel cycle inventories. However, it must be noted that the envisaged benefit can only be assured if the entire fuel cycle is optimized. Not all steps in the fuel cycle will bring a positive contribution bu the balance of all individual contributions must realize the envisaged integral benefit. In order to increase the burn up of the nuclear fuel beneficially further R and D both in the front end as well as in the back end of the fuel cycle is needed. An underestimation of the front end/back end interfaces may consume all benefits gained from isolated front optimizations. Back end R and D must be at once concentrated to avoid conservative enveloping licensing for the subsequent steps in the back end of the fuel cycle. Increasing burn up in the front end means making more and more use of the structural materials reserves

  16. The entire dural sinus tree is compressed in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a longitudinal, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohr, Axel; Bindeballe, Jan; Riedel, Christian; Jansen, Olav [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuroradiology, Kiel (Germany); Baalen, Andreas van [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neuropediatrics, Kiel (Germany); Bartsch, Thorsten [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurology, Kiel (Germany); Doerner, Lutz [University Clinic of Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Department of Neurosurgery, Kiel (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the volumetric alterations of dural sinuses in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Standardized cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used in 17 patients prior to and following treatment of IIH and in seven controls. Magnetic resonance venographies (MRV) were employed for (a) judgement of circumscript dural sinus stenoses and (b) computation of sinus volumes. Cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the superior sagittal sinuses (SSS) were measured on T2-weighted images. Results of the initial MRIs were compared to those on follow-up MRIs and to results of controls. Stenoses of the transverse sinuses (TS) resulting in cranial venous outflow obstruction (CVOO) were present in 15/17 (88%) patients, normalizing in 7/15 cases (47%) after treatment of IIH. CVOO was not detected in the control group. Segmentation of MRV revealed decreased dural sinus volumes in patients with IIH as compared to controls (P = 0.018). Sinus volumes increased significantly with normalization of intracranial pressure independent from disappearing of TS stenoses (P = 0.007). The CSA of the SSS were normal on the initial MRIs of patients with IIH and increased on follow-up after treatment (P < 0.001). However, volumetries displayed overlap in patients and controls. Patients with IIH not only exhibit bilateral stenoses of the TS as has been reported, but volume changes of their entire dural sinus system also occur. The potential etiopathological and diagnostic roles of these changes are discussed. (orig.)

  17. LWR FA burn up: A challenge to optimize the entire fuel cycle to assure the envisaged benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peehs, M [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Commercial LWR fuel will be limited to a maximum of U-235 content of 5% since the front end of the fuel cycle is licensed and prepared for that maximal enrichment. BWR- and PWR-reloads can be designed achieving batch average burn up over 60 GWd/tHM. In Germany the batch average burn up will presumably increase to this level, since the reload market is requesting further reductions in the fuel cycle inventories. However, it must be noted that the envisaged benefit can only be assured if the entire fuel cycle is optimized. Not all steps in the fuel cycle will bring a positive contribution bu the balance of all individual contributions must realize the envisaged integral benefit. In order to increase the burn up of the nuclear fuel beneficially further R and D both in the front end as well as in the back end of the fuel cycle is needed. An underestimation of the front end/back end interfaces may consume all benefits gained from isolated front optimizations. Back end R and D must be at once concentrated to avoid conservative enveloping licensing for the subsequent steps in the back end of the fuel cycle. Increasing burn up in the front end means making more and more use of the structural materials reserves.

  18. Establishing error management process for power plants. A study on entire picture of the process and introduction stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yuko; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sugihara, Yoshikuni; Takeda, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish a management process for a power plant to positively find out actual and/or potential problems that may possibility cause a serious human factor event, and to take effective measures. Firstly, detail steps for error management process utilizing human factor event data has been examined through an application at a plant. Secondly, basic steps for evaluating the degree of execution, enhancement and usefulness of each human performance activity and for identifying unsafe acts and uneasy human performance states were established based on literature searching and our experiences on plant evaluation. Finally, an entire picture of error management process was proposed by unifying the steps studied above. In addition, as stages for introducing and establishing the above proposed error management process into a power plant, a basic idea of supplementing an insufficient part of the process with a phased approach after comparing the above proposed management process and the existing human performance activities at the plant was introduced. (author)

  19. Mechanism of the entire overdischarge process and overdischarge-induced internal short circuit in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning

    2016-07-22

    Lithium-ion batteries connected in series are prone to be overdischarged. Overdischarge results in various side effects, such as capacity degradation and internal short circuit (ISCr). However, most of previous research on the overdischarge of a cell was terminated when the cell voltage dropped to 0 V, leaving the further impacts of overdischarge unclear. This paper investigates the entire overdischarge process of large-format lithium-ion batteries by discharging the cell to -100% state of charge (SOC). A significant voltage platform is observed at approximately -12% SOC, and ISCr is detected after the cell is overdischarged when passing the platform. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the overdischarge-induced ISCr is caused by Cu deposition on electrodes, suggesting possible Cu collector dissolution at the voltage platform near -12% SOC. A prognostic/mechanistic model considering ISCr is used to evaluate the resistance of ISCr (RISCr), the value of which decreases sharply at the beginning of ISCr formation. Inducing the ISCr by overdischarge is effective and well controlled without any mechanical deformation or the use of a foreign substance.

  20. In vivo imaging through the entire thickness of human cornea by full-field optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlin, Viacheslav; Xiao, Peng; Dalimier, Eugénie; Grieve, Kate; Irsch, Kristina; Sahel, José; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, Claude

    2018-02-01

    Despite obvious improvements in visualization of the in vivo cornea through the faster imaging speeds and higher axial resolutions, cellular imaging stays unresolvable task for OCT, as en face viewing with a high lateral resolution is required. The latter is possible with FFOCT, a method that relies on a camera, moderate numerical aperture (NA) objectives and an incoherent light source to provide en face images with a micrometer-level resolution. Recently, we for the first time demonstrated the ability of FFOCT to capture images from the in vivo human cornea1. In the current paper we present an extensive study of appearance of healthy in vivo human corneas under FFOCT examination. En face corneal images with a micrometer-level resolution were obtained from the three healthy subjects. For each subject it was possible to acquire images through the entire corneal depth and visualize the epithelium structures, Bowman's layer, sub-basal nerve plexus (SNP) fibers, anterior, middle and posterior stroma, endothelial cells with nuclei. Dimensions and densities of the structures visible with FFOCT, are in agreement with those seen by other cornea imaging methods. Cellular-level details in the images obtained together with the relatively large field-of-view (FOV) and contactless way of imaging make this device a promising candidate for becoming a new tool in ophthalmological diagnostics.

  1. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  2. Classical tandem-source dwelling covering the entire uterus. Essential in modern intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Nemoto, Keiko; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether conventional tandem-source dwelling to cover the entire uterus, classically regarded as the target volume, is necessary in modem intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer. The study included 95 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated by high-dose-rate ICRT (point A dose was 6.0 Gy, with three to five insertions per patient) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with central pelvic doses of 12-50 Gy. The tandem-source dwell length was adjusted to the target volume specified by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A tandem applicator was inserted as far as the uterine fundus in accordance with the post-EBRT MR-assessed cavity length. The pre-EBRT MR-specified target volume was used for the dwell-length adjustment. The safety of the dwell-length adjustment was assessed in terms of treatment failure. The dwell-length adjustment was made in 248 of 366 total insertions with a dwell-length reduction of 5-55 mm (median 15 mm) at the corpus. Pelvic failure was identified in 22 patients with a 2-year pelvic disease-free survival rate of 75.6% but without evidence of failure at dwelling-skipped corpuses. Given after pelvic EBRT and ICRT of full-length dwelling in part, which may have eradicated possible subclinical extension, adjustment of the tandem-source dwell length to the MR-specified target volume appeared to be safe. (author)

  3. Shear modulus estimation on vastus intermedius of elderly and young females over the entire range of isometric contraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Zhi Wang

    Full Text Available Elderly people often suffer from sarcopenia in their lower extremities, which gives rise to the increased susceptibility of fall. Comparing the mechanical properties of the knee extensor/flexors on elderly and young subjects is helpful in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the muscle aging process. However, although the stiffness of skeletal muscle has been proved to be positively correlated to its non-fatiguing contraction intensity by some existing methods, this conclusion has not been verified above 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC due to the limitation of their measurement range. In this study, a vibro-ultrasound system was set up to achieve a considerably larger measurement range on muscle stiffness estimation. Its feasibility was verified on self-made silicone phantoms by comparing with the mechanical indentation method. The system was then used to assess the stiffness of vastus intermedius (VI, one of the knee extensors, on 10 healthy elderly female subjects (56.7 ± 4.9 yr and 10 healthy young female subjects (27.6 ± 5.0 yr. The VI stiffness in its action direction was confirmed to be positively correlated to the % MVC level (R2 = 0.999 over the entire range of isometric contraction, i.e. from 0% MVC (relaxed state to 100% MVC. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no significant difference between the mean VI shear modulus of the elderly and young subjects in a relaxed state (p > 0.1. However, when performing step isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of young female subjects was found to be larger than that of elderly participants (p < 0.001, especially at the relatively higher contraction levels. The results expanded our knowledge on the mechanical property of the elderly's skeletal muscle and its relationship with intensity of active contraction. Furthermore, the vibro-ultrasound system has a potential to become a powerful tool for investigating the elderly's muscle diseases.

  4. Engaging the Entire Care Cascade in Western Kenya: A Model to Achieve the Cardiovascular Disease Secondary Prevention Roadmap Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Kamano, Jemima H; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Manji, Imran; Pastakia, Sonak; Kimaiyo, Sylvester N

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, with a substantial health and economic burden confronted by low- and middle-income countries. In low-income countries such as Kenya, there exists a double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases, and the CVD profile includes many nonatherosclerotic entities. Socio-politico-economic realities present challenges to CVD prevention in Kenya, including poverty, low national spending on health, significant out-of-pocket health expenditures, and limited outpatient health insurance. In addition, the health infrastructure is characterized by insufficient human resources for health, medication stock-outs, and lack of facilities and equipment. Within this socio-politico-economic reality, contextually appropriate programs for CVD prevention need to be developed. We describe our experience from western Kenya, where we have engaged the entire care cascade across all levels of the health system, in order to improve access to high-quality, comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable care for CVD and CVD risk factors. We report on several initiatives: 1) population-wide screening for hypertension and diabetes; 2) engagement of community resources and governance structures; 3) geographic decentralization of care services; 4) task redistribution to more efficiently use of available human resources for health; 5) ensuring a consistent supply of essential medicines; 6) improving physical infrastructure of rural health facilities; 7) developing an integrated health record; and 8) mobile health (mHealth) initiatives to provide clinical decision support and record-keeping functions. Although several challenges remain, there currently exists a critical window of opportunity to establish systems of care and prevention that can alter the trajectory of CVD in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa M. Lamarão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81% for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%. Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken.

  6. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian- Portuguese and reliability analysis of the instrument Rapid Entire Body Assessment-REBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarão, Andressa M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Comper, Maria L. C.; Padula, Rosimeire S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Observational instruments, such as the Rapid Entire Body Assessment, quickly assess biomechanical risks present in the workplace. However, in order to use these instruments, it is necessary to conduct the translational/cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument and test its measurement properties. Objectives: To perform the translation and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese and test the reliability of the REBA instrument. Method: The procedures of translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian-Portuguese were conducted following proposed guidelines that involved translation, synthesis of translations, back translation, committee review and testing of the pre-final version. In addition, reliability and the intra- and inter-rater percent agreement were obtained with the Linear Weighted Kappa Coefficient that was associated with the 95% Confidence Interval and the cross tabulation 2×2. Results : The procedures for translation and adaptation were adequate and the necessary adjustments were conducted on the instrument. The intra- and inter-rater reliability showed values of 0.104 to 0.504, respectively, ranging from very poor to moderate. The percentage agreement values ranged from 5.66% to 69.81%. The percentage agreement was closer to 100% at the item 'upper arm' (69.81%) for the Intra-rater 1 and at the items 'legs' and 'upper arm' for the Intra-rater 2 (62.26%). Conclusions: The processes of translation and cross-cultural adaptation were conducted on the REBA instrument and the Brazilian version of the instrument was obtained. However, despite the reliability of the tests used to correct the translated and adapted version, the reliability values are unacceptable according to the guidelines standard, indicating that the reliability must be re-evaluated. Therefore, caution in the interpretation of the biomechanical risks measured by this instrument should be taken. PMID:25003273

  7. Soil organic carbon stocks assessment in Mediterranean natural areas: a comparison of entire soil profiles and soil control sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, L; Lozano-García, B; Brevik, E C; Cerdá, A

    2015-05-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Over time, some researches have analyzed entire soil profile (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researches have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) to different thickness. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km(2) forested area in southern Spain. Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The soils investigated in this study included Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. Total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C (10,604.2 Mg km(-2)) to 0.6353 Tg C (8272.1 Mg km(-2)) respectively (1 Tg = 10(12) g). However, when the topsoil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to 59.8% in SCS compared to ESP. The comparison between ESP and SCS showed the effect of mixing pedogenetic horizons when depth increments were analyzed. This indicates an overestimate of T-SOCS when sampling by SCS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day −5, −2, and −1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day −1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  9. COMPARATIVE USABILITY ASSESSMENT OF REBA (RAPID ENTIRE BODY ASSESSMENT ERGONOMIC EVALUATION TOOL ON PAPER AND APP VERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella de Souza Sierra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferramentas para auxílio de análise ergonômica são frequentemente utilizadas quando há a necessidade de avaliação de riscos musculoesqueléticos no trabalho. Dessas ferramentas, uma das mais conhecidas é a REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment. Seu amplo uso fez com que suas formas de distribuição e aplicação fossem alteradas por vários autores, de forma a tentar encontrar a melhor maneira de aplicação. Inclusive, com o advento de celulares e tablets, foram feitas diversas versões em aplicativo da ferramenta. Pouco pode ser encontrado sobre a usabilidade desse método, ainda mais em qual versão é mais apropriado, em termos de usabilidade. Objetivou-se neste artigo realizar uma avaliação de usabilidade da ferramenta REBA em duas diferentes versões para verificar a influência que a usabilidade da ferramenta tem nos seus resultados. Acredita-se que qualquer tipo de ferramenta para uma avaliação ergonômica deve, de forma intrínseca, ser usável, pois sua usabilidade tem influência direta em sua confiabilidade e replicabilidade. Sendo assim, fez-se uma análise comparativa de usabilidade com a ferramenta em versão papel e aplicativos para celular com oito sujeitos para a verificação de tal usabilidade. Encontrou-se melhor usabilidade para o aplicativo, mas confiabilidade equiparada para as duas versões. Assim, constata-se que as duas podem ser igualmente usadas para avaliação REBA.

  10. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-01-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage id dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the sodium

  11. Topology on the spectrum of the algebra of entire symmetric functions of bounded type on the complex $L_\\infty$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Vasylyshyn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the so-called elementary symmetric polynomials $R_n(x = \\int_{[0,1]}(x(t^n\\,dt$ form an algebraic basis in the algebra of all symmetric continuous polynomials on the complex Banach space $L_\\infty,$ which is dense in the Fr\\'{e}chet algebra $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ of all entire symmetric functions of bounded  type on $L_\\infty.$ Consequently, every continuous homomorphism $\\varphi: H_{bs}(L_\\infty \\to \\mathbb{C}$ is uniquely determined by the sequence $\\{\\varphi(R_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty.$ By the continuity of the homomorphism $\\varphi,$ the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\varphi(R_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded. On the other hand, for every sequence $\\{\\xi_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty \\subset \\mathbb{C},$ such that the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\xi_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded,  there exists  $x_\\xi \\in L_\\infty$ such that $R_n(x_\\xi = \\xi_n$ for every $n \\in \\mathbb{N}.$ Therefore, for the point-evaluation functional $\\delta_{x_\\xi}$ we have $\\delta_{x_\\xi}(R_n = \\xi_n$ for every $n \\in \\mathbb{N}.$ Thus, every continuous complex-valued homomorphism of $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ is a point-evaluation functional at some point of $L_\\infty.$ Note that such a point is not unique. We can consider an equivalence relation on $L_\\infty,$ defined by $x\\sim y \\Leftrightarrow \\delta_x = \\delta_y.$ The spectrum (the set of all continuous complex-valued homomorphisms $M_{bs}$ of the algebra $H_{bs}(L_\\infty$ is one-to-one with the quotient set $L_\\infty/_\\sim.$ Consequently, $M_{bs}$ can be endowed with the quotient topology. On the other hand, it is naturally to identify $M_{bs}$ with the set of all sequences $\\{\\xi_n\\}_{n=1}^\\infty \\subset \\mathbb{C}$ such that the sequence $\\{\\sqrt[n]{|\\xi_n|}\\}_{n=1}^\\infty$ is bounded.We show that the quotient topology is Hausdorffand that $M_{bs}$ with the operation of coordinate-wise addition of sequences forms an abelian topological group.

  12. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-07-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage is dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the

  13. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine S.; Pedersen, Anders N.; Persson, Gitte F.; Aarup, Lasse R.; Nystroem, Haakan; Olsen, Mikael; Tarnavski, Nikolai; Specht, Lena (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, The Finsen Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Introduction. With the purpose of implementing gated radiotherapy for lung cancer patients, this study investigated the interfraction variations in tumour size and internal displacement over entire treatment courses. To explore the potential of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) the variations were measured using a set-up strategy based on imaging of bony landmarks and compared to a strategy using in room lasers, skin tattoos and cupper landmarks. Materials and methods. During their six week treatment course of 60Gy in 2Gy fractions, ten patients underwent 3 respiratory gated CT scans. The tumours were contoured on each CT scan to evaluate the variations in volumes and position. The lung tumours and the mediastinal tumours were contoured separately. The positional variations were measured as 3D mobility vectors and correlated to matching of the scans using the two different strategies. Results. The tumour size was significantly reduced from the first to the last CT scan. For the lung tumours the reduction was 19%, p=0.03, and for the mediastinal tumours the reduction was 34%, p=0.0007. The mean 3D mobility vector and the SD for the lung tumours was 0.51cm (+-0.21) for matching using bony landmarks and 0.85cm (+-0.54) for matching using skin tattoos. For the mediastinal tumours the corresponding vectors and SD's were 0.55cm (+-0.19) and 0.72cm (+-0.43). The differences between the vectors were significant for the lung tumours p=0.004. The interfractional overlap of lung tumours was 80-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. Conclusions. Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were dependent on the set-up strategy. Set-up using IGRT was superior to set-up using skin tattoos.

  14. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  15. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine S.; Pedersen, Anders N.; Persson, Gi tte F.; Aarup, Lasse R.; Nystroem, Haakan; Olsen, Mikael; Tarnavski, Nikolai; Sp echt, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. With the purpose of implementing gated radiotherapy for lung cancer patients, this study investigated the interfraction variations in tumour size and internal displacement over entire treatment courses. To explore the potential of image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) the variations were measured using a set-up strategy based on imaging of bony landmarks and compared to a strategy using in room lasers, skin tattoos and cupper landmarks. Materials and methods. During their six week treatment course of 60Gy in 2Gy fractions, ten patients underwent 3 respiratory gated CT scans. The tumours were contoured on each CT scan to evaluate the variations in volumes and position. The lung tumours and the mediastinal tumours were contoured separately. The positional variations were measured as 3D mobility vectors and correlated to matching of the scans using the two different strategies. Results. The tumour size was significantly reduced from the first to the last CT scan. For the lung tumours the reduction was 19%, p=0.03, and for the mediastinal tumours the reduction was 34%, p=0.0007. The mean 3D mobility vector and the SD for the lung tumours was 0.51cm (±0.21) for matching using bony landmarks and 0.85cm (±0.54) for matching using skin tattoos. For the mediastinal tumours the corresponding vectors and SD's were 0.55cm (±0.19) and 0.72cm (±0.43). The differences between the vectors were significant for the lung tumours p=0.004. The interfractional overlap of lung tumours was 80-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. Conclusions. Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were dependent on the set-up strategy. Set-up using IGRT was superior to set-up using skin tattoos

  16. Contribution to the experimental study of wave particle interactions in a plasma having a two-population electronic distribution function; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'interaction ondes-particules dans un plasma presentant une fonction de distribution electronique a deux populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The aim of this work is the experimental study of the interaction between electrostatic waves and electrons in a plasma characterized by a so called 'bump in tail' distribution function. To study experimentally the mechanism of this interaction it is necessary to measure precisely the electron distribution and its evolution in space or in time. This was performed with an electrostatic separation probe which was designed especially. We measured also the evolution in space and time of the noise spectrum. We studied this mechanism in two different regimes of our discharge: - In the first case the distribution function is very close to that describing the interaction of a semi-infinite plasma with a cold beam injected at its edge. We showed that the instability resulting from this interaction is convective and that the growth of the waves results in a very important modification of the distribution function. The ionization due to the electric field related to the waves is also important. This modification is similar to that described by the quasi linear theory. The mechanism described by this theory remains then qualitatively valid in a strongly non linear case. - In the second case the conditions necessary for the quasi linear theory to be valid are satisfactorily fulfilled. It is then possible to measure, simultaneously, and precisely, the evolution of the distribution function and of the noise spectrum. From these measurements one can deduce the mechanism of the energy exchange between waves and particles and show that it is in good agreement with that described by the quasi linear theory. (author) [French] On presente ici l'etude experimentale detaillee du mecanisme de l'echange d'energie entre les oscillations e la frequence plasma des electrons et des electrons energetiques dans un plasma presentant une fonction de distribution du type a 'double bosse'. Pour realiser cette etude on a mis au point, une 'sonde a separation electrostatique' qui permet de mesurer

  17. Action of 50 R X-ray doses on the breeding function of C3H strain mice - effect of splitting the dose, action of repeated irradiations on successive generations; Action de 50 R de rayons X sur la fonction de reproduction des souris de race C3H - influence du fractionnement. Action de la repetition des irradiations au cours des generations successives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    X-rays exposure effect was studied on C3H strain mice, at the standpoint of the effects produced on breeding function. The method used with this purpose was the following: single doses 20 - 30 - 40 and 50 R/dose, fractional doses: 50 R/total dose, divided in 2 - 5 - 10 or 25 irradiations distributed in one month duration. The offsprings were irradiated at the same doses than the parents, consanguinity being maintained. Statistical treatment of results was carried out, that led at the following conclusions: 1) Couples receiving single exposure of 50 R or two exposures of 25 R at one month interval give comparable results. Fractional doses do not involve the slightest diminution of X-rays effect. 2) 30 R exposure brings about a decrease in fertility, with an increase in abortions. Fertility of 20 R irradiated couples remains below controls. 3) After ten times 5 R and twenty-five 2 R, the number of abortions is the largest. Ovarian function is particularly sensitive to X-rays; one may think that twenty-five 2 R give injuries conditioning non-viability of conception products, smaller doses should produce mutations and yield births of altered genotype individuals. (author) [French] L'action d'une exposition aux rayons X de souris de race C3H a ete etudiee du point de vue des effets produits sur la fonction reproductrice. La methode utilisee fut la suivante: doses administrees en irradiation unique: 20 - 30 - 40 et 50 R/seance, en irradiations fractionnees: 50 R au total en 2 - 5 - 10 ou 25 seances reparties en un mois. Les descendants ont ete irradies aux memes doses que leurs parents, en maintenant la consanguinite. Un traitement statistique des resultats a ete effectue dont on a pu conclure : 1) Chez les couples ayant recu une seule exposition de 50 R ou deux expositions de 25 R a intervalle d'un mois les resultats sont comparables. Le fractionnement n' entrainant aucune attenuation de l'action des rayons X. 2) Une exposition de 30 R entraine une baisse de fecondite

  18. Assessment of probabilistic areal reduction factors of precipitations for the entire French territory with gridded rainfall data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchier, Catherine; Maire, Alexis; Arnaud, Patrick; Cantet, Philippe; Odry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The starting point of our study was the availability of maps of rainfall quantiles available for the entire French mainland territory at the spatial resolution of 1 km². These maps display the rainfall amounts estimated for different rainfall durations (from 15 minutes to 72 hours) and different return periods (from 2 years up to 1 000 years). They are provided by a regionalized stochastic hourly point rainfall generator, the SHYREG method which was previously developed by Irstea (Arnaud et al., 2007; Cantet and Arnaud, 2014). Being calibrated independently on numerous raingauges data (with an average density across the country of 1 raingauge per 200 km²), this method suffers from a limitation common to point-process rainfall generators: it can only reproduce point rainfall patterns and has no capacity to generate rainfall fields. It can't hence provide areal rainfall quantiles, the estimation of the latter being however needed for the construction of design rainfall or for the diagnostic of observed events. One means of bridging this gap between our local rainfall quantiles and areal rainfall quantiles is given by the concept of probabilistic areal reduction factors of rainfall (ARF) as defined by Omolayo (1993). This concept enables to estimate areal rainfall of a particular frequency within a certain amount of time from point rainfalls of the same frequency and duration. Assessing such ARF for the whole French territory is of particular interest since it should allow us to compute areal rainfall quantiles, and eventually watershed rainfall quantiles, by using the already available grids of statistical point rainfall of the SHYREG method. Our purpose was then to assess these ARF thanks to long time-series of spatial rainfall data. We have used two sets of rainfall fields: i) hourly rainfall fields from a 10-year reference database of Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) over France (Tabary et al., 2012), ii) daily rainfall fields resulting from a 53-year

  19. Table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{rho}) for A = 1 to 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm); Table des energies des particules chargees en fonction de la rigidite magnetique (B{rho}) pour A = 1 a 7 (100< (B{rho}) < 1200 kG.cm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A table of charged particle energies versus magnetic field strength x orbit radius (B{sub {rho}}) is presented. Particles p, d, t, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++}. Values of B{sub {rho}}: 100 to 1200 kG.cm by steps of 0.5 kG.cm. Values of energies are given in keV. (author) [French] Nous presentons une table des energies de protons, deutons, tritons, {sup 3}He{sup ++}, {sup 4}He{sup +}, {sup 4}He{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +}, {sup 6}Li{sup ++}, {sup 6}Li{sup +++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 7}Li{sup ++}, {sup 7}Li{sup +++} en fonction de leur rigidite magnetique (B{sub {rho}}). Les valeurs de B{sub {rho}} sont comprises entre 100 et 1200 kG.cm par pas de 0.5 kG.cm. Les valeurs des energies sont donnees en keV. (auteur)

  20. L’exercice fédéré des compétences locales. À propos de la fonction de «chef de file» en droit des collectivités territoriales français

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Groulier

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La révision constitutionnelle du 28 mars 2003 a introduit dans le droit des collectivités territoriales un dispositif que l’on pourrait qualifier d’exercice fédéré des compétences locales. Selon l’article 72 alinéa 5 de la Constitution, lorsque l’exercice d’une compétence nécessite le concours de plusieurs collectivités territoriales, la loi peut autoriser l’une d’entre elles ou un de leurs groupements à organiser les modalités de leur action commune, autrement dit à exercer les fonctions de chef de file. À travers cette figure du chef de file, la Constitution semble admettre un principe de superposition entre collectivités territoriales, dérogeant à la règle de l’interdiction des tutelles entre collectivités, liée à leur liberté d’administration. Toutefois, la portée effective de ce nouveau dispositif repose sur sa mise en œuvre législative : or, le législateur fait montre d’une grande réserve, sans doute injustifiée, qui maintient l’idée de superposition entre collectivités à l’état de virtualité.

  1. The study of the distribution of Ca{sup 45} with time in the newborn rat by the autoradiography method at - 195 deg; Etude de la distribution du {sup 45}Ca en fonction du temps chez le rat nouveau-ne par la methode d'autoradiographie a -195 deg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellershohn, C; Pellerin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Ca{sup 45} metabolism has been studied as a function of time by autoradiography at -195 deg. C in the new-born rat after sub-epidermal dorsal injected of 20 micro-curies per animal. This study confirms: 1) The existence of a rapidly exchangeable calcium bone fraction; 2) A considerable intestinal excretion of radio-calcium, much greater than the urinary elimination; 3) A gradual transfer of the activity for the long bones of the epiphyseal to the diaphyseal regions during growth, together with secondary modifications during ossification. (author) [French] Le metabolisme du {sup 45}Ca est etudie en fonction du temps par autoradiographie a -195 deg. C, chez le rat nouveau-ne apres injection sous-epidermique dorsale de 20 microcuries par animal. Cette etude confirme: 1) l'existence d'une fraction calcique osseuse rapidement echangeable; 2) une excretion intestinale considerable du radiocalcium, tres superieure a l'elimination urinaire; 3) un transfert progressif de l'activite pour les os longs des regions epiphysaires aux regions diaphysaires au cours de la croissance, ainsi que les remaniements secondaires au cours de l'ossification. (auteur)

  2. Studies on the Utilization, Metabolism and Function of Sterols in the House-Fly, Musca Domestica; Utilisation. Metabolisme et fonctions des sterols chez la mouche domestique (Musca Domestica); Izuchenie usvoeniya, metabolizma i funktsii sterinov v organizme domashnej mukhi Musca Domestica; Estudios sobre la asimilacion, el metabolismo y la funcion de los esteroles in la mosca comun (Musca Domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, W. E. [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Entomology Research Division, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1963-09-15

    Insects generally have been found to require a dietary source of sterol for normal larval growth and metamorphosis. Our work has pointed to two additional physiological roles for sterols in the housefly, Musca domestica L.: (1) A dietary source of sterol is essential for sustained viable egg production in the female fly; on a sterol-deficient diet eggs are produced but hatch and viability are low. (2) Cholesterol is also involved in the mobilization and utilization of nutrient reserves associated with the initiation of ovarian maturation in the female fly. The quantitative sterol requirements for the above physiological processes and the metabolic conversions that occur during growth, metamorphosis and reproduction have been studied in this insect, using C{sup 14}- and H{sup 3}-labelled sterols in conjunction with a variety of analytical tools, including reverse isotope dilution, gasliquid chromatography and spectroscopy, and employing aseptic rearing techniques and semi-defined larval and Adult diets. Both C{sup 14}-cholesterol and H{sup 3}-{beta}- sitosterol have been used as a source df sterol in either the larval or the adult diet of the house fly, and the pattern of utilization and metabolism was found to be almost identical for these two sterols. However, there was no detectable conversion of {beta}-sitosterol to cholesterol. Sub-minimal quantities of cholesterol have also been used in the larval diet in combination with ''sparing sterols'' such as choies tanol, which will fulfill in part but not entirely the sterol requirement of this insect. The utilization and fate of the 'sparing sterol' has been investigated using C{sup 14} cholestanol, and the metabolism of the minute quantity of essential cholesterol is currently under study using high-specific-activity C{sup 14} cholesterol. - Other species of insects, including the German cockroach (Blattella germanica), have been examined in relation to the patterns of utilization and the metabolic pathways for

  3. Clinical application of entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films in patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Ming-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Dan; Tao, Zheng-Gui; Liao, Xiao-Feng

    2013-01-01

    To report and evaluate the application of entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films in the diagnosis of patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B (IND type B). Thirty-six patients with symptoms of long-standing constipation were enrolled in this study. The study took place at the Department of General Surgery, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei Province, China from July 2007 to October 2012. All of them had already been subjected to the tests of barium enema and anorectal manometry and were suspected to be IND type B, but were not confirmed by mucous membrane acetylcholinesterase determination. All underwent the entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films. The data was collected and then analyzed retrospectively. After entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films, 30 out of 36 cases in this group were diagnosed with intestinal neuronal diseases, and then were treated with appropriate surgical treatment. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was IND type B. The other 6 patients in this group still could not be diagnosed explicitly after the test; thus, we treated them with conservative treatment. Entire gastrointestinal barium meal combined with multi-temporal abdominal films has the advantage of being able to test the gastrointestinal transfer capabilities and to find physiological and pathological changes simultaneously. It could provide important proof for the diagnosis of patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B.

  4. Study of elementary mechanisms of creep in uranium as a function of temperature (150 deg. to 760 deg. C) by activation energy measurements; Etude des mecanismes elementaires de deformation par fluage de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature (de 150 deg. a 760 deg. C) par la mesure des energies d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    determination de l'energie d'activation pour le fluage et l'etude de ses variations en fonction de la temperature ont permis de definir differents domaines de temperature pour lesquels un ou plusieurs mecanismes elementaires controlent la deformation. Les observations micrographiques effectuees directement apres fluage et l'etude des variations de la vitesse de fluage en fonction de la charge appliquee confirment les hypotheses prononcees. Au-dessous de 325 deg. C, le comportement au fluage des monocristaux et des polycristaux est identique. De 325 deg. C a une limite superieure de temperature dependant de l'etat structural du metal et de son degre de purete, la deformation par fluage de l'uranium est controlee par un glissement devie. De ces limites de temperature a 520 deg. C, le fluage de l'uranium fait intervenir deux mecanismes simultanes et independants, le deplacement des dislocations-vis par un systeme de glissement devie et la montee d'une partie des dislocations-coins hors de leur plan de glissement. Au-dessus de 520 deg. C jusqu'au haut de la phase {alpha}, le fluage des polycristaux est controle par la montee des dislocations-coins hors de leur plan de glissement, suivant un mecanisme d'empilement dans le cas du fluage primaire et d'annihilation de dipoles dans le cas du fluage secondaire. Pour les monocristaux, le fluage depend de la montee des dislocations-coins dans les sous-joints preexistant au fluage et de leur rearrangement ulterieur au sein de ces sous-joints. En phase {beta}, le fluage des polycristaux est controle par la montee des dislocations-coins par diffusion. Entre 450 et 630 deg. C, l'addition de faibles teneurs de molybdene a l'uranium modifie les caracteristiques du fluage, tout en conservant des mecanismes de deformation analogue a ceux de l'uranium non allie. (auteur)

  5. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  6. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  7. Le «blues de la canne et du coton» : étude comparative des fonctions socioculturelles du gwo-ka et du blues The “blues of the cane and cotton”: a comparative study of social and cultural functions of the gwo-ka and the blues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Gadet

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available L’article s’intéresse à l’interculturalité entre deux phénomènes culturels que sont le Gwo-ka et le Blues issus de la diaspora africaine aux Amériques. Le Gwo-ka est une expression culturelle née en Guadeloupe, île française située dans la mer des Caraïbes. Le Blues est également une expression culturelle née dans le Sud des États-Unis. À partir de l’analyse de leur « matrice » sociohistorique, il s’agira de mettre en évidence les rapprochements entre les différentes fonctions socioculturelles. Nous tenterons de comprendre si la théorie de l’Atlantique Noir de Paul Gilroy, reliant les communautés afro-diasporiques du Nouveau Monde, est valable dans le cadre de notre sujet d’étude.The article deals with the intercultural exchanges between two cultural movements rooted in the African Diasporas. In Guadeloupe, a French island in the Caribbean, Gwo-ka was born on the plantation in the 17th century. Blues appeared in the southern United-States by the end of the 19th century. In order to illustrate the similarities between these two afro-diasporic cultural phenomena, the article first examines the economic and social factors that prompted their emergence. Second, it compares their socio-cultural functions within their respective communities. Using Paul Gilroy’s theory of the Black Atlantic, the article concludes with a questioning of his thesis within the framework of the present study.

  8. Heating of leads casks. An analytical solution to the heat equation made up of a series of Laguerre functions; Echauffement des chateaux de plomb. Une solution analytique a l'equation de la chaleur constituee par une serie de fonctions de Laguerre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formery, Ph; Gilles, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Productions, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The packing used for the transport of highly radioactive materials such as in-pile irradiated rods; have to comply to fairly strict safety standards. They should in particular resist to fire without the radioactive protection being seriously affected. The heating of a transport cask placed in a fire has been calculated by normal automatic computation methods assuming that only thermal radiation is responsible for the heating and that this obeys STEFAN'S law. Simultaneously, a purely analytical treatment has been attempted as follows. The existence of a simple solution, of the Laguerre function type, to the heat equation has been demonstrated. By superposing an infinite number of simple solutions, it is possible to produce a fairly general solution, depending on parameters, which satisfies the initial state and the limiting conditions. The parameters can be adjusted so that the temperature and the flux produced on the shell by this solution satisfy approximately STEFAN'S relationship. (authors) [French] Les emballages qui servent au transport de produits fortement radioactifs, tels que des barreaux irradies dans les piles, doivent satisfaire a des normes de securite assez strictes. Ils doivent, en particulier, resister au feu sans que la protection contre le rayonnement soit sensiblement entamee. L'echauffement, par seul rayonnement thermique suppose obeir a la loi de STEFAN, d'un chateau de transport plonge dans un feu a ete calcule par les methodes habituelles du calcul automatique. Parallelement a ete tentee l'approche purement analytique que voici: Une solution simple, du type fonction de LAGUERRE, a l'equation de la chaleur est mise en evidence. La superposition, en nombre infini, de solutions simples, permet de fabriquer une solution assez generale dependant de parametres, satisfaisant a l'etat initial et aux conditions aux limites. Les parametres peuvent etre ajustes de facon que la temperature et le flux engendres sur la coque par cette solution

  9. The Let Distribution of Dose in Some Tissue Cylinders; Repartition de la Dose en Fonction du TLE dans Quelques Modeles Cylindriques de Tissus; Raspredelenie linejnoj peredachi ehnergii dozy v nekotorykh tkanevykh tsilindrakh; Distribucion de la Dosis en Funcion de la TLE en Algunos Modelos Cilindricos de Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, W. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1964-03-15

    When neutrons irradiate a tissue phantom, the recoil nuclei that are produced have a continuous spectrum of energies. Even in the case of monoenergetic neutrons, there will be continuous distributions of energy for the various recoil nuclei and, hence, also a-continuous distribution of dose with respect to LET. Using a Monte-Carlo-type programme for the Controlled Data 1604 Computer, the LET spectrum of dose from monoenergetic beams of neutrons has been computed for tissue cylinders simulating a mouse, rat, guinea pig, dog, and man. Tissue was considered to consist of H, C, N, and O, in the proportions given for standard man. The H cross-sections used followed BNL-325 closely, and the cross-sections for O, N, and C were taken from NDA 2111-3, Vol. A; ORNL-2389; and NDA 12-16, respectively. The case of a phantom irradiated by the modified fission spectrum used by Neary is computed also. The LET distributions so obtained are used, together with values of RBE recommended by ICRP, to provide some interpretation of biological effects of neutron irradiation. These distributions are compared with data on biological effects of neutrons from some experiments and support, at least in part, some of the prevalent ideas concerning the dependence of RBE on LET, e.g. presence of repair and oxygen effect primarily with dose in low ranges of LET. Although these interpretations must be considered as preliminary, these LET distributions provide a basis for further experimental tests of the relation of RBE and LET. (author) [French] Lorsqu'un modele de tissu est expose aux neutrons, les noyaux de recul qui se produisent ont un spectre continu d'energies. Meme s'il s'agit de neutrons monoenergetiques, la repartition de l'energie des differents noyaux de recul sera continue, de sorte que la repartition de la dose en fonction du TLE le sera egalement. Avec une calculatrice 'Controlled Data 1604' , programmee a l'aide d'une methode de Monte-Carlo, on a calcule, en fonction du TLE, le

  10. La fonction logistique, un outil performant d'analyse et de prévision à moyen terme. Application à la production de pétrole et de gaz aux Etats-Unis, en URSS et dans d'autres pays The Logistic Function, an Efficient Medium-Range Analysis and Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seguret J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la similitude observée entre l'évolution de la production pétrolière d'un pays et celle de la pénétration d'un produit dans un marché (fonction logistique, l'auteur expose le principe d'une méthode originale qui permet, sous certaines conditions, de prévoir quelle sera la production annuelle probable d'un pays producteur à un horizon de 10 à 15 ans. La validité de cette méthode est d'abord démontrée sur l'exemple de la production pétrolière aux Etats-Unis. Elle est ensuite illustrée par les résultats obtenus pour un certain nombre de pays : production future de gaz aux Etats-Unis, production pétrolière future du Canada, de l'URSS, du Venezuela et de l'ensemble du monde hors Moyen-Orient. On the basis of the similarity observed between the variation in the petroleum production of a country and that of the penetration of a product into the market (logistic function, this article describes the principle of an original method that can be used, under certain conditions, to forecast the probable annual production of a producing country in 10 to 15 years. The validity of this method is first demonstrated for the example of oil production in the United States. It is then illustrated by results obtained for various other countries, i. e. future gas production in the United States, future oil production of Canada, the Soviet Union, Venezuela and the world as a whole outside of the Middle East.

  11. Instability of isochromosome 4p in a child with pure trisomy 4p syndrome features and entire 4q-arm translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pota, Pruthvi; Grammatopoulou, Vasiliki; Torti, Erin; Braddock, Stephen; Batanian, Jacqueline R

    2014-01-01

    Constitutional chromosome instability so far has mainly been associated with ring formation. In addition, isochromosome formation involving the short arm with translocation of the entire long arm is rarely observed. This type of rearrangement has been reported for chromosomes 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 20. Here, we present the third patient having an isochromosome 4p with 4q translocation, but showing for the first time chromosome instability detected by FISH following chromosome microarray analysis.

  12. Entire plastid phylogeny of the carrot genus (Daucus, Apiaceae): Concordance with nuclear data and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertions to the plastid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, David M; Ruess, Holly; Iorizzo, Massimo; Senalik, Douglas; Simon, Philipp

    2017-02-01

    We explored the phylogenetic utility of entire plastid DNA sequences in Daucus and compared the results with prior phylogenetic results using plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. We used Illumina sequencing to obtain full plastid sequences of 37 accessions of 20 Daucus taxa and outgroups, analyzed the data with phylogenetic methods, and examined evidence for mitochondrial DNA transfer to the plastid ( Dc MP). Our phylogenetic trees of the entire data set were highly resolved, with 100% bootstrap support for most of the external and many of the internal clades, except for the clade of D. carota and its most closely related species D. syrticus . Subsets of the data, including regions traditionally used as phylogenetically informative regions, provide various degrees of soft congruence with the entire data set. There are areas of hard incongruence, however, with phylogenies using nuclear data. We extended knowledge of a mitochondrial to plastid DNA insertion sequence previously named Dc MP and identified the first instance in flowering plants of a sequence of potential nuclear genome origin inserted into the plastid genome. There is a relationship of inverted repeat junction classes and repeat DNA to phylogeny, but no such relationship with nonsynonymous mutations. Our data have allowed us to (1) produce a well-resolved plastid phylogeny of Daucus , (2) evaluate subsets of the entire plastid data for phylogeny, (3) examine evidence for plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenetic incongruence, and (4) examine mitochondrial and nuclear DNA insertion into the plastid. © 2017 Spooner et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  13. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Celine [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Ronot, Maxime; Van Beers, Bernard; Vilgrain, Valerie [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Belghiti, Jacques [Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [Pathology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. (orig.)

  14. A collaborative design method to support integrated care. An ICT development method containing continuous user validation improves the entire care process and the individual work situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Isabella; Hägglund, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrated care involves different professionals, belonging to different care provider organizations and requires immediate and ubiquitous access to patient-oriented information, supporting an integrated view on the care process [1]. Purpose To present a method for development of usable and work process-oriented information and communication technology (ICT) systems for integrated care. Theory and method Based on Human-computer Interaction Science and in particular Participatory Design [2], we present a new collaborative design method in the context of health information systems (HIS) development [3]. This method implies a thorough analysis of the entire interdisciplinary cooperative work and a transformation of the results into technical specifications, via user validated scenarios, prototypes and use cases, ultimately leading to the development of appropriate ICT for the variety of occurring work situations for different user groups, or professions, in integrated care. Results and conclusions Application of the method in homecare of the elderly resulted in an HIS that was well adapted to the intended user groups. Conducted in multi-disciplinary seminars, the method captured and validated user needs and system requirements for different professionals, work situations, and environments not only for current work; it also aimed to improve collaboration in future (ICT supported) work processes. A holistic view of the entire care process was obtained and supported through different views of the HIS for different user groups, resulting in improved work in the entire care process as well as for each collaborating profession [4].

  15. The verification of the Taylor-expansion moment method for the nanoparticle coagulation in the entire size regime due to Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingzhou; Lin Jianzhong; Jin Hanhui; Jiang Ying

    2011-01-01

    The closure of moment equations for nanoparticle coagulation due to Brownian motion in the entire size regime is performed using a newly proposed method of moments. The equations in the free molecular size regime and the continuum plus near-continuum regime are derived separately in which the fractal moments are approximated by three-order Taylor-expansion series. The moment equations for coagulation in the entire size regime are achieved by the harmonic mean solution and the Dahneke’s solution. The results produced by the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), the Pratsinis’s log-normal moment method (PMM), the sectional method (SM), and the newly derived Taylor-expansion moment method (TEMOM) are presented and compared in accuracy and efficiency. The TEMOM method with Dahneke’s solution produces the most accurate results with a high efficiency than other existing moment models in the entire size regime, and thus it is recommended to be used in the following studies on nanoparticle dynamics due to Brownian motion.

  16. Supercontinuum generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Jia, S. J.; Wang, F.; Wang, S. B.; Zhao, Z. P.; Liao, M. S.; Qin, G. S.; Hu, L. L.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    Enormous efforts have been made to realize supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the entire transmission window of fiber materials for their wide applications in many fields. Here we demonstrate ultra-broadband SC generation from 400 to 5140 nm in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture (NA) all-solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1560 nm mode-locked fiber laser. The fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3- and TeO2-modified fluoroaluminate glasses, respectively, which have large refractive index contrast and similar thermal expansion coefficients and softening temperatures. The NA at 3200 nm of the fluorotellurite fiber is about 1.11. Furthermore, tapered fluorotellurite fibers are prepared using an elongation machine. SC generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window is achieved in a tapered fluorotellurite fiber for a pumping peak power of ~10.5 kW through synergetic control of dispersion, nonlinearity, confinement loss and other unexpected effects (e.g. the attachment of dust or water to the surface of the fiber core) of the fiber. Our results show that tapered ultra-high NA all-solid soft glass fibers have a potential for generating SC light covering their entire transmission window.

  17. Moderation of Neutrons Emitted by a Pulsed Source and Neutron Spectrometry Based on Slowing-Down Time; Ralentissement des Neutrons Emis par une Source Pulsee et Leur Spectrometrie en Fonction du Temps de Ralentissement; Zamedlenie nejtronov, ispuskaemykh impul'snym istochnikom, i spektrometriya nejtronov po vremeni zamedleniya; Moderacion de Neutrones Emitidos por una Pitente Pulsada y Espectrometria Neutronica Basada en el Tiempo de Frenado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, A. A.; Isakov, A. I.; Kazarnovskij, M. V.; Popov, Ju. P.; Shapiro, F. L. [Fizicheskij Institut Im. P.N. Lebedeva AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-08-15

    -sections. Measurements carried out on a large number of substances, including separated isotopes, have led to the discovery of hitherto unknown resonance levels with small neutron widths and have made it possible to determine for many nuclei the magnitude of the force function for the capture of neutrons with orbital angular momentum 1 = 1. (author) [French] A l'Institut de physique P. N. Lebedev de l'Academie des sciences de l'URSS, on a procede, au cours de ces six dernieres annees, a une serie de travaux visant a etudier le ralentissement non stationnaire des neutrons dans les milieux lourds, a elaborer une methode de spectro- metrie des neutrons en fonction du temps de ralentissement et a appliquer cette methode a l'etude de l'influence que l'energie exerce sur les sections efficaces des reactions nuceaires provoquees par des neutrons d'une energie de 30 keV ou moins. Les auteurs donnent un apercu de ces recherches et en analysent les resultats. Apres avoir examine brievement la theorie du ralentissement non stationnaire et de la thermalisation des neutrons, ils indiquent les donnees fournies par une etude experimentale du ralentissement des neutrons dans le graphite, le fer et le plomb et par l'etude de leur thermalisation dans le plomb. En utilisant une source de neutrons puisee et des detecteurs a resonance, ils ont mesure la distribution des temps de ralentissement pour une serie de valeurs determinees de l'energie finale des neutrons. Ils comparent les resultats obtenus a la theorie qui tient compte du mouvement thermique des atomes du ralentisseur, lequel provoque, dans le cas du plomb, une dispersion mesurable des temps de ralentissement pour des energies inferieures a 10 eV. Dans le domaine d'energies inferieures au seuil cadmium, on a mesure l'influence du temps de ralentissement sur la vitesse moyenne des neutrons dans le plomb; une comparaison a ete faite avec la theorie a plusieurs groupes. Les auteurs decrivent la methode employee pour determiner, selon le temps de

  18. Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires exhibiting photoactivity across entire UV-visible region for photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ying-Chih; Wang, Gongming; Chang, Kao-Der; Ling, Yichuan; Lin, Yin-Kai; Fitzmorris, Bob C; Liu, Chia-Ming; Lu, Xihong; Tong, Yexiang; Zhang, Jin Z; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Li, Yat

    2013-08-14

    Here we demonstrate that the photoactivity of Au-decorated TiO2 electrodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation can be effectively enhanced in the entire UV-visible region from 300 to 800 nm by manipulating the shape of the decorated Au nanostructures. The samples were prepared by carefully depositing Au nanoparticles (NPs), Au nanorods (NRs), and a mixture of Au NPs and NRs on the surface of TiO2 nanowire arrays. As compared with bare TiO2, Au NP-decorated TiO2 nanowire electrodes exhibited significantly enhanced photoactivity in both the UV and visible regions. For Au NR-decorated TiO2 electrodes, the photoactivity enhancement was, however, observed in the visible region only, with the largest photocurrent generation achieved at 710 nm. Significantly, TiO2 nanowires deposited with a mixture of Au NPs and NRs showed enhanced photoactivity in the entire UV-visible region. Monochromatic incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency measurements indicated that excitation of surface plasmon resonance of Au is responsible for the enhanced photoactivity of Au nanostructure-decorated TiO2 nanowires. Photovoltage experiment showed that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was attributable to the effective surface passivation of Au NPs. Furthermore, 3D finite-difference time domain simulation was performed to investigate the electrical field amplification at the interface between Au nanostructures and TiO2 upon SPR excitation. The results suggested that the enhanced photoactivity of Au NP-decorated TiO2 in the UV region was partially due to the increased optical absorption of TiO2 associated with SPR electrical field amplification. The current study could provide a new paradigm for designing plasmonic metal/semiconductor composite systems to effectively harvest the entire UV-visible light for solar fuel production.

  19. Reliability of Entire Corneal Thickness Mapping in Normal Post-Laser in situ Keratomileusis and Keratoconus Eyes Using Long Scan Depth Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Chen, Sisi; Yang, Chun; Huang, Shenghai; Shen, Meixiao; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of mapping the entire corneal thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty normal eyes, 30 post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery eyes, and 30 keratoconus eyes were analyzed. A custom-built long scan depth SD-OCT device was used to obtain entire corneal images. Ten-millimeter-diameter corneal thickness maps were generated by an automated segmentation algorithm. Intraclass correlation coefficients of repeatability (ICC1) and reproducibility (ICC2), and coefficients of repeatability (CoR1) and reproducibility (CoR2), were calculated to quantify the precision and accuracy of corneal pachymetry measurements using the Bland-Altman method. For SD-OCT measurements in healthy subjects, CoR1 and CoR2 were less than 5.00 and 5.53 μm. ICC1 and ICC2 were more than 0.997 and 0.996. For SD-OCT measurements in LASIK patients, CoR1 and CoR2 were less than 5.09 and 5.34 μm. ICC1 and ICC2 were more than 0.997 and 0.996. For SD-OCT measurements in keratoconus patients, CoR1 and CoR2 were less than 11.57 and 10.92 μm. ICC1 and ICC2 were more than 0.995 and 0.996. The measurements of corneal pachymetric mapping by long scan depth SD-OCT can be assessed over the entire corneal area with good repeatability and reproducibility. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbachev, D V; Ivanov, V I

    2015-01-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles

  1. Distribution saisonnière du phytoplancton en fonction des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    25 avr. 2013 ... caractéristiques physico-chimiques du lac de Zowla ..... Figure 2 : Plan factoriel F1xF2 des variables en Août 2009 (en haut) et en Février 2010 (en bas). ..... Tesis. (Biólogo Marino), Facultad de Biología Marina,. Universidad ...

  2. LA FONCTION DE DEMANDE DE MONNAIE EN ALGERIE (1964 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 The inventory theory of demand for money. 3 The optimum ... stability of money demand in China: Evidence from the ARDL model, Economic. Systems ..... 4.13. 6.93. Optimal number of lags ( up to 10 lags. AIC: 8. FPE: 8. HQC: 8. SC: 8. Sample range: [1972, 2009], T = 38. Dimension of the process: 4. Intercept included.

  3. "Analyzing the Longitudinal K-12 Grading Histories of Entire Cohorts of Students: Grades, Data Driven Decision Making, Dropping out and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex J. Bowers

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available School personnel currently lack an effective method to pattern and visually interpret disaggregated achievement data collected on students as a means to help inform decision making. This study, through the examination of longitudinal K-12 teacher assigned grading histories for entire cohorts of students from a school district (n=188, demonstrates a novel application of hierarchical cluster analysis and pattern visualization in which all data points collected on every student in a cohort can be patterned, visualized and interpreted to aid in data driven decision making by teachers and administrators. Additionally, as a proof-of-concept study, overall schooling outcomes, such as student dropout or taking a college entrance exam, are identified from the data patterns and compared to past methods of dropout identification as one example of the usefulness of the method. Hierarchical cluster analysis correctly identified over 80% of the students who dropped out using the entire student grade history patterns from either K-12 or K-8.

  4. The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion; La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudies en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion. For a fermions system, it is possible to show, by proper resummation, without approximations but under some 'regularity hypothesis', that Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) takes a form where, besides trivial dependences, {alpha} and {beta} only appear through a statistical factor F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} is a (real) self-consistent potential, generalized to all orders and can be defined by a stationary condition on Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) under variations of F{sub k}{sup -}. The thermodynamical quantities take a form analogous to the expressions Landau introduced for the Fermi liquids. The zero temperature limit (for isotropic systems) gives back Goldstone expressions for the ground state of a system. (author) [French] La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudiee en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations. Pour un systeme de fermions on peut, par des resommations adequates, sans approximations mais sous reserve d'une 'hypothese de regularite', mettre Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) sous une forme ou, en dehors de dependances triviales, {alpha} et {beta} n'interviennent que par l'intermediaire d'un facteur statistique F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} est ici un potentiel self-consistant (reel) generalise a tous les ordres et peut etre defini par une condition de stationnarite de Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) pour des variations de F{sub k}{sup -}. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques prennent une forme analogue aux expressions que LANDAU a introduites pour les liquides de FERMI. A la limite de la temperature nulle (et pour un

  5. The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion; La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudies en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion. For a fermions system, it is possible to show, by proper resummation, without approximations but under some 'regularity hypothesis', that Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) takes a form where, besides trivial dependences, {alpha} and {beta} only appear through a statistical factor F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} is a (real) self-consistent potential, generalized to all orders and can be defined by a stationary condition on Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) under variations of F{sub k}{sup -}. The thermodynamical quantities take a form analogous to the expressions Landau introduced for the Fermi liquids. The zero temperature limit (for isotropic systems) gives back Goldstone expressions for the ground state of a system. (author) [French] La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudiee en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations. Pour un systeme de fermions on peut, par des resommations adequates, sans approximations mais sous reserve d'une 'hypothese de regularite', mettre Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) sous une forme ou, en dehors de dependances triviales, {alpha} et {beta} n'interviennent que par l'intermediaire d'un facteur statistique F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} est ici un potentiel self-consistant (reel) generalise a tous les ordres et peut etre defini par une condition de stationnarite de Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) pour des variations de F{sub k}{sup -}. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques prennent une forme analogue aux expressions que LANDAU a introduites pour les liquides de FERMI. A la limite de la temperature nulle (et pour un systeme isotrope) on retrouve terme a terme les

  6. 20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    20 fevrier 2012 - Le Vice-Président du Gouvernement Wallon et Ministre du Développement durable et de la Fonction Publique en charge de l’Energie du Logement et de la Recherche J.-M. Nollet, Royaume de Belgique, visite la salle de contrôle de CMS au Point 5, la caverne expérimentale CMS et le hall de tests des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC. Les chefs de département T. Lagrange et F. Hemmer accompagnent la délégation. L. Walckiers guide la visite SM18.

  7. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    . Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  8. Regularities in the Changes of Absorber Material Properties as a Function of Absorber Concentration; Regularite des Variations des Proprietes des Substances Absorbantes en Fonction de la Concentration de l'Absorbant; Zakonomernosti izmeneniya svojstv poglashchayushchikh materialov v zavisimosti ot kontsentratsii poglotitelya; Leyes de Variacion de las Propiedades de los Materiales Absorbentes en Funcion de la Concentracion del Absorbente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portnoj, K. I.

    1964-06-15

    The paper presents regularities of the change in mechanical and heat-physical properties as well as in absorption capability as a function of absorber concentration for thermal and intermediate reactors. The thermal conductivity and the thermal expansion coefficient of absorber alloys containing boron and rare-earth element oxides is reduced with an increase of absorber concentration. Alloys with rare-earth element oxides have a linear law of the thermal expansion coefficient change, while for boron containing alloys this additive law of changes of properties is disturbed. This is caused by formation under high temperatures of boride phases with various crystal lattices. It is shown in the paper that absorption capability, being a function of absorber concentration, is changed along a curve with saturation and depends on the neutron spectrum. A hypothesis of the author on formation of absorption capability maximum under mutual alloying of absorbers is set forth. The hypothesis has got a wide experimental confirmation on a large number of metal and non-metal absorber system compositions in thermal and intermediate reactors. (author) [French] Le memoire expose la regularite des variations des proprietes mecaniques et thermiques ainsi que du pouvoir absorbant en fonction de la concentration de l'absorbant dans les reacteurs a neutrons thermiques et intermediaires. La conductibilite thermique et le coefficient de dilatation thermique des combinaisons absorbantes contenant du bore et des oxydes de terres rares diminuent a mesure qu'augmente la concentration de l'absorbant. Pour les combinaisons qui contiennent des oxydes de terres rares, la variation du coefficient de dilatation thermique est regie par une loi lineaire. Dans le cas des combinaisons contenant du bore, cette loi de variation des proprietes n'est pas rigoureusement applicable, du fait de la formation, a haute temperature, de phases 'borare' avec divers reseaux cristallins. Le memoire demontre que le

  9. A DNA fragment from Xq21 replaces a deleted region containing the entire FVIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murru, S.; Casula, L.; Moi, P. [Insituto di Clinica e Biologia dell` Eta Evolutiva, Cagliari (Italy)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    In this paper the authors report the molecular characterization of a large deletion that removes the entire Factor VIII gene in a severe hemophilia A patient. Accurate DNA analysis of the breakpoint region revealed that a large DNA fragment replaced the 300-kb one, which was removed by the deletion. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the size of the inserted fragment is about 550 kb. In situ hybridization demonstrated that part of the inserted region normally maps to Xq21 and to the tip of the short arm of the Y chromosome (Yp). In this patient this locus is present both in Xq21 and in Xq28, in addition to the Yp, being thus duplicated in the X chromosome. Sequence analysis of the 3` breakpoint suggested that an illegitimate recombination is probably the cause of this complex rearrangement. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  10. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  11. Environmental impact data for fuels. Part 1: Main report. Resource consumption and emissions from the entire life cycle (New revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppenberg, S.; Almemark, M.; Brandel, M.; Lindfors, L.G.; Marcus, H.O.; Stripple, H.; Wachtmeister, A.; Zetterberg, L.

    2001-05-01

    This report is a compilation of data concerning environmental impacts from the utilization of different fuels. The entire life cycle is studied, from the extraction of raw materials to combustion. The fuels under study are gasoline, gasoline with MTBE, diesel, fuel oil, LPG, coal, natural gas, peat, refuse, ethanol, RME, DME, methane and wood fuels (forestry residues, Salix, pellets/briquettes). Utilization areas studied are heating plants, cogeneration plants, power plants, domestic boilers, and light and heavy vehicles. In this new edition, the following changes were made: New life cycle analyses have been included, a few new fuels added, electricity from hydroelectric plants, wind power plants and nuclear power plants have been included and some other minor changes

  12. Homogenized approach for the non linear dynamic analysis of entire masonry buildings by means of rigid plate elements and damaging interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolesi, Elisa; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to the analysis of entire 3D masonry structures adopting a Rigid Body and Spring-Mass (HRBSM) model. A series of non linear static and dynamic analyses are conducted with respect to two structures with technical relevance. The elementary cell is discretized by means of three-noded plane stress elements and non-linear interfaces. At a structural level, the non-linear analyses are performed replacing the homogenized orthotropic continuum with a rigid element and non-linear spring assemblage (RBSM) by means of which both in and out of plane mechanisms are allowed. In order to validate the proposed model for the analyses of full scale structures subjected to seismic actions, two different examples are critically discussed, namely a church façade and an in-scale masonry building, both subjected to dynamic excitation. The results obtained are compared with experimental or numerical results available in literature.

  13. Chromosomal insertion of the entire Escherichia coli lactose operon, into two strains of Pseudomonas, using a modified mini-Tn5 delivery system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Sørensen, S. J.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1997-01-01

    A 12-kb PstI fragment including the entire E. coli lactose operon (lacIPOZYA) was inserted in one copy into the chromosome of Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and an E. coli strain with lac(-) phenotype. This was made possible by improvements of an already existing mini-Tn5 transposon...... flanked by NotI sites needed in the mini-Tn5 delivery system; (b) the generation of E. coli nonlysogenic strains expressing the pi protein thus being capable of maintaining and delivering R6K-based mini-Tn5 vectors to other E. coli strains; (c) the successful insertion of the E. coli lactose operon...... into the P. fluorescens chromosome giving P. fluorescens the ability to grow on lactose; (d) evidence from Southern blotting that contradicts the assumption that the mini-Tn5 delivery system always creates one-copy inserts. These improvements allow insertion of large DNA fragments encoding highly expressed...

  14. A Microdeletion of Chromosome 9q33.3 Encompasses the Entire LMX1B Gene in a Chinese Family with Nail Patella Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nail patella syndrome (NPS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by nail malformations, patellar apoplasia, or patellar hypoplasia. Mutations within the LMX1B gene are found in 85% of families with NPS; thus, this gene has been characterized as the causative gene of NPS. In this study, we identified a heterozygous microdeletion of the entire LMX1B gene using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA in a Chinese family with NPS. The determination of the deletion breakpoints by Illumina genome-wide DNA analysis beadchip showed that the deletion was located in chromosome 9q33.3 and spanned about 0.66 Mb in size. This heterozygous deletion provides strong evidence for haploinsufficiency as the pathogenic mechanism of NPS.

  15. Expanding the Annual Irrigation Maps (AIM) Product to the entire High Plains Aquifer (HPA): Addressing the Challenges of Cotton and Deficit-Irrigated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. R.; Deines, J. M.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    The High Plains Aquifer (HPA) is the most extensively irrigated aquifer in the continental United States and is the largest major aquifer in North America with an area of 500,000 km2. Increased demand for agricultural products has led to expanded irrigation extent, but brought with it declining groundwater levels that have made irrigation unsustainable in some locations. Understanding these irrigation dynamics and mapping irrigated areas through time are essential for future sustainable agricultural practices and hydrological modeling. Map products using remote sensing have only recently been able to track annual dynamics at relatively high spatial resolution (30 m) for a large portion of the northern HPA. However follow-on efforts to expand these maps to the entire HPA have met with difficulty due to the challenge of distinguishing irrigation in crop types that are commonly deficit- or partially-irrigated. Expanding these maps to the full HPA requires addressing unique features of partially irrigated fields and irrigated cotton, a major water user in the southern HPA. Working in Google Earth Engine, we used all available Landsat imagery to generate annual time series of vegetation indices. We combined this information with climate covariables, planting dates, and crop specific training data to algorithmically separate fully irrigated, partially irrigated, and non-irrigated field locations. The classification scheme was then applied to produce annual maps of irrigation across the entire HPA. The extensive use of ancillary data and the "greenness" time series for the algorithmic classification generally increased accuracy relative to previous efforts. High-accuracy, representative map products of irrigation extent capable of detecting crop type and irrigation intensity within aquifers will be an essential tool to monitor the sustainability of global aquifers and to provide a scientific bases for political and economic decisions affecting those aquifers.

  16. Genomic copy number analysis of a spectrum of blue nevi identifies recurrent aberrations of entire chromosomal arms in melanoma ex blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, May P; Andea, Aleodor A; Harms, Paul W; Durham, Alison B; Patel, Rajiv M; Wang, Min; Robichaud, Patrick; Fisher, Gary J; Johnson, Timothy M; Fullen, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Blue nevi may display significant atypia or undergo malignant transformation. Morphologic diagnosis of this spectrum of lesions is notoriously difficult, and molecular tools are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy. We studied copy number aberrations in a cohort of cellular blue nevi, atypical cellular blue nevi, and melanomas ex blue nevi using Affymetrix's OncoScan platform. Cases with sufficient DNA were analyzed for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS mutations. Copy number aberrations were detected in 0 of 5 (0%) cellular blue nevi, 3 of 12 (25%) atypical cellular blue nevi, and 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas ex blue nevi. None of the atypical cellular blue nevi displayed more than one aberration, whereas complex aberrations involving four or more regions were seen exclusively in melanomas ex blue nevi. Gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms were identified in four of five melanomas ex blue nevi with copy number aberrations. In particular, gains of 1q, 4p, 6p, and 8q, and losses of 1p and 4q were each found in at least two melanomas. Whole chromosome aberrations were also common, and represented the sole finding in one atypical cellular blue nevus. When seen in melanomas, however, whole chromosome aberrations were invariably accompanied by partial aberrations of other chromosomes. Three melanomas ex blue nevi harbored aberrations, which were absent or negligible in their precursor components, suggesting progression in tumor biology. Gene mutations involving GNAQ and GNA11 were each detected in two of eight melanomas ex blue nevi. In conclusion, copy number aberrations are more common and often complex in melanomas ex blue nevi compared with cellular and atypical cellular blue nevi. Identification of recurrent gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms in melanomas ex blue nevi suggests that development of new probes targeting these regions may improve detection and risk stratification of these lesions.

  17. Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens similarly amplify cue-triggered 'wanting' for reward: entire core and medial shell mapped as substrates for PIT enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peciña, Susana; Berridge, Kent C

    2013-05-01

    Pavlovian cues [conditioned stimulus (CS+)] often trigger intense motivation to pursue and consume related reward [unconditioned stimulus (UCS)]. But cues do not always trigger the same intensity of motivation. Encountering a reward cue can be more tempting on some occasions than on others. What makes the same cue trigger more intense motivation to pursue reward on a particular encounter? The answer may be the level of incentive salience ('wanting') that is dynamically generated by mesocorticolimbic brain systems, influenced especially by dopamine and opioid neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at that moment. We tested the ability of dopamine stimulation (by amphetamine microinjection) vs. mu opioid stimulation [by d-Ala, nMe-Phe, Glyol-enkephalin (DAMGO) microinjection] of either the core or shell of the NAc to amplify cue-triggered levels of motivation to pursue sucrose reward, measured with a Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer (PIT) procedure, a relatively pure assay of incentive salience. Cue-triggered 'wanting' in PIT was enhanced by amphetamine or DAMGO microinjections equally, and also equally at nearly all sites throughout the entire core and medial shell (except for a small far-rostral strip of shell). NAc dopamine/opioid stimulations specifically enhanced CS+ ability to trigger phasic peaks of 'wanting' to obtain UCS, without altering baseline efforts when CS+ was absent. We conclude that dopamine/opioid stimulation throughout nearly the entire NAc can causally amplify the reactivity of mesocorticolimbic circuits, and so magnify incentive salience or phasic UCS 'wanting' peaks triggered by a CS+. Mesolimbic amplification of incentive salience may explain why a particular cue encounter can become irresistibly tempting, even when previous encounters were successfully resisted before. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. All in: expansion of the acquisition of data for outcomes and procedure transfer (ADOPT) program to an entire SAGES annual meeting hands-on hernia course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dort, Jonathan; Trickey, Amber; Paige, John; Schwarz, Erin; Cecil, Tom; Coleman, Mark; Dunkin, Brian

    2018-05-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) for the surgeon has been challenging because of a lack of standardized approaches of hands-on courses, resulting in poor post-course outcomes. To remedy this situation, SAGES has introduced the ADOPT program, implementing a standardized, long-term mentoring program as part of its hernia hands-on course. Previous work evaluating the pilot program showed increased adoption of learned procedures as well as increased confidence of the mentored surgeons. This manuscript describes the impact of such a program when it is instituted across an entire hands-on course. Following collection of pre-course benchmark data, all participants in the 2016 SAGES hands-on hernia course underwent structured, learner-focused instruction during the cadaveric lab. All faculty had completed a standardized teaching course in the Lapco TT format. Subsequently, course participants were enrolled in a year-long program involving longitudinal mentorship, webinars, conference calls, and coaching. Information about participant demographics, training, experience, self-reported case volumes, and confidence levels related to procedures were collected via survey 3 months prior to 9 months after the course. Twenty surgeons participated in the SAGES ADOPT 2016 hands-on hernia program. Of these, seventeen completed pre-course questionnaires (85%), ten completed the 3-month questionnaire (50%), and four completed the 9-month questionnaire (20%). Nine of ten respondents of the 3-month survey (90%) reported changes in their practice. In the 9-month survey, significant increases in the annualized procedural volumes were reported for open primary ventral hernia repair, open components separation, and mesh insertion for ventral hernia repair (p ADOPT program to an entire hands-on hernia course is both feasible and beneficial, with evidence of Kirkpatrick Levels 1-4a training effectiveness. This expanded success suggests that it is a useful blueprint for the CPD of

  19. Evolutionary analyses of entire genomes do not support the association of mtDNA mutations with Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1, although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45, most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U. Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5 are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS.

  20. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  1. Evolutionary Analyses of Entire Genomes Do Not Support the Association of mtDNA Mutations with Ras/MAPK Pathway Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, María; Balboa, Emilia; Heredia, Claudia; Castro-Feijóo, Lidia; Rica, Itxaso; Barreiro, Jesús; Eirís, Jesús; Cabanas, Paloma; Martínez-Soto, Isabel; Fernández-Toral, Joaquín; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Pombo, Manuel; Carracedo, Ángel; Barros, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Background There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS) and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1), although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45), most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42). Methods/Principal Findings The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg) patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U). Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5) are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS. PMID:21526175

  2. SU-F-T-251: The Quality Assurance for the Heavy Patient Load Department in the Developing Country: The Primary Experience of An Entire Workflow QA Process Management in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, J; Wang, J; Peng, J; Chen, J; Hu, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To implement an entire workflow quality assurance (QA) process in the radiotherapy department and to reduce the error rates of radiotherapy based on the entire workflow management in the developing country. Methods: The entire workflow QA process management starts from patient registration to the end of last treatment including all steps through the entire radiotherapy process. Error rate of chartcheck is used to evaluate the the entire workflow QA process. Two to three qualified senior medical physicists checked the documents before the first treatment fraction of every patient. Random check of the treatment history during treatment was also performed. A total of around 6000 patients treatment data before and after implementing the entire workflow QA process were compared from May, 2014 to December, 2015. Results: A systemic checklist was established. It mainly includes patient’s registration, treatment plan QA, information exporting to OIS(Oncology Information System), documents of treatment QAand QA of the treatment history. The error rate derived from the chart check decreases from 1.7% to 0.9% after our the entire workflow QA process. All checked errors before the first treatment fraction were corrected as soon as oncologist re-confirmed them and reinforce staff training was accordingly followed to prevent those errors. Conclusion: The entire workflow QA process improved the safety, quality of radiotherapy in our department and we consider that our QA experience can be applicable for the heavily-loaded radiotherapy departments in developing country.

  3. SU-F-T-251: The Quality Assurance for the Heavy Patient Load Department in the Developing Country: The Primary Experience of An Entire Workflow QA Process Management in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J; Wang, J; Peng, J; Chen, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement an entire workflow quality assurance (QA) process in the radiotherapy department and to reduce the error rates of radiotherapy based on the entire workflow management in the developing country. Methods: The entire workflow QA process management starts from patient registration to the end of last treatment including all steps through the entire radiotherapy process. Error rate of chartcheck is used to evaluate the the entire workflow QA process. Two to three qualified senior medical physicists checked the documents before the first treatment fraction of every patient. Random check of the treatment history during treatment was also performed. A total of around 6000 patients treatment data before and after implementing the entire workflow QA process were compared from May, 2014 to December, 2015. Results: A systemic checklist was established. It mainly includes patient’s registration, treatment plan QA, information exporting to OIS(Oncology Information System), documents of treatment QAand QA of the treatment history. The error rate derived from the chart check decreases from 1.7% to 0.9% after our the entire workflow QA process. All checked errors before the first treatment fraction were corrected as soon as oncologist re-confirmed them and reinforce staff training was accordingly followed to prevent those errors. Conclusion: The entire workflow QA process improved the safety, quality of radiotherapy in our department and we consider that our QA experience can be applicable for the heavily-loaded radiotherapy departments in developing country.

  4. Coronary imaging quality in routine ECG-gated multidetector CT examinations of the entire thorax: preliminary experience with a 64-slice CT system in 133 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhaye, Damien; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Salem, Randa; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques; Delannoy-Deken, Valerie; Duhamel, Alain

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate image quality in the assessment of the coronary arteries during routine ECG-gated multidetector CT (MDCT) of the chest. One hundred and thirty three patients in sinus rhythm underwent an ECG-gated CT angiographic examination of the entire chest without β-blockers with a 64-slice CT system. In 127 patients (95%), it was possible to assess the coronary arteries partially or totally; coronary artery imaging failed in six patients (5%), leading to a detailed description of the coronary arteries in 127 patients. Considering ten coronary artery segments per patient, 75% of coronary segments were assessable (948/1270 segments). When the distal segments were excluded from the analysis (i.e., seven coronary segments evaluated per patient), the percentage of assessable segments was 86% (768/889 proximal and mid coronary segments) and reached 93% (474/508) when assessing proximal segments exclusively. The mean number of assessable segments was significantly higher in patients with a heart rate ≤80 bpm (n=95) than in patients with a heart rate >80 bpm (n=38) (p<0.002). Proximal and mid-coronary segments can be adequately assessed during a whole-chest ECG-gated CT angiographic examination without administration of β-blockers in patients with a heart rate below 80 bpm. (orig.)

  5. Pauli potential from Heilmann-Lieb electron density obtained by summing hydrogenic closed-shell densities over the entire bound-state spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogar, Ferenc; Bartha, Ferenc; Bartha, Ferenc A.; March, Norman H.

    2011-01-01

    Independently, in the mid-1980s, several groups proposed to bosonize the density-functional theory (DFT) for fermions by writing a Schroedinger equation for the density amplitude ρ(r) 1/2 , with ρ(r) as the ground-state electron density, the central tool of DFT. The resulting differential equation has the DFT one-body potential V(r) modified by an additive term V P (r) where P denotes Pauli. To gain insight into the form of the Pauli potential V P (r), here, we invoke the known Coulombic density, ρ ∞ (r) say, calculated analytically by Heilmann and Lieb (HL), by summation over the entire hydrogenic bound-state spectrum. We show that V P∞ (r) has simple limits for both r tends to infinity and r approaching zero. In particular, at large r, V P∞ (r) precisely cancels the attractive Coulomb potential -Ze 2 /r, leaving V(r)+V P∞ (r) of O(r -2 ) as r tends to infinity. The HL density ρ ∞ (r) is finally used numerically to display V P∞ (r) for all r values.

  6. Application of a molecular diagnostic algorithm for haemophilia A and B using next-generation sequencing of entire F8, F9 and VWF genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Jose Maria; González-Porras, Jose Ramon; Jiménez, Cristina; Benito, Rocio; Ordoñez, Gonzalo R; Álvarez-Román, Maria Teresa; Fontecha, M Elena; Janusz, Kamila; Castillo, David; Fisac, Rosa María; García-Frade, Luis Javier; Aguilar, Carlos; Martínez, María Paz; Bermejo, Nuria; Herrero, Sonia; Balanzategui, Ana; Martin-Antorán, Jose Manuel; Ramos, Rafael; Cebeiro, Maria Jose; Pardal, Emilia; Aguilera, Carmen; Pérez-Gutierrez, Belen; Prieto, Manuel; Riesco, Susana; Mendoza, Maria Carmen; Benito, Ana; Hortal Benito-Sendin, Ana; Jiménez-Yuste, Víctor; Hernández-Rivas, Jesus Maria; García-Sanz, Ramon; González-Díaz, Marcos; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-05

    Currently, molecular diagnosis of haemophilia A and B (HA and HB) highlights the excess risk-inhibitor development associated with specific mutations, and enables carrier testing of female relatives and prenatal or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Molecular testing for HA also helps distinguish it from von Willebrand disease (VWD). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows simultaneous investigation of several complete genes, even though they may span very extensive regions. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a molecular algorithm employing an NGS approach for sequencing the complete F8, F9 and VWF genes. The proposed algorithm includes the detection of inversions of introns 1 and 22, an NGS custom panel (the entire F8, F9 and VWF genes), and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. A total of 102 samples (97 FVIII- and FIX-deficient patients, and five female carriers) were studied. IVS-22 screening identified 11 out of 20 severe HA patients and one female carrier. IVS-1 analysis did not reveal any alterations. The NGS approach gave positive results in 88 cases, allowing the differential diagnosis of mild/moderate HA and VWD in eight cases. MLPA confirmed one large exon deletion. Only one case did have no pathogenic variants. The proposed algorithm had an overall success rate of 99 %. In conclusion, our evaluation demonstrates that this algorithm can reliably identify pathogenic variants and diagnose patients with HA, HB or VWD.

  7. Latexin Inactivation Enhances Survival and Long-Term Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Expands the Entire Hematopoietic System in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Natural genetic diversity offers an important yet largely untapped resource to decipher the molecular mechanisms regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC function. Latexin (Lxn is a negative stem cell regulatory gene identified on the basis of genetic diversity. By using an Lxn knockout mouse model, we found that Lxn inactivation in vivo led to the physiological expansion of the entire hematopoietic hierarchy. Loss of Lxn enhanced the competitive repopulation capacity and survival of HSCs in a cell-intrinsic manner. Gene profiling of Lxn-null HSCs showed altered expression of genes enriched in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Thrombospondin 1 (Thbs1 was a potential downstream target with a dramatic downregulation in Lxn-null HSCs. Enforced expression of Thbs1 restored the Lxn inactivation-mediated HSC phenotypes. This study reveals that Lxn plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostatic hematopoiesis, and it may lead to development of safe and effective approaches to manipulate HSCs for clinical benefit. : In this article, Liang and colleagues show that loss of latexin in vivo expands the HSC population and increases their survival and engraftment. Latexin regulates HSC function and hematopoiesis via the Thbs1 signaling pathway. Keywords: latexin, hematopoietic stem cell, repopulating advantage, expansion, survival, thrombospondin 1

  8. Structure of a mouse immunoglobulin G that lacks the entire CH1 domain: Protein sequencing and small-angle X-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Takako; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Arata, Yoji; Sato, Mamoru; Katsube, Yukiteru; Takio, Koji

    1990-01-01

    The structure of a short-chain IgG2a antibody, which is a member of the family of mouse anti-dansyl switch variant antibodies with identical variable regions but different heavy-chain constant regions, is reported. Amino acid sequencing analyses have demonstrated that in the short-chain IgG2a antibody the entire C H 1 domain is deleted whereas the hinge region remains intact. Small-angle X-ray scattering data were collected for the short-chain IgG2a antibody and compared with those for the switch variant IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies with the normal heavy chain. It has been concluded that deletion of the C H 1 domain results in a large structural change and the short-chain IgG2a antibody possesses an elongated molecular shape with a much smaller hinge angle as compared with the normal IgG2a antibody that is a Y-shaped molecule

  9. Structure of a mouse immunoglobulin G that lacks the entire C sub H 1 domain: Protein sequencing and small-angle X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Takako; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Mamoru; Arata, Yoji (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Sato, Mamoru; Katsube, Yukiteru (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Takio, Koji (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan))

    1990-06-19

    The structure of a short-chain IgG2a antibody, which is a member of the family of mouse anti-dansyl switch variant antibodies with identical variable regions but different heavy-chain constant regions, is reported. Amino acid sequencing analyses have demonstrated that in the short-chain IgG2a antibody the entire C{sub H}1 domain is deleted whereas the hinge region remains intact. Small-angle X-ray scattering data were collected for the short-chain IgG2a antibody and compared with those for the switch variant IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies with the normal heavy chain. It has been concluded that deletion of the C{sub H}1 domain results in a large structural change and the short-chain IgG2a antibody possesses an elongated molecular shape with a much smaller hinge angle as compared with the normal IgG2a antibody that is a Y-shaped molecule.

  10. Direct measurement of the static and transient magneto-optical permittivity of cobalt across the entire M -edge in reflection geometry by use of polarization scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusin, Dmitriy; Tengdin, Phoebe M.; Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Gerrity, Michael; Legut, Dominik; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, T. J.; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2018-01-01

    The microscopic state of a magnetic material is characterized by its resonant magneto-optical response through the off-diagonal dielectric tensor component ɛx y. However, the measurement of the full complex ɛx y in the extreme ultraviolet spectral region covering the M absorption edges of 3 d ferromagnets is challenging due to the need for either a careful polarization analysis, which is complicated by a lack of efficient polarization analyzers, or scanning the angle of incidence in fine steps. Here, we propose and demonstrate a technique to extract the complex resonant permittivity ɛx y simply by scanning the polarization angle of linearly polarized high harmonics to measure the magneto-optical asymmetry in reflection geometry. Because this technique is more practical and faster to experimentally implement than previous approaches, we can directly measure the full time evolution of ɛx y(t ) during laser-induced demagnetization across the entire M2 ,3 absorption edge of cobalt with femtosecond time resolution. We find that for polycrystalline Co films on an insulating substrate, the changes in ɛx y are uniform throughout the spectrum, to within our experimental precision. This result suggests that, in the regime of strong demagnetization, the ultrafast demagnetization response is primarily dominated by magnon generation. We estimate the contribution of exchange-splitting reduction to the ultrafast demagnetization process to be no more than 25%.

  11. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-12-15

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 'Mitominis': multiplex PCR analysis of reduced size amplicons for compound sequence analysis of the entire mtDNA control region in highly degraded samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cordula; Parson, Walther

    2008-09-01

    The traditional protocol for forensic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses involves the amplification and sequencing of the two hypervariable segments HVS-I and HVS-II of the mtDNA control region. The primers usually span fragment sizes of 300-400 bp each region, which may result in weak or failed amplification in highly degraded samples. Here we introduce an improved and more stable approach using shortened amplicons in the fragment range between 144 and 237 bp. Ten such amplicons were required to produce overlapping fragments that cover the entire human mtDNA control region. These were co-amplified in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions and sequenced with the individual amplification primers. The primers were carefully selected to minimize binding on homoplasic and haplogroup-specific sites that would otherwise result in loss of amplification due to mis-priming. The multiplexes have successfully been applied to ancient and forensic samples such as bones and teeth that showed a high degree of degradation.

  13. Growth and characterization of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} highly mismatched alloys over the entire composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquez, M.; Ting, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Hettick, M.; Javey, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sánchez-Royo, J. F. [ICMUV, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universitat de València, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Wełna, M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Experimental Physics, Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Dubon, O. D. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Walukiewicz, W., E-mail: w-walukiewicz@lbl.gov [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    Alloys from ZnO and ZnS have been synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering over the entire alloying range. The ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} films are crystalline for all compositions. The optical absorption edge of these alloys decreases rapidly with small amount of added sulfur (x ∼ 0.02) and continues to red shift to a minimum of 2.6 eV at x = 0.45. At higher sulfur concentrations (x > 0.45), the absorption edge shows a continuous blue shift. The strong reduction in the band gap for O-rich alloys is the result of the upward shift of the valence-band edge with x as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, the room temperature bandgap of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} alloys can be tuned from 3.7 eV to 2.6 eV. The observed large bowing in the composition dependence of the energy bandgap arises from the anticrossing interactions between (1) the valence-band of ZnO and the localized sulfur level at 0.30 eV above the ZnO valence-band maximum for O-rich alloys and (2) the conduction-band of ZnS and the localized oxygen level at 0.20 eV below the ZnS conduction band minimum for the S-rich alloys. The ability to tune the bandgap and knowledge of the location of the valence and conduction-band can be advantageous in applications, such as heterojunction solar cells, where band alignment is crucial.

  14. Rescue of infectious rift valley fever virus entirely from cDNA, analysis of virus lacking the NSs gene, and expression of a foreign gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Won, Sungyong; Peters, C J; Makino, Shinji

    2006-03-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) has a tripartite negative-strand genome, causes a mosquito-borne disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan African countries and that also causes large epidemics among humans and livestock. Furthermore, it is a bioterrorist threat and poses a risk for introduction to other areas. In spite of its danger, neither veterinary nor human vaccines are available. We established a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to rescue infectious clones of RVFV MP-12 strain entirely from cDNA, the first for any phlebovirus. Expression of viral structural proteins from the protein expression plasmids was not required for virus rescue, whereas NSs protein expression abolished virus rescue. Mutants of MP-12 partially or completely lacking the NSs open reading frame were viable. These NSs deletion mutants replicated efficiently in Vero and 293 cells, but not in MRC-5 cells. In the latter cell line, accumulation of beta interferon mRNA occurred after infection by these NSs deletion mutants, but not after infection by MP-12. The NSs deletion mutants formed larger plaques than MP-12 did in Vero E6 cells and failed to shut off host protein synthesis in Vero cells. An MP-12 mutant carrying a luciferase gene in place of the NSs gene replicated as efficiently as MP-12 did, produced enzymatically active luciferase during replication, and stably retained the luciferase gene after 10 virus passages, representing the first demonstration of foreign gene expression in any bunyavirus. This reverse genetics system can be used to study the molecular virology of RVFV, assess current vaccine candidates, produce new vaccines, and incorporate marker genes into animal vaccines.

  15. DWI-associated entire-tumor histogram analysis for the differentiation of low-grade prostate cancer from intermediate-high-grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Jiang; Wang, Qing; Li, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Dong

    2015-10-01

    To investigate diagnostic efficiency of DWI using entire-tumor histogram analysis in differentiating the low-grade (LG) prostate cancer (PCa) from intermediate-high-grade (HG) PCa in comparison with conventional ROI-based measurement. DW images (b of 0-1400 s/mm(2)) from 126 pathology-confirmed PCa (diameter >0.5 cm) in 110 patients were retrospectively collected and processed by mono-exponential model. The measurement of tumor apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) was performed with using histogram-based and ROI-based approach, respectively. The diagnostic ability of ADCs from two methods for differentiating LG-PCa (Gleason score, GS ≤ 6) from HG-PCa (GS > 6) was determined by ROC regression, and compared by McNemar's test. There were 49 LG-tumor and 77 HG-tumor at pathologic findings. Histogram-based ADCs (mean, median, 10th and 90th) and ROI-based ADCs (mean) showed dominant relationships with ordinal GS of Pca (ρ = -0.225 to -0.406, p Histogram 10th ADCs had dominantly high Az (0.738), Youden index (0.415), and positive likelihood ratio (LR+, 2.45) in stratifying tumor GS against mean, median and 90th ADCs, and ROI-based ADCs. Histogram mean, median, and 10th ADCs showed higher specificity (65.3%-74.1% vs. 44.9%, p histogram analysis had higher specificity, Az, Youden index, and LR+ for differentiation of PCa Gleason grade than ROI-based approach.

  16. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.

    2011-12-01

    volcanic eruption linked to the heat, chemical, and biological fluxes. In the late stages of the event, the dissipation of the "event plume" into the surrounding water column and the plume's migration patterns in the ambient regional flow will be tracked using specifically designed mobile sensor-platforms. The presence of these assets opens the potential for more immediate, coordinated, and thorough event responses than the community has previously been able to mount. Given the relative abundance of information on many variables in a verifiable and archived spatial and temporal context, and the rapidly evolving ability to conduct real-time genomic analyses, our community may be able to secure entirely novel organisms that are released into the overlying ocean only under well-characterized eruptive conditions.

  17. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is caused by the entire deletion of CLN8 in the Alpenländische Dachsbracke dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirz, M; Drögemüller, M; Schänzer, A; Jagannathan, V; Dietschi, E; Goebel, H H; Hecht, W; Laubner, S; Schmidt, M J; Steffen, F; Hilbe, M; Köhler, K; Drögemüller, C; Herden, C

    2017-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited lysosomal storage diseases that have been described in a variety of dog breeds, where they are caused by different mutations in different genes. However, the causative gene defect in the breed Alpenländische Dachsbracke remained unknown so far. Here we present two confirmed cases of NCL in Alpenländische Dachsbracke dogs from different litters of the same sire with a different dam harboring the same underlying novel mutation in the CLN8 gene. Case 1, a 2-year-old male Alpenländische Dachsbracke was presented with neurological signs including disorientation, character changes including anxiety states and aggressiveness, sudden blindness and reduction of food intake. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed cerebral atrophy with dilation of all cerebral ventricles, thinning of the intermediate mass of the thalamus and widening of the cerebral sulci. Postmortem examination of the central nervous system (CNS) showed neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord with massive intracellular deposits of ceroid pigment. Additional ceroid-lipofuscin deposits were observed in the enteric nervous system and in macrophages within spleen, lymph nodes and lung. Ultrastructural analyses confirmed NCL with the presence of osmiophilic membrane bounded lamellar-like structures. Case 2, a 1,5-year old female Alpenländische Dachsbracke was presented with progressive generalized forebrain disease including mental changes such as fearful reactions to various kinds of external stimuli and disorientation. The dog also displayed seizures, absence of menace reactions and negative cotton-ball test with normal pupillary light reactions. The clinical and post mortem examination yielded similar results in the brain as in Case 1. Whole genome sequencing of Case 1 and PCR results of both cases revealed a homozygous deletion encompassing the entire CLN8 gene as the most likely causative mutation for the NCL form

  18. Effects of Thy-1+ cell depletion on the capacity of donor lymphoid cells to induce tolerance across an entire MHC disparity in sublethally irradiated adult hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.E.; Watts, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Thy-1+ cell depletion with anti-Thy-1.2 mAb and complement markedly reduced the capacity of C57BL/6J, H-2b bone marrow to establish mixed lymphoid chimerism and induce tolerance to C57BL/6J skin grafts across an entire MHC disparity in BALB/c, H-2d hosts conditioned with sublethal, fractionated 7.5 Gy total-body irradiation. In this model tolerance can be transferred to secondary irradiated BALB/c hosts only by cells of C57BL/6J donor, not host, genotype isolated from the spleens of tolerant hosts. Thy-1+ cell depletion abolished the capacity of C57BL/6J donor cells from tolerant BALB/c host spleens to transfer tolerance. The capacity of semiallogeneic BALB/c x C57BL/6J F1, H-2d/b donor BM and spleen cells to induce chimerism and tolerance to C57BL/6J skin grafts in BALB/c parental hosts was also reduced by Thy-1+ cell depletion. Thus the requirement for donor Thy-1+ cells cannot be explained simply on the basis of alloaggression. It is unlikely that the requisite Thy-1+ cells are nonspecific suppressor cells: Thy-1+ cell depletion had no effect on the slight but significant prolongation of third-party C3H/HeJ, H-2k skin grafts in irradiated BALB/c hosts injected with allogeneic C57BL/6J or semiallogeneic BALB/c x C57BL/6J F1 BM compared to irradiated controls injected with medium only. Furthermore, injections of semiallogeneic F1 spleen cells had no significant effect on the survival of the third-party grafts, although these cells were fully capable of inducing tolerance, and their capacity to induce tolerance was significantly reduced by Thy-1+ cell depletion. The requirement for a specific population of lymphoid cells, i.e. Thy-1+, remains unexplained but suggests that donor cells might play a role in the induction or maintenance of tolerance in this model other than merely providing a circulating source of donor antigens

  19. HMMerThread: detecting remote, functional conserved domains in entire genomes by combining relaxed sequence-database searches with fold recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Richard Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Conserved domains in proteins are one of the major sources of functional information for experimental design and genome-level annotation. Though search tools for conserved domain databases such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are sensitive in detecting conserved domains in proteins when they share sufficient sequence similarity, they tend to miss more divergent family members, as they lack a reliable statistical framework for the detection of low sequence similarity. We have developed a greatly improved HMMerThread algorithm that can detect remotely conserved domains in highly divergent sequences. HMMerThread combines relaxed conserved domain searches with fold recognition to eliminate false positive, sequence-based identifications. With an accuracy of 90%, our software is able to automatically predict highly divergent members of conserved domain families with an associated 3-dimensional structure. We give additional confidence to our predictions by validation across species. We have run HMMerThread searches on eight proteomes including human and present a rich resource of remotely conserved domains, which adds significantly to the functional annotation of entire proteomes. We find ∼4500 cross-species validated, remotely conserved domain predictions in the human proteome alone. As an example, we find a DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal part of the A-kinase anchor protein 10 (AKAP10, a PKA adaptor that has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and premature cardiac death, which upon stress likely translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus/nucleolus. Based on our prediction, we propose that with this HLH-domain, AKAP10 is involved in the transcriptional control of stress response. Further remotely conserved domains we discuss are examples from areas such as sporulation, chromosome segregation and signalling during immune response. The HMMerThread algorithm is able to automatically detect the presence of remotely conserved domains in

  20. Regulation of Blood Pressure, Appetite, and Glucose by Leptin After Inactivation of Insulin Receptor Substrate 2 Signaling in the Entire Brain or in Proopiomelanocortin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Wang, Zhen; Freeman, Nathan J; Alsheik, Ammar J; Adi, Ahmad; Hall, John E

    2016-02-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is one of the 3 major leptin receptor signaling pathways, but its role in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on blood pressure, food intake, and glucose regulation is unclear. We tested whether genetic inactivation of IRS2 in the entire brain (IRS2/Nestin-cre mice) or specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons (IRS2/POMC-cre mice) attenuates the chronic cardiovascular, metabolic, and antidiabetic effects of leptin. Mice were instrumented with telemetry probes for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate and with venous catheters for intravenous infusions. After a 5-day control period, mice received leptin infusion (2 μg/kg per minute) for 7 days. Compared with control IRS2(flox/flox) mice, IRS2/POMC-cre mice had similar body weight and food intake (33±1 versus 35±1 g and 3.6±0.5 versus 3.8±0.2 g per day) but higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (110±2 versus 102±2 mm Hg and 641±9 versus 616±5 bpm). IRS2/Nestin-cre mice were heavier (38±2 g), slightly hyperphagic (4.5±1.0 g per day), and had higher MAP and heart rate (108±2 mm Hg and 659±9 bpm) compared with control mice. Leptin infusion gradually increased MAP despite decreasing food intake by 31% in IRS2(flox/flox) and in Nestin-cre control mice. In contrast, leptin infusion did not change MAP in IRS2/Nestin-cre or IRS2/POMC-cre mice. The anorexic and antidiabetic effects of leptin, however, were similar in all 3 groups. These results indicate that IRS2 signaling in the central nervous system, and particularly in POMC neurons, is essential for the chronic actions of leptin to raise MAP but not for its anorexic or antidiabetic effects. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Leaf ontogeny dominates the seasonal exchange of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a SRC-poplar plantation during an entire growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Federico; Gioli, Beniamino; Fares, Silvano; Zenone, Terenzio; Zona, Donatella; Gielen, Bert; Loreto, Francesco; Janssens, Ivan; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The declining cost of many renewable energy technologies and changes in the prices of fossil fuels have recently encouraged governments policies to subsidize the use of biomass as a sustainable source of energy. Deciduous poplars (Populus spp.) trees are often selected for biomass production in short rotation coppiced (SRC) for their high CO2 photosynthetic assimilation rates and their capacity to develop dense canopies with high values of leaf area index (LAI). So far, observations and projections of seasonal variations of many VOC fluxes has been limited to strong isoprenoids emitting evergreen ecosystems such tropical and Mediterranean forests as well as Citrus and oil palm plantation, all having constant values of LAI. We run a long-term field campaign where the exchange of VOC, together with CO2 and water vapor was monitored during an entire growing season (June - November, 2012) above a SRC-based poplar plantation. Our results confirmed that isoprene and methanol were the most abundant fluxes emitted, accounting for more than 90% of the total carbon released in form of VOC. However, Northern climates characterized by fresh summertime temperatures and recurring precipitations favored poplar growth while inhibiting the development of isoprene emission that resulted in only 0.7% of the net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE). Besides, measurements of a multitude of VOC fluxes by PTR-TOF-MS showed bi-directional exchange of oxygenated-VOC (OVOC) such as: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene oxidation products (iox, namely MVK, MAC and MEK) as well as ethanol and formic acid. The application of Self Organizing Maps to visualize the relationship between the full time-series of many VOC fluxes and the observed seasonal variations of environmental, physiological and structural parameters proved the most abundant isoprene ad methanol fluxes to occur mainly on the hottest days under mid-high light intensities when also NEE and evapotraspiration reached the highest

  2. Portrait de la compression et de l'expansion de la morbidité au Canada : évolution de l'espérance de vie et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé, 1994-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Steensma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Notre étude visait à examiner s'il y a eu une expansion ou une compression de la morbidité au Canada, à l'échelle tant nationale que provinciale, en suivant l'évolution de l'espérance de vie (EV et de l'espérance de vie ajustée en fonction de la santé (EVAS entre 1994 et 2010. Une « compression », qui correspond à une diminution de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS augmente plus rapidement que l'EV. Inversement, une « expansion », qui désigne une augmentation de la proportion de la vie marquée par des problèmes de santé, survient lorsque l'EVAS est stable ou augmente plus lentement que l'EV. Méthodologie : Nous avons estimé l'EV à l'aide des données de Statistique Canada sur la mortalité et sur la population. Nous avons utilisé les données sur la qualité de vie liée à la santé (c.-à-d. morbidité de l'Enquête nationale sur la santé de la population (1994-1999 et de l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (2000-2010 pour calculer l'EVAS. Nous avons établi des tables de mortalité abrégées pour sept intervalles de temps correspondant aux cycles d'enquête disponibles durant la période de 1994 à 2010, ainsi que pour les deux sexes et les dix provinces canadiennes. Les tendances nationales et provinciales ont été examinées à la naissance, à 20 ans et à 65 ans. Résultats : Dans l'ensemble, nous avons constaté une hausse annuelle moyenne statistiquement significative de l'EVAS chez les deux sexes aux trois âges évalués, sauf chez les nouveau-nés de sexe féminin. L'EVAS à la naissance a augmenté en moyenne par année, entre 1994 et 2010, de 0,2 % (p = 0,08 chez les sujets de sexe féminin et de 0,3% (p < 0,001 chez ceux de sexe masculin. À l'échelle nationale, les trois groupes d'âge ont présenté une augmentation annuelle moyenne non statistiquement significative de la proportion de la vie marquée par des

  3. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  4. Experimental Study of the Process of Neutron Thermalization in Time in Aqueous Moderators; Etude Experimentale du Processus de Thermalisation des Neutrons en Fonction du Temps dans les Ralentisseurs Contenant de l'Eau; Ehksperimental'noe izuchenie protsessa termalizatsii nejtronov vo vremeni v vodorodosoderzhashchikh zamedlitelyakh; Estudio Experimental del Proceso de Termalizacion de Neutrones en Funcion del Tiempo en Moderadores Acuosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishmaev, S. N.; Mostovoj, V. I.; Sadikov, I. P.; Chernyshov, A. A. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniju Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Im. I.V.Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-08-15

    Using a method described in another paper presented at this Symposium, the authors measured non-stationary neutron spectra in zirconium hydride and in water at room temperature as a function of slowing-down time, with a resolution of 3.5 {mu}s. The spectra measured in a large ZrH prism (B{sup 2} = 3.8 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}) belong to a slowing-down time range (t > 30 {mu}s) in which the mean neutron energy is less than 0.13 eV and the energy exchange between neutron gas and the medium is caused mainly by the excitation of acoustic lattice vibrations. In this range thermalization proceeds at a comparatively slow rate and the time required to establish an equilibrium neutron spectrum is of the order of 400 {mu}s. In a small ZrH assembly (B{sup 2} Asymptotically-Equal-To 20 x 10{sup -2} cm{sup 2}) a strong diffusion-cooling effect is observed. The spectra measured at long slowing-down times are found to differ considerably from the Maxwellian distribution with the temperature of the medium. The time required to establish an equilibrium energy distribution increases with decreasing system size. The neutron energy spectra in water (B{sup 2} = 2.56 x 10{sup -2}cm{sup 2}) are presented for slowing-down times of over 13 {mu}s, where distortions from resolution are insignificant. The shape of the spectrum is only fully consistent with the Maxwellian distribution at room temperature after about 100 {mu}s following a fast neutron burst. The time required to establish an equilibrium neutron spectrum in this experiment is three to four times longer than the values calculated by various other authors. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (author) [French] A l'aide de la methode que les auteurs ont decrite dans un autre memoire presente au Colloque, ils ont mesure, en fonction du temps de ralentissement, les spectres non stationnaires des neutrons dans l'hydrure de zirconium et dans l'eau a la temperature ambiante, avec un pouvoir de resolution de 3,5 {mu

  5. The Time Analysis and Frequency Distribution of Caesium-137 Fall-Out in Muscle Samples; Analyse en Fonction du Temps et Distribution des Frequences de Cesium 137 du aux Retombees de Cesium 137 Contenues dans des Echantillons de Tissu Musculaire; 0410 041d 0414 ; Analisis Temporal y Distribucion de Frecuencias del Cesio-137 Procedente de la Precipitacion Radiactiva en Muestras de Tejido Muscular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellett, W. H.; Brownell, G. L [Physics Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 14, MA (United States)

    1964-11-15

    augmente et, en ete 1963, a atteint le quadruple du niveau minimum de 1962. On a etabli des histogrammes independants du temps en ajustant un polynome aux donnees brutes (radioactivite des echantillons en fonction de la date du deces). On a compare statistiquement les donnees ainsi ajustees a une distribution suivant la loi de Laplace-Gauss, a une distribution suivant la loi de Galton et a une distribution gamma. Les resultats indiquent que la distribution experimentale ne suit absolument pas la loi de Laplace-Gauss et qu'elle correspond le mieux a une distribution gamma. En utilisant la distribution gamma deduite empiriquement, on peut prevoir, pour n'importe quelle valeur de la retombee, quelle fraction de la population aura une charge corporelle egale a N fois la valeur moyenne. Les auteurs ont verifie ce modele pour l'augmentation quadruple de l'activite qui s'est produite depuis 1962 et ils ont constate qu'il permettait de prevoir avec precision la distribution actuelle de la radioactivite due au cesium 137 entre les differents membres de la population d'echantillons. (author) [Spanish] Cuando las concentraciones de radiactividad artificial en el cuerpo son bajas, el efecto perjudicial recaera sin duda en aquella parte de la poblacion en la cual la concentracion representa un multiplo del termino medio. Solamente puede evaluarse adecuadamente el riesgo que entranadla precipitacion radiactiva si se conoce la distribucion de frecuencias de la radiactividad en la poblacion. Los intentos para determinar la forma de la curva de distribucion, a partir de los datos de Kulo -sobre ia concentracion del estroncio-90 en los huesos de los ninos no han tenido mucho exito debido al reducido tamaflo de las muestras y a la falta de equilibrio en el hueso entre el estroncio-90 y el calcio. Para superar estas limitaciones, los autores han medido el contenido en cesio-137 de unas 900 muestras en musculos que fueron obtenidas en intervenciones post mortem entre enero de 1959 y agosto de

  6. A consumer study of entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  7. Congenital Diverticular Disease of the Entire Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital or true colonic diverticulosis is a rare condition typified by the preservation of the colonic wall architecture within the diverticular outpouching. Cases of multiple jejunal diverticula have been reported as well as cases of solitary giant diverticula of the colon. There have been no reports in the literature of pancolonic congenital diverticulosis.

  8. Social Pedagogy for the Entire Lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book proposes chapters on work with adults and older people, written by authors based in Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The global dimension is covered by a chapter on the relationship between Latin American and European social pedagogy.......The book proposes chapters on work with adults and older people, written by authors based in Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. The global dimension is covered by a chapter on the relationship between Latin American and European social pedagogy....

  9. Rocket-Powered Parachutes Rescue Entire Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Langley Research Center helped BRS Aerospace, of Saint Paul, Minnesota, to develop technology that has saved 246 lives to date. The company s whole aircraft parachute systems deploy in less than 1 second thanks to solid rocket motors and are capable of arresting the descent of a small aircraft, lowering it safely to the ground. BRS has sold more than 30,000 systems worldwide, and the technology is now standard equipment on many of the world s top-selling aircraft. Parachutes for larger airplanes are in the works.

  10. One ID Card for the Entire Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, David P.; Ferguson, Linda M.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation by Indiana State University of a machine-readable photo ID system for their food services prompted an investigation into the available alternatives and requirements for a more efficient all-University ID card system. The new ID system is described. (AUTHOR/MLW)

  11. A Consumer Study of Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  12. The Self-Correlation Function of Real Gases; Fonction d'Autocorrelation des Gaz Reels; 0424 0423 041d 041a 0426 0418 042f 0421 0410 041c 041e 041a 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 0418 0420 0415 0410 041b 042c 041d 042b 0425 0413 0410 0417 041e 0412 ; La Funcion de Autocorrelacion de los Gases Reales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D. J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technical University of Vienna Vienna (Austria)

    1965-06-15

    In the formal theory of inelastic scattering of neutrons, the self-correlation function has been worked out in terms of statistical averages of the derivatives of die N-body interaction-potential of the scatterer. In the present paper, these averages are evaluated for real gases by means of a cluster-expansion related to that of Mayer-Ursell. This leads to certain non-linear types of clusters, which are investigated with respect to the topology of the graphs, their multiplicity (by combinatorial analysis) and their quadrature. As one expects, in view of the many-body problem, some of the clusters are not separable and have to be machine-integrated. In this way, the self-correlation function {gamma}{sub s}(K, t) is calculated for short times, including also the first non-Gaussian term. The cluster-expansion breaks off after the first interaction term, so that the results are valid for low density only. This still gives rise to very many different types of clusters, containing up to seven points, for each coefficient. The assumed potential is a general two-particle, hard-core type. As Singwi et al. have shown, the long time behaviour of {gamma}s is determined by the time integral of the velocity auto-correlation: {integral}{sup {infinity}}{sub 0} {sub T}dt. To construct the integrand for all times, we can make use of our cluster-expansion for small t and adopt Langevin's diffusion theory for large t. Numerical computations are under way. (author) [French] Dans la theorie formelle de la diffusion inelastique des neutrons, on a etabli la fonction d'autocorrelation en se fondant sur les moyennes statistiques des derivees du potentiel d'interaction a N corps du diffuseur. L'auteur a evalue ces moyennes pour des gaz reels a l'aide d'un developpement par amas en rapport avec celui de Mayer-Ursell. U obtient ainsi des types d'amas non lineaires qu'il etudie du point de vue de la topo- logie des diagrammes, de leur multiplicite (par analyse

  13. Evaluation as a function of age of the effective energy absorbed in any gram ({epsilon}/m) of organs except the gastrointestinal tract by the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate food and the environment; Evaluation en fonction de l'age des individus de l'energie effective delivree a l'unite de masse ({epsilon}/m) des organes autres que le tractus gastro-intestinal par les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In order to evaluate internal radiation doses it is necessary to know the effective energy dissipated in any gram of the organ of reference, which depends, for any radionuclide, on the physical energy (E) absorbed in the body organ, on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), on the relative damage factor (n) and on the mass of the organ (m). This effective energy may be evaluated as a function of the size and of the mass of the organs, from birth to adult age. This work is done for the principal radionuclides which are most likely to contaminate the food and the environment, it concerns 44 nuclides from {sup 3}H to {sup 242}Cm. (author) [French] L'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne exige la connaissance de l'energie effective delivree a chaque gramme de l'organe considere, qui depend, pour chaque radionuclide, de l'energie physique (E) absorbee dans l'organe, de l'efficacite biologique relative (EBR), du facteur de dommage relatif (n), de la masse de l'organe (m). Cette energie peut etre evaluee en fonction des dimensions et de la masse des organes, de la naissance a l'age adulte. Ce travail est effectue pour les principaux radionuclides susceptibles de contaminer la chaine alimentaire et le milieu ambiant, 44 isotopes sont traites du tritium au {sup 242}Cm.

  14. Exemplary assessment of an entire and high value recovery in a MSWI with special regard on climate relevance; Beispielhafte Darstellung einer vollstaendigen, hochwertigen Verwertung in einer MVA unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Klimarelevanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Mahmood, Sameh [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The 'Goal 2020' of German waste management policy defines the entire recycling/recovery of municipal waste and the abandonment of disposal above ground to a great extend. Thus an entire material recycling and re-use also of the MSWI (Municipal Solid Waste Incineration) residuals is required, especially the mass-relevant slag. Apart from the material aspect the energy efficiency issue (actual substitution of primary energy carriers) is another decisive criterion as well as assurance of low pollutant discharge. Screening of all MSWI in Germany in terms of these criteria ends up with rather positive results. A large mass percentage of the mineral residues are yet conveyed to material recycling. According to energy use there is a wide bandwidth from rather high to rather low efficiency. The assessed emission levels again show an overall high standard performance. Four exemplary plants - each representing one of the three criteria in special way plus one low standard reference plant - were assessed by mass flow calculation and evaluating by the indicators CO{sub 2}, NOX, Hg and Cd emissions - caused by the plants and replaced by material and energy substitution. The energy efficiency turns out to the most decisive factor. A rough cost analysis looking at measures for entire recovery shows that cost increase as well as decrease can be figured out depending on basic presumptions. Scenarios for status quo and optimization at national scope were calculated to combine CO{sub 2} balance and costs. It concludes in a potential saving of about 3 million t CO{sub 2}/a, whereas cost won't increase in higher magnitude than preventing landfill costs for slag disposal have saved. (orig.)

  15. The coefficient of friction of UHMWPE along an entire walking cycle using a ball-on-disc tribometer under arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by ISO 14243-3:2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceinas-Sanchez, J D O; Alvarez-Vera, M; Montoya-Santiyanes, L A; Dominguez-Lopez, I; Garcia-Garcia, A L

    2017-01-01

    The observation of tribological phenomena occurring in total knee replacement (TKR) simulators may be obscured by the intrinsic complexity of their operation: the dynamics and kinematics prescribed by the ISO 14243-3:2014 standard, and the geometry of the surfaces involved. On the other hand, evaluating the individual performance of the tribosystem elements may be carried out in simpler apparatuses. An experimental method is presented here, by means of which the arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by the said standard are adapted to a ball-on-disc configuration in order to observe the behavior of the coefficient of friction along an entire walking cycle, using the contact point of an AISI 316L stainless steel ball rolling/sliding on an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disc, lubricated by a solution of fetal bovine serum, at 37°C. The method was tried on two different testing fluids prepared with protein concentrations of 20g/L, according to the said standard, and 36g/L, as received. The statistical model obtained for the behavior of the COF during the entire walking cycle may be used in numerical simulations of UHMWPE wear, under the conditions established by ISO 14243-3:2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A case report of rapid spontaneous redistribution of acute supratentorial subdural hematoma to the entire spinal subdural space presenting as a Pourfour du Petit syndrome and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Vladimir; Kolembus, Petr; Svajdler, Marian; Sulla, Igor; Vaverka, Miroslav; Hrabalek, Lumir

    2013-07-01

    This report illustrates the rare rapid spontaneous redistribution of an acute intracranial supratentorial subdural hematoma (AISSDH) to the entire spinal subdural space (SSS). The study is also unique in that the spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) manifested by the extremely rare Pourfour du Petit Syndrome (PPS). A 66-year-old man sustained blunt head trauma. On admission to the regional hospital, he scored 6 on GCS and his pupils were of equal size reacting to light. Initial computed tomography (CT) scan showed a unilateral AISSDH. The patient was referred to our department and arrived 16 h following the accident, at which time a repeat CT scan revealed almost complete resolution of the AISSDH without clinical improvement. On the 9th postinjury day transient anisocoria and tachycardia without spinal symptomatology developed. Since neither neurological examination nor follow-up CT scans showed intracranial pathology explaining the anisocoria, the patient was treated further conservatively. During the next 3 days circulatory instability developed and the patient succumbed to primary traumatic injury. Autopsy revealed a SSH occupying the entire SSS. This case calls attention to the unique combination of the displacement of an AISSDH to the SSS and the presentation of this clinical entity by the PPS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Strain Dependence of the Frequencies and the Thermal Expansion of the Hexagonal Close-Packed Lattice; Variations, en Fonction de la Deformation, des Frequences et de la Dilatation Thermique du Reseau a Structure Hexagonale Compacte; Zavisimost' chastot i teplovogo rasshireniya geksagonal'noj reshetki s plotnoj upakovkoj ot napryazheniya; Variacion de las Frecuencias y de la Dilatacion Termica de la Red Hexagonal Compacta en Funcion de la Deformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramji Rao, R. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India)

    1965-04-15

    ) [French] Les auteurs ont mesure recemment la dilatation thermique anisotrope de certains metaux a structure hexagonale. Pour etablir la theorie de la dilatation thermique anisotrope des reseaux a structure hexagonale compacte (hc), il faut etudier les variations, en fonction de la deformation, des frequences des reseaux hc. Les auteurs ont etudie le cas du reseau hc a interaction centrale avec le plus proche voisin de forme Empty-Set = -a/{gamma}{sup m} + b/{gamma}{sup n}. Les deformations suivantes ont ete utilisees: 1. une dilatation lineaire {zeta} le long de Taxe z; 2. une dilatation surfacique uniforme #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#' dans le plan principal. Ces deformations sont celles qui s'appliquent a la theorie de la dilatation thermique et elles ont l'avantage de ne pas entrainer de deplacements a l'interieur du reseau. Les auteurs ont etabli les parametres de Grueneisen {gamma}'{sub i} = - Partial-Differential log{omega}{sub i}/ Partial-Differential #Greek Lunate Epsilon Symbol#' and {gamma}'{sub i}' = - Partial-Differential log{omega}{sub i}/ Partial-Differential {zeta} pour les vecteurs d'ondes situes le long de certaines directions de symetrie. On constate que les parametres ainsi obtenus pour les branches acoustiques dependent fortement de la direction et presentent des variations tres etendues. Une des branches acoustiques transversales dans le plan principal accuse une valeur negative pour {gamma}', quelles que soient les valeurs de m et n. Les auteurs ont etudie les variations des moments {mu}{sub 2}, {mu}{sub 4} et {mu}{sub 6} en fonction des deformations indiquees plus haut. Ils ont determine pour trois paires de valeurs de m et n, les limites de temperature superieure et inferieure des parametres de Grueneisen equivalents {gamma}{sup +} et {gamma}''. Ils ont constate que {gamma}' est egal a {gamma}'' et que la limite de temperature superieure {gamma}'{sub {infinity}} depasse de 0,3 environ la limite de temperature inferieure {gamma}'{sub 0}. Il semble

  18. Produção e utilização da silagem de planta inteira de soja (Glicine max para ruminantes / Production and use of the ensilage of entire soy palnt (Glicine max for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Tulio de Córdova Gobetti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivou-se descrever as características quantitativas e qualitativas referentes à cultura da soja (Glicine max, com a finalidade de silagem de planta inteira. No Brasil, a área cultivada de soja na safra de 2010/2011, de acordo com dados da Embrapa (2011 foi de 24,2 milhões de hectares. A irregularidade da ocorrência de chuvas tem inviabilizado economicamente muitas lavouras de soja para a produção de grãos pela diminuição da produtividade e aumento dos custos da produção, possibilitando a utilização da planta inteira de soja como silagem para a alimentação animal. As vantagens da utilização da silagem de planta inteira de soja em comparação a de outras gramíneas como o milho e o sorgo estão nos maiores valores médios encontrados, de 18% proteína bruta, 31% de matéria seca, 32% de fibra em detergente ácido e 41% de fibra em detergente neutro, 23% de extrato etéreo e produtividade média de sete toneladas por hectare, onde a participação de grãos na silagem representa 35%, permitindo que o produtor possa agregar maior valor ao seu produto final e não ficar dependente dos preços alternados do mercado interno na safra e da elevação do preço na entressafra para compra dos subprodutos do processamento da soja, tendo como principal limitação à competição da silagem de soja com a venda dos grãos. Abstract The aim of the study was to describe the quantitative and qualitative characteristics referring to the culture of the soy (Glicine max, with the purpose of ensilage of entire plant. In Brazil, the cultivated area of soy in 2010/2011, according to data by Embrapa (2011 was 24,2 million hectares. The irregularity of the rain occurrence has made impracticable economically many soy crops for the production of grains for the reduction of the productivity and increase of the costs of the production, having made possible the use of the entire plant of soy as ensilage for the animal feeding. The advantages of

  19. Características físico-químicas da carne de bubalinos e de bovinos castrados e inteiros Chemical physical meat characteristics of buffaloes and cattle entire and castrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Cruz Rodrigues

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As características físico-químicas da carne de bovinos Nelore (NE, F1 Nelore x Sindi (NS e de búfalos Mediterrâneos (BM castrados e inteiros foram avaliadas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (três grupos genéticos x duas condições sexuais com 24 parcelas. Os animais foram confinados, receberam a mesma dieta e foram abatidos com média de 437,5 kg. As amostras de carne foram obtidas do músculo Longissimus dorsi entre a 11ª e 12ª costelas. A carne de animais inteiros ofereceu maior teor de umidade (73,6 vs 71,0%, de proteína (87,5 vs 78,6% e de minerais (4,33 vs 3,85% e menor teor de gordura (8,9 vs 16,8% que castrados. A carne de bovinos NE teve maior teor de gordura (15,4% que NS (12,5% e BM (10,8%, não havendo diferença para a condição sexual dentro do grupo de BM. A luminosidade, intensidade do vermelho e intensidade do amarelo da carne e da gordura foram semelhantes entre NE, NS e BM, enquanto os castrados alcançaram maior luminosidade (39,0 vs 37,2 e intensidade do amarelo (1,82 vs 0,87 que inteiros, mas a intensidade do vermelho da carne e a luminosidade, intensidade do vermelho e intensidade do amarelo da gordura foram semelhantes entre grupos genéticos e condição sexual. A carne de BM apresentou menor força de cisalhamento (3,75 kgf que NS (4,85 kgf e NE (5,9 kgf, bem como dos castrados (4,5 kgf em relação aos inteiros (5,2 kgf, mas não houve diferença entre grupo genético e condição sexual para perda por cozimento e para pH final. A carne de búfalos e animais inteiros apresentou menor teor de gordura, sem perder o valor nutritivo, maciez e a baixa perda por cozimento.Meat physical and chemical characteristics of Nellore (NE and F1 Nellore x Sindi (NS cattle and Mediterranean buffaloes (BM castrated and entire were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement 3 (genetic groups x 2 (sexual conditions with 24 plots

  20. The Physics of Earthquakes: In the Quest for a Unified Theory (or Model) That Quantitatively Describes the Entire Process of an Earthquake Rupture, From its Nucleation to the Dynamic Regime and to its Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, M.

    2004-12-01

    For the past four decades, great progress has been made in understanding earthquake source processes. In particular, recent progress in the field of the physics of earthquakes has contributed substantially to unraveling the earthquake generation process in quantitative terms. Yet, a fundamental problem remains unresolved in this field. The constitutive law that governs the behavior of earthquake ruptures is the basis of earthquake physics, and the governing law plays a fundamental role in accounting for the entire process of an earthquake rupture, from its nucleation to the dynamic propagation to its arrest, quantitatively in a unified and consistent manner. Therefore, without establishing the rational constitutive law, the physics of earthquakes cannot be a quantitative science in a true sense, and hence it is urgent to establish the rational constitutive law. However, it has been controversial over the past two decades, and it is still controversial, what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. To resolve the controversy is a necessary step towards a more complete, unified theory of earthquake physics, and now the time is ripe to do so. Because of its fundamental importance, we have to discuss thoroughly and rigorously what the constitutive law ought to be from the standpoint of the physics of rock friction and fracture on the basis of solid evidence. There are prerequisites for the constitutive formulation. The brittle, seismogenic layer and individual faults therein are characterized by inhomogeneity, and fault inhomogeneity has profound implications for earthquake ruptures. In addition, rupture phenomena including earthquakes are inherently scale dependent; indeed, some of the physical quantities inherent in rupture exhibit scale dependence. To treat scale-dependent physical quantities inherent in the rupture over a broad scale range quantitatively in a unified and consistent manner, it is critical to

  1. Journey of a cystinuric patient with a long-term follow-up from a medical stone clinic: necessity to be SaFER (stone and fragments entirely removed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sacha L; Somani, Bhaskar K; Cook, Paul

    2018-04-25

    There is a lack of studies looking at the longitudinal follow-up of patients with cystine stones. We wanted to assess the journey of cystinuric patients through our specialist metabolic stone clinic to improve the understanding of episodes, interventions and current outcomes in this patient cohort. After ethical approval, all patients who attended our metabolic stone clinic from 1994 to 2014 with at least one cystine stone episode were included in our study. Data were retrospectively analysed for patient demographics, stone episodes or intervention, clinical parameters and patient compliance. Over a period of 21 years, 16 patients with a median age of 15.5 years underwent a mean follow-up of 8.6 years (1-21 years). The mean number of surgical interventions was 3.1 (1-8/patient), but patients who were stone free after their first treatment had lower recurrences (p = 0.91) and lower number of interventions during their follow-up (2.7/patient, compared to those who were not stone free at 4/patient). During their follow-up period, patients with stone episodes (r 2  = 0.169). It was also noted that patients who began early medical management remained stone free during follow-up compared to those who had medical management after ≥ 2 stone episodes, of whom all had a recurrent episode. Our long-term longitudinal study of cystine stone formers highlights that patients who are stone free and receive early metabolic stone screening and medical management after their initial presentation have the lowest recurrence rates and tend to preserve their renal function. Hence, prompt referral for metabolic assessment, and the stone and fragments entirely removed (SaFER) principles are key to preventing stone episodes and improving long-term function.

  2. Is it beneficial to selectively boost high-risk tumor subvolumes? A comparison of selectively boosting high-risk tumor subvolumes versus homogeneous dose escalation of the entire tumor based on equivalent EUD plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yusung; To me, Wolfgang A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify and compare expected local tumor control and expected normal tissue toxicities between selective boosting IMRT and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT for the case of prostate cancer. Methods. Four different selective boosting scenarios and three different high-risk tumor subvolume geometries were designed to compare selective boosting and homogeneous dose escalation IMRT plans delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. For each scenario, differences in tumor control probability between both boosting strategies were calculated for the high-risk tumor subvolume and remaining low-risk PTV, and were visualized using voxel based iso-TCP maps. Differences in expected rectal and bladder complications were quantified using radiobiological indices (generalized EUD (gEUD) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP)) as well as %-volumes. Results. For all investigated scenarios and high-risk tumor subvolume geometries, selective boosting IMRT improves expected TCP compared to homogeneous dose escalation IMRT, especially when lack of control of the high-risk tumor subvolume could be the cause for tumor recurrence. Employing, selective boosting IMRT significant increases in expected TCP can be achieved for the high-risk tumor subvolumes. The three conventional selective boosting IMRT strategies, employing physical dose objectives, did not show significant improvement in rectal and bladder sparing as compared to their counterpart homogeneous dose escalation plans. However, risk-adaptive optimization, utilizing radiobiological objective functions, resulted in reduction in NTCP for the rectum when compared to its corresponding homogeneous dose escalation plan. Conclusions. Selective boosting is a more effective method than homogeneous dose escalation for achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Furthermore, risk-adaptive optimization increases the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional selective boosting IMRT

  3. Characterization of the Entire Cystatin Gene Family in Barley and Their Target Cathepsin L-Like Cysteine-Proteases, Partners in the Hordein Mobilization during Seed Germination1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds. PMID:19759340

  4. Afrika Statistika ISSN 2316-090X Comportement de la fonction d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le cas o`u la variable observée Xt est retardée de h > 0 et alors st = Xt−h, .... Nous exposons `a la Figure 5 le comportement de l'ACF de quelques séries issues ..... nous effectuons des simulations de Monte-Carlo, d'une part, pour exam-.

  5. Fonction et signe de l'arbre dans l'espace urbain de Lomé

    OpenAIRE

    Tchamie, T.T.K.; Badameli, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Le monde végétal est inscrit naturellement dans la conscience des population africaines. Il n'est donc pas étonnant que l'arbre soit omniprésent dans les champs et les agglomérations. Cette présence de l'arbre s'explique par son importance dans la vie des hommes : rôle alimentaire aussi bien pour les hommes que pour les animaux, rôle réligieux, rôle écologique, rôle énergétique...

  6. Les scientifiques et les fonctions d’intellectuel Scientists and the functions of intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Zaccai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le sujet de cette contribution trouve son origine dans un certain étonnement à constater la présence relativement faible de scientifiques parmi les intellectuels reconnus, en dépit de l’importance majeure des sciences dans les sociétés. Certains éléments explicatifs sont proposés tels que la moindre demande pour ce type de savoir dans le public, et du côté interne aux universités, des formations disciplinaires et méthodes d’évaluation qui n’incitent pas à ces prises de parole.L’article est construit à travers l’analyse de cinq catégories de prise de position, ou de “fonction” d’intellectuel. Trois d’entre elles concernent de larges publics et des discours influents : se prononcer sur un sujet de sa spécialité, se prononcer sur les implications de sa discipline, prendre position sur tout type de sujet. Une quatrième catégorie concerne des collaborations plus ponctuelles de type “science citoyenne”. La cinquième enfin porte sur la gestion académique et professionnelle des domaines de savoirs.The topic of this paper is rooted in some kind of astonishment at the relatively weak part of scientists among recognized intellectuals despite the major importance of sciences in societies. Some reasons are put forward, such as a lower demand for this type of knowledge among the public but also in universities, which offer disciplinary trainings as well as assessment methods that fail to encourage such expressions.The paper is based on the analysis of five categories of statements, or “functions” of intellectuals. Three of them concern a large public along with influential speeches: expressing oneself on a topic from one’s area of expertise; on the implications of one’s discipline; on any kind of issue. A fourth category concerns more occasional collaborations such as “citizen science”. The last category addresses the academic and professional management of the fields of knowledge.

  7. Influence de quelques facteurs de l'environnement sur la fonction de reproduction chez les poissons

    OpenAIRE

    Billard, Roland; Gillet, Christian

    1984-01-01

    Climate, photoperiod and temperature directly influence reproduction as does food availability which is an indirect effect. The effects of photoperiodism are more varied than those of temperature but long-term thermal variations also influence reproduction. Some parameters of the aquatic medium, such as pH, O sub(2), water salinity, social environment, are also important, affecting gametogenesis and fertility. Man represents the main environmental influence having a direct (domestication, man...

  8. Thyroid weight with age; Le poids de la thyroide en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulier-Fabry, C; Hammer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [French] Cette etude bibliographique rassemble la plupart des donnees actuellement disponibles sur le poids de la thyroide chez les individus normaux. On peut en deduire un poids moyen probable de 20 g pour l'adulte et de 2 g pour le nouveau-ne. Au cours de la premiere annee, la glande subit une nette regression (1 g a 6 mois); elle n'atteint a nouveau le poids a la naissance qu'au cours de la deuxieme annee. La courbe d'evolution avec l'age peut etre decompose, en premiere approximation, en trois segments de droite: de 2 a 7 ans, de 7 a 18 ans et de 18 a 25 ans, dont les pentes sont respectivement de 0.6, 0.9 et 0.5 g par an. Les variations au cours de l'age adulte sont faibles, de sorte qu'on peut admettre que le poids reste constant pour toute la periode de 25 a 55 ans. Enfin, dans la limite des informations actuelles, la difference entre les deux sexes est negligeable.

  9. Etude des caractéristiques structurales des teckeraies en fonction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RÉSUMÉ. La présente étude conduite dans les plantations de teck du Sud et du Centre Bénin a pour objectif de caractériser leur structure en termes ... la gestion durable de ces plantations, que la présente étude s'est fixé pour objectif de ...... recrutement dans les classes de grands diamètres. Sur les sols ferralitiques, les.

  10. Minimisation de fonctions de perte calibrée pour la classification des images

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Haj Ali , Wafa

    2013-01-01

    Image classification becomes a big challenge since it concerns on the one hand millions or billions of images that are available on the web and on the other hand images used for critical real-time applications. This classification involves in general learning methods and classifiers that must require both precision as well as speed performance. These learning problems concern a large number of application areas: namely, web applications (profiling, targeting, social networks, search engines),...

  11. Phenomenological study of the nucleon structure functions; Etude phenomenologique des fonctions de structure du nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertini, M

    1995-05-12

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the deep inelastic scattering. Its purpose is the development of phenomenological models describing experimental results on unpolarized (F{sub 2}) and polarized (g{sub 1}) nucleon structure functions in the wide range of the kinematical domain. Special attention is paid to the small-x behaviour of F{sub 2} and to the link between deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction process. The investigation of the Pomeron in deep inelastic scattering shows that one single Pomeron compatible with the Froissard-Martin limit can account for all the present HERA data. A phenomenological model of the proton structure function is developed, based on a two-component structure including various features expected from both perturbative quantum chromodynamics and non perturbative Regge theory. A link with the photoproduction process is provided. A detailed analysis of the perturbative components, based on the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations is presented. Taking into account the different parton distribution, this approach allows to describe data on proton and neutron structure functions, on deep inelastic neutrino scattering, and to reproduce the gluons distribution extracted by the ZEUS collaboration. The model is applied to the polarized deep inelastic scattering and the axial anomaly effect appearing both in the description of results on the spin dependent structure functions g{sup p,n,d} and in the interpretation of the nucleon spin structure is discussed. (J.S.). 260 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs., 6 appends.

  12. Géométrie, graphiques, fonctions au collège

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Douady

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available L'apprentissage des mathématiques s'inscrit sur le long terme et en général dans une structure institutionnelle : l'école. L'apprenant construit sa connaissance au fil des années, dans un rapport interactif avec ses enseignants, les autres élèves de sa classe et toutes les autres sources que la vie sociale met à sa disposition.Dans le texte ci-dessous, nous présentons un ensemble de problèmes dont l'enjeu mathématique est la notion d'approximation traitée à un moment de la scolarité : élèves de 12-15 ans, de façon contextualisée. Ce n'est qu'une approche, la question du calcul d'erreur n'est pas abordée. Nombres et mesures y sont impliqués dans différents cadres en interaction : numérique, géométrique, fonctionnel, graphique. Nous y expliquons nos choix didactiques et les raisons des choix de l'ingénierie proposée. La référence est la dialectique outil/objet et jeux de cadres. Elle nous offre une grille pour élaborer les séquences de classe et aussi pour repérer et analyser les relations entre l'enseignant et les élèves : qui est responsable de quoi, qui fait quoi. L'enseignant a des marges de manoeuvre pour organiser et conduire son enseignement, il a des attentes concernant les élèves. Nous y faisons référence.

  13. La fonction surrénale pendant l'adaptation aux hauts plateaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available La réponse surrénale de sujets de la côte, séjournant à altitude moyenne (3220m a été étudiée. Les résultats démontrent une augmentation significative des 17-OHs et 17-COs le premier jour de séjour en altitude le septième Jour les 17-OHs sont à nouveau à un taux proche du taux initial- sur la cote tandis que les 17-COa se maintiennent à un taux relativement supérieur. Il est possible qu'entre les facteurs expliquant telle réponse se trouve l'hypoxie pouvant Impliquer une libération hormonale au niveau des surrénales ou bien une activation des enzymes intervenant dans la stéroidogenèse Se ha estudiado la respuesta suprarrenal de sujetos del nivel del mar expuestos a medianas alturas (3,220 m. sobre el nivel del mar. Los resultados demuestran aumento significativo en los 17-OHs y 17-COs el primer día de exposición a la altura él séptimo día los 17-OHs retornan a valores cercanos a los basales, no así los 17-COs que se mantienen discretamente aumentados. Es posible que entre los factores que puedan explicar dicha respuesta se encuentre la hipoxia o que podría hacer que las suprarrenales excreten sus reservas hormonales o bien aumente en las enzimas que Intervienen en la génesis esteroidea. It has been considered the adrenal gland response of some sea levels natives exposed at 9660 feets. The results are showing an increase of the 17-OHs and 17-Ks the first day of staying in altitude the seventh day, the 17-OHs return at a rate next to the initial one- on the coast while the 17-Ks are keeping up at a relatively high level, It is possible that two factors may be involved In order to explain this finding the first one could be hypoxie and the second one is the increasing of adrenal gland enzymes involved in steroidogenesis

  14. CARRYING OF FRENCH VISAS FOR HOLDERS OF CATEGORY 'EF' FRENCH ATTESTATIONS DE FONCTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organisation that members of the personnel resident in Switzerland and holding Category 'EF' French Attestations de functions are not obliged to be in possession of French visas. When temporarily travelling through France on OFFICIAL CERN BUSINESS, provided they are carrying the valid Attestation and a valid national passport with them.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  15. A Kinetic Description of the Van Hove Correlation Functions; Description Cinetique des Fonctions de Correlation de Van Hove; 041a 0418 041d 0415 0422 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 0415 041e 041f 0418 0421 0410 041d 0418 0415 0424 0423 041d 041a 0426 0418 0419 041a 041e 0420 0420 0415 041b 042f 0426 0418 0418 0412 0410 041d 0413 041e 0412 0415 ; Descripcion Cinetica de las Funciones de Correlacion de Van Hove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelkin, M.; Van Leeuwen, J. M.J.; Yip, S. [Cornell University Ithaca N.Y. (United States)

    1965-06-15

    appropriate to G(r, t) and G{sub s} (r, t) do not have the same form. The consequences of the two descriptions are demonstrated by model calculations in the context of simple relaxation approximations. The Gs(r, t) calculation leads to a correlation function with non-Gaussian effects which are qualitatively similar to but more pronounced than those calculated by Rahman in liquid argon from molecular dynamics. More refined treatment of the collision integral is now being considered. The G (r, t) calculation shows the expected effects of thermal diffusion and damped sound wave propagation at long wavelengths, and deviates from the conventional hydrodynamic description at short wavelengths. (author) [French] La fonction de correlation de densite de van Hove G (r, t) pour un fluide classique est exprimee par une integration sur les quantites de mouvements d'une fonction appropriee de distribution a une particule F (r, p, t). Par un procede analogue, on obtient la fonction d'autocorrelation G{sub s}(r, t) exprimee a l'aide d'une autre fonction de distribution F{sub s}(r, p, t). Les auteurs montrent que pour des gaz de densite moyenne, ces fonctions de distribution peuvent etre calculees a partir d'equations cinetiques. Ces dernieres sont etablies par des developpements en serie, selon la densite, de F (r, p, t) et F{sub s}(r, p, t). Pour des temps courts par rapport aux intervalles entre les chocs, les series ainsi obtenues peuvent etre utilisees directement. Pour des temps plus longs, il faut faire la somme d'une serie infinie de termes de maniere a tenir compte des effets de chocs multiples. La sommation des termes predominants peut se ramener a la solution d'une equation integrale. Dans l'ordre inferieur, cette equation a la forme d'une equation de Boltzmann linearisee, corrigee pour tenir compte des chocs incomplets. Lorsque ces corrections sont negligees, l'equation appropriee relative a F(r, p, t) devient l'equation de Boltzmann linearisee telle qu'elle est employee dans la

  16. MTU series 1600 HCCI engine with extremely low exhaust emissions over the entire engine map; HCCI-Motor der MTU Baureihe 1600 mit extrem niedrigen Abgasemissionen im gesamten Motorkennfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teetz, Christoph; Bergmann, Dirk; Sauer, Christina; Schneemann, Arne [MTU, Friedrichshafen (Germany); Eichmeier, Johannes; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). IFKM

    2012-11-01

    The main challenge when developing off-highway engines is to keep emissions within the limits to apply in the future while maintaining low fuel consumption and low CO{sub 2} output. In the USA in particular, diesel engines in the 130 - 560 kW power range are to be subject from 2014 to EPA Tier 4 legislation, which imposes limits of 0.4 g/kWh for NO{sub x} and 0.02 g/kWh for particulate matter. Diesel units can only satisfy those requirements using a combination of in-engine measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems (SCR, particulate filters), which makes them a good deal more complex and expensive. In the face of CO{sub 2} emissions regulations and the growing demand for diesel fuel, greater emphasis is now being placed on alternative fuels. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition or 'HCCI' provides an alternative to complex exhaust aftertreatment systems which generates virtually no soot or nitrous oxide emissions. It does, however, present new challenges with respect to combustion control and engine load. Up to the present, it has not been possible to exploit the full potential of this combustion process over the entire engine map, since the high ignition performance of diesel fuel at high loads results in excessively early combustion and inadmissible pressure gradients. The pre-development department of MTU Friedrichshafen worked with the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to devise a research prototype for an industrial application which would allow semi-homogenous combustion with controlled self-ignition over the full engine map. The engine is based on a 6-cylinder version of the MTU Series 1600 unit and has a rated output of 300 kW. The fuels - gasoline or ethanol and diesel - are mixed in such a way as to avoid the disadvantages associated with most HCCI processes. Since the use of ethanol also enhances combustion efficiency, it has a two-fold positive effect on the CO{sub 2} situation. With

  17. Molecular immune recognition of botulinum neurotoxin B. The light chain regions that bind human blocking antibodies from toxin-treated cervical dystonia patients. Antigenic structure of the entire BoNT/B molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, M Zouhair; Jankovic, Joseph; Steward, Lance E; Aoki, K Roger; Dolimbek, Behzod Z

    2012-01-01

    We recently mapped the regions on the heavy (H) chain of botulinum neurotoxin, type B (BoNT/B) recognized by blocking antibodies (Abs) from cervical dystonia (CD) patients who develop immunoresistance during toxin treatment. Since blocking could also be effected by Abs directed against regions on the light (L) chain, we have mapped here the L chain, using the same 30 CD antisera. We synthesized, purified and characterized 32 19-residue L chain peptides that overlapped successively by 5 residues (peptide L32 overlapped with peptide N1 of the H chain by 12 residues). In a given patient, Abs against the L chain seemed less intense than those against H chain. Most sera recognized a limited set of L chain peptides. The levels of Abs against a given region varied with the patient, consistent with immune responses to each epitope being under separate MHC control. The peptides most frequently recognized were: L13, by 30 of 30 antisera (100%); L22, by 23 of 30 (76.67%); L19, by 15 of 30 (50.00%); L26, by 11 of 30 (36.70%); and L14, by 12 of 30 (40.00%). The activity of L14 probably derives from its overlap with L13. The levels of Ab binding decreased in the following order: L13 (residues 169-187), L22 (295-313), L19 (253-271), and L26 (351-369). Peptides L12 (155-173), L18 (239-257), L15 (197-215), L1 (1-19) and L23 (309-327) exhibited very low Ab binding. The remaining peptides had little or no Ab-binding activity. The antigenic regions are analyzed in terms of their three-dimensional locations and the enzyme active site. With the previous localization of the antigenic regions on the BoNT/B H chain, the human Ab recognition of the entire BoNT/B molecule is presented and compared to the recognition of BoNT/A by human blocking Abs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    proximal to distal segments, whereas MRP2 decreased from proximal to distal small intestinal regions. Overall, it was revealed that the combined effect of P-gp and MRP2, but not BCRP, dominates colchicine transepithelial transport, leading to complete coverage of the entire small intestine, and makes the efflux transport dominate the intestinal permeability process.

  19. Long-term microparticle flux variability indicated by comparison of Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) timed impacts for LDEF's first year in orbit with impact data for the entire 5.77-year orbital lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Charles G.; Mulholland, J. Derral; Oliver, John P.; Cooke, William J.; Kassel, Philip C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic sensors of the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) recorded precise impact times and approximate directions for submicron to approximately 100 micron size particles on all six primary sides of the spacecraft for the first 346 days of the LDEF orbital mission. Previously-reported analyses of the timed impact data have established their spatio-temporal features, including the demonstration that a preponderance of the particles in this regime are orbital debris and that a large fraction of the debris particles are encountered in megameter-size clouds. Short-term fluxes within such clouds can rise several orders of magnitude above the long-term average. These unexpectedly large short-term variations in debris flux raise the question of how representative an indication of the multi-year average flux is given by the nearly one year of timed data. One of the goals of the IDE was to conduct an optical survey of impact sites on detectors that remained active during the entire LDEF mission, to obtain full-mission fluxes. We present here the comparisons and contrasts among the new IDE optical survey impact data, the IDE first-year timed impact data, and impact data from other LDEF micrometeoroid and debris experiments. The following observations are reported: (1) the 5.77 year long-term integrated microparticle impact fluxes recorded by IDE detectors matched the integrated impact fluxes measured by other LDEF investigators for the same period; (2) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied by factors from 0.5 to 8.3 for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on rows 3 (trailing edge, or West), 6 (South side), 12 (North side), and the Earth and Space ends; and (3) IDE integrated microparticle impact fluxes varied less than 3 percent for LDEF days 1-346, 347-2106 and 1-2106 (5.77 years) on row 9 (leading edge, or East). These results give further evidence of the accuracy and internal consistency of the recorded IDE impact data. This leads to

  20. Trend analysis of mortality rates and causes of death in children under 5 years old in Beijing, China from 1992 to 2015 and forecast of mortality into the future: an entire population-based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Han; Wang, Jing; Li, Yichen; Li, Dongyang; Guo, Jin; Hu, Yifei; Meng, Kai; He, Dian; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng; Qi, Han; Zhang, Ling

    2017-09-18

    To analyse trends in mortality and causes of death among children aged under 5 years in Beijing, China between 1992 and 2015 and to forecast under-5 mortality rates (U5MRs) for the period 2016-2020. An entire population-based epidemiological study was conducted. Data collection was based on the Child Death Reporting Card of the Beijing Under-5 Mortality Rate Surveillance Network. Trends in mortality and leading causes of death were analysed using the χ 2 test and SPSS 19.0 software. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was fitted to forecast U5MRs between 2016 and 2020 using the EViews 8.0 software. Mortality in neonates, infants and children aged under 5 years decreased by 84.06%, 80.04% and 80.17% from 1992 to 2015, respectively. However, the U5MR increased by 7.20% from 2013 to 2015. Birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities comprised the top five causes of death. The greatest, most rapid reduction was that of pneumonia by 92.26%, with an annual average rate of reduction of 10.53%. The distribution of causes of death differed among children of different ages. Accidental asphyxia and sepsis were among the top five causes of death in children aged 28 days to 1 year and accident was among the top five causes in children aged 1-4 years. The U5MRs in Beijing are projected to be 2.88‰, 2.87‰, 2.90‰, 2.97‰ and 3.09‰ for the period 2016-2020, based on the predictive model. Beijing has made considerable progress in reducing U5MRs from 1992 to 2015. However, U5MRs could show a slight upward trend from 2016 to 2020. Future considerations for child healthcare include the management of birth asphyxia, congenital heart disease, preterm/low birth weight and other congenital abnormalities. Specific preventative measures should be implemented for children of various age groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  1. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), LiDAR acquired and processed over the entire county to support the generation of 1"=100' scale orthophotos & 2' contours. The Lidar LAS data has been classified to bare-earth as well as first-return points., Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Non-Profit | GIS Inventory — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset current as of 2009. LiDAR acquired and processed over the entire county to support the generation of 1"=100' scale orthophotos...

  2. Relations entre acides gras oméga-3, oméga-9, structures et fonctions du cerveau. Le point sur les dernières données. Le coût financier alimentaire des oméga-3 « Je chercherai à connaître les différences qui existent entre les huiles de faine, de colza, d’olive, de noix ». Honoré de Balzac. « Histoire de César Birotteau ».

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Pour ce qui concerne le cerveau, les acides gras ω3 ont été plus spécialement étudiés que les acides gras ω6 ou ω9. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique (18 :3 ω3 altère la structure et la fonction des membranes, et entraîne de légers dysfonctionnements cérébraux, comme cela a été montré sur les modèles animaux puis chez les nourrissons humains. Les résultats récents ont montré que son déficit alimentaire induit des anomalies plus marquées dans certaines structures cérébrales que dans d’autres, le cortex frontal et l’hypophyse étant les plus touchés. Ces singularités sont accompagnées de perturbations comportementales qui touchent plus particulièrement certains tests (habituation, adaptation à une situation nouvelle. Les anomalies biochimiques et comportementales sont partiellement réversées par une supplémentation avec des phospholipides, notamment extraits d’oeuf enrichis en ω3 ou de cervelle de porc. Une étude effet-dose montre que les phospholipides d’origine animale sont plus efficaces que ceux d’origine végétale pour réverser les conséquences du déficit, dans la mesure, entre autres, où ils apportent les très longues chaînes pré-formées. La déficience en acide alpha-linolénique se traduit au niveau du cortex frontal de rat par des perturbations de la neurotransmission mono-aminergique. Mais ne sont touchées ni la densité ni la fonction des transporteurs de la dopamine. Chez l’animal carencé, la réversibilité dans la neurotransmission dopaminergique (dans le cortex préfrontal, entre autres n’est que partielle après arrêt du déficit alimentaire. La carence en acide alpha-linolénique diminue la perception du plaisir, en altérant légèrement l’efficacité des organes sensoriels et en affectant certaines structures cérébrales. Cette carence modifie le métabolisme énergétique du cerveau en perturbant le transport du glucose. Au cours du vieillissement, la baisse

  3. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont proportionnelles a E{sup 5}{sub {gamma

  4. An efficient entire chaos-based scheme for deniable authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Wong, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    By using a chaotic encryption-hash parallel algorithm and the semi-group property of Chebyshev chaotic map, we propose a secure and efficient scheme for the deniable authentication. The scheme is efficient, practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for e-commerce

  5. 5 CFR 213.3202 - Entire executive civil service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amended by Executive Order 13024) when the student has: (A) Completed at least 640 hours of career-related... section if a student enrolled in an accredited college or university completes 320 hours of career-related... number of hours a student can work per week, but the student's work schedule should not interfere with...

  6. Templated dewetting: designing entirely self-organized platforms for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Marco; Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Formation and dispersion of metal nanoparticles on oxide surfaces in site-specific or even arrayed configuration are key in various technological processes such as catalysis, photonics, electrochemistry and for fabricating electrodes, sensors, memory devices, and magnetic, optical, and plasmonic platforms. A crucial aspect towards an efficient performance of many of these metal/metal oxide arrangements is a reliable fabrication approach. Since the early works on graphoepitaxy in the 70s, solid state dewetting of metal films on patterned surfaces has been much explored and regarded as a most effective tool to form defined arrays of ordered metal particles on a desired substrate. While templated dewetting has been studied in detail, particularly from a mechanistic perspective on lithographically patterned Si surfaces, the resulting outstanding potential of its applications on metal oxide semiconductors, such as titania, has received only limited attention. In this perspective we illustrate how dewetting and particularly templated dewetting can be used to fabricate highly efficient metal/TiO 2 photocatalyst assemblies e.g. for green hydrogen evolution. A remarkable advantage is that the synthesis of such photocatalysts is completely based on self-ordering principles: anodic self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays that self-align to a highest degree of hexagonal ordering are an ideal topographical substrate for a second self-ordering process, that is, templated-dewetting of sputter-deposited metal thin films. The controllable metal/semiconductor coupling delivers intriguing features and functionalities. We review concepts inherent to dewetting and particularly templated dewetting, and outline a series of effective tools that can be synergistically interlaced to reach fine control with nanoscopic precision over the resulting metal/TiO 2 structures (in terms of e.g. high ordering, size distribution, site specific placement, alloy formation) to maximize their photocatalytic efficiency. These processes are easy to scale up and have a high throughput and great potential to be applied to fabricate not only (photo)catalytic materials but also a large palette of other functional nanostructured elements and devices.

  7. UNSCOM faces entirely new verification challenges in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevan, T.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with the very first declarations and inspections, it became evident that Iraq was not acting in good faith, would use every possible pretext to reinterpret UNSCOM's inspection rights, and occasionally would use harassment tactics to make inspections as difficult as possible. Topics considered in detail include; initial assumptions, outstanding issues, and UNSCOM's future attitude

  8. A consumer study of Danish entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1996-01-01

    made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...

  9. NM-Scale Anatomy of an Entire Stardust Carrot Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.

    2009-01-01

    Comet Wild-2 samples collected by NASA s Stardust mission are extremely complex, heterogeneous, and have experienced wide ranges of alteration during the capture process. There are two major types of track morphologies: "carrot" and "bulbous," that reflect different structural/compositional properties of the impactors. Carrot type tracks are typically produced by compact or single mineral grains which survive essentially intact as a single large terminal particle. Bulbous tracks are likely produced by fine-grained or organic-rich impactors [1]. Owing to their challenging nature and especially high value of Stardust samples, we have invested considerable effort in developing both sample preparation and analytical techniques tailored for Stardust sample analyses. Our report focuses on our systematic disassembly and coordinated analysis of Stardust carrot track #112 from the mm to nm-scale.

  10. Mass Determination of Entire Amyloid Fibrils by Using Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussineau, Tristan; Mathevon, Carole; Altamura, Lucie; Vendrely, Charlotte; Dugourd, Philippe; Forge, Vincent; Antoine, Rodolphe

    2016-02-12

    Amyloid fibrils are self-assembled protein structures with important roles in biology (either pathogenic or physiological), and are attracting increasing interest in nanotechnology. However, because of their high aspect ratio and the presence of some polymorphism, that is, the possibility to adopt various structures, their characterization is challenging and basic information such as their mass is unknown. Here we show that charge-detection mass spectrometry, recently developed for large self-assembled systems such as viruses, provides such information in a straightforward manner. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. George Kelly: cognitive psychologist, humanistic psychologist, or something else entirely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2008-11-01

    George Kelly was regarded by some of his contemporaries as a cognitive psychologist and by others as a humanistic psychologist. Kelly himself resisted being rubricized. He did, however, name several people who had been influential in his life and work, one of whom was J.F. Herbart. A comparison of Herbart and Kelly reveals several similarities. Both shared a belief that psychology was fundamentally a mathematical discipline. Both eliminated distinctions usually taken for granted in psychology, such as emotion versus cognition. Reconstructing Kelly's relation to Herbart allows one to see more clearly why Kelly was such a unique figure in 20th century psychology.

  12. vct 251,uop vct 251,vct 251 entire course new

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2018-01-01

    UOP VCT 251 Week 1 Individual: Graphic Icon NEW Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentcloud.com/vct-251-uop/vct-251-week-1-individual-graphic-icon-new For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ VCT 251 Week 1 Individual: Graphic Icon NEW Review Lessons 1, 2, and 3 of Adobe® Illustrator® CC™ Digital Classroom and the Lynda.com® video “Introduction to Graphic Design with Justin Seeley”. Create your first Illustrat...

  13. Burgess shale-type biotas were not entirely burrowed away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Droser, Mary L.; Orr, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    environments is that soft-bodied biotas were literally burrowed away from the fossil record by increasing infaunal activity in muddy substrate environments; this would have affected geochemical gradients and increased the efficiency of organic matter recycling in sediments. New and recently published data...

  14. Radioactive materials transportation by motorbike in entire Brazil territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    This Regulation refers to the interpretation of the term vehicle in the Chapter 3 of the CNEN-NE.5.01 'Vehicle: road vehicle (including articulated vehicle, i.e., combination of tractor and semi-trailer), car or railway wagon. Each wagon should be considered a separate vehicle'. This definition does not include the possibility of radioactive material transportation by motorbike

  15. A new resource for the entire LHC community

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first time I addressed the CERN community as Director-General in January 2009, I said that I wished to see the intellectual life of the Laboratory develop. With the experiments rapidly accumulating data, now is the time for that to happen. CERN is known as a global reference point for excellence in accelerator science, and our track record of providing world-class facilities is second to none. Simply stated, the division of labour between CERN and the experiments it hosts is that CERN has provided the beams and support systems from experimental areas to IT, while the experiments have done the physics. That doesn't mean, however, that CERN has no part to play in the intellectual life of the experiments. Our Theory group has always provided support to CERN's experiments, while CERN physicists, Staff and Fellows, are an essential part of every experiment conducted here. With the LHC coming on stream, the time is right to create a focal point at CERN dedicated to the LHC research programme and open to...

  16. Recycling entire DOE facilities: The National Conversion Pilot Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Mission of the National Conversion Pilot Project - to demonstrate, at the Rocky Flats Site, the feasibility of economic conversion of DOE Sites - is succeeding. Contaminated facilities worth $92 million are being cleaned and readied for reuse by commercial industry to manufacture products needed in the DOE cleanup and elsewhere. Former Rocky Flats workers have been hired, recultured, are conducting the cleanup and are expected to perform the future manufacturing by recycling DOE RSM and other metals requiring special environmental controls. Stakeholder sway over project activities is welcome and strong

  17. Molecular biologists backing effort to map entire human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurer, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses how the program to map and sequence the human genome will be managed. The National Research Council (NRC) recommends that a 15-year $200-million-a-year effort to map all human genes should begin immediately. However, some people have balked at the idea, saying it is a ploy to raise money. Part of the skeptic's uneasiness stems from the involvement of the Department of Energy (DOE), an agency not often linked with biological research. The DOE's interest arises from its commitment to understanding the biological effects of nuclear radiation. Critics say it is a budget-boosting tactic. This article explains some of the arguments for and against the project and explains exactly what it would involve

  18. Making traceability work across the entire food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Tejas; Buckley, Greg; McEntire, Jennifer C; Lothian, Paul; Sterling, Brian; Hickey, Caitlin

    2013-12-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists held Traceability Research Summits on July 14, August 22, and November 1, 2011, to address how to meet the growing requirement for agriculture and food traceability. Each meeting had a group of about 50 individuals who came from food companies, trade associations, local, state, and federal governments, 3rd-party traceability solution providers, not-for-profit corporations, consultants, and consumer groups. They discussed and deliberated the objectives of traceability and the means to develop product tracing in the food system. A total of 70 people participated in the 3 summits. These individuals were invited to participate in a small workgroup responsible for considering the details related to product tracing and presenting draft concepts to the larger group on November 1, 2011, in Chicago. During this meeting, the larger assembly further refined the concepts and came to an agreement on the basic principles and overall design of the desired approach to traceability. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Entire solutions for bistable lattice differential equations with obstacles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Aaron; Vleck, E S Van

    2018-01-01

    The authors consider scalar lattice differential equations posed on square lattices in two space dimensions. Under certain natural conditions they show that wave-like solutions exist when obstacles (characterized by "holes") are present in the lattice. Their work generalizes to the discrete spatial setting the results obtained in Berestycki, Hamel, and Matuno (2009) for the propagation of waves around obstacles in continuous spatial domains. The analysis hinges upon the development of sub and super-solutions for a class of discrete bistable reaction-diffusion problems and on a generalization of a classical result due to Aronson and Weinberger that concerns the spreading of localized disturbances.

  20. An efficient entire chaos-based scheme for deniable authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China) and College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.com; Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Wong, K.W. [Department of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    By using a chaotic encryption-hash parallel algorithm and the semi-group property of Chebyshev chaotic map, we propose a secure and efficient scheme for the deniable authentication. The scheme is efficient, practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for e-commerce.

  1. Sharing Means Renting?: An Entire-marketplace Analysis of Airbnb

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Airbnb, an online marketplace for accommodations, has experienced a staggering growth accompanied by intense debates and scattered regulations around the world. Current discourses, however, are largely focused on opinions rather than empirical evidences. Here, we aim to bridge this gap by presenting the first large-scale measurement study on Airbnb, using a crawled data set containing 2.3 million listings, 1.3 million hosts, and 19.3 million reviews. We measure several key characteristics at ...

  2. Could US mayors achieve the entire US Paris climate target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Huang, J.; Hutchins, M.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    After the recent US Federal Administration announcement not to adhere to the Paris Accords, 359 mayors (and counting) in the US pledged to maintain their commitments, reducing emissions within their jurisdictions by 26-28% from their 2005 levels by the year 2025. While important, this leaves a large portion of the US landscape, and a large amount of US emissions, outside of the Paris commitment. With Federal US policy looking unlikely to change, could additional effort by US cities overcome the gap in national policy and achieve the equivalent US national Paris commitment? How many cities would be required and how deep would reductions need to be? Up until now, this question could not be reliably resolved due to lack of data at the urban scale. Here, we answer this question with new data - the Vulcan V3.0 FFCO2 emissions data product - through examination of the total US energy related CO2 emissions from cities. We find that the top 500 urban areas in the US could meet the national US commitment to the Paris Accords with a reduction of roughly 30% below their 2015 levels by the year 2025. This is driven by the share of US emissions emanating from cities, particularly the largest cohort. Indeed, as the number of urban areas taking on CO2 reduction targets grows, the less the reduction burden on any individual city. In this presentation, we provide an analysis of US urban CO2 emissions and US climate policy, accounting for varying definitions of urban areas, emitting sectors and the tradeoff between the number of policy-active cities and the CO2 reduction burden.

  3. Gravitational Waves: An Entirely New Window onto the Cosmos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, scientists from the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration using the LIGO detectors observed the collision and fusion of two black holes by directly measuring the gravitational waves emitted during their collision.  This detection came almost exactly 100 years after Einstein developed his revolutionary general theory of relativity that predicted their existence, and 50 years after scientists began searching for them in earnest.  Since then, two more gravitational-wave events have been confidently detected. These discoveries have truly profound implications for physics and astronomy.   Gravitational waves provide unique information on the most energetic astrophysical events, revealing unique insights into the nature of gravity, matter, space, and time. LIGO has opened a new window onto the cosmos.  I will talk about how we made the detection and discuss how gravitational wave astronomy promises to change our understanding o...

  4. Thermal expansion of metals over the entire liquid range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaner, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of the art for measuring liquid metal densities. Conventional high precision techniques for use below 2000K as well as new techniques for more extreme temperatures are addressed. Pertinent data, which have appeared since the last critical reviews, for elemental metals are discussed

  5. When the Entire World is Pushed into the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article intercultural education is discussed, cases from the Danish upper secondary school are analyzed, and some requirements for further development are proposed. First definitions of the concepts communication, communicative action, intercultural communication and intercultural educati...

  6. The entire sequence over Musielak p-metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murugesan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce fibonacci numbers of Γ2(F sequence space over p-metric spaces defined by Musielak function and examine some topological properties of the resulting these spaces.

  7. A Consumer Study of Danish Entire Male Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...

  8. 5 CFR 213.3102 - Entire executive civil service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Executive branch employees (other than employees of intelligence agencies) who are entitled to placement... intelligence agencies defined in 5 U.S.C. 2302(a)(2)(C)(ii) who are entitled to placement under § 353.110. (2... printed volume and on GPO Access. ...

  9. Increasingly, there are pressures to study entire eco- systems for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the environment on fish populations, and the effect of fishing on the ..... average conditions were supplemented by studies of .... used to estimate fluctuations in pelagic fish recruit- ment and ... the plankton, and the productivity of the stratified waters of the ..... used to determine the optimal position, in both space and time, of ...

  10. Le droit étatique mexicain et les populations indigènes : fonction de reconnaissance ou fonction d’intégration Mexican State law and indigenous populations: recognition function or integration function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akuavi Adonon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articulation de l’État, du droit et de la réalité indigène au Mexique pose le problème de la reconnaissance. La reconnaissance de populations indigènes qui se distinguent du reste de la population mexicaine mais qui aspirent à être incluses de plein droit dans une notion d’État forcément renouvelée. En effet, le cadre constitutionnel mexicain accorde difficilement une place aux populations indigènes et reflète le tiraillement entre une conception unitaire de l’État et du droit étatique et une réalité multiculturelle de plus en plus présente et exigeante d’une inclusion explicite de la diversité. Le droit étatique est perçu comme un lieu privilégié de reconnaissance, il est également perçu comme un instrument de revendication. Pour les populations indigènes, le droit positif peut opérer la réconciliation, cependant ce droit étatique semble bel et bien avoir des limites face aux attentes légitimes d’un secteur important de la population.The way in which the State, the Law and the indigenous reality are articulated in Mexico involves the question of their recognition; the recognition of indigenous people, who are different in certain aspects from the rest of the population, but who want to be included with full rights in a definition of the State that has to be renewed. As a matter of fact, Mexican Constitution does not completely grant a place to indigenous people, this a document does not solve the tension between a unitary conception of the State and State law, and a multicultural reality that actually demands a bigger and more explicit recognition. State Law is seen by indigenous people as the main instrument of recognition, and it is also seen as a vindication instrument; they are looking for their recognition, they try to get it and to achieve reconciliation through the law. However, State law seems to have serious limits when faced with the rightful expectations of this important part of population.

  11. Binary analysis: 1. part: definitions and treatment of binary functions; 2. part: applications and functions of trans-coding; Analyse binaire: 1ere partie: definitions et traitements des fonctions binaires; 2eme partie: applications et fonctions de transcodage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, R L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The study of binary groups under their mathematical aspects constitutes the matter of binary analysis, the purpose of which consists in developing altogether simple, rigorous and practical methods needed by the technicians, the engineers and all those who may be mainly concerned by digital processing. This subject, fast extending if not determining, however tends actually to play a main part in nuclear electronics as well as in several other research areas. (authors) [French] L'analyse binaire a pour objet l'etude mathematique des proprietes d'ensembles binaires algebriques et pour but l'elaboration de methodes simples, rigoureuses et pratiques, destinees aux techniciens, aux ingenieurs et a tous ceux qu'interesse directement le traitement numerique de l'information, discipline en expansion rapide qui, deja, en electronique nucleaire comme dans de nombreux autres domaines de la recherche, tend a jouer un role essentiel sinon determinant. (auteurs)

  12. Subjectivation et mélancolie. La fonction des fantasmes dans les stratégies de la perte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Délia Popa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Following Freud’s suggestion that we are able to recognize in the others some parts of our unconscious life that we are not keen to admit as our owns, this paper draws a theory of empathy understood as a double intention affecting the self and the other, each of them being connected indirectly to an unconscious phantasm sustaining the social relations. The subjectivation is to be described as a process driving the self from what is seen in the other towards some parts of his unconscious that remain unknown. Violence and freedom in the social field are to be examined in relation to this difficult self-knowledge that we may access when the other is not only a limit, but also an indicating sign of what we are, without knowing it.

  13. Wavelets as basis functions in electronic structure calculations; Les ondelettes comme fonction de base dans le calcul de structures electroniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, C

    2005-11-15

    This thesis is devoted to the definition and the implementation of a multi-resolution method to determine the fundamental state of a system composed of nuclei and electrons. In this work, we are interested in the Density Functional Theory (DFT), which allows to express the Hamiltonian operator with the electronic density only, by a Coulomb potential and a non-linear potential. This operator acts on orbitals, which are solutions of the so-called Kohn-Sham equations. Their resolution needs to express orbitals and density on a set of functions owing both physical and numerical properties, as explained in the second chapter. One can hardly satisfy these two properties simultaneously, that is why we are interested in orthogonal and bi-orthogonal wavelets basis, whose properties of interpolation are presented in the third chapter. We present in the fourth chapter three dimensional solvers for the Coulomb's potential, using not only the preconditioning property of wavelets, but also a multigrid algorithm. Determining this potential allows us to solve the self-consistent Kohn-Sham equations, by an algorithm presented in chapter five. The originality of our method consists in the construction of the stiffness matrix, combining a Galerkin formulation and a collocation scheme. We analyse the approximation properties of this method in case of linear Hamiltonian, such as harmonic oscillator and hydrogen, and present convergence results of the DFT for small electrons. Finally we show how orbital compression reduces considerably the number of coefficients to keep, while preserving a good accuracy of the fundamental energy. (author)

  14. Le Rapport Juridique de Travail et le Rapport Juridique de Fonction Publique. Comparativisme Communautaire (proposition de Lege ferenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica Nistor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the basic rules of the two categories of legal relationship (job and work, we noticethat both are governed by the same principles: legality, impartiality and objectivity; transparency;efficiency and effectiveness; responsibility, in compliance with the law, orientation towards the citizen;stability in exercising competencies; hierarchical subordination. Comparing the two types of legalrelationships (job and work it must be taken into account the Lege ferenda, so as the public officialswould conclude the individual employment contracts, where there are written the clauses that govern thelegal relationships. The process of closing, executing, changing and ceasing these relationships shouldbe submitted to the same procedural rules that are applied to employees by the employing units.

  15. Régulation et fonctions du récepteur GPR84 dans le cerveau dans des conditions inflamatoires

    OpenAIRE

    Pagé, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Lors d'études antérieures, l'analyse du transcriptome des cellules micro gliales à l'aide de micropuces à ADN nous a permis d'identifier le récepteur transmembranaire GPR84. Dans la présente étude, nous avons testé l 'hypothèse que la transcription du GPR84 est augmentée dans la microglie durant l'inflammation. Plus précisément, nous avons étudié la régulation du GPR84 dans le cerveau durant une endotoxinémie et une encéphalomyélite autoimmune expérimentale (EAB) . Nos résultats ont montré un...

  16. Formes, fonctions et catégories linguistiques: Les principes de grammaire générale de Louis Hjelmslev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Swiggers

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quand, en 1928, Louis Hjelmslev publie ses Principes de grammaire générale, il s'inscrit dans un vaste processus d'élaboration d'une linguistique generale, qui per­ met de rattacher ces prémices d'une ceuvre qu'on associe aujourd'hui avec une école structuraliste spécifique - la glossématique -, aux travaux fondateurs de Saussure, de Jespersen, de Sapir. On pourrait parler de "insertion dans l'histoire des théories linguistiques", car, comme Saussure, Hjelmslev a senti la nécessité de for­ muler, pour la premiere fois, une theorie cohérente du langage et de repartir de zéro, tout en acceptant les acquis "matériels" du passé.

  17. L’institution du lien social : À propos des ouvrages d’Alain Supiot, Homo Juridicus. Essai sur la fonction anthropologique du droit et Tis

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Alain Supiot, à côté de nombreuses publications en droit social, poursuit une réflexion qui concerne le droit en tant que tel, comme en témoignent ses ouvrages : « Homo Juridicus » et « Tisser le lien social ». Le second présente des contributions issues du séminaire pluri-disciplinaire tenu depuis de nombreuses années à la Maison des sciences de l’Homme Ange-Guépin, le premier –auquel nous nous tiendrons- expose en deux parties « nos croyances fondatrices » et trois études présentées comme d...

  18. Le symptôme dans la psychothérapie d'un enfant dysphasique: analyse de sa fonction dynamique dans une perspective psychanalytique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Guillén

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, à partir d'un cas clinique, nous analysons la spécificité de la prise en charge psychothérapeutique de l'enfant dysphasique. Notre objectif principal est de montrer comment la succession de moments logiques donne une place à chaque fois nouvelle au symptôme. L'étude du déroulement de la séquence clinique, permet d'interroger la valeur du symptôme et son lien indissociable à la parole, dans la relation transférentielle, pour rendre compte du processus de subjectivation à l'œuvre chez cet enfant. En outre, ce travail amène à préciser la particularité de la démarche psychothérapeutique par rapport à celles des autres professionnels intervenant auprès des enfants dysphasiques.

  19. Nouvelles fonctions de l'agriculture et dynamiques des exploitations: une analyse chorématique dans les monts d'Ardèche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Bonin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Les modèles spatiaux sont utilisés pour l'analyse des trajectoires d'exploitations agricoles pour mettre en évidence les liens entre les transformations socio-économiques et les dynamiques de territoires. Les traits de dynamiques spatiales sont identifiés et utilisés pour analyser l'impact de l'introduction de l'agritourisme dans les exploitations dans le Parc naturel régional des monts d'Ardèche.

  20. Adaptation posologique des médicaments et fonction rénale : Quel(s) estimateur(s) faut-il choisir?

    OpenAIRE

    DELANAYE, Pierre; Flamant, M; CAVALIER, Etienne; Guerber, F; Valloton, T; Moranne, O; Pottel, H; Boffa, JJ; Mariat, C

    2016-01-01

    Le choix de la formule d’estimation du de´ bit de filtration glomérulaire (DFG) a` utiliser pour l’adaptation posologique fait encore de´ bat, principalement entre la formule de Cockcroft et les équations plus récentes, MDRD (pour Modified Diet in Renal Disease) et CKD-EPI (pour Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology). Les arguments mis en avant en faveur de l’utilisation de la formule de Cockcroft sont : qu’elle a été préférentiellement utilisée pour décider des adaptations posologiques avant l...

  1. Circulation et fonction de la médisance en campagne électorale [Electoral campaigning and malicious rumours: The circulation and function of gossips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aldina Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En politique il est parfois difficile de faire la distinction entre la vie privée et la vie publique des politiciens. Les campagnesélectorales favorisent cette indistinction et, parfois, le ouï-dire, les rumeurs, la médisance, en définitive, font partie du débat publique ou de l’ambiance électorale vécue. Essayant d’établir la distinction entre ce qui est public et ce qui est privé en politique, je me propose d’analyser la circulation des rumeurs encampagne électorale au Portugal, particulièrement les supports de circulation, les formes verbales qu’elles assument et le rôle communicationnel qu’elles y jouent.In politics, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between the private and the public spheres of politicians. Electoral campaignsfavour this indistinction and, occasionally, rumours, gossips and detraction, in short, are part of the public debate and electoral environment. In this paper, it is intended to point out the features and ways of circulation of a gossip in the course of a campaign for legislative elections in Portugal.

  2. Chaîne de services efficaces en énergie grâce à la virtualisation des fonctions réseaux

    OpenAIRE

    Tomassilli , Andrea; Huin , Nicolas; Giroire , Frédéric; Jaumard , Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Service Function Chains (SFCs) are an ordered sequence of network functions, such as firewall. Using the new approaches of Software Defined Networks and of Network Function Virtualization (NFV), the network functions can be virtualized and executed on generic hardware. To optimize network management, it is thus crucial to place dynamically the network functions at the right positions in the network according to the network traffic. In this paper, we consider the problem of SFC placement with ...

  3. From the 'PCR' function to the 'PCR' profession; de la fonction 'PCR' au metier 'PCR'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, L. [CERAP, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    After having recalled the legal context concerning the appointment and training of a radiation protection expert (PCR for 'personne competente en radioprotection'), the author outlines that the PCR's role has notably evolved: his function is now of primary importance in the company and his activity does not correspond to the legal framework any longer. Moreover, with the application of a European directive, some small establishments possessing ionizing radiation sources are disadvantaged, and the PCR is now facing an increasing number of missions and tasks. The author gives a list of them and assesses a needed time of 146 days per year: this means PCRs cannot have an other activity within their company

  4. Quality control and risk management: specific characteristics of the French health care system;Fonction qualite et gestion du risque: reflexions sur les specificites du systeme francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franck, D. [Syndicat National des Radiotherapeutes Oncologues (SNRO), 75 - Paris (France); Bureau de la Societe Francaise de Radiotherapie Oncologique (SFRO), 75 - Paris (France); Couderc, B. [Union Nationale Hospitaliere Privee de Cancerologie (UNHPC), 75 - Paris (France); Institut National du Cancer (INCa), 75 - Paris (France); Ligue Contre le Cancer, 75 - Paris (France); Parmentier, G. [UNHPC, 75 - Paris (France); College de l' Accreditation, Haut Conseil de Sante Publique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    The techniques used in the field of radiotherapy are the same everywhere, but the organisation and scope of activities vary depending on the country, and sometimes depending on the specific region. The International Radiotherapy Conference held in Paris and devoted to the radiation protection of radiotherapy patients provides us with an opportunity to discuss some of the specific characteristics of the French health care system. These past years, the context of workforce shortage associated with strong government initiatives, the implementation of several successive National Cancer Plans, the transposition of European Directives into French law (EURATOM 96/29 and 97/43) and the accident in Epinal have had a rapidly restructuring effect on the French radiotherapy sector. (authors)

  5. Variation of the uranium monocarbide parameter with changes in the carbon content; Variations du parametre du monocarbure d'uranium en fonction de sa teneur en carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnier, P; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors show that the chemical species uranium monocarbide is only a particular composition of the uranium-carbon alloy phase containing between 48 and 50 atoms per cent of carbon, and that the crystalline parameter of this phase varies simultaneously from 4.956 to 4.961 Angstroms. (authors) [French] Les auteurs montrent que l'espece chimique monocarbure d'uranium n'est qu'une composition particuliere de la phase des alliages uranium carbone contenant entre 48 et 50 atomes pour cent de carbone et que le parametre cristallin de cette phase varie simultanement de 4.956 a 4.961 Angstroms.

  6. Measurement of the lepton {tau} spectral functions and applications to quantum chromodynamic; Mesure des fonctions spectrales du lepton {tau} et applications a la chromodynamique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoecker, A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire; [Universite de Paris Sud, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-04-18

    This thesis presents measurements of the {tau} vector (V) and axial-vector (A) hadronic spectral functions and phenomenological studies in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Using the hypothesis of conserved vector currents (CVC), the dominant two- and four-pion vector spectral functions are compared to the corresponding cross sections from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. A combined fit of the pion form factor from {tau} decays and e{sup +}e{sup -} data is performed using different parametrizations. The mass and the width of the {rho}{sup {+-}}(770) and the {rho}{sup 0}(770) are separately determined in order to extract possible isospin violating effects. The mass and width differences are measured to be M{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - M{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.0{+-}1.0) MeV/c{sup 2} and {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup {+-}}{sub (770)} - {gamma}{sub {rho}{sup 0}}{sub (770)}=(0.1 {+-} 1.9) MeV/c{sup 2}. Several QCD chiral sum rules involving the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions are compared to their measurements. The Borel-transformed Das-Mathur-Okubo sum rule is used to measure the pion polarizability to be {alpha}{sub E}=(2.68{+-}0.91) x 10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}. The {tau} vector and axial-vector hadronic widths and certain spectral moments are exploited to measure {alpha}{sub s} and non-perturbative contributions at the {tau} mass scale. The best, and experimentally and theoretically most robust, determination of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}}) is obtained from the inclusive (V + A) fit that yields {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub {tau}})= 0.348{+-}0.017 giving {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1211 {+-} 0.0021 after the evolution to the mass of the Z boson. The approach of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is tested experimentally by means of an evolution of the {tau} hadronic width to masses smaller that the {tau} mass. Using the difference (V - A) of the spectral functions allows one to directly measure the dominant non-perturbative OPE dimension to be D=6.9{+-}0.5. The vector spectral functions are used to improve the precision of the experimental determination of the hadronic contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a{sub {mu}}=(g - 2)/2 and to the running of the QED fine structure constant {alpha}{sub QED}(M{sub Z}{sup 2}) at the Z mass. They are found to be a{sub {mu}}{sup had}=(701.1{+-}9.4) x 10{sup -10} and {delta}{alpha}{sub had}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=(281.7{+-}6.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the latter leads to {alpha}{sup -1}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=128.878{+-}0.085. (author)

  7. Le renouvellement des pratiques territoriales a travers la fonction alimentaire. Leçons a partir du cas « Saveurs du Coin » et du projet Confluent 1

    OpenAIRE

    Buclet , Nicolas; Debuisson , Marion

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Les politiques alimentaires représentent un enjeu politique fondamental pour les sociétés, dictant parfois des orientations d'aménagement urbain dans le but de garantir la sécurité alimentaire pour un territoire donné. Les politiques d'aménagement se sont longtemps détournées du système alimentaire, laissant la définition de sa stratégie et de son organisation aux acteurs privés. Ajouté à cette évolution des échelles de décision, un changement de périmètre d'action s'est op...

  8. Le droit non-étatique dans les rapports internationaux privés : contribution à l'étude des fonctions du droit international privé

    OpenAIRE

    Heyraud , Yann

    2017-01-01

    The production of non-state norms is growing in private international relations. The analysis of these norms in commercial and sporting activities is progressively building a unified definition of the notion of non-state norms: set of rules written and unilaterally drawn up by private and/or public actors, has intended to be applied with regard to the activity concerned, regardless of State borders. This proposal is put to the test of the various interactions maintained by non-state norms, in...

  9. General load function in geo-mechanics: application to underground works; Fonction de charge generale en geomecanique: application aux travaux souterrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiolino, S

    2006-04-15

    This work deals both with the behavioral and numerical aspects of the mechanical response of a rock massif to the digging out of a tunnel. The comparison between existing criteria has permitted to stress on some key points, like the dependence of the criterion to the average stress and the extension ratio. A load function, easily identifiable with tests, with regular and convex properties, has been proposed which allows to take into account the shape of the Mohr envelope of the criterion and the extension ratio. Regularized forms of Mohr-Coulomb and Hoek-Brown criteria can thus be achieved. The development of this new criterion has been completed by the proposal of a numerical charts method which greatly speeds up the resolution. For the proposed criterion, the physical problem is equivalent to a purely geometrical problem in polar coordinates in the plan. Numerical charts can thus be built which allow to find immediately the value of plastic deformations and to greatly reduce the processing time. Tunnel calculation methods have been the object of a bibliographic synthesis, specifying the domains and limitations of use of tunnel dimensioning methods used by engineers. The modeling of tunnels excavation has been performed with the stationary algorithm designed for the calculation of systems submitted to mobile loads. This algorithm has been adapted to integrate the new criterion and the numerical charts system. These tools have been validated using a real case study and data supplied by the French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) in the framework of the MODEX-REP European project (5. Euratom plan). The study of these data has permitted to define a rock wear variable, easily identifiable and allowing to parameterize the damaged rock criterion. (J.S.)

  10. Contributions Numériques à l'Etude des Fonctions de Green et des Propriétés du Vide de la Chromodynamique Quantique

    OpenAIRE

    Moutarde , Hervé

    2003-01-01

    Michel Davier, Président - Georges Grunberg, Rapporteur - Laurent Lellouch, Rapporteur - Olivier Pène - Claude Roiesnel, Directeur de thèse - Klaus Schilling; This thesis provides a lattice evaluation of the coupling constant of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in Landau gauge, in ``Momentum Substraction''-like renormalisation schemes (MOM), from a non-perturbative computation of the three-gluon vertex. This work was achieved with two flavours of Wilson dynamical quarks. It takes place in a scien...

  11. Correlation functions of the spin chains. Algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach; Fonctions de correlation des chaines de spin. Approche de l'ansatz de Bethe algebrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N

    2007-09-15

    Spin chains are the basic elements of integrable quantum models. These models have direct applications in condense matter theory, in statistical physics, in quantum optics, in field theory and even in string theory but they are also important because they enable us to solve, in an exact manner, non-perturbative phenomena that otherwise would stay unresolved. The method described in this work is based on the algebraic Bethe Ansatz. It is shown how this method can be used for the computation of null temperature correlation functions of the Heisenberg 1/2 spin chain. The important point of this approach is the solution of the inverse quantum problem given by the XXZ spin chain. This solution as well as a simple formulae for the scalar product of the Bethe states, have enabled us to get the most basic correlation functions under the form of multiple integrals. The formalism of multiple integrals open the way for asymptotic analysis for a few physical quantities like the probability of vacuum formation. It is worth noticing that this formalism can give exact results for two-point functions that are the most important correlation functions for applications. A relationship has been discovered between these multiple integrals and the sum of the form factors. The results have been extended to dynamical correlation functions. (A.C.)

  12. Mécanismes et fonctions de la voie d'ARN interférence induite par ARN double brin chez Paramecium tetraurelia

    OpenAIRE

    Carradec , Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia is an interesting model to study the diversity and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. One of the vegetative RNAi pathways is induced by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) homologous to a given gene, which is then post-transcriptionally silenced through the production of 23-nt siRNAs. A forward genetic screen allowed us to obtain Mendelian mutants deficient in dsRNA-induced RNAi, and mutated genes were identified by ...

  13. Solvent friction effects propagate over the entire protein molecule through low-frequency collective modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Smith, Jeremy C

    2014-07-24

    Protein solvation dynamics has been investigated using atom-dependent Langevin friction coefficients derived directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To determine the effect of solvation on the atomic friction coefficients, solution and vacuum MD simulations were performed for lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease and analyzed by Langevin mode analysis. The coefficients thus derived are roughly correlated with the atomic solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), as expected from the fact that friction occurs as the result of collisions with solvent molecules. However, a considerable number of atoms with higher friction coefficients are found inside the core region. Hence, the influence of solvent friction propagates into the protein core. The internal coefficients have large contributions from the low-frequency modes, yielding a simple picture of the surface-to-core long-range damping via solvation governed by collective low-frequency modes. To make use of these findings in implicit-solvent modeling, we compare the all-atom friction results with those obtained using Langevin dynamics (LD) with two empirical representations: the constant-friction and the ASA-dependent (Pastor-Karplus) friction models. The constant-friction model overestimates the core and underestimates the surface damping whereas the ASA-dependent friction model, which damps protein atoms only on the solvent-accessible surface, reproduces well the friction coefficients for both the surface and core regions observed in the explicit-solvent MD simulations. Therefore, in LD simulation, the solvent friction coefficients should be imposed only on the protein surface.

  14. The Effect of Teaching the Entire Academic Year of High School Chemistry Utilizing Abstract Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael F. Z.; Escott, Patrick; Silva, Maritza; Barding, Gregory A., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the ability of high school chemistry students, with varying levels of math preparation, to experience learning-gains on state and district assessments as it relates to chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetics. These advances were predicated on the use of a teaching style rooted in abstract reasoning. The…

  15. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in Africa, African personality and Negritude contributed to the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa. The study warns, that lack of understanding of these antecedents, could lead to confusion and total misinterpretation of this rather vital African concept. Lastly, the paper endeavours to highlight through the historicisation of the development, why the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa cannot be divorced from global influence.

  16. Synthesis and in vitro characterization of entirely S-protected thiolated pectin for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzen, Fabian; Hauptstein, Sabine; Perera, Glen; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The study was aimed to synthesize a thiolated polymer (thiomer) that is resistant to oxidation in solutions above pH 5. In order to protect a pectin-cysteine conjugate against premature oxidation, the thiomer was S-protected by a disulfide connected leaving group. Therefore, 2-mercaptonicotinic acid was first coupled to L-cysteine by a disulfide exchange reaction and the purified product was subsequently attached to pectin by a carbodiimide mediated amid bond formation. The obtained fully S-protected thiolated pectin was in vitro characterized with respect to co- and mucoadhesive properties and stability toward oxidation. The results indicated a 1.8-fold and 2.3-fold enhanced disintegration time at pH 6.8 of the S-protected thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) compared to thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys) and unmodified pectin (Pec). Moreover, rheological measurements of polymer/mucus mixtures showed a 1.6-fold (compared to Pec-Cys) and 6.7-fold (compared to Pec) increased dynamic viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA. On the other hand, in the presence of a strong oxidizing agent such as H2O2 (0.3% v/v), no increase in viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA could be observed. A 6-month experiment also demonstrated the long-term stability of a liquid formulation based on Pec-Cys-MNA. Further investigations proved that the first time all thiol groups on a thiolated polymer could be protected owing to the novel synthesis. Accordingly, these features may help to develop thiomer based liquid or gel formulations targeting mucosal surfaces such as nasal, ocular or vaginal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent flow through entire stage in a multistage centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.; Islam, M.F.; Liu, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional turbulent flow through a multistage centrifugal pump is numerically simulated using a commercial CFD software package. The simulation and analysis include flow fields in rotating impeller and stationary diffuser and is completed in a multiple reference frame. The standard k-ε turbulence model is applied. The analysis of the simulation reveals that the reverse flows exist in the zone near the impeller exit and diffuser entrance, resulting in flow field asymmetric and unsteady. There is a considerable interference on velocity field at impeller exit due to the interaction between impeller blades and diffuser vanes. The hydraulic performance is connected and evaluated with the 3-D computational flow field. The current computation is verified by comparing predicted and measured head. (author)

  18. No damage to bulk storage but entire customer bases wiped out in storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that interviews with key LP-gas industry spokesmen in hurricane-ravaged South Florida following Andrew's terrifying visit presented a picture of unimaginable destruction and nearly immeasurable losses of property but miraculously, not a single significant incident involving leaks or the loss of bulk storage. In the worst reports of damage to propane company facilities, Homestead Gas loss at least one building and the Suburban/Petrolane office building in Homestead no longer exists. (Temporary office arrangements were established by Suburban/Petrolane.) The customer base of these companies has been hit very had. For a while, it appeared that one Suburban/Petrolane employee was unaccounted for but that report turned out to be false. Shortly after the storm, crews were out securing gas systems in whatever locations they could reach. In one instance in which regular travel proved impossible, the gas company was forced to travel the long way around-pulling resources out of its Key West district and going north to Homestead. It became necessary in many cases for personnel to purchase cellular phones in order to maintain contact between the office and field crew

  19. ["... here I am entirely among patients now..": the psychoanalytical practice of Lou Andreas-Salomé].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemann, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to disprove the widespread prejudice depicting Andreas-Salomé merely as a femme fatale, or companion of a few famous contemporaries (Nietzsche, Rilke, and Freud), while suppressing her original intellectual and clinical-practical achievement as a psychoanalyst. An evaluation of both published and hitherto unpublished sources clearly confirms the broad and thorough foundations of her psychoanalytical training in theory as well as in practice. Between 1913 and 1933 Andreas-Salomé conducted a relatively large number of analyses, discussed some of them with Freud in a kind of "supervision" by correspondence and published several articles on central psychoanalytical issues. So far, however, many psychoanalysts seem to have been unaware of her status as a former accomplished colleague.

  20. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: okazaki@apchem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fujimoto, K. [Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Nakagawa, A. [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nomoto, A. [Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Kamiosaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10{sup 6} all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  1. The entire network topology display system of terminal communication access network

    OpenAIRE

    An Yi

    2016-01-01

    Now order terminal communication access network is network technology in Shanxi Province is diversiform, device type complex, lack of unified technical standard, the terminal communication access network management system of construction constitutes a great obstacle. Need to build a “unified communication interface and communication standard, unified communications network management” of the terminal communication access network cut in the integrated network management system, for the termina...

  2. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  3. Cross-lingual and cross-domain discourse segmentation of entire documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé; Lacroix, Ophélie; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -quality syntactic parses and rich heuristics that are not generally available across languages and domains. In this paper, we propose statistical discourse segmenters for five languages and three domains that do not rely on gold pre-annotations. We also consider the problem of learning discourse segmenters when...... no labeled data is available for a language. Our fully supervised system obtains 89.5% F1 for English newswire, with slight drops in performance on other domains, and we report supervised and unsupervised (cross-lingual) results for five languages in total....

  4. 2 December 2003: Registration of Computers Mandatory for the entire CERN Site

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the decision by the CERN Management Board (see Weekly Bulletin 38/2003), registration of all computers connected to CERN's network will be enforced and only registered computers will be allowed network access. The implementation has been put into place in the IT buildings, building 40 and the Prévessin site, and will cover the whole of CERN by 2 December 2003. We therefore recommend strongly that you register all your computers in CERN's network database including all network access cards (Ethernet AND wire-less) as soon as possible without waiting for the access restriction to take force. This will allow you accessing the network without interruption and help IT service providers to contact you in case of problems (security problems, viruses, etc.). - If you have a CERN NICE/mail computing account register at: http://cern.ch/register/ (CERN Intranet page) - If you don't have CERN NICE/mail computing account (e.g. short term visitors) register at: http://cern.ch/registerVisitorComputer/...

  5. Horizontal gene transfer of an entire metabolic pathway between a eukaryotic alga and its DNA virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Adam; Pagarete, António; de Vargas, Colomban; Allen, Michael J.; Read, Betsy; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Interactions between viruses and phytoplankton, the main primary producers in the oceans, affect global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Recent studies are increasingly revealing possible cases of gene transfers between cyanobacteria and phages, which might have played significant roles in the evolution of cyanobacteria/phage systems. However, little has been documented about the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic phytoplankton/virus systems. Here we report phylogenetic evidence for the transfer of seven genes involved in the sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway between the cosmopolitan eukaryotic microalga Emiliania huxleyi and its large DNA virus EhV. PCR assays indicate that these genes are prevalent in E. huxleyi and EhV strains isolated from different geographic locations. Patterns of protein and gene sequence conservation support that these genes are functional in both E. huxleyi and EhV. This is the first clear case of horizontal gene transfer of multiple functionally linked enzymes in a eukaryotic phytoplankton–virus system. We examine arguments for the possible direction of the gene transfer. The virus-to-host direction suggests the existence of ancient viruses that controlled the complex metabolic pathway in order to infect primitive eukaryotic cells. In contrast, the host-to-virus direction suggests that the serial acquisition of genes involved in the same metabolic pathway might have been a strategy for the ancestor of EhVs to stay ahead of their closest relatives in the great evolutionary race for survival. PMID:19451591

  6. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  7. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Nomoto, A.; Okazaki, S.

    2014-10-01

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 106 all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it.

  8. hrm 595,uop hrm 595,uop hrm 595 complete course,uop hrm 595 entire course

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2018-01-01

    UOP HRM 595 All Assignments NEW Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.assignmentcloud.com/hrm-595-uop/hrm-595-all-assignments-new For more classes visit http://www.assignmentcloud.com HRM 595 All Assignments NEW HRM 595 Week 1 Talent Acquisition, Management, & Retention Strategies NEW HRM 595 Week 2 Labor Relations Guide for Management NEW HRM 595 Week 3 Career Development and Succession Planning NEW HRM 595 Week 4 Compensation, Benefits, ...

  9. The gratefulness of the entire nation: Atomic Energy Research Policy in Sweden 1945-1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, S.

    1991-01-01

    The dissertation is a study of the Swedish atomic energy research policy since its inception in the mid-1940's until the parliamentary decision in 1956 to launch the massive program of research and technological development which became known as the 'Swedish line'. This program entailed an effort to develop and introduce a nuclear technology based on domestically produced heavy water reactors and domestic energy supplies as a key component in a long-term solution to the nation's energy problem. The analysis is based on a study of government documents, parliamentary materials and public debates as well as extensive studies of the archives of both public agencies such as the Swedish State Power Board, private bodies such as the large-scale corporation ASEA and of the archives of the executive committee of the government party and of then-prime minister Tage Erlander. It has been possible to disaggregate the actual policy process into its constituent parts and, on the basis of such a close examination of the step-by-step process, to give an account which deviates considerably from many of traditional interpretations of both policy processes in general and of this period in modern Swedish political history in particular. Thus neither an exclusively rationalistic account in terms of the publicly stated objectives and reasons nor an account cast in terms of some of the more common metaphors in vogue such as 'iron triangles', 'segments' or 'issue networks' are able to capture the essence of this complex policy process. Rather an image emerges of a process of constant negotiation that takes place in a contested border-line zone between the public and the private sphere. It is also possible to relate this process to over-arching themes in modern Swedish politics such as the debate over rationalization and over the proper role of the state in the economic life of society. (3 p. English summary) (71 refs.)

  10. 26 CFR 25.2518-3 - Disclaimer of less than an entire interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., any other factors which indicate that the possibility of the interest vesting as a fee simple is so... made by the devisee of a fee simple interest in Blackacre is not a qualified disclaimer if the... estate. Under local law A's interests merged to give A a fee simple in the farm. A made a timely...

  11. Crop water stress maps for an entire growing season from visible and thermal UAV imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Jensen, Rasmus; Thomsen, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether a water deficit index (WDI) based on imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide accurate crop water stress maps at different growth stages of barley and in differing weather situations. Data from both the early and late growing season are included...... to investigate whether the WDI has the unique potential to be applicable both when the land surface is partly composed of bare soil and when crops on the land surface are senescing. The WDI differs from the more commonly applied crop water stress index (CWSI) in that it uses both a spectral vegetation index (VI...... season because at this stage the remote sensing data represent crop water availability to a greater extent than they do in the early growing season, and because the WDI accounts for areas of ripe crops that no longer have the same need for irrigation. WDI maps can potentially serve as water stress maps...

  12. Entirely Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines: An Emerging Field for Specific and Selective Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen Nishat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are regarded as promising targets for vaccine development against infectious disease because cell surface glycans on many infectious agents are attributed to playing an important role in pathogenesis. In addition, oncogenic transformation of normal cells, in many cases, is associated with aberrant glycosylation of the cell surface glycan generating tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs. Technological advances in glycobiology have added a new dimension to immunotherapy when considering carbohydrates as key targets in developing safe and effective vaccines to combat cancer, bacterial infections, viral infections, etc. Many consider effective vaccines induce T-cell dependent immunity with satisfactory levels of immunological memory that preclude recurrence. Unfortunately, carbohydrates alone are poorly immunogenic as they do not bind strongly to the MHCII complex and thus fail to elicit T-cell immunity. To increase immunogenicity, carbohydrates have been conjugated to carrier proteins, which sometimes can impede carbohydrate specific immunity as peptide-based immune responses can negate antibodies directed at the targeted carbohydrate antigens. To overcome many challenges in using carbohydrate-based vaccine design and development approaches targeting cancer and other diseases, zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs, isolated from the capsule of commensal anaerobic bacteria, will be discussed as promising carriers of carbohydrate antigens to achieve desired immunological responses.

  13. Polyurethane foams based entirely on recycled polyols derived from natural oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Beneš, Hynek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 9 (2015), s. 579-585 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI4/133 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane foam * recycled polyol * rapeseed oil Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.718, year: 2015

  14. Forensic microbiology: Evolving from discriminating distinct microbes to characterizing entire microbial communities on decomposing remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The body of an animal encompasses a multitude of compositionally and functionally unique microbial environments, from the skin to the gastrointestinal system. Each of these systems harbor microbial communities that have adapted in order to cohabitate with their specific host resulting in a distinct...

  15. Stress Ratios in Entire Mine Stopes with Cohesionless Backfill: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of stress states in backfilled mine stopes (or similar openings, using arching theory, can be largely impacted by the value selected for the earth pressure coefficient, K = σ′h/σ′v. Recently, the current study’s authors addressed the debate about the value of K near the opening center, based on Rankine’s active coefficient (Ka and at-rest coefficient (K0. Here, stress ratios in vertical backfilled stopes are numerically assessed (in two dimension, 2D, considering both the independent and related backfill internal friction angle (ϕ′ and Poisson’s ratio (ν. Emphasis is placed on the backfill state near stope walls, where local rotation of stresses occurs, so the coefficient (K and principal stress ratio, Kps (= σ′3/σ′1, should be distinguished. Parametric analyses indicate that values of K and Kps depend on the position and the relationship between ϕ′ and ν. Near the opening center, K (= Kps is close to Ka when ν or ϕ′ is below a critical value; otherwise the value approaches K0, defined from ν. Near both walls, Kps is always close to Ka, while K is near K0 for related ν − ϕ′ cases and depends on their respective values for independent ν and ϕ′. Additional simulations conducted with interface elements indicate that the stress ratios near the opening center line are insensitive to interface roughness and are almost identical to values obtained without interfaces, but the stress ratios near walls may change for less rough or smooth interfaces.

  16. Site characterization and validation - Head variations during the entire experimental period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, D.; Brightman, M.; Black, J.; Parry, S.

    1992-01-01

    The site characterization and validation project lasted for five years from 1986 to 1991. It consisted of a number of experiments within the region known as the SCV site. During this period of experimentation a monitoring system was established within the mine for the purpose of measuring the variation of head at a number of locations within and around the site. The system installed was based around a set of equipment known as a Piezomac TM system. In this system there is one central pressure transducer and each borehole interval is connected to it in turn. It can measure up to 55 separate points during each measurement 'cycle'. Monitoring points were either complete boreholes or sections of boreholes isolated by packers. In order to produce reasonable file size, data sets were screened. The results show that the SCV site was always responding to some form of hydrogeological disturbance. Many key tests were performed against changing background trends. This was particularly so of the simulated drift experiment and the large scale crosshole tests. However, some estimates of long term equilibrium heads before and after excavation of the validation drift have been made. Contoured plots of heads before and after show significant reduction of steady state heads as a result of drift excavation. Furthermore contouring the estimated long term drawdowns responding to the simulated drift experiment shows the specific influence of the H zone and the A/B zone. Overall the results of the monitoring show that the mine was a very active hydrogeological environment during the experimentation. Additionally it was often very difficult to clearly identify the causes of such disturbances. (au)

  17. Orthogonal Views on Product/Service-System Design in an entire Industry Branch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria

    2011-01-01

    , understandings and approaches to PSS are still fluid. Much of the literature in the field of PSS has, until now, focused largely on the actual transition from product to PSS and has typically resided in the field of engineering design. Symptomatic of the current literature is the concept of service as the adding...

  18. Ecological interactions are evolutionarily conserved across the entire tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José M; Verdú, Miguel; Perfectti, Francisco

    2010-06-17

    Ecological interactions are crucial to understanding both the ecology and the evolution of organisms. Because the phenotypic traits regulating species interactions are largely a legacy of their ancestors, it is widely assumed that ecological interactions are phylogenetically conserved, with closely related species interacting with similar partners. However, the existing empirical evidence is inadequate to appropriately evaluate the hypothesis of phylogenetic conservatism in ecological interactions, because it is both ecologically and taxonomically biased. In fact, most studies on the evolution of ecological interactions have focused on specialized organisms, such as some parasites or insect herbivores, belonging to a limited subset of the overall tree of life. Here we study the evolution of host use in a large and diverse group of interactions comprising both specialist and generalist acellular, unicellular and multicellular organisms. We show that, as previously found for specialized interactions, generalized interactions can be evolutionarily conserved. Significant phylogenetic conservatism of interaction patterns was equally likely to occur in symbiotic and non-symbiotic interactions, as well as in mutualistic and antagonistic interactions. Host-use differentiation among species was higher in phylogenetically conserved clades, irrespective of their generalization degree and taxonomic position within the tree of life. Our findings strongly suggest a shared pattern in the organization of biological systems through evolutionary time, mediated by marked conservatism of ecological interactions among taxa.

  19. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120

  20. Geometrical tuning art for entirely subwavelength grating waveguide based integrated photonics circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Xiaochuan; Fan, Donglei; Wang, Yaguo; Subbaraman, Harish; Chen, Ray T

    2016-05-05

    Subwavelength grating (SWG) waveguide is an intriguing alternative to conventional optical waveguides due to the extra degree of freedom it offers in tuning a few important waveguide properties, such as dispersion and refractive index. Devices based on SWG waveguides have demonstrated impressive performances compared to conventional waveguides. However, the high loss of SWG waveguide bends jeopardizes their applications in integrated photonic circuits. In this work, we propose a geometrical tuning art, which realizes a pre-distorted refractive index profile in SWG waveguide bends. The pre-distorted refractive index profile can effectively reduce the mode mismatch and radiation loss simultaneously, thus significantly reduce the bend loss. This geometry tuning art has been numerically optimized and experimentally demonstrated in present study. Through such tuning, the average insertion loss of a 5 μm SWG waveguide bend is reduced drastically from 5.43 dB to 1.10 dB per 90° bend for quasi-TE polarization. In the future, the proposed scheme will be utilized to enhance performance of a wide range of SWG waveguide based photonics devices.

  1. Summer students, Higgs bosons or something else entirely? The choice is yours

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of my mandate, I undertook to write a message in each issue of the Bulletin, and I’ve been true to my word. Over the last three years, I’ve spoken about everything from LHC physics to summer student programmes. But now I think the time has come to ask you what you’d like me to write about in my bi-weekly messages to the CERN community.   Next year will not be short of subject matter. We’ll have the final word on the Standard Model Higgs, discussions about the long-term future of the LHC, and the development of global particle physics. For those of you based at CERN, local concerns might be of interest: how are we developing our relationship with our neighbours, and what plans do we have in mind for the Prévessin site? These are just some of my thoughts. I’m sure you’ll have many others. Whatever you’re interested in, drop a line to bulletin.editors@cern.ch with your suggestions. Although I doubt...

  2. Dynamic changes of nutrient composition throughout the entire life cycle of black soldier fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Liu

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (BSF larvae, Hermetia illucens L., develops on organic wastes, reducing ecological pollution and converting waste biomass into protein and fat rich insect biomass. BSF can replace increasingly expensive protein sources used in poultry, aquaculture and livestock compound diet formulation, such as fish meal and soybean meal, which holds the potential to alleviate future food and feed insecurity. The fate of nutritional spectra in BSF during its life cycle phases is still poorly understood. This study assessed metabolic changes in nutrition composition of BSF from egg to adult. A rapid increase of crude fat content was observed since the development of 4-14 days of larvae with its maximum level reaching 28.4% in dry mass, whereas the crude protein displayed a continuous decreasing trend in the same development phases with minimum level of 38% at larval phase (12 days and peak level of 46.2% at early pupa stage. A sharp drop in crude fat was noticed from early prepupae to late pupae (24.2%, 8.2% respectively. However crude protein shows its maximum value being 57.6% at postmortem adult stage with 21.6% fat level. In addition, fatty acids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition in different development stages of BSF were presented and compared. Findings from this study could provide podium to food and feed industry for framing a strategy for specific molecular nutritional component intake into the diets of humans, aquaculture and animals. It is also indicated that BSF is a possible insect which can be applied to combating the food scarcity of countries where micronutrient deficiency is prevalent. Moreover it contributes to advance exploring for developmental and metabolic biology of this edible insect.

  3. Right versus left parasternal electrode position in the entirely subcutaneous ICD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, Markus; Dechering, Dirk; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Larbig, Robert; Löher, Andreas; Reinke, Florian; Köbe, Julia; Eckardt, Lars

    2018-05-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD ® ) has been established as an alternative to conventional transvenous ICD for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Initial studies have shown safety and efficacy of the system with a left parasternal (LP) electrode. However, several case studies reported a right parasternal (RP) position. The purpose of this study was to analyze shock efficacy and safety of an RP electrode position. Between June 2010 and May 2016, 120 S-ICD ® were implanted at our institution. On the basis of the heart location on preoperative chest radiography (CXR), the investigators decided on an RP (n = 52) or LP electrode position (n = 68). All perioperative induced VF episodes, and spontaneous appropriate and inappropriate episodes during follow-up were analyzed. Patients with an RP electrode did not differ in terms of age, sex, or ejection fraction. A statistically significant difference in underlying cardiac disease was observed between the RP and LP electrode group, with more patients with channelopathies in the RP electrode group and more patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in the LP electrode group. During a mean follow-up of 24.3 ± 19.5 months, 27 appropriate (19 in the LP group and 8 in the RP group) and 28 inappropriate (18 LP and 10 RP) ICD shocks occurred (p value = NS). In the present study, an RP electrode position was chosen on the basis of chest radiographic characteristics and was efficient in terms of sensing and shock efficacy. Thus, a right-sided electrode implant might be an alternative if a left-sided electrode implant is inadequate. It might also be favorable for young patients with narrow heart silhouettes in the midsagittal position.

  4. Methodology Development of Computationally-Efficient Full Vehicle Simulations for the Entire Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Altair Engineering 888 W Big Beaver Road #402 Troy MI 48084...soldiers, it is imperative to analyze impact of each sub-event on soldier injuries. Using traditional finite element analysis techniques [1-6] to...CONSTRAINED_LAGRANGE_IN_SOLID) and the results from another commonly used non-linear explicit solver for impact simulations (RADIOSS, [4]) using a coupling

  5. 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes for spatiotemporal cardiac measurements and stimulation across the entire epicardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhi; Gutbrod, Sarah R.; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Su, Yewang; Sulkin, Matthew S.; Lu, Nanshu; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Jang, Kyung-In; Liu, Zhuangjian; Ying, Ming; Lu, Chi; Webb, R. Chad; Kim, Jong-Seon; Laughner, Jacob I.; Cheng, Huanyu; Liu, Yuhao; Ameen, Abid; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Huang, Yonggang; Efimov, Igor R.; Rogers, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Means for high-density multiparametric physiological mapping and stimulation are critically important in both basic and clinical cardiology. Current conformal electronic systems are essentially 2D sheets, which cannot cover the full epicardial surface or maintain reliable contact for chronic use without sutures or adhesives. Here we create 3D elastic membranes shaped precisely to match the epicardium of the heart via the use of 3D printing, as a platform for deformable arrays of multifunctional sensors, electronic and optoelectronic components. Such integumentary devices completely envelop the heart, in a form-fitting manner, and possess inherent elasticity, providing a mechanically stable biotic/abiotic interface during normal cardiac cycles. Component examples range from actuators for electrical, thermal and optical stimulation, to sensors for pH, temperature and mechanical strain. The semiconductor materials include silicon, gallium arsenide and gallium nitride, co-integrated with metals, metal oxides and polymers, to provide these and other operational capabilities. Ex vivo physiological experiments demonstrate various functions and methodological possibilities for cardiac research and therapy.

  6. Filament Chirality over an Entire Cycle Determined with an Automated Detection Module -- a Neat Surprise!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Yeates, A. R.; Mackay, D.; Pillai, K. G.

    2013-07-01

    Using metadata produced by automated solar feature detection modules developed for SDO (Martens et al. 2012) we have discovered some trends in filament chirality and filament-sigmoid relations that are new and in part contradict the current consensus. Automated detection of solar features has the advantage over manual detection of having the detection criteria applied consistently, and in being able to deal with enormous amounts of data, like the 1 Terabyte per day that SDO produces. Here we use the filament detection module developed by Bernasconi, which has metadata from 2000 on, and the sigmoid sniffer, which has been producing metadata from AIA 94 A images since October 2011. The most interesting result we find is that the hemispheric chirality preference for filaments (dextral in the north, and v.v.), studied in detail for a three year period by Pevtsov et al. (2003) seems to disappear during parts of the decline of cycle 23 and during the extended solar minimum that followed. Moreover the hemispheric chirality rule seems to be much less pronounced during the onset of cycle 24. For sigmoids we find the expected correlation between chirality and handedness (S or Z) shape but not as strong as expected.

  7. Entire Sound Representations Are Time-Compressed in Sensory Memory: Evidence from MMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamakoshi, Seiji; Minoura, Nanako; Katayama, Jun'ichi; Yagi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the encoding of partial silence included in a sound stimulus in neural representation, time flow of the sound representations was investigated using mismatch negativity (MMN), an ERP component that reflects neural representation in auditory sensory memory. Previous work suggested that time flow of auditory stimuli is compressed in neural representations. The stimuli used were a full-stimulus of 170 ms duration, an early-gap stimulus with silence for a 20-50 ms segment (i.e., an omitted segment), and a late-gap stimulus with an omitted segment of 110-140 ms. Peak MMNm latencies from oddball sequences of these stimuli, with a 500 ms SOA, did not reflect time point of the physical gap, suggesting that temporal information can be compressed in sensory memory. However, it was not clear whether the whole stimulus duration or only the omitted segment duration is compressed. Thus, stimuli were used in which the gap was replaced by a tone segment with a 1/4 sound pressure level (filled), as well as the gap stimuli. Combinations of full-stimuli and one of four gapped or filled stimuli (i.e., early gap, late gap, early filled, and late filled) were presented in an oddball sequence (85 vs. 15%). If compression occurs only for the gap duration, MMN latency for filled stimuli should show a different pattern from those for gap stimuli. MMN latencies for the filled conditions showed the same pattern as those for the gap conditions, indicating that the whole stimulus duration rather than only gap duration is compressed in sensory memory neural representation. These results suggest that temporal aspects of silence are encoded in the same manner as physical sound.

  8. A Novel Model for the Entire Settling-Thickening Process in a Secondary Settling Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhijiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Wang, Hongchen; Qi, Lu; Yin, Xunfei; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wen, Yang

    2016-12-01

      Sludge settling and thickening occur simultaneously in secondary settling tanks (SSTs). The ability to accurately calculate the settling and thickening capacity of activated sludge was of great importance. Despite extensive studies on the development of settling velocity models for use with SSTs, these models have not been applied due to the difficulty in calibrating the related parameters. Additionally, there have been some studies of the thickening behavior of the activated sludge in SSTs. In this study, a novel settling and thickening model for activated sludge was developed, and the model was validated using experimental data (R2 = 0.830 to 0.963, p settling and thickening behavior of the activated sludge in an SST. The application of these models requires only one critical parameter, namely, the stirred sludge volume index SSVI3.5, which is readily available in a water resource recovery facility.

  9. All-atom molecular dynamics calculation study of entire poliovirus empty capsids in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, Y.; Yoshii, N.; Yamada, A.; Kojima, H.; Mizutani, K.; Okazaki, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Nakagawa, A.; Nomoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Small viruses that belong, for example, to the Picornaviridae, such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus, consist simply of capsid proteins and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome. The capsids are quite stable in solution to protect the genome from the environment. Here, based on long-time and large-scale 6.5 × 10 6 all-atom molecular dynamics calculations for the Mahoney strain of poliovirus, we show microscopic properties of the viral capsids at a molecular level. First, we found equilibrium rapid exchange of water molecules across the capsid. The exchange rate is so high that all water molecules inside the capsid (about 200 000) can leave the capsid and be replaced by water molecules from the outside in about 25 μs. This explains the capsid's tolerance to high pressures and deactivation by exsiccation. In contrast, the capsid did not exchange ions, at least within the present simulation time of 200 ns. This implies that the capsid can function, in principle, as a semipermeable membrane. We also found that, similar to the xylem of trees, the pressure of the solution inside the capsid without the genome was negative. This is caused by coulombic interaction of the solution inside the capsid with the capsid excess charges. The negative pressure may be compensated by positive osmotic pressure by the solution-soluble ssRNA and the counter ions introduced into it

  10. Writing and reading in the electronic health record: an entirely new world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Lopp

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic health records (EHRs are structured, distributed documentation systems that differ from paper charts. These systems require skills not traditionally used to navigate a paper chart and to produce a written clinic note. Despite these differences, little attention has been given to physicians’ electronic health record (EHR-writing and -reading competence. Purposes: This study aims to investigate physicians’ self-assessed competence to document and to read EHR notes; writing and reading preferences in an EHR; and demographic characteristics associated with their perceived EHR ability and preference. Methods: Fourteen 5-point Likert scale items, based on EHR system characteristics and a literature review, were developed to measure EHR-writing and -reading competence and preference. Physicians in the midwest region of the United States were invited via e-mail to complete the survey online from February to April 2011. Factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted to provide validity and reliability of the instrument. Correlation and regression analysis were conducted to pursue answers to the research questions. Results: Ninety-one physicians (12.5%, from general and specialty fields, working in inpatient and outpatient settings, participated in the survey. Despite over 3 years of EHR experience, respondents perceived themselves to be incompetent in EHR writing and reading (Mean = 2.74, SD = 0.76. They preferred to read succinct, narrative notes in EHR systems. However, physicians with higher perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence had less preference toward reading succinct (r= − 0.33, p<0.001 and narrative (r= − 0.36, p<0.001 EHR notes than physicians with lower perceived EHR competence. Physicians’ perceived EHR-writing and -reading competence was strongly related to their EHR navigation skills (r=0.55, p<0.0001. Conclusions: Writing and reading EHR documentation is different for physicians. Maximizing navigation skills can optimize non-linear EHR writing and reading. Pedagogical questions remain related to how physicians and medical students are able to retrieve correct information effectively and to understand thought patterns in collectively lengthier and sometimes fragmented EHR chart notes.

  11. Entire litters developed from transferred eggs in whole body x-irradiated female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of mouse eggs to sublethal x-irradiation was determined in vitro and in vivo with regard to the development of donor litters in foster mothers. One thousand seven hundred fifty-eight unfertilized eggs of agouti dark-eyed donor mice were transferred into 293 unirradiated or x-irradiated, mated female pink-eyed mice. Two hundred thirty-nine recipients became pregnant; of these 35 produced litters containing solely dark-eyed fetuses. Sublethal doses of x-radiation administered to donor eggs in vitro before transferring into unirradiated recipients did not influence significantly the number of litters of exclusively dark-eyed fetuses produced. However, recipients irradiated by 250 roentgens (r) produced more solely dark-eyed litters than did those irradiated with 100 r. In 21 pregnant females irradiated by 100 r, only 3 (14%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses as compared to 22 pregnant females irradiated by 250 r, of which 13 (59%) developed solely dark-eyed fetuses, all from unirradiated, transferred eggs. Of another group of 22 pregnant females which received 250 r body irradiation and subsequently received eggs also irradiated by 250 r, only 7 (32%) produced litters of dark-eyed fetuses. No one female of these three groups carried native fetuses. Such radiation-induced infertility resulting from damage of native eggs rather than loss of mother's ability to carry a pregnancy, is frequently remedied by egg transfer

  12. Using the entire history in the analysis of nested case cohort samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C L; Lumley, T

    2016-08-15

    Countermatching designs can provide more efficient estimates than simple matching or case-cohort designs in certain situations such as when good surrogate variables for an exposure of interest are available. We extend pseudolikelihood estimation for the Cox model under countermatching designs to models where time-varying covariates are considered. We also implement pseudolikelihood with calibrated weights to improve efficiency in nested case-control designs in the presence of time-varying variables. A simulation study is carried out, which considers four different scenarios including a binary time-dependent variable, a continuous time-dependent variable, and the case including interactions in each. Simulation results show that pseudolikelihood with calibrated weights under countermatching offers large gains in efficiency if compared to case-cohort. Pseudolikelihood with calibrated weights yielded more efficient estimators than pseudolikelihood estimators. Additionally, estimators were more efficient under countermatching than under case-cohort for the situations considered. The methods are illustrated using the Colorado Plateau uranium miners cohort. Furthermore, we present a general method to generate survival times with time-varying covariates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Summary of entire research achievements of creative engineering research program on nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Shingo; Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2008-03-01

    Creative Engineering Research Program on Nuclear Fuel Cycle (former In-house Innovative Research Encouraging Program) was implemented from FY 2001 to FY 2007 in order to support such in-house researches that create innovative new concepts and aim technical break-through. Totally 37 applications have been received and 14 research themes have been accepted and been performed in this program. As for the research achievements of the 14 research themes, first author papers accepted by scientific journals and by science councils were 47 and 32, respectively, and oral presentations at scientific societies were 99. Furthermore, interpretive articles for scientific journals, requested lectures, patents, and prize winnings were 13, 30, 8, and 3, respectively. Consequently, it can be evaluated that the research achievements resulted from this program are generally in high level and that the expectations, at the starting point of this program, to activate the innovative research activities have been accomplished. In this report, the final reports of the 14 research themes together with the outline of this program are included. (author)

  14. Vitamin D3 synthesis in the entire skin surface of dairy cows despite hair coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    How hair-coated animals such as dairy cows synthesize endogenous vitamin D3 during exposure to summer sunlight has been unclear since vitamin D3 and its relation to sunlight was discovered. The fur of fur-bearing animals is thought to be comparable to clothing in humans, which prevents vitamin D3...... produce the vitamin. To test different scenarios, 16 Danish Holstein dairy cows were subjected to 4 degrees of coverage of their bodies with fabric that prevented vitamin D3 synthesis in the covered skin areas. The treatments were horse blanket (cows fitted with horse blankets), udder cover (cows fitted...... with udder covers, horse blanket + udder cover (cows fitted with both horse blankets and udder covers), and natural (cows without any coverage fitted). The cows were let out to pasture daily between 1000 and 1500 h for 4 wk in July and August 2009. Blood samples were collected 15 times during the study...

  15. Comparing different methods to model scenarios of future glacier change for the entire Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, A.; Paul, F.; Haeberli, W.

    2012-04-01

    There is general agreement that observed climate change already has strong impacts on the cryosphere. The rapid shrinkage of glaciers during the past two decades as observed in many mountain ranges globally and in particular in the Alps, are impressive confirmations of a changed climate. With the expected future temperature increase glacier shrinkage will likely further accelerate and their role as an important water resource more and more diminish. To determine the future contribution of glaciers to run-off with hydrological models, the change in glacier area and/or volume must be considered. As these models operate at regional scales, simplified approaches to model the future development of all glaciers in a mountain range need to be applied. In this study we have compared different simplified approaches to model the area and volume evolution of all glaciers in the Swiss Alps over the 21st century according to given climate change scenarios. One approach is based on an upward shift of the ELA (by 150 m per degree temperature increase) and the assumption that the glacier extent will shrink until the smaller accumulation area covers again 60% of the total glacier area. A second approach is based on observed elevation changes between 1985 and 2000 as derived from DEM differencing for all glaciers in Switzerland. With a related elevation-dependent parameterization of glacier thickness change and a modelled glacier thickness distribution, the 15-year trends in observed thickness loss are extrapolated into the future with glacier area loss taking place when thickness becomes zero. The models show an overall glacier area reduction between 60-80% until 2100 with some ice remaining at the highest elevations. However, compared to the ongoing temperature increase and considering that several reinforcement feedbacks (albedo lowering, lake formation) are not accounted for, the real area loss might even be stronger. Uncertainties in the modelled glacier thickness have only a small influence on the final area loss, but influence the temporal evolution of the loss. In particular the largest valley glaciers will suffer from a strong volume loss, as large parts of their beds have a small inclination and are thus located at low elevations.

  16. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible...

  17. CMIP5-based global wave climate projections including the entire Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Wang, X. L.; Swart, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents simulations of the global ocean wave climate corresponding to the surface winds and sea ice concentrations as simulated by five CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) climate models for the historical (1979-2005) and RCP8.5 scenario future (2081-2100) periods. To tackle the numerical complexities associated with the inclusion of the North Pole, the WAVEWATCH III (WW3) wave model was used with a customized unstructured Spherical Multi-Cell grid of ∼100 km offshore and ∼50 km along coastlines. The climate model simulated wind and sea ice data, and the corresponding WW3 simulated wave data, were evaluated against reanalysis and hindcast data. The results show that all the five sets of wave simulations projected lower waves in the North Atlantic, corresponding to decreased surface wind speeds there in the warmer climate. The selected CMIP5 models also consistently projected an increase in the surface wind speed in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-high latitudes, which translates in an increase in the WW3 simulated significant wave height (Hs) there. The higher waves are accompanied with increased peak wave period and increased wave age in the East Pacific and Indian Oceans, and a significant counterclockwise rotation in the mean wave direction in the Southern Oceans. The latter is caused by more intense waves from the SH traveling equatorward and developing into swells. Future wave climate in the Arctic Ocean in summer is projected to be predominantly of mixed sea states, with the climatological mean of September maximum Hs ranging mostly 3-4 m. The new waves approaching Arctic coasts will be less fetch-limited as ice retreats since a predominantly southwards mean wave direction is projected in the surrounding seas.

  18. Young Children Capitalising on Their Entire Language Repertoire for Language Learning at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Claudine

    2018-01-01

    While translanguaging has been well researched in bilingual settings with older pupils and has been found to contribute to cognitive and personal development, there is little research on translanguaging of young multilinguals. In trilingual Luxembourg, at school, children learn Luxembourgish aged 4, German aged 6 and French aged 7, with the…

  19. Segmental dilatation of the ileum covered almost entirely by gastric mucosa: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Uchida, Nobuyuki; Shiojima, Masayuki; Sasamoto, Hajime; Shimura, Tatsuo; Takahasi, Atsusi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy was referred to our hospital for investigation of intermittent abdominal colic pain and vomiting. He underwent an emergency laparotomy, which revealed a volvulus and segmental dilatation of the ileum. The dilated intestine was not associated with poor intestinal circulation. Because the dilated ileum did not seem to be the cause of the volvulus, we simply released the volvulus. However, after surgery, the patient still suffered from persistent abdominal pain, further episodes of volvulus, and invagination of the dilated ileum. Thus, we performed a second operation to resect the segmental dilatation of the ileum. Pathological examination revealed that most of the mucosa of the dilated ileum was composed of ectopic gastric mucosa. We postulate that the ectopic gastric mucosa led to the formation of segmental dilatation of the ileum.

  20. Development of a green supercapacitor composed entirely of environmentally friendly materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Beidaghi, Majid; Gogotsi, Yury

    2013-12-01

    Owing to recent power- and energy-density advances, higher efficiencies, and almost unlimited lifetimes, electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs, also known as supercapacitors) are now used in a wide range of energy harvesting and storage systems, which include portable power and grid applications. Despite offering key performance advantages, many device components pose significant environmental hazards once disposed. They often contain fluorine, sulfur, and cyanide groups, which are harmful if discarded by using conventional landfill or incineration methods, and they are constructed by using multiple metallic parts, which contribute to a high ash content. We explore designs for a fully operational supercapacitor that incorporates materials completely safe to dispose of and easy to incinerate. The components, which include material alternatives for the current collector, electrolyte, separator, particle binder, and packaging, are all mutually compatible, and most of them exhibit better performance than commonly used materials. We selected a graphite foil as current collector, sodium acetate as electrolyte, an ester as porous membrane based on acetate cellulose, and polymers based on polyvinyl alcohol as environmentally benign solutions for device components. The presented materials all originate from simple and inexpensive source compounds, which decreases the environmental impact of their manufacture and renders them more viable for integration into commercial devices for large-scale stationary and transportation energy storage applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A non-hydrostatic flat-bottom ocean model entirely based on Fourier expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, A.

    2005-01-01

    We show how to implement free-slip and no-slip boundary conditions in a three dimensional Boussinesq flat-bottom ocean model based on Fourier expansion. Our method is inspired by the immersed or virtual boundary technique in which the effect of boundaries on the flow field is modeled by a virtual force field. Our method, however, explicitly depletes the velocity on the boundary induced by the pressure, while at the same time respecting the incompressibility of the flow field. Spurious spatial oscillations remain at a negligible level in the simulated flow field when using our technique and no filtering of the flow field is necessary. We furthermore show that by using the method presented here the residual velocities at the boundaries are easily reduced to a negligible value. This stands in contradistinction to previous calculations using the immersed or virtual boundary technique. The efficiency is demonstrated by simulating a Rayleigh impulsive flow, for which the time evolution of the simulated flow is compared to an analytic solution, and a three dimensional Boussinesq simulation of ocean convection. The second instance is taken form a well studied oceanographic context: A free slip boundary condition is applied on the upper surface, the modeled sea surface, and a no-slip boundary condition to the lower boundary, the modeled ocean floor. Convergence properties of the method are investigated by solving a two dimensional stationary problem at different spatial resolutions. The work presented here is restricted to a flat ocean floor. Extensions of our method to ocean models with a realistic topography are discussed.

  2. Quantitative assessment of the entire right ventricle from one acoustic window: an attractive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, Jackie S; Menting, Myrthe E; Vletter, Wim B; Frowijn, René; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; van der Zwaan, Heleen B; Soliman, Osama I I; Geleijnse, Marcel L; van den Bosch, Annemien E

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the feasibility and establish normal values of functional right ventricle (RV) parameters as assessed in our four, long-axis view RV model using iRotate echocardiography. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential use of this model in patients with abnormally loaded RVs. One hundred and fifty-five healthy subjects aged 20-72 years (≥28 subjects per decile) were prospectively recruited. We used non-dedicated RV speckle-tracking software to test the feasibility and to establish normal range values of peak systolic global longitudinal RV strain (RV-GLS) from the RV free-walls (septum was excluded). Also normal range values for: dimensions, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (TDI-S') were established. The feasibility of RV-GLS was 88, 84, and 62%, respectively, in the lateral, inferior, and anterior free wall. Mean RV-GLS normal values were -24.5 ± 4.9% for lateral wall and -25.4 ± 5.0% for anterior wall. Mean RV-GLS in the inferior wall was -23.2 ± 4.4% in the aortic (Ao) view and -20.7 ± 5.0% in the coronal (CV) view. The feasibility of mean RV-GLS was 100% in the anterior, lateral, and inferior walls in abnormally dilated RVs. The feasibility of all RV parameters assessed in the four-view iRotate model is good to excellent. Normal values for RV dimension and function of the anterior, inferior, and lateral RV walls have been established. Further studies and dedicated RV speckle-tracking software are warranted to discover the full potential of this new technique. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Temperature-Insensitive Bend Sensor Using Entirely Centered Erbium Doping in the Fiber Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 μm. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about −58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of −52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from −57.0 dBm to −61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ~0.005 dBm/°C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone.

  4. An isotherm-based thermodynamic model of multicomponent aqueous solutions, applicable over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Cari S; Ge, Xinlei; Wexler, Anthony S; Clegg, Simon L

    2013-04-18

    In previous studies (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 16474-16487; 2012, 116, 1850-1864), we derived equations for the Gibbs energy, solvent and solute activities, and solute concentrations in multicomponent liquid mixtures, based upon expressions for adsorption isotherms that include arbitrary numbers of hydration layers on each solute. In this work, the long-range electrostatic interactions that dominate in dilute solutions are added to the Gibbs energy expression, thus extending the range of concentrations for which the model can be used from pure liquid solute(s) to infinite dilution in the solvent, water. An equation for the conversion of the reference state for solute activity coefficients to infinite dilution in water has been derived. A number of simplifications are identified, notably the equivalence of the sorption site parameters r and the stoichiometric coefficients of the solutes, resulting in a reduction in the number of model parameters. Solute concentrations in mixtures conform to a modified Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson mixing rule, and solute activity coefficients to a modified McKay-Perring relation, when the effects of the long-range (Debye-Hückel) term in the equations are taken into account. Practical applications of the equations to osmotic and activity coefficients of pure aqueous electrolyte solutions and mixtures show both satisfactory accuracy from low to high concentrations, together with a thermodynamically reasonable extrapolation (beyond the range of measurements) to extreme concentration and to the pure liquid solute(s).

  5. Comparison of isolated and concomitant liver injuries: is hepatic trauma entirely responsible for the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, P; Aydin, U; Sozbilen, M

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine both isolated and concomitant liver injuries to clarify the role of liver trauma on outcome. This retrospective study was a review of all abdominal trauma patients who presented with liver injuries, with or without concomitant injury at Ege University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Presentation, injury grade, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with isolated hepatic injury (Group A) were compared with patients who had concomitant hepatic injury (liver and spleen/small bowel) (Group B). Significance was set at 95% confidence intervals. Of 368 patients, 80 (21%) presented with liver injury. Of these, the aetiology was as follows: 53 (66.2%) blunt injury, 19 (23%) penetrating injury, and 8 (10%) gun shot trauma. There were 38 patients in Group A and 42 in Group B. Of these 42 patients, 19 were diagnosed with serious types of injury ; eight thoracic, three open long bone fracture, one intra-cardiac, one intracranial. Six additional patients were observed with injuries to large abdominal vessels. Eleven patients (28.9%) with isolated hepatic injury were managed non-operatively. Mortality, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and transfusion requirements were significantly higher in Group B. Only the number of transfused blood units and the grade of liver injury were found to be effective on outcome whereas stepwise regression analysis revealed that injury type (penetrating) and blood transfusion were predictive for mortality. This study highlighted that although isolated liver injury results in good outcome with non-operative management, concomitant injuries to the liver lead to a higher failure and mortality rate. However, liver injury itself is rarely responsible for death.

  6. Validation of the entire 2D array Octavius by radiochromic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Former Forner, A.; Otal Palacin, A.; Martin Albina, M. L.; Lozares Cordero, S.; Maneru Camara, F.; Pellejero Pellejero, S.; Miquelez Alonso, S.; Soto Prados, P. M.; Rubio Arroniz, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have validated the 2D-array Octavius set for verification of IMRT plans complete, radiating with the same angles of incidence in the patient's actual plan. This has been taken as reference measurements with radiochromic films, since they are almost isotropic response, higher resolution and we already have experience with them.

  7. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  8. 78 FR 62000 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... a notice of the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan Program (MREIDL), dated 10/01/2013. DATES: Effective Date: 10/01/2013. MREIDL Loan Application Deadline Date: 1 year after the essential..., this notice establishes the application filing period for the Military Reservist Economic Injury...

  9. PWMScan: a fast tool for scanning entire genomes with a position-specific weight matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Giovanna; Groux, Romain; Bucher, Philipp

    2018-03-05

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression by binding to specific short DNA sequences of 5 to 20-bp to regulate the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA. We present PWMScan, a fast web-based tool to scan server-resident genomes for matches to a user-supplied PWM or TF binding site model from a public database. The web server and source code are available at http://ccg.vital-it.ch/pwmscan and https://sourceforge.net/projects/pwmscan, respectively. giovanna.ambrosini@epfl.ch. SUPPLEMENTARY DATA ARE AVAILABLE AT BIOINFORMATICS ONLINE.

  10. Early postoperative mortality following cholecystectomy in the entire female population of Denmark, 1977-1981

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, J; Jørgensen, T; Andersen, T F

    1992-01-01

    to women who had a simple hysterectomy. The mortality was significantly higher than in the general female population (p less than 0.05). Increased age, acute admission, admissions to hospital within 3 months prior to the index admission, the number of discharge diagnoses, and the geographical region were...... significantly associated with increased mortality. Exploration of the common bile duct was associated with higher mortality in the bivariate analysis, but the association disappeared when the number of discharge diagnoses was taken into account. Type of hospital and the population based cholecystectomy rate...

  11. Beyond the galaxy how humanity looked beyond our milky way and discovered the entire Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    A look up at the night sky reveals a treasury of wonders. Even to the naked eye, the Moon, stars, planets, the Milky Way and even a few star clusters and nebulae illuminate the heavens. For millennia, humans struggled to make sense of what's out there in the Universe, from all we can see to that which lies beyond the limits of even our most powerful telescopes. Beyond the Galaxy traces our journey from an ancient, Earth-centered Universe all the way to our modern, 21st century understanding of the cosmos. Touching on not only what we know but also how we know it, Ethan Siegel takes us to the very frontiers of modern astrophysics and cosmology, from the birth of our Universe to its ultimate fate, and everything in between.

  12. Influence d’un régime riche en graisses sur un modèle de vieillissement « accéléré » : étude de la fonction et de la morphologie cardiaque, la fonction artérielle, le métabolisme et l’inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert , Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight have been described as a global pandemic. Both obesity and aging will lead to cardiovascular complications. In addition, it has been highlighted that obesity promotes premature cardiac aging in young adults. The hypothesis of this work is that a high fat diet begun before adulthood, pursued over a long period of time, could lead to “accelerated” cardiovascular and metabolic aging. We have demonstrated, in an aging mouse model, that an early high fat diet leads to ...

  13. On the non-linear nature of the variation, with intensity, of high energy cathode sputtering, and the variation of the latter with temperature (1960); Sur le caractere non lineaire en fonction de l'intensite de la pulverisation cathodique a haute energie et sa variation en fonction de la temperature (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, C; Ranc, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A new cathode sputtering theory at high energy is presented which has been elaborated in taking in account the non-linearity of this phenomenon with the density of the impinging ions. This theory allows to predict the influence of target temperature on the rate of cathode sputtering. This influence is experimentally demonstrated. (author) [French] On presente, au sujet de la pulverisation cathodique a haute energie, une theorie qui tient compte de la non-linearite de la variation de ce phenomene avec la densite des ions incidents. Cette theorie permet de predire l'influence de la temperature de la cible sur la vitesse de pulverisation cathodique. On demontre l'existence de cette influence par une methode experimentale. (auteur)

  14. Densities and apparent molar volumes of atmospherically important electrolyte solutions. 2. The systems H(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4(2-)-H2O from 0 to 3 mol kg(-1) as a function of temperature and H(+)-NH4(+)-HSO4(-)-SO4)2-)-H2O from 0 to 6 mol kg(-1) at 25 °C using a Pitzer ion interaction model, and NH4HSO4-H2O and (NH4)3H(SO4)2-H2O over the entire concentration range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S L; Wexler, A S

    2011-04-21

    A Pitzer ion interaction model has been applied to the systems H(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-3 mol kg(-1), 0-55 °C) and H(2)SO(4)-(NH(4))(2)SO(4)-H(2)O (0-6 mol kg(-1), 25 °C) for the calculation of apparent molar volume and density. The dissociation reaction HSO(4)(-)((aq)) ↔ H(+)((aq)) + SO(4)(2-)((aq)) is treated explicitly. Apparent molar volumes of the SO(4)(2-) ion at infinite dilution were obtained from part 1 of this work, (1) and the value for the bisulfate ion was determined in this study from 0 to 55 °C. In dilute solutions of both systems, the change in the degree of dissociation of the HSO(4)(-) ion with concentration results in much larger variations of the apparent molar volumes of the solutes than for conventional strong (fully dissociated) electrolytes. Densities and apparent molar volumes are tabulated. Apparent molar volumes calculated using the model are combined with other data for the solutes NH(4)HSO(4) and (NH(4))(3)H(SO(4))(2) at 25 °C to obtain apparent molar volumes and densities over the entire concentration range (including solutions supersaturated with respect to the salts).

  15. Effect of pasture versus indoor feeding systems on raw milk composition and quality over an entire lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Hennessy, Deirdre; McAuliffe, Stephen; Kilcawley, Kieran N; O'Donovan, Michael; Dillon, Pat; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different feeding systems on milk quality and composition. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian lactating cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) to study the effects of 3 feeding systems over a full lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and offered a total mixed ration diet (TMR), group 2 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass pasture (referred to as grass), and group 3 was also grazed outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (referred to as clover). Bulk milk samples were collected from each group at morning and afternoon milkings once weekly from March 11 to October 28 in 2015. Milk from pasture-fed cows (grass and clover) had significantly higher concentrations of fat, protein, true protein, and casein. The pasture feeding systems induced significantly higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids C11:0, C13:0, C15:0, C17:0, C23:0, and unsaturated fatty acids C18:2n-6 trans, C18:3n-3, C20:1, and C20:4n-6 and a greater than 2-fold increase in the conjugated linoleic acid C18:2 cis-9,trans-11 content of milk compared with that of the TMR feeding system. The TMR feeding system resulted in milks with increased concentrations of C16:0, C18:2n-6 cis, C18:3n-6 cis, C22:0 C22:1n-9, and C18:2 cis-10,trans-12. Principal component analysis of average fatty acid profiles showed clear separation of milks from the grazed pasture-based diets to that of a TMR system throughout lactation, offering further insight into the ability to verify pasture-derived milk by fatty acid profiling. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenotypic Variation Is Almost Entirely Independent of the Host-Pathogen Relationship in Clinical Isolates of S. aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D Land

    Full Text Available A key feature of Staphylococcus aureus biology is its ability to switch from an apparently benign colonizer of ~30% of the population to a cutaneous pathogen, to a deadly invasive pathogen. Little is known about the mechanisms driving this transition or the propensity of different S. aureus strains to engender different types of host-pathogen interactions. At the same time, significant weight has been given to the role of specific in vitro phenotypes in S. aureus virulence. Biofilm formation, hemolysis and pigment formation have all been associated with virulence in mice.To determine if there is a correlation between in vitro phenotype and the three types of host-pathogen relationships commonly exhibited by S. aureus in the context of its natural human host, we assayed 300 clinical isolates for phenotypes implicated in virulence including hemolysis, sensitivity to autolysis, and biofilm formation. For comparative purposes, we also assayed phenotype in 9 domesticated S. aureus strains routinely used for analysis of virulence determinants in laboratory settings.Strikingly, the clinical strains exhibited significant phenotypic uniformity in each of the assays evaluated in this study. One exception was a small, but significant, correlation between an increased propensity for biofilm formation and isolation from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. In contrast, we observed a high degree of phenotypic variation between common laboratory strains that exhibit virulence in mouse models. These data suggest the existence of significant evolutionary pressure on the S. aureus genome and highlight a role for host factors as a strong determinant of the host-pathogen relationship. In addition, the high degree of variation between laboratory strains emphasizes the need for caution when applying data obtained in one lab strain to the analysis of another.

  17. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight improvements of wind power integration into the electricity grid. In this thesis, the value of existing peak load power plants is determined by evaluating the opportunity costs. Under certain circumstances, e.g. a maximum number of full load hours and the type of power plant, the value results with about four to seven percent of the costs of building a new power plant, evaluated by delaying the re-erection of three sample power plants in Germany using the ATLANTIS simulations. In general, the findings of this work lead to the conclusion that an extension of wind power capacities should be preferred to an extension of photovoltaics to the same extent of installed capacity in Germany. Under the assumptions made in this thesis, the cost structure of electricity generation changes in any simulated scenario - fixed costs show an increase and variable costs will decrease in future. Due to this, it can be suggested that the current market design is inadequate to fulfil future requirements, e.g. operation of renewable energy technologies without subsidies or maintaining critical thermal generation capacities. (author)

  18. Real-time molecular imaging throughout the entire cell cycle by targeted plasmonic-enhanced Rayleigh/Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bin; Austin, Lauren A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2012-10-10

    Due to their strong enhancement of scattered light, plasmonic nanoparticles have been utilized for various biological and medical applications. Here, we describe a new technique, Targeted Plasmonic-Enhanced Single-Cell Rayleigh/Raman Spectroscopy, to monitor the molecular changes of any cell-component, such as the nucleus, during the different phases of its full cell cycle by simultaneously recording its Rayleigh images and Raman vibration spectra in real-time. The analysis of the observed Raman DNA and protein peaks allowed the different phases of the cell cycle to be identified. This technique could be used for disease diagnostics and potentially improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cellular functions such as division, death, signaling, and drug action.

  19. Mechanistic insights into validoxylamine A 7'-phosphate synthesis by VldE using the structure of the entire product complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Cavalier

    Full Text Available The pseudo-glycosyltransferase VldE catalyzes non-glycosidic C-N coupling between an unsaturated cyclitol and a saturated aminocyclitol with the conservation of the stereochemical configuration of the substrates to form validoxylamine A 7'-phosphate, the biosynthetic precursor of the antibiotic validamycin A. To study the molecular basis of its mechanism, the three-dimensional structures of VldE from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus was determined in apo form, in complex with GDP, in complex with GDP and validoxylamine A 7'-phosphate, and in complex with GDP and trehalose. The structure of VldE with the catalytic site in both an "open" and "closed" conformation is also described. With these structures, the preferred binding of the guanine moiety by VldE, rather than the uracil moiety as seen in OtsA could be explained. The elucidation of the VldE structure in complex with the entirety of its products provides insight into the internal return mechanism by which catalysis occurs with a net retention of the stereochemical configuration of the donated cyclitol.

  20. Recruitment and rate coding organisation for soleus motor units across entire range of voluntary isometric plantar flexions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Tomomichi; Riek, Stephan; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2009-10-01

    Unlike upper limb muscles, it remains undocumented as to how motor units in the soleus muscle are organised in terms of recruitment range and discharge rates with respect to their recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds. The possible influence of neuromodulation, such as persistent inward currents (PICs) on lower limb motor unit recruitment and discharge rates has also yet to be reported. To address these issues, electromyographic (EMG) activities from the soleus muscle were recorded using selective branched-wire intramuscular electrodes during ramp-and-hold contractions with intensities up to maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The multiple single motor unit activities were then derived using a decomposition technique. The onset-offset hysteresis of motor unit discharge, i.e. a difference between recruitment and de-recruitment thresholds, as well as PIC magnitude calculated by a paired motor unit analysis were used to examine the neuromodulatory effects on discharge behaviours, such as minimum firing rate, peak firing rate and degree of increase in firing rate. Forty-two clearly identified motor units from five subjects revealed that soleus motor units are recruited progressively from rest to contraction strengths close to 95% of MVC, with low-threshold motor units discharging action potentials slower at their recruitment and with a lower peak rate than later recruited high-threshold units. This observation is in contrast to the 'onion skin phenomenon' often reported for the upper limb muscles. Based on positive correlations of the peak discharge rates, initial rates and recruitment order of the units with the magnitude of the onset-offset hysteresis and not PIC contribution, we conclude that discharge behaviours among motor units appear to be related to a variation in an intrinsic property other than PICs.

  1. Influence of social mixing and group size on skin lesions and mounting in organic entire male pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Edwards, Sandra A; Rousing, Tine

    2016-01-01

    in management procedures and production system might be needed. Elements from the organic pig production system might be beneficial in this aspect. The aim of this article is to investigate the effect of grouping strategy including social mixing and group size on levels of mounting behaviour and skin lesions...... at weaning. A second mixing occurred at insertion to fattening pens for pigs being regrouped. Counting of skin lesions (1348 or 1124 pigs) and registration of mounting behaviour (1434 or 1258 pigs) were done on two occasions during the experimental period. No interactive effects were found between social...... mixing and group size on either skin lesions or mounting frequency. Herd differences were found for both mounting frequency and number of skin lesions. No association between skin lesions and mounting were revealed. Social mixing and group size were shown as interacting effects with herds on mounting...

  2. Osteoid osteoma: Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound for entirely non-invasive treatment. A prospective developmental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, A.; de Soccio, V.; Cartocci, G.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    To determine the effect of acoustic energy delivered during MR guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatment of symptomatic osteoid osteomas. This prospective, IRB approved study involved 15 consecutive patients (11 m; 4f; mean age, 21) with clinical and imaging diagnosis of Osteoid Osteoma; all patients underwent MRgFUS ablation (ExAblate, InSightec; Discovery 750 MR unit, GE). Lesions located in the vertebral body were excluded, while lesions in proximity to joints or neurovascular bundles were included. Treatment success was determined at clinical and imaging follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. A visual Analog Pain Score (VAS) was used to assess changes in symptoms. Bone changes at nidus site were evaluated on the basis of CT and dynamic ce-MR imaging (Gd-Bopta; Bracco) pre- and post-treatment. Treatment was carried out using a variable number of sonications (mean 4±1.8) with a mean energy deposition of 866±211 J. There were no treatment- or anesthesia-related complications. A statistically significant (p=0.001) difference was noted between the overall pre- and post-treatment mean VAS scores (8.3±1.6 and 0.6±1.5, respectively). Two treatments were conducted in patients with prior CTgRFA failure and needed two different session for achieving complete clinical successful. At imaging, edema and hyperemia associated with typical osteoid osteoma, gradually disappeared in all lesions. No apparent relationship between nidus vascular extinction and successful outcome was found. Variable reabsorption degree of sclerotic reaction was observed with nidus disappearance in 4 cases (27%). Treatment of osteoid osteoma using MR guided Focused Ultrasound can be performed safely with a high rate of success and without treatment related morbidity; our results indicated also a positive trend to bone rearrangement after treatment.

  3. Holobiont Diversity in a Reef-Building Coral over Its Entire Depth Range in the Mesophotic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny L. Gonzalez-Zapata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesophotic reef-building coral communities (~30–120 m depth remain largely unexplored, despite representing roughly three-quarters of the overall depth range at which tropical coral reef ecosystems occur. Although many coral species are restricted to shallow depths, several species occur across large depth ranges, including lower mesophotic depths. Yet, it remains unclear how such species can persist under extreme low-light conditions and how the different symbiotic partners associated with these corals contribute to facilitate such broad depth ranges. We assessed holobiont genetic diversity of the Caribbean coral Agaricia undata over depth in three localities of Colombia: San Andres Island (between 37 and 85 m, Cartagena (between 17 and 45 m and “Parque Nacional Natural Corales de Profundidad” (between 77 and 87 m. We used a population genomics approach (NextRAD for the coral host, and amplicon sequencing for the associated Symbiodinium (non-coding region of the plastid psbA minicircle and prokaryotic (V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene symbiont community. For the coral host, genetic structuring was only observed across geographic regions, but not between depths. Bayesian clustering and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed genetic structuring between the three regions, but not between shallow (<30 m, upper (≥30 and ≤60 m and lower mesophotic (>60 m depths. This pattern was confirmed when evaluating pairwise differentiation (FST between populations, with much higher values between regions (0.0467–0.1034 compared to between depths [within location; −0.0075–(−0.0007]. Symbiotic partners, including seven types of zooxanthellae and 325 prokaryotic OTUs, did not exhibit partitioning across depths. All samples hosted Symbiodinium clade C3 and the type C3psbA_e was present in all depths. Alpha microbial diversity was not significantly different between zones (upper vs. lower, which community composition between coral colonies was similar in the two zones (ANOSIM, R = −0.079, P > 0.05. The coral microbiome was dominated by Uncultured Betaproteobacteria in the order EC94 (16%, Unknown-Bacteria (15%, family Cenarchaeaceae (12 %, Burkholderiaceae (10%, and Hahellaceae (10%. The constant coral-holobiont composition along the studied depth range suggests that identity of the symbionts is not responsible for the coral's broad depth range and adaptation to low light environments.

  4. High resolution anatomical and quantitative MRI of the entire human occipital lobe ex vivo at 9.4 T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, S.; Lagos Fritz, F.J.; Harms, R.L.; Hildebrand, S.; Tse, D.H.Y.; Poser, B.A.; Goebel, R.; Roebroeck, A.

    Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrasts are sensitive to myelin content in gray matter in vivo which has ignited ambitions of MRI-based in vivo cortical histology. Ultra-high field (UHF) MRI, at fields of 7 T and beyond, is crucial to provide the resolution and contrast needed to sample

  5. Novel mutations including deletions of the entire OFD1 gene in 30 families with type 1 orofaciodigital syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisschoff, Izak J; Zeschnigk, Christine; Horn, Denise

    2013-01-01

    of clinical findings in patients with mutations revealed that oral features are the most reliable diagnostic criteria. A first, detailed evaluation of brain MRIs from seven patients with cognitive defects illustrated extensive variability with the complete brain phenotype consisting of complete agenesis...

  6. LightForce Photon-Pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Assessment on an Entire Catalogue of Space Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupl, Jan Michael; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Yang Yang, Fan; Levit, Creon

    2013-01-01

    The potential to perturb debris orbits using photon pressure from ground-based lasers has been confirmed by independent research teams. Two useful applications of this scheme are protecting space assets from impacts with debris and stabilizing the orbital debris environment, both relying on collision avoidance rather than de-orbiting debris. This paper presents the results of a new assessment method to analyze the efficiency of the concept for collision avoidance. Earlier research concluded that one ground based system consisting of a 10 kW class laser, directed by a 1.5 m telescope with adaptive optics, can prevent a significant fraction of debris-debris collisions in low Earth orbit. That research used in-track displacement to measure efficiency and restricted itself to an analysis of a limited number of objects. As orbit prediction error is dependent on debris object properties, a static displacement threshold should be complemented with another measure to assess the efficiency of the scheme. In this paper we present the results of an approach using probability of collision. Using a least-squares fitting method, we improve the quality of the original TLE catalogue in terms of state and co-state accuracy. We then calculate collision probabilities for all the objects in the catalogue. The conjunctions with the highest risk of collision are then engaged by a simulated network of laser ground stations. After those engagements, the perturbed orbits are used to re-assess the collision probability in a 20 minute window around the original conjunction. We then use different criteria to evaluate the utility of the laser-based collision avoidance scheme and assess the number of base-line ground stations needed to mitigate a significant number of high probability conjunctions. Finally, we also give an account how a laser ground station can be used for both orbit deflection and debris tracking.

  7. Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a new deletion of the entire beta-globin cluster.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirastu, M; Kan, Y W; Lin, C C; Baine, R M; Holbrook, C T

    1983-01-01

    We describe a new type of gamma delta beta-thalassemia in four generations of a family of Scotch-Irish descent. The proposita presented with hemolytic disease of the newborn, which was characterized by a microcytic anemia. Initial restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA showed no grossly abnormal patterns, but studies of polymorphic restriction sites and gene dosage revealed an extensive deletion that removed all the beta- and beta-like globin genes from the affected chromosome. In situ ...

  8. Stakes at the edge of participation: Where words and things are the entirely serious title of a problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Ulv Lenskjold, Tau

    2015-01-01

    language and discourse. Drawing on examples from the recent research project Urban Animals and Us (UA&Us), we suggest that experimental prototypes hold the promise of material enactments of relations that enable a re-articulation of what it means to have a stake in a socio-material event. In the specific...

  9. 76 FR 18548 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Lower...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... & Yacht Club, 910-458-7400, Call ahead, 5.5' draft at mean low tide. (7) Carolina Beach State Park, 910....-7:30 p.m. Monday-Friday, 13'-18' draft at mean low tide. (10) Seapath Yacht Club, 910-256-3747, 7 a...

  10. 75 FR 35024 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of Brunswick and Pender Counties and the Saline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Marina, 910-458-0575, Flexible-open year round, 4' draft at mean low tide (6) Waterfront Village & Yacht...:30 p.m. Monday-Friday, 13'-18' draft at mean low tide (13) Seapath Yacht Club, 910-256-3747, 7 a.m.-7...

  11. 75 FR 7590 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of New Hanover County; Final No Discharge Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ..., Carolina Beach, 910-458-7770, 8 AM-5:45 PM, 7 days/week, 6' draft at mean low tide. (3) Federal Point Yacht...' draft at mean low tide. (7) Creekside Yacht Club, City of Wilmington, 910-350-0023, Operational December 2009, 4' draft at mean low tide. (8) Sea Path Yacht Club, Town of Wrightsville Beach, 910-256-3747, 7...

  12. Cloning, reassembling and integration of the entire nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster into Streptomyces ansochromogenes lead to an improved nikkomycin production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haihua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nikkomycins are a group of peptidyl nucleoside antibiotics produced by Streptomyces ansochromogenes. They are competitive inhibitors of chitin synthase and show potent fungicidal, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities. Nikkomycin X and Z are the main components produced by S. ansochromogenes. Generation of a high-producing strain is crucial to scale up nikkomycins production for further clinical trials. Results To increase the yields of nikkomycins, an additional copy of nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster (35 kb was introduced into nikkomycin producing strain, S. ansochromogenes 7100. The gene cluster was first reassembled into an integrative plasmid by Red/ET technology combining with classic cloning methods and then the resulting plasmid(pNIKwas introduced into S. ansochromogenes by conjugal transfer. Introduction of pNIK led to enhanced production of nikkomycins (880 mg L-1, 4 -fold nikkomycin X and 210 mg L-1, 1.8-fold nikkomycin Z in the resulting exconjugants comparing with the parent strain (220 mg L-1 nikkomycin X and 120 mg L-1 nikkomycin Z. The exconjugants are genetically stable in the absence of antibiotic resistance selection pressure. Conclusion A high nikkomycins producing strain (1100 mg L-1 nikkomycins was obtained by introduction of an extra nikkomycin biosynthetic gene cluster into the genome of S. ansochromogenes. The strategies presented here could be applicable to other bacteria to improve the yields of secondary metabolites.

  13. The Internet of Names: A DNS Big Dataset - Actively Measuring 50% of the Entire DNS Name Space, Every Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Jonker, Mattijs; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is part of the core infrastructure of the Internet. Tracking changes in the DNS over time provides valuable information about the evolution of the Internet’s infrastructure. Until now, only one large-scale approach to perform these kinds of measurements existed, passive

  14. Serum Cytokine Responses over the Entire Clinical-Immunological Spectrum of Human Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Karla Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical-immunological spectrum of human Leishmania (L. infantum chagasi infection in Amazonian Brazil was recently reviewed based on clinical, DTH, and IFAT (IgG evaluations that identified five profiles: three asymptomatic (asymptomatic infection, AI; subclinical resistant infection, SRI; and indeterminate initial infection, III and two symptomatic (symptomatic infection, SI; American visceral leishmaniasis, AVL; and subclinical oligosymptomatic infection, SOI. TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 serum cytokines were analyzed using multiplexed Cytometric Bead Array in 161 samples from endemic areas in the Brazilian Amazon: SI [AVL] (21 cases, III (49, SRI (19, SOI (12, AI (36, and a control group [CG] (24. The highest IL-6 serum levels were observed in the SI profile (AVL; higher IL-10 serum levels were observed in SI than in SOI or CG and in AI and III than in SOI; higher TNF-α serum levels were seen in SI than in CG. Positive correlations were found between IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels in the SI and III profiles and between IL-6 and TNF-α and between IL-4 and TNF-α in the III profile. These results provide strong evidence for associating IL-6 and IL-10 with the immunopathogenesis of AVL and help clarify the role of these cytokines in the infection spectrum.

  15. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  16. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  17. Entire cities could benefit from green roofs : Heleen Mees is investigating how five metropolises are greenifying their roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, Heleen

    Rotterdam is making good progress with its creation of green roofs. Heleen Mees, researcher at Utrecht University, drew this conclusion from her research, in which she compared the green roof policy of four different cities with that of Rotterdam. Rotterdam awards grants to those wishing to create a

  18. The Entire World’s a Stage: the EU’s Strategic Presence in the Contemporary International Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Nicholas Romaniuk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, an exceptional and diverse series of impacting events—international terrorism, violent conflict situations, war, environmental and natural crises, coups, assassinations and international disputes and challenges—have unfolded. As higher expectations of international bodies in responding to emerging challenges within the international system continue to surface, the shifting structures of actors that deal with those challenges can be readily observed. With the global conflict map undergoing strident change, the focus of strategic analysts is shifting to the global role of the European Union (EU. The EU is seen, more than ever, as a viable and legitimate player that can appropriately respond to existing and anticipated crises in a coherent and coordinated manner, particularly with the application of military force. This article addresses the shifting power structures of the EU as it becomes oriented toward a more unique role that utilizes a ‘soft-hard’ power duality, and current challenges to EU security. It addresses the emerging role of the EU as an international player and examines several cases of EU intervention in distant theatres of operation.

  19. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  20. Luck, Policy or Something Else Entirely? Vietnam’s Economic Performance in 2009 and Prospects for 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Fforde

    Full Text Available Vietnam’s economic performance in 2009 is seen by the Vietnamese government and representatives of the Western donor communities as good, with the effects of the global financial crisis relatively mild. The paper notes a lack of contestation of these mainstream views and locates them within an assessment of major trends in 2009, and medium-term issues. Particular focus is placed upon the policy implications of rural development and the need for a strong rationalisation of the state sector. Remarks upon the political economy of change then permit comments upon interactions between economic performance and gathering social and political concern with the political challenges of transition to so-called ‘middle income’ status, which in many countries has posed novel and tricky problems of adjustment, often requiring major social and political adjustments that have not always been successful. The paper concludes by suggesting that, as in the past, Vietnam’s style of change finds some things easy and others hard, and that this has its reflection in economic policy and performance.

  1. Phosphoric acid based pretreatment of switchgrass and fermentation of entire slurry to ethanol using a simplified process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Rondon, Vanessa; Weeks, Kalvin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2018-03-01

    Switchgrass (Alamo) was pretreated with phosphoric acid (0.75 and 1%, w/w) at three temperatures (160, 175 and 190 °C) and time (5, 7.5 and 10 min) using a steam gun. The slurry after pretreatment was liquefied by enzymes and the released sugars were fermented in a simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process to ethanol using ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain SL100. Among the three variables in pretreatment, temperature and time were critical in supporting ethanol titer and yield. Enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the concentration of furans in slurries, apparently due to release of furans bound to the solids. The highest ethanol titer of 21.2 ± 0.3 g/L ethanol obtained at the pretreatment condition of 190-1-7.5 (temperature-acid concentration-time) and 10% solids loading accounted for 190 ± 2.9 g ethanol/kg of raw switch grass. This converts to 61.7 gallons of ethanol per ton of dry switchgrass, a value that is comparable to other published pretreatment conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Not so wrong that we are prepared to threaten the entire service': the regulation of reproductive technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M

    2001-01-01

    In the UK human embryo research and infertility treatments are regulated by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), a national statutory body set up in 1991. Clinics are required by law to be licensed by the HFEA and open to inspection. In 1999 there were 107 clinics licensed to carry out IVF and/or donor insemination. There are regional variations in National Health Service funding and seventy-five percent of those treated pay for most of their treatment, usually to avoid long waiting lists or because they do not meet the eligibility criteria set by their local health authority. Having described the code of practice laid down by the HFEA the paper discusses the implications of new reproductive technologies from a social science perspective, focusing on three topics which continue to be debated by the media, the regulatory authorities, health professionals and 'lay' people. First, age limits and other criteria for assisted reproduction which raise the question 'who should be allowed to reproduce?' Second, donor anonymity and the question of payment for donors. Finally, the screening and selection of embryos for implantation and the recurring theme in the media of 'designer babies'. The HFEA can be seen to fulfill its intended role, mediating between the infertility professionals, patients and the wider general public. It seeks to allay public fears while supporting professionals by avoiding restrictions on research and treatment and by consulting with the public as to when extensions to research will be acceptable.

  3. Forest composition in Mediterranean mountains is projected to shift along the entire elevational gradient under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Nogues, David Bravo; Ollero, Helios Sáinz

    2012-01-01

    species) as functions of climate, lithology and availability of soil water using generalized linear models (logistic regression) and machine learning models (gradient boosting). Using multivariate ordination of a matrix of presence/absence of tree species obtained under two Intergovernmental Panel...

  4. Interfractional changes in tumour volume and position during entire radiotherapy courses for lung cancer with respiratory gating and image guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N

    2008-01-01

    were contoured on each CT scan to evaluate the variations in volumes and position. The lung tumours and the mediastinal tumours were contoured separately. The positional variations were measured as 3D mobility vectors and correlated to matching of the scans using the two different strategies. RESULTS......-87% when matched using bony landmarks and 70-76% when matched using skin tattoos. The overlap of the mediastinal tumours were 60-65% and 41-47%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of gating the tumours varied considerably, regarding both position and volume. The variations in position were...

  5. Characterization of respiratory drug delivery with enhanced condensational growth using an individual path model of the entire tracheobronchial airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Longest, Philip Worth; Su, Guoguang; Hindle, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the delivery of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols using an enhanced condensational growth (ECG) approach in an airway model extending from the oral cavity to the end of the tracheobronchial (TB) region. The geometry consisted of an elliptical mouth-throat (MT) model, the upper TB airways extending to bifurcation B3, and a subsequent individual path model entering the right lower lobe of the lung. Submicrometer monodisperse aerosols with diameters of 560 and 900 nm were delivered to the mouth inlet under control (25 °C with subsaturated air) or ECG (39 or 42 °C with saturated air) conditions. Flow fields and droplet characteristics were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model that was previously demonstrated to accurately predict aerosol size growth and deposition. Results indicated that both the control and ECG delivery cases produced very little deposition in the MT and upper TB model (approximately 1%). Under ECG delivery conditions, large size increases of the aerosol droplets were observed resulting in mass median aerodynamic diameters of 2.4-3.3 μm exiting B5. This increase in aerosol size produced an order of magnitude increase in aerosol deposition within the TB airways compared with the controls, with TB deposition efficiencies of approximately 32-46% for ECG conditions. Estimates of downstream pulmonary deposition indicted near full lung retention of the aerosol during ECG delivery. Furthermore, targeting the region of TB deposition by controlling the inlet temperature conditions and initial aerosol size also appeared possible.

  6. Computation of Scattering from Bodies of Revolution Using an Entire-Domain Basis Implementation of the Moment Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Arthur

    1999-01-01

    Research into improved calibration targets for measurement of radar cross-section has created a need for the ability to accurately compute the scattering from perfectly conducting bodies of revolution...

  7. Chiricahua leopard frog status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, with a monitoring framework for the species' entire range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones; Michael J. Sredl

    2005-01-01

    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically widespread in suitable habitat throughout its range. Reports of recent population declines led to inventories of Chiricahua leopard frog localities. Surveys reported here establish a new baseline of occurrence in the Galiuros: only two of 21 historical localities were found to be...

  8. NIR spectroscopy for the in-line monitoring of a multicomponent formulation during the entire freeze-drying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosas, Juan G; de Waard, Hans; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Blanco, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Freeze drying is a complex, time consuming and thus expensive process, hence creating a need for understanding the material behaviour in the process environment and for process optimization. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy offers the opportunity to monitor physicochemical changes of the formulation

  9. Optimization of physical education and sports of students with disabilities throughout the entire period of study at the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Adyrkhaev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Considered personal and proactive approach to physical education students with different nosologies and ensure close connection processes of personal training and physical development. In the experiment involved 644 students, with 2 and 3 of disability. The level of physical performance determined using the indexes. Identified organizational and methodological priorities of physical education and sports of students. Using the model of physical education allows full integration into the student environment. Students feel more comfortable. Students changing attitude toward themselves, manifested in the appropriate perception, finding camouflage disabilities struggle with her self-presentation. The effectiveness of didactic technology of physical education of students with disabilities in the pedagogical process.

  10. The Internet of Names: A DNS Big Dataset - Actively Measuring 50% of the Entire DNS Name Space, Every Day

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijswijk, Roland M.; Jonker, Mattijs; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2015-01-01

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is part of the core infrastructure of the Internet. Tracking changes in the DNS over time provides valuable information about the evolution of the Internet’s infrastructure. Until now, only one large-scale approach to perform these kinds of measurements existed, passive DNS (pDNS). While pDNS is useful for applications like tracing security incidents, it does not provide sufficient information to reliably track DNS changes over time. We use a complementary approac...

  11. The entire β-globin gene cluster is deleted in a form of τδβ-thalassemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Fearon; H.H.Jr. Kazazian; P.G. Waber (Pamela); J.I. Lee (Joseph); S.E. Antonarakis; S.H. Orkin (Stuart); E.F. Vanin; P.S. Henthorn; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A.F. Scott; G.R. Buchanan

    1983-01-01

    textabstractWe have used restriction endonuclease mapping to study a deletion involving the beta-globin gene cluster in a Mexican-American family with gamma delta beta-thalassemia. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms demonstrated deletion of the beta-globin gene from the affected chromosome. Using a DNA

  12. Reading in the dark: neural correlates and cross-modal plasticity for learning to read entire words without visual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalov, Nadine; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive neuroscience has long attempted to determine the ways in which cortical selectivity develops, and the impact of nature vs. nurture on it. Congenital blindness (CB) offers a unique opportunity to test this question as the brains of blind individuals develop without visual experience. Here we approach this question through the reading network. Several areas in the visual cortex have been implicated as part of the reading network, and one of the main ones among them is the VWFA, which is selective to the form of letters and words. But what happens in the CB brain? On the one hand, it has been shown that cross-modal plasticity leads to the recruitment of occipital areas, including the VWFA, for linguistic tasks. On the other hand, we have recently demonstrated VWFA activity for letters in contrast to other visual categories when the information is provided via other senses such as touch or audition. Which of these tasks is more dominant? By which mechanism does the CB brain process reading? Using fMRI and visual-to-auditory sensory substitution which transfers the topographical features of the letters we compare reading with semantic and scrambled conditions in a group of CB. We found activation in early auditory and visual cortices during the early processing phase (letter), while the later phase (word) showed VWFA and bilateral dorsal-intraparietal activations for words. This further supports the notion that many visual regions in general, even early visual areas, also maintain a predilection for task processing even when the modality is variable and in spite of putative lifelong linguistic cross-modal plasticity. Furthermore, we find that the VWFA is recruited preferentially for letter and word form, while it was not recruited, and even exhibited deactivation, for an immediately subsequent semantic task suggesting that despite only short sensory substitution experience orthographic task processing can dominate semantic processing in the VWFA. On a wider scope, this implies that at least in some cases cross-modal plasticity which enables the recruitment of areas for new tasks may be dominated by sensory independent task specific activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First report of a deletion encompassing an entire exon in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene causing alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouheir Habbal, Mohammad; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Zhu, Jun; Owen, Renius; Chehab, Farid F

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is often diagnosed clinically with episodes of dark urine, biochemically by the accumulation of peripheral homogentisic acid and molecularly by the presence of mutations in the homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene (HGD). Alkaptonuria is invariably associated with HGD mutations, which consist of single nucleotide variants and small insertions/deletions. Surprisingly, the presence of deletions beyond a few nucleotides among over 150 reported deleterious mutations has not been described, raising the suspicion that this gene might be protected against the detrimental mechanisms of gene rearrangements. The quest for an HGD mutation in a proband with AKU revealed with a SNP array five large regions of homozygosity (5-16 Mb), one of which includes the HGD gene. A homozygous deletion of 649 bp deletion that encompasses the 72 nucleotides of exon 2 and surrounding DNA sequences in flanking introns of the HGD gene was unveiled in a proband with AKU. The nature of this deletion suggests that this in-frame deletion could generate a protein without exon 2. Thus, we modeled the tertiary structure of the mutant protein structure to determine the effect of exon 2 deletion. While the two β-pleated sheets encoded by exon 2 were missing in the mutant structure, other β-pleated sheets are largely unaffected by the deletion. However, nine novel α-helical coils substituted the eight coils present in the native HGD crystal structure. Thus, this deletion results in a deleterious enzyme, which is consistent with the proband's phenotype. Screening for mutations in the HGD gene, particularly in the Middle East, ought to include this exon 2 deletion in order to determine its frequency and uncover its origin.

  14. 75 FR 62439 - The Entire United States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... States and U.S. Territories; Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Military Reservist Economic Injury Disaster Loan... Date: 1 year after the essential employees is discharged or released from active duty. ADDRESSES...

  15. A Java-based enterprise system architecture for implementing a continuously supported and entirely Web-based exercise solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Kiryu, Tohru

    2006-04-01

    Since machine-based exercise still uses local facilities, it is affected by time and place. We designed a web-based system architecture based on the Java 2 Enterprise Edition that can accomplish continuously supported machine-based exercise. In this system, exercise programs and machines are loosely coupled and dynamically integrated on the site of exercise via the Internet. We then extended the conventional health promotion model, which contains three types of players (users, exercise trainers, and manufacturers), by adding a new player: exercise program creators. Moreover, we developed a self-describing strategy to accommodate a variety of exercise programs and provide ease of use to users on the web. We illustrate our novel design with examples taken from our feasibility study on a web-based cycle ergometer exercise system. A biosignal-based workload control approach was introduced to ensure that users performed appropriate exercise alone.

  16. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring radiant emissions from entire prescribed fires with ground, airborne and satellite sensors - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Andrew T. Hudak; Thomas Zajkowski; E. Louise Loudermilk; Wilfrid Schroeder; Luke Ellison; Robert L. Kremens; William Holley; Otto Martinez; Alexander Paxton; Benjamin C. Bright; Joseph O' Brien; Ben Hornsby; Charles Ichoku; Jason Faulring; Aaron Gerace; David Peterson; Joseph Mauceri

    2016-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE)...

  18. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of paramount importance in regard to large-scale high-resolution data acquisition when using motorized survey systems is the exact data positioning as well as the removal of any measurement effects caused by the survey vehicle. The large amount of generated data requires efficient semi-automatic and automatized tools for the extraction and rendering of important information. Semi-automatic data segmentation and classification precede the detailed 3D archaeological interpretation, which still requires considerable manual input. We present the latest technological and methodological developments in regard to motorized near-surface GPR and magnetometer prospection as well as application examples from different iconic European archaeological sites.

  19. If the results of an article are noteworthy, read the entire article; do not rely on the abstract alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal-Ré, R; Castell, M V; García-Puig, J

    2015-11-01

    Clinicians typically update their knowledge by reading articles on the Internet. Easy access to the articles' abstracts and a lack of time to access other information sources creates a risk that therapeutic or diagnostic decisions will be made after reading just the abstracts. Occasionally, however, the abstracts of articles from clinical trials that have not obtained statistically significant differences in the primary study endpoint have reported other positive results, for example, of a secondary endpoint or a subgroup analysis. The article, however, correctly reports all results, including those of the primary endpoint. In the abstract, the safety information of the experimental treatment is usually deficient. The whole article should be read if a clinical decision is to be made. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Cyanobacteria in Sulfidic Spring Microbial Mats Can Perform Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Simultaneously during an Entire Diurnal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Judith M; de Beer, Dirk; Häusler, Stefan; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We used microsensors to study the regulation of anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis (AP and OP, respectively) by light and sulfide in a cyanobacterium dominating microbial mats from cold sulfidic springs. Both photosynthetic modes were performed simultaneously over all H 2 S concentrations (1-2200 μM) and irradiances (4-52 μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) tested. AP increased with H 2 S concentration while the sum of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthetic rates was constant at each light intensity. Thus, the total photosynthetically driven electron transport rate was solely controlled by the irradiance level. The partitioning between the rates of these two photosynthetic modes was regulated by both light and H 2 S concentration. The plastoquinone pool (PQ) receives electrons from sulfide:quinone:reductase (SQR) in AP and from photosystem II (PSII) in OP. It is thus the link in the electron transport chain where both pathways intersect, and the compound that controls their partitioning. We fitted our data with a model of the photosynthetic electron transport that includes the kinetics of plastoquinone reduction and oxidation. The model results confirmed that the observed partitioning between photosynthetic modes can be explained by a simple kinetic control based on the affinity of SQR and PSII toward PQ. The SQR enzyme and PSII have similar affinities toward PQ, which explains the concurrent OP and AP over an astonishingly wide range of H 2 S concentrations and irradiances. The elegant kinetic control of activity makes the cyanobacterium successful in the fluctuating spring environment. We discuss how these specific regulation mechanisms may have played a role in ancient H 2 S-rich oceans.