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Sample records for folic acid treatment

  1. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  2. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and ... conception and during early pregnancy . What Is Folic Acid? Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  3. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  4. Folic Acid Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Other Health Outcomes Folic Acid Fortification and Supplementation Neural Tube Defects Surveillance References Data and Statistics Research Birth Defects COUNT Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Links to ...

  5. [Women's knowledge of folic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgues, Mathilde; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    Many trials have shown that folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in general population. We investigated the knowledge of folic acid in women of child-bearing age. Women of child-bearing age were interviewed by 20 pharmacists living in Haute-Garonne between January and February 2014. One hundred ninety-six women were included in the present study. Out of them, 36% of women never heard of folic acid and 82% were not aware of its benefits. Knowledge was higher in older women, women in a couple and women with higher educational level (Pfolic acid during pregnancy. Moreover, previous studies have shown that French women have low use of folic acid during peri-conceptional period. Information of general population will be required for a better prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Predicting folic acid intake among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Susan H; Hines, Annette; Krowchuk, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Annually in the United States, approximately 3,000 babies are born with neural tube defects (NTDs). Folic acid supplementation can reduce NTDs by 50% to 70%. Despite recommendations for folic acid intake, only 30% of women ages 18 to 24 report folic acid supplementation and 6% have knowledge of when to take folic acid. There is little information regarding lifestyle factors that correlate with consuming folic acid. The purpose was to describe folic acid consumption among college students; and explore the relationship between folic acid intake and the variables of: age, gender, year in college, alcohol and tobacco use, and vitamin supplement intake. This was a descriptive study with secondary analysis of data from 1,921 college-aged student participants in North Carolina who took part in a pretest/posttest-designed intervention to increase folic acid consumption and knowledge. Surveys included demographic, lifestyle, folic acid knowledge, and consumption questions adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention questionnaire. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Of the 1,921 college students, 83.3% reported taking a vitamin supplement, but only 47.6% stated that the vitamin contained folic acid. A relationship was found between age, year in school, gender, and vitamin intake. Lifestyle variables were not significant predictors of folic acid consumption. Identification of variables associated with folic acid intake, marketing, and education can be focused to increase supplementation levels, and ultimately reduce the number of NTDs.

  7. Radiolabeled derivatives of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Derivatives of folic acid are described, in which the α-carboxyl group is substituted with an amino compound having an aromatic or heterocyclic ring substituent which is capable of being radiolabelled. Particularly mentioned as a radiolabel is 125 I. (author)

  8. Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, P; Raffone, E; Benedetto, V

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin compared with myo-inositol plus folic acid alone on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A prospective, clinical trial. Starting on the day of GnRH administration, 65 women undergoing IVF cycles were randomized in two groups to receive myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin (32 women, group A), and myo-inositol plus folic acid (33 women, group B), administered continuously. Primary endpoints were number of morphologically mature oocytes retrieved (MII oocytes), embryo quality, and pregnancy rate. Secondary endpoints were the total number of oocytes retrieved (immature and mature oocytes), fertilization rate per number of retrieved oocytes and embryo cleavage rate. The mean number of oocytes retrieved did not differ between the two groups (7.88 +/- 1.76 vs 7.67 +/- 1.88; P=0.65). Whereas the group cotreated with melatonin reported a significantly greater mean number of mature oocytes (6.56 +/- 1.64 vs 5.76 +/- 1.56; P=0.047) and a lower mean number of immature oocytes (1.31 +/- 0.74 vs. 1.91 +/- 0.68; P=0.001). The mean number of embyos of top-quality (class 1 and 2) resulted higher in the group A (1.69 +/- 0.64 vs 1.24 +/- 0.75; P=0.01). Fertilization rate did not differ between the two groups. A total of 22 pregnancies were obtained (13 in group A and 9 in group B; P=0.26). Clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate were in tendency higher in the group cotreated with melatonin, although the differences did not reach statistical significance. Biochemical pregnancy rate and abortion rate were similar in both groups. melatonin ameliorates the activity of myo-inositol and folic acid by improving oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in women with low oocyte quality history.

  9. Fatal Folic Acid Toxicity in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnath, Gerard Pradeep; Kumaran, Senthil; Rajiv, R; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Nagaraj, Ashok

    2017-11-01

    Folic acid is B-9 vitamin. Folic acid is prescribed commonly for pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in the fetus, patients under chemotherapy, pernicious anemia and to reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular disease. Acute or chronic ingestion of a large dose of folic acid generally manifests as neurological complications, which are reversible. In this present case, a 23-year-old pregnant woman committed suicide by consuming folic acid tablets and succumbed to death within 36 h. Postmortem toxicological analysis detected folic acid in viscera. Death following acute consumption of folic acid is rare and has been not reported in the literature, to the best of our knowledge. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academies Press. Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 ...

  11. Folic acid for fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, José-Ramón; Ballesteros, Javier; Guillen, Virginia; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Ivan

    2011-05-11

    It has been argued that individuals with fragile X syndrome could have low folate levels in their bodies and that supplementing their dietary intake might remediate the adverse developmental and behavioural effects of the condition. To review the efficacy and safety of folic acid in the treatment of people with fragile X syndrome. We searched four databases in November 2010: CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO. Randomised controlled trials. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We included five trials, which were published between 1986 and 1992. Overall, they included 67 patients, all male, with ages ranging from one to 54 years. Intellectual disability in participants varied from borderline to severe and some studies included patients with an additional diagnosis of autism or autistic behaviour. Four of the studies were placebo-controlled cross-over trials and one study was a parallel design. The duration of follow-up ranged from two months to 12 months and the period on folic acid or placebo ranged from two to eight months. Doses of folic acid ranged from 10 mg to 250 mg per day, 10 mg per day being the most common. Most of the younger patients involved were also taking part in special education programmes (usually involving language and occupational therapy).We were not able to perform meta-analysis to combine results but none of the individual studies found evidence of clinical benefit with the use of folic acid medication in fragile X syndrome patients on any of the areas of interest, either psychological and learning capabilities or behaviour and social performance, as measured with standardised tools. Separate analysis of evidence for patients of different age groups, i.e. prepubertal children and postpubertal young people, found some statistically significant results, but did not show clear evidence of benefit for either group. Adverse effects of folic acid treatment were rare, not

  12. A combination treatment of folic acid, aspirin, doxycycline and progesterone for women with recurrent early pregnancy loss; hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Zahran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aims to state the effectiveness of a new combination treatment composed of folic acid, doxycycline, low dose aspirin and natural progesterone in cases of recurrent early pregnancy loss. Study design: A clinical comparative hospital-based study. Setting: Women Health Hospital – Assiut University – Egypt. Materials and methods: All patients with recurrent early pregnancy loss at 10 weeks or less attending our antenatal care unit were included. The patients were recruited over a period of 16 months and allocated into two groups. The study group received a regimen of folic acid, doxycycline, aspirin, and progesterone. The control group did not receive the previous regimen in the proposed way. The main outcome measures the live birth rate and complications of pregnancy in both groups. Results: Three hundred patients were recruited, with 150 women in each group. A high rate of live births was found in the study group (76.0% more than the control group (59.3%. Women in the Control Group reported more complications (76.0% vs. 51.3%. These were mainly abortion (40.0% vs. 23.3%, pre-eclampsia (16.0% vs. 10.7% and oligohydramnios (10.0% vs. 6.7%. Conclusion: The implementation of combination treatment of folic acid, doxycycline, low dose aspirin and natural progesterone resulted in a significant increase in the live birth rate, a significant reduction in miscarriages, and lower incidence of complications in patients with recurrent early pregnancy loss.

  13. Safety and fortification with folic acid in neonatal period

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Brucknerová; Tatiana Žikavská

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid, the essential vitamin, and its active forms are substantial parts of many biochemical processes in the human body. In the period of rapid growth of organism or in cell growth, body’s demands for folate increase. Its impact in neonatal period varies even in premature newborns. Fortification with folic acid and its substitution in the treatment of anaemia are the important parts in the comprehensive care in premature newborns. To determine optimal dose in this group of patients is d...

  14. Effect of folic and folinic acid on cytopenia occurring during co-trimoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Lund, J T; Hørding, M

    1988-01-01

    12 AIDS/ARC patients with or suspected of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were treated with co-trimoxazole and received supplementary folic or folinic acid to avoid peripheral blood cytopenia. Most patients developed decreased numbers of neutrophils and hemoglobin while receiving co-trimoxazole. S......12 AIDS/ARC patients with or suspected of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were treated with co-trimoxazole and received supplementary folic or folinic acid to avoid peripheral blood cytopenia. Most patients developed decreased numbers of neutrophils and hemoglobin while receiving co...

  15. Effect of folic and folinic acid on cytopenia occurring during co-trimoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Lund, J T; Hørding, M

    1988-01-01

    12 AIDS/ARC patients with or suspected of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were treated with co-trimoxazole and received supplementary folic or folinic acid to avoid peripheral blood cytopenia. Most patients developed decreased numbers of neutrophils and hemoglobin while receiving co-trimoxazole. S...

  16. Position of folic acid in fortification of nutrition in neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Žikavská

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid is an essential vitamin which has been known in recent 50 years. It plays an important role in period of neurogenesis. The substitution of folic acid is one of the important parts in the complex treatment of anaemia in premature newborns. It is also a component of artificial milk formulae or breast milk following mother’s intake. Fortification of foods with folic acid for population in the world is still discussed. To determine optimal dose of folic acid in premature newborns is difficult. Daily recommended doses of folic acid in infants under the six months were identified. The needs of folic acid in newborns vary. It depends upon the gestational age, body reserves at birth or maternal status of folates during gravidity. On the other hand there is a risk of accumulation of unmetabolised folic acid in circulation of newborns after mandatory folic acid fortification in some countries, which were reported in some studies. The safe upper limits of folic acid intake in premature newborns are not known. In this review article authors inform about the clear positive effect of folic acid in prenatal and neonatal period, but excessive doses of folic acid could present risk of accumulation and possible adverse effects. To follow up these notions further studies are required.

  17. Does daily folic acid supplementation reduce methotrexate efficacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, A; Jorizzo, J L

    2017-11-15

    Methotrexate is a mainstay treatment for autoimmune and inflammatory conditions in the field of Dermatology. However, in some patients, its use is associated with significant side effects and toxicity. Folate supplementation with either folic acid or folinic acid often mitigates side effects and reduces the incidence of systemic toxicity related to methotrexate. Although the value of methotrexate is clear, debate remains about folate supplementation. There is little agreement about the proper dosing or frequency of folate supplementation as many believe that daily folate supplementation can reduce methotrexate efficacy. Although daily use of folic acid does not appear to affect methotrexate efficacy, dosing of folinic acid close to methotrexate administration may hinder methotrexate efficacy. Therefore, folic acid should be used daily with methotrexate to ameliorate side effects, whereas folinic acid should only be used for methotrexate toxicity.

  18. Knowledge of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco Tavares, Beatriz; Neves Finochio Sabino, Ana Maria; Lima, Juliana Cristina; Tozzo Garcia, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    To identify the use of folic acid during pregnancy, as well as the new mothers´ knowledge about folic acid. Quantitative, descriptive exploratory, and prospective study. A total of 198 mothers were interviewed in the pediatric outpatient service of Hospital de Base Sao José do Rio Preto, Brazil. They have taken their children for neonatal screening and formally consented to participating in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (350,287). A specific instrument was used for data collection. The data were entered into an appropriate spreadsheet and later statistically analyzed. Pearson´s chi-squared test, p folic acid from the 7th to the 9th week of gestational age. However, when asked about the importance of folic acid and its action, almost the majority was not able to answer. Although daily acid supplementation is recommended in prenatal care, this study found that consumption is inadequate, contributing to the increased risk of fetal malformation. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses, should develop educational activities for women about the use of folic acid in the pre-gestation period and in the first pregnancy trimester.

  19. Knowledge of supplemental folic acid during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Barco Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.To identify the use of folic acid during pregnancy, as well as the new mothers´ knowledge about folic acid. Methodology. Quantitative, descriptive exploratory, and prospective study. A total of 198 mothers were interviewed in the pediatric outpatient service of Hospital de Base Sao José do Rio Preto, Brazil. They have taken their children for neonatal screening and formally consented to participating in the study. The research project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (350,287. A specific instrument was used for data collection. The data were entered into an appropriate spreadsheet and later statistically analyzed. Pearson´s chi-squared test, p <0.15, was used. Results. On average, the interviewed mothers were 25 years old and received less than two minimum wages. Most had prenatal in the first quartile and a mean of seven appointments, starting the use of folic acid from the 7th to the 9th week of gestational age. However, when asked about the importance of folic acid and its action, almost the majority was not able to answer. Conclusion. Although daily acid supplementation is recommended in prenatal care, this study found that consumption is inadequate, contributing to the increased risk of fetal malformation. Healthcare professionals, especially nurses, should develop educational activities for women about the use of folic acid in the pre-gestation period and in the first pregnancy trimester.

  20. Acid folic and pregnancy: A mandatory supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Morgane; Coste Mazeau, Perrine; Zerah, Michel; Ceccaldi, Pierre François; Benachi, Alexandra; Luton, Dominique

    2018-02-09

    Neural tube defects (NTD) occur in 0.5 to 2 per 1000 pregnancies with various handicaps for the affected child. It is now well established that folic acid deficiency (absolute or relative) is a predisposing factor to this type of malformation. Several randomized controlled trials showed that high-dose folic acid (4mg) is an essential factor for prevention of neural tube defects recurrence and significantly prevents the first occurrence of neural tube defects with a lower dose (0.4mg). Other etiologies can favor the occurrence of NTD such as MTHFR polymorphism, some antiepileptic therapies, obesity and pregestational mellitus diabetes. Necessity of a preconception folic acid supplementation or at least folate nutritional status evaluation should be known for all of us including patients and public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Folic Acid Supplements: Can They Slow Cognitive Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive decline? I've heard that folic acid supplements can improve cognitive function in older adults. Could ... D. There's no conclusive evidence that folic acid supplements improve cognitive function in older adults or in ...

  2. Evaluation of the microbiological quality and stability of folic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological quality and stability of folic acid tablets formulated with sorghum starch as a binder and to compare them with folic acid tablets formulated with corn starch BP, a standard binder. The microbiological quality of the starches, the formulated granules and folic acid ...

  3. Preconceptional use of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jihyun; Yon, Miyong; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Yoonna; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jinhwan; Hyun, Taisun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to significantly reduce the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTDs). Therefore, it is important for women to be aware of the effects of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness and preconceptional use of folic acid and to assess the current knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A questionnaire su...

  4. Preconceptional use of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Yon, Miyong; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Yoonna; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jinhwan; Hyun, Taisun

    2017-06-01

    Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to significantly reduce the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTDs). Therefore, it is important for women to be aware of the effects of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the awareness and preconceptional use of folic acid and to assess the current knowledge about folic acid among low-income pregnant women in Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012. Five hundred pregnant women were selected from the waiting list for the Nutriplus program implemented in public health centers using a multistage clustered probability sampling design. Data from 439 women were analyzed after excluding ones with incomplete answers. Among women who responded to the questionnaire, 65.6% had heard of folic acid before pregnancy, and 26.4% reported on the preconceptional use of folic acid. Women with a university degree or higher education were more likely to be aware of folic acid and to take folic acid in the preconception period. In a multivariate logistic regression, when age, education level, household income, employment status, gravidity, parity, and folic acid awareness were included in the model, folic acid awareness was a strong predictor of preconceptional folic acid use. As of interview, 85.4% and 77.7% of women were aware of the NTD-preventive role of folic acid and the appropriate time to take folic acid, respectively. The main sources of information on folic acid were healthcare professionals (41.2%), friends and family members (31.2%), and the media (26.5%). Our results suggest that public health strategies are needed to increase the preconceptional use of folic acid among Korean women.

  5. Effects of irradiation on hamburgers enriched with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, I; García, M L; Selgas, M D

    2010-03-01

    Hamburgers enriched with different amounts of folic acid (0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 mg/100g) were manufactured. They were then treated with doses of 2-4 kGy of ionizing radiation in order to increase their safety. The effects of these treatments on the colour, texture parameters, and sensory quality of the meat, as well as on the stability of folic acid, were studied in both raw and cooked hamburgers. The presence of folic acid negligibly influenced the quality of these meat products, with irradiation treatments causing most of the loss of sensory quality and so, the treatment with 4 kGy was not adequate. Folic acid levels decreased 20-30% following irradiation with 2 kGy, and no additional decrease was observed at higher doses of radiation. This new functional meat product may help consumers achieve the RDA for this vitamin in a normal diet. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Photochemical Synthesis of the Bioconjugate Folic Acid-Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, John Jairo Castillo; Bertel, Linda; Páez-Mozo, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a rapid and simple onepot method to obtain gold nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid using a photochemistry method. The bioconjugate folic acid-gold nanoparticle was generated in one step using a photo-reduction method, mixing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate with folic...... at 4°C prolongs the stability of folic acid-gold nanoparticle suspensions to up to 26 days. Ultraviolet visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed a surface plasmon band of around 534nm and fluorescence spectroscopy exhibited a quenching effect on gold nanoparticles in the fluorescence...... emission of folic acid and thus confirmed the conjugation of folic acid to the surface of gold nanoparticles. In this study we demonstrate the use of a photochemistry method to obtain folic acid-gold nanoparticles in a simple and rapid way without the use of surfactants and long reaction times...

  7. Estimates of Total Dietary Folic Acid Intake in the Australian Population Following Mandatory Folic Acid Fortification of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Dugbaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat flour for making bread was implemented in Australia in September 2009, to improve the dietary folate status of women of child-bearing age, and help reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the population. This paper presents estimates of folic acid intake in the target population and other subgroups of the Australian population following implementation of the mandatory folic acid fortification standard. In June/July 2010 one hundred samples from seven bread categories were purchased from around the country and individually analysed for the amount of folic acid they contained. A modification to the triple enzyme microbiological method was used to measure folic acid in the individual bread samples. The folic acid analytical values together with national food consumption data were used to generate estimates of the population’s folic acid intake from fortified foods. Food Standards Australia New Zealand’s (FSANZ custom-built dietary modelling program (DIAMOND was used for the estimates. The mean amount of folic acid found in white bread was 200 μg/100 g which demonstrated that folic-acid-fortified wheat flour was used to bake the bread. The intake estimates indicated an increase in mean folic acid intake of 159 μg per day for the target group. Other sub-groups of the population also showed increases in estimated mean daily intake of folic acid.

  8. Effect of combined folic acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on colorectal adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) act in concert in the one-carbon metabolism and may protect against colorectal neoplasia. We examined the effect of combined B-vitamin treatment on the occurrence of colorectal adenoma. The Women's Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study was a rand...

  9. The effect of metformin treatment on the serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although metformin therapy can increase homocysteine (Hcy levels, it frequently is used as an oral medicine in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, who might be at risk of catching diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin on the levels of serum Hcy, vitamin B12 (vit B12, and folic acid in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was designed with 18 patients with PCOS at the Fatemehzahra infertility Hospital in Babol, Iran. Metformin treatment (500 mg twice daily was initiated in all patients for a period of consecutive 6 months. The levels of serum Hcy, vit B12, and folic acid were measured in the participants before and after metformin treatment. Results: The mean vit B12 level showed a significant decrease in patients after 6 months of metformin treatment (P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference in serum folic acid levels. The mean Hcy levels increased after treatment, but this difference not was statistically significant. When patients were stratified into four subgroups by their insulin sensitivity and body mass index (BMI, relatively similar results were obtained in the subgroups, except that Hcy levels in the overweight/obesity group (BMI > 25 kg/m2 after treatment showed a significant increase (P = 0.01. Conclusion: These findings indicate that metformin increases the serum Hcy concentration in patients with PCOS especially in the women with BMI > 25 kg/m2. The possible mechanism for this effect would be the obvious reduction in the levels of vit B12.

  10. Safety and fortification with folic acid in neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Brucknerová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid, the essential vitamin, and its active forms are substantial parts of many biochemical processes in the human body. In the period of rapid growth of organism or in cell growth, body’s demands for folate increase. Its impact in neonatal period varies even in premature newborns. Fortification with folic acid and its substitution in the treatment of anaemia are the important parts in the comprehensive care in premature newborns. To determine optimal dose in this group of patients is difficult. The determination of red blood cell folate concentration levels is the most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body. Unmetabolised folic acid in circulation of newborns could have potentially adverse effects. Toxicity of folic acid is not a concern as folate is water-soluble and easily excreted by kidneys when in excess but on the other side growing organism of preterm newborn and disruption of metabolic balance could be potential risks. doi:10.5219/269

  11. The Story of Folic Acid Fortification

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-18

    This documentary short chronicles the hard work behind folic acid fortification in the United States and its positive effects on the health and well-being of so many children and families.  Created: 7/18/2013 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (DBDDD).   Date Released: 7/18/2013.

  12. Determinants of folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-06-01

    Although recommendations on folic acid use were issued by health authorities in a number of countries in the early 1990s, uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid is still disappointingly low. Regardless of food fortification policies, folic acid promotion will probably be required in most countries to optimize folate levels among women of child-bearing age. The aim of this study was to examine folic acid knowledge and use, and their determinants among antenatal women in the east of Ireland in 1997.

  13. Effect of different doses of isotretinoin treatment on the levels of serum homocysteine, vitamin B 12 and folic acid in patients with acne vulgaris: A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Muhammad; Polat, Muhterem

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of different doses of isotretinoin on serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid in patients with acne vulgaris. The case-control study was conducted at Gazi University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from November 2012 to March 2013, and comprised male or non-pregnant female patients more than 18 years of age. The cases had moderate to severe nodulocystic acne, while an equal and matching control group had healthy individuals. Isotretinoin was started in a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day, and 1.0 mg/kg/day in patients with medium and severe acne vulgaris respectively. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid, liver function tests, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were tested at the baseline and on day 45. SPSS 11 was used for statistical analysis. The two groups had 62 subjects each. The cases had 47(76%) women and 15(25%) men with a group mean age of 21.0±2.7 years. The controls had 45(72.6%) women and 17(27.4%) men with a group mean age of 21.6±3.0 years. Homocysteine levels were significantly increased in both groups taking 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1.0 mg/kg/day isotretinoin (p0.05 each). Total cholesterol level increased significantly in the group using 1.0 mg/kg/day (p<0.05). In the triglyceride levels, significant increases were seen in both groups (p<0.05). Evaluation of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid beside the routine tests were beneficial for the patients before they started isotretinoin treatment.

  14. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunni; Lindemann, Marion; Colligs, Antje; Snowball, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most countries. To understand the economic burden of NTDs and the economic impact of preventing NTDs with folic acid, a systematic review was performed on relevant studies. A total of 14 cost of illness studies and 10 economic evaluations on prevention of NTDs with folic acid were identified. Consistent findings were reported across all of the cost of illness studies. The lifetime direct medical cost for patients with NTDs is significant, with the majority of cost being for inpatient care, for treatment at initial diagnosis in childhood, and for comorbidities in adult life. The lifetime indirect cost for patients with spina bifida is even greater due to increased morbidity and premature mortality. Caregiver time costs are also significant. The results from the economic evaluations demonstrate that folic acid fortification in food and preconception folic acid consumption are cost-effective ways to reduce the incidence and prevalence of NTDs. This review highlights the significant cost burden that NTDs pose to healthcare systems, various healthcare payers, and society and concludes that the benefits of prevention of NTDs with folic acid far outweigh the cost. Further intervention with folic acid is justified in countries where the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized.

  15. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: The Folic Acid Clinical Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wu Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is hypertension with proteinuria that develops during pregnancy and affects at least 5% of pregnancies. The Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation in Pregnancy on Preeclampsia: the Folic Acid Clinical Trial (FACT aims to recruit 3,656 high risk women to evaluate a new prevention strategy for PE: supplementation of folic acid throughout pregnancy. Pregnant women with increased risk of developing PE presenting to a trial participating center between 80/7 and 166/7 weeks of gestation are randomized in a 1 : 1 ratio to folic acid 4.0 mg or placebo after written consent is obtained. Intent-to-treat population will be analyzed. The FACT study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research in 2009, and regulatory approval from Health Canada was obtained in 2010. A web-based randomization system and electronic data collection system provide the platform for participating centers to randomize their eligible participants and enter data in real time. To date we have twenty participating Canadian centers, of which eighteen are actively recruiting, and seven participating Australian centers, of which two are actively recruiting. Recruitment in Argentina, UK, Netherlands, Brazil, West Indies, and United States is expected to begin by the second or third quarter of 2013. This trial is registered with NCT01355159.

  16. Folic acid sensitive birth defects in association with intrauterine exposure to folic acid antagonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, W.M.; Walle, H.E.K.de; Kerstjens-Frederikse, W.S; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2005-01-01

    Since the protective effect of folic acid (FA) on birth defects is well known, it is reasonable to assume intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists increases the risk on these defects. We have therefore performed case-control analyses to investigate the risk of intrauterine exposure to FA antagonists,

  17. [Knowledge and attitude of adolescent girls regarding folic acid use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Ania; Benítez, Omar; Irizarry, Luis; Ginel Rodríguez, José; Vélez-Crespo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To determine the adolescent's knowledge and attitude on the use of folic acid to avoid congenital neural tube defects. Three hundred and three (303) adolescent students from two different schools, one private and one public, were asked to complete a pre-test survey. After completing the survey, a lecture was given addressing the importance of folic acid and the benefits of taking this vitamin at an early stage to avoid neural tube defect. Two weeks later a post-test was administered to evaluate the knowledge acquired. The variables were grouped based on the knowledge of folic acid used, the attitudes toward folic acid consumption and the economic level of the participants. On the pre-test the adolescents demonstrated 52.5% of knowledge on the use of folic acid. After the educational conference, the tested knowledge increased to 87.5%. Eighteen percent (18%) of the adolescents reported on the pre-test that they consumed folic acid; this result increased to 69.3% on the post-test. On the pre-test, 31.7% of the participants related folic acid as an etiology of neural tube defect. Following the post-test, 96% of the adolescents were able to provide correct answers about the benefits of folic acid. Less than 50% of the adolescents recognized that folic acid is a vitamin. More than 80% of the surveyed adolescents do not consume folic acid. In general, the majority of the adolescents did not know the benefits of folic acid during the pre-conception period.

  18. Folic Acid Determination Using Electrochemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Shamaeizadeh, Nahal; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin

    2015-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) is a water soluble vitamin that exists in many natural species. The lack of FA causes some deficiencies in the human body, so finding a simple and sensitive method for determining the FA is important. One of the modern techniques which overcome the disadvantages of conventional determination methods is the sensors. Possibility of miniaturization, the development of microfabricated electrochemical (EC) sensors has resulted in high sensitivity, portability, improved performance and spatial resolution, low power consumption, and the opportunity for integration with other technologies made Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems-based EC sensors suitable to identify low concentration analytes and microorganisms in a variety of mediums. PMID:26605021

  19. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Levels among Egyptian Children with Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha M. Abd El Dayem

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: antiepileptic drugs might upset the homeostatic balance of Hcy and its cofactors and cause abnormalities of their serum levels. The duration of anti-epileptic drug treatment was related to decrease of folic acid and increase in homocysteine levels.

  20. Folic acid in the monkey brain: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangas, A; Coveñas, R; Geffard, K; Geffard, M; Marcos, P; Insausti, R; Dabadie, M P

    2004-05-27

    The present report describes the first visualization of folic acid-immunoreactive fibers in the mammalian central nervous system using a highly specific antiserum directed against this vitamin. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was studied in the brainstem and thalamus of the monkey using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. We observed fibers containing folic acid, but no folic acid-immunoreactive cell bodies were found. In the brainstem, no immunoreactive structures were visualized in the medulla oblongata, pons, or in the medial-caudal mesencephalon, since at this location immunoreactive fibers containing folic acid were only found at the rostral level in the dorsolateral mesencephalon (in the mesencephalic-diencephalic junction). In the thalamus, the distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures was more widespread. Thus, we found immunoreactive fibers in the midline, in nuclei close to the midline (dorsomedial nucleus, centrum medianum/parafascicular complex), in the ventral region of the thalamus (ventral posteroinferior nucleus, ventral posteromedial nucleus), in the ventrolateral thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus, inferior pulvinar nucleus) and in the dorsolateral thalamus (lateral posterior nucleus, pulvinar nucleus). The highest density of fibers containing folic acid was observed in the dorsolateral mesencephalon and in the pulvinar nucleus. The distribution of folic acid-immunoreactive structures in the monkey brain suggests that this vitamin could be involved in several mechanisms, such as visual, auditory, motor and somatosensorial functions. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Bioavailability and bioefficacy of folate and folic acid in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Dusseldorp, van M.; West, C.E.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is important because supplementation around the time of conception has been proven to lower the risk of having offspring with a neural-tube defect. Furthermore, both dietary folate and folic acid decrease plasma total homocysteine concentrations. Elevated plasma homocysteine

  2. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; de Rover, Carolien M.; Jeeninga, Wendy; Cornel, Martina C.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Paulussen, Theo G. W. M.

    2003-01-01

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of

  3. Periconceptional folic acid use : Still room to improve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, P.A.; de Walle, H.E.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND: Folic acid use before and during pregnancy prevents neural tube defects. Since 1995, six surveys have been carried out among pregnant women to measure their knowledge and use of folic acid. The results of the most recent survey in 2009 will be discussed and compared with earlier

  4. Influence of educational level on determinants of folic acid use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pal-de Bruin, KM; de Walle, HEK; de Rover, CM; Jeeninga, W; Cornel, MC; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Buitendijk, SE; Paulussen, TGWM

    In The Netherlands, periconceptional folic acid use to prevent neural tube defects was promoted through a national 'Folic Acid Campaign'. In two regions, a local campaign supplemented the national campaign to increase the chances of reaching women with low socio-economic status (SES). A framework of

  5. Prevention of spina bifida: Folic acid intake during pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Methods: Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children ...

  6. Folic acid use in planned pregnancy: an Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Mappa, Ilenia; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Licameli, Angelo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; De Luca, Carmen

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that periconceptional folic acid supplementation decreases the risk of neural tube defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes and practices of women with planned pregnancies regarding periconceptional folic acid intake and to identify factors associated with the use of this supplement. During 2 years of observation, we surveyed women with planned pregnancies who called our Teratology Information Service. A total of 500 women were surveyed: 217 (43.4%) took folic acid before becoming pregnant, and 283 (56.6%) did not take it. The women who took folic acid before becoming pregnant had a high education level and received preconception counselling. Our results suggest that less than half of Italian women took folic acid before they became pregnant although they were trying to conceive. Knowledge about the benefits of this vitamin is inadequate also among women who planned the pregnancy and the level of information received from their physicians.

  7. Folic acid as a cancer-preventing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E

    1995-09-01

    Higher intakes of folic acid-rich foods such as vegetables, legumes, and whole grains are associated with lower incidence of carcinomas in international comparisons and case-control studies. Deficiency of folic acid in experimental studies causes DNA damage that resembles the DNA damage seen in cancer cells. The requirement for folic acid in DNA synthesis and DNA methylation provides a plausible mechanism for a mutagenic effect of a low-folate diet. It is suggested that cancer can be initiated by DNA damage that results from folic acid deficiency. The relatively low level of folic acid in North American diets might be the underlying reason for high rates of many cancers in North America.

  8. Effects of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) day- old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of graded levels of folic acid supplementation on the performance of broiler chickens. The study was carried out using complete randomized design. Commercial starter and finisher diets were used for the experiment which lasted for eight weeks. The folic ...

  9. Promotora de salud: promoting folic acid use among Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Flores, Alina; Mattia-Dewey, Daniel; Mai, Cara T

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Public Health Service recommends that all women in the United States capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to reduce their risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (NTD). However, disparities exist in the consumption of folic acid, with Hispanic women having lower rates of folic acid consumption than non-Hispanic white women. A community-based feasibility study was designed to assess the utility of the promotora de salud model to promote consumption of multivitamins containing folic acid for the prevention of NTDs among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in North Carolina. The study consisted of an educational intervention given by a promotora (a lay, community health worker), with data collection occurring at baseline and four months post-intervention to measure changes in knowledge and behavior. Overall, 52% (n=303) of participants completed all components of the study. Self-reported daily multivitamin consumption increased from 24% at baseline to 71% four months post-intervention. During the same time frame, awareness of folic acid increased from 78% to 98% and knowledge of the role of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects increased from 82% to 92%. The results of this study indicate that the promotora de salud model may be effective in reaching a subpopulation of women with the folic acid message. Additional studies with larger population sizes are warranted to validate these findings.

  10. Periconceptional folic acid use: still room to improve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woude, Priscilla A Zetstra-van der; Walle, Hermien E K de; Berg, Lolkje T W de Jong-van den

    2012-02-01

    Folic acid use before and during pregnancy prevents neural tube defects. Since 1995, six surveys have been carried out among pregnant women to measure their knowledge and use of folic acid. The results of the most recent survey in 2009 will be discussed and compared with earlier surveys. Pregnant women in the Northern Netherlands were asked to fill out a questionnaire when visiting their midwife or gynecologist. Of the 515 participating women, 87.0% knew of folic acid before they became pregnant. Of all respondents, 51.6% reported to have used folic acid during the entire recommended period. Multivariate analysis showed that planned pregnancy (odds ratio [OR], 7.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-20.7), smoking (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), folic acid use during a former pregnancy (OR, 22.6; 95% CI, 5.5-92.8) and the number of previous children (per child OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9) were predicting factors for the recommended use of folic acid; 89.9% of women were sufficiently knowledgeable to start to use folic acid before pregnancy. The knowledge about folic acid has declined over recent years, and the use during the recommended period did not improve since the survey of 2005. Based on this survey, there is still room for improvement in the knowledge and actual use of folic acid before pregnancy. Attention to these aspects should focus on younger, low-educated women and should include information about family planning and contraceptives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oral folic acid supplementation decreases palate and/or lip cleft occurrence in Pug and Chihuahua puppies and elevates folic acid blood levels in pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domosławska, A; Jurczak, A; Janowski, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of the occurrence of lip and/or palate cleft (CL/CP) in new-borns of two breeds, Pugs and Chihuahuas, and to measure the folic acid blood levels in bitches during gestations both with and without folic acid oral supplementation. Bitches of 13 Pugs and 17 Chihuahuas with CL/CP cases were used in the study. In trial 1, the animals of the experimental group (n=25) were given additional folic acid from the onset of heat till the 40th day of gestation. The females of the control group (n=12) were fed a traditional diet. From all the animals blood was collected at the onset of heat, 14 days later and on the 30th day of the gestation to estimate folic acid concentration. In trial 2, the prevalence of CP/CL cases in litters from pregnancies before and after supplementation was compared. The percentage of puppies with CL/CP after supplementation decreased in both Pugs and Chihuahua puppies (10.86% and 15.78% vs. 4.76% and 4.8% respectively). On Day 0, the concentrations of folic acid were at a low physiological level (around 8 ng/ml) in all the animals. In bitches of the experimental group the blood level of folic acid on day 14th and 30th of the treatment showed an increase in both breeds (13.65 +/- 4.27 ng/ml in Pugs, 10.79 +/- 2.84 ng/ml in Chihuahuas, and 14.94 +/- 3.22 ng/ml in Pugs, 12.95 +/- 3.58 in Chihuahuas, respectively) while in the control group, this level decreased with time of gestation both in Pugs and in Chihuahuas (around 6 ng/ml). Folic acid supplementation seems to be a simple, effective preventive method to reduce the risk of CL/CP, especially in the predisposed breeds.

  12. Compliance to the recommended use of folic acid supplements for women in Sweden is higher among those under treatment for infertility than among fertile controls and is also related to socioeconomic status and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Tiina; Yngve, Agneta; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Altmäe, Signe; Salumets, Andres; Wånggren, Kjell; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Background : Folate has been discussed in relation to fertility among women, but studies on women under treatment for infertility are lacking. Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate folic acid supplement use and folate status among women under treatment for infertility (hereafter infertile) and fertile women also in regard to socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Design : Lifestyle and dietary habits, and use of dietary supplements were assessed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of folate status. 24-hour recall interviews were also performed. Results : Highly educated, employed and infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements. The infertile women had a significantly better folate status than the fertile women. Folate status did not correlate with socioeconomic or lifestyle factors. The infertile women were physically more active, smoked less and were employed. Our questionnaire data had only fair agreement with the data from 24-hour recalls, but the folate status data was clearly correlated to our questionnaire results. Conclusions : Infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements and had better folate status than the controls. High educational and employment status were found to be key factors for high compliance to the recommended use folic acid supplements.

  13. Circulating Unmetabolized Folic Acid: Relationship to Folate Status and Effect of Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Carolyn; O'Connor, Deborah; Koren, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing concerns that exposure to unmetabolized folic acid, which results from folic acid intakes that overwhelm the liver's metabolic capacity, may be associated with adverse effects. In this paper, we examined the folic acid status of women of reproductive age in relation to dietary intake and the effect of folic acid supplementation (1.1 mg or 5 mg). Plasma unmetabolized folic acid was not significantly correlated with folate intake estimated by food frequency questionnaire or...

  14. 21 CFR 172.345 - Folic acid (folacin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...) Folic acid may be added, at levels not to exceed 400 micrograms (µg) per serving, to breakfast cereals...

  15. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  16. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted) and new-born infants (fasted) before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. METHODS: Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS). Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n=50) attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population). Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women\\'s and Infant\\'s University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n=20), and from their infant\\'s umbilical-cords (n=20) immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. RESULTS: Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted) (CI: 68.3%-99.8%) comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted) (CI: 62.1%-96.8%), and 49 out of 50 blood donors

  17. Folic acid fortification and public health: Report on threshold doses above which unmetabolised folic acid appear in serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPartlin Joseph

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 μg/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 μg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. Methods After pre-saturation with 400 μg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20 consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 μg, 200 μg, 100 μg over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours each dose tested. Results Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 μg or 100 μg (current US regime doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 μg tested. Conclusion Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 μg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 μg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 μg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.

  18. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary R

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted) and new-born infants (fasted) before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. METHODS: Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS). Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n=50) attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population). Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women\\'s and Infant\\'s University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n=20), and from their infant\\'s umbilical-cords (n=20) immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. RESULTS: Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted) (CI: 68.3%-99.8%) comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted) (CI: 62.1%-96.8%), and 49 out of 50 blood donors

  19. Persistent circulating unmetabolised folic acid in a setting of liberal voluntary folic acid fortification. Implications for further mandatory fortification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Steven W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ireland is an example of a country that has extensive voluntary fortification with folic acid. After a public consultation process, in 2006, the Food Safety Authority in Ireland FSAI 1 recommended mandatory fortification. However due to safety considerations this decision is now on hold. Before mandatory fortification goes ahead, existing levels of unmetabolised folic acid and their anticipated increase after fortification needs investigation because of the potential of folic acid to mask pernicious anaemia and possibly accelerate the growth of existing cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulatory unmetabolised folic acid in Irish adults (both fasted and un-fasted and new-born infants (fasted before the proposed implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification. A secondary aim was to predict the increase in circulatory unmetabolised folic acid levels after fortification. Methods Study 1. Setting: Irish Blood Transfusion Service (IBTS. Whole blood samples were collected from blood donors (n = 50 attending for routine blood donation sessions (representing the general population. Subjects were not fasted prior to sampling. Study 2. Setting: Coombe Women's and Infant's University Hospital, Dublin. Whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture from mothers (n = 20, and from their infant's umbilical-cords (n = 20 immediately after caesarean section. All women had been fasted for at least 8 hours prior to the surgery. A questionnaire on habitual and recent dietary intakes of folic acid was administered by an interviewer to all subjects. The data collection period was February to April 2006. Serum samples were analysed for plasma folate, plasma folic acid and red cell folate. Results Blood Donor Group: Circulatory unmetabolised folic acid was present in 18 out of 20 mothers (fasted (CI: 68.3%–99.8% comprising 1.31% of total plasma folate, 17 out of 20 babies (fasted (CI: 62.1%–96.8%, and 49 out

  20. Folic acid fortification and public health: report on threshold doses above which unmetabolised folic acid appear in serum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Mary Rose

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: All flour in the USA is fortified with folic acid at a level of 140 microg\\/100 g which is estimated to supply an extra 100 microg daily to the average diet. Some researchers have advocated that this be increased to double and even four times this amount. Based on previous research these higher levels are likely to lead to the appearance of unmetabolised vitamin in the circulation, which may have safety implications for sub-groups of the population. The UK and the Republic of Ireland will likely introduce mandatory fortification also in the next year or so. The aim of this study was to capture the short-term effect of folic acid fortification on unmetabolised folic acid in serum after chronic consumption of folic acid. METHODS: After pre-saturation with 400 microg folic acid supplements daily for 14-weeks, healthy folate replete adults (n = 20) consumed folic acid fortified bread, at three different levels (400 microg, 200 microg, 100 microg) over a period of one week each. The dose was administered in two-equal sized slices consumed at 09.00 hrs and 13.00 hrs. Serum samples for total folate and folic acid were collected at baseline, after 14-weeks of supplementation, and pre and post (at 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours) each dose tested. RESULTS: Unmetabolised folic acid was detected after the 14-week supplementation period. Folic acid was not detected in either the 200 microg or 100 microg (current US regime) doses tested but was present at the highest level (400 microg) tested. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that persons exposed to the current US fortification programme supplying an average of 100 microg per day or less are unlikely to have unmetabolised folic acid in serum. It also seems that daily consumption of the higher level of 200 microg or less is unlikely to be problematic. Increasing the level however to 400 microg on the other hand is likely to lead to unmetabolised folic acid appearance.

  1. Recovering folic acid and its identification on mixed pastes of tempeh and fermented vegetable as natural source of folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Mixing between tempeh and both fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and spinach (Amaranthus sp.) were conducted to achieve mixed pastes as natural source of folic acid for 'smart food'. Mixing was performed on soy, mung bean, and kidney bean tempehs with both fermented broccoli and spinach at ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 4, 1 : 5 and 1 : 6, respectively. Result of experimental activity showed that pulverizing ratio becoming more and more low will decrease total solids, soluble protein and N-Amino, but fluctuates on folic acid in mixed paste. Based on folic acid equivalent and the best fermented vegetable efficiency, optimization condition was reached in paste with combination between mung beans tempeh and fermented spinach at ratio of 1 : 2 by increasing folic acid concentration of 83.18 % (0.83 times), dissolved protein 432.29 % (4.32 times) and N-amino 55.36 % (0,55 times). While, it is occurred a lowering total solids 22.16 % (0.22 times) when compared with folic acid, soluble protein, N-amino, and total solids on initial materials of mung bean tempeh. In this condition, it is achieved folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW) 148.14 Da. with relative intensity 100 %, and glutamic acid monomer 443.50 Da.with relative intensity 0.07 %.

  2. Decreased vitamin B12 and folic Acid concentrations in acne patients after isotretinoin therapy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hilal; Bulur, I; Gürer, Ma

    2014-11-01

    Oral isotretinoin treatment might influence the levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid. The aim of this study is to compare vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris with those of the healthy control group and to investigate the effect of isotretinoin treatment on these vitamins. Patients who completed 6 months of isotretinoin therapy for moderate and severe forms of acne vulgaris and a control group consisting of healthy individuals between February 2011 and March 2012 were included in the study. Before isotretinoin therapy and at 6.- months of the therapy, serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured. In the healthy control group, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were assessed only once. In total, 120 patients with moderate and severe acne vulgaris who completed 6 months isotretinoin therapy and 100 healthy individuals who constituted the control group were included in the study. Pre-treatment vitamin B12 values of the patient group were found to be statistically significantly higher (P = 0.002), but any statistically significant difference was not detected in folic acid measurements (P = 0.566). A statistically significant decrease was detected in post-treatment vitamin B12 and folic acid levels (P Vitamin B12/folic acid treatment should be given under medical surveillance before and during isotretinoin therapy. Supplementation of these vitamins should be recommended in cases of their deficiency, so as to decrease the risks of neuropsychiatric and occlusive vascular diseases.

  3. Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

    2006-05-01

    Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (Padult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (Padult offspring were also lower (Padult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase.

  4. Co-delivery of cisplatin and paclitaxel by folic acid conjugated amphiphilic PEG-PLGA copolymer nanoparticles for the treatment of non-small lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zelai; Huang, Jingwen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiangyu; Teng, Yanwei; Huang, Can; Wu, Yufeng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Huijun; Sun, Wenjie

    2015-12-08

    An amphiphilic copolymer, folic acid (FA) modified poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (FA-PEG-PLGA) was prepared and explored as a nanometer carrier for the co-delivery of cisplatin (cis-diaminodichloroplatinum, CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX). CDDP and PTX were encapsulated inside the hydrophobic inner core and chelated to the middle shell, respectively. PEG provided the outer corona for prolonged circulation. An in vitro release profile of the CDDP + PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles revealed that the PTX chelation cross-link prevented an initial burst release of CDDP. After an incubation period of 24 hours, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles exhibited a highly synergistic effect for the inhibition of A549 (FA receptor negative) and M109 (FA receptor positive) lung cancer cell line proliferation. Pharmacokinetic experiment and distribution research shows that nanoparticles have longer circulation time in the blood and can prolong the treatment times of chemotherapeutic drugs. For the in vivo treatment of A549 cells xeno-graft lung tumor, the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles displayed an obvious tumor inhibiting effect with an 89.96% tumor suppression rate (TSR). This TSR was significantly higher than that of free chemotherapy drug combination or nanoparticles with a single drug. For M109 cells xeno-graft tumor, the TSR was 95.03%. In vitro and in vivo experiments have all shown that the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles have better targeting and antitumor effects in M109 cells than CDDP+PTX-loaded PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (p nanoparticles came with reduced side-effects. No obvious body weight loss or functional changes occurred within blood components, liver, or kidneys during the treatment of A549 and M109 tumor-bearing mice with the CDDP+PTX-encapsulated nanoparticles. Thus, the FA modified amphiphilic copolymer-based combination of CDDP and PTX may provide useful guidance for effective and safe cancer chemotherapy, especially in tumors with

  5. Performance of pregnant women on folic acid intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rezaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.

  6. Prevention of spina bifida: folic acid intake during pregnancy in Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Larok, Rita; Kirabira, Peter; Bauwens, Lieven; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The intake of folic acid before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy can prevent spina bifida. This paper describes folic acid intake in women in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Structured interviews were held with 394 women attending antenatal care (ANC), 15 mothers of children with spina bifida, and 35 health workers in 2012 and 2013. SPSS16 was used for data analysis. 1/4 mothers of children with spina bifida took folic acid during late pregnancy, none preconception. None had knowledge about folic acid and spina bifida prevention. 33.5% of women attending ANC had ever heard about spina bifida, 1% knew folic acid intake can prevent spina bifida. 42.4% took folic acid supplements in late pregnancy, 8.1% during the first trimester, none preconception. All women said to have eaten food rich in folic acid. None were aware about fortified foods. 7% of health workers understood the importance of early folic acid intake. All health workers recommended folic acid intake to women attending ANC. 20% of the health workers and 25% of the women said folic acid supplements are not always available. Folic acid intake is limited in northern Uganda. This is attributed to limited education and understanding of women and health workers about the importance of early folic acid intake, late presentation of women at ANC, poor supply chain and dilapidated health services caused by war and poverty. A combination of food fortification, sensitization of health workers, women, and improving folic acid supply is recommended.

  7. Memory and motor coordination improvement by folic Acid supplementation in healthy adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooshtari, Maryam Khombi; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Parham, Gholam Ali

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that vitamin B as well as folate supplementation has been implicated in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of folic acid on passive avoidance task and motor coordination in healthy adult male rats. Animals were randomly divided into five groups with 10 in each. 1) Sham treated (Veh); received same volume of normal saline as folate vehicle, 2-5) Test groups; each received a single dose of folate (5, 10 and 15 mg/ml/kg, IP daily for one week). At the end of the treatment with folic acid or vehicle, motor coordination in rotarod (after 24 hr) and passive avoidance memory in shuttle box (after 2 and 30 days) were evaluated, respectively. The results showed that folic acid (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) increased short-term (Pmotor coordination (Pmotor coordination. Our results suggest that folic acid may improve both short- and long-term memories, dose dependently, although it affects motor balance at lower dose. The mechanism of folic acid effects on cognition and motor coordination is unknown and needs more investigations.

  8. Maternal folic acid supplement intake and semen quality in Danish sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kristoffer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring.......To examine whether maternal folic acid supplement intake during pregnancy is related to better semen quality in male offspring....

  9. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid and ferritin levels in patients with migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Acar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that disability due to migraine may be reduced with homocysteine-lowering treatment including folic acid and vitamin B12. In addition, recently the periaqueductal gray matter iron deposits have been found to be increased in migraine patients. There are few studies regarding vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine. The aims of this study was to measure vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferrin levels in patients with migraine and compare them with the control group. METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive newly diagnosed migraine patients who did not receive any vitamin supplement medication were enrolled. The study group consisted of 51 patients, suffering from migraine with aura (n= 23 and migraine without aura (n= 28. The control group consisted of 28 healthy participants without history of headache, anemia and vitamin supplement. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and transferin levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. RESULTS: Migraine patients had significantly lower concentrations of vitamin B12 and folic acid compared with the healthy controls (for vitamin B12; 215.6±133.7 pg/ml vs. 289.9±12 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.005; for folic acid; 6.74 ± 4.31 pg/ml vs. 8.47 ± 1.85 pg/ml, respectively, p=0.048. The vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (177.3 ± 139.2 pg/ml vs 252.5 ± 119.5 pg/ml, p=0.043. There were no differences in folic acid, ferritin, and transferritin levels between during attacks and in interictal period of patients with migraine (p>0.05. The ferritin levels were found to be significantly lower during attacks in migraine patients than in interictal periods (43.4 ± 41.1 mg/ml, vs 75.4 ± 51.7, mg/ml, p=0.018. CONCLUSION: Migraine patients had lower serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels than healthy subjects. These findings supported that vitamin B12

  10. Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Jihyun; Hwang, Eun Joung; Song, YoonJu; Kim, Heon; Hyun, Taisun

    2018-02-01

    Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid supplements along with their associated factors among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age. From August 2012 to March 2013, 704 women aged 19-45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid as well as questions to identify risk of inadequate folate intake. Approximately 67% of women reported that they had heard of folic acid, and 23.7% had knowledge of both the role of folic acid in preventing birth defects and appropriate time for taking folic acid supplements to prevent birth defects. However, only 9.4% of women took folic acid supplements at the time of the survey. Women aged 19-24 years, unmarried women, and women who had never been pregnant were less likely to be aware and knowledgeable of folic acid or take folic acid supplements. In addition, women at high risk of inadequate folate intake were less likely to take folic acid supplements. In a multivariate analysis, women aged 19-24 years, women with a high school diploma or lower education level, and unmarried women were less likely to be aware and have knowledge of folic acid. The percentage of women taking folic acid supplements was significantly higher among knowledgeable women than among unknowledgeable women. These results support our hypothesis that women with knowledge of folic acid are more likely to take folic acid supplements. Therefore, educational programs or campaigns to improve knowledge regarding the importance of folic acid and to promote consumption of folic acid supplements as well as folate-rich foods are needed to target young, less educated, and unmarried women.

  11. Factors contributing to the success of folic acid public health campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Rofail, D.; Colligs, A.; Abetz, L.; Lindemann, M.; Maguire, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies in the 1990s have found that periconceptional dietary folate, supplementation of folic acid or supplemental multivitamins containing folic acid, help prevent neural tube defect (NTDs) if taken at the right time. This literature review assesses the extant folic acid public health campaigns literature and identifies some common variables used in folic acid consumption campaign evaluations. Methods This review was part of a larger study that searched PUBMED, PsycINFO and Embas...

  12. A Village-Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid Use among Rural Chinese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Qian; Yang, Lina; Li, Fang; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Deng, Jing; Hu, Xiangying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village‐based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple‐stage sampling and were divided i...

  13. Assessing Folic Acid Awareness and its Usage for the Prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the precent study, firm evidences indicate that folic acid supplementation during the peri‑conceptional period reduces the risk of having a baby with neural tube defects. Aim: To ascertain the level of awareness about folic acid, its use during peri‑conceptional period and the predictive factors of folic acid ...

  14. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group, while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3 were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group. The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1295 - Folic acid test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Folic acid test system. 862.1295 Section 862.1295 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  16. Folic acid supplementation is not the sole factor in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user user

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... NTD studies conducted in Malaysia report a prevalence ranging from 0.79 to 1.29 per 1000 live births based on NTD ... addition, intervention studies concluded that daily consumption of 400 µg of folic acid effectively reduced NTD risk ... Furthermore, neurogenic bowel syndrome, which accompanies NTDs ...

  17. Factors associated with not using folic acid supplements preconceptionally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Cornel, M.C.; Spelten, E.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Neural tube defects are among the most common birth defects worldwide. Folic acid intake from one month before to three months after conception reduces the likelihood of neural tube defects by at least 50 %. Since 1995, several campaigns have been organised in the Netherlands which

  18. Effect of ascorbic and folic acids supplementation on oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on the effect of supplementation of ascorbic and folic acids on the oxidative hormones, enzymatic antioxidants, haematological and biochemical properties of layers exposed to increased heat load. A total of 72 Isa Brown laying hens at 31 weeks of age were randomly divided into four groups ...

  19. The effect of folic acid supplementation on total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Nutritional supplementation of folic acid may be used to reduce homocysteine levels and thus minimise the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examines 90 days of oral supplementation of a liquid ...

  20. Physicians' Knowledge of Alcohol, Tobacco and Folic Acid in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L. G.; Ordean, A.; Midmer, D.; Kahan, M.; Tolomiczenko, G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess: (1) physicians' knowledge and clinical confidence regarding problematic substance use in pregnancy compared to folic acid, and (2) physicians' desire for education in this area and their preferred learning modalities tools. Design: Self-administered survey. Setting: "Family Medicine Forum 2004" in Toronto, Canada.…

  1. Colon cancer and the relationship with folic acid fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Guerrero-Wyss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of flour baking in Chile with folic acid in pregnant women significantly reduced the neural tube defects, however this situation also affects the rest of the population. What about supplementation in children, adults and adults older that do not require an extra intake of folic acid? Relate folic acid fortification with the risk of developing colon cancer is the aim of this review. Some meta-analyzes indicate that folate supplementation does not increase long-term relative risk and incidence of colorectal cancer, however other relevant studies indicate this relationship to estimate feasible because the evidence is inconclusive. The available evidence shows conflicting results; depending on the methodological study design, source of folate, fortification dose and duration of this addition to the target population; so these features should be considered in the analysis of the risk of developing colorectal cancer. It should be considered that the evidence is inconclusive regarding folate supplementation and the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Evidence indicates that the relationship is dependent on dose and time of administration, methodological design, geographical location of the study, subject ethnicity, and other variables such as lifestyle may have influenced some studies. It is recommended to analyze future studies locally and follow carefully the incidence of colorectal cancer and relate national program development folic acid fortification.

  2. Role of folic acid in chlorpyrifos induced teratogenicity in mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folic acid is known to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects, in animal experiments however, it has not been effective in reducing the congenital anomalies caused by antiepileptics and many other chemicals. Pesticides of organophosphate group such as chlorpyrifos are widely used in agriculture and household, and ...

  3. Effect of acute folic acid ingestion on blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased viscosity of blood has been associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases and blood rheology has been shown to be influenced by nutrition. This study was designed to elucidate whether acute folic acid ingestion has any effect on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), haemorheological ...

  4. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bager Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of folic acid use in pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. We studied 243 women with pregnancies complicated by some forms of birth defect(s. These patients were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies. The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7 percent. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94 percent (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome, and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with the folic acid use. Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy.

  5. Folic Acid and Birth Defects: A Case Study (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dastgiri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using folic acid during pregnancy for the reduction of neural tube defects (NTDs in the northwest region of Iran. Material and Methods : In this study, 243 pregnant women that were identified by medical diagnostic tests as having a fetus with some types of congenital anomalies were evaluated. They were referred to Legal Medicine Organization of East Azarbaijan province to get permission for therapeutic termination of pregnancy. Results : The prevalence of NTDs among pregnant women who were referred for therapeutic termination of pregnancy was 24.7%. Consumption of folic acid prevented NTDs by 79% (Odds Ratio = 0.21, CI 95%: 0.12–0.40 and 94% (Odds Ratio = 0.06, CI 95%: 0.03–0.15 compared to pregnancies complicated by other anomalies and normal pregnancies, respectively. Hydrops fetalis, hydrocephaly, Down syndrome and limb anomalies did not have any significant association with use folic acid. Conclusion : Along with the advice for the consumption of folic acid for pregnant women, they should be offered prenatal screening or diagnostic tests to identify fetal abnormalities for possible termination of pregnancy for maternal and child health promotion. ​

  6. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  7. Awareness of Pregnant Women about Folic Acid Supplementation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Riazi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of folic acidsupplementation amongst Iranian pregnant women.Materials and methods: We selected 322 women through simple randomized method in a cross sectionstudy. Data was gathered on the base of questionnaire and interview. Statistical analysis was performedusing SPSS software. The value of p<0.05 was considered as significant level.Results: The obtained information revealed that 7.8% with high level of knowledge, 43.8% withintermediate level, 30.4% with low level knowledge, and 18% with no knowledge. Hospitals and healthcenters are two major sources for promoting popular awareness about folic acid. There is a significantrelationship between the knowledge, education, employment, time of prenatal care beginning, age,gravidity, and sources of health information. The number of women with high level of knowledge wasmore among those with lower parity, higher level of education, employment, young age and looking forhealth information.Conclusion: Awareness of folic acid is low among Iranian women. The different strategies are required toelevate the knowledge about folic acid among the women in reproductive age and provide them withsome information about the benefits of this supplement.

  8. Folic acid and neural tube defects: are Jordanian pregnant women aware?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebous, H D; Ma'aita, M E; Alkhazaleh, F A

    2014-01-01

    To assess Jordanian pregnant women's awareness of folic acid and its contribution to neural tube defects (NTDs) prevention and to their folic acid intake. One thousand pregnant women were interviewed about their knowledge of folic acid for NTDs prevention and their folic acid intake using a questionnaire. Of 1,000 women surveyed, 93.4% reported hearing of folic acid and 30.3% of NTDs. Only 16.2% knew that folic acid can reduce NTDs risk; 42.0% of those aware of folic acid believed it should be taken periconceptionally but only 16.9% did so. The most common information sources on folic acid were physicians (82.8%). Whereas a large percentage of pregnant Jordanian women were aware of folic acid, only a small proportion are aware that it prevents NTDs and should be taken periconceptionally. Also, there was a gap between awareness, knowledge, and intake of folic acid. Awareness and knowledge of NTDs was less prevalent among Jordanian women. Despite the efforts that have been undertaken, further effort is required to educate Jordanian women about folic acid contribution to NTDs prevention.

  9. Physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding periconceptional folic acid supplementation: a survey in Southern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hammad, Talab; Dreiher, Jacob; Vardy, Daniel A; Cohen, Arnon D

    2008-05-01

    Pre-conceptional folic acid supplementation is an effective way to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Primary care providers are an important source of information to promote folic acid intake. This study aimed at evaluating primary care physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding folic acid supplementation for childbearing women. A questionnaire on physicians' knowledge and attitudes, mostly including multiple-choice questions, was delivered by mail to all physicians (n=370) in a large health provider organization in southern Israel in 2006. Data regarding demographics as well as type of specialty, experience, and place of work were collected. Eighty-seven physicians were included in the study (response rate: 24%). Seventy physicians out of 81 (94%) reported routine recommendation of folic acid for their patients. Most physicians admitted that they needed more information regarding folic acid supplementation. Knowledge about folic acid's role in preventing congenital anomalies was suboptimal, with 2% of the physicians correctly estimating the efficacy of folic acid in decreasing the risk of NTDs and 8% recognizing the association between folic acid supplementation and decreased prevalence of malformations other than NTDs. Knowledge about the correct timing (12%) and dosage (47%) of folic acid preparations for average-risk women was also lacking. Primary care physicians report that they routinely prescribe folic acid to women in childbearing age in order to prevent congenital anomalies, but their knowledge about folic acid supplementation is insufficient.

  10. A Village-Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid Use among Rural Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Yang, Lina; Li, Fang; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Deng, Jing; Hu, Xiangying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village-based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple-stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS). Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Self-reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%–29.2% at baseline to 41.7%–59.2% one year post-intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35). Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. Conclusions: The results indicated that an integrated village-based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women. PMID:28230798

  11. Survey on awareness of folic acid recognition and intake by female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takuya; Kagohashi, Yukiko; Senga, Yasuko; Fukuda, Hiromi; Shinozaki, Keiko; Takemori, Kumiko; Otani, Hiroki; Kondo, Atsuo

    2017-09-01

    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, studies have been conducted on female students of medical services, nutritional science, and nursery education that investigated the awareness of folic acid by using questionnaires. Many investigators have suggested the need to provide detailed information about the awareness of folic acid and knowledge about folic acid intake and neural tube defect risk reduction. The dietary habits of female students showed a positive correlation with their estimated folic acid intake, suggesting that improvements in dietary habits are associated with the consumption of folic acid. The importance of folic acid intake must be more aggressively promoted among female students. Thus, many learning opportunities should be provided for such students to help increase their folic acid intake. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  12. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  13. Factors associated with folic acid knowledge and intake among pregnant women in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsammani, Mohamed A; Kunna, Abdelillah; Adam, Elsheikh M

    2017-12-14

    Preconceptual folic acid use is known to have a protective effect against neural tube defects (NTDs). This study assessed knowledge and determinants of awareness on folic acid use among pregnant women at Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan during 2014. The standardized, anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data. Almost 80% of respondents had heard of folic acid. College-educated women (92.2%) knew more about folic acid and used it more often in the pre-conceptual period (8.3%). Doctors were the commonest source of information on folic acid (62%). Fewer subjects (8.9%) knew that it prevented birth defects, and 33.8% of subjects knew that green leafy vegetables are a source of folic acid. Of all subjects, only 3.2% use it preconceptually. Supplementation of folic acid preconceptually needs to be addressed in order to reduce the rate of NTDs found in Sudan.

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice among Women and Doctors Concerning the Use of Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriel, Eithan; Biderman, Aya; Belmaker, Ilana; Freud, Tamar; Peleg, Roni

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective. Daily folic acid intake, prior to conception and in early pregnancy, significantly reduces neural tube defects (NTDs). We compared folic acid consumption among Jewish and Bedouin women and the recommendations of family physicians and gynecologists. Methods. We compared 64 Muslim Bedouin women and 65 Jewish women. We also compared 39 gynecologists and 60 family physicians. Results. Fifty-one Jewish women (78.5%) took folic acid during pregnancy, but only seven (10.8%) before conception. Sixty Bedouin women (93.75%) took folic acid during pregnancy, but only four (6.25%) before conception (P folic acid three months before conception. Thirty-three gynecologists (87%) recommend preconception folic acid compared with thirty-six family physicians (60%) (P folic acid during pregnancy, but only few do so to prevent NTDs. There is a significant difference between doctors' recommendations and actual practice.

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Folic Acid in Combination with Anti-Hypertension Drugs in Patients with Hypertension and Hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid is generally used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD at present. However, the efficacy of therapies that lower homocysteine concentrations in reducing the risk of CVD and stroke remains controversial. Our objective was to do a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation among patients with hypertension and Hyperhomocysteinemia (HT/HHcy. We included RCTs examining the effects of folic acid plus antihypertensive therapy compared to antihypertensive alone. Weighted Mean Difference (WMD and Relative risk (RR were used as a measure of the effect of folic acid on the outcome measures with a random effect model. Sixty-five studies including 7887 patients met all inclusion criteria. Among them, 49 trials reported significant effect of combination therapy for reducing SBP (systolic Blood Pressure and DBP (Diastolic Blood Pressure levels compared with antihypertensive alone (WMD = −7.85, WMD = −6.77, respectively. Meanwhile, folic acid supplementation apparently reduced the level of total homocysteine (WMD = 5.5. In addition, folic acid supplementation obviously reduced the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CVCE by 12.9% compared with control groups. In terms of the stratified analyses, a bigger beneficial effect was seen in those RCTs with treatment duration of more than 12 weeks, a decrease in the concentration of total homocysteine of more than 25%, with folic acid fortification. Our findings indicated that folic acid supplementation was effective in the primary prevention of CVCE among HT/HHcy patients, as well as reducing the blood pressure and total homocysteine levels.

  16. Knowledge and use of folic acid in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Kelly R S; Fehr, Kelsey D H; Protudjer, Jennifer Lisa Penner

    2011-01-01

    Folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects. As approximately 50% of pregnancies are unintended, women of reproductive age should be aware of the importance of folic acid. We reviewed the existing literature on these women's knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects. Databases searched were PubMed, CINAHL, and Health Reference Center Academic. We used terms such as "folic acid knowledge" and "folic acid awareness" to search articles published from 1998 to 2010. Awareness of the benefits of folic acid before conception and during pregnancy was low, although knowledge levels were associated with education and household income. Women who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals, magazines and newspapers, and radio and television as common sources of information. Effective knowledge translation is needed to ensure that women are informed about the benefits of folic acid during the reproductive years. This knowledge will allow them to make informed decisions about folic acid consumption. Health care professionals play an influential role in promoting folic acid knowledge among women of childbearing age. Lower levels of knowledge among women with lower levels of education and/or household income must be addressed.

  17. Folic acid supplementation promotes mammary tumor progression in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidah Deghan Manshadi

    Full Text Available Folic acid supplementation may prevent the development of cancer in normal tissues but may promote the progression of established (preneoplastic lesions. However, whether or not folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established (preneoplastic mammary lesions is unknown. This is a critically important issue because breast cancer patients and survivors in North America are likely exposed to high levels of folic acid owing to folic acid fortification and widespread supplemental use after cancer diagnosis. We investigated whether folic acid supplementation can promote the progression of established mammary tumors. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control diet and mammary tumors were initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene at puberty. When the sentinel tumor reached a predefined size, rats were randomized to receive a diet containing the control, 2.5x, 4x, or 5x supplemental levels of folic acid for up to 12 weeks. The sentinel mammary tumor growth was monitored weekly. At necropsy, the sentinel and all other mammary tumors were analyzed histologically. The effect of folic acid supplementation on the expression of proteins involved in proliferation, apoptosis, and mammary tumorigenesis was determined in representative sentinel adenocarcinomas. Although no clear dose-response relationship was observed, folic acid supplementation significantly promoted the progression of the sentinel mammary tumors and was associated with significantly higher sentinel mammary tumor weight and volume compared with the control diet. Furthermore, folic acid supplementation was associated with significantly higher weight and volume of all mammary tumors. The most significant and consistent mammary tumor-promoting effect was observed with the 2.5x supplemental level of folic acid. Folic acid supplementation was also associated with an increased expression of BAX, PARP, and HER2. Our data suggest that folic acid supplementation may

  18. Awareness and use of folic acid among reproductive age and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köken, Gülengül N; Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Erol, Onur; Saygın, Nimet; Ayık, Hülya; Karaca, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation during the pre-conception period and first trimester of pregnancy reduces the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). In this study, our aim is to investigate knowledge and use of folic acid among women attending our clinic. Between January 2012 and June 2012, 817 participants, consisting of 345 pregnant and 472 non-pregnant women, were enrolled in this survey. A questionnaire including socio-demographic information, knowledge and use of folic acid was applied. 48.2% of participants were aware of folic acid for the prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge and use of folic acid increase with socio-economic status and educational level. Participants who were already knowledgeable about folic acid cited health care professionals as common sources of information. Although 88.2% of the pregnancies were planned among the currently pregnant women, only 14.2% of them stated that they had used folic acid in the pre-conception period. The use of folic acid during the first trimester among pregnant women was 48.6%. Furthermore, 18.4% of participants had not used folic acid and 29.3% of them had not remembered whether they had or not. Even though 94.4% of health care professionals had heard about folic acid, 28.3% reported that they had used folic acid before pregnancy. It is thought that there is a relatively high incidence of NTD in Turkey, which is due to inadequate information about NTDs and the use of folic acid. Primarily health care professionals such as midwives, nurses and family physicians should aim to inform all reproductive age women about folic acid for the prevention of NTDs, who should be encouraged to take the supplement when planning pregnancy.

  19. Folic acid supplementation reduces plasma homocysteine in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassinokiani, Fariba; Kashanian, Maryam; Akbari, Peyman; Mossayebi, Elaheh; Sadeghian, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Plasma homocysteine, which is increased after menopause, can be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of folic acid supplementation on plasma homocysteine in postmenopausal women. The study was performed as a randomized placebo controlled trial on 48 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 50-70 years) and plasma homocysteine of all women was measured. In the case group, folic acid, and in the control group, placebo was prescribed. The second plasma homocysteine was measured 16-17 weeks later and was compared in the two groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups according to age, BMI, parity, duration of menopause and the first plasma homocysteine level. Plasma homocysteine level was significantly lower in the case group than control group 16 weeks after folic acid administration (10.33 ± 3.51 μmol/l vs 13.21 ± 3.11 μmol/l, p=0.004). There was no significant correlation between plasma homocysteine level and BMI and parity. However, there was a weak-moderate positive correlation between plasma homocysteine and age (phomocysteine and duration of menopause (p=0.05, r=0.28).

  20. Continued Folic Acid Supplementation Throughout Pregnancy, May Cause Colorectal Cancer In The Future

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy protects from spina bifida and avoids either a spontaneous miscarriage or a severe developmental defect causing early postnatal death, associated with spina bifida, microcephaly or anencephaly. However, Based on epidemiological data in both the U.S. and Canada showed an increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer beginning when folic acid fortification in wheat-based products became mandatory and continued folic acid supplementation through...

  1. Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Jihyun; Hwang, Eun Joung; Song, YoonJu; Kim, Heon; Hyun, Taisun

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Folic acid supplementation before pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. The purposes of this study were to investigate the awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid supplements along with their associated factors among non-pregnant Korean women of childbearing age. SUBJECTS/METHODS From August 2012 to March 2013, 704 women aged 19–45 years completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid as ...

  2. Knowledge and practice of Mazandaran health and therapeutic staff about folic acid, 2004

    OpenAIRE

    F. Abdolahi

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Considering the role of folic acid in preventing congenital malformation and other problems it is rutinely prescribed in Iran. In this study, knowledge and practice of Mazandaran health and therapeutic staff about folic acid were assessed in 2004.Materials and methods : This is a descriptive study on 400 health and therapeutic staff about folic acid. Data were collected via questionair check list. The subjects were divided into three categories of; good, medium and wea...

  3. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, M.M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-01-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters. - Highlights: ► We investigated the degradation of folic acid aqueous solution after electron beam treatment. ► Radiation doses over 5 kGy promote huge folic acid degradation and appearance of several degradation products. ► PCA, PABA and pABGA, already known folic acid degradation products, are formed due to E-beam treatment. ► Xanthopterin, a new radio-induced breakdown product, is formed after irradiation treatment.

  4. Factors contributing to the success of folic acid public health campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofail, D; Colligs, A; Abetz, L; Lindemann, M; Maguire, L

    2012-03-01

    Studies in the 1990s have found that periconceptional dietary folate, supplementation of folic acid or supplemental multivitamins containing folic acid, help prevent neural tube defect (NTDs) if taken at the right time. This literature review assesses the extant folic acid public health campaigns literature and identifies some common variables used in folic acid consumption campaign evaluations. This review was part of a larger study that searched PUBMED, PsycINFO and Embase from 1976 to 2010 to identify articles related to the psychosocial and economic impact of NTDs (especially spina bifida) on patients and caregivers. Awareness of folic acid levels prior to conception improved post-campaign from 6 to 41%. Knowledge about consumption and correct periconceptional use of folic acid also improved. However, in most studies more than 50% of women did not take folic acid as prescribed. Many factors were associated with or without taking folic acid post-campaign, including incomplete outreach, prior awareness and knowledge, closeness to pregnancy, demographics and other personal characteristics. Sustained campaigning to maintain awareness about and promote periconceptional consumption of folic acid in order to reduce the incidence of NTDs is clearly needed. Additional initiatives could complement existing public health strategies.

  5. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  6. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  7. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  8. [Factors affecting the use of folic acid supplements in pregnant women in Gansu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Hu, Xiaobin; Wang, Minzhen; Li, Liansheng; Liu, Wu; Da, Zhenqiang; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Peng; Cheng, Ning; Bai, Ya'na

    2010-11-01

    To study the factors of folic acid intake among pregnant women, and to provide the basic dates for improving the effectiveness of folic acid intervention. A cross-section study was conducted both in hospital and household. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 2094 women in two counties of Gansu province, who were pregnant at least three months or postpartum within one year. Only 25.4% of 2094 subjects have taken folic acid. Lack of knowledge on folic acid, the age of pregnant women, the history of birth defects, had a check in hospital before pregnant, the degree of education, planned pregnancy and the history of miscarriages were the significant influential factors for whether or not taking folic acid. The history of childbearing and the knowledge on folic are the important factors affecting the use of folic acid supplements. Widely initiating health education on the knowledge of folic acid and advocating family planning in childbearing aged population should be taken as the most important measures. But finding a way of effectively increasing the rate of folic acid intake before pregnancy is a problem still needs to be solved.

  9. Folic Acid Is Able to Polarize the Inflammatory Response in LPS Activated Microglia by Regulating Multiple Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cianciulli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of folic acid to modulate the inflammatory responses of LPS activated BV-2 microglia cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. To this aim, the BV-2 cell line was exposed to LPS as a proinflammatory response inducer, in presence or absence of various concentrations of folic acid. The production of nitric oxide (NO was determined by the Griess test. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS, nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65, MAPKs protein, and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS1 and SOCS3 were analyzed by western blotting. TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as iNOS dependent NO production, resulted significantly inhibited by folic acid pretreatment in LPS-activated BV-2 cells. We also observed that folic acid dose-dependently upregulated both SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in BV-2 cells, leading to an increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Finally, p-IκBα, which indirectly reflects NF-κB complex activation, and JNK phosphorylation resulted dose-dependently downregulated by folic acid pretreatment of LPS-activated cells, whereas p38 MAPK phosphorylation resulted significantly upregulated by folic acid treatment. Overall, these results demonstrated that folic acid was able to modulate the inflammatory response in microglia cells, shifting proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory responses through regulating multiple signaling pathways.

  10. Folic acid and melatonin ameliorate carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebaid Hossam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin and folic acid against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Oxidative stress, liver function, liver histopathology and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The levels of protein kinase B (Akt1, interferon gamma (IFN-γ, programmed cell death-receptor (Fas and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α mRNA expression were analyzed. CCl4 significantly elevated the levels of lipid peroxidation (MDA, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, bilirubin and urea. In addition, CCl4 was found to significantly suppress the activity of both catalase and glutathione (GSH and decrease the levels of serum total protein and HDL-cholesterol. All of these parameters were restored to their normal levels by treatment with melatonin, folic acid or their combination. An improvement of the general hepatic architecture was observed in rats that were treated with the combination of melatonin and folic acid along with CCl4. Furthermore, the CCl4-induced upregulation of TNF-α and Fas mRNA expression was significantly restored by the three treatments. Melatonin, folic acid or their combination also restored the baseline levels of IFN-γ and Akt1 mRNA expression. The combination of melatonin and folic acid exhibited ability to reduce the markers of liver injury induced by CCl4 and restore the oxidative stability, the level of inflammatory cytokines, the lipid profile and the cell survival Akt1 signals.

  11. Awareness, use and information sources of folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shumi; Wada, Yoshinao

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation and folate-rich diets are recommended for women of childbearing age worldwide to prevent congenital anomalies. We aimed to determine the current status of folic acid supplementation among pregnant Japanese women and identify means to increase the intake of these supplements. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1862 pregnant women who consulted the perinatal centre from September 2014 to December 2015 completed a questionnaire concerning knowledge about folic acid, sources of information and the use of folic acid supplements. Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health (Japan). In our study population, only 20·5 % of pregnant women took folic acid supplements periconceptionally even though 70·4 % knew about the protective effect of folic acid. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥35 years (OR=2·80; 95 % CI 1·24, 6·29) and knowledge of the benefits of folic acid (OR=2·64; 95 % CI 1·92, 3·62) were associated with periconceptional folic acid use, and multiparity was negatively associated with such use. Compared with those who took folic acid supplements periconceptionally, women who did not take supplements received information through passive and less interactive media. Although folic acid awareness was relatively high among pregnant Japanese women, folic acid supplementation before conception was insufficient. To increase the intake of folic acid supplements in countries in which foods are not fortified with folic acid, an effective public health approach promoting behavioural change is necessary for women of reproductive age.

  12. Recovery of Fermented Spinach (Amaranthus sp. Concentrate Through Ultrafiltration Membrane Process as Source of Folic Acid for Smart Food Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspiyanto Aspiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process on spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture was done as an effort to recover naturally folic acid as bioactive components to increase smartness. The experimental activity was done by means of UF membrane (100,000 MWCO fitted in Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC at stirrer rotation speed 200 and 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 20 and 40 Psi for 30 min. Result of experimental activity showed that based on both selectivity and recovery of folic acid, process optimization of UF was reached at stirrer rotation speed 200 rpm and pressure 40 Psi. In the optimum condition, SUFC technique was able to recover folic acid in retentate 67.75% and in permeate 97.27% (63.19 µg/mL. Identification of monomer in permeate from the optimum process treatment was find out folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW 441.39 and relative intensity 93% at mass spectra T2.32 between m/z 257–304 and glutamic acids monomer with MW 148.57 and relative intensity 0.22% at mass spectra T2.82 between m/z 415–470. Other dominant monomer were folic acid fraction.

  13. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Claire R; Dipietro, Natalie A

    2012-07-01

    To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio. A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500) of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt. Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1%) knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9%) responded that they "always" or "usually" discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6%) responded that they "always" or "usually" discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD. This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational materials may be beneficial in augmenting knowledge of folic acid and

  14. Knowledge of folic acid and counseling practices among Ohio community pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues CR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine knowledge of folic acid use for neural tube defect (NTD prevention and counseling practices among community pharmacists registered in Ohio.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on a random sample (n=500 of community pharmacists registered with the Ohio Board of Pharmacy and practicing in Ohio. A survey previously used by researchers to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among samples of other healthcare provider groups in the United States was adapted with permission for this study. The final tool consisted of 28 questions evaluating the knowledge, counseling practices, and demographics of respondents. The cover letter did not reveal the emphasis on folic acid, and surveys were completed anonymously. The university institutional review board deemed the study exempt.Results: Of the 122 pharmacists who completed the survey, 116 (95.1% knew that folic acid prevents some birth defects. Twenty-eight (22.9% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss multivitamins with women of childbearing potential, and 19 (15.6% responded that they “always” or “usually” discuss folic acid supplements. Some gaps in knowledge specific to folic acid were revealed. While 63.1% of pharmacists selected the recommended dose of folic acid intake for most women of childbearing potential, 13.1% could identify the dose recommended for women who have had a previous NTD-affected pregnancy. Respondents identified continuing education programs, pharmacy journals/magazines, and the Internet as preferred avenues to obtain additional information about folic acid and NTD.Conclusion: This study represents the first systematic evaluation of folic acid knowledge and counseling practices among a sample of pharmacists in the United States. As highly accessible healthcare professionals, community pharmacists can fulfill a vital public health role by counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid intake. Educational

  15. Prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid - awareness among women of childbearing age in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F; Sabova, L; Pinterova, E; Hornova, J; Trnka, J

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency plays a central role in the aetiology of many congenital anomalies including neural tube defects. Protective effect of folic acid on embryo may be acquired only if taken periconceptionally. The aim of the study was to investigate the awareness about folic acid among women of childbearing age in Bratislava, Slovakia. There were 130 respondents involved in the research (106 pregnant women, 24 female students of medical faculty). Using questionnaire we acquired following data: pregnancy details, interest in diet before and during pregnancy, recommendations regarding nutrition and supplementation pre- and post-conception, knowledge about folic and other acid in 2004 and 2009. More than half of the respondents knew the sources of folic acid. The interest in the nutrition facts of the food dropped from 91 % to 58.5 %. The number of pregnant women advised about correct nutrition and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy increased from 16 % to 37 %. Planning the next gravidity with folic acid supplementation became greater than 21 % (38 % in 2009). Nevertheless, only 46 % of these women believed that proper food content with folic acid may prevent congenital anomalies. In a group of students planning to take folic acid periconceptionally the number raised up to 62.5 %. The results revealed low knowledge about the effect of folic acid on developing embryo among women of childbearing age. Effective intervention programs are needed with the aim to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid in 2004 and 2009. The results in both periods show low knowledge about this essential vitamin (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  16. Mediterranean diet, folic acid, and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Stronati, Mauro; Lanari, Marcello

    2017-08-17

    The Mediterranean diet has been for a very long time the basis of food habits all over the countries of the Mediterranean basin, originally founded on rural models and low consumption of meat products and high-fat/high-processed foods. However, in the modern era, the traditional Mediterranean diet pattern is now progressively eroding due to the widespread dissemination of the Western-type economy, life-style, technology-driven culture, as well as the globalisation of food production, availability and consumption, with consequent homogenisation of food culture and behaviours. This transition process may affect many situations, including pregnancy and offspring's health. The problem of the diet during pregnancy and the proper intake of nutrients are nowadays a very current topic, arousing much debate. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, in particular, has been associated with the highest risk reduction of major congenital anomalies, like the heterogeneous class of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies worldwide) and still remain a preventable cause of still birth, neonatal and infant death, or significant lifelong disabilities. Many studies support the finding that appropriate folate levels during pregnancy may confer protection against these diseases. In 1991 one randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated for the first time that periconceptional supplementation of folic acid is able to prevent the recurrence of NTDs, finding confirmed by many other subsequent studies. Anyway, the high rate of unplanned/unintended pregnancies and births and other issues hindering the achievement of adequate folate levels in women in childbearing age, induced the US government and many other countries to institute mandatory food fortification with folic acid. The actual strategy adopted by European Countries (including Italy) suggests that women take 0,4 mg folic acid/die before conception. The main question is which intervention

  17. A survey of the effects of low-dose Dapsone plus Folic Acid in cystic acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohani M

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six cases of patients suffering from acne cystica (conglobata were treated by low-dose dapsone plus folic acid (1 mg/day. This study has been performed on patients that had no response to other treatments. Several essential and careful tests and examinations were performed on patients before and during treatment. Ten patients of 46 above-mentioned cases were excluded from treatment protocol, because of the reasons that have been mentioned in this article. In 33 cases of 36 patients that recieved the treatment, the cystic lesions were disappeared without any exception and had satisfactory response to treatment.

  18. Folic acid and colorectal cancer prevention: molecular mechanisms and epidemiological evidence (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables protects against colorectal cancer. This effect may result from their high levels of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid). Folic acid holds a key position in DNA synthesis and mitosis as well as DNA methylation and regulation of gene expression. Folic acid deficiency has been associated with site- and gene specific DNA hypo- and hypermethylation. Furthermore thymidylate synthesis is restricted by folic acid deficiency which causes misincorporation of nucleotides and DNA strand breaks. Much epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that insufficient folic acid supply favors the development of colorectal tumors, particularly prospective studies have supported this connection. However, the data from case-control studies are less consistent. Functional polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing genes, especially the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are capable of modifying the risk of colorectal cancer. Observational studies show that individuals with the homozygote genotype for the MTHFR (677C-->T) polymorphism are at higher risk when folic acid supply is low. Currently there are only few human intervention trials which show that folic acid can modify and inhibit the development of colorectal tumors. Additional studies are required in order to determine whether folic acid will be a useful agent in colorectal cancer prevention.

  19. Comparison of folic acid levels in schizophrenic patients and control groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthy, C. C.; Amin, M. M.; Effendy, E.

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for schizophrenia through epidemiology, biochemistry and gene-related studies. Compared with healthy people, schizophrenic patients may have high homocysteine plasma values and homocysteine or low levels of folic acid, which seems to correlate with extrapyramidal motor symptoms caused by neuroleptic therapy and with symptoms of schizophrenia. In this present study, we focus on the difference of folic acid level between schizophrenic patient and control group. The study sample consisted of schizophrenic patients and 14 people in the control group and performed blood sampling to obtain the results of folic acid levels. The folic acid level in both groups was within normal range, but the schizophrenic patient group had lower mean folic acid values of 5.00 ng/ml (sb 1.66), compared with the control group with mean folic acid values of 10.75 ng/ml (sb 4.33). there was the group of the control group had a higher value of folic acid than the schizophrenic group.

  20. Masking of vitamin B12 deficiency associated neuropathy by folic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam JGC van; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch authorities consider fortifying certain foods with folic acid. Folic acid supplementation may, however, mask vitamin B12 deficiency and increase the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. This literature review outlines published studies to the potential masking of vitamin B12 deficiency

  1. Three years after the dutch folic acid campaign : Growing socioeconomic differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, HEK; Cornel, MC; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Background. We investigated periconceptional awareness and the use of folic acid tablets 3 years after the 1995 campaign in the northern Netherlands. We studied whether the socioeconomic differences we found in 1996 with respect to awareness and use of folic acid remained in 1998. Methods. The

  2. Awareness, knowledge, and use of folic acid among women: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Zeynep; Oztürk, Ahmet; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Gün, Iskender

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the awareness, knowledge, and behaviors relevant to folic acid intake in women aged 15-49 years. A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered to 1,083 women who attended to family health care centers for any reason, between 1 and 15 of December 2009. Half of the women (53.7%) surveyed did not hear or read about folic acid. Women older than 35 and less-educated women were more unaware of folic acid. Out of 171 pregnant women, 81.3% (139 women) were taking/took vitamin/folic acid supplementation but only 12.2% of the users started to take supplements at least 1 month before conception. Out of 912 non-pregnant women 81 (8.9%) said they are taking any vitamin or mineral supplement. Out of the women who are not pregnant, not using a modern contraceptive method and planning to have a child at the time of the survey, only 9 (10%) were taking vitamin/folic acid. The most common information sources on folic acid were the doctors. In order to improve the intake of folic acid during the recommended period, preconceptional counseling by the family doctors to inform women of childbearing age about the need to take folic acid to prevent NTDs seems to be important.

  3. Ten years after the Dutch public health campaign on folic acid : the continuing challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, Hermien E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Background Folic acid use in the periconceptional period reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, applying this knowledge in daily practice is not an easy task. We report here the current level of folic acid use in the Netherlands and discuss the figures within the framework of a

  4. Growing gap in folic acid intake with respect to level of education in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Walle, H. E. K.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the awareness of and the behaviour towards folic acid in 2003 and the trend of folic acid use among pregnant Dutch women between 1995 and 2003 with regard to socio-economic status (SES). Method: We conducted 2-yearly cross-sectional studies among pregnant

  5. Multivitamins, Folic Acid and Birth Defects: Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviors of Hispanic Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRosset, Leslie; Mullenix, Amy; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background: Consumption of folic acid prior to conception can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies. In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) issued a recommendation that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 [mu]g of folic acid daily to reduce their risk for a NTD-affected…

  6. Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.J. de; Verwei, M.; West, C.E.; Vliet, T. van; Siebelink, E.; Berg, H. van den; Castenmiller, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised

  7. Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, R.J.; Verwei, M.; West, C.E.; Vliet, van T.; Siebelink, E.; Berg, van den H.; Castenmiller, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised

  8. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  9. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-07-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after oral methionine challenge (100 mg/kg). We also studied the relationship of their plasma folic acid with the decline of fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine after 7 days of folic acid supplementation (5 mg/day). The three approaches suggested a cutoff value of 10 nmol/L. The chances of individuals to significantly (P ine after folic acid supplementation proved significantly higher at plasma folic acid concentrations < or = 10 nmol/L, as compared with folic acid concentrations above this value (odds ratio, 5.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-13.73). We suggest adopting a 10 nmo/L plasma folic acid cutoff value on functional grounds.

  10. A Mixed-Method Study to Determine the Benefits of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation and Effects of Folic Acid Deficiency in Mothers on Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata S; Kolli, Sunanda Reddy; Neogi, Sutapa B; Singh, Samiksha; Allagh, Komal Preet; John, Neena; N, Srinivas; Ramani, Sudha; Shamanna, B R; Doyle, Pat; Kinra, Sanjay; Ness, Andy; Pallepogula, Dinesh Raj; Pant, Hira B; Babbar, Smiksha; Reddy, Raghunath; Singh, Rachna

    2016-06-23

    Evidence from high income countries shows mothers who are supplemented with folic acid in their periconceptional period and early pregnancy have significantly reduced adverse outcomes like birth defects. However, in India there is a paucity of data on association of birth defects and folic acid supplementation. We identified a few important questions to be answered using separate scientific methods and then planned to triangulate the information. In this paper, we describe the protocol of our study that aims to determine the association of folic acid and pregnancy outcomes like neural tube defects (NTDs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We decided to fill the gaps in knowledge from India to determine public health consequences of folic acid deficiency and factors influencing dietary and periconceptional consumption of folic acid. The proposed study will be carried out in five stages and will examine the questions related to folic acid deficiency across selected locations in South and North India. The study will be carried out over a period of 4 years through the hierarchical evidence-based approach. At first a systematic review was conducted to pool the current birth prevalence of NTDs and orofacial clefts OFCs in India. To investigate the population prevalence, we plan to use the key informant method to determine prevalence of NTDs and OFCs. To determine the normal serum estimates of folic acid, iron, and vitamin B12 among Indian women (15-35 years), we will conduct a population-based, cross-sectional study. We will further strengthen the evidence of association between OFCs and folic acid by conducting a hospital-based, case-control study across three locations of India. Lastly, using qualitative methods we will understand community and health workers perspective on factors that decide the intake of folic acid supplements. This study will provide evidence on the community prevalence of birth defects and prevalence folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency in the

  11. The Relationship between Folic Acid and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Neggers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable scientific evidence that many aspects of diet influence the occurrence of human disease. Many factors such as genetic, psychological, environmental and behavioral characteristics influence development of human disease, and there is a close relationship between nutrition and disease. Though typical Western diets are not overtly deficient in essential nutrients, nutriture of a few micro nutrients such as folic acid has been reported to be sub-optimal, particularly in women of childbearing age. The role of folic acid in the prevention of macrocytic anemia and neural tube defects is well established. However, the relationship between folic acid and risk of autism is still evolving. Furthermore, environmental as well as nutritional factors such as folic acid are now well acknowledged as interacting with the individual genetic background in development of several diseases. In this article, recent research regarding the relationship between folic acid and risk of autism is evaluated.

  12. Malaria in the Era of Food Fortification With Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzila, Alexis; Okombo, John; Hyde, John

    2016-06-01

    Food fortified with folic acid has been available for consumption in North America for over a decade. This strategy has led to an increase in folate levels in the general population and, more importantly, a significant decrease in the incidence of neural tube defects. However, this increase in folate intake has been associated with a greater risk of cancer disease. Many African countries are now embracing this concept; however, because folate promotes malaria parasite division, as it does in cancer cells, there is a possibility of malaria exacerbation if folate intake is increased. A precedent for such a concern is the now compelling evidence showing that an increase in iron intake can lead to a higher malaria risk; as a result, mass administration of iron in malaria-endemic areas is not recommended. In this article, we review work on the effect of folate on malaria parasites. Although this topic has received little research attention, the available data suggest that the increase in folate concentration could be associated with an increase in malaria infection. Thus, the introduction of food fortification with folic acid in malaria-endemic areas should be attended by precautionary programs to monitor the risk of malaria. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Curcumin and folic acid abrogated methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankrityayan, Himanshu; Majumdar, Anuradha S

    2016-01-01

    Methotrexate, an antifolate drug widely used in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and cancer, is known to cause vascular endothelial dysfunction by causing hyperhomocysteinemia, direct injury to endothelium or by increasing the oxidative stress (raising levels of 7,8-dihydrobiopterin). Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action and therapeutic spectra similar to that of methotrexate. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of curcumin on methotrexate induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and also compare its effect with that produced by folic acid (0.072 μg·g(-1)·day(-1), p.o., 2 weeks) per se and in combination. Male Wistar rats were exposed to methotrexate (0.35 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), i.p.) for 2 weeks to induce endothelial dysfunction. Methotrexate exposure led to shedding of endothelium, decreased vascular reactivity, increased oxidative stress, decreased serum nitrite levels, and increase in aortic collagen deposition. Curcumin (200 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) and 400 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks prevented the increase in oxidative stress, decrease in serum nitrite, aortic collagen deposition, and also vascular reactivity. The effects were comparable with those produced by folic acid therapy. The study shows that curcumin, when concomitantly administered with methotrexate, abrogated its vascular side effects by preventing an increase in oxidative stress and abating any reduction in physiological nitric oxide levels.

  14. [The importance of folic acid deficiency in the pathogenesis of vascular, mixed and Alzheimer's disease dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzena, Zboch; Jerzy, Leszek

    2013-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed dementia (MD) are the most common dementia diseases among the elderly. Currently, there is no effective treatment of these diseases and, therefore, it seems justified to develop the principles of prevention, taking into account the elimination of risk factors. Among them folic acid deficiency may play an important role. To evaluate possible relationship of folate deficiency with the development of selected dementia diseases: vascular dementia (VaD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), mixed dementia (MD). The study involved 166 people, including 47 people with the diagnosis of AD, 41 with VaD and 36 with MD. The control group consisted of 42 persons without cognitive impairment. All patients underwent a general physical, neurological, psychiatric and extensive neuropsychological examination, as well as routine blood and biochemical screening tests and neuroimaging. The level of serum folate (Fol) was measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. To assess the correlation of Fol level with the cognitive impairment neuropsychometric scales: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were used. In patients with dementia, compared with the control group, there were significantly lower levels of folic acid (p = 0.04). There was no difference in the concentration of Fol in groups of patients (p = 0.0889). In people without cognitive impairment (CDR 0) levels of folic acid were significantly higher compared to the group with moderate dementia (CDR 2, p = 0.0475). The results may suggest that folic acid deficiency is one of the possible causes of dementia, but does not determine its type. Determination of serum Fol in the elderly and supplementation of this vitamin deficiency may play an important role in the prevention of the most common dementias.

  15. Circulating unmetabolized folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in relation to anemia, macrocytosis, and cognitive test performance among American seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folate deficiency has serious consequences for the fetus. Folic acid fortification of food addresses this problem. However, clinical consequences of vitamin B-12 deficiency may be worsened by high folic acid intakes, perhaps as a direct result of unmetabolized folic acid, which does not occur natura...

  16. Evaluation of the Dutch general exemption level for voluntary fortification with folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Verkaik-Kloosterman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fortification with folic acid was prohibited in the Netherlands. Since 2007, a general exemption is given to fortify with folic acid up until a maximum level of 100 µg/100 kcal. This maximum level was based on a calculation model and data of adults only. The model requires parameters on intake (diet, supplements, energy and on the proportion of energy that may be fortified. This study aimed to evaluate the model parameters considering the changing fortification market. In addition, the risk of young children exceeding the UL for folic acid was studied. Methods: Folic acid fortified foods present on the Dutch market were identified in product databases and by a supermarket inventory. Together with data of the Dutch National Consumption Survey-Young Children (2005/2006 these inventory results were used to re-estimate the model parameters. Habitual folic acid intake of young children was estimated and compared to the UL for several realistic fortification scenarios. Results: Folic acid fortified foods were identified in seven different food groups. In up to 10% of the population, the proportion of energy intake of folic acid fortified foods exceeded 10% – the original model parameter. The folic acid intake from food supplements was about 100 µg/day, which is lower than the intake assumed as the original model parameter (300 µg. In the scenarios representing the current market situation, a small proportion (<5% of the children exceeded the UL. Conclusion: The maximum fortification level of 100 µg/100 kcal is sufficiently protective for children in the current market situation. In the precautionary model to estimate the maximum fortification levels, subjects with high intakes of folic acid from food and supplements, and high energy intakes are protected from too high folic acid intakes. Combinations of high intakes are low in this population. The maximum levels should be monitored and revised with increasing fortification and

  17. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida [Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Faculty of Science and Technology (Thailand); Sabliov, Cristina M., E-mail: CSabliov@agcenter.lsu.edu [Louisiana State University and LSU AgCenter, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  18. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed...... by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modification of the graphene electrode with peptide nanotube–folic acid led to an increase in the current signal....... The human cervical cancer cells were bound to the modified electrode through the folic acid–folate receptor interaction. Cyclic voltammograms in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3/4 as a redox species demonstrated that the binding of the folate receptor from human cervical cancer cells to the peptide nanotube...

  19. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed....... The human cervical cancer cells were bound to the modified electrode through the folic acid–folate receptor interaction. Cyclic voltammograms in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3/4 as a redox species demonstrated that the binding of the folate receptor from human cervical cancer cells to the peptide nanotube......–folic acid modified electrode lowered the electron transfer resulting in a decrease in the measured current. A detection limit of 250 human cervical cancer cells per mL was obtained. Control experiments confirmed that the peptide nanotube–folic acid electrode specifically recognized folate receptors...

  20. Assessment of different folic acid supplementation doses for low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Fatma Çakmak; Aygün, Canan; Gülten, Sedat; Bedir, Abdulkerim; Çetinoğlu, Erhan; Küçüködük, Şükrü; Bek, Yüksel

    2016-12-01

    The adequacy of 50 mcg folic acid supplementation given to low-birth-weight babies was investigated. The folate levels of the mothers and infants, and breastmilk, and the optimum dose for folic acid supplementation were also investigated. After obtaining blood from 141 low-birth-weight infants on the 1st day of life for serum and red cell folate levels, the infants were randomly allocated into three groups according to the folic acid supplement dose. Forty-six infants were given 25 μg/d folic acid, 39 were given 50 μg/d folic acid, and 44 were given 75 μg/d folic acid. Folic acid could not be given to 12 infants. Follow-up blood samples were obtained at the end of folic acid supplementation. Maternal samples for red cell and serum folate levels and breast milk folate levels were obtained within the first 48 hours and the samples for measuring breastmilk folate level were obtained on the 3rd day postnatally. The feeding modes of the infants, maternal folic acid intake, and details of neonate intensive care unit course were recorded. The mean birth weight and gestational age of the infants were found as 1788.2±478.4 g and 33.5±2.9 weeks, respectively. The mean serum and red cell folate levels on admission were found as 21.2±12.2 ng/mL and 922.7±460.7 ng/mL, respectively. The mean maternal serum and red cell folate levels and the mean breast milk folate levels were found as 12.3±7.5 ng/mL, 845.5±301.4 ng/mL, and 30.6±33.0 ng/m, respectively. The breast milk folate levels of mothers who were supplemented with folic acid during pregnancy were significantly higher compared with mothers who were not supplemented with folic acid (psupplemented with folic acid had higher follow-up serum folate levels compared with the basal level in all groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. This study showed that the folic acid doses of 25, 50, and 75 μcg/d affected serum folate levels similarly. We can conclude that the dose of 25

  1. [Impact of family members and health care providers on the use of folic acid in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Wang, Minzhen; Bai, Ya'na; Hu, Xiaobin; Zhang, Rongqiang; Du, Wenqi; Li, Liansheng; Li, Jingyu; Cheng, Ning

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the impact of family members and health care providers on the use of folic acid supplements in pregnant women, and to provide basic data for improving the effectiveness of folic acid intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitals and households from June to September in 2009. Face-to-face anonymous questionnaires were distributed to 2094 women, who were pregnant at least three months or postpartum in one year, in two counties of Gansu Province. The awareness rate of folic acid was in 62.2% of 2094 pregnant women, and 25.4% of them have taken folic acid. Higher knowledge about folic acid of family members (OR = 0.268, 95% CI 0.208 - 0.346), agreed with taking folic acid by family members (OR = 0.103, 95% CI 0.031 -0.338), and urging pregnant women to take folic acid by family members (OR = 0.147, 95% CI 0.115 - 0.190) were significant predictors for having folic acid taken by pregnant women. Propagating knowledge related to folic acid (OR = 0.252, 95% CI 0.197 - 0.323) and directing pregnant women to use folic acid (OR = 0.168, 95% CI 0.096 - 0.296) by health care providers were also the important predictors for folic acid intake. Family members and health care providers play an important role in affecting the use of folic acid among pregnant women. In order to improve the effectiveness of intervention with folic acid, family members of pregnant women and health care providers should be included into the target population to receive an intensive propaganda campaign on folic acid education to improve the use of folic acid in pregnant women extensively.

  2. Investigating the effects of dietary folic acid on sperm count, DNA damage and mutation in Balb/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swayne, Breanne G.; Kawata, Alice; Behan, Nathalie A.; Williams, Andrew; Wade, Mike G.; MacFarlane, Amanda J.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2012-01-01

    To date, fewer than 50 mutagens have been studied for their ability to cause heritable mutations. The majority of those studied are classical mutagens like radiation and anti-cancer drugs. Very little is known about the dietary variables influencing germline mutation rates. Folate is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation and can impact chromatin structure. We therefore determined the effects of folic acid-deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) and supplemented (6 mg/kg) diets in early development and during lactation or post-weaning on mutation rates and chromatin quality in sperm of adult male Balb/c mice. The sperm chromatin structure assay and mutation frequencies at expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTRs) were used to evaluate germline DNA integrity. Treatment of a subset of mice fed the control diet with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea (ENU) at 8 weeks of age was included as a positive control. ENU treated mice exhibited decreased cauda sperm counts, increased DNA fragmentation and increased ESTR mutation frequencies relative to non-ENU treated mice fed the control diet. Male mice weaned to the folic acid deficient diet had decreased cauda sperm numbers, increased DNA fragmentation index, and increased ESTR mutation frequency. Folic acid deficiency in early development did not lead to changes in sperm counts or chromatin integrity in adult mice. Folic acid supplementation in early development or post-weaning did not affect germ cell measures. Therefore, adequate folic acid intake in adulthood is important for preventing chromatin damage and mutation in the male germline. Folic acid supplementation at the level achieved in this study does not improve nor is it detrimental to male germline chromatin integrity.

  3. Investigating the effects of dietary folic acid on sperm count, DNA damage and mutation in Balb/c mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swayne, Breanne G.; Kawata, Alice [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Behan, Nathalie A. [Nutrition Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew; Wade, Mike G. [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); MacFarlane, Amanda J. [Nutrition Research Division, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.ga.ca [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    To date, fewer than 50 mutagens have been studied for their ability to cause heritable mutations. The majority of those studied are classical mutagens like radiation and anti-cancer drugs. Very little is known about the dietary variables influencing germline mutation rates. Folate is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation and can impact chromatin structure. We therefore determined the effects of folic acid-deficient (0 mg/kg), control (2 mg/kg) and supplemented (6 mg/kg) diets in early development and during lactation or post-weaning on mutation rates and chromatin quality in sperm of adult male Balb/c mice. The sperm chromatin structure assay and mutation frequencies at expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTRs) were used to evaluate germline DNA integrity. Treatment of a subset of mice fed the control diet with the mutagen ethylnitrosourea (ENU) at 8 weeks of age was included as a positive control. ENU treated mice exhibited decreased cauda sperm counts, increased DNA fragmentation and increased ESTR mutation frequencies relative to non-ENU treated mice fed the control diet. Male mice weaned to the folic acid deficient diet had decreased cauda sperm numbers, increased DNA fragmentation index, and increased ESTR mutation frequency. Folic acid deficiency in early development did not lead to changes in sperm counts or chromatin integrity in adult mice. Folic acid supplementation in early development or post-weaning did not affect germ cell measures. Therefore, adequate folic acid intake in adulthood is important for preventing chromatin damage and mutation in the male germline. Folic acid supplementation at the level achieved in this study does not improve nor is it detrimental to male germline chromatin integrity.

  4. Homocysteine and Stroke Risk: Modifying Effect of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Folic Acid Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; He, Mingli; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Fu, Jia; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Sun, Ningling; Cai, Yefeng

    2017-05-01

    Elevated blood homocysteine concentration increases the risk of stroke, especially among hypertensive individuals. Homocysteine is largely affected by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folate status. Among hypertensive patients, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the association between homocysteine and stroke can be modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and folic acid intervention. We analyzed the data of 20 424 hypertensive adults enrolled in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The participants, first stratified by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, were randomly assigned to receive double-blind treatments of 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid or 10-mg enalapril only. The participants were followed up for a median of 4.5 years. In the control group, baseline log-transformed homocysteine was associated with an increased risk of first stroke among participants with the CC/CT genotype (hazard ratio, 3.1; 1.1-9.2), but not among participants with the TT genotype (hazard ratio, 0.7; 0.2-2.1), indicating a significant gene-homocysteine interaction ( P =0.008). In the folic acid intervention group, homocysteine showed no significant effect on stroke regardless of genotype. Consistently, folic acid intervention significantly reduced stroke risk in participants with CC/CT genotypes and high homocysteine levels (tertile 3; hazard ratio, 0.73; 0.55-0.97). In Chinese hypertensive patients, the effect of homocysteine on the first stroke was significantly modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and folic acid supplementation. Such information may help to more precisely predict stroke risk and develop folic acid interventions tailored to individual genetic background and nutritional status. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Bioavailability of folic acid from fortified pasteurised and UHT-treated milk in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, R J; Verwei, M; West, C E; van Vliet, T; Siebelink, E; van den Berg, H; Castenmiller, J J M

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether milk fortified with folic acid enhances the folate status of humans and whether the presence of folate-binding proteins (FBP) in pasteurised milk affects the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified milk. In untreated and pasteurised milk, folate occurs bound to FBP, while FBP is (partly) denatured in ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk. The effect of FBP on folate bioavailability is still unclear. Healthy, free-living subjects (n=69) aged 18-49 y participated in a 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention study. In addition to a fully controlled diet, the subjects consumed each day 500 ml of pasteurised or UHT milk, either fortified or not with 200 mug folic acid. Consumption of fortified milk increased folate concentrations in serum and in red blood cells (RBC) by 6.6-7.0 nmol/l (Pmilk. The bioavailability of folic acid from pasteurised milk relative to that of folic acid from UHT milk was 74-94% (NS), depending on the parameter used. Milk fortified to supply an additional 200 microg of folic acid/s substantially increased folate status, and decreased plasma total homocysteine concentrations in young, healthy subjects. Milk is therefore a suitable matrix for fortification to enhance the folate status in humans. No significant effect of endogenous FBP was found on the bioavailability of folic acid from milk.

  6. Adsorption and Vibrational Study of Folic Acid on Gold Nanopillar Structures Using Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Rozo, Ciro E.

    2015-01-01

    on the nanopillars within the high electromagnetic field areas. The adsorption behaviour of folic acid and the band assignment of the main vibrations together with the optimized geometry of folic acid and folic acid in the presence of a cluster of 10 gold atoms were assessed using the density functional theory (B3...... that the interaction of folic acid with the Au NP occurred primarily through the nitrogen atoms, from their pteridine ring. Finally, the obtained adsorption isotherm for folic acid was deduced from the analysis of the SERS spectra and it followed a negative cooperative binding model....

  7. Assessment of folic acid and DNA damage in cleft lip and cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Brooklyin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the risk factors like folic acid deficiency during gestational period, family history for orofacial clefts, drugs like antiepileptic, vitamin A. But, the data regarding the folic acid status in children with cleft lip/palate is hardly evaluated in depth. Here, an assessment of folic acid and DNA damage were carried out in children with orofacial anomalies. Folic acid level and DNA damage were evaluated by folic acid assay (direct chemiluminescent technology and single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay method respectively. The mean value of plasma folic acid by direct chemiluminescent technology was 6.5±3.6 nmol/L and the normal value in children ranges from 11.3 to 47.6 nmol/L. The amount of damaged DNA, measured as the tail length of the comet in cases, was 19.4±8.9 ?m and the mean percentage of DNA in tail was 16.5±3.7. Folic acid deficiency could be the reason for DNA damage.

  8. Compliance and its Determinants Regarding Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S S; Ratanasiri, T; Arkaravichien, T; Thapa, P; Koju, R

    Background Iron deficiency anemia is one of the major public health problems mostly affecting pregnant women of developing countries like Nepal. Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, has considerably high prevalence of anemia, which is attributed to inadequate dietary iron and problems of compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation. Objective This descriptive study aimed to identify the levels of and determinants associated with compliance regarding Iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Kathmandu, Nepal. Method The study was conducted in Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu. Systematic random sampling was done to select a total of 406 samples that were either handed questionnaire for self-administration or interviewed. The χ2 test and multiple linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. Result The findings showed 73.2% of the respondents had high compliance, 12.8% moderate compliance, and 14% low compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation. More than half of the respondents had insufficient knowledge regarding anemia, iron deficiency and iron and folic acid supplementation. Multiple linear regression revealed that perceived severity, perceived barriers and social support were determinants of compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation (pknowledge and awareness regarding anemia, iron deficiency, and iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women, and improvement in social support and perception of severity of the disease, and minimization of associated barriers may lead to better outcome in terms of compliance to iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding folic acid deficiency; A hidden hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad

    2014-05-01

    To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique. After taking informed verbal consent, a closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was filled. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mean age of the respondents was 30.31 + 5.280 years. Illiterate and literate were 165 (41.25%) and 235 (58.75%) respectively. The knowledge regarding folic acid need was 172 (43%). Only 161 (40.25%) thought that folic acid deficiency in pregnant women results in abnormality in newborn. In pregnancy, 205 (51.25%) had received folic acid supplementation. Association between education level and practice of folic acid was significant (p= 0.009) at 95% confidence level. Knowledge regarding folic acid deficiency among WOCBA was low along with the poor attitude. Practice was also not satisfactory. Education status plays important role in preventing micronutrient deficiency.

  10. Folic acid knowledge and use among expectant mothers in 1997: a comparison with 1996.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R

    1999-04-01

    This study examined changes in folic acid knowledge and use among antenatal women in Dublin maternity hospitals between 1996 and 1997, following a campaign to improve the very low uptake of peri-conceptional folic acid. The results showed significant improvements between the two years. Almost 76% of respondents had heard of folic acid in 1997 compared with 54% in 1996 (p < 0.01), with a shift in the proportion of people hearing of folic acid from hospital doctors to general practitioners (GP). Almost 43% of respondents in 1997 knew that folic acid can prevent spina bifida compared with 21% in 1996 (p < 0.01). A higher proportion was taking folic acid prior to conception in 1997 (16% vs 6%, p < 0.01). We conclude that the improvements may have been in part due to the promotional campaign among health professionals, women\\'s groups and the media. However, less than a fifth of women were taking folic acid peri-conceptionally in 1997 and there is still scope for much improvement.

  11. Blood folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H L; Cao, L Q; Chen, H Y

    2016-12-19

    Deficiencies in nutrients such as folic acid and vitamin B12 may play a role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). However, whether folic acid, vitamin B12, or homocysteine is associated with FGR in Chinese populations remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between these nutrient deficiencies and FGR in pregnant Chinese women. We selected 116 mother and infant pairs, and categorized the neonates into the FGR, appropriate for gestational age, and large for gestational age groups. Birth weight, body length, head circumference, body mass index (BMI), and Rohrer's body index of the newborns were measured. Serum folic acid, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels were measured in mothers during the first three days of their hospital stay. Results showed that the FGR group exhibited reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels and elevated homocysteine levels than those in the other two groups. Folic acid and vitamin B12 levels were positively correlated with birth weight, head circumference, and BMI, whereas homocysteine level was negatively correlated with these variables. The FGR ratio in the folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency group was higher than that in the sufficiency group (χ 2 = 4.717 and 4.437, P = 0.029 and 0.035, respectively). In addition, elevated homocysteine was associated with FGR (χ 2 = 5.366, P = 0.021). In conclusion, we found that folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with elevated homocysteine levels, which may increase susceptibility to FGR.

  12. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid and cobalamin are B-group vitamins that play an essential role in many cellular processes. Deficiency in one or both of these vitamins causes megaloblastic anaemia, a disease characterized by the presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts occur when inhibition of DNA synthesis causes asynchronous maturation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Clinical manifestations are similar to those of other types of anaemia, with the exception of cobalamin deficiency megaloblastic anaemia, which presents distinctive neurological symptoms. An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly of administering supplements to restore body reserves.

  13. Maternal Obesity and Pre-Pregnancy Folic Acid Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Farah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this nested cohort study was to compare the rate of pre-pregnancy supplementation in obese women with that of women with a normal BMI. Methods: Pregnant women were enrolled at their convenience in a large university hospital. Weight and height were measured in the first trimester and BMI categorised. Results: Of the 288 women, 35.1% were in the normal, 29.5% in the overweight and 35.4% in the obese BMI categories. Only 45.1% (n = 46 of the obese women took pre-pregnancy folic acid compared with 60.4% (n = 61 of women with a normal BMI (p Conclusions: Obese women should take folate supplements whether they are planning to conceive or not.

  14. Preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Case, Amy P; Carmichael, Suzan L; Mitchell, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health campaigns encouraging women to take a daily folic acid supplement, the proportion of reproductive age women, in the United States, who comply with this recommendation is less than optimal. The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use to define subgroups of women who may benefit from targeted folic acid campaigns. This study included 6570 mothers of live born infants from the control population of National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2005). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to define subgroups of women with different patterns of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Race/ethnicity, education, age at delivery, nativity, employment, income, number of dependents, smoking, and birth control use were significantly associated with preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use. Based on a CART analysis, education, race/ethnicity, and age were the most distinguishing factors between women with different preconceptional supplementation patterns. Non-white women with <4 years of a college education were the least likely to use folic acid-containing supplements (11%). However, even in the most compliant subgroup (women with ≥4 years of college), only 60% of women supplemented with folic acid. These results demonstrate the need for continued efforts to increase folic acid supplementation among all reproductive aged women. However, the success of such efforts may be improved if maternal characteristics such as education, race/ethnicity, and age, are considered in the development of future interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Women's Awareness of Periconceptional Use of Folic Acid Before and After Their Antenatal Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Mark; Keriakos, Remon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess women's awareness of the benefit and use of folic acid during pregnancy and to assess whether their knowledge has improved following hospital visits. This is a prospective survey conducted in a large teaching hospital in the UK. The survey questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about demographic variables, behavioral variables, and knowledge about folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs). A total of 603 women participated in this study. Some of them attended for the first time and others had more than one visit, either in their current or previous pregnancies. In about 25% of cases, the pregnancy was not planned. Between 14 and 19% of the women of First and Two+ Visit groups consulted their doctor or other healthcare professional before conception. Nearly 98% of the women stated that they had heard of folic acid, but only 42-52% knew the medical condition it protects against. The main sources of information for women who were aware of folic acid were midwives and general practitioners. Nearly 90% of women who attended their first antenatal visit were taking folic acid. However, only 40% of women knew that they should take it before pregnancy, and only between 36 and 46% knew the dietary sources of folic acid, although about 84% know the foods that should be avoided during pregnancy. This study found that attending antenatal clinic has not increased women's awareness about folic acid. There is still a high proportion of women who do not know that folic acid should be taken before pregnancy and continued for the first three months of pregnancy. School education, primary care team, and family planning service should take the lead in providing information to women about folic acid.

  16. Women's Awareness of Periconceptional Use of Folic Acid before and after Their Antenatal Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to assess women's awareness of the benefit and use of folic acid during pregnancy and to assess whether their knowledge has improved following hospital visits. Method This is a prospective survey conducted in a large teaching hospital in the UK. The survey questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about demographic variables, behavioral variables, and knowledge about folic acid and neural tube defects (NTDs. Result A total of 603 women participated in this study. Some of them attended for the first time and others had more than one visit, either in their current or previous pregnancies. In about 25% of cases, the pregnancy was not planned. Between 14 and 19% of the women of First and Two+ Visit groups consulted their doctor or other healthcare professional before conception. Nearly 98% of the women stated that they had heard of folic acid, but only 42–52% knew the medical condition it protects against. The main sources of information for women who were aware of folic acid were midwives and general practitioners. Nearly 90% of women who attended their first antenatal visit were taking folic acid. However, only 40% of women knew that they should take it before pregnancy, and only between 36 and 46% knew the dietary sources of folic acid, although about 84% know the foods that should be avoided during pregnancy. This study found that attending antenatal clinic has not increased women's awareness about folic acid. Conclusion There is still a high proportion of women who do not know that folic acid should be taken before pregnancy and continued for the first three months of pregnancy. School education, primary care team, and family planning service should take the lead in providing information to women about folic acid.

  17. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (Pcytotoxicity in high folic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (Pcytotoxicity between dietary groups was abolished when the splenocytes were supplemented with exogenous IL-10 prior to assessment of the NK cytotoxicity, suggesting that the reduced NK cell cytotoxicity of the high folic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Neural tube defects and folic acid: a historical overview of a highly successful preventive intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Adriana Ordoñez; Suarez-Obando, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This article gives a broad overview of part of the historical evolution of medical knowledge about neural tube defects (NTD) and the discovery of vitamin B9 or folic acid, as well as some relevant research events that, over the course of several centuries, defined the relationships between the understanding of central nervous system embryology, the discovery of the vitamin, the correlation between folic acid and cell proliferation and lastly the development of preventive measures for this type of defects. This narrative allows us to examine historically relevant concepts underlying clinical actions with a populational impact that prevent NTDs via folic acid consumption prior to conception.

  19. Glutamic acid and folic acid production in aerobic and anaerobic probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Taghi Abadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:From an industrial application or commercial point of view, glutamic acid is one of the most important amino acids and its microbial production has been reported from some bacteria. Regarding the role of probiotics to modulate human health and the ever-increasing demand of prebiotics in the food industry, in the current study, production of glutamic acid and folic acid from three probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Sporolactobacillus was evaluated for the first time. Materials and methods: MRS broth and exclusive media was used for probiotic culture. The glutamic acid was identified using thin-layer chromatography and folic acid production was measured by folate kit. Each bacterium in terms of quality and quantity were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Results: Production of glutamic acid confirmed is based on the thin layer chromatography analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography results. In addition, it was observed that all three probiotics produce folic acid. The prevalence of folate in Bifidobacterium was measured as 315 mg/ml that was more than two other bacteria. Discussion and conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial production of glutamic acid and folate from the probiotic bacteria. These beneficial bacteria can be used as a good source for mass production of these valuable compounds.

  20. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  1. Maternal knowledge, attitude and practice on folic acid intake among Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al Maadid, Mohammed G A; Al-Bast, Daoud A E; Al-Marri, Saleh

    2006-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is effective in preventing primary and secondary neural tube defects (NTDs) and other congenital defects. It is important to estimate folate intake and knowledge in women of child-bearing age, in relation to risk of congenital anomalies. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge about the usefulness of periconceptional folic acid supplementation in a sample of women in the child-bearing age. This is a cross-sectional survey. Eleven primary health care centers and women's hospital in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,800 Qatari women aged between 18 and 45 years were surveyed during the period June to November 2004. One thousand four hundred and eighty women (82.2%) expressed their consent to participate in this study. A confidential, anonymous questionnaire was completed by the selected subjects assessing folic acid awareness. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centers and Women's Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements, pregnancy intention, and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Factors affecting study outcomes were examined individually by computing crude odd ratios and adjusted for other covariates using unconditional logistic regression. Out of 1480 women surveyed, 53.7% of them reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only half of the subjects knew that folate was something important. Overall, 20.3% of the respondents took folic acid. The most common information sources on folate were physicians (63.4%), and newspapers/magazine/books (21.7%). From those who heard of folate, only 14% knew that it can prevent birth defects. 40.6% of the subjects who heard folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, awareness of folic acid was significantly associated with education of mother. Again, higher

  2. Effects and safety of preventive oral iron or iron+folic acid supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Viteri, Fernando E

    2009-10-07

    Intake of supplements containing iron or a combination of iron and folic acid by pregnant women may improve maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. Recently, intermittent supplementation regimens have been proposed as alternatives to daily regimens. To assess the effectiveness and safety of daily and intermittent use of iron or iron+folic acid supplements by pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (March 2009) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with iron or iron+folic acid during pregnancy. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using the standard Cochrane criteria. Two authors independently assessed which trials to include in the review and one author extracted data. We included 49 trials, involving 23,200 pregnant women. Overall, the results showed significant heterogeneity across most prespecified outcomes and were analysed assuming random-effects. The trials provided limited information related to clinical maternal and infant outcomes.Overall, daily iron supplementation was associated with increased haemoglobin levels in maternal blood both before and after birth and reduced risk of anaemia at term. These effects did not differ significantly between women receiving intermittent or daily iron or iron+folic acid supplementation. Women who received daily prenatal iron supplementation with or without folic acid were less likely to have iron deficiency at term as defined by current cut-off values than those who received no treatment or placebo. Side effects and haemoconcentration (a haemoglobin level greater than 130 g/L) were more common among women who received daily iron or iron+folic acid supplementation than among those who received no treatment or placebo. The risk of haemoconcentration during the second and third trimester was higher among those on a daily

  3. Synthetic Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Increases the Risk of Neonatal Jaundice in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Zaminpira; Sorush Niknamian

    2017-01-01

    Folate is easily and naturally absorbed and utilized by the body when it is metabolized in the small intestines. On the other hand, folic acid, which was first introduced around the 1940s and added to the prenatal supplements of pregnant women, requires the presence of a specific enzyme named dihydrofolate reductase, which is relatively rare in the body especially during pregnancy. The reason why synthetic form of folic acid supplementation by pregnant women should be replaced by natural fola...

  4. The impact of folic acid intake on the association among diabetes mellitus, obesity, and spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Tinker, Sarah C; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between spina bifida and 2 established risk factors (pregestational diabetes mellitus and obesity) in both the presence and absence of the recommended daily folic acid intake in the periconceptional period. Cases of spina bifida (n = 1154) and control subjects (n = 9439) from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1976-2011) were included. Information on preexisting diabetes mellitus (collected 1976-2011) and obesity (collected 1993-2011), defined as a body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2), was collected through interviews that were conducted within 6 months of delivery. Periconceptional folic acid intake was calculated with both dietary and supplement information. Mothers were classified as consuming more or less than 400 μg/day of folic acid; food folate was included at a 30% discount for its lower bioavailability. Logistic regression models that were adjusted for maternal age, race, education, and study site were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the joint effects of low folic acid intake coupled with diabetes mellitus or obesity. Case mothers were more likely to have diabetes mellitus or be obese (0.7% and 19.0%, respectively) than control mothers (0.4% and 10.8%, respectively). The joint effect of diabetes mellitus and lower folic acid intake on spina bifida was larger (aOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.56-10.00) than that of diabetes mellitus and higher folic acid intake (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.17-10.30). Folic acid intake made little difference on the association between obesity and spina bifida. Our findings suggest that folic acid further attenuates, although does not eliminate, the risk of spina bifida that is associated with diabetes mellitus than the risk with obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding folic acid deficiency; A hidden hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique...

  6. A 2015 global update on folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Annelise; Kancherla, Vijaya; Pachón, Helena; Zimmerman, Sarah; Johnson, Quentin; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2016-07-01

    Spina bifida and anencephaly are two major neural tube defects. They contribute substantially to perinatal, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality and life-long disability. To monitor the progress toward the total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA), we examined their global status in 2015. Based on existing data, we modeled the proportion of FAP SBA that are prevented in the year 2015 through mandatory folic acid fortification globally. We included only those countries with mandatory fortification that added at least 1.0 ppm folic acid as a fortificant to wheat and maize flour, and had complete information on coverage. Our model assumed mandatory folic acid fortification at 200 μg/day is fully protective against FAP SBA, and reduces the rate of spina bifida and anencephaly to a minimum of 0.5 per 1000 births. Our estimates show that, in 2015, 13.2% (35,500 of approximately 268,700 global cases) of FAP SBA were prevented in 58 countries through mandatory folic acid fortification of wheat and maize flour. Most countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia were not implementing mandatory fortification with folic acid. Knowledge that folic acid prevents spina bifida and anencephaly has existed for 25 years, yet only a small fraction of FAP SBA is being prevented worldwide. Several countries still have 5- to 20-fold epidemics of FAP SBA. Implementation of mandatory fortification with folic acid offers governments a proven and rapid way to prevent FAP SBA-associated disability and mortality, and to help achieve health-related Sustainable Development Goals. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:520-529, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  8. The effect of aminopterin-induced folic acid deficiency on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, U; Datta, S L; Mathur, B B

    1977-12-01

    Folic acid deficiency was produced by injecting aminopterin into adult male albino rats, resulting in inhibition of spermatogenesis. Bone marrow smears were studied to serve as an index of folic acid deficiency; however, changes in spermatogenesis were noticed earlier than the bone marrow changes. Meiotic division was affected more than mitotic division. The nuclei of spermatogenic cells showed degenerative changes. Chromosomal abnormalities, chiefly sticky chromosomes, were noticed in squashed preparations of seminiferous tubules.

  9. [Attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and folic acid intake for the prevention of neural tube defects: a nationwide Internet survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid intake is recommended for pregnant women because it significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in the fetus. However, the risk of NTD remains medium in Japan. In this study, the attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and factors related to folic acid intake for the prevention of NTD were evaluated using a nationwide survey. An Internet-based questionnaire was conducted on 2,367 pregnant Japanese women who were registrants of a Japanese social research company in January 2012; 1,236 of these women responded. In the questionnaires, the knowledge regarding the folate intake (i.e., name of folic acid, the risk of NTD, recommended doses, and timing), actual intake of folic acid, demographic factors (i.e., age, geographical area, gestational age, and birth order), and intake of dietary supplements were surveyed. Eighty-five percent of respondents consumed folate, which was mostly obtained through dietary folic acid supplements during the first month of pregnancy or after. Factors associated with loss of folic acid intake until 3 months of pregnancy included lack of knowledge, failure to consume dietary supplements, younger age, and multigravida. Many pregnant women in Japan consumed folic acid. However, most of them started supplementation after pregnancy recognition, which is too late to reduce the risk of NTD. Alternative strategies to increase the efficacy of folic acid intake, such as recommending folic acid-enriched foods, promoting folic acid fortification efforts, and providing access to practical information, are necessary.

  10. Prenatal folic acid use associated with decreased risk of myelomeningocele: A case-control study offers further support for folic acid fortification in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Hamid, Rezina; Paul, Ligi; Selhub, Jacob; Oakley, Godfrey; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Mazumdar, Maitreyi

    2017-01-01

    Neural tube defects contribute to severe morbidity and mortality in children and adults; however, they are largely preventable through maternal intake of folic acid before and during early pregnancy. We examined the association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplement intake and risk of myelomeningocele (a severe and common type of neural tube defect) in the offspring. We performed secondary analysis using data from a case-control study conducted at Dhaka Community Hospital, Bangladesh between April and November of 2013. Cases and controls included children with and without myelomeningocele, respectively, and their mothers. Cases were identified from local hospitals and rural health clinics served by Dhaka Community Hospital. Controls were selected from pregnancy registries located in the same region as the cases, and matched (1:1) to cases by age and sex. Myelomeningocele in the offspring was confirmed by a pediatrician with expertise in classifying neural tube defects. Maternal prenatal folic acid supplement intake was the main exposure of interest. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression analysis. There were 53 pairs of matched cases and controls in our study. Overall, 51% of case mothers reported using folic acid supplements during pregnancy compared to 72% of control mothers (p = 0.03). Median plasma folate concentrations at the time of study visit were 2.79 ng/mL and 2.86 ng/mL among case and control mothers, respectively (p = 0.85). Maternal prenatal folic acid use significantly decreased the odds of myelomeningocele in the offspring (unadjusted OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.18-0.96). The association was slightly attenuated after adjusting for maternal age at the time of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.18-1.02). Our study confirms the protective association between maternal prenatal folic acid supplement use and myelomeningocele among children born in Bangladesh. Our

  11. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemse, Nisha G; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (pvitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  12. Purity determination and uncertainty evaluation of folic acid by mass balance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hui; Huang, Ting; Yang, Yi; Wang, Haifeng

    2012-11-15

    Folic acid is one of the most important nutrient substances for human beings, especially for the pregnant women and infants. Therefore the purity determination of folic acid is particularly important. The mass balance method was employed to determine the purity of folic acid, by using the measures of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Karl Fischer titration and other conventional approach. The moisture quantification of folic acid was a major problem since it is a thermally unstable substance and it is apt to contain crystal water. Therefore, a novel improved Karl Fischer method was established for accurate determination of the water content in folic acid, whose repeatability (RSD=2.9%) was significantly better than that of the original direct injection method (RSD=12%). The purity of folic acid certified reference material (CRM) determined by mass balance method was 90.9% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.35%, and the content of water (the major impurity) was 8.5%, with an expanded uncertainty of 0.32%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial role of dietary folic acid on cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in ethanol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Villa, Maria Jesus; Ojeda, Maria Luisa; Rubio, Jose Maria; Murillo, Maria Luisa; Sánchez, Olimpia Carreras

    2009-07-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is altered by chronic ethanol consumption. In previous articles, we demonstrated the anti-oxidant capacity of folic acid, which may be useful in the prevention of damage provoked by ethanol. We want to determine the effects of ethanol on cholesterol and bile metabolism and whether a folic acid-supplemented diet could change alterations provoked by a chronic ethanol intake in rats. We used four experimental groups: (1) control, (2) alcohol, (3) alcohol supplemented with folic acid, and (4) control supplemented with folic acid. In all the experimental groups, we measured hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, and cholesterol and bile acids in serum, liver, bile, and feces. We have found that the alcohol-fed groups showed high hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, total hepatic and serum cholesterol concentration, bile cholesterol secretion concentration, and cholesterol enterohepatic circulation. Total serum and hepatic cholesterol levels decreased when alcohol-fed rats were supplemented with folic acid. The hepatic bile acid concentration increased in both chronic ethanol groups. Folic acid supplementation significantly increased bile cholesterol secretion, the bile acids in bile, and fecal bile acid excretion in ethanol-exposed rats. The independent bile acid fraction showed no significant differences between both ethanol groups with respect to Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations. Folic acid increases bile flow, bile acid synthesis from cholesterol, and bile acid excretion via feces, thus provoking a decrease in serum and hepatic cholesterol. However none of these actions were observed in supplemented control rats. This, therefore, could be yet another beneficial effect of folic acid on alcoholic patients.

  14. Folic acid supplementation and preterm birth: results from observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Elena; Filippini, Francesca; Bortolus, Renata; Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  15. Simultaneous radioassay of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutcho, S.; Mansbach, L.

    1977-01-01

    The radioassays of vitamin B 12 and folic acid can be carried out in a single tube to give the simultaneous assay of both vitamins in 100 μl of serum. Release of bound vitamins from their endogenous binders and the destruction of these binders are effected by a heating step at pH 9.3. The subsequent binding reactions with hog intrinsic factor and milk binder protein proceed advantageously and simultaneously in the same tube at pH 9.3. A single set of dual reagents replaces two sets of reagents that would normally be used for separate radioassays. Complete separation of bound radioactivities, [ 57 Co] cyanocobalamin and 125 I-labeled folate derivative, is obtained in a dual-channel gamma counter with no requirement for any correction for spill-over of counting data. Analytical results are comparable to those found for previously developed individual radioassays. The simultaneous assay has decreased technical time of analysis for these interrelated vitamins by about 50%

  16. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mantovani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folic acid (FA supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB, preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

  17. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  18. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20-45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the independent variables in multivariate logistic regression. 55.6% of the subjects took contraception at all times, and 33.9% had pregnancy planning in the next six months. 49.7% of the interviewed women knew the benefits of folic acid and 34.6% realized the correct time of folic acid intake; and 14.9% of these women actually took folic acid daily. Planning to be pregnant in the next six months was associated with knowledge of folic acid benefits, correct time of folic acid intake and actual intake. A higher education level was correlated with the knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake, but was not linked to actual intake of folic acid. The knowledge and use of folic acid were at low to moderate levels in women at childbearing age in Shanghai, China, and general knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake should be conveyed to these women.

  19. Comparative case-control study of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Fontes, L; Pulido Fontes, M; Quesada Jiménez, P; Muruzabal Pérez, J; Mendioroz Iriarte, M

    2017-09-01

    Increased blood homocysteine levels are a known cardiovascular risk factor. Epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs may present higher homocysteine levels and, consequently, a potential increase in cardiovascular risk. We conducted an observational case-control study to compare plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 . Our study included a total of 88 subjects: 52 patients with epilepsy and 36 controls. Epileptic patients showed higher homocysteine levels (P=.084) and lower levels of folic acid (P<.05). Homocysteine levels should be monitored in epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. We suggest starting specific treatment in patients with high homocysteine levels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioisotope binding capacity of serum for folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in hematologic and rheumatologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringelhann, B.; Revicky, A.; Arvai, I.; Megyeri, A.; Goemoer, B.; Josfay, L.; Csak, E.

    1980-01-01

    Folic acid, vitamin B 12 and ferritin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from hemic and rheumatic diseases, resp. Compared to the controls the folic acid levels were lower in some cases, the deficiency of folic acid absorption and distribution possibly being caused by the disease. Vitamin B 12 was only slightly decreased. In ankylosing spondylitis the transferrin level was similar to that of the controls, but in rheumatoid arthritis and in patients suffering from various diseases it was increased

  1. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  2. Effects of intramuscular injections of folic acid, vitamin B12, or both, on lactational performance and energy status of multiparous dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, M; Lapierre, H; Pellerin, D; Laforest, J-P; Girard, C L

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to gain understanding on changes in energy partitioning when folic acid and vitamin B 12 supplements, alone or combined, were given by weekly intramuscular injections from 3 wk before the expected calving date until 7 wk postpartum. Twenty-four multiparous cows were assigned to 6 blocks of 4 cows each according to previous 305-d lactation yield to either 0 or 320 mg of folic acid and 0 or 10 mg of vitamin B 12 in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Plasma concentration of folates was increased by folic acid supplement, and this increase was greater with the combined supplement. Vitamin B 12 supplement increased plasma concentration of vitamin B 12 . Even though postpartum energy balance was similar among treatments, postpartum body condition score was higher for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Milk yield of cows receiving folic acid supplement reached a plateau earlier than for cows that did not. Fat and protein, as well as total solid concentrations and yields, were unaffected by treatments. Postpartum plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were higher and postpartum plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was lower for cows that received weekly folic acid supplement compared with cows that did not. Plasma concentration of methylmalonic acid was low and unaffected by treatments, suggesting that vitamin B 12 supply was not limiting, even for unsupplemented cows. Postpartum plasma concentrations of Cys, His, Phe, and Tyr were increased, whereas plasma concentration of Gly was decreased, by folic acid supplement. In the present study, supplementary folic acid altered energy partitioning in early lactation as suggested by similar milk total solid yield and postpartum energy balance, lower plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and body condition score losses, and higher plasma glucose and insulin concentrations for cows receiving folic acid supplement compared with cows that

  3. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12 reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Kemse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids. L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. RESULTS: Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01 pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05 and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.01, lower (p<0.05 placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. CONCLUSION: Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  4. Ethyl cellulose microcapsules for protecting and controlled release of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasertmanakit, Satit; Praphairaksit, Nalena; Chiangthong, Worawadee; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl cellulose microcapsules were developed for use as a drug-delivery device for protecting folic acid from release and degradation in the undesirable environmental conditions of the stomach, whilst allowing its release in the intestinal tract to make it available for absorption. The controlled release folic acid-loaded ethyl cellulose microcapsules were prepared by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation using a mixed solvent system, consisting of a 9:1 (v/v) ratio of acetone:methanol and light liquid paraffin as the dispersed and continuous phase. Span 80 was used as the surfactant to stabilize the emulsion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the microcapsules had a spherical shape. However, the particulate properties and in vitro release profile depended on the concentrations of the ethyl cellulose, Span 80 emulsifier, sucrose (pore inducer), and folic acid. The average diameter of the microcapsules increased from 300 to 448 microm, whilst the folic acid release rate decreased from 52% to 40%, as the ethyl cellulose concentration was increased from 2.5% to 7.5% (w/v). Increasing the Span 80 concentration from 1% to 4% (v/v) decreased the average diameter of microcapsules from 300 to 141 microm and increased the folic acid release rate from 52% to 79%. The addition of 2.5-7.5% (w/v) of sucrose improved the folic acid release from the microcapsules. The entrapment efficiency was improved from 64% to 88% when the initial folic acid concentration was increased from 1 to 3 mg/ml.

  5. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  6. [Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Li, S S; Bai, R H; Qin, B W; Yan, H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes. The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, an average increase of 29.56 g(B=29.56, t=4.69 and Pbirth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid, the difference was significant, but the increase varied. As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight, the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns, the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.

  7. One platform comparison of estrone and folic acid anchored surface engineered MWCNTs for doxorubicin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, N K

    2015-02-02

    Our main aim in the present investigation was to assess and compare the in vitro and in vivo cancer targeting propensity of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded folic acid (FA) and estrone (ES) anchored PEGylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) employing tumor bearing Balb/c mice. The DOX was loaded into the developed functionalized MWCNTs after proper characterization using dialysis diffusion method. The in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies were performed on the MCF-7 cell line for assessment of the cancer targeting propensity. Both qualitative and quantitative cell uptake studies indicated the preferential higher uptake of estrone anchored nanotube formulation compared to other formulations and free DOX owing to the overexpression of estrogen receptors (ERs) on human breast MCF-7 cells. Similarly, the pharmacokinetic and increased antitumor activities also confirmed the elevated cancer targeting propensity of the estrone and folic acid anchored MWCNT formulations. The DOX/ES-PEG-MWCNTs has also shown significantly longer survival span (43 days) than free DOX (18 days) and control group (12 days). Present outcomes from the ex vivo and in vivo studies are deemed to be of great scientific value and shall assist targeted drug delivery formulation scientists for selection of the targeting moieties in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  8. [Stability of folic acid and vitamin B12 in TPN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodóvar, M J; Hernández Jaras, M V; León-Sanz, M; Ortuño, B; Estenoz, J; Negro Vega, E; Marfagón, N; Herreros de Tejada, A

    1991-01-01

    The stability of folic acid (FA) in mixtures of Total Parenteral Nutrition has been and is a controversial subject, with discussion concerning the influence of factors such as temperature, light and storage time. As regards the stability of the vitamin B12, there are few studies in scientific literature. For all those reasons, we consider it necessary to make a proper study to evaluate the influence of different factors in the stability of both vitamins. The study was made on 3 liter TPN bags of the EVA type, the composition of which was as follows: AA (85g), glucosa (225g), fat (50g), Na (86mEq), K (60 mEq), Ca (15 mEq), Cl (90 mEq), P (17 mmol) acetate (149 mEq) and 10 ml of MVI-12 which contain 400 micrograms of PA and 5 micrograms of Vitamin B 12. Consideration was also given to the stability of these two vitamins in the same diet, to which were added 10 ml of a commercial preparation of oligo-elements. Six TPN bags were prepared (without oligo-elements); two of them were kept in a fridge and protected from the light, two were kept at room temperature and protected from the light and the other two at room temperature without protection from the light. Samples were taken from all the bags immediately after their preparation and after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The same process was carried with other TPN bags which did contain oligo-elements. The method for determining FA and Vitamin B12 was by radioassay.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Maternal knowledge and use of folic acid among Saudi females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akhfash, Ali A; Abdulla, Abdelmagid M; Osman, Amani M; Abdulgafar, Julnar I; Almesned, Abdulrahman A

    2013-11-01

    To explore and find out the level of awareness regarding folic acid's (FAs) importance, current use, and timing of administration among pregnant Saudi females. This is a cross-sectional study conducted randomly among women aged 18-45 years old, attending the Antenatal and Gynecology Clinics at the Maternity and Children's Hospital, Al-Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January to November 2012. A total of 1250 subjects were approached, and 1000 women expressed their verbal consent to participate. The questionnaire consisted of 17 items, and results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 88.4% of women were aware of FA. However, only 4.4% of them took FA before pregnancy. Compared to highly educated women (20.4%), only 5% of illiterate women use FA during the first trimester of their pregnancy. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that educational level had a significant association with FA awareness and use (p=0.001; odds ratio: 0.000; 95% confidence interval: 1.001 to 1.080). Most women recall hearing of FA from their doctors. Only 48 women reported a history of a previous child with congenital anomalies, and 4 of them (8.3%) of them used FA before pregnancy. We found that only 4.4% of the studied women use FA in their preconceptional period. The higher the educational level, the more the knowledge, and frequent use of FA. Poor level of awareness among lower educated woman requires medical authorities to broadcast the importance of FA, and there may be a need to fortify food with FA.

  10. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  11. Periconceptional maternal fever, folic acid intake, and the risk for neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Stephen M; Parker, Samantha E; Mitchell, Allen A; Tinker, Sarah C; Werler, Martha M

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between maternal fever in early pregnancy and neural tube defects (NTDs) such as spina bifida. Periconceptional folic acid intake has been shown to reduce the risk of these outcomes. Using data from the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study (1998-2015), we examined the impact of folic acid on the relationship between maternal fever in the periconceptional period (28 days before and after the last menstrual period) and NTDs. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mothers of 375 cases and 8247 nonmalformed controls were included. We observed an elevated risk for NTDs for fever in the periconceptional period (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5-4.0). This association was weaker for mothers who reported consuming the recommended amount of folic acid (≥400 μg per day; OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 0.8-4.0) than mothers with low folic acid intake (fever and an increased risk for NTDs and also provide evidence that this association was attenuated for mothers who reported consuming folic acid at recommended levels in the periconceptional period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tailoring folic acid and methotrexate-attributed quantum dots for integrated cancer cell imaging and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Mochamad Zakki; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2016-03-01

    Potential application of folic acid and methotrexate-attributed AgInS2-ZnS quantum dots on both detection and therapeutic of cancer cell were intensively investigated on this study. In the initial step, the bright luminescent of QDs, with % QY up to 55.3, were synthesized with one-pot two-step process resulting narrow particle distribution and successfully transferred to water phase without significant effect on optical properties. The water-soluble AgInS2-ZnS quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated with oleylamine have been successfully prepared by ultrasonication assisting. Several aspect including QDs characterization, pH stability, ionic strength, and bonding properties were investigated to reach desired condition of water-soluble AgInS2-ZnS QDs. Folic acid was further conjugated to QDs for HeLa and MCF7 cancer cell imaging to performs the targeting capability. Moreover, folic acid is efficiently internalized into cell through the receptor-mediated endocytosis even when conjugated with a wide variety of molecules. Confocal imaging characterization further informs folic acid-conjugated AgInS2-ZnS QDs could most specific targeted to the human cervical (HeLa) cells. The therapeutic feature of QDs on HeLa cancer cell was conjugated by attributing methotrexate on the QDs, instead of folic acid, and the design could improve on inhibiting the cancer cell viability as well as its fluorescent intensity.

  13. Comparison of Serum Homocystein and Folic Acid Levels in Gestational Diabetes with Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Movahed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: High levels of homocystein are a risk factor for insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and cardio-vascular complications. This study was done to assess serum homocystein and folic acid levels and their relationship in women with gestational diabetes and compare them with normal pregnant women. Materials & Methods: This analytic epidemiologic case-control study was performed in Qazvin Kosar hospital in 2013-2015. 120 singleton pregnant women with 24-28 weeks of gestation according to 2-hour 75g oral glucose tolerance test were assigned to two groups; gestational diabetes (n=60, and normal pregnancy (n=60. Serum homocystein and folic acid levels were measured in two groups. Data were analyzed with statistical t-test and correlation method. Results: In gestational diabetes serum homocystein level was significantly higher (P<0.001 and folic acid was significantly lower (P<0.001 than normal pregnancy group .No relation-ship was observed between serum homocystein and serum folate. In both groups, serum folic acid was significantly related to fasting blood sugar. This relationship was inverse in gesta-tional diabetes group (P<0.001, r = - 0.512 and direct in normal pregnancy group (P=0.001 r =0.417. Conclusion: It seems folic acid has a role in regulation of serum homocystein level and blood sugar.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 93-98

  14. The folic acid metabolite L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate effectively reduces total serum homocysteine level in orthotopic liver transplant recipients: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, B; Schrott, M; Bolouri, H; Jaffari, A; Kutschera, E; Caspary, W F; Faust, D

    2008-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a described risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was the treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in liver transplant recipients with L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-5-MTHF; 1 mg) vs folic acid (1 mg) vs placebo in a double-blind placebo-controlled study and to compare the relative responsiveness of these patients to L-5-MTHF and folic acid. Patients were recruited from Hepatology-Transplantation-Unit at Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Frankfurt. Sixty patients were included in this study and 12 patients dropped out for different reasons. The patients were treated over 8 weeks with supplemental L-5-MTHF or folic acid or placebo. Serum homocysteine (HCY) was analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) beside routine lab tests. We observed only a significant decrease of total serum HCY in the L-5-MTHF group during the study period (at week 0: 15+/-7.7 microM; after 8 weeks treatment: 9.41+/-2.6 microM, P<0.001). There was no significant decrease of total serum HCY neither in the folic acid group nor in the placebo group. The effects of L-5-MTHF are significantly more potent than folic acid itself. Therefore, lowering serum HCY in liver transplant recipients is effective with L-5-MTHF.

  15. Knowledge and use of folic acid for prevention of birth defects amongst Honduran women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D Ying; Brat, Gabriel; Milla, Gayle; Kim, Jae

    2007-06-01

    To characterize determinants of folic acid (FA) use among women of reproductive age and patient education practices of health care professionals in one region of Honduras. 508 female outpatients and 128 health workers were interviewed in six primary care clinics in Honduras. Results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression models. The survey showed that 45% patients were familiar with FA. Of that number, 30% knew appropriate timing of consumption and 25% reported proper pre-natal supplementation. Increasing education was strongly correlated with knowledge of folic acid function (OR=252.52, Pknowledge of proper timing of FA usage (OR=3.94, Pfolic acid with their patients, particularly those of low education and at the extremes of reproductive age. While long-term efforts to develop fortification programs continue, interim Honduran health campaigns to increase proper consumption of folic acid should target these particularly vulnerable populations.

  16. [Meta-analysis of clinical trials of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Bin; Qi, Juanfei; Shen, Bo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The databases, including Embase, Pubmed, Ovid, Biosis, China National Knowledge Infra-structure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodical (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CMB), were searched to identify random control trials between February 1994 to February 2014 on the effect of folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation on plasma homocysteine level and risk of cardiovascular disease. The screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers independently. The software Review Manager 5.2 was used. Funnel plots and Egger's regression test were applied to evaluate the publication bias. Data from 12 studies including 34 481 patients were analyzed using a fixed-effects model. Funnel plot and Egger's test (P > 0.10) confirmed the absence of publication bias. No statistically significant heterogeneity was detected on testing after excluding the sources of heterogeneity (chi-square test, I folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) groups (all P > 0.05). Mean homocysteine levels were significantly lower with folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) therapy compared with placebo during follow-up (all P folic acid, vitamin B(6) and B(12) supplementation compared with placebo were 0.98 (0.93-1.03) for cardiovascular event, 0.97 (0.87-1.07) for coronary artery disease, 1.00 (0.92-1.08) for myocardial infarction and 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for cardiovascular death. Folic aicd combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) treatment significantly reduced plasma homocysteine level, but did not affect the risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus, folic acid combined with vitamin B(6) and B(12) should not be recommended as secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Folate, homocysteine, and cobalamin status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate, and the effect of low dose folic acid supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Nete; Ellingsen, Torkell; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    -administered low dose folic acid; 38 patients were included prior to MTX therapy, 33 patients continued established MTX therapy, and 10 patients were excluded. Drug efficacy and side effects were monitored with biochemical and clinical indicators. RESULTS: MTX treatment resulted in decreased concentrations of red...... blood cell (RBC) folate and a rise in plasma homocysteine. Intracellular concentrations of MTX were inversely correlated to RBC folate levels after treatment for a longer period (mean 41 months). Supplement with low dose folic acid prevented or diminished the influence of MTX on folate status and had...

  18. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  19. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of 3H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral 3 H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided

  20. Simultaneous analysis of folic acid and pantothenic acid in foods enriched with vitamins by stable isotope dilution assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychlik, Michael

    2003-10-24

    Folic and pantothenic acid were quantified in multivitamin products by stable isotope dilution assays using [{sup 2}H{sub 4}]folic acid and [{sup 13}C{sub 3},{sup 15}N]pantothenic acid as the internal standards. Detection was achieved by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry which enabled unequivocal determination of the vitamins. Due to the very simple extraction procedure, analysis of the vitamins was completed within 2 h. When analyzing multivitamin sweets, the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation was 3.2% (n=5) and 3.1% (n=5) for folic acid and 4.5% (n=5) as well as 6.5% (n=7) for pantothenic acid, respectively. Along with the precision data, recovery values of 99.4% for folic acid and 103% for pantothenic acid at addition levels of 6 mg/kg and 600 {mu}g/kg, respectively, to starch products proved the accuracy of the new method. Application of the stable isotope dilution assay to fruit juices, whey products, cereals, sweets, pharmaceuticals, wheat flour and salt fortified with one or both vitamins revealed that for the majority of products the labeled pantothenic acid contents were exceeded by about 30%, whereas for folic acid also significantly lower contents than the label claim were found.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of folic acid and pantothenic acid in foods enriched with vitamins by stable isotope dilution assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychlik, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Folic and pantothenic acid were quantified in multivitamin products by stable isotope dilution assays using [ 2 H 4 ]folic acid and [ 13 C 3 , 15 N]pantothenic acid as the internal standards. Detection was achieved by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry which enabled unequivocal determination of the vitamins. Due to the very simple extraction procedure, analysis of the vitamins was completed within 2 h. When analyzing multivitamin sweets, the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation was 3.2% (n=5) and 3.1% (n=5) for folic acid and 4.5% (n=5) as well as 6.5% (n=7) for pantothenic acid, respectively. Along with the precision data, recovery values of 99.4% for folic acid and 103% for pantothenic acid at addition levels of 6 mg/kg and 600 μg/kg, respectively, to starch products proved the accuracy of the new method. Application of the stable isotope dilution assay to fruit juices, whey products, cereals, sweets, pharmaceuticals, wheat flour and salt fortified with one or both vitamins revealed that for the majority of products the labeled pantothenic acid contents were exceeded by about 30%, whereas for folic acid also significantly lower contents than the label claim were found

  2. [Efficacy and safety of heptral, vitamin B6 and folic acid during toxic hepatitis induced by CCL4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelava, N A; Gogoluari, M I; Gogoluari, L I; Pirtskhalaĭshvili, N N; Okudzhava, M V

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate of efficacy and safety of complex Heptral, Vitamin B6 and Folic Acid in experimental hepatitis therapy compared with monotherapy. Experiments were carried out on pubertal rats. Eperimental hepatitis models were induced by Tetrachlormethane. The tetrachlormethane intoxication was reproduced by subcutaneous injection of CCL(4) 1ml/kg dissolved in 1ml of olive oil. Cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, reduced glutation,activity of glutationetranspherase and content of ATP in hepatocytes were measured by the spectrophotometric techniques,but content of homocysteine by chromophtography techniques. Under CCL(4) intoxication disturbance of liver detoxication function, energy deficit and surplus of homocysteine were observed. Treatment of the toxic hepatitis with heptral increased the level of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, glutation activity of glutationetranspherase glutathione and reduced content of homocysteine. Complex therapy with Heptral and B6 and folic acid reveal more expressive hepatoprotective effect and safety than monotherapy with Heptral. Complex therapy improves not only the parameters of biotransformation (metabolic and conjugation phase), but also normalizes the level of ATP and homocystein. Vitamins B6 and folic acid increases the efficacy and safety of Heptral. This complex was recomended for treatment of hepatitis.

  3. Voltammetric determination of carbidopa and folic acid using a modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshtkar Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for the selective and sensitive detection of carbidopa in presence of large excess of folic acid at physiological pH was developed by the bulk modification of carbon paste electrode (CPE with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and vinylferrocene. Large peak separation, good sensitivity and stability allow this modified electrode to analyze carbidopa individually and simultaneously along with folic acid. Applying square wave voltammetry (SWV, a linear dynamic range of 1.0×10-6- 7.0×10-4 M with detection limit of 2.0×10-7 M was obtained for carbidopa. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of carbidopa and folic acid in urine sample.

  4. Effect of Smoking and Folate Levels on the Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Prevention of Stroke in Hypertensive Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziyi; Li, Jianping; Yu, Yaren; Li, Youbao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Lishun; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Yu; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Xu, Xiping; Cai, Yefeng; Dong, Qiang; Yin, Delu; Huang, Xiao; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Binyan; Hou, Fan Fan; Wang, Xiaobin; Qin, Xianhui; Huo, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether the efficacy of folic acid therapy in the primary prevention of stroke is jointly affected by smoking status and baseline folate levels in a male population in a post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Eligible participants of the CSPPT were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a combined enalapril 10-mg and folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. In total, 8384 male participants of the CSPPT were included in the current analyses. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. In the enalapril-alone group, the first stroke risk varied by baseline folate levels and smoking status (never versus ever). Specifically, there was an inverse association between folate levels and first stroke in never smokers ( P for linear trend=0.043). However, no such association was found in ever smokers. A test for interaction between baseline folate levels and smoking status on first stroke was significant ( P =0.045). In the total sample, folic acid therapy significantly reduced the risk of first stroke in never smokers with folate deficiency (hazard risk, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.83) and in ever smokers with normal folate levels (hazard risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.99). Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of a Tumor-Targeting Dual-Image System Based on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Functionalized with Folic Acid and Rhodamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Ancira-Cortez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the diseases with most deaths worldwide, around 8.2 million annually. For this reason, several treatments and diagnostic tools have been investigated and developed over the past decades. Among them, a dual-image system has been developed to achieve and enhance the detection of cancer, which has not been done with systems currently available. The present study describes the preparation of a dual-image targeting system composed of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid and rhodamine; nanoparticles synthesis was achieved by a coprecipitation method; the functionalization was carried out by a carbodiimide with folic acid and/or the rhodamine isothiocyanate; conjugates were characterized by spectrometric techniques; toxicity was measured by cell proliferation assay on HeLa cells using progressive concentrations of functionalized nanoparticles. Cellular uptake assay was carried out by competitive assay on HeLa cells. Iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles, modified with folic acid and rhodamine, were successfully synthetized with a particle size lower than 20 nm (TEM, EDS, HRTEM, and XDR showed highly crystalline Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Folic acid and rhodamine were conjugated with high efficiency. A significant selectivity and uptake, facilitated by surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles with folic acid, were demonstrated. The multifunctional system showed suitable physicochemical and biological properties for cell targeting through folate receptors.

  6. Folic Acid Education for Hispanic Women: The Promotora de Salud Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L; Isenburg, Jennifer; Hillard, Christina L; deRosset, Leslie; Colen, Lisa; Bush, Troy; Mai, Cara T

    2017-02-01

    Although rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) have declined in the United States since fortification, disparities still exist with Hispanic women having the highest risk of giving birth to a baby with a NTD. The Promotora de Salud model using community lay health workers has been shown to be an effective tool for reaching Hispanics for a variety of health topics; however, literature on its effectiveness in folic acid interventions is limited. An intervention using the Promotora de Salud model was implemented in four U.S. counties with large populations of Hispanic women. The study comprised the following: (1) a written pretest survey to establish baseline levels of folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption; (2) a small group education intervention along with a 90-day supply of multivitamins; and (3) a postintervention (posttest) assessment conducted 4 months following the intervention. Statistically significant differences in pre- and posttests were observed for general awareness about folic acid and vitamins and specific knowledge about the benefits of folic acid. Statistically significant changes were also seen in vitamin consumption and multivitamin consumption. Folic acid supplement consumption increased dramatically by the end of the study. The Promotora de Salud model relies on interpersonal connections forged between promotoras and the communities they serve to help drive positive health behaviors. The findings underscore the positive impact that these interpersonal connections can have on increasing awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid. Utilizing the Promotora de Salud model to reach targeted populations might help organizations successfully implement their programs in a culturally appropriate manner.

  7. Postpartum women in the Honduran health system: folic acid knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Gayle R; Flores, Alina L; Umaña, Edgardo; Mayes, Ileana; Rosenthal, Jorge

    2007-11-01

    This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption staples for potential folic acid fortification. Convenience sampling methodology was used to recruit potential study participants. Participants for this study were 2 619 postpartum Honduran women who had had a normal, in-hospital delivery in one of 16 public hospitals located throughout the country or the two social security hospitals that provide services to the Honduran working class population. Over a 10-month period, in-depth, face-to-face oral interviews, supervised by the research coordinator and staff, were conducted in-hospital prior to discharge. The majority of the women were between 16 and 29 years of age. Approximately half of the respondents (46.4%) had heard of folic acid and over one-third (37.6%) knew that it was a vitamin related to preventing birth defects. Birth defects were most often attributed to drug and alcohol use (20.6%) and lack of vitamin intake (18.1%), but 23.0% related defects to mystical, mythical, or religious causes. Aside from red beans, oranges, and natural fruit juices, folate-rich foods are not widely consumed by this population. The highest consumption frequency of staple foods with the potential to be fortified with folic acid were rice, white flour, corn flour, and pasta. Results from this study provide potential avenues for food fortification, as well as underscore the need for further education about the role of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects. Results highlight that standardized health education for Honduran women of reproductive age is needed if folic acid consumption through fortification and supplementation is to be successful and sustainable.

  8. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake and risk of preterm birth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Lv, Ling; Zhang, Hanru; Zhao, Nan; Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Zhou, Min; Xu, Xiaoying; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Lerro, Catherine; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Bai, Haiya; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Huang, Huang; Liang, Jiaxin; Qiu, Weitao; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-06-01

    Folic acid supplementation has been suggested to reduce the risk of preterm birth. However, results from previous epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake during pre- and post-conception reduces the risk of preterm birth. We analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted between 2010 and 2012 in Lanzhou, China, including 10,179 pregnant women with live singleton births. Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users with >12-week duration had a reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.55-0.83) with a significant dose-response relationship (P for trend = 0.01). A similar pattern was observed for spontaneous preterm birth. Stronger associations were seen for ever use of folic acid supplement and very preterm birth (OR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.36-0.69) and spontaneous very preterm birth (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.29-0.63). Dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy were also associated with reduced risk of preterm birth (OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.56-0.83, OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.47-0.70 for the highest quartiles, respectively), particularly for spontaneous very preterm (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24-0.72, OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.15-0.47 for the highest quartiles, respectively). There were also decreased risks of preterm birth observed per 10-µg increase in dietary folate intake, and similar associations were found after stratification by folic acid supplementation status. Our results suggest that folic acid supplementation and higher dietary folate intake during preconception and pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth, and the protective effect varies by preterm subtypes.

  9. Folic acid: a marker of endothelial function in type 2 diabetes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arduino A Mangoni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Arduino A Mangoni1, Roy A Sherwood2, Belinda Asonganyi2, Emma L Ouldred3, Stephen Thomas4, Stephen HD Jackson31Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Centre for Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Clinical Biochemistry, King’s College Hospital, London, UK; 3Department of Health Care of the Elderly, Guy’s, King’s, and St Thomas’ School of Medicine, King’s College, London, UK; 4Department of Diabetic Medicine, King’s College Hospital, London, UKObjectives: Endothelial dysfunction is a common feature of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that the B-vitamin folic acid exerts direct beneficial effects on endothelial function, beyond the well known homocysteine lowering effects. Therefore, folic acid might represent a novel “biomarker” of endothelial function. We sought to determine whether plasma levels of folic acid determine endothelial-dependent vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: Forearm arterial blood flow (FABF was measured at baseline and during intrabrachial infusion of the endothelial-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (15 µg/min and the endothelial-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (2 µg/min in 26 type 2 diabetic patients (age 56.5 ± 0.9 years, means ± SEM with no history of cardiovascular disease.Results: FABF ratio (ie, the ratio between the infused and control forearm FABF significantly increased during acetylcholine (1.10 ± 0.04 vs 1.52 ± 0.07, p < 0.001 and sodium nitroprusside (1.12 ± 0.11 vs 1.62 ± 0.06, p < 0.001 infusions. After correcting for age, gender, diabetes duration, smoking, hypertension, body mass index, microalbuminuria, glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homocysteine, multiple regression analysis showed that plasma folic acid concentration was the only independent determinant (p = 0.037, R2 = 0.22 of acetylcholine-mediated, but not sodium nitroprusside-mediated, vasodilatation

  10. Awareness of spina bifida and periconceptional use of folic acid among pregnant women in a developing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, T B; Tiamiyu, L O; Awoyinka, B S

    2012-12-01

    Folate deficiency in pregnant women is a recognized cause of spina bifida. We sought to establish the level of awareness of spina bifida as well as the use of folate supplementation among pregnant women in a developing economy. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to obtain information from 200 to 20 randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at the authors' institution. Demographic information and information on parity, folic acid use and knowledge on spina bifida including its cause, prevention and treatment were obtained. Data analyses were done using Epi Info version 6. The mean age of the women was 30.3 years (range 17-52 years). Sixty-six of the women (30.0 %) were primigravida. Most of the respondents [208 (94.5 %)] have attained, at least, secondary level of education. The average gestational age at antenatal clinic booking was 20.7 weeks (range 4-38 weeks), while the average gestational age at commencement of folic acid use was 18.5 weeks (range 4-38 weeks). None of them used folic acid in the preconception period. Knowledge about spina bifida is poor and a significant number [103 (46.8 %)] have superstitious belief about its aetiology. Only 56 (25.5 %) of the respondents are aware that folic acid use prevents its occurrence; however, 194 (88.2 %) are willing to receive periconceptional folate supplementation. There is paucity of knowledge about spina bifida among Nigerian pregnant women despite their high level of formal education. We advocate an aggressive public health campaign to enlighten the women about spina bifida and encourage periconceptional folate supplementation.

  11. Validation of self-reported folic acid use in a multiethnic population: results of the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkens, Jonne J.; van Eijsden, Manon; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Cornel, Martina C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess folic acid supplementation rates and validate the self-reporting of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in a multiethnic cohort. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Self-reported folic acid supplement use in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study

  12. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Anderson, P H; Kruger, W D; Phillipson, B E; Gluckman, R A; Block, P C; Upson, B M

    1998-04-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease. Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg of folic acid daily, approximating the increased daily intake that may result from the FDA's enrichment policy, increased plasma folic acid by 31 percent (P=0.045) but decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine by only 3.7 percent (P= 0.24). However, cereals providing 499 and 665 microg of folic acid daily increased plasma folic acid by 64.8 percent (Pine by 11.0 percent (Pine levels. Further clinical trials are required to determine whether folic acid fortification may prevent vascular disease. Until then, our results suggest that folic acid fortification at levels higher than that recommended by the FDA may be warranted.

  13. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yong; Li, Jianping; Qin, Xianhui; Huang, Yining; Wang, Xiaobin; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Chen, Dafang; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Yimin; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Jian'an; Yang, Xinchun; Yang, Tianlun; Xiao, Chuanshi; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Qiang; Zhu, Dingliang; Wang, Xian; Ge, Junbo; Zhao, Lianyou; Hu, Dayi; Liu, Lisheng; Hou, Fan Fan

    2015-04-07

    Uncertainty remains about the efficacy of folic acid therapy for the primary prevention of stroke because of limited and inconsistent data. To test the primary hypothesis that therapy with enalapril and folic acid is more effective in reducing first stroke than enalapril alone among Chinese adults with hypertension. The China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted from May 19, 2008, to August 24, 2013, in 32 communities in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in China. A total of 20,702 adults with hypertension without history of stroke or myocardial infarction (MI) participated in the study. Eligible participants, stratified by MTHFR C677T genotypes (CC, CT, and TT), were randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10,348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10,354). The primary outcome was first stroke. Secondary outcomes included first ischemic stroke; first hemorrhagic stroke; MI; a composite of cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke; and all-cause death. During a median treatment duration of 4.5 years, compared with the enalapril alone group, the enalapril-folic acid group had a significant risk reduction in first stroke (2.7% of participants in the enalapril-folic acid group vs 3.4% in the enalapril alone group; hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93), first ischemic stroke (2.2% with enalapril-folic acid vs 2.8% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.91), and composite cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, MI, and stroke (3.1% with enalapril-folic acid vs 3.9% with enalapril alone; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risks of hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.65-1.34), MI (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.60-1.82), and all-cause deaths (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. There were no

  14. Daily supplementation with iron plus folic acid, zinc, and their combination is not associated with younger age at first walking unassisted in malnourished preschool children from a deficient population in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K; Leclerq, Steven C; Mullany, Luke C; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Siegel, Emily H; Tielsch, James M

    2010-07-01

    A community-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily zinc and/or iron+folic acid supplementation was conducted in rural southern Nepal to examine motor milestone attainment among 3264 children 1-36 mo of age between 2001 and 2006. Treatment groups included placebo, zinc (10 mg), iron+folic acid (12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid), and zinc+iron+folic acid (10 mg zinc + 12.5 mg iron + 50 microg folic acid). Infants received half of these doses. The iron arms were stopped November 2003 by recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Board; zinc and placebo continued until January 2006. A total of 2457 children had not walked at the time of entry into the trial and 1775 were followed through 36 mo. Mean age at first walking unassisted did not differ among groups and was 444 +/- 81 d (mean +/- SD) in the placebo group, 444 +/- 81 d in the zinc group, 464 +/- 85 d in the iron+folic acid group, and 446 +/- 87 d in the iron+folic acid+zinc group. Results were similar after adjustment for age at enrollment, asset ownership, maternal literacy, and prior child deaths in the household and in children who consumed at least 60 tablets. Compared with placebo, iron+folic acid was associated with an adjusted mean delay of 28.0 d (95% CI: 11.3, 44.7) in time to walking among infants and the delay was more pronounced with mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) < 9.5 cm [60.6 d, (95% CI: 28.5, 92.6)]. Risks and benefits of universal iron+folic acid supplementation of infants beyond improved hematologic status deserve further consideration.

  15. Modulatory Role of Folic Acid Administration on Some Biochemical and Hormonal Disturbances in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Fried food which is the most easier and fast food prepared especially out the home door became a serious risk because of the high concentrations of acrylamide identified mainly in potatoes and grains based foods that are cooked at very high temperature e.g. frying, grilling or baking. In the current study, forty eight adult male rats were classified into the following groups (12 rats/group): 1- control group: rats received only normal diet, 2- folic acid group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) using stomach tube throughout the experimental period (ten weeks), 3- acrylamide group: rats received acrylamide (30 mg/kg) using stomach tube for ten weeks and 4- folic acid and acrylamide group: rats received folic acid (25 mg/kg/day) along with acrylamide (30 mg/kg./day) using stomach tube through the experimental period. After five and ten weeks of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation then thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were determined in testis and brain homogenates. Also, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, testosterone and estradiol were determined in serum. In addition, histological examinations of testis and brain tissues were examined. The results obtained revealed that administration of acrylamide induced significant increase in TBARS, and reduction in SOD and GSH in testis and brain homogenate. Also, significant increase in GGT, ALP, ACP, urea, creatinine and estradiol levels in serum was recorded. A marked significant decrease in total protein, albumin, T3, T4 and testosterone in serum was observed in acrylamide group. Histological investigations showed degenerative changes in both testis and brain tissues through the experimental period. Significant improvements in biochemical and histological structure were recorded in acrylamide groups

  16. Pros and cons of increasing folic acid and vitamin B12 intake by fortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no doubt that folic acid fortification can be effective for reducing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The degree of efficacy depends on both the level of folate depletion and other, yet to be fully characterized, genetic and/or environmental factors. This article summarizes brie...

  17. Reference values for Serum levels of Folic acid and Vitamin B12 in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each laboratory is expected to investigate the transferability of the expected values to its own patient population and if necessary determine its own reference ranges. This study sought to establish Folic acid and Vitamin B12 reference values for young Ugandan adults, which reference values could be used as baseline ...

  18. Folic Acid Promotion for Hispanic Women in Florida: A Vitamin Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kamilah B.; Hauser, Kimberlea; Rodriguez, Nydia Y.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the barriers and benefits of taking multivitamins among Hispanic women exposed to a folic acid social marketing campaign in Florida, USA. Design and setting: Evaluation of non-pregnant women aged 18-35 from multiple Hispanic subgroups. Method: For 6 months, participants exposed to social marketing campaign educational…

  19. Computational and experimental studies of the interaction between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rozo, Ciro E.; Castillo-León, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    This work involved the preparation of a conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid that was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple “one pot” synthesis method. Subsequently, the conjugate was investigated by a computational hybrid method: our own N...

  20. Pre-natal effects of ethanol and folic acid supplements on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol consumption has long been implicated as capable of inducing folic acid deficiency, in particular at pregnancy; thus inflicting severe skeletal dysgenesis on the conceptuses particularly the mineralisation of the bones. Methods: In the present study, 120 adult female Wistar rats were grouped into three: A, ...

  1. Preconceptional and prenatal supplementary folic acid and multivitamin intake and autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    .76-1.84; multivitamin-adjusted risk ratio: 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.87-1.69), Asperger's syndrome (folic acid-adjusted risk ratio: 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-1.53; multivitamin-adjusted risk ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.46), or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified...

  2. Folic acid supplementation influences the distribution of neural tube defect subtypes : A registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. E. H.; Otten, E.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; de Walle, H. E. K.

    Periconceptional folic acid (FA) reduces neural tube defect (NTD) risk, but seems to have a varying effect per NTD subtype. We aimed to study the effect of FA supplementation on NTD subtype distribution using data from EUROCAT Northern Netherlands. We included all birth types with non-syndromal NTDs

  3. Preconceptional and Prenatal Supplementary Folic Acid and Multivitamin Intake and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A.; Catov, Janet M.; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Methods: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We estimated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorders for…

  4. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Nour Eldeen

    2012-07-04

    (11):5923–8. [10] Kubova´ H, Folbergrova´ J, Mares P. Seizures induced by homocysteine in rats during ontogenesis. Epilepsia 1995;36(8):. 750–6. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic children.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid on mercury meniscus modified silver solid amalgam electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bandžuchová, L.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chýlková, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 5 (2011), s. 2411-2419 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : folic acid * vitamin s * voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2011

  6. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Nour Eldeen

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... drugs (AEDs) in epileptic patients. Serum level of homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid and vitamin. B12 was measured in 60 patients with idiopathic epilepsy; and its level was compared to 30 healthy children serving as control group. No significant difference was found regarding the plasma homo- cysteine (Hcy) ...

  7. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo.

  8. Serum Homocysteine, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid Levels and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) Gene Polymorphism in Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  9. Serum folic acid and RFC A80G polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Nasim; Tripathi, Manjari; Alam, Rizwan; Luthra, Kalpana; Sharma, Sumit; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Kalaivani, Mani; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2014-02-01

    Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene, rs1051266, which encodes the RFC 1, protein was analyzed for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. It was observed that the patients having folic acid <8.45 ng/mL had 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.5) times higher odds of having AD and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) times higher odds of having VaD than patients having folic acid ≥8.45 ng/mL. Serum vitamin B12 level did not show any such statistically significant effect in altering the odds. No direct association was found between variant (G) allele or genotype of rs1051266 with AD and VaD cases. On serum folate level no association was observed with gene polymorphism.

  10. Folic acid and homocysteine affect neural crest and neuroepithelial cell outgrowth and differentiation in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Poelmann, R.E.; Iperen, L. van; Lindemans, J.; Groot, A. de

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of additional folic acid in the periconceptional period to prevent neural tube defects, orofacial clefts, and conotruncal heart defects in the offspring has been shown. Folate shortage results in homocysteine accumulation. Elevated levels of homocysteine have been related to

  11. Can folic acid protect against congenital heart defects in Down syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Werler, Martha M.; Louik, Carol; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested a protective effect of folic acid (FA) on congenital heart anomalies. Down syndrome (DS) infants are known to have a high frequency of heart anomalies. Not all children with DS suffer from heart anomalies, which raises the question whether maternal factors

  12. Trends of selected malformations in relation to folic acid recommendations and fortification : An international assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Lisi, Alessandra; Bower, Carol; Canfield, Mark A.; Dattani, Nirupa; De Vigan, Catherine; De Walle, Hermien; Erickson, David J.; Halliday, Jane; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Lowry, R. Brian; McDonnel, Robert; Metneki, Julia; Poetzsch, Simone; Ritvanen, Annukka; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Siffel, Csaba; Stoll, Claude; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Two crucial issues relative to the benefits and impact of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects are whether supplementation recommendations alone, without fortification, are effective in reducing the population-wide rates of neural tube defects (NTDs), and whether such policies

  13. Assessing Folic Acid Awareness and its Usage for the Prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ajen Stephen Anzaku. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Bingham University, Karu, Jos Campus, Jos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT ... is associated with varying degrees of physical and mental disabilities even after ... this important outcomes on the benefits of preventing NTDs using folic acid ...

  14. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN VITAMIN B12 AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin metabolic disorders can cause diverse dysfunctions of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. There is conclusive evidence that cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies may lead to diminished cognitive functions even to the extent of developing dementia. Cognitive impairments may be accompanied by involvement of other regions of the central nervous system, the corticospinal tract in particular, less frequently by brainstem and cerebellar disorders. Changes in nervous system functions in the presence of cyanocobalamin deficiency may predominate in the clinical picture, ahead of the occurrence of hematological changes. The paper considers the possible mechanisms for involvement of brain neurons in deficiency of cyanocobalamin and in that of folic acid in particular in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The low serum concentration of folic acid or cyanocobalamin in the elderly raises the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in future (by almost twice and vascular dementia. The authors give the results of randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of the vitamins used in patients with cognitive impairments. Thus, there are data that the use of cyanocobalamin in patients with lacunar infarcts and moderate cognitive impairments may give rise to their complete recovery and reduce the risk of depressive disorders. Intramuscular cyanocobalamin used in a daily dose of 1000 μg for 5 days, then 1000 μg once monthly is demonstrated to be efficacious. This therapy may be effective in patients with different types of dementia and cognitive diminution, primarily in those with these conditions and its serum concentration of less 150 pmol/l. Among the side effects while taking folic acid, there may be higher incidence rates of convulsive attacks. A number of trials have shown the efficacy of cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine, and folic acid in preventing acute cerebral ischemic episodes; however, not all the investigations

  15. Optimization of folic acid nano-emulsification and encapsulation by maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Due to susceptibility of folic acid like many other vitamins to environmental and processing conditions, it is necessary to protect it by highly efficient methods such as micro/nano-encapsulation. Our aim was to prepare and optimize real water in oil nano-emulsions containing folic acid by a low energy (spontaneous) emulsification technique so that the final product could be encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. A non ionic surfactant (Span 80) was used for making nano-emulsions at three dispersed phase/surfactant ratios of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Folic acid content was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0mg/mL of dispersed phase by a volume fraction of 5.0, 8.5, and 12%. The final optimum nano-emulsion formulation with 12% dispersed phase, a water to surfactant ratio of 0.9 and folic acid content of 3mg/mL in dispersed phase was encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. It was found that the emulsification time for preparing nano-emulsions was between 4 to 16 h based on formulation variables. Droplet size decreased at higher surfactant contents and final nano-emulsions had a droplet size<100 nm. Shear viscosity was higher for those formulations containing more surfactant. Our results revealed that spontaneous method could be used successfully for preparing stable W/O nano-emulsions containing folic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengpiel, Verena; Bacelis, Jonas; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Devold Pay, Aase Serine; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Magnus, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-11-02

    Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 66,014 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 2002-2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until pregnancy week 24. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4-5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,755). The median total folate intake was 313 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 167-558) in the overall population and 530 μg/d (IQR 355-636) in the supplement users. Eighty-five percent reported any folic acid supplementation from effect of dietary folate intake or folic acid supplementation on spontaneous PTD. Preconceptional folic acid supplementation starting more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous PTD. These results require further investigation before discussing an expansion of folic acid supplementation guidelines.

  17. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

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    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  18. Knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women towards folic acid intake for neural tube defect prevention.

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    Nosrat, Sepideh Bakhshande; Sedehi, Maliheh; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women regarding periconceptional folic acid intake for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. The population-based study was done on 676 primiparous women in an urban area in Golestan province in northern Iran from June to November, 2008. A questionnaire was completed by the subjects regarding their knowledge of folic acid. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centres, private gynaecological clinic and the Dezyani Gynaecologic and Obstetric Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Out of the 676 women surveyed, 96.2% reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only 27.6% knew that folate was something important in the prevention of neural tube defects. Overall, 20.12% of the total women took folic acid during periconceptional period. The most common information sources on folate were healthcare service (54.5%). Besides, 37.6% of the subjects who heard about folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, knowledge and intake of folic acid was not associated with education and the age of women. A healthcare plan for intervention to increase the knowledge and intake of folic acid by pregnant women during the protective period is required.

  19. Assessing awareness, knowledge and use of folic acid in Kansas women between the ages of 18 and 44 years.

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    Sharp, Glynda F; Naylor, Lorenda A; Cai, Jinwen; Hyder, Melissa L; Chandra, Pradeep; Guillory, V James

    2009-11-01

    Taking folic acid daily, before and during early pregnancy, has been proven to reduce neural tube birth defects (NTD). Unfortunately, many women fail to take it daily as recommended. To assess women's self-reported awareness, knowledge and use of folic acid. Methods Data were obtained by cross-sectional, random digit-dialing, computer-assisted telephone interviews with 250 women in Kansas. Associations were determined by chi-squared analysis. Eighty-eight percent of childbearing age women in Kansas have a general awareness of folic acid, 20% have knowledge that it reduces birth defects, but only 25% report taking it daily. Awareness was associated with high school or greater education (P Knowledge that folic acid reduces birth defects was associated with being aware of the USPHS recommendation (P folic acid (P = 0.0379). Taking folic acid daily was associated with currently being pregnant (P = 0.0126). Women less likely to take folic acid on a daily basis were young, non-Caucasians who reported less education, less income and no health insurance. Based upon these data, multi-level education campaigns that specifically target lower-SES women should be considered.

  20. Effect of processing on folic acid fortified Baladi bread and its possible effect on the prevention of colon cancer.

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    Omar, Rasha M; Ismail, Hanaa M; El-Lateef, Bothyna M Abd; Yousef, Mokhtar I; Gomaa, Naglaa F; Sheta, Manal

    2009-07-01

    This paper studied the possible effect of folic acid in fortified Baladi bread on the prevention of colon cancer development in rats. Wheat flour samples (82% extraction rate) and soy bean flour were analyzed to determine their folic acid contents using the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Unfortified and folic acid fortified Baladi breads were prepared. Samples from each step of bread preparation were analyzed for folic acid concentration. Protein, fat, ash, fibers and carbohydrates percentages were also determined. Rats were divided into five groups, four of them were injected subcutaneously with dimethylhydrazine (DMH). After 15 weeks, the rats were sacrificed for pathological examination. Results showed that the folic acid content in wheat flour (82% extraction rate) was found to be highly significantly lower than that in soybean flour. After baking, folic acid content in all breads was found to decrease significantly. The highest protein and fat contents were found in soybean flour fortified Baladi bread. The colons of rats of groups 3 (fed 5% soy flour fortified Baladi bread) and 5 (fed Baladi bread fortified with 5% soy flour+8 mg folic acid/kg wheat flour) were the mostly affected by DMH injection as premalignant changes were observed.

  1. The effect of folic acid and folinic acid supplements on purine metabolism in methotrexate-treated rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Morgan, Sarah L; Oster, Robert A; Lee, Jeannette Y; Alarcón, Graciela S; Baggott, Joseph E

    2004-10-01

    To determine if folinic acid supplementation during methotrexate (MTX) therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reduces both urinary 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (AICA) and urinary adenosine excretion more than does folic acid supplementation. AICA and adenosine are markers for MTX interference with purine metabolism. Forty patients with RA who received MTX for 6 weeks were randomized to receive either daily folic acid or folinic acid supplements during an additional week of MTX therapy. Colorimetric and radioimmunocompetition assays were used to measure 24-hour urinary AICA and adenosine excretion levels, respectively. At the end of 6 weeks, 24-hour urinary levels of AICA, but not adenosine, were elevated as compared with baseline levels (i.e., prior to MTX therapy). Folinic acid, but not folic acid, supplementation normalized urinary AICA levels during MTX therapy. Relatively high urinary levels of AICA were correlated with reduced disease activity. No similar correlations were seen with urinary adenosine levels. The blockade of purine nucleotide biosynthesis by MTX at the AICA ribonucleotide transformylase-catalyzed step may be related to the efficacy of MTX, and this blockade is effectively relieved by folinic acid, but not by folic acid, supplementation. Copyright 2004 American College of Rheumatology

  2. Folic acid supplementation normalizes the endothelial progenitor cell transcriptome of patients with type 1 diabetes: a case-control pilot study

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    Stubbs Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells play an important role in vascular wall repair. Patients with type 1 diabetes have reduced levels of endothelial progenitor cells of which their functional capacity is impaired. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and increased oxidative stress play a role in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in these patients. Folic acid, a B-vitamin with anti-oxidant properties, may be able to improve endothelial progenitor cell function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes compared to endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects. Furthermore, we studied the effect of folic acid on gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods We used microarray analysis to investigate the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from type 1 diabetes patients before (n = 11 and after a four week period of folic acid supplementation (n = 10 compared to the gene expression profiles of endothelial progenitor cells from healthy subjects (n = 11. The probability of genes being differentially expressed among the classes was computed using a random-variance t-test. A multivariate permutation test was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed among the two classes. Functional classification of differentially expressed genes was performed using the biological process ontology in the Gene Ontology database. Results Type 1 diabetes significantly modulated the expression of 1591 genes compared to healthy controls. These genes were found to be involved in processes regulating development, cell communication, cell adhesion and localization. After folic acid treatment, endothelial progenitor cell gene expression profiles from diabetic patients were similar to those from healthy controls. Genes that were normalized by folic acid played a prominent role in

  3. A Village‐Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid  Use among Rural Chinese Women

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    Qian Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs. However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village‐based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Methods: Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple‐stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS. Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Results: Self‐reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%–29.2% at baseline to 41.7%-59.2% one year post‐intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35. Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. Conclusions: The results indicated that an integrated village‐based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women.

  4. A Village-Based Intervention: Promoting Folic Acid  Use among Rural Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian; Yang, Lina; Li, Fang; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Chen, Jihua; Deng, Jing; Hu, Xiangying

    2017-02-21

    Folic acid supplementation is effective in reducing the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the use of folic acid is low among rural women in China. Nutrition education can provide information about folic acid and encourage its use. The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a village-based nutrition intervention on folic acid use among rural women. Sixty villages were randomly selected using multiple-stage sampling and were divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention included nutritional education at village clinics, written materials, and text messages (SMS). Folic acid use knowledge and behavior was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with folic acid supplement use increased from 17.0%-29.2% at baseline to 41.7%-59.2% one year post-intervention. During the same period, the folic acid knowledge score in the intervention group increased from 3.07 to 3.65, significantly higher than the control group (3.11 to 3.35). Multivariate binary logistic regression showed that the women who received folic acid education and SMS intervention were more likely to comply with folic acid supplement recommendations. The results indicated that an integrated village-based folic acid education intervention may be an effective way of promoting folic acid use for the prevention of NTDs in rural women.

  5. Race and ethnicity and preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women in Georgia, PRAMS 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Ayesha; Kramer, Michael R; Oakley, Godfrey P; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2017-01-20

    The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. Using state-wide population-based data from 2009 to 2011 Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we examined the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years. We conducted multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to examine the association between race/ethnicity and supplemental folic acid use among study participants. Overall, 25% of all participants reported taking folic acid supplements daily before conception. Only 21% of Hispanic women reported preconception folic acid supplement use. Hispanic women were twice as likely to not take folic acid supplements (adjusted odds ratio = 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-3.40) compared with non-Hispanic whites, after controlling for maternal age, parity, pregnancy intention, knowledge that folic acid prevents birth defects, and preconception smoking and exercise. Hispanics are a growing population in the United States with an expected 14 million women of child-bearing age by 2020, and the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use is low in this group with a high risk of neural tube defects. Promotion of voluntarily fortified corn masa flour can lower neural tube defects in Hispanics. Mandatory corn masa fortification will be a more effective public health policy.Birth Defects Research 109:38-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Folic acid absorption determined by a single stool sample test--a double-isotope technique. The folic acid absorption capacity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelt, K

    1989-10-01

    The fractional folic acid absorption (FAFol) was determined in 66 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases by a double-isotope technique, employing a single stool sample test (SSST) as well as a complete stool collection. The age of the patients ranged from 2.5 months to 16.8 years (mean 6.3 years). The test dose was administered orally and consisted of 50 micrograms of [3H]folic acid (monoglutamate) (approximately 20 muCi), carmine powder, and 2 mg 51CrCl3 (approximately 1.25 muCi) as the unabsorbable tracer. The whole-body radiation given to a 1-year-old child averaged 4.8 mrad only. The stool and napkin contents were collected and homogenized by the addition of 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid. A 300-ml sample of the homogenized stool and napkin contents, as well as 300 ml chromium sulfuric acid (75% vol/vol) containing the standards, were counted for the content of 51Cr in a broad-based well counter. The quantity of [3H]folic acid was determined by liquid scintillation, after duplicate distillation. Estimated by SSST, the FAFol, which employs the stool with the highest content of 51Cr corresponding to the most carmine-colored stool, correlated closely with the FAFol based on complete stool collection (r = 0.96, n = 39, p less than 0.0001). The reproducibility of FAFol determined by SSST was assessed from repeated tests in 18 patients. For a mean of 81%, the SD was 4.6%, which corresponded to a coefficient of variation of 5.7%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Does diet affect our mood? The significance of folic acid and homocysteine].

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    Karakuła, Hanna; Opolska, Aneta; Kowal, Anna; Domański, Maciej; Płotka, Aniela; Perzyński, Janusz

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between national diet and the possibility of developing various mental disorders, as well as between deficiency of such vitamins as, e.g. folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, and others (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids), elevated serum homocysteine level and the functioning of human brain as well as the occurrence of such disorders as dementia, central nervous system vascular disorders and depression. was to present the current state of knowledge about the role of folic acid and homocysteine in the human organism as well as the significance of vitamin deficiency, mainly folic acid and hyperhomocysteinemy for the occurrence of mood disorders. The authors conducted the search of the Internet database Medline (www.pubmed.com) using as key words: depression, mood, homocysteine, vitamin deficiencies: folic acid, B6 and 812 and time descriptors: 1990-2007. In depression, folate, vitamins B12 and B6, as well as unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids deficiency affects the biochemical processes in the CNS, as folic acid and vitamin B12, participate in the metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a donator of methyl groups, which play a decisive role in the functioning of the nervous system; they are, among others, active in the formation of neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin), phospholipids that are a component of neuronal myelin sheaths, and cell receptors. The deficiency of the vitamins in question results in hyperhomocysteinemia (the research shows that approximately 45-55% of patients with depression develop significantly elevated serum homocysteine), which causes a decrease in SAM, followed by impaired methylation and, consequently, impaired metabolism of neurotransmitters, phospholipids, myelin, and receptors. Hyperhomocysteinemia also leads to activation of NMDA receptors, lesions in vascular endothelium, and oxidative stress. All this effects neurotoxicity and promotes the development of various disorders, including

  8. Knowledge and practices of pregnant women about folic acid in pregnancy in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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    Al-Hossani, H; Abouzeid, H; Salah, M M; Farag, H M; Fawzy, E

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed the knowledge and practices about folic acid in pregnancy among pregnant women attending 2 main maternal and child health centres in Abu Dhabi. The majority of the 277 interviewed mothers (79.1%) had heard of folic acid and 46.6% had accurate knowledge about the role of folate in preventing neural tube defects. There were good practices regarding folate supplementation in the current pregnancy; most of the interviewed mothers took it daily and in the recommended dose. However, only a minority took it prior to pregnancy. Education, irrespective of age or parity, was the major factor determining better knowledge of folic acid in pregnancy.

  9. Modeling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid: the potential impact on exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for folic acid, NHANES 2001–2008

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    Heather C. Hamner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Institute of Medicine set a tolerable upper intake level (UL for usual daily total folic acid intake (1,000 µg. Less than 3% of US adults currently exceed the UL. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if folic acid fortification of corn masa flour would increase the percentage of the US population who exceed the UL. Design: We used dietary intake data from NHANES 2001–2008 to estimate the percentage of adults and children who would exceed the UL if corn masa flour were fortified at 140 µg of folic acid/100 g. Results: In 2001–2008, 2.5% of the US adult population (aged≥19 years exceeded the UL, which could increase to 2.6% if fortification of corn masa flour occurred. With corn masa flour fortification, percentage point increases were small and not statistically significant for US adults exceeding the UL regardless of supplement use, sex, race/ethnicity, or age. Children aged 1–8 years, specifically supplement users, were the most likely to exceed their age-specific UL. With fortification of corn masa flour, there were no statistically significant increases in the percentage of US children who were exceeding their age-specific UL, and the percentage point increases were small. Conclusions: Our results suggest that fortification of corn masa flour would not significantly increase the percentage of individuals who would exceed the UL. Supplement use was the main factor related to exceeding the UL with or without fortification of corn masa flour and within all strata of sex, race/ethnicity, and age group.

  10. Active targeting of cancer cells using folic acid-conjugated platinum nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, Yiwei; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Interaction of nanoparticles with human cells is an interesting topic for understanding toxicity and developing potential drug candidates. Water soluble platinum nanoparticles were synthesized viareduction of hexachloroplatinic acid using sodium borohydride in the presence of capping agents. The bioactivity of folic acid and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) capped platinum nanoparticles (Pt-nps) has been investigated using commercially available cell lines. In the cell viability experiments, PVP-capped nanoparticles were found to be less toxic (>80% viability), whereas, folic acid-capped platinum nanoparticles showed a reduced viability down to 24% after 72 h of exposure at a concentration of 100 μg ml-1 for MCF7 breast cancer cells. Such toxicity, combined with the possibility to incorporate functional organic molecules as capping agents, can be used for developing new drug candidates.

  11. Maternal folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake and congenital heart defects.

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    Baohong Mao

    Full Text Available It has been reported that folic acid supplementation before and/or during pregnancy could reduce the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs. However, the results from limited epidemiologic studies have been inconclusive. We investigated the associations between maternal folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake, and the risk of CHDs.A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010-2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China. After exclusion of stillbirths and multiple births, a total of 94 births were identified with congenital heart defects, and 9,993 births without any birth defects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.Compared to non-users, folic acid supplement users before pregnancy had a reduced risk of overall CHDs (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21-0.86, Ptrend = 0.025 after adjusted for potential confounders. A protective effect was observed for certain subtypes of CHDs (OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.85 for malformation of great arteries; 0.26, 0.10-0.68 for malformation of cardiac septa; 0.34, 0.13-0.93 for Atrial septal defect. A similar protective effect was also seen for multiple CHDs (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.93, Ptrend = 0.004. Compared with the middle quartiles of dietary folate intake, lower dietary folate intake (<149.88 μg/day during pregnancy were associated with increased risk of overall CHDs (OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62 and patent ductus arteriosus (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.03-3.32. Women who were non-user folic acid supplement and lower dietary folate intake have almost 2-fold increased CHDs risk in their offspring.Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation before pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of CHDs, lower dietary folate intake during pregnancy was associated with increased risk. The observed associations varied by CHD subtypes. A synergistic effect of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation was also observed.

  12. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Pregnant Women About Benefits And Doses Of Folic Acid Consumption During Pregnancy

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    Safdarian L

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women about benefits and doses of folic acid consumption during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A simple randomized study has been done with 300 pregnant women in (Mahdied, Shohada, Shariati hospital. Women were asked about their information and about consumption of folic acid in order to prevent nural tube defect and reasons for not taking it. Results: There were 300 women, 150 (50% had been recommended before to consume folic acid but only 46 (31% of them used it during pregnancy. There were 37 (12% who aware about taking it. Conclusion: Although 50% of women had been recommended to consume of folic acid, less than 50% of the women who were surveyed have been taking it. Strategies are required to increase folate intake among pregnant women and inform of the benefits of folate supplementation by the health eduction.

  13. Physico-chemical quality and homogeneity of folic acid and iron in enriched flour using principal component analysis.

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    Soeiro, Bruno T; Boen, Thaís R; Wagner, Roger; Lima-Pallone, Juliana A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine parameters of the corn and wheat flour matrix, such as protein, lipid, moisture, ash and carbohydrates, folic acid and iron contents. Three principal components explained 91% of the total variance. Wheat flours were characterized by high protein and moisture content. On the other hand, the corn flours had the greater carbohydrates, lipids and folic acid levels. The concentrations of folic acid were lower than the issued value for wheat flours. Nevertheless, corn flours presented extremely high values. The iron concentration was higher than that recommended in Brazilian legislation. Poor homogenization of folic acid and iron was observed in enriched flours. This study could be useful to help the governmental authorities in the enriched food programs evaluation.

  14. Methyltetrahydrofolate vs Folic Acid Supplementation in Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage with Respect to Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmatdoost, Azita; Vahid, Farhad; Yari, Zahra; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam; Arefi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) is more effective than folic acid supplementation in treatment of recurrent abortion in different MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted April 2011-September 2014 in recurrent abortion clinics in Tehran, Iran. The participants were women with three or more idiopathic recurrent abortion, aged 20 to 45 years. Two hundred and twenty eligible women who consented to participate were randomly assigned to receive either folic acid or 5-MTHF according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and the number of previous abortions. Participants took daily 1 mg 5-methylentetrahydrofolate or 1 mg folic acid from at least 8 weeks before conception to the 20th week of the pregnancy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate at 20th week of pregnancy, and the secondary outcomes were serum folate and homocysteine at the baseline, after 8 weeks, and at the gestational age of 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks, MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms. There was no significant difference in abortion rate between two groups. Serum folate increased significantly in both groups over time; these changes were significantly higher in the group receiving 5-MTHF than the group receiving folic acid (value = 2.39, pMTHFR C677T and/or A1298C polymorphism. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01976676.

  15. Is High Folic Acid Intake a Risk Factor for Autism?—A Review

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    Darrell Wiens

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Folate is required for metabolic processes and neural development. Insuring its adequate levels for pregnant women through supplementation of grain-based foods with synthetic folic acid (FA in order to prevent neural tube defects has been an ongoing public health initiative. However, because women are advised to take multivitamins containing FA before and throughout pregnancy, the supplementation together with natural dietary folates has led to a demographic with high and rising serum levels of unmetabolized FA. This raises concerns about the detrimental effects of high serum synthetic FA, including a rise in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Some recent studies have reported a protective effect of FA fortification against ASD, but others have concluded there is an increased risk for ASD and other negative neurocognitive development outcomes. These issues are accompanied by further health questions concerning high, unmetabolized FA levels in serum. In this review, we outline the reasons excess FA supplementation is a concern and review the history and effects of supplementation. We then examine the effects of FA on neuronal development from tissue culture experiments, review recent advances in understanding of metabolic functional blocks in causing ASD and treatment for these with alternative forms such as folinic acid, and finally summarize the conflicting epidemiological findings regarding ASD. Based on the evidence evaluated, we conclude that caution regarding over supplementing is warranted.

  16. Benzbromarone, Quercetin, and Folic Acid Inhibit Amylin Aggregation

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    Laura C. López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Amylin, or islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, is a small hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells that forms aggregates under insulin deficiency metabolic conditions, and it constitutes a pathological hallmark of type II diabetes mellitus. In type II diabetes patients, amylin is abnormally increased, self-assembled into amyloid aggregates, and ultimately contributes to the apoptotic death of β-cells by mechanisms that are not completely understood. We have screened a library of approved drugs in order to identify inhibitors of amylin aggregation that could be used as tools to investigate the role of amylin aggregation in type II diabetes or as therapeutics in order to reduce β-cell damage. Interestingly, three of the compounds analyzed—benzbromarone, quercetin, and folic acid—are able to slow down amylin fiber formation according to Thioflavin T binding, turbidimetry, and Transmission Electron Microscopy assays. In addition to the in vitro assays, we have tested the effect of these compounds in an amyloid toxicity cell culture model and we have found that one of them, quercetin, has the ability to partly protect cultured pancreatic insulinoma cells from the cytotoxic effect of amylin. Our data suggests that quercetin can contribute to reduce oxidative damage in pancreatic insulinoma β cells by modulating the aggregation propensity of amylin.

  17. Uptake of folic acid supplements before and during pregnancy: focus group analysis of women's views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, R S; Macleod, M; Mires, G; Anderson, A S

    2012-04-01

      To reduce risk of neural tube defects, current guidance recommends that all women who could become pregnant should take a daily 400 μg folic acid supplement before conception and until the 12th week of pregnancy. It is recognised that compliance with this guidance is sub-optimal, although little is known about the reasons why. The present study aims to explore the rationale behind women's decision-making on folic acid supplement use to inform health communications.   Women attending routine health visitor led baby clinics completed a questionnaire to establish their folic acid use in their most recent pregnancy. Participants were then invited to join focus group discussions to explore motivators and barriers to folic acid supplement use before and during pregnancy.   Of 292 women approached, 211 (70%) provided information on supplement use. Of these, 67 (31%) reported having taken folic acid supplements as recommended; 118 (56%) only during pregnancy [22 (18%) only intermittently]; and 26 (12%) had not taken folic acid at all. Eight focus group discussions were held comprising 24 participants. Discussions indicated the rationale behind current recommendations was known. Participants often linked folic acid use with morning sickness, and invoked busy lives, competing priorities for concern, and poor memory in accounting for intermittent use. Building a 'lay evidence base' from their own experiences, many cited healthy pregnancy outcomes without supplement use and expressed scepticism about its preventive action.   The findings of the present study highlight the importance of guidance on the importance of daily folic acid supplement use, the severity of neural tube defects and the provision of evidence on risk reduction. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Effects of folic acid awareness on knowledge and consumption for the prevention of birth defects among Hispanic women in several U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Hamner, Heather C; Flores, Alina L

    2010-04-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) anencephaly and spina bifida, are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect about 3000 pregnancies per year in the United States. Research has found a strong link between periconceptional folic acid consumption and NTD prevention. Because Hispanic women have higher rates of NTD-affected births, targeted folic acid promotion efforts were conducted in several major cities from 1999 to 2002. Efforts included paid and unpaid placements of Spanish language public service announcements (PSAs) and community-level education through the use of promotoras. Analyses focused on whether or not women's reported awareness of folic acid, regardless of promotion type, impacted their knowledge or behavior. Women who reported awareness of folic acid had greater folic acid knowledge and use of vitamins containing folic acid than those not aware. Analyses also examined the use of vitamins containing folic acid by pregnancy intention among women who reported awareness of folic acid. The results were varied. Pregnancy wanters were most likely to use vitamins containing folic acid daily. For this group, however, awareness did not play as large a role in whether they reported consuming a vitamin containing folic acid or not, as it did for pregnancy waiters and avoiders.

  19. Folic acid awareness and intake among women in areas with high prevalence of neural tube defects in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of covalent diphenylalanine nanotube-folic acid conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, John Jairo Castillo; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Wu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a covalent nanoscale assembly formed between diphenylalanine micro/nanotubes (PNT) and folic acid (FA). The conjugate was obtained via chemical functionalization through coupling of amine groups of PNTs and carboxylic groups of FA. The sur......Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a covalent nanoscale assembly formed between diphenylalanine micro/nanotubes (PNT) and folic acid (FA). The conjugate was obtained via chemical functionalization through coupling of amine groups of PNTs and carboxylic groups of FA...... performed on a large area silver-capped (diameter of 62 nm) silicon nanopillars with an approximate height of 400 nm and a width of 200 nm. The results showed that the PNT-FA synthesis procedure preserves the molecular structure of FA. The PNT-FA conjugate presented in this study is a promising candidate...

  1. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Haider, Batool A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-03-28

    During pregnancy, fetal growth causes an increase in the total number of rapidly dividing cells, which leads to increased requirements for folate. Inadequate folate intake leads to a decrease in serum folate concentration, resulting in a decrease in erythrocyte folate concentration, a rise in homocysteine concentration, and megaloblastic changes in the bone marrow and other tissues with rapidly dividing cells To assess the effectiveness of oral folic acid supplementation alone or with other micronutrients versus no folic acid (placebo or same micronutrients but no folic acid) during pregnancy on haematological and biochemical parameters during pregnancy and on pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2012) and we contacted major organisations working in micronutrient supplementation, including UNICEF Nutrition Section, World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal and Reproductive Health, WHO Nutrition Division, and National Center on Birth defects and Developmnetal Disabilities, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All randomised, cluster-randomised and cross-over controlled trials evaluating supplementation of folic acid alone or with other micronutrients versus no folic acid (placebo or same micronutrients but no folic acid) in pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Thirty-one trials involving 17,771 women are included in this review. This review found that folic acid supplementation has no impact on pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.38; three studies, 2959 participants), and stillbirths/neonatal deaths (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.85; three studies, 3110 participants). However, improvements were seen in the mean birthweight (mean difference (MD) 135.75, 95% CI 47.85 to 223.68). On the other hand, the review

  2. Arnold Chiari malformation with spina bifida: a lost opportunity of folic Acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Deepa; Sagayaraj, Benjamin M; Barua, Ravi Kumar; Sharma, Nidhi; Ranga, Upasana

    2014-12-01

    In Arnold Chiari (kee-AHR-ee) II malformation elongated cerebellar tonsils are displaced inferiorly through the Foramen Magnum into the upper cervical spinal canal. It is a complex anomaly with skull, dura, brain, spine and cord manifestations. Meningomyelocele is seen in all cases. We present a case of type II Arnold Chiari Malformation diagnosed in utero in a pregnant lady .There was no periconceptional folic acid supplementation. As the role of the Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase gene polymorphism in neural tube defects is becoming evident, a simple opportunity as folic acid supplementation should not be missed. Folate supplementation as fortification of cereal grains will also prevent other conditions like congenital heart defects, urinary tract anomalies, orofacial defects, limb defects and pyloric stenosis.

  3. Biogenic gold nanoparticles as fotillas to fire berberine hydrochloride using folic acid as molecular road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Thakur, Mukeshchand; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-10-01

    Use of biologically modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as molecular vehicle to ferry potential anti-cancer drug berberine hydrochloride (BHC) using folic acid (FA) as targeting molecule is reported in this work. A tropical fruit peel, Trapa bispinosa is used to fabricate highly monodispersed GNPs, passivated with essential functional groups which were used as linkers to attach FA and BHC via amide linkage. Flocculation Parameter (FP) of biologically synthesized GNPs was calculated under different salt concentrations which were found to be very ideal under a physiological condition. Various statistical models were used to find drug release profile out of which Higuchi was found to be the most ideal. GNP-FA-BHC complexes were found to be active against folic acid expressing HeLa cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Individualized supplementation of folic acid according to polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) reduced pregnant complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiujuan; Jiang, Jing; Xu, Min; Xu, Mei; Yang, Yan; Lu, Wei; Yu, Xuemei; Ma, Jianlin; Pan, Jiakui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms of pregnant women in Jiaodong region in China, and to investigate whether folic acid supplementation affect the pregnancy complications. A total of 7,812 pregnant women from the Jiaodong region in Shandong province in China. By using Taqman-MGB, 2,928 pregnant women (case group) were tested for the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Folic acid metabolism ability was ranked at four levels and then pregnant women in different rank group were supplemented with different doses of folic acid. Their pregnancy complications were followed up and compared with 4,884 pregnant women without folic acid supplementation (control group) in the same hospital. The allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T were 49.1 and 50.9%; those of MTHFR A1298C were 80.2 and 19.8%, and those of MTRR A66G were 74.1 and 25.9%. After supplemented with folic acid, the complication rates in different age groups were significantly reduced, especially for gestational diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and healthcare following gene polymorphism testing may be a powerful measure to decrease congenital malformations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Partearroyo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Different vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations could exacerbate the immune response. The aim was to evaluate different dietary folic acid and vitamin B12 levels on the immune response in aged rats. Male Sprague Dawley aged rats were assigned to three folic acid groups (deficient, control, supplemented each in absence of vitamin B12 for 30 days. Several parameters of innate and acquired immune responses were measured. Serum and hepatic folate levels increased according to folic acid dietary level, while vitamin B12 levels decreased. There was a significant decrease in natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen for the vitamin B12 deficient diet and folic acid control diet groups. Significant changes in CD45 lymphocyte subsets were also observed according to dietary imbalance. Lymphoproliferative response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin did not differ significantly between groups. The spleen response to lipopolysaccharide increased significantly, but was unmodified for the other organs. An imbalance between dietary vitamin B12 and folic acid concentrations alters some immunological parameters in aged rats. Therefore, the ratio between folate and vitamin B12 could be as important as their absolute dietary concentrations.

  6. Potency of maternal folic acid supplementation on gamma irradiation- induced histological and embryological anomalies in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Ibrahim, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Folic acid, a member of the water-soluble vitamin B group, is emerged as an important nutritional factor especially during the course of pregnancy. It is rapidly absorbed from the proximal part of small intestine, distributed to the body tissues, stored in the liver and actively concentrated in the cerebrospinal fluid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potency of maternal folic acid supplementation in ameliorating the maternal and fetal detrimental impacts of gamma irradiation. Folic acid, at a dose level of 4 mg/Kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20 th day of pregnancy, while mothers were subjected to gamma irradiation at the dose of 3 Gy on day 10 of gestation during the sensitive period of organogenesis. Experimental investigations carried out 1 day prior to parturition have demonstrated that folic acid intake throughout the whole gestational period had significantly diminished the deleterious histopathological disorders in large intestine, liver and uterus of irradiated mothers. Concomitantly, folic acid has been able to enfeeble the hazardous teratological effects of radiation including mainly the fetal intrauterine lethality, developmental delay and prominent morphological deformities. Conclusively, folic acid was found to offer protection during pregnancy against radiation injury, thus was capable of modulating the histopathological impacts of the studied maternal body organs and suppressing the embryonic mortality rates and serious fetal malformations induced by radiation

  7. The Protective Effects of Enalapril Maleate and Folic Acid Tablets against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiantong; Yan, Gaoliang; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Boqian; Qiao, Yong; Wang, Dong; Li, Ruifeng; Luo, Erfei; Tang, Chengchun

    2018-01-01

    Renal vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and apoptosis are the major causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets on CIN in diabetic rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: CIN (C), CIN + enalapril maleate (CE), CIN + folic acid (CF), and CIN + enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets (CEF). CE, CF, and CEF rats were treated orally with enalapril maleate, folic acid, or enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets, respectively, for 5 days. CIN was induced in all groups followed by analyzed biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers, endothelial dysfunction parameters, renal histopathology, and TUNEL staining. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde levels were lower in the CEF group than in the C group. Homocysteine, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and nitric oxide levels were higher in the CEF group than in the C group. Histopathology scores and percentage of apoptotic kidney cells in the CEF group were significantly decreased compared with those in the C group. These results suggest that enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets have a protective effect against CIN in diabetic rats.

  8. The Protective Effects of Enalapril Maleate and Folic Acid Tablets against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantong Hou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal vasoconstriction, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and apoptosis are the major causes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets on CIN in diabetic rats. Methods. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: CIN (C, CIN + enalapril maleate (CE, CIN + folic acid (CF, and CIN + enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets (CEF. CE, CF, and CEF rats were treated orally with enalapril maleate, folic acid, or enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets, respectively, for 5 days. CIN was induced in all groups followed by analyzed biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers, endothelial dysfunction parameters, renal histopathology, and TUNEL staining. Results. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and malondialdehyde levels were lower in the CEF group than in the C group. Homocysteine, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and nitric oxide levels were higher in the CEF group than in the C group. Histopathology scores and percentage of apoptotic kidney cells in the CEF group were significantly decreased compared with those in the C group. Conclusions. These results suggest that enalapril maleate and folic acid tablets have a protective effect against CIN in diabetic rats.

  9. Maternal folic acid-deficient diet causes congenital malformations in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-de-las-Casas, Carmen; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Maldonado, Estela; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    The eye is a very complex structure derived from the neural tube, surface ectoderm, and migratory mesenchyme from a neural crest origin. Because structures that evolve from the neural tube may be affected by a folate/folic acid (FA) deficiency, the aim of this work was to investigate whether a maternal folic acid-deficient diet may cause developmental alterations in the mouse eye. Female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) were assigned into two different folic acid groups for periods ranging between 2 and 16 weeks. Animals were killed at gestation day 17. Hepatic folate was analyzed, and the eyes from 287 fetuses were macroscopically studied, sectioned and immunolabeled with anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and anti-TGF-βRII. Mice exposed to a FA-deficient diet exhibited numerous eye macroscopic anomalies, such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Microscopically, the eye was the most affected organ (43.7% of the fetuses). The highest incidence of malformations occurred from the 8th week onward. A statistically significant linear association between the number of maternal weeks on the FA-deficient diet and embryonic microscopic eye malformations was observed. The optic cup derivatives and structures forming the eye anterior segment showed severe abnormalities. In addition, TGF-β2 and TGF-βRII expression in the eye was also altered. This study suggests that an adequate folic acid/folate status plays a key role in the formation of ocular tissues and structures, whereas a vitamin deficiency is negatively associated with a normal eye development even after a short-term exposure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Folic Acid. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of folic acid in corn masa flour. We are taking this action in response to a food additive petition filed jointly by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza.

  11. Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Consumption of adequate amounts of folic acid by women before pregnancy and during early pregnancy decreases their risk for having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), the most common preventable type of birth defects worldwide. Consumption of iron ameliorates iron deficiency, the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, affecting approximately 2 billion persons. Although certain populations consume substantial amounts of rice and corn, worldwide, the consumption of wheat flour is greater than that of any other cereal grain. Fortification of wheat flour is an effective, simple, and inexpensive strategy for supplying folic acid, iron, and other vitamins and minerals to large segments of the world population. To assess the global change from 2004 to 2007 in 1) the percentage of wheat flour being fortified with folic acid and iron; 2) the total number of persons overall and women in particular with access to fortified wheat flour; and 3) the total number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated that the worldwide percentage of wheat-flour fortification increased from 18% in 2004 to 27% in 2007. The estimated number of persons with access to fortified wheat flour increased by approximately 540 million, and the annual number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy increased by approximately 14 million. Nonetheless, approximately two thirds of the world population lacks access to fortified wheat flour. Programs should continue to expand coverage of wheat-flour fortification as a strategy to increase folic acid and iron consumption.

  12. Effects of folic acid plus levothyroxine on serum homocysteine level in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, Amir; Hajibagher Tehrani, Nader; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Kazemifar, Amir; Javadi, Amir; Karimzadeh, Toktam

    2012-01-01

    Rise in serum homocysteine level may be associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine can partly diminish serum homocysteine level. Folic acid participates in homocysteine metabolic cycle in the human body. The effect of concomitant administration of folic acid and levothyroxine on serum homocysteine level was evaluated in the present study. Sixty patients with hypothyroidism participated in this double-blinded clinical trial study. They were divided into two equal groups; Group A received oral levothyroxine 50-100 µg daily. Group B took oral folic acid 1 mg on a daily basis in addition to levothyroxine with similar schedule to group A. The patients were followed up for two months. The serum homocysteine levels of these two groups were measured before and after the study. This study was registered in Iranian Registry of clinical trial (IRCT number: 201112077723N1). Mean serum homocysteine level fell from 11.5±4.2 to 9.9±3.5 µmol/lit and from 11.2±3.1 to 6.9±1.9 µmol/lit in group A and B, respectively (p<0.001). The mean reduction in serum homocysteine levels were 1.6±1.2 µmol/lit and 4.3±1.4 µmol/lit in group A and B, respectively (p<0.001). Levothyroxine can decrease serum homocysteine level partly; still its combination with folic acid empowers the effect. Combination therapy declines serum homocysteine level more successfully.

  13. Establishment of a Simple and Convenient Method for Folic Acid Enzyme Chemiluminescence Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zeng, Ling; Yu, Zhengwei; Yang, Yanfei; Qu, Yunhuan

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme chemiluminescence new immunoassay for folic acid (FA) was established by competition model. Add FA samples to a microtiter plate precoated with the goat anti-mouse IgG firstly, then add enzyme abled FA and FA monoclonal antibody (McAb). The values of CLIA were measured to reflect the quantity of FA. The limit of detection(LOD) of assay is 0.37ng/mL. The assay shows good correlation during 1∼30 ng/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9976. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation are 4.8 % ∼ 7.3 % and 6.1 % ∼ 12.2 %, respectively. The recovery of folic acid in serum is 90.4 %∼113.2 %. Compared with determine value clinically in chemiluminescence immunoassay kit from Roche company, the correlative equation is y = 0.9689x + 0.0228, and correlation coefficient is 0.9780. Various components and kit overall show good stabilities. This method is simple and convenient, and has low LOD value. The method has overcome the shortcomings of the present references. It is easy to apply and has broad clinical application prospect. It lays an experimental foundation for the preparation of Mc Ab against folic acid and the development of domestic kit.

  14. Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sâmya Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Souza, Ariani Impieri de; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births). Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004) and after (2005-2006) the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three-month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008) was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.

  15. Folic acid supplementation in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Folic acid (FA) may have a role in the prevention of pregnancy complications. However, the efficacy of FA supplementation in reducing the risk of preterm birth (PTB) is still unclear. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth (PTB). The research protocol was designed a priori, defining methods for searching the literature in electronic databases, including and examining articles, and extracting and analyzing data. We included all randomized trials (RCTs) of asymptomatic singleton gestations without prior PTB who were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either FA supplementation or control (placebo or no treatment). The primary outcome was the incidence of PTB supplementation had a similar rate of PTB birth weight (mean difference 85.58g, 95% CI -55.17-226.34), low birth weight (21.0% vs 15.1%; RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.28) and perinatal death (2.9% vs 2.4%; RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.60-1.34). In summary, FA supplementation during pregnancy does not prevent PTB supplementation remains the most important intervention to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Association between periconceptional folic acid supplementation and small for gestational age birth based on pre-pregnancy body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L L; Shen, J X; Ru, S H; Wang, Y; Li, M; Feng, Y L; Zhang, P; Wu, W W; Wang, S P; Zhang, Y W; Yang, H L

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between periconceptional folic acid supplementation and small for gestational age (SGA) birth based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and provide evidence for the development of comprehensive prevention programs on SGA birth. Methods: Between March, 2012 and September, 2016, a total of 8 523 pregnant women delivering in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shanxi Medical University were surveyed to collect the information about their demographic characteristics, folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy and about their infants. Among their infants, 1 066 were small for gestational age (case group), 7 457 were appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (control group). Unconditional logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between periconceptional folic acid supplementation and SGA birth in the context of different pre-pregnancy BMI. Results: The overall incidence of SGA birth was 12.51 % (1 066/8 523). After adjusting the confounding factors, pre-pregnancy BMIbirth ( OR =1.22, 95 %CI : 1.01-1.47), pre-pregnancy BMI≥24.0 kg/m(2) was associated with a reduced risk of SGA birth ( OR =0.81, 95 %CI :0.68-0.97). After adjusting confounding factors, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was a protective factor for SGA birth ( OR =0.82, 95 %CI : 0.68-0.98). After stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was associated with the reduced risk of SGA birth in overweight group (24.0 kg/m(2)≤BMIsupplement type, periconceptional single folic acid supplementation (400 μg per tablet) was a protective factor for SGA birth ( OR =0.82, 95 %CI : 0.69-0.99). After stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, periconceptional single folic acid supplementation (400 μg per tablet) was associated with the reduced risk of SGA birth in overweight groups ( OR =0.56, 95 %CI : 0.36-0.86). No association was observed between periconceptional folic acid containing multivitamin

  17. Interaction between MTHFR 677C>T and periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the risk of Hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Elisabeth M J; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Wijers, Charlotte H W; Groothuismink, Johanne M; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Feitz, Wout F J; Roeleveld, Nel; van der Zanden, Loes F M

    2016-04-01

    Hypospadias is a congenital malformation with both environmental factors and genetic predisposition involved in the pathogenesis. The role of maternal periconceptional folic acid supplement use in the development of hypospadias is unclear. As folate levels may also be influenced by the C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, we hypothesize that a gene-environment interaction between this polymorphism and folic acid use is involved in the etiology of hypospadias. We conducted a case-control study among 855 hypospadias cases and 713 population-based controls from the AGORA data- and biobank. Folic acid supplement use was derived from maternal questionnaires and infant and maternal DNA was used to determine the MTHFR C677T polymorphism using Taqman assays. We performed separate analyses for different hypospadias phenotypes (anterior/middle/posterior). Hypospadias was neither associated with folic acid use or the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, nor with their interaction. However, we did find an association with middle hypospadias when no supplements were used (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.4), especially in infants carrying the CT/TT genotype (odds ratio = 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.7). In addition, more infants with these genotypes seemed to have posterior hypospadias, regardless of folic acid use. Our study does not suggest a major role for folic acid supplements or the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in the etiology of hypospadias in general, but not using folic acid and/or carrying the MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be associated with middle and posterior hypospadias. Therefore, we stress the importance of studying gene-environment interactions preferably in stratified analyses for different hypospadias phenotypes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Self-organized nanoparticles based on chitosan-folic acid and dextran succinate-doxorubicin conjugates for drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Dong; Choi, Seon-Hee; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Hye-Young; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2014-12-01

    Folic acid-decorated self-organized nanoparticles were fabricated to target folate receptor of cancer cells. Doxorubicin (DOX) was conjugated with carboxyl group of dextran backbone using succinic anhydride (DexSU-DOX). DOX-loaded self-organized nanoparticles were prepared by complexation with folic acid-grafted chitosan (ChitoFA) and DexSU-DOX. Nanoparticles in the aqueous environment have spherical shapes with average size less than 100 nm and their sizes were increased by coated with ChitoPEG or ChitoFA. At cell culture study with KB cells, ChitoFA coated nanoparticles (FADex NP) revealed folate-receptor mediated endocytosis to cancer cells and cell viability was significantly changed by folate receptor targeting. Tumor xenograft model of KB cells also showed similar results, i.e. FAdex NP efficiently inhibited growth of tumor compared to the treatment group with blocking of folate receptor. These results indicated that DOX-loaded nanoparticles of FADex NP are promising vehicle for anticancer drug targeting.

  19. Evaluation of folic acid release from spray dried powder particles of pectin-whey protein nano-capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya

    2017-02-01

    Our main goal was to evaluate release kinetics of nano-encapsulated folic acid within a double W 1 /O/W 2 emulsion. First, W 1 /O nano-emulsions loaded with folic acid were prepared and re-emulsified into an aqueous phase (W 2 ) containing single whey protein concentrate (WPC) layer or double layer complex of WPC-pectin to form W 1 /O/W 2 emulsions. Final double emulsions were spray dried and their microstructure was analyzed in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also the release trends of folic acid were determined and fitted with experimental models of zero and first order, Higuchi, and Hixson-Crowell. It was revealed that folic acid nano-capsules made with Span as the surfactant had the lowest release rate in acidic conditions (pH=4) and highest release in the alkaline conditions (pH=11). The best model fitting for folic acid release data was observed for single layer WPC encapsulated powders with the highest R 2 . Our FTIR data showed there was no chemical interaction between WPC and pectin in double layered capsules and based on SEM results, single WPC layered capsules resulted in smooth and uniform particles which by incorporating pectin, some wrinkles and shrinkage were found in the surface of spray dried powder particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge and use of folic acid among college women: a pilot health promotion program led by pharmacy students and faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bethany L; Dipietro, Natalie A; Kier, Karen L

    2010-10-01

    As pharmacists and pharmacy students are increasingly called upon to assume roles in public health activities, it is important to recognize unique opportunities to educate community members on health, wellness, and disease prevention. To evaluate the impact of a pilot health promotion program on college women's knowledge regarding folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects (NTD) and frequency of multivitamin use. A health promotion program was developed by a pharmacy student and two pharmacy faculty members that included an oral presentation and reminder messages. A multiple-choice test assessing knowledge of folic acid and NTD and frequency of multivitamin use was given to participants before and immediately after the presentation. Participants then received a reminder message regarding folic acid once a week for three weeks. Knowledge and multivitamin use were reassessed four weeks post-intervention. Thirty-two college women voluntarily attended the oral presentation. Twenty-five women (78.2%) completed the four-week post-test. Compared to the pre-test, there were statistically significant increases in average test score (pfolic acid and NTD (pknowledge about folic acid and frequency of multivitamin use. A similarly-modeled health promotion program may be an effective way of increasing folic acid and NTD knowledge and changing behaviors of multivitamin use in college women.

  1. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. Methods A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Results Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian

  2. Periconceptional bread intakes indicate New Zealand's proposed mandatory folic acid fortification program may be outdated: results from a postpartum survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Gray, Andrew R; Houghton, Lisa A

    2012-02-14

    In September 2009, a folic acid fortification mandate (135 μg/100 g bread) was to be implemented in New Zealand. However, due to political and manufacturer objection, fortification was deferred until May 2012. Based on estimates of bread consumption derived from a 1997 nationally representative survey, this program was intended to deliver a mean additional intake of 140 μg folic acid/d to women of childbearing age. Little is known about current bread consumption patterns in this target group. The aim of this study was to assess bread consumption among women prior to and during pregnancy with the intent to estimate periconceptional folic acid intakes that would be derived from bread if mandatory fortification were implemented as currently proposed. A retrospective survey of 723 postpartum women in hospitals and birthing centres across New Zealand was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire on bread intake prior to and during pregnancy and maternal socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. Median bread intake before conception (2 slices/d) was below that of previous data upon which the current fortification proposal was modeled (3-4 slices/d). If mandatory fortification is implemented as proposed, only 31% (95% CI = 24%-37%) of childbearing-age women would attain an additional folic acid intake of ≥ 140 μg/d, with a mean of 119 μg/d (95% CI = 107 μg/d-130 μg/d). Based on these data, a fortification level of 160 μg/100 g bread is required to achieve the targeted mean of 140 μg folic acid/d. Nonetheless, under the current proposal additional folic acid intakes would be greatest among the least advantaged segments of the target population: Pacific and indigenous Māori ethnic groups; those with increased parity, lower income and education; younger and single mothers; and women with unplanned pregnancies. Subgroups predicted to derive less than adequate folic acid intakes from the proposed policy were women of Asian descent and those with a

  3. Fluorescence Probe Based on an Amino-Functionalized Fluorescent Magnetic Nanocomposite for Detection of Folic Acid in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowan; Chen, Ligang

    2016-11-23

    A new fluorescence probe constructed with a multifunctional nanocomposite, Fe 3 O 4 -ZnS:Mn 2+ /SiO 2 -NH 2 , was successfully synthesized and then used to detect folic acid in real serum samples. The nanocomposite was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and physical property measurement system. With the addition of analyte, the Fe 3 O 4 -ZnS:Mn 2+ /SiO 2 -NH 2 composite and folic acid formed a new complex because cross-linking of the amino and carboxyl groups participated in the condensation reaction. Then, the energy of quantum dots was transferred to the complex and led to quenching of the fluorescence. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity decreased significantly as the concentration of folic acid increased, and the fluorescence quenching ratio F 0 /F was related to the folic acid concentration in the range from 0.1 to 5 μg mL -1 . This method was used for detecting folic acid in real serum samples and gave recoveries in the range of 89.0%-96.0%, with relative standard deviations of 1.2%-3.9%. The detection limit was 9.6 ng mL -1 (S/N = 3). These satisfactory and simple results showed the great potential of this fluorescence probe in the field of pharmaceutical analysis.

  4. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  5. Synthesis of highly stable folic acid conjugated magnetite nanoparticles for targeting cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, S [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Mallick, S K [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Maiti, T K [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Ghosh, S K [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Pramanik, P [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2007-09-26

    A new approach towards the design of folic acid conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for enhancing their site specific intracellular uptake against a folate receptor overexpressing cancer cells is reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation from an Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} solution followed by surface modification with 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid to form carboxyl group terminated nanoparticles. Then folic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were conjugated with carboxylic acid functionalized magnetite nanoparticles using 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)-bis-ethylamine. These folate-conjugated nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their size by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface functional groups and surface composition were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements showed the superparamagnetic nature of the particles at room temperature. Folate-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles are noncytotoxic and receptor mediated internalization by HeLa and B16 melanoma F0 cancer cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.

  6. Synthesis of highly stable folic acid conjugated magnetite nanoparticles for targeting cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, S; Mallick, S K; Maiti, T K; Ghosh, S K; Pramanik, P

    2007-01-01

    A new approach towards the design of folic acid conjugated magnetic nanoparticles for enhancing their site specific intracellular uptake against a folate receptor overexpressing cancer cells is reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation from an Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ solution followed by surface modification with 2-carboxyethyl phosphonic acid to form carboxyl group terminated nanoparticles. Then folic acid and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were conjugated with carboxylic acid functionalized magnetite nanoparticles using 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)-bis-ethylamine. These folate-conjugated nanoparticles were characterized in terms of their size by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Surface functional groups and surface composition were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Vibration sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements showed the superparamagnetic nature of the particles at room temperature. Folate-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles are noncytotoxic and receptor mediated internalization by HeLa and B16 melanoma F0 cancer cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy

  7. Maternal and postweaning folic acid supplementation interact to influence body weight, insulin resistance, and food intake regulatory gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Pedro S P; Ly, Anna; Szeto, Ignatius M Y; Reza-López, Sandra A; Cho, Daniel; Kim, Young-In; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-04-01

    Maternal intake of multivitamins or folic acid above the basal dietary requirement alters the growth and metabolic trajectory of rat offspring. We hypothesized that a modest increase in the folic acid content of maternal diets would alter the offspring's metabolic phenotype, and that these effects could be corrected by matching the folic acid content of the offspring's diet with that of the maternal diet. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a control or a 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet prior to mating and during pregnancy and lactation. At weaning, pups from each maternal diet group were randomized to the control or to the 2.5× folic acid-supplemented diet for 25 weeks. Male pups from dams fed the folic acid-supplemented diet were 3.7% heavier than those from control-fed dams and had lower mRNA expression for leptin receptor Obrb isoform (Lepr) (11%) and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) (14%). In contrast, female pups from folic acid-supplemented dams were 5% lighter than those from control-fed dams and had lower proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) (42%), Lepr (32%), and Agrp (13%), but higher neuropeptide Y (Npy) (18%) mRNA expression. Folic acid supplementation ameliorated the alterations induced by maternal folic acid supplementation in male pups and led to the lowest insulin resistance, but the effects were smaller in female pups and led to the highest insulin resistance. In conclusion, maternal folic acid supplementation at 2.5× the control level was associated with alterations in body weight and hypothalamic gene expression in rat offspring in a sex-specific manner, and some of these effects were attenuated by postweaning folic acid supplementation.

  8. Management of women with PCOS using myo-inositol and folic acid. New clinical data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Pedro-Antonio; Schindler, Adolf Eduard; Lesoine, Bernd; Druckman, Rene

    2018-03-02

    Introduction The use of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, PCOS is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Typically, PCOS patients suffer of poor quality oocytes. Patients and methods In an open, prospective, non-blinded, non-comparative observational study, 3602 infertile women used myo-inositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day. In a subgroup of 32 patients, hormonal values for testosterone, free testosterone and progesterone were analyzed before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean time of use was 10.2 weeks. In the second part of this trial it was investigated if the combination of myo-inositol + folic acid was able to improve the oocyte quality, the ratio between follicles and retrieved oocytes, the fertilization rate and the embryo quality in PCOS patients undergoing IVF treatments. Twenty-nine patients with PCOS, underwent IVF protocols for infertility treatment and were randomized prospectively into two groups. Group A (placebo) with 15 patients and group B (4000 mg myo-inositol +400 μg folic acid per day) with 14 patients were evaluated. The patients of group B used 2 months' myo-inositol + folic acid before starting the IVF protocol. For statistically analyses Student's t-test was performed. Results Seventy percent of the women had a restored ovulation, and 545 pregnancies were observed. This means a pregnancy rate of 15.1% of all the myo-inositol and folic acid users. In 19 cases a concomitant medication with clomiphene or dexamethasone was used. One twin pregnancy was documented. Testosterone levels changed from 96.6 ng/mL to 43.3 ng/mL and progesterone from 2.1 ng/mL to 12.3 ng/mL in the mean after 12 weeks of treatment (p

  9. Consumer preferences for micronutrient strategies in China. A comparison between folic acid supplementation and folate biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Feng, Shuyi; Xiaoping, Shi; Gellynck, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health efforts, folate deficiency is still largely prevalent in poor, rural populations and continues to cause a large burden of disease. The present paper determines and compares consumer preferences for two folate strategies: folic acid supplementation v. folate biofortification, i.e. the enhancement of the folate content in staple crops. Experimental auctions with non-repeated information rounds are applied to rice in order to obtain willingness-to-pay for folate products. Thereby, GM or non-GM folate-biofortified rice (FBR) is auctioned together with rice that is supplemented with free folic acid pills (FAR). Shanxi Province (China) as a high-risk region of folate deficiency. One hundred and twenty-six women of childbearing age, divided into a school (n 60) and market sample (n 66). Despite differences according to the targeted sample, a general preference for folate biofortification is observed, regardless of the applied breeding technology. Premiums vary between 33·9 % (GM FBR), 36·5 % (non-GM FBR) and 19·0 % (FAR). Zero bidding behaviour as well as the product choice question, respectively, support and validate these findings. The targeted sample, the timing of the auction, the intention to consume GM food and the responsibility for rice purchases are considered key determinants of product choice. A novel ex-post negative valuation procedure shows low consistency in zero bidding. While the low attractiveness of FAR provides an additional argument for the limited effectiveness of past folic acid supplementation programmes, the positive reactions towards GM FBR further support its potential as a possible complementary micronutrient intervention.

  10. Multivitamin, calcium and folic acid supplements and the risk of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Rowena; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Buchanan, Daniel D; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Winship, Ingrid M; Young, Joanne P; Giles, Graham G; Macrae, Finlay A; Boussioutas, Alex; Parry, Susan; Figueiredo, Jane C; Levine, A Joan; Ahnen, Dennis J; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loïc; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Baron, John A; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: People with a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a substantially elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) but the modifiers of this risk are not well established. We investigated the association between dietary supplement intake and CRC risk for carriers. Methods: This study included 1966 (56% female) carriers of an MMR gene mutation (719 MLH1 , 931 MSH2 , 211 MSH6 and 105 PMS2 ) who were recruited from the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand into the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1997 and 2012. Information on lifestyle factors including supplement intake was collected at the time of recruitment. Using Cox proportional hazards regression weighted to correct for ascertainment bias, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between self-reported multivitamin, calcium and folic acid supplement intake and CRC risk. Results: Of 744 carriers with CRC, 18%, 6% and 5% reported intake of multivitamin, calcium and folic acid supplements for at least 1 month, respectively, compared with 27%, 11% and 10% of 1222 carriers without CRC. After adjusting for identified confounding variables, a decreased CRC risk was associated with multivitam inintake for at least 3 years (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.32–0.69) and calcium intake for at least 3 years(HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.74), compared with never users. There was no evidence of an association between folic acid supplement intake and CRC risk ( P = 0.82). Conclusion: Intake of multivitamin and calcium supplements might be associated with a decreased risk of CRC for MMR gene mutation carriers. PMID:27063605

  11. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ET and serum folic acid, vitamin B12 levels in patients with alzheimer diseases (AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongchao; Wang Jun; Jiang Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma endothelin(ET) and folic acid and Vitamin B 12 (VitB 12 ) levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases. Methods: Plasma levels of ET was determined with RIA and serum levels of Folic acid. VitaminB 12 were measured by automated chemiluminescence system in 41 patients with Alzheimer disease and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 12 levels were significantly lower (P 12 levels were mutually negatively correlated (r=-0.6018, -0.7124, P 12 levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment efficacy in patients with Alzheimer disease. (authors)

  12. A Turkish 3-center study evaluation of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray; Yilmaz, Gökhan; Erbayraktar, Zübeyde; Evlice, Ahmet Turan; Aras, Sevgi; Yener, Görsev; Avci, Aslihan

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease, a common proteopathy of advanced age, is characterized by cortical atrophy, neuron degeneration, neuronal loss, and accumulation of extracellular amyloid β plaques. We aimed to investigate serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in Alzheimer disease and other dementia patients, as a potential screening test to detect presymptomatic Alzheimer disease in Turkish patients. We evaluated folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in Alzheimer disease patients as well as in other dementia and geriatric patients from Ankara, Dokuz Eylül, and Çukurova university hospitals; 290 female and male geriatric subjects were enrolled. Vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured using Roche E170 and Beckman Coulter DXI 800 immunoassays (chemiluminescence) according to the manufacturers' guideline in all centers. We evaluated the results of folic acid and vitamin B12 in Alzheimer disease, other dementias and geriatric patients. No significant difference between the groups regarding the routine control of biochemical parameters was observed. Currently, serum folic and vitamin B12 levels are not diagnostically reliable tests for screening presymptomatic Alzheimer disease. However, the results may statistically be significant if we increase the sample size.

  13. Tongue Abnormalities Are Associated to a Maternal Folic Acid Deficient Diet in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Maldonado; Yamila López-Gordillo; Teresa Partearroyo; Gregorio Varela-Moreiras; Concepción Martínez-Álvarez; Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that maternal folic acid (FA) deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for abnormal development. The tongue, with multiple genes working together in a coordinated cascade in time and place, has emerged as a target organ for testing the effect of FA during development. A FA-deficient (FAD) diet was administered to eight-week-old C57/BL/6J mouse females for 2–16 weeks. Pregnant dams were sacrificed at gestational day 17 (E17). The tongues and heads of 15 control and 21...

  14. Trends of selected malformations in relation to folic acid recommendations and fortification: an international assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Botto, Lorenzo D

    2006-10-01

    Two crucial issues relative to the benefits and impact of folic acid in the prevention of birth defects are whether supplementation recommendations alone, without fortification, are effective in reducing the population-wide rates of neural tube defects (NTDs), and whether such policies can reduce the occurrence of other birth defects. Using data from 15 registries, we assessed rates and trends of 14 major defects, including NTDs, in areas with official recommendations or fortification to assess the effectiveness of recommendations and fortification on a wide range of major birth defects.

  15. [Folic acid supplementation as prophylaxis of neural tube defect in the Lower Silesia region: fact or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagłaj, Maciej; Wojtyłko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of nationwide programme of prophylaxis of neural tube defects in the Lower Silesia region. A questionnaire study was conducted among all mothers of infants admitted between 2001 and 2010 to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Urology in Wroclaw Medical Academy. The data regarding pregnancy and delivery, newborn's medical condition, family history, parental health, profession and education, and finally folic acid supplementation by mothers were analysed. Among 1278 newborn infants, in 148 children (11.6%) central nervous system (CNS) defects were diagnosed. Among 894 mothers (69.9%) who took part in the study, 159 of them (17.8%) confirmed taking folic acid before becoming pregnant. The rate of supplementation with folic acid showed a rising trend in the study period and increased from 7.1% in 2001 to 35.8% in 2010. Folic acid was taken more frequently by the women living in urban areas (24.2%) than by those living in rural regions (9.2%). With regard to the educational level, the highest rate of supplementation with folic acid was noted among the women with high education (37.8%). Forty-eight percent of mothers were informed about prevention of neural tube defects by their physician, while in 32% of them the family or media were the source of information. Mothers of 255 infants confirmed that they knew about prevention of congenital defects by vitamin intake, but they had not taken folic acid before pregnancy. 1. Realization of the programme of prevention of neural tube defects in Lower Silesia region is highly unsatisfactory. 2. The actions undertaken on the national and local level and aimed to popularize the knowledge about prevention of CNS defects among women are assessed to be ineffective in the Lower Silesia region and need urgent verification.

  16. Knowledge and use of folic acid among college women: a pilot health promotion program led by pharmacy students and faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy BL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As pharmacists and pharmacy students are increasingly called upon to assume roles in public health activities, it is important to recognize unique opportunities to educate community members on health, wellness, and disease prevention. Objective: To evaluate the impact of a pilot health promotion program on college women’s knowledge regarding folic acid and prevention of neural tube defects (NTD and frequency of multivitamin use. Methods: A health promotion program was developed by a pharmacy student and two pharmacy faculty members that included an oral presentation and reminder messages. A multiple-choice test assessing knowledge of folic acid and NTD and frequency of multivitamin use was given to participants before and immediately after the presentation. Participants then received a reminder message regarding folic acid once a week for three weeks. Knowledge and multivitamin use were re-assessed four weeks post-intervention. Results: Thirty-two college women voluntarily attended the oral presentation. Twenty-five women (78.2% completed the four-week post-test. Compared to the pre-test, there were statistically significant increases in average test score (p<0.0001 and correct responses to questions regarding folic acid and NTD (p<0.05 for each question. Participants reported a statistically significant increase in regular (≥4 times/week multivitamin use (p=0.023. Conclusion: Participants in the pilot health promotion program demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge about folic acid and frequency of multivitamin use. A similarly-modeled health promotion program may be an effective way of increasing folic acid and NTD knowledge and changing behaviors of multivitamin use in college women.

  17. Bread cofortified with folic acid and vitamin B-12 improves the folate and vitamin B-12 status of healthy older people: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Brouwer, I.A.; Clarke, R.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has reduced the number of neural tube defects in North America. Concerns that high intakes of folic acid might mask vitamin B-12 deficiency in older persons have delayed the introduction of fortification in many European countries.

  18. Knowledge among young people about folic acid and its importance during pregnancy: a survey in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötzsch, Simone; Hoyer-Schuschke, Jana; Seelig, Manuela; Steinbicker, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation is recommended to prevent congenital malformations, mainly neural tube defects, but only 7% of pregnant women in Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) take folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception and in the first 3 months of pregnancy. From March to June 2004, we sent standardized questionnaires about folic acid and its importance during pregnancy to 33 schools in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt. A total of 4332 young people aged 1521 years completed the questionnaire, of which 2632 were girls (61%) and 1685 were boys (39%). The majority of them (61%) had heard about folic acid, but only 5% knew that it is a vitamin and 0.7% were aware of the physiological functions of folic acid. Only 22% of the young people answered that folic acid should be taken before and during pregnancy, whereas almost all respondents knew other precautions during pregnancy, e.g. "no smoking" and "no alcohol". Our survey shows that the level of awareness of the importance of folic acid at schools is very low. We suggest that the problem of folic acid should be included in the curricula of biology classes at schools to spread the knowledge of this subject among young people.

  19. Factors associated with intention of Israeli-born women and immigrant women from the Former Soviet Union to take folic acid before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Brandin Rimkus, Alina; Tseytlin Eryomine, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy decreases rates of neural tube defects. However, many women fail to adhere to folic acid supplementation recommendations. This study explored factors associated with women's intention to take folic acid before and during pregnancy, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, with an emphasis on differences between Israeli-born women and immigrant women from the Former Soviet Union. In this cross-sectional study, 100 Israeli born-women and 100 women from the Former Soviet Union of childbearing age completed a questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The findings indicated a significant difference in the rates at which Israeli-born and FSU-born women took folic acid before and during pregnancy, as well as a significant difference in their intention to take folic acid supplementation in future pregnancies. The theoretical model explained 88.7% of variance in women's intention to take folic acid, with the most influential variable being behavioural attitudes towards taking folic acid. The study emphasizes the need to increase knowledge and change attitudes and beliefs about folic acid supplementation among women and their significant others, as well as the importance of cultural, language, and economic barriers when treating Former Soviet Union immigrant populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. STUDY OF MILLING PROCESS AND ITS EFFECT ON VITAMIN B1 AND FOLIC ACID CONTENTS ON LOWLAND RICE PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Dewi Indrasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is an important source of vitamin B1 and folic acid, but cultivated rice cultivars contain low of these nutrient. Breeding program had been conducted and several advanced lines with a high vitamin B and folic acid contents were found. This research aimed to study the contents of vitamin B1 and folic acid in the brown rice and milled rice of fifteen promising lowland rice lines. Dried paddy (14% moisture content were husked in the mini husker (Satake THU 35A to obtain brown rice and milled rice by using abrasive-type mini polisher (Satake TM-05, 1,450 RPM for 2 minutes. Vitamin B1 and folic acid in the brown rice and milled rice were determined by using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector for vitamin B1 and UV detector for folic acid. Four out of fifteen rice lines studied showed a unique characteristic of vitamin B1 content in the brown rice and milled rice. Rice lines which have highest vitamin B1 in the brown rice were B10267-4-PN-6-2-3-2-2-2-3-3-2 (3.03 mg 100 g-1, B10876H-MR-2 (2.13 mg 100 g-1, B10531E-KN-1-2-PN-1-4-2 (1.33 mg 100 g-1 and B12411E-RS*-1-2-1 (1.21 mg 100 g-1. However after milling, 43-92% of their vitamin B1 were lost; the least loss was observed in B12411E-RS*-1-2-1 (1.21 mg 100 g-1 which was only  4%. Three out of fifteen rice lines studied has highest folic acid in brown rice, i.e. BP400G-PN-12-3-6 (158.5 µg 100 g-1, B10876H-MR-2 (152.0 µg 100 g-1, and B11742-RS*-2-3-MR-5-5-1-Si-1-3 (100.0 µg 100 g-1. After milling the line B10876H-MR-2 had the highest folic acid content (52.0 µg 100 g-1, much higher than that of Ciherang variety as a control. This study indicates the importance of having a suitable milling instrument to minimize loss of vitamin B1 and folic acid. The study also suggests the importance of creating new rice cultivars that have high nutrient and resistant to milling process.

  1. Effects of gamma-radiation on some components of food and agricultural products (pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlehtseanu, I.

    1974-01-01

    the effects of gamma radiation on individual components of food and agricultural products (Pyridoxine, folic acid, methionine) were investigated. Some of the studies have provided support for the hypothesis that the structural changes occurring in separately irradiated components of a foodstuff are greater than those taking place in the same components when present in the foodstuff. Results of irradiating pyridoxine and pyridoxal in an aqueous medium; of folic acid in aqueous solutions and in solid state; and of methionine in aqueous solutions and solid state, are given. (E.T.)

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  3. Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities by folic acid and multivitamins: history, missed opportunity and tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártfai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    The history of intervention trials of periconception folic acid with multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in women has shown a recent breakthrough in the primary prevention of structural birth defects, namely neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities. Recently, some studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this new method in reducing congenital abnormalities with specific origin; for example, in the offspring of diabetic and epileptic mothers, and in pregnancy with high fever. The benefits and drawbacks of four possible uses of periconception folate/folic acid and multivitamin supplementation are discussed: we believe there has been a missed opportunity to implement this preventive approach in medical practice. The four methods are as follows: (i) dietary intake of folate and other vitamins, (ii) periconception folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, (iii) food fortification with folic acid, and (iv) the combination of oral contraceptives with 6S-5-methytetrahydrofolate (‘folate’). PMID:25083211

  4. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerard, Valerie A

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  5. Ordering folate assays is no longer justified for investigation of anemias, in folic acid fortified countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Kuster Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, in the countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency has become very rare. Consequently, we decided to find out whether there is any justification for ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias. Methods We reviewed serum folate (SF and red cell folate (RF data at two teaching hospitals in Canada. At the Health Sciences Centre (HSC the folate data for the year 2001 were analyzed and the medical records of those with low SF or low RF were reviewed. At St. Boniface General Hospital(SBGHall folate data between January 1996 and Dec 31,2004 were analyzed and the medical records of all who had low RF between January 1,1999 and December 31,2004 were reviewed. Results In 2001, at HSC, 11 out of 2154(0.5%SF were low( Conclusion In countries where there is mandatory fortification of grain products with folic acid, folate deficiency to the degree that could cause anemia is extremely rare. Ordering folate assays for investigation of anemias, in these countries, is waste of time and money. The result of these tests is more likely to mislead the physicians than to provide any useful information.

  6. The Levels of Serum B12, Folic Acid and Homocysteine in the Thromboembolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziban Ucar Karabulut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the levels of serum B12, folic acid, and homocysteine at admission in the cases established at the emergency department with thrombo-embolic diseases and to compare them with healthy subjects and also compare the diagnosis groups with each other.Material and Method: This study included 100 subjects diagnosed at the emergency department between March 2009-May 2009 with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, acute mesenteric embolism, peripheral artery embolism and 110 healthy voluntary subjects were included in the control group. Vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine levels were examined in blood samples obtained at admission. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the patient and control group. Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to compare the patient group, according to diagnosis. p%u2264 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean serum homocysteine and plasma vitamin B12 levels were significantly higher in the patient group than control group (p=0.002, 0.000 respectively. Mean serum B12 values of acute myocardial infarction and Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease groups in the patient group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p

  7. Synthesis and photophysicochemical studies of a water soluble conjugate between folic acid and zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoza, Phindile; Antunes, Edith [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa); Chen, Ji-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown (South Africa)

    2013-02-15

    This work reports on the synthesis of zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine (ZnTAPc) functionalized with folic acid (FA), forming ZnTAPcFA. The conjugate between FA and ZnTAPc was soluble in water whereas ZnTAPc alone is not. The structure of ZnTAPcFA conjugate was elucidated by {sup 1}H NMR, MALDI-TOF mass and FTIR spectra. Photophysical and photochemical studies of ZnTAPcFA were conducted in DMSO. The increase in fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was accompanied by a decrease in the triplet and singlet oxygen quantum yields. The changes in triplet quantum and singlet oxygen quantum yields were marginal when ZnTAPc was simply mixed with FA without a chemical bond. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A conjugate between folic acid and a zinc tetraaminophthalocyanine was formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugate is water soluble even though the phthalocyanine alone is not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluorescence quantum yield of the conjugate was enhanced compared to the phthalocyanine alone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Triplet quantum yields decreased for the conjugate.

  8. FOLIC ACID METABOLISM IN ANTIFOLIC-RESISTANT MUTANTS OF STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, A H; HUTCHISON, D J

    1964-04-01

    Johnson, Alva H. (Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Rye, N.Y.), and Dorris J. Hutchison. Folic acid metabolism in antifolic-resistant mutants of Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 87:786-791. 1964.-Streptococcus faecalis ATCC 8043 and three of its mutants resistant to amethopterin were compared for their quantitative requirements for serine, purines, and thymine; for their quantitative requirements of folic acid (FA) for the synthesis de novo of serine, purines, and thymine; for the susceptibility to amethopterin of each pathway; and for the relative capacity of resting cells of each culture to synthesize N(5)-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-CHOFAH(4)) from FA and serine or FA and formate. The mutants were found to be both qualitatively and quantitatively different from one another and from the wild strain. The growth conditions, specifically the composition of the medium in which each mutant strain was selected, had a marked effect on the metabolic capacities of the mutants. The ability to synthesize serine, purines, and thymine, as observed from the FA requirements, directly reflected the level of resistance of each pathway to amethopterin. The resistant mutants were more efficient than the wild strain in the formation of 5-CHOFAH(4) from FA and formate and, furthermore, this formate activation paralleled their capacities in the synthesis de novo of serine. Alterations in purine and thymine biosyntheses were also observed.

  9. Hybrid molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid-TRIM)-silica chemically modified with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane for the extraction of folic acid in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midori de Oliveira, Fernanda; Gava Segatelli, Mariana [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445 Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR CEP 86051-990 (Brazil); Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira, E-mail: ctarleyquim@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, PR 445 Km 380, Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR CEP 86051-990 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) de Bioanalítica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Instituto de Química, Departamento de Química Analítica, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz s/n, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    In the present study a hybrid molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate)-silica (MIP) was synthesized and modified with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) with posterior opening of epoxy ring to provide hydrophilic properties of material in the extraction of folic acid from aqueous medium. The chemical and structural aggregates of hybrid material were characterized by means of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and textural data. Selectivity data of MIP were compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP) through competitive sorption studies in the presence of caffeine, paracetamol or 4-aminobenzamide yielding relative selectivity coefficients (k′) higher than one unit, thus confirming the selective character of MIP even in the presence of structurally smaller compounds than the folic acid. The lower hydrophobic sorption by bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the MIP as compared to unmodified MIP proves the hydrophilicity of polymer surface by using GPTMS with opening ring. Under acid medium (pH 1.5) the sorption of folic acid onto MIP from batch experiments was higher than the one achieved for NIP. Equilibrium sorption of folic acid was reached at 120 min for MIP, NIP and MIP without GPTMS and kinetic sorption data were well described by pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models. Thus, these results indicate the existence of different binding energy sites in the polymers and a complex mechanism consisting of both surface sorption and intraparticle transport of folic acid within the pores of polymers. - Highlights: • The molecularly imprinted hybrid polymer showed high adsorption capacity for folic acid. • The molecularly imprinted hybrid polymer showed high selectivity for folic acid. • The molecularly imprinted hybrid polymer modified with GPTMS excludes higher amount of BSA.

  10. Methyltetrahydrofolate vs Folic Acid Supplementation in Idiopathic Recurrent Miscarriage with Respect to Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Hekmatdoost

    Full Text Available To determine whether 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF is more effective than folic acid supplementation in treatment of recurrent abortion in different MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms.A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted April 2011-September 2014 in recurrent abortion clinics in Tehran, Iran. The participants were women with three or more idiopathic recurrent abortion, aged 20 to 45 years. Two hundred and twenty eligible women who consented to participate were randomly assigned to receive either folic acid or 5-MTHF according to the stratified blocked randomization by age and the number of previous abortions. Participants took daily 1 mg 5-methylentetrahydrofolate or 1 mg folic acid from at least 8 weeks before conception to the 20th week of the pregnancy. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate at 20th week of pregnancy, and the secondary outcomes were serum folate and homocysteine at the baseline, after 8 weeks, and at the gestational age of 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks, MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms.There was no significant difference in abortion rate between two groups. Serum folate increased significantly in both groups over time; these changes were significantly higher in the group receiving 5-MTHF than the group receiving folic acid (value = 2.39, p<00.1 and the result was the same by considering the time (value = 1.24, p<0.01. Plasma tHcys decreased significantly in both groups over time; however these changes were not significantly different between the groups (value = 0.01, p = 0.47.The results do not support any beneficial effect of 5-MTHF vs. folate supplementation in women with recurrent abortion with any MTHFR C677T and/or A1298C polymorphism.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01976676.

  11. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-07-01

    It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council's Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A combination of omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid and B-group vitamins is superior at lowering homocysteine than omega-3 alone: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha Loren; Bowe, Steven John; Crowe, Timothy Charles

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with folic acid and B-group vitamins is effective in lowering homocysteine. The Medline Ovid, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized-controlled trial studies that intervened with omega-3 supplementation (with or without folic acid) and measured changes in homocysteine concentration. Studies were pooled using a random effects model for meta-analysis. Three different models were analyzed: all trials combined, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid trials, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with folic acid and B-group vitamin trials. Nineteen studies were included, consisting of 3267 participants completing 21 trials. Studies were heterogeneous; varying by dose, duration and participant health conditions. Across all trials, omega-3 supplementation was effective in lowering homocysteine by an average of 1.18μmol/L (95%CI: (-1.89, -0.48), P=.001). The average homocysteine-lowering effect was greater when omega-3 supplementation was combined with folic acid and B-group vitamins (-1.37μmol/L, 95%CI: (-2.38, -0.36), Phomocysteine. For the purposes of reducing homocysteine, a combination of omega-3s (0.2-6g/day), folic acid (150 - 2500μg/day) and vitamins B6 and B12 may be more effective than omega-3 supplementation alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce the risk of autism in the child. Beta-thalassemia. Beta-thalassemia is a disorder of the blood that results ... that carries oxygen in the blood. Patients with beta-thalassemia usually have bone and muscle pain and have ...

  14. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dietary supplements in the United States: 2003–2006 . American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 91(1): 231–237. Hamner, H.C., Cogswell, M.E., Johnson, M.A. (2011). Acculturation factors are associated with folate intakes among Mexican American women . The Journal of Nutrition; 141(10): 1889– ...

  15. Electrocatalytic and simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid at molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Sheikhshoaie, Iran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode have been fabricated. → This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of isoproterenol by about 175 mV. → It resolved the voltammetric waves of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, electrochemical characterization and utilization of a novel modified molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of isoproterenol (IP). The electrochemical profile of the proposed modified electrode was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) that showed a shift of the oxidation peak potential of IP at 175 mV to less positive value, compared with an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 was performed to determine IP in the range from 0.7 to 600.0 μM, with a detection limit of 35.0 nM. Then the modified electrode was used to determine IP in an excess of uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA) by DPV. Finally, this method was used for the determination of IP in some real samples.

  16. Interaction between MTHFR 677C>T and periconceptional folic acid supplementation in the risk of Hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, E.M.J.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Wijers, C.H.; Groothuismink, J.M.; Biezen, J.J. van der; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a congenital malformation with both environmental factors and genetic predisposition involved in the pathogenesis. The role of maternal periconceptional folic acid supplement use in the development of hypospadias is unclear. As folate levels may also be influenced by the

  17. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid at calixarene based chemically modified electrodes and its determination by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaze, Vishwanath D.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2007-01-01

    Voltammetric behavior of folic acid at plain carbon paste electrode and electrode modified with calixarenes has been studied. Two peaks for irreversible oxidation were observed. Out of the three calixarenes chosen for modification of the electrodes, p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene modified electrode (CME-6) was found to have better sensitivity for folic acid. Chronocoulometric and differential pulse voltammetric studies reveal that folic acid can assemble at CME-6 to form a monolayer whose electron transfer rate is 0.00273 s -1 with 2-electron/2-proton transfer for the peak at +0.71 V against SCE. An adsorption equilibrium constant of 5 x 10 3 l/mol for maximum surface coverage of 2.89 x 10 -10 mol/cm 2 was obtained. The current is found to be rectilinear with concentration by differential pulse voltammetry. However, linearity in the lower range of concentration 8.79 x 10 -12 M to 1.93 x 10 -9 M with correlation coefficient of 0.9920 was achieved by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection obtained was found to be 1.24 x 10 -12 M. This method was used for the determination of folic acid in a variety of samples, viz. serum, asparagus, spinach, oranges and multivitamin preparations

  18. Electrochemical behavior of folic acid at calixarene based chemically modified electrodes and its determination by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaze, Vishwanath D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India); Srivastava, Ashwini K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400098 (India)], E-mail: aksrivastava@chem.mu.ac.in

    2007-12-31

    Voltammetric behavior of folic acid at plain carbon paste electrode and electrode modified with calixarenes has been studied. Two peaks for irreversible oxidation were observed. Out of the three calixarenes chosen for modification of the electrodes, p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene modified electrode (CME-6) was found to have better sensitivity for folic acid. Chronocoulometric and differential pulse voltammetric studies reveal that folic acid can assemble at CME-6 to form a monolayer whose electron transfer rate is 0.00273 s{sup -1} with 2-electron/2-proton transfer for the peak at +0.71 V against SCE. An adsorption equilibrium constant of 5 x 10{sup 3} l/mol for maximum surface coverage of 2.89 x 10{sup -10} mol/cm{sup 2} was obtained. The current is found to be rectilinear with concentration by differential pulse voltammetry. However, linearity in the lower range of concentration 8.79 x 10{sup -12} M to 1.93 x 10{sup -9} M with correlation coefficient of 0.9920 was achieved by adsorptive stripping voltammetry. The limit of detection obtained was found to be 1.24 x 10{sup -12} M. This method was used for the determination of folic acid in a variety of samples, viz. serum, asparagus, spinach, oranges and multivitamin preparations.

  19. Non-covalent conjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid for interaction with cells overexpressing folate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Novoa, Leidy V.

    2013-01-01

    We here present amethod to form a noncovalent conjugate of single-walled carbon nanotubes and folic acid aimed to interact with cells over-expressing folate receptors. The bonding was obtained without covalent chemical functionalization using a simple, rapid “one pot” synthesis method. The zeta p...

  20. Intake of folic acid by Polish women with higher education - a survey research: can we do more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowska-Kuncman, Malwina; Zasina-Olaszek, Dorota; Łukasz, Kuncman; Niedźwiecka, Marta; Szaflik, Krzysztof; Maroszyńska, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine efficacy of the Primary Prevention Program of Neural Tube Defects in Polish women with higher education in 5-year interval. Survey research was conducted twice (in 2008 and 2013) in 630 female students of universities: 305 female medical students and 325 female non-medical students. The survey was also done among women aged 27- 35 who graduated from medical or non-medical universities and have at least one child. Questions concerned knowledge about prophylaxis and periconceptional folic acid intake. Chi square test was used to assess the significance. Knowledge concerning prophylaxis was significantly higher in female medical students comparing to non-medical ones, both in 2008 (p folic acid intake. Awareness of female non-medical students was lower (2008 - 35.3% and 2013 - 41.1%) and did not change in the 5-year long period (p = 0.3). There was no significant difference in preconceptional folic acid intake among mothers with medical and non-medical education (53.3% vs. 45% p = 0.4). However, the highest folic acid intake was among mothers -medical doctors who treat children with neural tube defect. Difference between medical and non-medical students shows that better educational programs may improve knowledge about prophylaxis. Aside from knowledge, compliance with recommendations of Primary Prevention Program of Neural Tube Defects is unsatisfactory.

  1. Increasing awareness of and behaviour towards periconceptional folic acid consumption in The Netherlands from 1994 to 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W. de; Walle, H.E.K. de; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Buitendijk, S.E.; Cornel, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: In November 1993, Dutch health authorities advised that women planning a pregnancy should take folic acid in the periconceptional period to reduce the risk of fetal neural tube defects. In the autumn of 1995 a national campaign was organized to inform women and health care professionals

  2. International retrospective cohort study of neural tube defects in relation to folic acid recommendations : are the recommendations working?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botto, LD; Lisi, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Erickson, JD; Vollset, SE; Mastroiacovo, P; Botting, B; Cocchi, G; de Vigan, C; de Walle, H; Feijoo, M; Irgens, LM; McDonnell, B; Merlob, P; Ritvanen, A; Scarano, G; Siffel, C; Metneki, J; Stoll, C; Smithells, R; Goujard, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of policies and recommendations on folic acid aimed at reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects. Design Retrospective cohort study of births monitored by birth defect registries. Setting 13 birth defects registries monitoring rates of neural tube defects

  3. Prevalence of neural tube defects and folic acid knowledge and consumption--Puerto Rico, 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-11

    Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant mortality in both the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are serious birth defects of the spine and brain; two of the most common NTDs are spina bifida and anencephaly. In the United States, NTD prevalence is higher among Hispanic women than among non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black women. In Puerto Rico, where most residents are Hispanic, the prevalence of NTDs (8.68 per 10,000 live births) is higher than in the mainland United States (5.59). Consumption of folic acid before and during early pregnancy can prevent NTDs. To assess trends in NTD prevalence and prevalence of knowledge and consumption of folic acid supplements in Puerto Rico, data were analyzed from the Birth Defects Surveillance System (BDSS) for 1996-2005 and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 1997-2006. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that prevalence of folic acid knowledge and consumption among women of childbearing age increased from 1997 to 2003 but decreased from 2003 to 2006. During similar periods, NTD prevalence declined from 1996 to 2003 but did not change significantly from 2003 to 2005. To resume the decline in prevalence of NTDs, additional measures might be needed to increase folic acid supplement use among Puerto Rican women of childbearing age.

  4. Folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort: the role of language proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, M.; van der Wal, M. F.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of language proficiency as determinant of folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: Pregnant women from Amsterdam attending obstetric care for their first antenatal visit. Number

  5. Association of Plasma Homocysteine, Serum Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Concentrations and MTHFR C677T Polymorphism with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Üstüner

    2006-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Elevated third trimester plasma homocysteine concentrations were associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. This association was more pronounced in our study which may also be related to synergistic effect of the coexistent folic acid deficiency. MTHFR C677T polymorphism could not alone explain the hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with preeclampsia

  6. Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Ankita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

  7. Low compliance with recommendations on folic acid use in relation to pregnancy: is there a need for fortification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2004-01-01

    identified as factors that determined non-compliance. Conclusions: Alternative and more effective strategies are needed if the Danish population is to benefit fully from the knowledge that folic acid prevents NTDs. Future strategies should not only target vulnerable groups, such as the less educated...

  8. Arsenic is associated with reduced effect of folic acid in myelomeningocele prevention: a case control study in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Arsenic induces neural tube defects in several animal models, but its potential to cause neural tube defects in humans is unknown. Our objective was to investigate the associations between maternal arsenic exposure, periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and risk of posterior neura...

  9. Effects of oral folic acid supplementation on endothelial function in familial hypercholesterolemia. A randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M. C.; Wever, R. M.; Kastelein, J. J.; van Loon, D.; Milstien, S.; Koomans, H. A.; Rabelink, T. J.

    1999-01-01

    Folates have been suggested to be of benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk. The present study was designed to examine whether oral folic acid supplementation could improve endothelial function as an intermediate end point for cardiovascular risk in patients with increased risk of atherosclerosis

  10. Development and validation of a method for the determination of folic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations using derivative spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius de Moura Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Folic acid is a B complex water-soluble vitamin that is essential to humans, and its deficiency can cause problems including congenital malformations in the fetus as well as heart disease. Most countries affected by diseases associated with a lack of folic acid now supplement foods with the vitamin. There is therefore a need for the development of new analytical procedures able to determine folic acid present in different matrices. This work describes the development of zero order and first order derivative spectrophotometric methods for the determination of folic acid in different pharmaceutical formulations, using 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH as solvent. The methods are shown to be simple, selective, and robust. Good linearity was achieved, with correction coefficients ≥0.9996 and limits of detection and quantification ranging from 0.64 to 0.75 and from 1.80 to 2.85 mg L-1, respectively. Recoveries of 98-104% were obtained in accuracy tests, and precision (as RSD was between 0.2 and 4.8%. The methods can be used in routine analyses for quality control purposes, offering an alternative to the procedures already reported in the literature.

  11. Absorption of folic acid and its rate of disappearance from the blood of patients receiving barbiturates in excess in combination with alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyftaki, H.; Kesse-Elias, M.; Alevizou-Terzaki, V.; Rapidis, P.; Sdougou-Christakopoulou, J.

    1975-01-01

    It is known that megaloblastic anaemia may occur from the intake of phenobarbital, which apparently responds to folic acid and vitamin B 12 . Its site of action is not known but there is evidence that it may act as a pyrimidine antagonist. It is also known that alcoholics with or without cirrhosis have folate deficiency. Furthermore, although potentiating effects of alcohol and barbiturates exist it is not known how the combination of barbiturates and alcohol acts on folic acid metabolism. In thirty patients receiving barbiturates in excess in combination with alcohol, absorption of folic acid and its rate of disappearance were studied in the blood. Two series of studies were performed. In the first, folic acid (15μg/kg of body weight) was administered orally and the maximum concentration in the blood as well as its disappearance rate were determined. In the second, folinic acid (15 μg/kg of body weight) was administered intramuscularly and the disappearance rate of folic acid was again determined. Blood samples were taken at certain intervals after administration of folic or folinic acid. Estimation of serum folic acid level was obtained by a competitive protein-binding technique developed in our laboratory. The results are discussed and compared with those in normal subjects. (author)

  12. [Awareness and knowledge of the use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects: a survey of women living in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo V, Rosa A; Lay-Son R, Guillermo; Aranda Ch, Waldo; Dib M, Martín; Espina M, Pablo; Muñoz K, María J; Muñoz B, Pilar; Navarrete C, María F; Ojeda M, Natalia V; Parra, Jorge; Rebolledo D, Cristian A; Recabal G, Pedro; Tenhamm T, Tamara

    2007-12-01

    Wheat flour in Chile is fortified with folie acid and pregnant women are also supplemented with the vitamin, but the population level of knowledge or awareness about this vitamin and its use by pregnant women is unknown. To assess the level of knowledge that postpartum women from Santiago de Chile have about folic acid. A questionnaire about folic acid and its effects on the prevention of neural tube defects was developed adapting questionnaires designed abroad. It was applied by medical students to puerperal women, hospitalized in public hospitals. The questionnaire was applied to 342 women aged 26 +/- 7 years. Sixty one percent were housewives and 55% completed high school education. Forty seven percent of these women had heard about folic acid, 9.6% knew that it was able to prevent congenital defects and only one received an adequate supplementation during pregnancy. Women aged 25 to 34 years and those with an adequate medical care during pregnancy had a significantly better knowledge about folic acid and its role in the prevention of congenital anomalies. The more common means to receive information about folic acid were midwives (34%), mass media (28%) and doctors (20%). Two hundred eleven women (62%) agreed to take folic acid in a future gestation and 58% preferred to do so using fortified foods. Post partum women from Santiago have a poor knowledge about the relevance of folic acid supplementation.

  13. Global Birth Prevalence of Spina Bifida by Folic Acid Fortification Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Callie A M; Fiest, Kirsten M; Frolkis, Alexandra D; Jette, Nathalie; Pringsheim, Tamara; St Germaine-Smith, Christine; Rajapakse, Thilinie; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Metcalfe, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a significant source of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Strong scientific evidence shows that folic acid fortification of a region's food supply leads to a decrease in spina bifida (a birth defect of the spine). Still, many countries around the world have yet to approve mandatory fortification through government legislation. We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of period prevalence of spina bifida by folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and study population. An expert research librarian used terms related to neural tube defects and epidemiology from primary research from 1985 to 2010 to search in EMBASE and MEDLINE. We searched the reference lists of included articles and key review articles identified by experts. Inclusion criteria included studies in English or French reporting on prevalence published between January 1985 and December 2010 that (1) were primary research, (2) were population-based, and (3) reported a point or period prevalence estimate of spina bifida (i.e., prevalence estimate with confidence intervals or case numerator and population denominator). Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts for eligible articles, then 2 authors screened full texts in duplicate for final inclusion. Disagreements were resolved through consensus or a third party. We followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, or PRISMA, abstracting data related to case ascertainment, study population, folic acid fortification status, geographic region, and prevalence estimate independently and in duplicate. We extracted overall data and any subgroups reported by age, gender, time period, or type of spina bifida. We classified each period prevalence estimate as "mandatory" or "voluntary" folic acid fortification according to each country's folic acid fortification status at the time data were collected (as determined by a well-recognized fortification monitoring body, Food

  14. Syntheses and antifolate activity of 5-methyl-5-deaza analogues of aminopterin, methotrexate, folic acid, and N10-methylfolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, J R; McCaleb, G S; Montgomery, J A; Kisliuk, R L; Gaumont, Y; Sirotnak, F M

    1986-06-01

    Evidence indicating that modifications at the 5- and 10-positions of classical folic acid antimetabolites lead to compounds with favorable differential membrane transport in tumor vs. normal proliferative tissue prompted an investigation of 5-alkyl-5-deaza analogues. 2-Amino-4-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarbonitrile, prepared by hydrogenolysis of its known 6-chloro precursor, was treated with guanidine to give 2,4-diamino-5-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carbonitrile which was converted via the corresponding aldehyde and hydroxymethyl compound to 6-(bromomethyl)-2,4-diamino-5-methylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine. Reductive condensation of the nitrile 8 with diethyl N-(4-amino-benzoyl)-L-glutamate followed by ester hydrolysis gave 5-methyl-5-deazaaminopterin. Treatment of 12 with formaldehyde and Na(CN)BH3 afforded 5-methyl-5-deazamethotrexate, which was also prepared from 15 and dimethyl N-[(4-methylamino)benzoyl]-L-glutamate followed by ester hydrolysis. 5-Methyl-10-ethyl-5-deazaaminopterin was similarly prepared from 15. Biological evaluation of the 5-methyl-5-deaza analogues together with previously reported 5-deazaaminopterin and 5-deazamethotrexate for inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) isolated from L1210 cells and for their effect on cell growth inhibition, transport characteristics, and net accumulation of polyglutamate forms in L1210 cells revealed the analogues to have essentially the same properties as the appropriate parent compound, aminopterin or methotrexate (MTX), except that 20 and 21 were approximately 10 times more growth inhibitory than MTX. In in vivo tests against P388/0 and P388/MTX leukemia in mice, the analogues showed activity comparable to that of MTX, with the more potent 20 producing the same response in the P388/0 test as MTX but at one-fourth the dose; none showed activity against P388/MTX. Hydrolytic deamination of 12 and 20 produced 5-methyl-5-deazafolic acid and 5,10-dimethyl-5-deazafolic acid, respectively. In bacterial studies on

  15. Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Wesseling, Catharina; Spector, Logan G; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Ezzat, Sameera; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Koifman, Sergio; Kaatsch, Peter; Moschovi, Maria; Rashed, Wafaa M; Selvin, Steve; McCauley, Kathryn; Hung, Rayjean J; Kang, Alice Y; Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype. We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center. Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester). Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.

  16. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Background Deficiencies of iron and folic acid during pregnancy can lead to adverse outcomes for the fetus, thus supplements are recommended. Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence. However, before testing the efficacy of the supplement as an alternate choice for supplementation during pregnancy, the bioavailability of the iron needs to be determined. Our objective was to measure the relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a powdered supplement that can be sprinkled on semi-solid foods or beverages versus a traditional tablet supplement in pregnant women. Methods Eighteen healthy pregnant women (24 – 32 weeks gestation) were randomized to receive the supplements in a crossover design. Following ingestion of each supplement, the changes (over baseline) in serum iron and folate over 8 hours were determined. The powdered supplement contained 30 mg of iron as micronized dispersible ferric pyrophosphate with an emulsifier coating and 600 μg folic acid; the tablet contained 27 mg iron from ferrous fumarate and 1000 μg folic acid. Results Overall absorption of iron from the powdered supplement was significantly lower than the tablet (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the overall absorption of folic acid between supplements. Based on the differences in the area under the curve and doses, the relative bioavailability of iron from powdered supplement was lower than from the tablet (0.22). Conclusion The unexpected lower bioavailability of iron from the powdered supplement is contrary to previously published reports. However, since pills and capsules are known to be poorly accepted by some women during pregnancy, it is reasonable to continue to explore alternative micronutrient delivery systems and forms of iron for this purpose. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00789490 PMID:19635145

  17. Human CD36 overexpression in renal tubules accelerates the progression of renal diseases in a mouse model of folic acid-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Hwan; Choi, Jee Eun; Song, Ju Hung; Ahn, Seon-Ho

    2018-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for progression to chronic kidney disease, with even subclinical AKI episodes progressing to chronic kidney disease. Several risk factors such as preexisting kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and hypertension may aggravate renal disease after AKI. However, mechanisms underlying the progression of AKI are still unclear. This study identified the effect of human cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) overexpression on the progression of folic acid-induced AKI. Pax8-rtTA/tetracycline response element-human CD36 transgenic mice were used to elucidate the effect of human CD36 overexpression in the proximal tubules on folic acid-induced AKI. Results of histological analysis showed severely dilated tubules with casts and albuminuria in folic acid-treated transgenic mice overexpressing human CD36 compared with folic acid-treated wild-type mice. In addition, analysis of mRNA expression showed a significant increase in the collagen 3a1 gene in folic acid-treated transgenic mice overexpressing human CD 36 compared with folic acid-treated wild type mice. Human CD36-overexpressing transgenic mice showed severe pathological changes and albuminuria compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, mRNA expression of the collagen 3a1 gene increased in folic acid-treated transgenic mice. These results suggest that human CD36 overexpression is a risk factor of AKI and its progression to chronic kidney disease.

  18. Human CD36 overexpression in renal tubules accelerates the progression of renal diseases in a mouse model of folic acid-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute kidney injury (AKI is a risk factor for progression to chronic kidney disease, with even subclinical AKI episodes progressing to chronic kidney disease. Several risk factors such as preexisting kidney disease, hyperglycemia, and hypertension may aggravate renal disease after AKI. However, mechanisms underlying the progression of AKI are still unclear. This study identified the effect of human cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36 overexpression on the progression of folic acid-induced AKI. Methods : Pax8-rtTA/tetracycline response element-human CD36 transgenic mice were used to elucidate the effect of human CD36 overexpression in the proximal tubules on folic acid-induced AKI. Results : Results of histological analysis showed severely dilated tubules with casts and albuminuria in folic acid-treated transgenic mice overexpressing human CD36 compared with folic acid-treated wild-type mice. In addition, analysis of mRNA expression showed a significant increase in the collagen 3a1 gene in folic acid-treated transgenic mice overexpressing human CD 36 compared with folic acid-treated wild type mice. Conclusion : Human CD36-overexpressing transgenic mice showed severe pathological changes and albuminuria compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, mRNA expression of the collagen 3a1 gene increased in folic acid-treated transgenic mice. These results suggest that human CD36 overexpression is a risk factor of AKI and its progression to chronic kidney disease.

  19. Folic acid orchestrates root development linking cell elongation with auxin response and acts independently of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Rodríguez, Juan Ángel; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; Ruiz-Herrera, León Francisco; López-Bucio, José

    2017-11-01

    Folic acid is a precursor of tetrahydrofolate (vitamin B9), which is an essential cofactor in most organisms, acting as a carrier for one-carbon units in enzymatic reactions. In this work, we employed pharmacological, genetic and confocal imaging strategies to unravel the signaling mechanism by which folic acid modulates root growth and development. Folic acid supplementation inhibits primary root elongation and induces lateral root formation in a concentration-dependent manner. An analysis of the expression of cell cycle genes pCycD6;1:GFP and CycB1:uidA, and cell expansion Exp7:uidA showed that folic acid promotes cell division but prevented cell elongation, and this correlated with altered expression of auxin-responsive DR5:GFP gene, and PIN1:PIN1:GFP, PIN3:PIN3:GFP, and PIN7:PIN7:GFP auxin transporters at the columella and vasculature of primary roots, whereas mutants defective in auxin signaling (tir1/afb1/afb2 [receptors], slr1 [repressor] and arf7/arf19 [transcription factors]) were less sensitive to folic acid induced primary root shortening and lateral root proliferation. Comparison of growth of WT and TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) antisense lines indicates that folic acid acts by an alternative mechanism to this central regulator. Thus, folic acid modulation of root architecture involves auxin and acts independently of the TOR kinase to influence basic cellular programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Few Danish pregnant women follow guidelines on periconceptional use of folic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Anne Katrine holflod; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60-70 pregnancies are affected by neural tube defects (NTD) in Denmark annually. Folic acid (FA) deficiency can cause NTD. Periconceptional FA supplementation reduces the risk of NTD by up to 70-80%. Danish women planning pregnancy are recommended 0.4 mg of FA daily from...... at least one month before planned conception and continuing throughout the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to examine the knowledge about and use of FA supplementation among Danish pregnant women. METHODS: From 11 October 2012 to 15 November 2012, all women attending...... for a routine nuchal translucency scan were given a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and use of FA supplementation during their current pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 462 women answered the questionnaire. 95% had taken FA supplements at some point during their pregnancy, but only 10.4% as recommended...

  1. Knowledge about folic acid supplementation in women presenting for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, S; Mullaney, L; McKeating, A; Farren, M; McCartney, D; Turner, M J

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Ireland has increased in recent years. This study examines knowledge about folic acid (FA) supplementation for the prevention of NTDs among women presenting for antenatal care. Women were recruited at their convenience in the first trimester after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy. A detailed questionnaire was completed under the supervision of a research dietitian. Clinical and socio-demographic details were collected. Of the 587 women studied, 96% took FA during early pregnancy. Of these, 56.4% cited brain/spinal development or the prevention of brain/spinal defects, spina bifida or NTDs as the reason for taking FA. Multivariate analysis showed that women who were experiencing material deprivation or who were living in Ireland knowledgeable about the benefits of FA supplementation (Pknowledge about the importance of FA in improving pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Determinants of folic acid intake during preconception and in early pregnancy by mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Taiwo Akeem; Adeleye, Amos Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    In order to identify targets for primary preventive strategies, we explored possible predictors of periconceptional folic acid (pFA) intake in a Nigerian population of reproductively active women. A cross sectional study of mothers attending immunization clinics at two hospitals was conducted between May and November 2012. Information obtained included sociodemographic and obstetric details and periconceptional usage of FA. Independent variables were analysed as predictors of pFA intake using chi-square statistical test and multinomial logistic regression. The study involved 602 mothers aged 17 to 42 years; 23% had a university degree and 66% were in the working class. Preconceptional usage was proven in only 15 (2.5%). Periconceptional usage was more likely among professionals (X2=41.194, pknowledge of its health benefits are poor amongst mothers--in working class, with limited education, and who present late for antenatal care.

  3. Improved conventional synthesis for 14C-labeled polyglutamates of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenz, C.R.; Graham, D.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of folates existing in nature are of the pteroylpolyglutamyl form and are unable to support Lactobacillus casei growth until the γ-linked glutamyls are digested by conjugase enzymes. Most studies involving folate absorption have utilized monoglutamyl forms of folate, primarily folic acid. Synthetic pteroylpolyglutamates prepared by solid phase or conventional synthesis provided conjugated materials with which to study the absorption and metabolism of natural derivatives; however, the synthetic hepataglutamates support microbiological growth prior to enzymatic hydrolysis whereas the natural conjugates do not. Incomplete purification of intermediate peptides during the synthesis would be the most likely explanation of this growth phenomenon. A modified solution synthesis has been developed which improves upon intermediate peptide condensations, increases product yields, and provides a heptapeptide which does not support microbiological growth until after enzymatic hydrolysis. (author)

  4. Few Danish pregnant women follow guidelines on periconceptional use of folic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Anne Katrine holflod; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2015-01-01

    at least one month before planned conception and continuing throughout the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to examine the knowledge about and use of FA supplementation among Danish pregnant women. METHODS: From 11 October 2012 to 15 November 2012, all women attending......INTRODUCTION: Approximately 60-70 pregnancies are affected by neural tube defects (NTD) in Denmark annually. Folic acid (FA) deficiency can cause NTD. Periconceptional FA supplementation reduces the risk of NTD by up to 70-80%. Danish women planning pregnancy are recommended 0.4 mg of FA daily from...... for a routine nuchal translucency scan were given a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and use of FA supplementation during their current pregnancy. RESULTS: A total of 462 women answered the questionnaire. 95% had taken FA supplements at some point during their pregnancy, but only 10.4% as recommended...

  5. Fabrication of poly hydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol-folic acid nanoparticles loaded by paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Rafienia, Mohammad; Keshvari, Hamid; Sattary, Mansooreh; Naeimi, Mitra; Keyvani, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study drug (paclitaxel)-loaded nanoparticles of poly hydroxybutyrate-polyethylene glycol-folic acid (PHB-PEG-FOL) were prepared by using an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The functionalization and conjugation steps in the chemical synthesis were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance tests ((1)H NMR). Morphology of nanoparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size analyzer. Between two samples containing drug, the lower doses showed more homogeneous distribution, and the lowest aggregation. The drug release profiles showed a two-phase release including initial rapid release and a continuous release. MG63 cells were used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The cytotoxicity of PHB-PEG-FOL nanoparticles with drug against cancer cells was much higher and longer than free drug sample. These nanoparticles were successfully synthesized as a novel system for targeted drug delivery against cancer cells.

  6. Influence of different formulations and granulation techniques on dissolution of folic acid in film coated tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Krsteska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin folic acid has received considerable attention because of it′s role in decreasing risk of neural tube birth defects, and it′s potential role in reducing risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases. We evaluated compositions of 5 different formulations in terms of meeting the USP standard for dissolution and disintegration .However all the examined formulations had met the disintegration test but only 3 formulations had met the dissolution requirements to release 75 % of the active ingredient in 45 minutes. The maximum value of dissolution of 97.52 % in S5 composition was achieved by combination of certain excipients (combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic filler and suitable wetting agent and wet high shear mixing granulation technique, resulting with optimize release of the active substance.

  7. Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Garcia, N; Serra Majem, L

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine, folic acid and vitamin D represent the past, the present and the future of public health policy measures on micronutrients in Spain. Despite of some examples, there exist a need for action. Current nutrition strategies are focused on obesity, with little room for micronutrients national measures despite of the opinion of many experts. Regardless of the several nutrients recommendations coexisting nowadays in Spain, there exist the need for a coordinated action in the field of micronutrients recommendations, fostered by the health and nutrition official authorities with financial support and clear terms of reference.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of mandatory folic acid fortification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovskaja, Viktoria; Parkinson, Bonny; Goodall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Australian government recently introduced mandatory folic acid fortification of bread to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). The economic evaluation of this policy contained a number of limitations. This study aimed to address the limitations and to reconsider the findings. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to assess the cost and benefits of mandatory versus voluntary folic acid fortification. Outcomes measures were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), life-years gained (LYG), avoided NTD cases, and additional severe neuropathy cases. Costs considered included industry costs and regulatory costs to the government. It was estimated that mandatory fortification would prevent 31 NTDs, whereas an additional 14 cases of severe neuropathy would be incurred. Overall, 539 LYG and 503 QALYs would be gained per year of mandatory compared with voluntary fortification. Mandatory fortification was cost-effective at A$10,723 per LYG and at A$11,485 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that at A$60,000 and A$151,000 per QALY, the probability that mandatory fortification was the most cost-effective strategy was 79% and 85%, respectively. Threshold analysis of loss of consumer choice indicated that with a compensation value above A$1.21 [assuming a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of A$60,000 per QALY] or A$3.19 (assuming a WTP threshold of A$151,000 per statistical life-year) per capita per year mandatory fortification would not be cost-effective. Mandatory fortification was found to be cost-effective; however, inclusion of the loss of consumer choice can change this result. Even with mandatory fortification, mean folate intake will remain below the recommended NTD preventive level.

  9. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with folic acid/methionine for active targeted delivery of docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravian P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Khosravian,1 Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani,2 Mehdi Khoobi,3 Seyed Naser Ostad,4 Farid Abedin Dorkoosh,1 Hamid Akbari Javar,1,* Massoud Amanlou5,6,* 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Radiopharmacy, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Biomaterials, 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 5Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, 6Drug Design and Development Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs are known as carriers with high loading capacity and large functionalizable surface area for target-directed delivery. In this study, a series of docetaxel-loaded folic acid- or methionine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (DTX/MSN-FA or DTX/MSN-Met with large pores and amine groups at inner pore surface properties were prepared. The results showed that the MSNs were successfully synthesized, having good pay load and pH-sensitive drug release kinetics. The cellular investigation on MCF-7 cells showed better performance of cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis and an increase in cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In vivo fluorescent imaging on healthy BALB/c mice proved that bare MSN-NH2 are mostly accumulated in the liver but MSN-FA or MSN-Met are more concentrated in the kidney. Importantly, ex vivo fluorescent images of tumor-induced BALB/c mice organs revealed the ability of MSN-FA to reach the tumor tissues. In conclusion, DTX/MSNs exhibited a good anticancer activity and enhanced the possibility of targeted drug delivery for breast cancer. Keywords: targeted delivery, mesoporous silica nanoparticle, folic acid, methionine, docetaxel

  10. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20?45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Li, Li; Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Li

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future.

  13. Effects of altered maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and docosahexaenoic acid on placental global DNA methylation patterns in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Potential adverse effects of excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a vegetarian population deficient in vitamin B(12 are poorly understood. We have previously shown in a rat model that maternal folic acid supplementation at marginal protein levels reduces brain omega-3 fatty acid levels in the adult offspring. We have also reported that reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels may result in diversion of methyl groups towards DNA in the one carbon metabolic pathway ultimately resulting in DNA methylation. This study was designed to examine the effect of normal and excess folic acid in the absence and presence of vitamin B(12 deficiency on global methylation patterns in the placenta. Further, the effect of maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on the above vitamin B(12 deficient diets was also examined. Our results suggest maternal folic acid supplementation in the absence of vitamin B(12 lowers plasma and placental DHA levels (p<0.05 and reduces global DNA methylation levels (p<0.05. When this group was supplemented with omega 3 fatty acids there was an increase in placental DHA levels and subsequently DNA methylation levels revert back to the levels of the control group. Our results suggest for the first time that DHA plays an important role in one carbon metabolism thereby influencing global DNA methylation in the placenta.

  14. Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Combination and Age-Related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G; Glynn, Robert J; Chew, Emily Y; Albert, Christine M; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-01-01

    To examine the incidence of cataract and cataract extraction in a trial of folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12. In a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial, 5442 female health professionals aged 40 years or older with preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) or three or more CVD risk factors were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/day), vitamin B6 (50 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/day), or placebo. A total of 3925 of these women did not have a diagnosis of cataract at baseline and were included in this analysis. The primary endpoint was age-related cataract, defined as an incident age-related lens opacity, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse, based on self-report confirmed by medical record review. Extraction of incident age-related cataract was a secondary endpoint of the trial. During an average of 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up, 408 cataracts and 275 cataract extractions were documented. There were 215 cataracts in the combination treatment group and 193 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, HR, 1.10, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.90-1.33; p = 0.36). For the secondary endpoint of cataract extraction, there were 155 in the combination treatment group and 120 in the placebo group (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.63; p = 0.04). In this large-scale randomized trial of women at high risk of CVD, daily supplementation with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no significant effect on cataract, but may have increased the risk of cataract extraction.

  15. Exploring isoxsuprine hydrochloride binding with human serum albumin in the presence of folic acid and ascorbic acid using multispectroscopic and molecular modeling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Fereshteh; Shahraki, Somaye; Shahriyar, Amin; Majd, Mostafa Heidari

    2017-05-01

    Isoxsuprine hydrochloride (vasodilator drug), folic acid and ascorbic acid are medicines which can be utilized alone or simultaneously by pregnant women. In the present work the competitive binding of isoxsuprine hydrochloride (ISO) with human serum albumin (HSA) in the absence and presence of folic acid (FOL) and ascorbic acid (AS) was investigated using different spectroscopic probes and molecular docking studies. The results of fluorescence suggested that isoxsuprine alone or in the presence of ascorbic acid can bind to HSA and quench the fluorescence of HSA with static mechanism but For HSA-folic acid-isoxsuprine system, dynamic type of quenching mechanisms is involved. The values of binding constants (K HSA-ISO ~1.2×10 3 M -1 , K HSA-AS-ISO ~2.1×10 3 M -1 and K HSA-FOL-ISO ~0.7×10 3 M -1 ) suggested that affinity of HSA to isoxsuprine increased in the presence of ascorbic acid while the presence of folic acid reduced the affinity of protein to isoxsuprine. The results of FT-IR and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the binding of isoxsuprine to HSA in the absence and the presence of folic acid and ascorbic acid may induce conformational and microenvironmental changes of protein. Not only do these types of spectroscopy techniques provide all the information about the systems, molecular docking, also emphasizes the results and is employed for the identification of the active site residues, bioactive conformer of Isoxsuprine and their critical interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Magnitude and factors associated with adherence to Iron-folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Eritrean refugee camps, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Mekdemariam; Abay, Mebrahtu; Zelalem, Hiwet; Gebremedhin, Tirhas; Grum, Teklit; Bayray, Alemayehu

    2018-04-05

    Globally, anemia is a public health problem affecting the life of more than two billion people. Pregnant women are at high risk of iron deficiency anemia due to increased nutrient requirement during pregnancy. Iron-folic acid supplementation is the main strategy for prevention and control of iron deficiency anemia and its effectiveness depends on adherence to Iron-Folic Acid tablets. In the refugee camps of Ethiopia, despite the efforts made to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, information about adherence to iron-folic acid supplementation and its associated factors are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess magnitude and factors associated with adherence to iron-folic acid supplementation, among pregnant women, in Shire refugee camps. Institution based cross-sectional study with mixed design (quantitative and qualitative) was carried out among pregnant women in Shire refugee camps from September to November 2015. For quantitative data, a sample of 320 pregnant women was systematically selected and data were collected via interview administered structured questionnaire. Quantitative data were coded and entered into Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported into a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Version 19.0 software for analysis. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors at p-value knowledge about anemia [AOR; 0.23 95% CI (0.14, 0.38)] and not receiving information about importance of iron-folic acid supplementation [AOR; 0.43 95% CI (0.25, 0.74)] were negatively associated with adherence to iron and folic acid., Having four or more antenatal care visits [AOR; 2.83 95% CI (1.46, 5.48)] were positively significantly associated with adherence to iron-folic acid supplementation. Adherence rate of iron-folic acid supplementation during pregnancy in the study area is relatively low. Proper counseling and health promotion about Iron-Folic Acid tablet intake, promoting the benefits of

  17. KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FOLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN BUTEMBO TOWN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhindo Valimungighe Moise; Alexandre Amini Mitamo; Ahuka ona Longombe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital malformations resulting from a problem of neural tube closure, at an early stage in the development of the human embryo. Numerous studies have established that these malformations, although multifactorial, are correlated with low intakes of folic acid. These studies also mentioned that the additional intake of folic acid in the periconceptional period reduces the risk. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of w...

  18. Impact of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation on Low Birth Weight and Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants in China: A Large Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation alone during pregnancy on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant status. Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study performed in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 200 589 singleton live births registered in 2 southern Chinese provinces by mothers for whom detailed information on folic acid use was available. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period. LBW was defined as a birth weight birth weight was below the 10th percentile as defined by a national survey performed in 1998. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of folic acid after adjusting for the principal potential confounders. The overall incidence of LBW and SGA status was 2.18% and 5.82%, respectively. The incidence of LBW and SGA status was 2.09% and 5.73% in women who took folic acid, and 2.27% and 5.90% in those who did not. The adjusted risk ratios associated with folic acid use were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90) for LBW and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) for SGA status. Folic acid use during pregnancy appeared to be particularly important to prevent LBW and SGA status. A maternal daily intake of 400 µg folic acid alone significantly reduced the risks of infant LBW and SGA status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Folic Acid Consumption (In Prenatal Care on Blood Pressure Change during Pregnancy in Urban and Rural Health Centers in Eastern Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rasoolpoor-Farzin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Preeclampsia is one of the most threatening problems in pregnancy and potentially is followed by preterm birth, miscarriage, low birth weight and maternal mortality. Folic acid supplementation is commonly prescribed for women in child bearing age to reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects. However, its role in pre-eclampsia and hypertension is not proven and is debatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of folic acid on before pregnancy care on blood pressure in pregnancy. Material and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted as census on all 1939 women referred to receive prenatal care between 2008 and 2013 in rural and urban healthcare centers in Sarab, Bostanabad and Khosroshahr. We compared blood pressure changes in two groups with folic acid consumption and another group, not consuming folic acid. Collected data were filled in the checklist and underwent statistical analysis of descriptive and analytical methods by SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of women in this study was 25.98±5.78 years. Ninety-two percent of mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. The peak period of high blood pressure was reported at weeks 37-35 with 8.2% in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure at week 37-35 and more than 37 weeks with 1.6%. Systolic and diastolic pressure in mothers taking folic acid was significantly lower (P Conclusion: Folic acid intake during pregnancy, as a part of prenatal care, significantly reduces the incidence of hypertension of pregnancy. During this period, folic acid intake can diminish pre-eclampsia and promote maternal and new born health.

  20. Interaction of milk xanthine oxidase with folic acid. Inhibition of milk xanthine oxidase by folic acid and separation of the enzyme into two fractions on Sepharose 4B/folate gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, T; Tsushima, K

    1986-08-25

    Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by folic acid was reexamined after complete removal of the contaminant which was responsible for time-dependent inactivation (Lewis, A. S., Murphy, L., Mcalla, C., Fleary, M., and Purcell, S. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 12-15; Spector, T., and Ferone, R. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 10784-10786). From turnover experiments using stopped flow equipment with a limited amount of xanthine and excess oxygen, and from kinetic analyses with an oxygen electrode, folic acid was found to be an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. The inhibition was competitive with xanthine with a Ki value of 4.2 X 10(-5) M. From the behavior of the enzyme in affinity chromatography using a Sepharose 4B/folate column, folic acid was also confirmed to be a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. When enzyme which had been pretreated with oxipurinol was applied to the affinity column, two fractions of xanthine oxidase were separated. The first fraction was found to contain the fully active form (double-active dimers) from the analyses of spectral changes on addition of xanthine, oxipurinol titration, and ESR slow signal, whereas the second fraction was assumed to contain mixed dimers and double-inactive dimers. The ratio of the content of the first fraction to that of the second fraction supports the hypothesis that there are three enzyme species and that there is no interaction either in catalytic activity or in sulfuration or desulfuration reactions between the two subunits.

  1. Low compliance with recommendations on folic acid use in relation to pregnancy: is there a need for fortification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke; Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Rasmussen, Lone Banke

    2004-01-01

    campaign events. However, even at the end of the period, only 22.3% of the women who had planned their pregnancy fully complied with the recommendation. No increase at all was seen in periconceptional folic acid use among women with unplanned pregnancies. Young age, low education and smoking were......Objective: As a means to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs), women planning pregnancy in Denmark are recommended to take a dietary supplement of 400 mug folic acid daily during the periconceptional period. We examined compliance with this recommendation in a national survey. Design: Cohort study...... that took place during the second half of 2001, and to lifestyle factors provided in a telephone interview by the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Results: An increase was seen in the proportion of women complying with the recommendation in the study period and this coincided with the information...

  2. Electrochemical determination of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid in real samples using a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Hamzavi, Mozhdeh; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    A new ferrocene-derivative compound, 2-chlorobenzoyl ferrocene, was synthesized and used to construct a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode. The electrooxidation of hydrochlorothiazide at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Under optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric (SWV) peak current of hydrochlorothiazide increased linearly with hydrochlorothiazide concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8) to 2.0 × 10(-4) M and a detection limit of 20.0 nM was obtained for hydrochlorothiazide. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) for hydrochlorothiazide oxidation were also determined. The prepared modified electrode exhibits a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid which makes it suitable for the detection of hydrochlorothiazide in the presence of folic acid in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Folic acid-modified soy protein nanoparticles for enhanced targeting and inhibitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu; Wang, Xin; Cao, Zhipeng; Yao, Weijing; Wang, Jun; Tang, Rupei

    2017-02-01

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) was hydrolyzed by compound enzymes to give water soluble low molecular soy protein (SP). SP and folic acid (FA) modified SP was polymerized with N-3- acrylamidophenylboronic acid (APBA) monomer in aqueous solution to give SP nanoparticles (SP NPs) and FA modified nanoparticles (FA-SP NPs), respectively. These NPs display excellent stability in different conditions, and have a uniform spherical shape with a diameter around of 200nm. Doxorubicin (DOX) was then successfully loaded into SP and FA-SP NPs with a desirable loading content of 13.33% and 16.01%, respectively. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded SP NPs and FA-SP NPs were investigated using the two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell model and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular spheroids (MCs). In vivo, tumor accumulation and growth inhibitory were then examined using H22 tumor-bearing mice. All these results demonstrated that conjugation of FA can efficiently enhance SP-based NPs' tumor accumulation and antitumor effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The association between maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Li, Kaiqin; Zhao, Dongmei; Li, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Previous reviews have been conducted to evaluate the association between maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, with no definitive conclusion. We therefore conducted a more comprehensive meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between folic acid and the risk of ASD. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Wanfang Data were carefully searched to find eligible studies as recent as March 2017. A random effects model was used to combine the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. A total of 12 articles with 16 studies comprising 4514 ASD cases were included in this report. It was found that supplementation with folic acid during pregnancy could reduce the risk of ASD [RR = 0.771, 95% CI = 0.641-0.928, I 2  = 59.7%, P heterogeneity  = 0.001] as compared to those women without folic acid supplementation. The associations were significant among Asian, European, and American populations. In summary, this comprehensive meta-analysis suggested that maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy could significantly reduce the risk of ASD in children regardless of ethnicity, as compared to those women who did not supplement with folic acid.

  5. Monitoring the functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with chitosan and folic acid by two-dimensional diffusion-ordered nmr spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Torres, Mary H.; Molina, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate that was......A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate...... that was generated by the linkage between the carboxyl moiety of the folic acid and the amino group of the chitosan, which in turn was non-covalently bound to the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The obtained diffusion coefficient values demonstrated that free folic acid diffused more rapidly than the folic acid...... conjugated to single-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan. The values of the proton signal of hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy further confirmed that the folic acid was conjugated to the chitosan, wrapping the single...

  6. ANAEMIA ERADICATION IN ADOLESCENTS- A NEW HOPE WITH WEEKLY IRON FOLIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION (WIFS (PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is perceived to be a major public health problem especially among adolescent females .Findings from National Family Health Survey NFHS (2005-06 indicate that 56% of the adolescent girls in India are anaemic and, of these 17% suffer from moderate to severe anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia in female adolescent age group is still an understudied subject. The aims of this study were to evaluate the recently initiated WIFS program for government school girls with respect to implementation and impact on trends in prevalence of Anaemia among adolescent girls in a Bengaluru rural school. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cross-sectional, descriptive exploratory research study was used. The choice of the school was based on commitment to administration of weekly iron-folic acid supplements (WIFS programme. All the girl students from class 6 th to 10th of Government High and Senior Secondary school (age group, 11-19 years who were a part of WIFS were enrolled as study participants. Qualitative data on anaemia awareness and diet history, compliance, side effects were taken from these girls. General information on age, height, weight were collected and BMI calculated. Hb estimation was done by Haemocue method. Statistical Analysis- Analysis were prepared by IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. RESULTS Out of the 95girls in the school, there were 81 girls (85.26% reported to consume one tablet of Iron folic acid (IFA weekly in the past 1 year, with no major side effects. The girls had knowledge about symptoms of anaemia and iron-rich diet. Hb estimates indicated 79.01% non anaemic, prevalence of anaemia was 20.99%; none of the girls had severe anaemia, 1.2% had moderate anaemia and the remaining 19.8% belonged to mild anaemia category, indicating a significant decline. The mean BMI of the study sample was 17.53 kg/m2 with 67.9% underweight and 6.2% overweight. CONCLUSION Overall, in this school, the WIFS program was found to be well implemented with good

  7. Increased Birth Weight Associated with Regular Pre-Pregnancy Deworming and Weekly Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation for Vietnamese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Passerini, Luca; Casey, Gerard J.; Biggs, Beverley A.; Cong, Dai T.; Phu, Luong B.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Carone, Marco; Montresor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid suppleme...

  8. Folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort: the role of language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijsden, M; van der Wal, M F; Bonsel, G J

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the role of language proficiency as determinant of folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort. Prospective cohort study. Pregnant women from Amsterdam attending obstetric care for their first antenatal visit. Number approached: 12,373 women, response rate: 67% (8266 women aged 14-49 years). Ethnicity was based on the country of birth: the Netherlands, Surinam, Antilles, Turkey, Morocco, Ghana, other non-Western and other Western countries. Knowledge about and use of folic acid supplements in pregnancy as elicited in a multilingual questionnaire, as well as determinants of these in ethnic groups separately. Both periconceptional folic acid use and knowledge were significantly lower among Ghanaian, Moroccan, Turkish, and other non-Western women than among women born in the Netherlands or other Western countries. Language proficiency in Dutch was a major determinant of knowledge in all the ethnic groups with a mother tongue other than Dutch [adjusted odds ratios (OR): Western 3.2, non-Western (all countries combined) 7.5], while educational attainment was of secondary importance. Knowledge in turn was the strongest determinant of use (adjusted OR: Western 17.4, non-Western 27.0). Periconceptional folic acid supplement use among women born in non-Dutch-speaking non-Western countries is low, reflecting a lack of knowledge that is determined by the inability to speak and understand the language of the country of residence. Measures to tackle this problem include the provision of linguistically appropriate information via ethnic health advisors, and language courses integrating health education for immigrants.

  9. SERUM VITAMIN B12, IRON AND FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCIES IN OBESE INDIVIDUALS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT BARIATRIC TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rafaella de Andrade; MALTA, Flávia Monteiro França; CORREIA, Maria Flora Ferreira Sampaio Carvalho; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Different surgical techniques to combat obesity combine malabsorption with restrictive procedures and can lead to metabolic problems, such as micronutrient deficiencies. Aim: Assess vitamin B12, iron and folic acid deficiencies associated with the lifestyle of obese individuals having been submitted to different bariatric techniques. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the electronic charts of patients submitted to bariatric surgery involving adjus...

  10. Magnetic nanocarriers of doxorubicin coated with poly(ethylene glycol) and folic acid: relation between coating structure, surface properties, colloidal stability, and cancer cell targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaki, Karine; Hervé-Aubert, Katel; Chiper, Manuela; Shkilnyy, Andriy; Soucé, Martin; Benoit, Roland; Paillard, Archibald; Dubois, Pierre; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Chourpa, Igor

    2012-01-17

    We report the efficient one-step synthesis and detailed physicochemical evaluation of novel biocompatible nanosystems useful for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics (theranostics). These systems are the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) carrying the anticancer drug doxorubicin and coated with the covalently bonded biocompatible polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), native and modified with the biological cancer targeting ligand folic acid (PEG-FA). These multifunctional nanoparticles (SPION-DOX-PEG-FA) are designed to rationally combine multilevel mechanisms of cancer cell targeting (magnetic and biological), bimodal cancer cell imaging (by means of MRI and fluorescence), and bimodal cancer treatment (by targeted drug delivery and by hyperthermia effect). Nevertheless, for these concepts to work together, the choice of ingredients and particle structure are critically important. Therefore, in the present work, a detailed physicochemical characterization of the organic coating of the hybrid nanoparticles is performed by several surface-specific instrumental methods, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). We demonstrate that the anticancer drug doxorubicin is attached to the iron oxide surface and buried under the polymer layers, while folic acid is located on the extreme surface of the organic coating. Interestingly, the moderate presence of folic acid on the particle surface does not increase the particle surface potential, while it is sufficient to increase the particle uptake by MCF-7 cancer cells. All of these original results contribute to the better understanding of the structure-activity relationship for hybrid biocompatible nanosystems and are encouraging for the applications in cancer theranostics. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. A systematic review of interventions to increase awareness, knowledge, and folic acid consumption before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivu, Corina Mihaela; Tulchinsky, Theodore H; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Braunstein, Rony; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of studies designed to increase awareness of knowledge about, and consumption of folic acid before and during pregnancy. Studies were identified from Cochrane Library, Medline, and the references of primary studies and reviews. Studies included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental interrupted time series studies, follow-up studies, case-control studies, and before-and-after studies, all of which were conducted between 1992 and 2005 on women ages 15 to 49 years and/or health professionals, evaluating awareness and/or knowledge and/or consumption of folic acid both before and after intervention. Studies were excluded if data were not presented both before and after intervention or were other outcomes than those mentioned here. Data were extracted in relation to characteristics of studies, participants, interventions, and outcomes. Because of heterogeneity, we performed a narrative synthesis describing the direction and the size of effects. On average, women's awareness increased from 60% to 72%, knowledge from 21% to 45%, and consumption from 14% to 23%. Interventions had a positive effect on folic acid intakes before and during pregnancy, although the average usage reached less than 25%.

  12. Poor adherence to folic acid and iodine supplement recommendations in preconception and pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Lenka; Umberger, Wendy; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao J

    2016-10-01

    To determine pregnant women's knowledge of and adherence to the recommendations for periconceptional folic acid supplementation (PFS) and iodine supplementation (IS). Secondary objectives include determining predictors of adherence, and identifying influential nutrition information sources. A cross-sectional online survey was completed by 857 pregnant women, including a national cohort (n=455) recruited using an online panel provider and a South Australian cohort (n=402) recruited from a public maternity hospital. Adherence to PFS and IS recommendations was 27% and 23%, respectively. Planning pregnancy and awareness of the correct timing of recommendations were predictors of adherence for both recommendations. Not consuming any alcohol during pregnancy and living in metropolitan areas also predicted adherence to the IS recommendation. Awareness of the recommendation was greater for folic acid (more than 90%) than iodine (56-69%). Knowledge of the importance of folic acid and iodine was greater than knowledge regarding the recommended dose and timing of supplementation. Main healthcare providers were considered the most influential nutrition information sources. Knowledge of and adherence to supplement recommendations for preconception and pregnancy needs improvement. While main healthcare providers may play an important role, further research is needed to explore strategies for increasing adoption of recommendations. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Impact of an online educational program on pharmacy students' knowledge of folic acid and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykhovsky, Margarita; Meier, Mary Frances K; Mager, Natalie A DiPietro

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacy students must receive adequate training regarding folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Pharmacy students' knowledge should be evaluated and effective methods utilized to improve it, if needed. The objective of this study was to assess baseline knowledge among third-year students in a 0-6 Doctor of Pharmacy program and to evaluate the impact of an online educational video. Baseline knowledge was assessed by a pretest adapted with permission from the March of Dimes (MOD). Students watched a 30-minute MOD video and completed a posttest. Nine months later, students completed a longitudinal posttest. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences in the percentage of correct responses to each question. A total of 133 (90.5%) students completed the educational program and 105 (78.9%) completed the longitudinal test. Statistically significant improvements in knowledge from baseline were seen for 9 of 10 questions on the posttest and for 6 of 10 questions on the longitudinal test. Online videos are tools to teach pharmacy students key information regarding folic acid and NTD; however, material should be reinforced in experiential education as well. Counseling women of childbearing potential about folic acid fulfills an important public health need. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The hematological status, plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels, and intestinal pathology in rats infected with Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeramakara, Cheeraratana; Nontprasert, Apichart; Siripanth, Chutatip; Tanomsak, Wanyarat; Chularerk, Udomporn; Sucharit, Pramualmal; Areekul, Suvit

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the hematological status, vitamin B12 and folic acid absorption and intestinal pathology after Giardia lamblia infection in a rat model. Adult Wistar rats were assigned randomly to receive human giardia cysts orally in the amount of 5 x 10(5) or 1.0 x 10(6) cysts, or none in the controls. The results showed that all the rats injected with giardia cysts became infected. The cyst output in the infected rats varied considerably. In rats infected with 5.0 x 10(5) giardia cysts, the incubation period until cyst output was 10 days compared with 4 days in rats infected with the higher amount of 1.0 x 106 giardia cysts. The highest peaks for cysts output in these 2 groups were on days 4-33, which decreased gradually to days 40-58. The hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the infected rats were statistically significantly lower than in the controls on days 16, 22, 33, and 37 post-infection (p giardia cyst output and hemoglobin concentration was found in the infected rats (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels between the infected rats and the control rats. No pathological changes were found in the small intestine of infected rats. These findings suggest that giardiasis did not affect the absorption of plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid but caused anemia in a rat model.

  15. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  16. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  17. Electrochemical determination of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid in real samples using a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitollahi, Hadi, E-mail: h.beitollahi@yahoo.com [Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamzavi, Mozhdeh [Department of Chemistry, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud [Biotechnology Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    A new ferrocene-derivative compound, 2-chlorobenzoyl ferrocene, was synthesized and used to construct a modified graphene oxide sheet paste electrode. The electrooxidation of hydrochlorothiazide at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Under optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric (SWV) peak current of hydrochlorothiazide increased linearly with hydrochlorothiazide concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −4} M and a detection limit of 20.0 nM was obtained for hydrochlorothiazide. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) for hydrochlorothiazide oxidation were also determined. The prepared modified electrode exhibits a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid which makes it suitable for the detection of hydrochlorothiazide in the presence of folic acid in real samples. - Highlights: • A novel modified-graphene oxide nanosheet paste electrode has been fabricated. • This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of hydrochlorothiazide by about 315 mV. • Hydrochlorothiazide was measured in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −4} M. • The detection limit for hydrochlorothiazide was obtained at 20.0 nM. • It resolved the voltammetric waves of hydrochlorothiazide and folic acid.

  18. Folic acid conjugated δ-valerolactone-poly(ethylene glycol based triblock copolymer as a promising carrier for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Nair K

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that the newly synthesized poly(δ-valerolactone/poly(ethylene glycol/poly(δ-valerolactone (VEV copolymer grafted with folic acid would impart targetability and further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX. Here, folic acid conjugated VEV (VEV-FOL was synthesized by a modified esterification method and characterized using IR and NMR. DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles were synthesized using a novel solvent evaporation method and were obtained with a mean diameter of 97 nm with high encapsulation efficiency and sustained in vitro release profile. Comparative studies of polymer micelles with and without folate for cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were done on folate receptor-positive breast cancer cell line, MDAMB231. The intracellular uptake tests showed significant increase in folate micellar uptake when compared to non-folate-mediated micelles. MTT assay followed by apoptosis assays clearly indicated that folate decorated micelles showed significantly better cytotoxicity (IC50 = 0.014 µM and efficiency to induce apoptosis than other treated groups. Moreover, a significant G2/M arrest was induced by DOX loaded VEV-FOL micelles at a concentration where free drug failed to show any activity. Thus, our results show that the folic acid-labeled VEV copolymer is a promising biomaterial with controlled and sustainable tumor targeting ability for anticancer drugs which can open new frontiers in the area of targeted chemotherapy.

  19. Sustained effectiveness of weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming over 6 years in women in rural Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Casey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Weekly iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation and regular deworming is effective for the prevention of iron deficiency and anaemia in women of child-bearing age. Between 2006 and 2013, a program of weekly IFA and biannual deworming was implemented in Yen Bai province, Vietnam. In this study we aimed to determine the effectiveness of the program in reducing anaemia and the prevalence of hookworm infection after 72 months (six years.This prospective cohort study followed up a cohort of 389 women of child-bearing age from baseline until six years after the introduction of the weekly IFA (one tablet containing 200 mg ferrous sulphate, 0.4mg folic acid and deworming (one 400mg tablet of albendazole given twice yearly program (May 2006 to 2012. In each of the six surveys (baseline and five follow-up surveys we measured haemoglobin and ferritin, and the burden of soil transmitted helminth (STH infections, and in the 72 month survey we also administered a questionnaire to assess adherence and possible impediments to participating in the program.Two hundred and fifty six (65.8% of the original 389 women enrolled in the cohort attended the final 72 month survey. Haemoglobin levels were 122 g/L [95% C.I. 120, 124] at baseline and increased to 135g/L [95% C.I. 133, 138] after 72 months. The prevalence of anaemia was 37.8% [95% C.I. 31.0, 44.7] at baseline and reduced to 14.3% [95% C.I. 9.5, 19.1]. Hookworm infection prevalence, 75.9% [95% C.I. 68.1, 83.8] at baseline, reduced to 10.2% [95% C.I. 5.4, 15.0] with no moderate or heavy intensity infections. Seventy-two percent of participants reported still taking at least 75% of the weekly supplements, and 85.0% had taken the most recent deworming treatment.Anaemia rates fell significantly during the six-year program, and STH infections were eliminated as a public health risk. Adherence was well maintained but long-term sustainability is challenging in the absence of ongoing external support.

  20. Tongue Abnormalities Are Associated to a Maternal Folic Acid Deficient Diet in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Estela; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana

    2017-12-28

    It is widely accepted that maternal folic acid (FA) deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for abnormal development. The tongue, with multiple genes working together in a coordinated cascade in time and place, has emerged as a target organ for testing the effect of FA during development. A FA-deficient (FAD) diet was administered to eight-week-old C57/BL/6J mouse females for 2-16 weeks. Pregnant dams were sacrificed at gestational day 17 (E17). The tongues and heads of 15 control and 210 experimental fetuses were studied. In the tongues, the maximum width, base width, height and area were compared with width, height and area of the head. All measurements decreased from 10% to 38% with increasing number of weeks on maternal FAD diet. Decreased head and tongue areas showed a harmonic reduction (Spearman nonparametric correlation, Rho = 0.802) with respect to weeks on a maternal FAD diet. Tongue congenital abnormalities showed a 10.9% prevalence, divided in aglossia (3.3%) and microglossia (7.6%), always accompanied by agnathia (5.6%) or micrognathia (5.2%). This is the first time that tongue alterations have been related experimentally to maternal FAD diet in mice. We propose that the tongue should be included in the list of FA-sensitive birth defect organs due to its relevance in several key food and nutrition processes.

  1. Folic acid functionalized surface highlights 5-methylcytosine-genomic content within circulating tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Malara, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Although the detection of methylated cell free DNA represents one of the most promising approaches for relapse risk assessment in cancer patients, the low concentration of cell-free circulating DNA constitutes the biggest obstacle in the development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers from blood. This paper describes a method for the measurement of genomic methylation content directly on circulating tumor cells (CTC), which could be used to deceive the aforementioned problem. Since CTC are disease related blood-based biomarkers, they result essential to monitor tumor\\'s stadiation, therapy, and early relapsing lesions. Within surface\\'s bio-functionalization and cell\\'s isolation procedure standardization, the presented approach reveals a singular ability to detect high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content in the whole CTC compound, by choosing folic acid (FA) as transducer molecule. Sensitivity and specificity, calculated for FA functionalized surface (FA-surface), result respectively on about 83% and 60%. FA-surface, allowing the detection and characterization of early metastatic dissemination, provides a unique advance in the comprehension of tumors progression and dissemination confirming the presence of CTC and its association with high risk of relapse. This functionalized surface identifying and quantifying high 5-methylcytosine CTC-subset content into the patient\\'s blood lead significant progress in cancer risk assessment, also providing a novel therapeutic strategy.© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Differences in folic acid use, prenatal care, smoking, and drinking in early pregnancy by occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Langlois, Peter H; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Mitchell, Laura E

    2012-10-01

    To describe differences in four high risk periconceptional behaviors (lack of folic acid supplementation, lack of early prenatal care, smoking, and drinking) by maternal occupation. Analyses were conducted among women in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who delivered liveborn infants without birth defects. Periconceptional occupational data were collected using a computer-assisted telephone interview and occupational coding was performed using the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification System. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether prevalence of behaviors differed between occupational groups. Subjects included 5153 women employed during early pregnancy from 1997 to 2007. Compared to women in management, business, science, and arts occupations, women in other occupations (e.g., service occupations) were significantly more likely to engage in all four high risk behaviors. Specifically, women in food preparation/serving-related occupations were significantly more likely to engage in all four behaviors compared to women in all other occupational groups (odds ratios: 1.8-3.0), while women in education/training/library occupations were significantly less likely to do so (odds ratios: 0.2-0.5). We identified several occupational groups with an increased prevalence of high-risk maternal behaviors during pregnancy. Our findings could aid in developing interventions targeted towards women in these occupational groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and cellular uptake of folic acid-conjugated cellulose nanocrystals for cancer targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuping; Cho, Hyung Joon; Lee, Yong Woo; Roman, Maren

    2014-05-12

    Elongated nanoparticles have recently been shown to have distinct advantages over spherical ones in targeted drug delivery applications. In addition to their oblong geometry, their lack of cytotoxicity and numerous surface hydroxyl groups make cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) promising drug delivery vectors. Herein we report the synthesis of folic acid-conjugated CNCs for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to folate receptor-positive cancer cells. Folate receptor-mediated cellular binding/uptake of the conjugate was demonstrated on human (DBTRG-05MG, H4) and rat (C6) brain tumor cells. Folate receptor expression of the cells was verified by immunofluorescence staining. Cellular binding/uptake of the conjugate by DBTRG-05MG, H4, and C6 cells was 1452, 975, and 46 times higher, respectively, than that of nontargeted CNCs. The uptake mechanism was determined by preincubation of the cells with the uptake inhibitors chlorpromazine or genistein. DBTRG-05MG and C6 cells internalized the conjugate primarily via caveolae-mediated endocytosis, whereas H4 cells internalized the conjugate primarily via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  4. Common congenital anomalies: Environmental causes and prevention with folic acid containing multivitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-09-01

    Congenital anomalies, congenital defects, or birth defects are significant causes of death in infants. The most common congenital defects are congenital heart defects (CHDs) and neural tube defects (NTDs). Defects induced by genetic mutations, environmental exposure to toxins, or a combination of these effects can result in congenital malformations, leading to infant death or long-term disabilities. These defects produce significant mortality and morbidity in the affected individuals, and families are affected emotional and financially. Also, society is impacted on many levels. Congenital anomalies may be reduced by dietary supplements of folic acid and other vitamins. Here, we review the evidence for specific roles of toxins (alcohol, cigarette smoke) in causing common severe congenital anomalies like CHDs, NTDs, and ocular defects. We also review the evidence for beneficial effects for dietary supplementation, and highlight gaps in our knowledge, where research may contribute to additional benefits of intervention that can reduce birth defects. Extensive discussion of common severe congenital anomalies (CHDs, NTDs, and ocular defects) illustrates the effects of diet on the frequency and severity of these defects. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:274-286, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Folic Acid Deficiency Does Not Adversely Affect Oocyte Meiosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Ai; Noguchi, Rina; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Spindle defect and chromosome misalignment occuring in oocyte meiosis induce nondisjunction. Nondisjunction causes Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21. Folic acid (FA) is an essential nutrient composition for fetal growth and development. It has been reported that FA nutritional status is associated with the risk of Down syndrome. However, to our knowledge, little is known about the effect of FA deficiency on abnormal oocytes (spindle defects, chromosome misalignments and immature oocyte) in vivo. In the present study, we investigate the effects of FA deficiency on oocyte meiosis in female mice. In order to induce FA deficiency in mice, female Crl:CD1 mice were fed a FA-free diet for 58 d. The diet also contained an antibiotic which has functions on limiting FA formation by intestinal microorganisms. The level of FA deficiency was determined by measuring the concentration of FA in the liver, hemocyte, uterus, ovary, and urine. FA concentrations in these samples from the FA-deficient group were 50-90% lower. Despite this, the frequency of abnormal oocytes was no different between the FA-deficient and control groups (20.0% vs 14.6%). According to the past research, FA transporter was strongly expressed in oocytes. Hence, it is possible that FA-free diets may not affect the concentration of oocyte FA in mice. To sum up these data, our study concluded that FA deficiency did not adversely affect oocyte meiosis.

  6. Multifunctional colloidal nanofiber composites including dextran and folic acid as electro-active platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Bunyatova, Ulviye; Şimșek, Murat

    2017-06-15

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of novel colloidal multifunctional polymer nanofiber composites (NFCs) from water dispersion blends of intercalated silicate layered nanocomposites of poly (2-vinyl-N-pyrrolidone)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dextran/ODA-MMT as matrix and partner polymer intercalated nanocomposites in the presence of NaOH and folic acid (FA) as doping agents by green reactive electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated. Effects of matrix/partner polymer ratios, doping agents, absorption time of NaOH, and temperature on electrical parameters of NFCs were evaluated. The presence of FA and increasing dextran fraction in NFCs resulted in reducing fiber diameter and improving diameter distribution. High complexing behaviors of matrix/partner polymer chains, organoclay, FA, and NaOH significantly improved conductivity parameters, especially 5-min of absorption time (≈10 -2 -10 - 3 Sm -1 ). The conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing temperature. NFCs fabricated for the first time are promising candidates for various biomedical, electrochemical and electronic applications as electro-active platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tongue Abnormalities Are Associated to a Maternal Folic Acid Deficient Diet in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maldonado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that maternal folic acid (FA deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for abnormal development. The tongue, with multiple genes working together in a coordinated cascade in time and place, has emerged as a target organ for testing the effect of FA during development. A FA-deficient (FAD diet was administered to eight-week-old C57/BL/6J mouse females for 2–16 weeks. Pregnant dams were sacrificed at gestational day 17 (E17. The tongues and heads of 15 control and 210 experimental fetuses were studied. In the tongues, the maximum width, base width, height and area were compared with width, height and area of the head. All measurements decreased from 10% to 38% with increasing number of weeks on maternal FAD diet. Decreased head and tongue areas showed a harmonic reduction (Spearman nonparametric correlation, Rho = 0.802 with respect to weeks on a maternal FAD diet. Tongue congenital abnormalities showed a 10.9% prevalence, divided in aglossia (3.3% and microglossia (7.6%, always accompanied by agnathia (5.6% or micrognathia (5.2%. This is the first time that tongue alterations have been related experimentally to maternal FAD diet in mice. We propose that the tongue should be included in the list of FA-sensitive birth defect organs due to its relevance in several key food and nutrition processes.

  8. Targeted Tumor Therapy Based on Nanodiamonds Decorated with Doxorubicin and Folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Tae-Kyung; Baek, Seung Woon; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of nanodiamond (ND)-based drug carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery is described. The ND clusters with an average size of 52.84 nm are fabricated using a simple fluidic device combined with a precipitation method and then conjugated with folic acid (FA) and doxorubicin (Dox) via carbodiimide chemistry to obtain FA/Dox-modified ND (FA/Dox-ND) clusters. Cell culture experiments revealed that KB (folate receptor-positive) cells are preferentially ablated by FA/Dox-ND clusters compared to A549 (folate receptor-negative) cells. In vivo results revealed that FA/Dox-ND clusters are specifically accumulated in tumor tissues after intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, effectively reducing the volume of tumor. Based on these results, this study suggests that FA/Dox-ND clusters can be a good candidate as tumor-targeted nanovehicles for delivery of antitumor drug. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Methoxistasis: Integrating the Roles of Homocysteine and Folic Acid in Cardiovascular Pathobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Over the last four decades, abnormalities in the methionine-homocysteine cycle and associated folate metabolism have garnered great interest due to the reported link between hyperhomocysteinemia and human pathology, especially atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials of B-vitamin supplementation including high doses of folic acid have not demonstrated any benefit in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. In addition to the fact that these clinical trials may have been shorter in duration than appropriate for modulating chronic disease states, it is likely that reduction of the blood homocysteine level may be an oversimplified approach to a complex biologic perturbation. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and folate metabolism regulate redox and methylation reactions and are, in turn, regulated by redox and methylation status. Under normal conditions, a normal redox-methylation balance, or “methoxistasis”, exists, coordinated by the methionine-homocysteine cycle. An abnormal homocysteine level seen in pathologic states may reflect a disturbance of methoxistasis. We propose that future research should be targeted at estimating the deviation from methoxistasis and how best to restore it. This approach could lead to significant advances in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. PMID:23955381

  10. Excited-State Dynamics in Folic Acid and 6-CARBOXYPTERIN upon Uva Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huijuan; Vogt, R. Aaron; Crespo-Hernandez, Carlos E.

    2013-06-01

    The excited-state dynamics of folic acid (FA) and 6-carboxypterin (6CP) are poorly understood and work is needed to uncover the relaxation pathways that ultimately lead to their oxidative damage of DNA. In our approach, broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the evolution of the excited states in FA and 6CP in basic aqueous solution upon excitation at 350 nm. In addition, quantum-chemical calculations were performed to assist in the interpretation of the experimental results and in the postulation of kinetic mechanisms. The combined experimental and computational results support a kinetic model where excitation of FA results in ultrafast charge separation (τ = 0.6 ps), which decays back to the ground state primarily by charge recombination with a lifetime of 2.2 ps. A small fraction of the charge transfer state undergoes intersystem crossing to populate the lowest-energy triplet state with a lifetime of 200 ps. On the other hand, a large fraction of the initially excited singlet state in 6CP decays by fluorescence emission with a lifetime of 100 ps, while intersystem crossing to the triplet state occurs with a lifetime of 4.4 ns. The potential implications of these results to the oxidative damage of DNA by FA and 6CP will be discussed. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged (CHE-1255084).

  11. Methoxistasis: Integrating the Roles of Homocysteine and Folic Acid in Cardiovascular Pathobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last four decades, abnormalities in the methionine-homocysteine cycle and associated folate metabolism have garnered great interest due to the reported link between hyperhomocysteinemia and human pathology, especially atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials of B-vitamin supplementation including high doses of folic acid have not demonstrated any benefit in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. In addition to the fact that these clinical trials may have been shorter in duration than appropriate for modulating chronic disease states, it is likely that reduction of the blood homocysteine level may be an oversimplified approach to a complex biologic perturbation. The methionine-homocysteine cycle and folate metabolism regulate redox and methylation reactions and are, in turn, regulated by redox and methylation status. Under normal conditions, a normal redox-methylation balance, or “methoxistasis”, exists, coordinated by the methionine-homocysteine cycle. An abnormal homocysteine level seen in pathologic states may reflect a disturbance of methoxistasis. We propose that future research should be targeted at estimating the deviation from methoxistasis and how best to restore it. This approach could lead to significant advances in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure.

  12. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (Pabnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Macromolecular composition and drug-loading effect on the delivery of paclitaxel and folic acid from acrylic matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, M; Silvestri, D; Cristallini, C

    2010-08-01

    Drug delivery systems based on synthetic polymers are widely employed in the treatment of several pathologies. In particular, the use of implantable devices able to release one or more active principles in a topic site with a controlled delivery kinetic represents an important improvement in this field. However, the release kinetic, that could be affected by different parameters, like polymer composition or chemical nature and initial drug loading, represents one of the problems related to the implantation of delivery systems. In this study, acrylic membranes with different macromolecular composition were prepared and studied analyzing delivery kinetic properties. Drug delivery systems were prepared using as matrix the copolymer poly(methylmethacrylate-co-butylmethacrylate) in three different compositions and folic acid (less hydrophobic) or Paclitaxel (more hydrophobic) as drugs, to evaluate the effect of macromolecular composition and hydrophilicity degree on the release properties. In addition, the effect of the initial drug loading was considered, loading drug delivery systems with four different initial drug percentages. Results showed a direct dependence of kinetics from macromolecular composition, hydrophilicity degree of solutes, and initial drug loading, allowing one to conclude that it is possible to design and to develop drug delivery systems starting from poly(methylmethacrylate-co-butylmethacrylate) matrices with specific properties by varying these three parameters.

  14. Folic Acid-Conjugated Pyropheophorbide a as the Photosensitizer Tested for In Vivo Targeted Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Yuting; Shi, Huan; Liu, Hui; Guo, Wenjun; Ma, Yanhong; Huang, Weiqiang; Hong, Zhangyong

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly localized and minimally invasive cancer treatment modality with many important advantages, but the lack of ideal photosensitizers (PSs) greatly restricts its clinical utility. To develop new PSs with highly efficient singlet oxygen production and high tumor-localizing ability to reduce damage to healthy adjacent tissues, we conjugated folic acid (FA) with pyropheophorbide a (Pyro), a potent PS with a very high singlet oxygen quantum yield and a high extinction coefficient. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and PDT evaluation of this FA-Pyro conjugate both in vitro and in vivo. This conjugation increased the accumulation of Pyro inside the tumors and improved the efficiency of PDT, resulting in eradication of subcutaneous xenograft KB (human mouth epidermal carcinoma) tumors after only 1 or 2 applications of external near infrared light irradiation. This outstanding PDT outcome in a tumor-bearing mouse model and the simple synthesis of the conjugate should have very good practical potential for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and antitumor activity of paclitaxel-loaded folic acid modified and TAT peptide conjugated PEGylated polymeric liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ruifang; Zhao, Peiqi; Wang, Hanjie; Yu, Man; Cao, Shuzhen; Zhang, Fei; Chang, Jin

    2011-06-01

    Targeting therapy is a promising strategy for enhancing the therapeutic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we report the construction of a multifunctional drug delivery system, termed folic acid modified and TAT peptide conjugated PEGylated polymeric liposomes (FA-TATp-PLs), which is originally derived from octadecyl-quaternized lysine modified chitosan and cholesterol. Our data revealed that FA-TATp-PLs have a particle size of about 60 nm with a zeta potential of about 30 mV, a low burst release effect within the first day, a sustained release for the next 14 days in vitro as well as an instant cellular uptake by folate receptor-overexpressing KB human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of paclitaxel-loaded FA-TATp-PLs in KB cells was superior to that of Taxol(®). Furthermore, a comparable antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel-loaded FA-TATp-PLs and Taxol(®) was observed at the same doses in murine models bearing nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These results demonstrate that the paclitaxel formulation not only exhibits a higher antitumor activity but also significantly reduces the toxicity and improves the bioavailability as compared to that of free paclitaxel for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Taken together, our findings indicate that paclitaxel-loaded FA-TATp-PLs are a promising nano-sized drug formulation for future cancer therapy.

  16. Exploiting the biomimetic and luminescence properties of multivalent dendrimer-semiconductor nanohybrid materials in the ultra-low level determination of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Somashree; Maiti, Susmita; Das, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debasmita; Roy, Chandra Nath; Saha, Abhijit

    2017-06-26

    In view of the enhanced generation of folate receptors in cancerous cells and diseases linked to the deficiency of folic acid, such as anemia, mental devolution, congenital malformation, etc., the development of a simple method for the ultra-sensitive determination of folic acid remains a long-standing issue for practical applications in medicine and biotechnology. Thus, the proposed luminescence based strategy involving multifunctional poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer encapsulated quantum dots (QDs) as a probe provides a simple, fast and efficient method for the selective determination of folic acid at the nano-molar level. Absorption and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy provide evidence of the binding of folic acid with dendrimer amine groups. The emission quenching of dendrimer encapsulated CdS QDs follows a linear Stern-Volmer plot with an exceedingly high value of the Stern-Volmer constant (K SV = 8.4 × 10 6 M -1 ) facilitating a higher detection efficiency. Similar quenching analysis with dendrimer-ZnS QDs showed a slightly lower Stern-Volmer constant (K SV = 2.29 × 10 6 M -1 ). The lower probing efficiency of the protein or amino acid capping of QDs has been explained through zeta potential measurements. The solvent polarity dependence suggests a charge transfer process responsible for the emission quenching of CdS QDs, which is static in nature as revealed by lifetime measurements. The determination of folic acid at this low level is not affected by possible interfering molecules, such as vitamin C, vitamin B 12 and uric acid. Calorimetric measurements showed that the exothermic binding of folic acid with a dendrimer follows enthalpy-entropy compensation. The detailed mechanistic aspect of interactions of folic acid with the QD probe helps in a better understanding of the detection process, which in turn can assist in developing a dendrimer based material for image analysis and drug delivery in folate receptor rich cells.

  17. The effects of high and low doses of folic acid on oxidation of protein levels during pregnancy: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiralizadeh, Javad; Barmaki, Haleh; Haiaty, Sanya; Faridvand, Yousef; Mostafazadeh, Mostafa; Mokarizadeh, Narmin; Kamrani, Amir; Isazadeh, Alireza; Maroufi, Nazila Fathi

    2017-09-04

    Objective Oxidants include important active molecules which are created in the body and attack biological molecules especially lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins, and cause oxidation and various diseases in the body. Antioxidants existing in the body help to avoid the incidence of these injuries. Pregnant women are among those where oxidation of biological molecules may do irreparable damage to them and their embryos. So, the purpose of this study was to review the effect of folic acid with both high (5 mg/day) and low (0.5 mg/day) doses on the changes of oxidative protein in reducing plasma homocystein concentration during pregnancy. Materials and methods Forty-five pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: group 1 included 23 women who received 5 mg/day folic acid and group 2 included 23 women who took 0.5 mg/day folic acid before pregnancy till the 36th week pregnancy. We measured the biochemical variables in the serum of pregnant women at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results Folic acid reduced plasma homocytein in both low and high dose groups (p = 0.035, p = 0.012, respectively). Also, the results showed that folic acid prescription led to reduce plasma level of carbonyl groups in both low and high dose groups (p = 0.01, p = 0.03, respectively). Furthermore, the results showed that there is no significant difference between two groups and folic acid affects both groups equally. Conclusion It is possible that folic acid administration can reduce plasma homocysteine and carbonyl levels during pregnancy in dose independent manner.

  18. Effect of Methylphenidate and Folic Acid on ADHD Symptoms and Quality of Life and Aggression: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Sayyari, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective This clinical trial examines the effect of augmentation of methylphenidate (MPH) with folic acid to improve quality of life, and to treat aggression and ADHD symptoms. Method Participants of this eight week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial were 49 children with ADHD. They were randomly assigned into one of the two groups: the first group receiving methylphenidate (10 to 20mg/day) plus folic (5mg/day), and the second group receiving methylphenidate plus place...

  19. Low and high dietary folic acid levels perturb postnatal cerebellar morphology in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Maestro-de-Las-Casas, Carmen; Úbeda, Natalia; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    The brain is particularly sensitive to folate metabolic disturbances, because methyl groups are critical for brain functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary levels of folic acid (FA) on postnatal cerebellar morphology, including the architecture and organisation of the various layers. A total of forty male OFA rats (a Sprague-Dawley strain), 5 weeks old, were classified into the following four dietary groups: FA deficient (0 mg/kg FA); FA supplemented (8 mg/kg FA); FA supra-supplemented (40 mg/kg FA); and control (2 mg/kg FA) (all n 10 per group). Rats were fed ad libitum for 30 d. The cerebellum was quickly removed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Slides were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (to label Bergmann glia), calbindin (to label Purkinje cells) and NeuN (to label post-mitotic neurons). Microscopic analysis revealed two types of defect: partial disappearance of fissures and/or neuronal ectopia, primarily in supra-supplemented animals (incidence of 80 %, P≤0·01), but also in deficient and supplemented groups (incidence of 40 %, P≤0·05), compared with control animals. The primary fissure was predominantly affected, sometimes accompanied by defects in the secondary fissure. Our findings show that growing rats fed an FA-modified diet, including both deficient and supplemented diets, have an increased risk of disturbances in cerebellar corticogenesis. Defects caused by these diets may have functional consequences in later life. The present study is the first to demonstrate that cerebellar morphological defects can arise from deficient, as well as high, FA levels in the diet.

  20. The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mari; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Brody, Lawrence C; Parle-McDermott, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is essential for the conversion of folic acid to active folate needed for one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variation within DHFR is restricted to the noncoding regions, and previous studies have focused on a 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism (rs70991108) within intron 1. Reports of an association between this polymorphism and blood folate biomarker concentrations are conflicting. In this study, we evaluated whether the DHFR 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism affects circulating folate biomarkers in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to address this question to date. Healthy young Irish individuals (n = 2507) between 19 and 36 y of age were recruited between February 2003 and February 2004. Folic acid intake from supplements and fortified foods was assessed with the use of a customized food intake questionnaire. Concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B-12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression models. Folic acid intake was positively associated with serum (P folic acid intake (>326 μg folic acid/d; P = 0.96). A nonsignificant trend toward lower RBC folate by genotype (P = 0.09) was observed in the lowest folic acid intake quintile (0-51 μg/d). In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. The Supplementation Effects of Iron and Folic Acid Compared with the Multivitamin and Mineral on Female Workers of Childbearing Age in the Pineapple Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaktiworo Indriani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Female workers of childbearing age (WUS as a major of human resources in many agribusiness exposed to anemia. This study aims to improve the iron status of anemic WUS workers with low hemoglobin (Hb levels, who work in a pineapple agribusiness by iron supplementation. This study was conducted two periods, using a double-blind randomized trial design. Subjects were divided into two treatment groups supplements, namely IF that was given iron + folic acid and MVM that was given multi vitamin and mineral containing 15 different vitamins and minerals including iron and folic acid. The subjects of period-1 were 25 married WUS (IF=13, MVM=12 and of period-2 were 15 single WUS (BF=7, MVM=8. Supplementation performed three times weekly for 10 weeks. After supplementation, the levels of Hb, haematocrit (Hc and serum ferritin of BF-group increased, whereas there were declines in MVM-group. The increase in Hb and Hc in married WUS was higher than the single. However, their Hb was fallen down when supplementation was continued without supervision and getting down when not given the supplements anymore. Supplementation with iron is a must for WUS workers, because they are not able to increase their Hb if only rely on their food.

  2. Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is regarded as a sensitive marker of vitamin B-12 status. Elevated circulating MMA is linked to neurological abnormalities. Contribution of age, supplement use, kidney dysfunction, and vitamin B-12 deficiency to high serum MMA in post-folic acid fortification period is unknown. Methods We investigated prevalence, population attributable risk (PAR, and PAR% for high MMA concentrations in the US. Data from 3 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in post-folic acid fortification period were used (n = 18569. Results Likelihood of having high serum MMA for white relative to black was 2.5 (P P P P P Conclusions Old age is the strongest determinant of PAR for high MMA. About 5 cases of high serum MMA/1000 people would be reduced if vitamin B-12 deficiency (

  3. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score psychomotor development after the first year of life has been shown. Further research from longitudinal studies is warranted to confirm these results.

  4. [Peripheral and optical myeloneuropathy in a folic acid deficient alcoholic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hernández, N; García-Escrivá, A; Pampliega-Pérez, A; Alvarez-Saúco, M; Martín-Estefanía, C; Asensio-Asensio, M

    In Western countries, neurological disorders secondary to toxic nutritional problems usually present as isolated cases that are generally associated to identifiable causes (alcoholism, eating disorders, absorption disorders, use of medicines) that reduce the availability of basic nutrients, especially B group vitamins, but also folic acid (FA). The optic nerves and the peripheral axons are frequent target organs in this type of pathology, but leukoencephalopathy and spinal cord involvement may also appear, often in combination. We describe the case of a 38-year-old female smoker with a heavy alcohol habit, who developed a subacute clinical pattern of, predominantly axonal, sensitive peripheral polyneuropathy, with vegetative fibre involvement. She also presented involvement of the posterior spinal cord, which gave rise to an ataxic disorder in the gait, as well as a severe bilateral retrobulbar optic neuropathy. Likewise, she presented macrocytosis (MCV: 118) due to megaloblastosis. She was also found to have a FA deficit but a normal vitamin B12 metabolism. With the help of supplementary vitamins, stopping drinking and the regularisation of her diet, the patient presented progressive clinical improvement, and was able to walk without support at 3 months and almost completely recovered her sight, which was corroborated by an improvement in the studies of both visual and somatosensorial evoked potentials. In our community, alcoholism is a frequent cause of nutritional deficiencies, which lead to neurological problems. FA is one of the nutrients that become deficient in alcoholics. More and more descriptions are being reported of peripheral polyneuropathy, retrobulbular optic neuropathy, myelopathy or leukoencephalopathy associated to FA deficiency, above all in patients with a history of alcoholism.

  5. Awareness of folic acid use increases its consumption, and reduces the risk of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Atsuo; Morota, Nobuhito; Date, Hiroaki; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Morishima, Toshibumi; Miyazato, Minoru; Shirane, Reizo; Sakai, Hideki; Pooh, Kyong Hon; Watanabe, Tomoyuki

    2015-07-14

    The majority of neural tube defects were believed to be folic acid (FA)-preventable in the 1990s. The Japanese government recommended women planning pregnancy to take FA supplements of 400 μg/d in 2000, but the incidence of spina bifida has not decreased. We aimed to evaluate the OR of having an infant with spina bifida for women who periconceptionally took FA supplements and the association between an increase in supplement use and possible promoters for the increase. This is a case-control study which used 360 case women who gave birth to newborns afflicted with spina bifida, and 2333 control women who gave birth to healthy newborns during the first 12 years of this century. They were divided into two 6-year periods; from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compute OR between cases and controls. The adjusted OR of having an infant with spina bifida for supplement users was 0.48 in the first period, and 0.53 in the second period. The proportion of women who periconceptionally consumed supplements significantly increased from 10 % in the first period to 30 % in the second period. Awareness of the preventive role of FA was a promoter for an increase in supplement use, and thus an FA campaign in high school seems rational and effective. The failure of the current public health policy is responsible for an epidemic of spina bifida. Mandatory food fortification with FA is urgent and long overdue in Japan.

  6. Few Danish pregnant women follow guidelines on periconceptional use of folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Anne Katrine Holflod; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 60-70 pregnancies are affected by neural tube defects (NTD) in Denmark annually. Folic acid (FA) deficiency can cause NTD. Periconceptional FA supplementation reduces the risk of NTD by up to 70-80%. Danish women planning pregnancy are recommended 0.4 mg of FA daily from at least one month before planned conception and continuing throughout the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to examine the knowledge about and use of FA supplementation among Danish pregnant women. From 11 October 2012 to 15 November 2012, all women attending for a routine nuchal translucency scan were given a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and use of FA supplementation during their current pregnancy. A total of 462 women answered the questionnaire. 95% had taken FA supplements at some point during their pregnancy, but only 10.4% as recommended. More than 80% stated knowledge about recommendations before the current pregnancy. Positive predictors of knowledge were: age > 30 years, multiparity, Danish origin and education > 3 years. Despite national recommendations on periconceptional FA supplementation, our study showed that women do not follow these recommendations. Especially women with a low socio-economic status were likely to lack knowledge about FA supplementation in relation to pregnancy. There is a need for revision of the existing national recommendations and for other initiatives aiming to improve women's intake of FA, including FA fortification of flour and/or other food products. not relevant. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (No.: 01855 HVH-2012-044).

  7. Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation in Chinese Women: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Zheng, Yu Zhi; Cao, Lu Jia; Liu, Yu Yan; Li, Wen; Huang, Guo Wei

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the status of folic acid (FA) supplementation and determinants of its use in pregnant Chinese women. In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were used to collect information of participants and FA supplementation. Women were recruited between 6 and 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China, between July 2015 and July 2016. A total of 1,921 women were recruited in the study. Approximately 93.1% of the study participants used FA, while 14.4% of the women taking FA from three months prior to preconception to three months post-conception. Women who took FA for three months prior to preconception through at least three months into their pregnancy were more likely to be between 30 and 34 years old (OR = 2.91, 95% CI: 1.15, 7.33), employed (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.67), primigravida (OR = 5.20, 95% CI: 3.02, 8.96), married to spouses with an intermediate education level (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 1.45, 5.89), and earn a high family income (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.57, 6.49). The prevalence of periconceptional FA intake was far below the requirements of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; therefore, knowledge of FA supplementation should be strengthened among women who are or planning to become pregnant. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of homocysteine and folic acid on angiogenesis and VEGF expression during chicken vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Annelien M; Steegers, Eric A P; Ursem, Nicolette T C

    2012-03-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular developmental defects. Additionally, in experimental studies, vasculotoxic properties of Hcy have been described. Although Hcy has been identified as a vascular pathogen, little is known about the direct effects Hcy exerts during early embryonic vascular development. Angiogenesis is a critical process involved in embryo survival and development. There are limited studies on the effects of Hcy on early embryonic vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Folic acid (FA) is a B vitamin essential in embryo development, and FA supplementation may lead to reduced Hcy levels. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to explore the effects of Hcy and FA on early embryonic vascular development. Embryonic day (E) 3.5 chicken embryos were treated with a sham, Hcy or FA solution. We developed a computational program for systematic analysis of microscopic images obtained from the extra embryonic vascular beds. These results were combined with real-time PCR data on the expression of VEGF-A and its receptor in these vascular beds. Our data show that Hcy exposure inhibits early vascular development, displayed by a significant reduction of vessel area and altered composition of the vascular beds. Vascular beds of Hcy embryos for the greater part consisted of vessels of the smallest diameters, compared to middle size vessels in control and FA embryos. Hcy also reduced expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2. No significant effects of FA were found. We conclude that Hcy exposure causes impaired early extra embryonic vascular development, shown by altered composition of the vascular beds as well as reduced expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2. These effects of Hcy, and the consecutive cascade of events, may be involved in the development of cardiovascular developmental defects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual nutraceutical nanohybrids of folic acid and calcium containing layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min, E-mail: jaemin.oh@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Dual nutraceutical nanohybrids consisting of organic nutrient, folic acid (FA), and mineral nutrient, calcium, were prepared based on layered double hydroxide (LDH) structure. Among various hybridization methods such as coprecipitation, ion exchange, solid phase reaction and exfoliation-reassembly, it was found that exfoliation-reassembly was the most effective in terms of intercalation of FA moiety between Ca-containing LDH layers. X-ray diffraction patterns and infrared spectra indicated that FA molecules were well stabilized in the interlayer space of LDHs through electrostatic interaction. From the atomic force and scanning electron microscopic studies, particle thickness of LDH was determined to be varied with tens, a few and again tens of nanometers in pristine, exfoliated and reassembled state, respectively, while preserving particle diameter. The result confirmed layer-by-layer hybrid structure of FA and LDHs was obtained by exfoliation-reassembly. Solid UV–vis spectra showed 2-dimensional molecular arrangement of FA moiety in hybrid, exhibiting slight red shift in n→π* and π→π* transition. The chemical formulae of FA intercalated Ca-containing LDH were determined to Ca{sub 1.30}Al(OH){sub 4.6}FA{sub 0.74}·3.33H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 1.53}Fe(OH){sub 5.06}FA{sub 2.24}·9.94H{sub 2}O by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and thermogravimetry, showing high nutraceutical content of FA and Ca. - Highlights: • We successfully intercalated FA molecules into Ca-containing LDHs. • Exfoliation-reassembly was proven to be the most effective. • The interaction between LDH and FA were studied by FT-IR and UV–vis spectra. • Thermal stability of FA were enhanced by electrostatic interaction with LDH layers.

  10. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake in the preconceptional period. Dietary folate is protective, but recommending increasing folate intake is ineffective on a population level particularly during periods of high demands. This is because the recommendations are often not followed or because the bioavailability of food folate is variable. Supplemental folate [folic acid (FA) or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF)] can effectively increase folate concentrations to the level that is considered to be protective. FA is a synthetic compound that has no biological functions unless it is reduced to dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate. Unmetabolized FA appears in the circulation at doses of >200 μg. Individuals show wide variations in their ability to reduce FA. Carriers of certain polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism or absorption can better benefit from 5-methylTHF instead of FA. 5-MethylTHF [also known as (6S)-5-methylTHF] is the predominant natural form that is readily available for transport and metabolism. In contrast to FA, 5-methylTHF has no tolerable upper intake level and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation of the natural form, 5-methylTHF, is a better alternative to supplementation of FA, especially in countries not applying a fortification program. Supplemental 5-methylTHF can effectively improve folate biomarkers in young women in early pregnancy in order to prevent NTDs.

  11. Folic acid-capped PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles enter cancer cells mostly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard-Vannier, Emilie; Hervé-Aubert, Katel; Kaaki, Karine; Blondy, Thibaut; Shebanova, Anastasia; Shaitan, Konstantin V; Ignatova, Anastasia A; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Feofanov, Alexey V; Chourpa, Igor

    2017-06-01

    This work is focused on mechanisms of uptake in cancer cells of rationally designed, covalently assembled nanoparticles, made of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), fluorophores (doxorubicin or Nile Blue), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and folic acid (FA), referred hereinafter as SFP-FA. SFP-FA were characterized by DLS, zetametry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The SFP-FA uptake in cancer cells was monitored using fluorescence-based methods like fluorescence-assisted cell sorting, CLSM with single-photon and two-photon excitation. The SFP-FA endocytosis was also analyzed with electron microscopy approaches: TEM, HAADF-STEM and EELS. The SFP-FA have zeta potential below -6mW and stable hydrodynamic diameter close to 100nm in aqueous suspensions of pH range from 5 to 8. They contain ca. 109 PEG-FA, 480 PEG-OCH 3 and 22-27 fluorophore molecules per SPION. The fluorophores protected under the PEG shell allows a reliable detection of intracellular NPs. SFP-FA readily enter into all the cancer cell lines studied and accumulate in lysosomes, mostly via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, whatever the FR status on the cells. The present study highlights the advantages of rational design of nanosystems as well as the possible involvement of direct molecular interactions of PEG and FA with cellular membranes, not limited to FA-FR recognition, in the mechanisms of their endocytosis. Composition, magnetic and optical properties of the SFP-FA as well their ability to enter cancer cells are promising for their applications in cancer theranosis. Combination of complementary analytical approaches is relevant to understand the nanoparticles behavior in suspension and in contact with cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid and the potential impact on Mexican-American women with lower acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Heather C; Tinker, Sarah C; Flores, Alina L; Mulinare, Joe; Weakland, Aliki P; Dowling, Nicole F

    2013-05-01

    Hispanics with lower acculturation may be at higher risk for neural tube defects compared with those with higher acculturation due to lower total folic acid intake or other undetermined factors. Modelling has indicated that fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively target Mexican Americans more than other race/ethnicities. We assessed whether fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid could selectively increase folic acid intake among Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, as indicated by specific factors (language preference, country of origin, time living in the USA). We used dietary intake and dietary supplement data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008, to estimate the amount of additional total folic acid that could be consumed if products considered to contain corn masa flour were fortified at 140 μg of folic acid per 100 g of corn masa flour. USA. Non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years (n 5369). Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish had a relative percentage change in usual daily total folic acid intake of 30·5 (95 % CI 27·8, 33·4) %, compared with 8·3 (95 % CI 7·3, 9·4) % for Mexican-American women who reported speaking English. We observed similar results for other acculturation factors. An increase of 6·0 percentage points in the number of Mexican-American women who would achieve the recommended intake of ≥400 μg folic acid/d occurred with fortification of corn masa flour; compared with increases of 1·1 percentage points for non-Hispanic whites and 1·3 percentage points for non-Hispanic blacks. An even greater percentage point increase was observed among Mexican-American women who reported speaking Spanish (8·2). Fortification of corn masa flour could selectively increase total folic acid intake among Mexican-American women, especially targeting Mexican-American women with lower acculturation, and result in a decrease in the number of pregnancies affected by

  13. Study of wheat breakfast rolls fortified with folic acid. The effect on folate status in women during a 3-month intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Madelene; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Bruce, Ake; Jägerstad, Margaretha

    2002-12-01

    Folate has come into focus due to its protective role against child birth defects such as neural tube defects (NTD). Swedish authorities recommend all fertile women to increase their folate intake to 400 microg/day by eating folate-rich foods. Because not all women follow these recommendations, there is a discussion today about whether Sweden should introduce folic acid fortification in wheat flour and sifted rye flour. This decision needs knowledge about the bioavailability of folic acid from fortified foods. To investigate effects of two folic acid fortification levels on folate status in healthy female volunteers and to study the folic acid stability during the baking procedure and storage of the fortified breakfast rolls. Twenty-nine healthy women were recruited. Folic acid-fortified wheat breakfast rolls were baked with the purpose to contain 200 microg folic acid/roll (roll L) and 400 microg folic acid/roll (roll H). Fourteen women were given one roll/day of roll L (group L) and 15 one roll/day of roll H (group H) during 12 weeks of intervention. Fasting venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Serum homocysteine concentrations were determined using an immunoassay. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were analysed using a protein-binding assay with fluorescent quantification. The folic acid concentration in the breakfast rolls was analysed by HPLC on days 0, 30, 60 and 90. Total folate concentration was measured with microbiological assay on day 45. Group L Group L had initially an average erythrocyte folate concentration of 577 +/- 93 nmol/L. After 90 days of intervention, an increase of 20 % (p level of 18.7 +/- 4.8 nmol/L at day 0. Thereafter, all women of group H had serum concentrations at or above the upper limit of quantification (23 nmol/L). At day 0, mean serum homocysteine concentrations were 8.4 +/- 1.7 micromol/L, which decreased by 16 % (p level of fortification seems to be sufficient to improve the folate status

  14. RP-HPLC Determination of vitamins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitamin tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOTE VLADIMIROV

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Asimple and sensitive reversed-phase, ion-pair HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of B-group vitamins, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (B1, nicotinamide (B3, pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6 and folic acid in Pentovit® coated tablets. The cyanocobalamine (B12 was determined separately, because of its low concentration in the investigated multivitamin preparation. RP-HPLC analysis was performed with a LKB 2150 HPLC system, equipped with a UV/VIS Waters M484 detector. The procedures for the determination of B1, B2, B6 and folic acid were carried out on a Supelcosil ABZ+ (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column with methanol-5mM heptanesulphonic acid sodium salt 0.1%triethylamine TEA(25:75 V/V; pH 2.8 as themobile phase. For the determination of B12 a Suplex pKb-100 (15 cm 4.6 mm; 5 µm column andmethanol–water (22:78 V/V as themobile phase were used. The column effluentsweremonitored at 290 nm for B 1, B3, B6 and folic acid, and at 550 nm for B12. The obtained results and statistical parameters for all the investigated vitamins of the B-group in Pentovit® coated tablets were satisfactory and ranged from 90.4 % to 108.5 % (RSD. from 0.5% to 4.1 %. The parameters for the validation of the methods are given.

  15. Use of folic acid and vitamin supplementation among adults with depression and anxiety: a cross-sectional, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Janet B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that folate deficiency may be causatively linked to depressive symptoms. However, little is known on the status of use of folic acid and vitamin supplements among people with mental disorders. This study examined the prevalence and the likelihood of use of folic acid or vitamin supplements among adults with depression and anxiety in comparison to those without these conditions. Methods Using data from 46, 119 participants (aged ≥ 18 years in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, we estimated the adjusted prevalence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for taking folic acid and vitamin supplements among those with ever diagnosed depression (n = 8, 019, ever diagnosed anxiety (n = 5, 546 or elevated depressive symptoms (n = 3, 978, defined as having a depression severity score of ≥ 10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 diagnostic algorithm. Results Overall, women were more likely than men to take folic acid supplements 1-4 times/day (50.2% versus 38.7%, P Conclusion The prevalence and the likelihood of taking folic acid and vitamin supplements varied substantially by a history of diagnosed depression among both men and women and by a history of diagnosed anxiety among men, but not by presence of elevated depressive symptoms in either sex.

  16. Broadcasting behavior change: a comparison of the effectiveness of paid and unpaid media to increase folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Hispanic women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alina L; Prue, Christine E; Daniel, Katherine Lyon

    2007-04-01

    Awareness about folic acid's effectiveness in reducing the risk of certain birth defects has increased among women in the United States; however, few Hispanic women are consuming enough folic acid daily. A 1998 survey conducted by the Gallup Organization for the National March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation found that English-speaking Hispanic women had lower folic acid awareness (53% vs. 72%) and lower daily consumption (29% vs. 33%) than non-Hispanic White women. In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted baseline surveys with Spanish-speaking Hispanic women in selected U.S. markets to measure folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption. A Spanish-language public service announcement (PSA) volunteer campaign and a paid Spanish-language media and community education campaign were conducted in 2000 and 2002, respectively. Comparisons of postcampaign surveys indicate that the paid media campaign was significantly more effective than the PSA campaign in increasing folic acid awareness, knowledge, and consumption among Spanish-speaking Hispanic women.

  17. Birth outcomes of newborns after folic Acid supplementation in pregnant women with early and late pre-eclampsia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Dudás, István; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight in the newborns of pregnant women with early and late onset pre-eclampsia according to folic acid supplementation. Study design. Birth outcomes of newborns were evaluated in 1,017 (2.7%) pregnant women with medically recorded pre-eclampsia and 37,134 pregnant women without pre-eclampsia as reference in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996, in addition these study groups were differentiated according to the supplementation of high dose of folic acid alone from early pregnancy. Results. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia associated with a higher rate of preterm birth (10.2% versus 9.1%) and low birthweight (7.9% versus 5.6%). There was a lower risk of preterm birth (6.8%) of newborn infants born to pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy though the rate of low birthweight was not reduced significantly. There was no significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight in pregnant women with late onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. The rate of preterm birth in pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia was reduced moderately by high doses of folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of inadequate use of folic acid supplementation in Japanese pregnant women: the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Taku; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Nishigori, Toshie; Metoki, Hirohito; Ishikuro, Mami; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Mizuno, Satoshi; Sakurai, Kasumi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Murai, Yuriko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Nakai, Kunihiko; Mano, Nariyasu; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Kuriyama, Shinichi

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and determinants of inadequate use of folic acid supplementation in pregnant Japanese women. This study was part of the Japan Environment and Children's Study, a nationwide and government-funded birth cohort study. We collected information on the use of folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy and characteristics of participants using self-administered questionnaire. Among 9849 women who completed the data collection for this study, the prevalence of inadequate users was 92.6% of the total population and varied from 84.5% to 96.2% among regions. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, not married, lower family income, multipara, natural conception and no history of spontaneous abortion were found to be determinants for inadequate users of folic acid supplementation. Most Japanese pregnant women show inadequate folic acid supplementation use. Japanese women of child-bearing age need to be specifically informed about the need for periconceptional intake of folic acid to prevent neural tube defects.

  19. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  20. Comparative Study of Folic Acid and α-Naphthoflavone on Reducing TCDD-Induced Cleft Palate in Fetal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingang; He, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Cuiping; Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lin; Pu, Wei; Fu, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

      Tocompare the effect of folic acid (FA) and α-naphthoflavone on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced cleft palate in fetal mice.   Pregnant mice were randomly divided into seven groups. The mice treated with corn oil were used as a negative control. The mice in the other six groups were given a single dose of 28 μg/kg TCDD on GD 10 by gavage. For FA treatment, TCDD-treated mice were also dosed with 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg FA on GD 10, while for α-naphthoflavone treatment, the mice received a single dose of 50 μg/kg or 5 mg/kg α-naphthoflavone on GD 10.   Fetal mice palates were imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy on GD 13.5, GD 14.5, and GD 15.5, and cleft palate were recorded on GD 17.5. The expression of guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor (GDI) in fetal mice palate on GD 15.5 was examined by immunohistochemistry.   TCDD successfully induced cleft palate. Ten mg/ml FA and 5 mg/ml α-naphthoflavone significantly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate. FA and α-naphthoflavone partly reduced TCDD-induced cleft palate but did not affect the expression of Rho GDI.   FA and α-naphthoflavone may reduce the generation of reactive oxygen species, inhibit MEE apoptosis through anti-oxidation, and increase filopodia and MEE movement. This may result in restoration of the ultrastructure of the palatal surface to a normal state, leading to the fusion and formation of complete palate in TCDD-treated fetal mice.

  1. [Effect of the folic acid and vitamin B2 on the diabetes mellitus rats with diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongxian; Fan, Yanfeng; Xiang, Jianjun; Zhan, Meirong

    2012-11-01

    To explore the relationship among the folic acid, vitamin B12 and diabetic nephropathy and to discuss the mechanism of the diabetic microangiopathy. We selected 80 SD rats, and then divided them into 2 groups randomly. Those were the control group and the model groups. During the process of this study, the control group was fed with the normal animal feeds; the model groups were fed with the high calorie diets for 10 weeks. At the end of the tenth week, the rats of the model group were induced to diabetes mellitus by intraperitoneal injection with streptozocin 30mg/kg, and then we divided the diabetes mellitus rats into 4 groups which measured the levels of the blood fat (total cholesterin, triglyceride), Fins, FBG, SOD, MDA, GSH-Px. Results (1) Through feeding the rats with the special feeds for a long time, and then injecting with streptozocin can make them develop to be the diabetes mellitus. The model groups' levels of the triglyceride, the cholesterin and the random blood glucose were (1.07 +/- 0.27), (2.29 +/- 0.42), (21.12 +/- 4.21) mmol/L, respectively, those were significantly higher than the control group's levels which were (1.11 +/- 0.20), (0.68 +/- 0.11), (5.73 +/- 0.26) mmol/L (P tissue was the most serious through the method of periodic acid-Schiff' s staining (PAS), and the level of the MDA was also highest (P What' s more, both of the folic acid and the vitamin B12 could reduce the increase of the 24hours urinary albumin, especially using the folic acid and the vitamin B12 together. Using the special feeds to feed the SD rats for ten weeks and then inject STZ (30 mg/kg) from abdominal cavity can make them develop to be the diabetes mellitus. The supplement with folic acid and vitamin B12 had the effect of protecting the capillary of the kidney from damage, and the mechanism may have something to do with the effect of anti-oxygenation.

  2. Biomedical applications of SPION@APTES@PEG-folic acid@carboxylated quercetin nanodrug on various cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akal, Z.Ü.; Alpsoy, L.; Baykal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SPION has been synthesized via Reflux synthesis route. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has super paramagnetic property. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 cells. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, carboxylated quercetin (CQ) was conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) which were modified by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), Folic acid (FA) and carboxylated Polyethylene glycol (PEG); (SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ), nanodrug has been synthesized via polyol and accompanying by various chemical synthesis routes. The characterization of the final product was done via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Its cytotoxic and apoptotic activities on over expressed folic acid receptor (FR + ) (MCF-7, HeLa) and none expressed folic acid receptor (FR-) (A549) cancer cell lines were determined by using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis, TUNEL assay, Annexin assay and RT-PCR analysis for Caspase3/7 respectively. SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug showed higher cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines as compared with A549 cell line. Moreover, SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug also caused higher apoptotic and necrotic effects in 100 μg/mL HeLa and MCF-7 cells than A549 cells. The findings showed that SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 which are FR over expressed cell lines and can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells.

  3. Biomedical applications of SPION@APTES@PEG-folic acid@carboxylated quercetin nanodrug on various cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Z.Ü., E-mail: zulker@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Department of Medical Biology, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, 34500 Büyükçekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SPION has been synthesized via Reflux synthesis route. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has super paramagnetic property. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 cells. • SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, carboxylated quercetin (CQ) was conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) which were modified by (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), Folic acid (FA) and carboxylated Polyethylene glycol (PEG); (SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ), nanodrug has been synthesized via polyol and accompanying by various chemical synthesis routes. The characterization of the final product was done via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Its cytotoxic and apoptotic activities on over expressed folic acid receptor (FR + ) (MCF-7, HeLa) and none expressed folic acid receptor (FR-) (A549) cancer cell lines were determined by using MTT assay, Real-Time Cell Analysis, TUNEL assay, Annexin assay and RT-PCR analysis for Caspase3/7 respectively. SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug showed higher cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines as compared with A549 cell line. Moreover, SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug also caused higher apoptotic and necrotic effects in 100 μg/mL HeLa and MCF-7 cells than A549 cells. The findings showed that SPION@APTES@FA-PEG@CQ nanodrug has cytotoxic, apoptotic and necrotic effects on HeLa and MCF-7 which are FR over expressed cell lines and can be potentially used for the delivery of quercetin to cervical and breast cancer cells.

  4. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Levels During all the Trimesters in Pregnant and Preeclamptic Womens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Simmi; Aggarwal, Dipti; Bala, Jyoti; Nanda, Smiti

    2016-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 are required for homocysteine metabolism and their deficiency can result in increased homocysteine concentration. Homocysteine concentrations have been found to be increased in late pregnancy toward nonpregnant values. To study folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine levels in cord blood and maternal blood in preeclampsia. One hundred fifty pregnant women attending Out Patient Department of Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology were recruited for the study. Grouped as: GROUP I (control): Fifty normotensive women with singleton pregnancy immediately after delivery; GROUP II (study): Fifty (age and gestation matched women with singleton pregnancy) women with preeclampsia immediately after delivery; GROUP III (study): Fifty normotensive pregnant women were recruited in first trimester (8-12 weeks) that were followed in second (24-28 weeks) and third trimester (32-36 weeks). Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were investigated by competitive immunoassay using direct chemiluminiscence technology. Homocysteine and folic acid levels were higher in maternal blood of hypertensive pregnant women as compared to normotensive pregnant women (p0.05 respectively). Vitamin B12 levels were lower in maternal blood of hypertensive pregnant women as compared to normotensive pregnant women. Levels of homocysteine were higher in cord blood of hypertensive pregnant women as compared to normotensive pregnant women (phomocysteine and folic acid levels of mothers in group II that was statistically significant. Elevated homocysteine and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy may be a risk factor for preeclampsia and future risk of cardiovascular risk. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Apoptosis selectively induced in BEL-7402 cells by folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles combined with 100 Hz magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wen,1 Shulian Jiang,1 Zhiqiang Chen,1 Wei Zhao,1 Yongxiang Yi,1 Ruili Yang,1 Baoan Chen2 1Second Affiliated Hospital of Southeast University, 2Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Objective: To explore the effect of folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles (FA-MNPs combined with a 100 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF on the apoptosis of liver cancer BEL-7402 cells. Materials and methods: MNPs (20 nm were prepared by coprecipitation, and then folic acid was coated onto MNPs to prepare FA-MNPs. BEL-7402 cells and HL7702 cells were selected as liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, respectively. The ELF-EMF was generated from a solenoid coil. Cellular uptake of NPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cell inhibition. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance. Results: FA-MNPs combined with a 100 Hz magnetic field significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced higher apoptosis compared to either the ELF-EMF alone or FA-MNPs alone. FA-MNPs showed a better apoptosis effect and higher iron uptake in BEL-7402 cells compared to in HL7702 cells. On the basis of the ELF-EMF, higher doses of FA-MNPs brought higher apoptosis and higher iron uptake in either BEL-7402 cells or HL7702 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that FA-MNPs may induce apoptosis in a cellular iron uptake-dependent manner when combined with an ELF-EMF in BEL-7402 cells.Keywords: extremely low-frequency magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticle, apoptosis, liver cancer, folic acid

  6. A pre-anodized inlaying ultrathin carbon paste electrode for simultaneous determination of uric acid and folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Jing’e; Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Quanmin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In 0.10 mol/L PBS (pH 6.00), oxidation reaction occurred at the PAIUCPE owing to uric acid (UA) loss electrons, while oxygen dissolved in the feed was reduced at the platinum electrode. Furthermore, the effect of electrode reaction at the platinum electrode on that of working electrode is detailedly discussed. Highlights: ► The simultaneous determination of UA and FA is achieved at the PAIUCPE. ► The effect of reaction at the Pt electrode on that of working electrode is discussed. ► The effect of pH on peak currents is detailedly explained for the first time. -- Abstract: A pre-anodized inlaying ultrathin carbon paste electrode (PAIUCPE) was prepared by electrochemical pretreatment. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to characterize the surface morphology of PAIUCPE and the performance of the electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results indicated that PAIUCPE displayed excellent electrocatalysis for the oxidation of uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA). The separated extent between the two oxidation peaks of UA and FA was 324 mV, which was enough for the simultaneous detection. In 0.10 mol/L PBS (pH 6.00), the linear scan voltammetry (LSV) response of UA and FA increased linearly with the concentration in the range of 4.0 × 10 −6 –3.5 × 10 −4 mol/L and 3.0 × 10 −6 –2.0 × 10 −4 mol/L with the detection limits of 1.1 × 10 −7 mol/L and 1.5 × 10 −7 mol/L, respectively. It was successfully used to determine UA and FA in human urine simultaneously

  7. Developmental toxicity of ethanol in chick heart in ovo and in micromass culture can be prevented by addition of vitamin C and folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Samreen; Pratten, Margaret K

    2009-09-01

    The teratogenic effects of ethanol include malformations of the cardiovascular system, which may be abrogated by multivitamin therapy. Chick cardiomyocytes in micromass culture were treated with ethanol alone or with supplementation with folate or vitamin C. Ethanol alone caused a loss of cell viability and differentiation (beating) whereas those cells treated in addition with vitamins were comparable to the control. Chick embryos were injected on day 3 of incubation with PBS, ethanol alone or with additional vitamin C or folic acid. On day 9 embryos were examined for viability, growth retardation and gross malformation and the hearts were processed for histology. Results showed that ethanol significantly decreased survival of embryos or caused growth retardation and gross malformation (pEmbryos incubated with addition of vitamin C or folic acid were comparable to the control. Data obtained in this study suggest that supplementation with vitamin C or folic acid during pregnancy may prevent defects in heart development brought about by ethanol.

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with folic acid for dual target-specific drug delivery and MRI in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinping; Mao, Kaili; Zhang, Baolin; Zhao, Yingzheng

    2017-01-01

    Monodispersed SPIONs (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles) co-coated with PEG and PEI polymers were prepared by an improved polyol method. To accomplish cancer-specific targeting properties, FA (folic acid) was then modified on the SPIONs via EDC/NHS method (FA-SPIONs). Doxorubicin (DOX) as an example anticancer drug was loaded within FA-SPIONs (DOX@FA-SPIONs), the DOX release rate of DOX@FA-SPIONs was much high in low pH PBS. The SPIONs, FA-SPIONs and DOX@FA-SPIONs with mean hydrodynamic diameters of 23, 40 and 67nm, respectively, performed excellent colloidal stability in PBS. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) study implicates that the DOX@FA-SPIONs target MCF-7 cells efficiently through the FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. DOX@FA-SPIONs were tested in nude mice with xenograft MCF-7 breast tumor though tail intravenous injection and were found inhibiting tumor growth more efficiently. The application of a magnetic field (MF) greatly improved the growth inhibiting efficiencies of DOX@FA-SPIONs on MCF-7 cells in vitro and on xenograft MCF-7 breast tumor of nude mice in vivo. The aggregation of SPIONs in tumor was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the DOX@FA-SPIONs exhibited high r 2 relaxivity (81.77mM -1 S -1 ). Histology on liver, Lung, kidney and heart in mice showed no significant toxicity of DOX@FA-SPIONs on mice organs after 35-day treatment. The FA-SPIONs are a high efficient drug delivery nanoplatform for advanced cancer theranostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of periconceptional folic acid uptake--prospective cohort study in an Irish urban obstetric population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGuire, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe abnormalities of the central nervous system that occur as a result of abnormal development in the third and fourth weeks of gestation. Studies have shown that periconceptional folic acid (FA) can reduce both the incidence and recurrence of NTDs. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out using the electronic hospital booking records of women delivering in a large Dublin maternity hospital between 2000 and 2007. Logistic regression analyses were performed to measure the associations between maternal factors and optimal FA use. RESULTS: Of the 61,252 women in the cohort, 85% reported taking FA at some point during the periconceptional period; however, only 28% took FA as recommended. Factors associated with taking the recommended amount of FA included nulliparity [adjusted OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.28-1.43)], early booking (<12 weeks) [OR: 1.24 (95% CI: 1.17-1.31)], increasing maternal age (e.g. 30-34 years) [OR: 1.39 (95% CI: 1.30-1.48)], private health care [OR: 4.32 (95% CI: 4.1-4.6)] and fertility treatment [OR: 2.88 (95% CI: 2.44-3.40)]. Factors associated with taking less than recommended or no FA included unplanned pregnancy [OR: 0.08 (0.07-0.08)], lower socio-economic status (e.g. unemployed) [OR: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.55-0.71)], non-Irish nationality [OR: 0.82 (0.74-0.90)] and smokers [OR: 0.51 (95% CI: 0.47-0.55)]. CONCLUSIONS: Social, demographic and economic factors have an important influence on the FA uptake. Vulnerable groups who report limited uptake of FA need to be specifically targeted in future Public Health campaigns and further consideration needs to be given to the debate on food fortification in countries where this is currently not available.

  10. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P. [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gurinov, Andrey [Research Resources Center for Magnetic Resonance, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskij pr. 26, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel [Laboratorio Desarrollo-Envejecimiento, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente (CIBO), Instituto Mexicano de Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Química, Universidad de Guadalajara, Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-03-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488 nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Functionalization with folic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Dysprosium doping does not affect the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. • Dysprosium doped particles are visible in fluorescent microscope. • Dysprosium doped particles act as MRI contrast agents.

  11. Dual responsive dysprosium-doped hydroxyapatite particles and toxicity reduction after functionalization with folic and glucuronic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez Lafarga, Ana Karen; Pacheco Moisés, Fermín P.; Gurinov, Andrey; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Carbajal Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    The development of probes for biomedical applications demands materials with low toxicity levels besides fluorescence or magnetic properties to be detected by confocal microscopes or MRI resonators. Several drug delivery systems or other biomedical materials prepared with hydroxyapatite have been proposed, however, toxicity effects might arise when the size of particles is nanometric. In this study, hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic or folic acids presented lower oxidative stress, measured from lipoperoxides and nitric oxide indicators in rats than pure hydroxyapatite. In separated experiments, hydroxyapatite was doped with dysprosium cations by coprecipitation producing a single crystal phase with fluorescent properties easily visualized by confocal microscopy when excited at 488 nm. These particles also presented the ability to modify the proton relaxation time in T1 maps collected by magnetic resonance imaging. These modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticles could be candidates to design bimodal probes with low toxicity. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite functionalized with glucuronic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Functionalization with folic acid reduced oxidative stress in rats. • Dysprosium doping does not affect the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite. • Dysprosium doped particles are visible in fluorescent microscope. • Dysprosium doped particles act as MRI contrast agents

  12. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values are higher and prevalence of anemia is lower in the post-folic acid fortification period than in the pre-folic acid fortification period in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    It is not known whether the improved folate status from mandatory folic acid fortification had any impact on indexes and prevalence of anemias in the United States. We investigated trends in indexes and prevalence of anemia and macrocytosis with a focus on comparison of prefortification data with postfortification data. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and prevalences and likelihood of anemia and macrocytosis were determined for 26,596 adults examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-2004. From 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, hemoglobin modestly but significantly improved from 15.1 to 15.4 g/dL (approximately 2.0%; P 60 y) men (from 91.6 to 92.4; P = 0.0105) and in women (from 90.7 to 91.4; P = 0.0141). Only in women was the prevalence of anemia significantly lower in 1999-2004 than in 1988-1994 (27.9% reduction; P = 0.0005). The odds of having anemia in the postfortification period relative to the prefortification period was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.75; P hemoglobin and the decreased prevalence of anemia from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, especially in women, may be attributable to improved folate status, increased vitamin/mineral supplements use, and other unknown causes after the initiation of folic acid fortification. The cause of increased MCV in men, and in older persons of both sexes, warrants further investigation.

  13. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  14. Folic Acid Represses Hypoxia-Induced Inflammation in THP-1 Cells through Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α Pathway.

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    Xiaoyan Huang

    Full Text Available Though hypoxia has been implicated as a cause of inflammation, the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Folic acid has been shown to provide protection against oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with cardiovascular disease and various models approximating insult to tissue via inflammation. It has been reported that hypoxia-induced inflammation is associated with oxidative stress, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α, and production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Whether folic acid protects human monocytic cells (THP-1 cells against hypoxia-induced damage, however, remains unknown. We used THP-1 cells to establish a hypoxia-induced cellular injury model. Pretreating THP-1 cells with folic acid attenuated hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses, including a decrease in protein and mRNA levels of interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, coupled with increased levels of IL-10. Folic acid also reduced hypoxia-induced Akt phosphorylation and decreased nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α protein. Both LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase, PI3K and KC7F2 (a HIF-1α inhibitor reduced levels of hypoxia-induced inflammatory cytokines. We also found that insulin (an Akt activator and dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG, a HIF-1α activator induced over-expression of inflammatory cytokines, which could be blocked by folic acid. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how folic acid attenuates the hypoxia-induced inflammatory responses of THP-1 cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/HIF-1α pathway.

  15. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming.

  16. Overview of Flour Fortification Program with Iron and Folic Acid in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: A large percentage of the world population suffers from hidden hunger, which is defined as micronutrients deficiency. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common complications of the micronutrients deficiency and there is a lot of effort to deal with this problem. For this purpose, this study aimed to examine the program of flour fortification with iron in Iran. Methods: The cohort, case-control, and clinical trial studies with the search strategies such as iron deficiency anemia, fortification, and micronutrients deficiency, which were conducted until 2015 were included. The data sources entailed PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier Science, Blackwell Synergy, and Google. All the selected studies were available in English and Persian. Results: In several countries, the best method for correction of the iron deficiency anemia is food fortification due to high efficacy and low adverse effects of this method. Bread is a staple food in Iran; therefore, flour fortification was performed in this country. The premix powder containing 30 ppm of iron and 1.5 ppm of folic acid was used for flour fortification. Considering the various types of wealth, the total amount of iron in flour was up to 80 to 85 ppm that may lead to iron poisoning in people with a low socio-economic status because of high bread consumption, as well as the individuals with high socio-economic status since they receive iron from the other resources. Therefore this program was stopped in several provinces due to the mentioned complication. Conclusion: Prior to the implementation of this program, it was essential to carry out abundant pilot studies to investigate the probable complications and problems of this plan. To the best of our knowledge, there is limited number of studies conducted on the adverse effects of iron fortification in Iran; therefore, further studies are recommended in this issue.

  17. Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Kogan, Vladimir; Shelton, Janie F; Delwiche, Lora; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Ma, Claudia C; McCanlies, Erin C; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Tancredi, Daniel J; Volk, Heather E

    2017-09-08

    Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures. Maternal supplemental FA and household pesticide product use were retrospectively collected in telephone interviews from 2003-2011. High vs. low daily FA intake was dichotomized at 800μg (median). Mothers' addresses were linked to a statewide database of commercial applications to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure. High FA intake (≥800μg) during the first pregnancy month and no known pesticide exposure was the reference group for all analyses. Compared with this group, ASD was increased in association with pesticide exposure {adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.7]} compared with low FA [OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.2)] or indoor pesticides [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)] alone. ORs for the combination of low FA and regular pregnancy exposure (≥6 mo) to pet pesticides or to outdoor sprays and foggers were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4, 11.5) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.1), respectively. ORs for low maternal FA and agricultural pesticide exposure 3 mo before or after conception were 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 6.5) for chlorpyrifos, 2.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 5.3) for organophosphates, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) for pyrethroids, and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8) for carbamates. Except for carbamates, these ORs were approximately two times greater than those for either exposure alone or for the expected ORs for combined exposures under multiplicative or additive models. In this study population, associations between pesticide exposures and ASD

  18. The effects of long-term daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Lute, Carolien; Heil, Sandra G; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Schoor, Natasja M; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Folate and its synthetic form folic acid function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 μg folic acid and 500 μg vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of 2 years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n = 44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n = 43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8, and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development

  19. Congenital Anomalies in Children of Mothers Taking Antiepileptic Drugs with and without Periconceptional High Dose Folic Acid Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

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    Lu Ban

    Full Text Available Antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED use has been found to be associated with increased major congenital anomaly (CA risks. However whether such AED-associated risks were different according to periconceptional high dose (5mg daily folic acid supplementation is still unclear.We included 258,591 singleton live-born children of mothers aged 15-44 years in 1990-2013 from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database. We identified all major CAs according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification. Absolute risks and adjusted odds ratios (aOR were calculated comparing children of mothers prescribed AEDs to those without such prescriptions, stratified by folic acid prescriptions around the time of conception (one month before conception to two months post-conception.CA risk was 476/10,000 in children of mothers with first trimester AEDs compared with 269/10,000 in those without AEDs equating to an aOR of 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.56. The highest system-specific risks were for heart anomalies (198/10,000 and 79/10,000 respectively, aOR 2.49,1.47-4.21. Sodium valproate and lamotrigine were both associated with increased risks of any CA (aOR 2.63,1.46-4.74 and aOR 2.01,1.12-3.59 respectively and system-specific risks. Stratification by folic acid supplementation did not show marked reductions in AED-associated risks (e.g. for CAs overall aOR 1.75, 1.01-3.03 in the high dose folic acid group and 1.94, 95%CI 1.21-3.13 in the low dose or no folic acid group; however, the majority of mothers taking AEDs only initiated high dose folic acid from the second month of pregnancy.Children of mothers with AEDs in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 2-fold increased risk of major CA compared to those unexposed. We found no evidence that prescribed high dose folic acid supplementation reduced such AED-associated risks. Although statistical power was limited, prescribing of folic acid too late for it to be

  20. Association between Folic Acid and Zinc Concentration with Incidence of Bacterial Vaginosis in The First Trimester of Pregnancy

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    Noroyono Wibowo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV in pregnancy is associated with the increase of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor. One of the multifactorial causes of BV is thechange in vaginal immunity. Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiency, increases the vulnerability toinfections. This study aim to investigate the association between folic acid and zinc concentration with theincidence of bacterial vaginosis in the first trimester of pregnancy. This descriptive cross sectional studyinvolved 139 mothers with first trimester pregnancy, aged between 17-39 years old. The study was conductedat dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from September 2013 until August 2014. Vaginal secretions was sampledto diagnose BV under nugent criteria. Folic acid and zinc in the serum were measured. From 139 subject,18.7% (n=26 were found to be BV positive (nugent score =7. No deficiency of folic acid (<7 ng/mL and40.3% (n=56 of zinc deficiency (<60  µg/dL were found. Bivariate analysis used Kruskal-Wallis test betweenfolic acid and zinc concentration with BV incidence gives p value of 0.668 and 0.478 respectively. Prevalenceof BV in this study was 18.7%. The relation between the maternal statuses of folic acid with BV in the firsttrimester of pregnancy was not found. Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, folic acid, zinc, pregnancy.   Hubungan antara Kadar Asam Folat dan Seng terhadap KejadianVaginosis Bakteri pada Trimester Pertama Kehamilan Abstrak Bakterial vaginosis (BV pada kehamilan dihubungkan dengan meningkatnya luaran maternal yang buruk seperti ketuban pecah dini dan persalinan prematur. Penyebab BV multifaktor salah satunya adalahperubahan imunitas di vagina. Malnutrisi termasuk defisiensi mikronutrien meningkatkan kerentananterhadap infeksi. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kadar asam folat dan seng terhadapkejadian vaginosis bakteri pada trimester pertama kehamilan. Penelitian ini merupakan studi

  1. Folic acid-conjugated 4-amino-phenylboronate, a boron-containing compound designed for boron neutron capture therapy, is an unexpected agonist for human neutrophils and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Jadhav, Sushilkumar A; Guidetti, Gianni F; Ciana, Annarita; Abbonante, Vittorio; Malara, Alessandro; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Torti, Mauro; Balduini, Alessandra; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2014-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an anticancer treatment based on the accumulation in the tumor cells of (10) B-containing molecules and subsequent irradiation with low-energy neutrons, which bring about the decay of (10) B to very toxic (7) Li(3+) and (4) He(2+) ions. The effectiveness of BNCT is limited by the low delivery and accumulation of the used (10) B-containing compounds. Here, we report the development of folic acid-conjugated 4-amino-phenylboronate as a novel possible compound for the selective delivery of (10) B in BNCT. An extensive analysis about its biocompatibility to mature blood cells and platelet progenitors revealed that the compound markedly supports platelet aggregation, neutrophil oxidative burst, and inhibition of megakaryocyte development, while it does not have any manifest effect on red blood cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Folic acid, polymorphism of methyl-group metabolism genes, and DNA methylation in relation to GI carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing Yuan; Xiao, Shu Dong

    2003-01-01

    DNA methylation is the main epigenetic modification after replication in humans. DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DNMT) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to C5 of cytosine within CpG dinucleotide sequences in the genomic DNA of higher eukaryotes. There is considerable evidence that aberrant DNA methylation plays an integral role in carcinogenesis. Folic acid or folate is crucial for normal DNA synthesis and can regulate DNA methylation, and through this, it affects cellular SAM levels. Folate deficiency results in DNA hypomethylation. Epidemiological studies have indicated that folic acid protects against gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MS) are the enzymes involved in folate metabolism and are thought to influence DNA methylation. MTHFR is highly polymorphic, and the variant genotypes result in decreased MTHFR enzyme activity and lower plasma folate level. Two common MTHFR polymorphisms, 677CT (or 677TT) and A1298C, and an MS polymorphism, A-->G at 2756, have been identified. Most studies support an inverse association between folate status and the rate of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. During human GI carcinogenesis, MTHFR is highly polymorphic, and the variant genotypes result in decreased MTHFR enzyme activity and lower plasma folate level, as well as aberrant methylation.

  3. Folate-binding protein and the absorption of folic acid in the small intestine of the suckling rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1988-01-01

    The folate in milk is largely bound to high-affinity folate-binding protein (FBP). With an in vivo intestinal loop technique, we examined the absorption of folic acid bound to FBP (FA-FBP) in the small intestine of the suckling rat. In contrast to unbound folic acid (FA), FA-FBP is absorbed more avidly in the ileum than in the jejunum (p less than 0.025) and its absorption is not inhibited by 1 mmol sulfasalazine/L. Folate-binding activities in the mucosa of the proximal (duodenum and jejunum combined) and distal (ileum) small intestine were also examined and found to be 0.32 and 1.31 pmol/mg protein, respectively (p less than 0.001). A 6-h fast produced a 42% decrease in folate-binding activity in the distal small intestine (p less than 0.01) but did not change activity in the proximal portion. Collectively, these observations suggest that FA-FBP is absorbed by a mechanism that is distinct from that responsible for the absorption of FA and that absorption does not require prior dissociation of the vitamin-binding protein complex

  4. Consumption of folic acid-fortified flour and folate-rich foods among women at reproductive age in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Flávia S; Giugliani, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption of flour derivatives and folate-rich food in a sample of women at childbearing age from Porto Alegre, Brazil. Four-hundred women at childbearing age (15-45 years) were interviewed, and their socioeconomic status and folate intake were investigated. All women signed an informed consent form. Based on their dietary habits, an estimated calculation of the amount of flour intake was done. Mean daily intake of folate was 220.1 mug. The intake of flour was 176 g/day/woman. The combined intake of folate from folate-rich foods and flour derivatives (wheat and/or corn flour) was 404.7 mug/day/person. Since the recommended daily allowance of folic acid is 400 mug/day, including both folate from food sources and supplements, the addition of folic acid to wheat flour was essential to ensure the intake of the minimum recommended amount. However, there is no guarantee that this amount was maintained on this Brazilian sample when losses resulting from cooking and/or from UV radiation (not considered in this study) are computed. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. A novel folic acid-conjugated TiO₂-SiO₂ photosensitizer for cancer targeting in photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shaokun; Wu, Hong; Lou, Xia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel folic acid-conjugated silica-coated titanium dioxide (TiO2-SiO2) photosensitizer was synthesized and characterized using various analytical instruments. The photosensitizer was further assessed with regards to its photoreactivity, cellular and hemocompatibility, cell internalization, and phototoxicity. Conjugating folic acid with TiO2-SiO2 has shown a significantly improved compatibility of the nanoparticles with the mouse fibroblast cells (L929) at 24 h. An improved compatibility with the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid cancer (KB) cells was also demonstrated, but to a slightly reduced degree. Enhanced cell internalization was well demonstrated in the TiO2-SiO2 folate nanoparticles. Upon exposure to UV light, TiO2-SiO2 folate nanoparticles maintained a high level photodynamic reactivity and yielded a 38-43% photo-killing of KB cells. The photo-killing effect increased with increasing dosage in the investigated concentration range of 50-100 μg ml(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels in children and adolescents with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnafoğlu, Erman; Yaman, Elif

    2017-08-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex disorder with a poorly understood aetiopathogenesis. One carbon metabolism that includes vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine has been investigated in many psychiatric disorders like OCD. In recent years, vitamin D has also been considered to contribute to many of these psychiatric disorders. In this study we investigated whether vitamin B12, homocysteine and vitamin D play a role in the aetiology of paediatric OCD. With this aim we compared 52 children and adolescent OCD patients with 30 healthy controls. The participants were tested for vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and vitamin D levels and were evaluated with a sociodemographic form, state-trait anxiety inventory 1 and 2, Kovacs Depression Inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS). As a result we found significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and higher levels of homocysteine in the patient group compared to control group (p values for all three scores were <0.001), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in terms of folate levels (p=0.083). This demonstrates that one carbon metabolism and vitamin D deficiency can play a role in the aetiology of OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistically enhanced selective intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carrier comprising folic acid-conjugated hydrogels containing magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haneul; Jo, Ara; Baek, Seulgi; Lim, Daeun; Park, Soon-Yong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Chung, Jin Woong; Yoon, Jinhwan

    2017-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery has long been extensively researched since drug delivery and release at the diseased site with minimum dosage realizes the effective therapy without adverse side effects. In this work, to achieve enhanced intracellular uptake of anticancer drug carriers for efficient chemo-therapy, we have designed targeted multifunctional anticancer drug carrier hydrogels. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogel core containing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) were prepared using precipitation polymerization, and further polymerized with amine-functionalized copolymer shell to facilitate the conjugation of targeting ligand. Then, folic acid, specific targeting ligand for cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), was conjugated on the hydrogel surface, yielding the ligand conjugated hybrid hydrogels. We revealed that enhanced intracellular uptake by HeLa cells in vitro was enabled by both magnetic attraction and receptor-mediated endocytosis, which were contributed by MNP and folic acid, respectively. Furthermore, site-specific uptake of the developed carrier was confirmed by incubating with several other cell lines. Based on synergistically enhanced intracellular uptake, efficient cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity of HeLa cells incubated with anticancer drug loaded hybrid hydrogels were successfully achieved. The developed dual-targeted hybrid hydrogels are expected to provide a platform for the next generation intelligent drug delivery systems.

  8. The effect of subchronic supplementation with folic acid and l-arginine on homocysteine-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Markovic, A; Hrncic, D; Krstic, D; Colovic, M; Djuric, E; Rankov-Petrovic, B; Susic, V; Stanojlovic, O; Djuric, D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of subchronic co-administration of folic acid (F) and l-arginine (A) on behavioural and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of dl homocysteine thiolactone (H) induced seizures in adult rats. The activity of membrane ATPases in different brain regions were also investigated. Rats were treated with F, A, or vehicle for 15 days (regimen: F 5 mg/kg + A 500 mg/kg (F5A500); F 10 mg/kg + A 300 mg/kg (F10A300)). Seizures were elicited by convulsive dose of H (H, F5A500H, F10A300H) Subchronic supplementation with F and A did not affect seizure incidence, number of seizure episodes, and severity in F5A500H and F10A300H groups vs. H group. However, a tendency to increase latency and decrease the number of seizure episodes was noticed in the F10A300H group. EEG mean spectral power densities during ictal periods were significantly lower in F10A300H vs. H group. The activity of Na + /K + -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase was significantly increased in almost all examined structures in rats treated with F and A. We can conclude that subchronic supplementation with folic acid and l-arginine has an antiepileptic effect in dl homocysteine thiolactone induced epilepsy.

  9. Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferstein, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is the oxidized form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, which serves as methyl- or methylene donor (C1-building blocks) during DNA synthesis. Under physiological conditions the required amount of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate for survival of the cell is accomplished through the reduced folate carrier (RFC). In contrast, the supply of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is insufficient under pathophysiological conditions of tumors due to an increased proliferation rate. Consequently, many tumor cells exhibit an (over)expression of the folate receptor. This phenomenon has been applied to diagnostics (PET, SPECT, MR) to image FR-positive tumors and on the other hand to treat malignancies related to a FR (over)expression. Based on this concept, a new 18 F-labeled folate for PET imaging has been developed and was evaluated in vivo using tumor-bearing mice. The incorporation of oligoethylene spacers into the molecular structure led to a significant enhancement of the pharmacokinetics in comparison to previously developed 18 F-folates. The liver uptake could be reduced by one sixth by remaining a tumor uptake of 3%ID/g leading to better contrast ratios. Encouraged by these results, a clickable 18 F-labeled serine-based prosthetic group has been synthesized, again with the idea to improve the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of hydrophilic radiotracers. Therefore, an alkyne-carrying azido-functionalized serine derivative for coupling to biomolecules was synthesized and a chlorine leaving group for 18 F-labeling, which could be accomplished using a microwave-assisted synthesis, a [K is contained in 2.2.2] + /carbonate system in DMSO. Radiochemical yields of 77±6% could be achieved. The promising results obtained from the FR-targeting concept in the diagnostic field have been transferred to the boron neutron capture therapy. Therefore, a folate derivative was coupled to different boron clusters and cell uptake studies were conducted. The synthesis of

  10. Folic acid derivatives for PET imaging and therapy addressing folate receptor positive tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieferstein, Hanno

    2013-07-01

    Folic acid, also known as vitamin B9, is the oxidized form of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate, which serves as methyl- or methylene donor (C1-building blocks) during DNA synthesis. Under physiological conditions the required amount of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate for survival of the cell is accomplished through the reduced folate carrier (RFC). In contrast, the supply of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate is insufficient under pathophysiological conditions of tumors due to an increased proliferation rate. Consequently, many tumor cells exhibit an (over)expression of the folate receptor. This phenomenon has been applied to diagnostics (PET, SPECT, MR) to image FR-positive tumors and on the other hand to treat malignancies related to a FR (over)expression. Based on this concept, a new {sup 18}F-labeled folate for PET imaging has been developed and was evaluated in vivo using tumor-bearing mice. The incorporation of oligoethylene spacers into the molecular structure led to a significant enhancement of the pharmacokinetics in comparison to previously developed {sup 18}F-folates. The liver uptake could be reduced by one sixth by remaining a tumor uptake of 3%ID/g leading to better contrast ratios. Encouraged by these results, a clickable {sup 18}F-labeled serine-based prosthetic group has been synthesized, again with the idea to improve the metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile of hydrophilic radiotracers. Therefore, an alkyne-carrying azido-functionalized serine derivative for coupling to biomolecules was synthesized and a chlorine leaving group for {sup 18}F-labeling, which could be accomplished using a microwave-assisted synthesis, a [K is contained in 2.2.2]{sup +}/carbonate system in DMSO. Radiochemical yields of 77±6% could be achieved. The promising results obtained from the FR-targeting concept in the diagnostic field have been transferred to the boron neutron capture therapy. Therefore, a folate derivative was coupled to different boron clusters and cell uptake studies were

  11. Characterization of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. produced using microfiltration membrane as folic acid source for smart food formula

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    Susilowati Agustine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purifying and drying both fermented biomasses of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. and spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture has been conducted to recover concentrate and powder of folic acid. The aims of this study is to determine the differences of particles characteristics and compositions of concentrate and powder from both mentioned folic acid source through Micro Filtration (MF membrane and without MF membrane. The best folic acid produced by MF membrane process (room temperature, stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, pressure 40 psia and 30 minutes and drying (30 °C, 22 cm Hg and 24 hours were resulted in biomass of the concentrate and powder with compositions of total solids 6.29 % and 96.91 %, total polyphenol 0.25 % and 0.06 %, folic acid 58.8 μg/mL and 54.33 μg/mL, reducing sugar 105.34 mg/mL and 441.39 mg/mL, and total acids 0.57 % and 2.33 %, respectively. In optimum condition, fermented spinach concentrate contributed to particles distribution with diameter size (Ø between 0,4 and 100 μm (75.45 %, and with Ø between 100 and 1000 μm (26.3 %, otherwise, the process without MF membrane was resulted the particles distribution respectively 74.1 % and 25.9% by each interval of Ø.

  12. Folic acid targeted Mn:ZnS quantum dots for theranostic applications of cancer cell imaging and therapy

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    Bwatanglang IB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Birma Bwatanglang,1,2 Faruq Mohammad,3 Nor Azah Yusof,1,3 Jaafar Abdullah,1 Mohd Zobir Hussein,3 Noorjahan Banu Alitheen,4 Nadiah Abu4 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria; 3Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: In this study, we synthesized a multifunctional nanoparticulate system with specific targeting, imaging, and drug delivering functionalities by following a three-step protocol that operates at room temperature and solely in aqueous media. The synthesis involves the encapsulation of luminescent Mn:ZnS quantum dots (QDs with chitosan not only as a stabilizer in biological environment, but also to further provide active binding sites for the conjugation of other biomolecules. Folic acid was incorporated as targeting agent for the specific targeting of the nanocarrier toward the cells overexpressing folate receptors. Thus, the formed composite emits orange–red fluorescence around 600 nm and investigated to the highest intensity at Mn2+ doping concentration of 15 at.% and relatively more stable at low acidic and low alkaline pH levels. The structural characteristics and optical properties were thoroughly analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Further characterization was conducted using thermogravimetric analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cell viability and proliferation studies by means of MTT assay have demonstrated that the as-synthesized composites do not

  13. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

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    Pan, Sunlei; Lin, Hui; Luo, Hangqi; Gao, Feidan; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Changzuan; Jiang, Chengjian; Guo, Yan; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Guo, Hangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. Phenotypic change from differentiated to dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherosclerosis development; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FA through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/P70S6K signaling inhibits platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC dedifferentiation. VSMCs from primary cultures were identified by morphological observation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SM-actin, α-SMA) immunocytochemistry. Then, VSMCs were induced by PDGF-BB and treated with varying FA concentrations. Rapamycin and MHY-1485 were used to inhibit or activate the mTOR/P70S6K pathway, respectively. Next, MTT, Transwell, and wound healing assays were employed to assess proliferation and migration of VSMCs. In addition, Western blotting was used to evaluate protein levels of α-SMA, calponin, osteopontin, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K and p-P70S6K in VSMCs. VSMCs showed phenotypic alteration from differentiated to dedifferentiated cells in response to PDGF-BB. MTT, Transwell and wound healing assays showed that FA markedly inhibited proliferation and migration in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. FA treatment increased the expression levels of the contractile phenotype marker proteins α-SMA and calponin compared with VSMCs stimulated by PDGF-BB alone. Furthermore, FA significantly suppressed mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation compared with PDGF-BB alone. Similar to FA, downregulation of mTOR signaling by rapamycin inhibited VSMC dedifferentiation. In contrast, upregulation of mTOR signaling by MHY-1485 reversed the FA-induced inhibition of VSMC dedifferentiation. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

  14. Effectiveness and feasibility of weekly iron and folic acid supplementation to adolescent girls and boys through peer educators at community level in the tribal area of Gujarat

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    Shobha P Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during adolescence affects growth and development of girls and boys increasing their vulnerability to dropping out-of-school. Hence investing in preventing anemia during adolescence is critical for their survival, growth and development. Objective: To find out the burden of anemia on adolescent age group in the tribal area of Jhagadia block and to assess the change in the hemoglobin level through the weekly Iron and Folic Acid IFA (DOTS directly observed treatment supplementation under Supervision by Peer Educators at Community level among adolescents. Methods: Community based intervention study conducted with adolescents (117 girls and 127 boys aged 10-19 years, through supplementation of IFA (DOTS by trained Peer Educators for 52 weeks in 5 tribal villages of Jhagadia. Hemoglobin level was determined by HemoCue method before and after intervention and sickle cell anemia by Electrophoresis method. Primary data on hemoglobin and number of tablets consumed was collected and statistically analyzed in SPSS 16.0 software by applying paired t-test. Results: The overall findings suggest that the prevalence of anemia reduced from 79.5% to 58% among adolescent girls and from 64% to 39% among boys. Mean rise of hemoglobin seen was 1.5 g/dl among adolescent boys and 1.3 g/dl among girls. A significant association was found in change in hemoglobin before and after intervention (P = 0.000 Conclusion: Prevalence of anemia among girls and boys can be reduced in their adolescent phase of life, through weekly supplementation of iron folic acid tablets under direct supervision and Nutrition Education by Peer Educator at community level.

  15. Fabrication and spectroscopic studies of folic acid-conjugated Fe3O4@Au core-shell for targeted drug delivery application

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    Karamipour, Sh.; Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.

    2015-09-01

    Gold coated magnetite core shell is a kind of nanoparticle that include magnetic iron oxide core with a thin layer nan