WorldWideScience

Sample records for fog sanitizing procedures

  1. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    sample, and a total of 288 bacterial strains were randomly isolated and tentatively identified to genus level by physiological and biochemical tests. The microflora was dominated by Neisseriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria during production. Foam sanitization caused a change......The effects of fog sanitization with peroxyacetic acid (hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid in combination) on general hygiene (aerobic plate count) and on Listeria monocytogenes were assessed in a slicing area at a salmon smokehouse and compared with the effects of foam sanitization...... in the composition of the flora, with Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes spp. being the dominant gram- negative bacteria and Kurthia spp. and Bacillus spp. being the surviving gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria were very sensitive to fog sanitization, and yeasts accounted for almost half of the surviving flora...

  2. Comparison of sodium hypochlorite-based foam and peroxyacetic acid-based fog sanitizing procedures in a salmon smokehouse: Survival of the general microflora and Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Dorthe; Gardshodn, K.; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    in the composition of the flora, with Pseudomonas spp. and Alcaligenes spp. being the dominant gram- negative bacteria and Kurthia spp. and Bacillus spp. being the surviving gram-positive bacteria. Bacteria were very sensitive to fog sanitization, and yeasts accounted for almost half of the surviving flora...

  3. 21 CFR 120.6 - Sanitation standard operating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation standard operating procedures. 120.6... Provisions § 120.6 Sanitation standard operating procedures. (a) Sanitation controls. Each processor shall have and implement a sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP) that addresses...

  4. 21 CFR 123.11 - Sanitation control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation control procedures. 123.11 Section 123...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS General Provisions § 123.11 Sanitation control procedures. (a) Sanitation SOP. Each processor should have and implement a written sanitation...

  5. Fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Early in the morning forclouded up green trees, tallbamboos, lush grass andfresh flowers in the park. Ithanged over the lake like asoft mass of cotton. Howthick the fog was!However in the eyes oflovers the fog seemed to bethe first warm sparklingsnow or a tender passioncoming from their hearts.Love is a lingeringsentiment that can not beunraveled...A young man and a youngwoman were rambling sideby side. He was handsomeand she pretty like the heroand heroine of many stories.She was vivacious. Feelingelated, ...

  6. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  7. 9 CFR 147.14 - Procedures to determine status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. 147.14 Section 147.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... status and effectiveness of sanitation monitored program. The following monitoring procedures 10 may be... sanitation program. (1) Culture the surface of cased eggs periodically for fecal contaminating organisms...

  8. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  9. 50 CFR 260.103 - Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. 260.103 Section 260.103 Wildlife and Fisheries... Operations and operating procedures shall be in accordance with an effective sanitation program. (a) All..., choppers, and containers which fail to meet appropriate and adequate sanitation requirements will...

  10. Biofilm characteristics and evaluation of the sanitation procedures of thermophilic Aeribacillus pallidus E334 biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Tugba; Karaca, Basar; Ozel, Beste Piril; Ozcan, Birgul; Cokmus, Cumhur; Coleri Cihan, Arzu

    2017-04-01

    The ability of Aeribacillus pallidus E334 to produce pellicle and form a biofilm was studied. Optimal biofilm formation occurred at 60 °C, pH 7.5 and 1.5% NaCl. Extra polymeric substances (EPS) were composed of proteins and eDNA (21.4 kb). E334 formed biofilm on many surfaces, but mostly preferred polypropylene and glass. Using CLSM analysis, the network-like structure of the EPS was observed. The A. pallidus biofilm had a novel eDNA content. DNaseI susceptibility (86.8% removal) of eDNA revealed its importance in mature biofilms, but the purified eDNA was resistant to DNaseI, probably due to its extended folding outside the matrix. Among 15 cleaning agents, biofilms could be removed with alkaline protease and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). The removal of cells from polypropylene and biomass on glass was achieved with combined SDS/alkaline protease treatment. Strong A. pallidus biofilms could cause risks for industrial processes and abiotic surfaces must be taken into consideration in terms of sanitation procedures.

  11. Biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta and the control of these pathogens through cleaning and sanitization procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from the processing of ricotta on stainless steel coupons was evaluated, and the effect of cleaning and sanitization procedures in the control of these biofilms was determined. The formation of biofilms was observed while varying the incubation temperature (7, 25 and 39°C) and time (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). At 7°C, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were below 2 log10 CFU/cm(2). For the temperatures of 25 and 39°C, after 1 day, the counts of E. faecalis and E. faecium were 5.75 and 6.07 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively, which is characteristic of biofilm formation. The tested sanitation procedures a) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning, b) anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer and c) acid-anionic tensioactive cleaning+sanitizer were effective in removing the biofilms, reducing the counts to levels below 0.4 log10 CFU/cm(2). The sanitizer biguanide was the least effective, and peracetic acid was the most effective. These studies revealed the ability of enterococci to form biofilms and the importance of the cleaning step and the type of sanitizer used in sanitation processes for the effective removal of biofilms.

  12. Fog computing

    OpenAIRE

    Poplštein, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's thesis is to address fog computing technology, that emerged as a possible solution for the internet of things requirements and aims to lower latency and network bandwidth by moving a substantial part of computing operation to the network edge. The thesis identifies advantages as well as potential threats and analyses the possible solutions to these problems, proceeding to comparison of cloud and fog computing and specifying areas of use for both of them. Finally...

  13. Brain Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elaine Alexander, MD, PhD, clinician and researcher in Sjögren’s syndrome, biomedical consultant and Chair-Elect of the SSF ... fact of life. Brain Fog can occur in Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), but other factors might cause these symptoms and ...

  14. 9 CFR 147.21 - Flock sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flock sanitation. 147.21 Section 147... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.21 Flock sanitation. To aid in the maintenance of healthy flocks, the following procedures should...

  15. Characterization of multilayer anti-fog coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Pascale; Turgeon, Stéphane; Sarra-Bournet, Christian; Turcotte, Raphaël; Laroche, Gaétan

    2011-03-01

    Fog formation on transparent substrates constitutes a major challenge in several optical applications requiring excellent light transmission characteristics. Anti-fog coatings are hydrophilic, enabling water to spread uniformly on the surface rather than form dispersed droplets. Despite the development of several anti-fog coating strategies, the long-term stability, adherence to the underlying substrate, and resistance to cleaning procedures are not yet optimal. We report on a polymer-based anti-fog coating covalently grafted onto glass surfaces by means of a multistep process. Glass substrates were first activated by plasma functionalization to provide amino groups on the surface, resulting in the subsequent covalent bonding of the polymeric layers. The anti-fog coating was then created by the successive spin coating of (poly(ethylene-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) layers. PEMA acted as an interface by covalently reacting with both the glass surface amino functionalities and the PVA hydroxyl groups, while PVA added the necessary surface hydrophilicity to provide anti-fog properties. Each step of the procedure was monitored by XPS, which confirmed the successful grafting of the coating. Coating thickness was evaluated by profilometry, nanoindentation, and UV visible light transmission. The hydrophilic nature of the anti-fog coating was assessed by water contact angle (CA), and its anti-fog efficiency was determined visually and tested quantitatively for the first time using an ASTM standard protocol. Results show that the PEMA/PVA coating not only delayed the initial period required for fog formation but also decreased the rate of light transmission decay. Finally, following a 24 hour immersion in water, these PEMA/PVA coatings remained stable and preserved their anti-fog properties.

  16. 9 CFR 416.14 - Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.14 Maintenance of Sanitation SOP's. Each official establishment shall routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the Sanitation SOP's and the procedures therein in preventing...

  17. Summer Arctic sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  18. FogGIS: Fog Computing for Geospatial Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Rabindra K.; Dubey, Harishchandra; Samaddar, Arun B.; Gupta, Rajan D.; Ray, Prakash K.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a tool for analysis, processing and transmission of geospatial data. The Fog computing is a paradigm where Fog devices help to increase throughput and reduce latency at the edge of the client. This paper developed a Fog-based framework named Fog GIS for mining analytics from geospatial data. We built a prototype using Intel Edison, an embedded microprocessor. We validated the FogGIS by doing preliminary analysis. including compression,...

  19. Scientific research on human subjects and ethics procedures at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità: a survey of the articles issued in 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmini, Francesco; Ferrigno, Luigina; D'Angelo, Franca; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Principles promoting the protection of subjects involved in biomedical research are interpreted differently within the scientific community. The purpose of this paper is to describe the attitudes of researchers working at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) regarding the ethical implications of studies involving human beings, with particular emphasis on aspects concerning informed consent (IC) and ethics committee (EC) review. In 2001, ISS researchers published a total of 733 articles, 93 (12.7%) of which were studies involving human beings. Nearly 2/3 (60/93) were epidemiological, while the remaining 35.5% were based on laboratory data. Half (47/93) reported physical or psychological interventions or treatments on study subjects. 40.9% of articles mentioned that informed consent had been obtained and only 12.9% that approval had been given by an ethics committee. The low proportion of articles on which a protocol had been submitted the EC was due in part to the type of studies, but also to the absence of an institutional EC prior to 2001. Ethical procedures were more present in laboratory than in epidemiologic studies (IC: 69.7% vs 25.0%, p ethical awareness on the part of epidemiologists. Further efforts are needed to develop and enforce clear institutional policies regarding ethical procedures.

  20. Modeling Radiation Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    K R, Sreenivas; Mohammad, Rafiuddin

    2016-11-01

    Predicting the fog-onset, its growth and dissipation helps in managing airports and other modes of transport. After sunset, occurrence of fog requires moist air, low wind and clear-sky conditions. Under these circumstances radiative heat transfer plays a vital role in the NBL. Locally, initiation of fog happens when the air temperature falls below the dew-point. Thus, to predict the onset of fog at a given location, one has to compute evolution of vertical temperature profile. Earlier,our group has shown that the presence of aerosols and vertical variation in their number density determines the radiative-cooling and hence development of vertical temperature profile. Aerosols, through radiation in the window-band, provides an efficient path for air layers to lose heat to the cold, upper atmosphere. This process creates cooler air layer between warmer ground and upper air layers and resulting temperature profile facilitate the initiation of fog. Our results clearly indicates that accounting for the presence of aerosols and their radiative-transfer is important in modeling micro-meteorological process of fog formation and its evolution. DST, Govt. INDIA.

  1. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  2. La Jolla Fog Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M.; Pham, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    2002-12-01

    The Center for Atmospheric Sciences at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography conducted a ground-based experiment to study fog/marine-stratus clouds over the San Diego region during the summer months of 2002. The purpose of the experiment is to understand aerosol/cloud interactions and how they might influence cloud radiative properties and precipitation. We operated several instruments on Mt. Soledad to study aerosol and cloud properties. These instruments include a forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP-100) and an aerosol particle sizer (APS) to measure the cloud droplet spectra during fog events, condensation particle counters to determine total aerosol concentrations, cloud condensation nuclei counters to understand aerosol/cloud droplet interactions, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to determine dry aerosol number size distributions, and a weather station to relate fog events to local meteorology. Aerosol concentrations showed a diel variation with high and variable particle concentrations during the day, which often were greater than 104 cm-3. Nighttime concentrations were lower (i.e., several thousand cm-3) and exhibited less variation than daytime values. In general, aerosol concentrations do not appear to be correlated to droplet concentrations indicating that local anthropogenic sources may not have a large influence on the coastal fog. Two types of events (haze and fog) have been characterized during this study based on the droplet distribution. A haze event was dominated by droplets less than 5 μm diameter and sometimes exceeded droplet concentrations of 1000 cm-3. There were virtually no particles larger than 5 micron diameter during these events. A fog event was characterized by larger droplets with droplets greater than 5 μm diameter accounting for a bulk of the number concentration. The average effective radius during these fog events was about 5 μm and the droplet concentration rarely exceeded 100 cm-3. On several occasions, a

  3. Instant AppFog

    CERN Document Server

    Wee, Pau Kiat

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy to follow, hands-on guide shows you how to deploy and manage your application within minutes.Instant AppFog Starter is great for developers who are new to AppFog and who are primarily working on code rather than infrastructure. This book is perfect for those who are looking to publish applications without an in-depth knowledge of servers, firewalls, and networking. It is assumed that you will have some experience of web development as

  4. In the Fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程炜

    2002-01-01

    One morning there was such a thick fog that the drivers could hardly see the roads. Mr Brown was driving a car in the street. He was driving slowly,but still he was afraid that he might bump into a tree or something. Just then he saw a red car in front and decided to follow it.

  5. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a multi-species biofilm with Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and control through sanitation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Kabuki, Dirce Yorika; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

    2015-05-04

    The formation of mono-species biofilm (Listeria monocytogenes) and multi-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and L. monocytogenes) was evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness of sanitation procedures for the control of the multi-species biofilm also was evaluated. The biofilms were grown on stainless steel coupons at various incubation temperatures (7, 25 and 39°C) and contact times (0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days). In all tests, at 7°C, the microbial counts were below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) and not characteristic of biofilms. In mono-species biofilm, the counts of L. monocytogenes after 8 days of contact were 4.1 and 2.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C, respectively. In the multi-species biofilms, Enterococcus spp. were present at counts of 8 log CFU/cm(2) at 25 and 39°C after 8 days of contact. However, the L. monocytogenes in multi-species biofilms was significantly affected by the presence of Enterococcus spp. and by temperature. At 25°C, the growth of L. monocytogenes biofilms was favored in multi-species cultures, with counts above 6 log CFU/cm(2) after 8 days of contact. In contrast, at 39°C, a negative effect was observed for L. monocytogenes biofilm growth in mixed cultures, with a significant reduction in counts over time and values below 0.4 log CFU/cm(2) starting at day 4. Anionic tensioactive cleaning complemented with another procedure (acid cleaning, disinfection or acid cleaning+disinfection) eliminated the multi-species biofilms under all conditions tested (counts of all micro-organisms<0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, eliminating the multi-species biofilms under all tested conditions (counts of the all microorganisms <0.4 log CFU/cm(2)). In contrast, biguanide was the least effective disinfectant, failing to eliminate biofilms under all the test conditions.

  6. Sanitation investments in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y.; Awunyo-Akaba, J.; Gyapong, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district...... with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged...... with local livelihoods and investments in private sanitation in rapidly changing rural and peri-urban communities of Ghana. Sanitation policy makers and programme managers must acknowledge that these profound local, ethnic and economic forces are shaping people’s abilities and motivations for sanitation...

  7. Warehouse Sanitation Workshop Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Drug Administration (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.

    This workshop handbook contains information and reference materials on proper food warehouse sanitation. The materials have been used at Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food warehouse sanitation workshops, and are selected by the FDA for use by food warehouse operators and for training warehouse sanitation employees. The handbook is divided…

  8. Optimization of strawberry disinfection by fogging of a mixture of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide based on microbial reduction, color and phytochemicals retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Franco; Vaccari, María Celia; Piagentini, Andrea Marcela; Pirovani, María Élida

    2016-09-01

    The fogging of strawberries using a environmentally friendly sanitizer mixture of peracetic acid (5%) and hydrogen peroxide (20%) was performed in a model chamber and modeled as a function of the concentration (3.4, 20.0, 60.0, 100.0 and 116.6 µL sanitizer L(-) (1) air chamber) and the treatment time (5.7, 15.0, 37.5, 60.0 and 69.3 min). The sanitizer fogging was adequate for reducing total mesophilic microbial and yeasts and moulds counts of fruits until seven days of storage at 2℃. However, sanitizer oxidant properties adversely affected the content of total anthocyanins, total phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity to various degrees, with some deleterious changes in the fruits color, depending on the fogging conditions. A multiple numeric response optimization was developed based on 2.0 log microbiological reduction, maximum phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity retentions, with no changes in the fruits color, being the optimal fogging conditions achieved: 10.1 µL sanitizer L(-1) air chamber and 29.6 min. The fogging of strawberries at these conditions may represent a promising postharvest treatment option for extending their shelf-life without affecting their sensory quality and bioactive properties.

  9. Project Fog Drops. Part 1: Investigations of warm fog properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilie, R. J.; Eadie, W.; Mack, E. J.; Rogers, C.; Kocmond, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the micrometeorological and microphysical characteristics of eleven valley fogs occurring near Elmira, New York. Observations were made of temperature, dew point, wind speed and direction, dew deposition, vertical wind velocity, and net radiative flux. In fog, visibility was continuously recorded and periodic measurements were made of liquid water content and drop-size distribution. The observations were initiated in late evening and continued until the time of fog dissipation. The vertical distribution of temperature in the lowest 300 meters and cloud nucleus concentration at several heights were measured from an aircraft before fog nucleus concentrations at several heights were measured from an aircraft before fog formation. A numerical model was developed to investigate the life cycle of radiation fogs. The model predicts the temporal evolution of the vertical distributions of temperature, water vapor, and liquid water as determined by the turbulent transfer of heat and moisture. The model includes the nocturnal cooling of the earth's surface, dew formation, fog drop sedimentation, and the absorption of infrared radiation by fog.

  10. Ghana - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Ghana Community Services Activity was designed to complement the Agriculture Project by providing educational, water and sanitation and rural electrification...

  11. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  12. 33 CFR 118.130 - Fog signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fog signals. 118.130 Section 118... LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.130 Fog signals. On waterways where visibility is frequently reduced due... more fog signals to warn the navigator of the presence of the bridge. The fog signals must conform to...

  13. Sanitation system for Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Félix Cristóbal

    1986-01-01

    The Full Sanitation Plan for Madrid is the final action of a series undertaken for several years with the purpose to reach the completion of the sanitation system of the town. With the whole of these actions it could be said that the basic substructure has acquired enough level to deserve de real needs of the town.

  14. Fog research in China: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengjie; Lu, Chunsong; Yu, Huaying; Zhao, Lijuan; Lü, Jingjing

    2010-05-01

    Fog can adversely affect human activity directly and indirectly, resulting in large losses both in terms of the local economy and lives. Much effort has been devoted to studies of fog across many areas of China, and in that context this paper aims to summarize climatic characteristics and review fog field experiments and their major results relating to fog mechanisms, physical properties and chemical characteristics. Progress in the application of remote sensing techniques and numerical simulation in fog research are also discussed. In particular, the effects of urbanization and industrialization on fog are highlighted. To end, perspectives on future fog research are outlined. The goal of this review paper is to introduce fog research in China to the global academic community and thus promote international collaboration on fog research. This is important because most papers on fog in China are published in Chinese, which are unreadable for the vast majority of non-Chinese researchers.

  15. Fog water chemistry in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Li, Xiang; Yang, Chenyu; Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Jianmin; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2011-08-01

    With the aim of understanding the fog chemistry in a Chinese megacity, twenty-six fog water samples were collected in urban Shanghai from March 2009 to March 2010. The following parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), ten inorganic major ions ( SO42-, NO3-, NO2-, F -, Cl -, Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, NH4+) and four major organic acids (CH 3COO -, HCOO -, CO42-, MSA). The total ionic concentration (TIC) and EC of fog samples were one or two orders of magnitude higher than those often found in Europe, North America and other Asian countries. Pollutants were expected to be mainly from local sources, including factories, motor vehicle emissions and civil construction. Non-local sources such as moderate- and long-range transport of sea salt also contributed to pollution levels in fog events as indicated by back trajectory analysis. The pH of the fog water collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.68 to 6.58; acidic fogs represented about 30.8% of the total fog events during this period. The fog water was characterized by high concentrations of SO42- (20.0% of measured TIC), NO3- (17.1%), NH4+ (28.3%) and Ca 2+ (14.4%). SO42- and NO3-, the main precursors of fog acidity, were related to burning fossil fuels and vehicle emissions, respectively. NH4+, originating from the scavenging of gaseous ammonia and particulate ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, and Ca 2+, originating from the scavenging of coarse particles, acted as acid neutralizers and were the main cause for the relatively high pH of fogs in Shanghai. The ratio of ( SO42- + NO3-)/( NH4+ + Ca 2+) was lower than 1, indicating the alkaline nature of the fog water. A high ratio of NO3-/ SO42- and low ratio of HCOO -/CH 3COO - were consistent with large contributions from vehicular emissions that produce severe air pollution in megacities.

  16. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  17. Sanitation without pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  18. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  19. Advancing Fog Effect on VRML and X3D Using Local Fog Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seongah Chin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper an improved fog effect algorithm in VRML and X3 D is presented with respect to expressing density. The fundamental idea in the approach is to adapt local fog density having influence on Iocal regions with various grades of fog density whereas existing VRML and X3 D only make use of global fog effect. Several filters for making different fog density are presented along with experiments showing the correctness of the proposed method.

  20. A Satellite Based Fog Study of the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    total number of fog and fog likely days detected from the two MODIS satellites, Aqua and Tera , respectively. Results from all nine areas of...trends in fog detection based on the satellite differences. 46 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 N um be r o f D ay s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Areas Four Month Tera vs...Aqua Fog Totals Tera Fog Tera Fog Likely Aqua Fog Aqua Fog Likely Figure 29. Comparisons of the four month total number of fog and fog likely days

  1. Fog collectors and collection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhler, I.; Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    The earth sciences taught that due to the occurrence of water in three phases: gas, liquid and solid, solar energy keeps the hydrological cycle going, shaping the earth surface while regulating the climate and thus allowing smart technologies to interfere in the natural process by rerouting water and employing its yield for natural and human environments’ subsistence. This is the case of traditional fog collectors implemented by several researchers along the Atacama Desert since late ’50s such as vertical tensile mesh or macro-diamonds structures. Nevertheless, these basic prototypes require to be upgraded, mainly through new shapes, fabrics and frameworks’ types by following the principles of lightness, transformability, portability and polyvalence. The vertical canvas of conventional fog collectors contain too much stressed at each joints and as result it became vulnerable. Our study constitutes a research by design of two fog-trap devices along the Atacama Desert. Different climatic factors influence the efficiency of fog harvesting. In order to increase yield of collected fog water, we need to establish suitable placements that contain high rates of fog’s accumulation. As important as the location is also the building reliability of these collectors that will be installed. Their frames and skins have to be adjustable to the wind direction and resistant against strong winds and rust. Its fabric need to be more hydrophobic, elastic and with light colours to ease dripping/drainage and avoid ultra-violet deterioration. In addition, meshes should be well-tensed and frames well-embraced too. In doing so we have conceived two fog collectors: DropNet© (Höhler) and FogHive© (Suau). These designs explore climatic design parameters combined with the agile structural principles of Tensegrity and Geodesic widely developed by Bucky Fuller and Frei Otto. The research methods mainly consisted of literature review; fieldwork; comparative analysis of existing fog

  2. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  3. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    sanitation facilities and interviewing stakeholders including Jockin Arputham, the founder of the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF) and president of Shack/Slum Dwellers International (SDI). The paper illustrates and compares the failures of technocratic design which turned into unused and dangerous...

  4. A diagnostic study of Antarctic fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Matthew A.

    2008-10-01

    The United States Antarctic Program (USAP) is the largest scientific research program in the Antarctic and requires a considerable aviation operation. Although fog is one of the top three forecast problems related to flights aborted due to weather, it is largely unstudied. The objective of this project is to gain an understanding of fog that affects McMurdo Station, Antarctica and its nearby airfields. This understanding is gained through analyses of surface based weather observations, satellite measurements and numerical weather prediction models. Multi-channel satellite observations indicate that most austral summer fog events are "advective" in nature. This is supported by weather observations from McMurdo Station and nearby airfields where fog occurs at moderate wind speeds, and primarily from the eastward direction. Analyses using both a back trajectory model and mesoscale numerical model are consistent with this finding. The primary source region for fog is found to be from the southeast over the Ross Ice Shelf (72% of the cases studied), while only a minority of cases (23%) reveals a secondary source of fog from the north along the Scott Coast with airflow influences from the East Antarctic Plateau. McMurdo experiences two fog seasons with a primary peak in January and a secondary peak in September. Fog events are often short lived---typically 1 to 3 hours, though some can last up to 30 hours. Fog occurrences over the last 30 years appear to be decreasing. Time series analysis between the observed fog variability and large-scale circulations (e.g., El Nino, Antarctic Oscillation) yielded no correlations, while there is only a limited relationship of fog occurrence to ice concentration in nearby Lewis Bay and McMurdo Sound. Fog is more likely to take place at the nearby airfields rather than at McMurdo Station, which is consistent with the advective nature of the fog.

  5. Impact of Fog on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathon; Fleisch, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    This experiment was designed to explore the impact of fog on electromagnetic radiation, in particular microwaves and infrared light. For years law enforcement agencies have used microwave radiation (radar guns) to measure the speed of vehicles, and the last ten years has seen increased use of LIDAR, which uses 905-nm infrared radiation rather than microwaves. To evaulate the effect of fog on the operation of these devices, we have constructed a fog chamber with microwave and optical portals to allow light from a HeNe laser and 10.6-GHz microwaves to propagate through various densities of fog. Data is acquired using Vernier Logger Pro and analyzed using MATLAB and Mathematica. Using the attenuation of the laser light to determine fog density, the impact of fog on the signal-to-noise ratio of both microwave and IR devices may be quantified, and the maximum useful range may be calculated.

  6. Exposure Standard for Fog Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    18 frmmation, dermatitis, folliculitis, acne, eczema and contact sensitivity. ,’• (The term ’conventionally-refined’ is used here to describe...comparable to "new" fog oil. Of the species tested (rat, rabbit, dog , hamster and mouse), rats and dog & were most affected by the mineral oil mists (Table 3...Exposures to 100 mg/mr for one year caused pulmonary lipoid granulomas in the dog and pneumonitis in the rat. Findings of "a few fibrotic strands

  7. About Security Solutions in Fog Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Petac

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key for improving a system's performance, its security and reliability is to have the dataprocessed locally in remote data centers. Fog computing extends cloud computing through itsservices to devices and users at the edge of the network. Through this paper it is explored the fogcomputing environment. Security issues in this area are also described. Fog computing providesthe improved quality of services to the user by complementing shortages of cloud in IoT (Internet ofThings environment. Our proposal, named Adaptive Fog Computing Node Security Profile(AFCNSP, which is based security Linux solutions, will get an improved security of fog node withrich feature sets.

  8. PERSPECTIVES FOR FOG COMPUTING IN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub PIZOŃ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses ongoing efforts to enable the fog computing vision in manufacturing. As a new paradigm of computing implementation of fog computing faces many challenges that open perspective of new applications within a field of manufacturing. It is expected that fog computing will be one of factors that will accelerate development of in forth industrial revolution. In this article we discuss the perspectives of manufacturing companies surrounded by new solutions of CPS, CPPS and CM in relation to fog computing.

  9. Sanitation: User perceptions and acceptance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and the communication of good sanitation, hygiene and related practices. Safe sanitation, which includes ventilated improved pit (VIP) toilets, ecological sanitation (such as urine diversion toilets), pour-flush and flush toilets, is about offering people dignity... and health. Without it, people (mostly children) suffer from incidence of disease and death, women and children remain at risk of attacks, school days and work days are lost to the economy, and the environment is increasingly polluted with human waste (Van...

  10. Challenging Issues on fog forecast with a three-dimensional fog forecast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbou, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fog has a significant impact on economical aspect (traffic management and safety) as well as on environmental issues (fresh water source for the population and the biosphere in arid region). However, reliable fog and visibility forecasts stay challenging issue. Fog is generally a small scale phenomenon which is mostly affected by local advective transport, radiation, topography, vegetation, turbulent mixing at the surface as well as its microphysical structure. In order to consider these intertwined processes, the three-dimensional fog forecast model, COSMO-FOG, with a high vertical resolution with different microphysical complexity has been developed. This model includes a microphysical parameterisation based on the one-dimensional fog forecast model. The implementation of the cloud water droplets as a new prognostic variable allows a detailed definition of the sedimentation processes and the variations in visibility. Moreover, the turbulence scheme, based on a Mellor-Yamada 2.5 order and a closure of a 2nd order has been modified to improve the model behaviour in case of a stable atmosphere structure, occurring typically during night radiative fog episodes. The potential of COSMO-FOG will be presented in some realistic fog situations (flat, bumpy and complex terrain). The fog spatial extension will be compared with MSG satellite products for fog and low cloud. The interplays between dynamical, thermodynamical patterns and the soil-atmosphere interactions will be presented.

  11. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    the  amount in each product’s case.     Table 2: Produce Packaging  Product   Amount  Tomatoes  25 lb  Broccoli   20 lb  Iceberg lettuce  6 heads...aftertaste through it computer-based cleansing process and use of a citrus-based “green” cleansing product . Microbiologists from CFD performed...several tests of bacteria counts and pathogen log rate reductions of various FF&V products before and after they passed through the sanitizing sink process

  12. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  13. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that

  14. Sanitation planning in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Sanitation planning in developing countries: Added value of resource recovery Worldwide 2.5 billion people lack access to sanitation. This impacts human live, the environment and represents a loss of valuable resources that can be regained from wastewater. This study shows that res

  15. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, F.S. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Pakistan Meteorological Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Koernich, H.; Tjernstroem, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, The Bert Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of ''cross-over temperature'' combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards. (orig.)

  16. On the fog variability over south Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, F. S.; Körnich, H.; Tjernström, M.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing trend in fog frequencies over south Asia during winter in the last few decades has resulted in large economical losses and has caused substantial difficulties in the daily lives of people. In order to better understand the fog phenomenon, we investigated the climatology, inter-annual variability and trends in the fog occurrence from 1976 to 2010 using observational data from 82 stations, well distributed over India and Pakistan. Fog blankets large area from Pakistan to Bangladesh across north India from west to east running almost parallel to south of the Himalayas. An EOF analysis revealed that the fog variability over the whole region is coupled and therefore must be governed by some large scale phenomenon on the inter-annual time scale. Significant positive trends were found in the fog frequency but this increase is not gradual, as with the humidity, but comprises of two distinct regimes shifts, in 1990 and 1998, with respect to both mean and variance. The fog is also detected in ERA-Interim 3 hourly, surface and model level forecast data when using the concept of "cross-over temperature" combined with boundary layer stability. This fog index is able to reproduce the regime shift around 1998 and shows that the method can be applied to analyze fog over south Asia. The inter-annual variability seems to be associated with the wave train originating from the North Atlantic in the upper troposphere that when causing higher pressure over the region results in an increased boundary layer stability and surface-near relative humidity. The trend and shifts in the fog occurrence seems to be associated with the gradual increasing trend in relative humidity from 1990 onwards.

  17. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P-T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  18. Fog and Dew Collection Projects in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Mileta, M.; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, Vadim; Milimouk, I; Clus, O.; Muselli, M

    2006-01-01

    accessible sur http://balwois.mpl.ird.fr/balwois/administration/full_paper/ffp-587.pdf.; International audience; The present paper discusses the fog and dew water collection in Croatia. Zavizan, the highest meteorological station in Croatia( 1594m) is chosen for collecting of fog water with a standard fog collector (SFC). The highest daily collection rate was 27.8 L / m². The highest daily collection rate in days without rain was 19.1 l/m². Dew is also a noticeable source of water, especially...

  19. El Salvador - Water and Sanitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The benefits of the water and sanitation sub activity will be measured using a rigorous quasi-experimental impact evaluation methodology. An impact evaluation is a...

  20. No Such Thing as Menstrual Memory Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167035.html No Such Thing as Menstrual Memory Fog Changes in hormones don't seem to ... negative impact of hormonal changes on [thinking and memory]," said the study's lead author, Brigitte Leeners. She's ...

  1. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h−1 to reach saturation conditions

  2. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2011-08-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, rain interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog interception can increase the overall water storage capacity of the vegetation and once the storage is exceeded, fog drip is a common hydrological input. Fog interception is disregarded in water budgets of semiarid regions, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions and applying simulated rain or fog. Juvenile, vegetative specimens were used to determine the potential upperbound storage capacities. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.56 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted by rain. T. recurvata contributed 20 % to the rain interception capacity of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata and; also potentially intercepted 4.8 % of the annual rainfall. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543 ± 77 vs. 325 ± 56 mg, p = 0.048). The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water recharge, because potential storage capacity is very high, in the laboratory experiments it took up to 12 h at a rate of 0.26 l h-1 to reach saturation conditions when fog was applied.

  3. Fog characteristics at the airport of Thessaloniki, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Stolaki

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A statistical approach in order to study fog event characteristics occuring at the airport of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece is presented in this work. To achieve this, the seasonal and diurnal characteristics of fog are investigated using 35 years (1971–2005 of observations of meteorological parameters such as: visibility, air temperature, dew point temperature, air relative humidity, wind vector, precipitation, and cloud base height and coverage. Hourly surface observations of fifteen (15 years (1991–2005 are used to identify fog events induced by various physical mechanisms. Fog events are classified into fog types through the application of objective criteria that are derived upon fog formation processes and under the influence of various physiographic features. The temporal variability of different fog type occurrences are examined and the events are characterized according to their duration and intensity.

    The results are somehow affected by regional and local factors. Fog is mainly formed in winter time (~64% with an enhanced likelihood to appear also in late autumn (19%. The highest frequency of the fog events occurs around sunrise or 1 to 2 h before of it. The mean duration of the events is about 4.5 h. Most of them (75% are dense (visibility <400 m. The overall fog phenomenon is a combination of various types, such as: advection fog, radiation fog, cloud-base lowering fog and precipitation fog. Advection fog (30% and radiation fog (29%, which are the most common types, occur predominantly in winter and early spring time. With respect to the former type, it seems that, in many cases, already formed fog is advected from the nearby Anthemountas valley. Moreover, a considerable number of fog events (22% result from cloud-base lowering, and they frequently occur in late autumn and mid winter.

  4. The impact of vertical resolution in mesoscale model AROME forecasting of radiation fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Alexandre; Bergot, Thierry; Bouteloup, Yves; Bouyssel, François

    2015-04-01

    Airports short-term forecasting of fog has a security and economic impact. Numerical simulations have been performed with the mesoscale model AROME (Application of Research to Operations at Mesoscale) (Seity et al. 2011). Three vertical resolutions (60, 90 and 156 levels) are used to show the impact of radiation fog on numerical forecasting. Observations at Roissy Charles De Gaulle airport are compared to simulations. Significant differences in the onset, evolution and dissipation of fog were found. The high resolution simulation is in better agreement with observations than a coarser one. The surface boundary layer and incoming long-wave radiations are better represented. A more realistic behaviour of liquid water content evolution allows a better anticipation of low visibility procedures (ceiling < 60m and/or visibility < 600m). The case study of radiation fog shows that it is necessary to have a well defined vertical grid to better represent local phenomena. A statistical study over 6 months (October 2011 - March 2012 ) using different configurations was carried out. Statistically, results were the same as in the case study of radiation fog. Seity Y., P. Brousseau, S. Malardel, G. Hello, P. Bénard, F. Bouttier, C. Lac, V. Masson, 2011: The AROME-France convective scale operational model. Mon.Wea.Rev., 139, 976-991.

  5. Adjusting soil water balance calculations for light rainfall, dew, and fog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, R. L.; Spano, D.; Moratiel, R.

    2012-04-01

    The main sources of water for an irrigated crop include irrigation applications, precipitation, water tables, fog interception, and dew formation. For a well-drained soil in a climate where there are a few events of fog, dew, or light rainfall, computing a water balance is relatively easy, but it is complicated in regions characterized by considerable events of fog, dew and light rainfall. In these regions, growers are hesitant to use ET-Based scheduling because the cumulative crop evapotranspiration is often considerably higher than the soil water depletion. We will present a simple and practical procedure to estimate the contribution of fog interception, dew, and light rainfall to daily crop evapotranspiration in California and to show how to use the information to improve water balance calculations for efficient water use in irrigation. It is assumed that the relationship between normalized hourly ETo and time of the day is similar to the relationship between normalized hourly ETc and time of the day. We can describe the change in soil water depletion (ΔDSW) on that day as: ΔDsw =ETc x F where F is the fraction of ETc coming from the soil, and F is determined using the expression: F = --1--- 1+ e(t-11.265.5) Where t is the approximate local standard time in hours when the crop dries. This simple method improves water balance scheduling and the adoption of the ET-based scheduling method in microclimates where fog, dew, and light rainfall are common.

  6. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Malda-Barrera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog drip or occult precipitation can result in negative interception because small drops are deposited on all plant surfaces and subsequently fall to the ground once vegetation storage capacities are exceeded. Fog drip is normally disregarded, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions through applying simulated rain or fog. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543±77 vs. 325±56 mg, p=0.048. The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted. Interception storage capacity (Cmin was 0.19 and 0.54 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. T. recurvata contributed 20% to the rain interception of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata. Meteorological data registered during one year at Cadereyta, México showed that radiative fog formation was possible during the dry season. The results showed the potential role of T. recurvata in capturing fog, which probably is a main source of water during the dry season that supports their reproductive and physiological activity at that time. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be

  7. Fog interception by Ball moss (Tillandsia recurvata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Cervantes-Jiménez, M.; Suzán-Azpiri, H.; González-Sosa, E.; Hernández-Sandoval, L.; Malda-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Díaz, M.

    2010-03-01

    Interception losses are a major influence in the water yield of vegetated areas. For most storms, interception results in less water reaching the ground. However, fog drip or occult precipitation can result in negative interception because small drops are deposited on all plant surfaces and subsequently fall to the ground once vegetation storage capacities are exceeded. Fog drip is normally disregarded, but for some plant communities, it could be a mechanism offsetting evaporation losses. Tillandsia recurvata is a cosmopolitan epiphyte adapted to arid habitats where fog may be an important water source. Therefore, the interception storage capacity by T. recurvata was measured in controlled conditions through applying simulated rain or fog. The storage capacity was proportional to dry weight mass. Nocturnal stomatic opening in T. recurvata is not only relevant for CO2 but for water vapor, as suggested by the higher weight change of specimens wetted with fog for 1 h at dark in comparison to those wetted during daylight (543±77 vs. 325±56 mg, p=0.048). The coefficients obtained in the laboratory were used together with biomass measurements for T. recurvata in a xeric scrub to calculate the depth of water intercepted. Interception storage capacity (Cmin) was 0.19 and 0.54 mm for rainfall and fog respectively. T. recurvata contributed 20% to the rain interception of their shrub hosts: Acacia farnesiana and Prosopis laevigata. Meteorological data registered during one year at Cadereyta, México showed that radiative fog formation was possible during the dry season. The results showed the potential role of T. recurvata in capturing fog, which probably is a main source of water during the dry season that supports their reproductive and physiological activity at that time. The storage capacity of T. recurvata leaf surfaces could increase the amount of water available for evaporation, but as this species colonise montane forests, the effect could be negative on water

  8. 40 CFR 140.5 - Analytical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MARINE SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.5 Analytical procedures. In determining the composition and quality of effluent discharge from marine sanitation devices, the procedures contained in 40 CFR part 136... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical procedures. 140.5...

  9. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  10. Fog and Dew Collection Projects in Croatia

    CERN Document Server

    Mileta, M; Nikolayev, Vadim; Milimouk, I; Clus, O; Muselli, M

    2007-01-01

    The present paper discusses the fog and dew water collection in Croatia. Zavizan, the highest meteorological station in Croatia(1594m) is chosen for collecting of fog water with a standard fog collector (SFC). The highest daily collection rate was 27.8 L / m2. The highest daily collection rate in days without rain was 19.1 l/m2. Dew is also a noticeable source of water, especially during the drier summer season. Dew condensers in Croatia have been installed on the Adriatic coast (Zadar) and islands Vis and Bisevo. We report and discuss the data collected since 2003. In the small Bisevo island, a special roof has been designed to improve the formation and collection of dew on a house. Data from April 2005 will be presented and discussed.

  11. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  12. 9 CFR 3.131 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.131 Section 3.131... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.131 Sanitation. (a) Cleaning of enclosures. Excreta... being directly sprayed with the stream of water or wetted involuntarily. (b) Sanitation of...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.27 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 1926.27 Section 1926.27 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and Health Provisions § 1926.27 Sanitation. Health and sanitation requirements for drinking water are contained in subpart D of this part....

  14. Sanitizer competency and fruit surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    All sanitizers and sanitizing protocols are not created equal. For the fresh produce market the lack of a comprehensive disinfection method is problematic especially in the face of the increasing recalls of fresh fruit, vegetables and unpasteurized juices. Research has shown that sanitizers and how ...

  15. 20 years of KVH fiber optic gyro technology: the evolution from large, low performance FOGs to compact, precise FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Precision fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are critical components for an array of platforms and applications ranging from stabilization and pointing orientation of payloads and platforms to navigation and control for unmanned and autonomous systems. In addition, FOG-based inertial systems provide extremely accurate data for geo-referencing systems. Significant improvements in the performance of FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems at KVH are due, in large part, to advancements in the design and manufacture of optical fiber, as well as in manufacturing operations and signal processing. Open loop FOGs, such as those developed and manufactured by KVH Industries, offer tactical-grade performance in a robust, small package. The success of KVH FOGs and FOG-based inertial systems is due to innovations in key fields, including the development of proprietary D-shaped fiber with an elliptical core, and KVH's unique ThinFiber. KVH continually improves its FOG manufacturing processes and signal processing, which result in improved accuracies across its entire FOG product line. KVH acquired its FOG capabilities, including its patented E•Core fiber, when the company purchased Andrew Corporation's Fiber Optic Group in 1997. E•Core fiber is unique in that the light-guiding core - critical to the FOG's performance - is elliptically shaped. The elliptical core produces a fiber that has low loss and high polarization-maintaining ability. In 2010, KVH developed its ThinFiber, a 170-micron diameter fiber that retains the full performance characteristics of E•Core fiber. ThinFiber has enabled the development of very compact, high-performance open-loop FOGs, which are also used in a line of FOG-based inertial measurement units and inertial navigation systems.

  16. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  17. Chemical partitioning of fine particle-bound metals on haze-fog and non-haze-fog days in Nanjing, China and its contribution to human health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiming; Wu, Hongfei; Wang, Qin'geng; Yang, Meng; Li, Fengying; Sun, Yixuan; Qian, Xin; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Information on chemical partitioning and associated risk of airborne metals, particularly during a haze-fog episode, is limited. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected during a severe haze-fog event in winter and non-haze-fog periods in summer and fall from an urban region of a typical Chinese mega-city, Nanjing. The particulate-bound metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) were chemically fractionated in a four-step sequential extraction procedure and human health risk was assessed. During the haze-fog episode, PM2.5 was extremely elevated with a mean concentration of 281 μg/m3 (range: 77-431 μg/m3), whereas the mean PM2.5 concentrations in summer and fall periods were 86 μg/m3 (range: 66-111 μg/m3) and 77 μg/m3 (range: 42-131 μg/m3), respectively. All elements had significantly higher concentrations and many metals exceeded relevant limits on haze-fog days. K, Na, Sr, Zn, Mo, Ca, Cd, Mg, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cr and As all showed relatively high proportions of the soluble and exchangeable fraction and strong bio-accessible potential. High temperature and humidity may increase the bio-accessible fraction of many airborne metals. The hazard index for potential toxic metals was 0.115, which was lower than the safe limit (1). However, the combined carcinogenic risk was 1.32 × 10- 6 for children and 5.29 × 10- 6 for adults, with both values being higher than the precautionary criterion (10- 6). Results of this study provide information for the behavior and risk mitigation of airborne metals.

  18. Spatiotemporal Variability of Surface Meteorological Variables During Fog and No-Fog Events in the Heber Valley, UT; Selected Case Studies From MATERHORN-Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bossche, Michael; De Wekker, Stephan F. J.

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the spatiotemporal variability of surface meteorological variables in the nocturnal boundary layer using six automatic weather stations deployed in the Heber Valley, UT, during the MATERHORN-Fog experiment. The stations were installed on the valley floor within a 1.5 km × 0.8 km area and collected 1-Hz wind and pressure data and 0.2-Hz temperature and humidity data. We describe the weather stations and analyze the spatiotemporal variability of the measured variables during three nights with radiative cooling. Two nights were characterized by the presence of dense ice fog, one night with a persistent (`heavy') fog, and one with a short-lived (`moderate') fog, while the third night had no fog. Frost-point depressions were larger preceding the night without fog and showed a continued decrease during the no-fog night. On both fog nights, the frost-point depression reached values close to zero early in the night, but ~5 h earlier on the heavy-fog night than on the moderate-fog night. Spatial variability of temperature and humidity was smallest during the heavy-fog night and increased temporarily during short periods when wind speeds increased and the fog lifted. During all three nights, wind speeds did not exceed 2 m/s. The temporal variability of the wind speed and direction was larger during the fog nights than during the no-fog nights, but was particularly large during the heavy-fog night. The large variability corresponded with short-lived (5-10 min) pressure variations with amplitudes on the order of 0.5 hPa, indicating gravity wave activity. These pressure fluctuations occurred at all stations and were correlated in particular with variability in wind direction. Although not able to provide a complete picture of the nocturnal boundary layer, our low-cost weather stations were able to continuously collect data that were comparable to those of nearby research-grade instruments. From these data, we distinguished between fog and no-fog events

  19. Urban-rural fog differences in Belgrade area, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Todorović, Nedeljko

    2016-12-01

    Urban/rural fog appearance during the last 27 years in the Belgrade region is analysed using hourly meteorological records from two meteorological stations: an urban station at Belgrade-Vračar (BV) and a rural station at Belgrade-Airport (BA). The effects of urban development on fog formation are discussed through analysis of fog frequency trends and comparison with a number of meteorological parameters. The mean annual and the mean annual minimum temperatures were greater at the urban BV station than at the rural BA station. The mean monthly relative humidity and the mean monthly water vapour pressure were greater at the rural than urban station. During the period of research (1988-2014), BA experiences 425 more days with fog than BV, which means that BV experiences fog for 62.68% of foggy days at BA. Trends in the number of days with fog were statistically non-significant. We analysed the fog occurrence during different types of weather. Fog in urban BV occurred more frequently during cyclonal circulation (in 52.75% of cases). In rural BA, the trend was the opposite and fog appeared more frequently during anticyclonic circulation (in 53.58% of cases). Fog at BV occurred most frequently in stable anticyclonic weather with light wind, when a temperature inversion existed (21.86% of cases). Most frequently, fog at BA occurred in the morning and only lasted a short time, followed by clearer skies during the anticyclonic warm and dry weather (22.55% of cases).

  20. Security in Fog Computing through Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Vishwanath

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is considered as one of the most exciting technology because of its flexibility and scalability. The main problem that occurs in cloud is security. To overcome the problems or issues of security, a new technique called fog-computing is evolved. As there are security issues in fog even after getting the encrypted data from cloud, we implemented the process of encryption using AES algorithm to check how it works for the fog. So far, to our analysis AES algorithm is the most secured process of encryption for security. Three datasets of different types are considered and applied the analysed encryption technique over those datasets. On validation, entire data over datasets is being accurately encrypted and decrypted back as well. We took android mobile as an edge device and deployed the encryption over datasets into it. Further, performance of encryption is evaluated over selected datasets for accuracy if the entire data is correctly encrypted and decrypted along with the time, User load, Response time, Memory Utilization over file size. Further best and worst cases among the datasets are analysed thereby evaluating the suitability of AES in fog.

  1. Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wærsted, Eivind G.; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Delanoë, Julien; Dubuisson, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Radiative cooling and heating impact the liquid water balance of fog and therefore play an important role in determining their persistence or dissipation. We demonstrate that a quantitative analysis of the radiation-driven condensation and evaporation is possible in real time using ground-based remote sensing observations (cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer). Seven continental fog events in midlatitude winter are studied, and the radiative processes are further explored through sensitivity studies. The longwave (LW) radiative cooling of the fog is able to produce 40-70 g m-2 h-1 of liquid water by condensation when the fog liquid water path exceeds 30 g m-2 and there are no clouds above the fog, which corresponds to renewing the fog water in 0.5-2 h. The variability is related to fog temperature and atmospheric humidity, with warmer fog below a drier atmosphere producing more liquid water. The appearance of a cloud layer above the fog strongly reduces the LW cooling relative to a situation with no cloud above; the effect is strongest for a low cloud, when the reduction can reach 100 %. Consequently, the appearance of clouds above will perturb the liquid water balance in the fog and may therefore induce fog dissipation. Shortwave (SW) radiative heating by absorption by fog droplets is smaller than the LW cooling, but it can contribute significantly, inducing 10-15 g m-2 h-1 of evaporation in thick fog at (winter) midday. The absorption of SW radiation by unactivated aerosols inside the fog is likely less than 30 % of the SW absorption by the water droplets, in most cases. However, the aerosols may contribute more significantly if the air mass contains a high concentration of absorbing aerosols. The absorbed radiation at the surface can reach 40-120 W m-2 during the daytime depending on the fog thickness. As in situ measurements indicate that 20-40 % of this energy is transferred to the fog as sensible heat, this surface absorption can contribute

  2. Experimental evaluation of fog warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali S

    2007-11-01

    Highway safety is a major concern to the public and to transportation professionals, so the number of crashes caused by poor visibility due to fog form an alarming statistic. Drivers respond to poor visibility conditions in different ways: some slow down; others do not. Many drivers simply follow the taillights of the vehicle ahead. Accordingly, hazardous conditions are created in which speeds are both too high for the prevailing conditions and highly variable. Findings are presented from a study of traffic crashes due to fog in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of fog detection and warning system on driver behavior regarding speed and headway. This warning system includes visibility sensors that automatically activate a variable message sign that posts an advisory speed when hazardous conditions due to fog occur. The system was installed on a 2 km section of a two-lane, rural highway. A data set of 36,013 observations from both experimental and control sections at two study sites was collected and analyzed. The data included vehicle speed, volume, and classification; time headway, time of day, and visibility distance. Although the warning system was ineffective in reducing speed variability, mean speed throughout the experimental sections was reduced by about 6.5 kph. This reduction indicates that the warning system appeared to have a positive effect on driver behavior in fog even though the observed mean speeds were still higher than the posted advisory speed. From relationships found in the literature between mean driving speed and number of crashes, a speed reduction of only 5 kph would yield a 15% decrease in the number of crashes.

  3. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  4. Impact of Air Pollution on California Central Valley Fog Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the 20th century, trends in California Central Valley fog frequency have changed dramatically without explanation. While episodes of dense radiation fog, known regionally as Tule Fog, increased steadily from 1930-1970, analysis from both ground and remote sensing measurements confirm a 46-50% reduction in fog days in the last 30 years (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014, Herkes et al., 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the recent decline in radiation fog can be explained by the rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in Central Valley fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better support this upward then downward temporal trend. Automobile use greatly increased emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx) midcentury, followed by a large decrease in vehicle emissions due to statewide regulation from 1980 to present. In the Central Valley, NOx from automobile emissions contributes to the formation ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), the dominant hygroscopic aerosol in the valley's wintertime boundary layer that can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) necessary for fog droplet formation. Thus, changes in air pollution not only affect the number of CCN, but may also impact the density and persistence of fog episodes. Using NOAA meteorological records throughout the twentieth century, we will show the correlation between fog frequency, air pollution, and climatic drivers. We conclude that fog trends are closely correlated with changes in air pollution, rather than solely climate change.

  5. Referenceless Prediction of Perceptual Fog Density and Perceptual Image Defogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Lark Kwon; You, Jaehee; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2015-11-01

    We propose a referenceless perceptual fog density prediction model based on natural scene statistics (NSS) and fog aware statistical features. The proposed model, called Fog Aware Density Evaluator (FADE), predicts the visibility of a foggy scene from a single image without reference to a corresponding fog-free image, without dependence on salient objects in a scene, without side geographical camera information, without estimating a depth-dependent transmission map, and without training on human-rated judgments. FADE only makes use of measurable deviations from statistical regularities observed in natural foggy and fog-free images. Fog aware statistical features that define the perceptual fog density index derive from a space domain NSS model and the observed characteristics of foggy images. FADE not only predicts perceptual fog density for the entire image, but also provides a local fog density index for each patch. The predicted fog density using FADE correlates well with human judgments of fog density taken in a subjective study on a large foggy image database. As applications, FADE not only accurately assesses the performance of defogging algorithms designed to enhance the visibility of foggy images, but also is well suited for image defogging. A new FADE-based referenceless perceptual image defogging, dubbed DEnsity of Fog Assessment-based DEfogger (DEFADE) achieves better results for darker, denser foggy images as well as on standard foggy images than the state of the art defogging methods. A software release of FADE and DEFADE is available online for public use: http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/fog/index.html.

  6. An analysis of fog events at Belgrade International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljović, Katarina; Vujović, Dragana; Lazić, Lazar; Vučković, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the occurrence of fog at Belgrade "Nikola Tesla" Airport was carried out using a statistical approach. The highest frequency of fog has occurred in the winter months of December and January and far exceeded the number of fog days in the spring and the beginning of autumn. The exceptionally foggy months, those having an extreme number of foggy days, occurred in January 1989 (18 days), December 1998 (18 days), February 2005 (17 days) and October 2001 (15 days). During the winter months (December, January and February) from 1990 to 2005 (16 years), fog occurred most frequently between 0600 and 1000 hours, and in the autumn, between 0500 and 0800 hours. In summer, fog occurred most frequently between 0300 and 0600 hours. During the 11-year period from 1995 to 2005, it was found that there was a 13 % chance for fog to occur on two consecutive days and a 5 % chance that it would occur 3 days in a row. In October 2001, the fog was observed over nine consecutive days. During the winter half year, 52.3 % of fog events observed at 0700 hours were in the presence of stratus clouds and 41.4 % were without the presence of low clouds. The 6-h cooling observed at the surface preceding the occurrence of fog between 0000 and 0700 hours ranged mainly from 1 to 4 °C. A new method was applied to assess the probability of fog occurrence based on complex fog criteria. It was found that the highest probability of fog occurrence (51.2 %) takes place in the cases in which the relative humidity is above 97 %, the dew-point depression is 0 °C, the cloud base is lower than 50 m and the wind is calm or weak 1 h before the onset of fog.

  7. Fogging low concentrated organic acid in a fattening pig unit – Effect on animal health and microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Stein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective.[/b] In intensive pig production aerial contaminates are potential hazards for the health of animals and humans. In this study, the effect of fogging a low concentrated tartaric acid solution on pigs’ health, environmental and hygiene parameters were evaluated in an inhabited fattening unit. [b]Materials and method.[/b] Pigs were housed in separate units (control group n=109 and experimental group n=110. During the whole fattening period, twice a week at 48 hour intervals, a 0.1% tartaric acid solution was aerosolized by a cold-fogging system for 20 minutes in the experimental unit. Environmental parameters were spot-checked on days of fogging. Sedimentation dust and surfaces were analysed for bacterial and fungal load. Dust particle size distribution was assessed. Pigs were clinically examined weekly. Standard meat examination at an abattoir was extended by individual quantification of lung alterations. [b]Results. [/b]The fogging procedure had no influence on ammonia concentrations. A significant reduction of mould, but not of bacteria, was found in sedimentation dust, and bacterial and mould scores of surface samples were improved. A significant reduction of particle size classes 1.6–2.0 µm, 4.0–5.0 µm, 7.5–10 µm, as well as 10–15 µm was observed. The high sound level of the fogging machine (82–102 dB led to higher activity and pen-mate directed behaviour. More skin alterations, conjunctivitis and sneezing were recorded in the experimental group. Gross pathological lung alterations did not differ between both groups. [b] Conclusions.[/b] Although fogging of tartaric acid is limited to a concentration of 0.1% due to its irritating effect on the respiratory mucosa, reduction of microbial load can be achieved, but it would be enhanced by using more powerful fogging systems.

  8. 9 CFR 416.12 - Development of Sanitation SOP's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development of Sanitation SOP's. 416... ACT SANITATION § 416.12 Development of Sanitation SOP's. (a) The Sanitation SOP's shall describe all... direct contamination or adulteration of product(s). (b) The Sanitation SOP's shall be signed and dated...

  9. Fog chemistry in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Suresh; Raghunathan, Ravikrishna; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Chen, Jing; Kommalapati, Raghava R.; Murugesan, Karthik; Shen, Xinhua; Qingzhong, Yuan; Valsaraj, Kalliat T.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    Fog samples were collected in two population centers of the US Gulf Coast (Houston, Texas and Baton Rouge, Louisiana) using Caltech active strand cloud collectors. A total of 32 fogwater samples were collected in Baton Rouge (November 2004-February 2005) and Houston (February 2006). These samples were analyzed for pH, total and dissolved organic carbon, major inorganic ions, and a variety of organic compounds including organic acids, aromatics, carbonyls, and linear alkanes. Fogs in both environments were of moderate density, with typical fog liquid water contents clouds in the eastern US. Total organic carbon concentrations were much higher in Houston fogs than in Baton Rouge fogs. Efforts to speciate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reveal large contributions from organic acids and carbonyls, with smaller contributions from other organic compound families including aromatics, alkanes, amides, and alcohols. Approximately 40% of the fog DOC was unspeciated in samples from both study locations.

  10. Novel method for fog monitoring using cellular networks infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2012-08-01

    A major detrimental effect of fog is visibility limitation which can result in serious transportation accidents, traffic delays and therefore economic damage. Existing monitoring techniques including satellites, transmissometers and human observers - suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or lack of precision when measuring near ground level. Here we show a novel technique for fog monitoring using wireless communication systems. Communication networks widely deploy commercial microwave links across the terrain at ground level. Operating at frequencies of tens of GHz they are affected by fog and are, effectively, an existing, spatially world-wide distributed sensor network that can provide crucial information about fog concentration and visibility. Fog monitoring potential is demonstrated for a heavy fog event that took place in Israel. The correlation between transmissomters and human eye observations to the visibility estimates from the nearby microwave links was found to be 0.53 and 0.61, respectively. These values indicate the high potential of the proposed method.

  11. Prediction of Radiation Fog by DNA Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Kumar Sankar; Mondal, Mandrita

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose a wet lab algorithm for prediction of radiation fog by DNA computing. The concept of DNA computing is essentially exploited for generating the classifier algorithm in the wet lab. The classifier is based on a new concept of similarity based fuzzy reasoning suitable for wet lab implementation. This new concept of similarity based fuzzy reasoning is different from conventional approach to fuzzy reasoning based on similarity measure and also replaces the logical aspect o...

  12. A facile strategy for the fabrication of a bioinspired hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surface for highly efficient fog-harvesting

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yuchao

    2015-08-10

    Fog water collection represents a meaningful effort in the places where regular water sources, including surface water and ground water, are scarce. Inspired by the amazing fog water collection capability of Stenocara beetles in the Namib Desert and based on the recent work in biomimetic water collection, this work reported a facile, easy-to-operate, and low-cost method for the fabrication of hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surface toward highly efficient fog water collection. The essence of the method is incorporating a (super)hydrophobically modified metal-based gauze onto the surface of a hydrophilic polystyrene (PS) flat sheet by a simple lab oven-based thermal pressing procedure. The produced hybrid patterned surfaces consisted of PS patches sitting within the holes of the metal gauzes. The method allows for an easy control over the pattern dimension (e.g., patch size) by varying gauze mesh size and thermal pressing temperature, which is then translated to an easy optimization of the ultimate fog water collection efficiency. Given the low-cost and wide availability of both PS and metal gauze, this method has a great potential for scaling-up. The results showed that the hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned hybrid surfaces with a similar pattern size to Stenocara beetles’s back pattern produced significantly higher fog collection efficiency than the uniformly (super)hydrophilic or (super)hydrophobic surfaces. This work contributes to general effort in fabricating wettability patterned surfaces and to atmospheric water collection for direct portal use.

  13. Sea Fog Forecasting with Lagrangian Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    In 1913, G. I. Taylor introduced us to a Lagrangian view of sea fog formation. He conducted his study off the coast of Newfoundland in the aftermath of the Titanic disaster. We briefly review Taylor's classic work and then apply these same principles to a case of sea fog formation and dissipation off the coast of California. The resources used in this study consist of: 1) land-based surface and upper-air observations, 2) NDBC (National Data Buoy Center) observations from moored buoys equipped to measure dew point temperature as well as the standard surface observations at sea (wind, sea surface temperature, pressure, and air temperature), 3) satellite observations of cloud, and 4) a one-dimensional (vertically directed) boundary layer model that tracks with the surface air motion and makes use of sophisticated turbulence-radiation parameterizations. Results of the investigation indicate that delicate interplay and interaction between the radiation and turbulence processes makes accurate forecasts of sea fog onset unlikely in the near future. This pessimistic attitude stems from inadequacy of the existing network of observations and uncertainties in modeling dynamical processes within the boundary layer.

  14. Temperature Drift Modeling of FOG Based on LS-WSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ping; KONG Xiao-mei; FU Meng-yin; WANG Mei-ling; ZHANG Jia-wen; JIANG Ming

    2008-01-01

    Large temperature drift is an important factor for improving the performance of FOG. A trend term of temperature drift of FOG is obtained using stationary wavelets transform, and an FOG drift algorithm with least squares wavelet support vector machine (LS-WSVM) is developed. The algorithm used Maxihat wavelet as a kernel function of LSWSVM to establish an FOG drift model. It has better modeling precise than LS-WSVM model with Gauss kernel. Results indicate the efficiency of this algorithm of LS-WSVM.

  15. On the Influence of a Simple Microphysics Parametrization on Radiation Fog Modelling: A Case Study During ParisFog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric; Milliez, Maya; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of a radiation fog event with a single column model is presented, which takes into account recent developments in microphysical parametrizations. One-dimensional simulations are performed using the computational fluid dynamics model Code_Saturne and the results are compared to a very detailed in situ dataset collected during the ParisFog campaign, which took place near Paris, France, during the winter 2006-2007. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete diurnal simulations and to the role of microphysics in the fog life cycle. The comparison between the simulated and the observed visibility, in the single-column model case study, shows that the evolution of radiation fog is correctly simulated. Sensitivity simulations show that fog development and dissipation are sensitive to the droplet-size distribution through sedimentation/deposition processes but the aerosol number concentration in the coarse mode has a low impact on the time of fog formation.

  16. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hammer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research. SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1 total and interstitial (non-activated dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2 interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3 cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration at different supersaturations (SS with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak

  17. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  18. Ecosanitation: An Integrated Approach towards Sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Gabani,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 2.6 billion people in the world without improved sanitation. Improved sanitation is defined by WHO as connection to a Public sewer, connection to a septic system, a pour-flush latrine, a simple or ventilated pit latrine. Most of this 2.6 billion reside in rural Asia and Africa. But technically even access to improved sanitation does not solve the problem, a spit latrines which serve about 2.8 billion people usually fail to sanitize and contribute to ground water pollution. Also, septic systems and sewerage treatment plant often discharge in to the overloading and eutrophication. The need to close the loop on nutrients indicates that a paradigm shift towards sustainable sanitation is necessary environment with little or no sanitization or nutrient removal, polluting the ground water table streams, lake sand coastal zones, helping to perpetuate the cycle of human disease and upsetting fragile aquatic ecosystems by nutrient. The health risks associated with the current state of sanitation in the world require immediate action. Thus in present scenario huge amount of water and piping coverage is required and inspite of all these things the operational and maintenance cost are also high. This traditional British flush sanitation system has created havoc. Ample amount of NPK which is readily available in absorbable form by plants is wasted down the drain. Due to ever expansion of urban areas are getting far away which is increasing the cost of conveyance of sewage.

  19. Social Perspectives on the Sanitation Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Spaargaren, G.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In developed countries the sanitation challenge is to initiate a transition from strongly centralized, water-based infrastructure regimes towards more sustainable, source-separation oriented, sanitation regimes. This calls for social scientific research and demonstration on different levels and scal

  20. Removal of micropollutants in source separated sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Source separated sanitation is an innovative sanitation method designed for minimizing use of energy and clean drinking water, and maximizing reuse of water, organics and nutrients from waste water. This approach is based on separate collection and treatment of toilet wastewater (black water) and th

  1. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena i

  2. 46 CFR 196.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 196.15-10 Section 196.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  3. 43 CFR 423.34 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 423.34 Section 423.34 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Sanitation. (a) You must not bring or improperly dispose of refuse on Reclamation facilities, lands,...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1232 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 13.1232 Section 13.1232 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Developed Area § 13.1232 Sanitation. Within the BCDA, washing dishes or cooking utensils at locations...

  5. 36 CFR 327.9 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 327.9 Section 327.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND... § 327.9 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, gray water, or any other waste material...

  6. 36 CFR 331.7 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 331.7 Section 331.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.7 Sanitation. (a) Garbage, trash, rubbish, litter, or any other waste...

  7. 46 CFR 97.15-10 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 97.15-10 Section 97.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-10 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief...

  8. 46 CFR 109.203 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 109.203 Section 109.203 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.203 Sanitation. (a) The master or person in charge shall insure that the...

  9. 46 CFR 78.17-25 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation. 78.17-25 Section 78.17-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-25 Sanitation. (a) It shall be the duty of the master and chief engineer to see that...

  10. 36 CFR 261.11 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation. 261.11 Section 261.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.11 Sanitation. The following are prohibited: (a) Depositing in any...

  11. Impact of activation process on fog life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Marie; Burnet, Frédéric; Lac, Christine; Roberts, Greg; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Elias, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Fogs are complex meteorological system dealing with fine scale processes. Subtle interaction between radiative, dynamic, turbulent and microphysic processes can lead to different fog life cycle, which make prediction difficult. The droplets that composed fogs are formed trough the activation of aerosol particles called CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) described by the Köhler theory (Köhler, 1936). The number and distribution of the droplets activated during fog formation is determined by the aerosols particles properties and number and the ambient vapor supersaturation of the atmosphere. In the frame of the PreViBOSS project, an in-situ measurement platform of fog properties at ground level was deployed at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during winter 2010 to 2013. Microphysics data supply a detailed characterization of number size spectrum from dry to wet aerosols particles and inform on the abilities of the aerosols particles to act as a CCN. 48 fog events have been studied. Supersaturation critical values and concentrations of CCN have been determined and linked to aerosols properties. The main impact of aerosols size distribution on activation have been pointed out. The study of droplets spectra evolution reveals the major physical processes into fogs and suggests that even if thermodynamic dominates the fog life cycle, activation process seems to have a significant effect. Large eddy simulation of fog run with Meso-NH model allow to explore precisely the interaction between fog physical processes and to quantify activation impact. Supersaturation modelling is a key point, a new pseudo-prognostic scheme (Thouron et al., 2012) is used. Confrontation between a detailed experimental study and three-dimensional fine scale simulation in LES provides an accurate investigation of the impact of activation process on fog life cycle.

  12. Fog deposition to a Tillandsia carpet in the Atacama Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Osses

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth, fog deposition plays an important role for the water balance and for the survival of vulnerable ecosystems. The eddy covariance method, previously applied for the quantification of fog deposition to forests in various parts of the world, was used for the first time to measure deposition of fog water to a desert. In this exploratory study we estimate the amount of water available for the ecosystem by deposition and determine the relevant processes driving fog deposition. This is especially important for the species Tillandsia landbecki living in coastal Atacama at the limit of plant existence with fog and dew being the only sources of water. Between 31 July and 19 August 2008 approximately 2.5 L m−2 of water were made available through deposition. Whole-year deposition was estimated as 25 L m−2. Turbulent upward fluxes occurred several times during the evenings and are explained by the formation of radiation fog. In connection with that, underestimates of the deposition are assumed. More detailed studies covering various seasons and all parameters and fluxes contributing to the local energy balance are suggested. This will help to further develop understanding about the processes of (i deposition of water to the desert, and (ii intensification of advection fog through additional formation of radiation fog.

  13. Clearing the Fog from the Undergraduate Course in Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Damon

    2007-01-01

    For over a decade it has been a common observation that a "fog" passes over the course in linear algebra once abstract vector spaces are presented. See [2, 3]. We show how this fog may be cleared by having the students translate "abstract" vector-space problems to isomorphic "concrete" settings, solve the "concrete" problem either by hand or with…

  14. Radiation in fog: quantification of the impact on fog liquid water based on ground-based remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Wærsted

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiative cooling and heating impact the liquid water balance of fog and therefore play an important role in determining their persistence or dissipation. We demonstrate that a quantitative analysis of the radiation-driven condensation and evaporation is possible in real time using ground-based remote sensing observations (cloud radar, ceilometer, microwave radiometer. Seven continental fog events in midlatitude winter are studied, and the radiative processes are further explored through sensitivity studies. The longwave (LW radiative cooling of the fog is able to produce 40–70 g m−2 h−1 of liquid water by condensation when the fog liquid water path exceeds 30 g m−2 and there are no clouds above the fog, which corresponds to renewing the fog water in 0.5–2 h. The variability is related to fog temperature and atmospheric humidity, with warmer fog below a drier atmosphere producing more liquid water. The appearance of a cloud layer above the fog strongly reduces the LW cooling relative to a situation with no cloud above; the effect is strongest for a low cloud, when the reduction can reach 100 %. Consequently, the appearance of clouds above will perturb the liquid water balance in the fog and may therefore induce fog dissipation. Shortwave (SW radiative heating by absorption by fog droplets is smaller than the LW cooling, but it can contribute significantly, inducing 10–15 g m−2 h−1 of evaporation in thick fog at (winter midday. The absorption of SW radiation by unactivated aerosols inside the fog is likely less than 30 % of the SW absorption by the water droplets, in most cases. However, the aerosols may contribute more significantly if the air mass contains a high concentration of absorbing aerosols. The absorbed radiation at the surface can reach 40–120 W m−2 during the daytime depending on the fog thickness. As in situ measurements indicate that 20–40 % of this energy is transferred to the fog

  15. Evolution of udder hygiene. Premilking teat sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Drechsler, P A

    1993-11-01

    Compared with post-milking teat dipping, predipping is in its infancy. Few controlled studies have been published on premilking teat disinfection/sanitation. Experimental challenge procedures resulted in consistent reductions for predipping compared with no udder preparation and conventional udder preparation, indicating a potential for effectiveness. Challenge studies that included the treatments of predip only and postdip only indicated that interactions during the milking process require elucidation. Positive benefits have been observed for predipping in field trials among some herds, but wide variation has been observed between herds in all field trial evaluations. Parity, DIM, and season of the year had major interactions on efficacy of predipping in Pankey et al's 1987 report; other trials have been of shorter duration and precluded analysis of these interactions. Interactions among these variables influenced incidence of mastitis by environmental pathogens. The length of time after milking before teats are contaminated probably is a major influence on predip efficacy. Predipping has reduced incidence of new IMIs and new cases of clinical mastitis. Unfortunately, certain factors negated these positive effects. These factors need to be defined. Producers should monitor effects of predipping to determine whether the investment in product and time has an economic return under the conditions of their dairy.

  16. The Association Between Fog and Temperature Inversions from Ground and Radiosonde Observations in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, G.; Jiskoot, H.

    2016-12-01

    Many Arctic glaciers terminate along coasts where temperature inversions and sea fog are frequent during summer. Both can influence glacier ablation, but the effects of fog may be complex. To understand fog's physical and radiative properties and its association to temperature inversions it is important to determine accurate Arctic coastal fog climatologies In previous research we determined that fog in East Greenland peaks in the melt season and can be spatially extensive over glacierized terrain. In this study we aim to understand which environmental factors influence fog occurrence in East Greenland; understand the association between fog and temperature inversions; and quantify fog height. We analyzed fog observations and other weather data from coastal synoptic weather stations, and extracted temperature inversions from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive radiosonde profiles. Fog height was calculated from radiosonde profiles, based on a method developed for radiation fog which we expanded to include advection and steam fog. Our results show that Arctic coastal fog requires sea ice breakup and a sea breeze with wind speed between 1-4 m/s. Fog is mostly advective, occurring under stable synoptic conditions characterized by deep and strong low-level temperature inversions. Steam fog may occur 5-30% of the time. Fog can occur under near-surface subsidence, with a subsaturated inversion base, or a saturated inversion base. We classified five types of fog based on their vertical sounding characteristics: only at the surface, below an inversion, capped by an inversion, inside a surface-based inversion, or inside a low-level inversion. Fog is commonly 100-400 m thick, often reaching the top of the boundary layer. Fog height is greater at northern stations, where daily fog duration is longer and relative humidity lower. Our results will be included in glacier energy-balance models to account for the influence of fog and temperature inversions on glacier melt.

  17. 49 CFR 229.139 - Sanitation, servicing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, servicing requirements. 229.139... Cab Equipment § 229.139 Sanitation, servicing requirements. (a) The sanitation compartment of each... present that prevents waste from evacuating the bowl. (c) The sanitation compartment of each...

  18. Estimating fog-top height through near-surface micrometeorological measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román-Cascón, Carlos; Yagüe, Carlos; Steeneveld, Gert Jan; Sastre, Mariano; Arrillaga, Jon Ander; Maqueda, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Fog-top height (fog thickness) is very useful information for aircraft maneuvers, data assimilation/validation of Numerical Weather Prediction models or nowcasting of fog dissipation. This variable is usually difficult to determine, since the fog-layer top cannot be observed from the surface. In

  19. A field investigation and numerical simulation of coastal fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, E. J.; Eadie, W. J.; Rogers, C. W.; Kocmond, W. C.; Pilie, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A field investigation of the microphysical and micrometeorological features of fogs occurring near Los Angeles and Vandenberg, California was conducted. Observations of wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point, vertical wind velocity, dew deposition, drop-size distribution, liquid water content, and haze and cloud nucleus concentration were obtained. These observations were initiated in late evening prior to fog formation and continued until the time of dissipation in both advection and radiation fogs. Data were also acquired in one valley fog and several dense haze situations. The behavior of these parameters prior to and during fog are discussed in detail. A two-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the formation and dissipation of advection fogs under the influence of horizontal variations in surface temperature. The model predicts the evolution of potential temperature, water vapor content, and liquid water content in a vertical plane as determined by vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection. Results are discussed from preliminary numerical experiments on the formation of warm-air advection fog and dissipation by natural and artificial heating from the surface.

  20. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were .... type (formal or informal, off-the books) and resident .... Knowledge of protection n (%) .... prevented through engineering, medical and legislative.

  1. Coastal Upwelling and Deep Fog: 50-year Worldwide Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koracin, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Deep fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. Occurrence is estimated by the number of deep fog observations divided by the total present weather observations in a one-degree area centered on latitude and longitude grid point intersections. The mean fog occurrence for the summer (June-July-August) 1950-2007 was computed for each one degree point for the world. There are five major world locations with coastal SST minimums due to wind driven upwelling. Four of these are during the local summer on the eastern side of a semi-permanent anticyclone on eastern sides of northern and southern mid-latitudes of the Pacifica and the Atlantic. The fifth is during the SW monsoon in the Indian Ocean. For all five of these locations, the deep fog occurrence is at maximum during the upwelling season, with the greatest occurrences concentrated along the coast and isolated over the SST minimum. For the five coastal fog maxima, the greatest and longest duration occurrence along coast occurrence is associated with the coldest sea surface temperature and longest along coast occurrence, which is along N. California- S. Oregon. In contrast, the lowest occurrence of fog and the least along coast occurrence is associated with the warmest sea surface temperatures and least along coast occurrence along the SE Arabian Peninsula. The remaining three zones, Peru-Chile, NW Africa, and SW Africa are between the two extremes in fog occurrence, along coast coverage and sea surface temperature. Peru-Chile is more complex than the others as the Peru upwelling and fog appears the more dominant although ship observations are sparse along Chile.

  2. On the Measurement of Dewfall and Fog-Droplet Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. D.; Clark, R.

    2014-09-01

    An observational study has been conducted concerning atmospheric dewfall and fog-droplet deposition with application to the formation and maintenance of fog layers. The relationship between dew and fog is discussed together with the challenges and requirements to measure representative values of their deposition to the surface. A practical instrument developed at the UK Met Office Research Unit, Cardington, is described. The instrument is a small portable device that uses a load cell to measure the weight of a pan upon which various types of natural and artificial canopies can be placed, and can measure dewfall and fog-droplet deposition to an accuracy of 0.0005 mm. Dewfall results from this device are shown for a selection of nights under varying conditions. On a given night the overriding factor determining the amount of dew deposition appears to be location. Several dewmeter devices were placed at different locations around the 18 ha Cardington field site for various clear nights and it was found that dew amounts varied significantly, depending on location: canopies with a more open aspect experienced more deposition by up to a factor of two. The results also suggest that the hygroscopic effect of a canopy, whereby water is absorbed into the canopy and topsoil layer before dew formation begins, is also important for the removal of atmospheric water vapour. Results indicate this effect can be of a similar magnitude to dew deposition. Measurements of fog-droplet deposition showed total water deposition rates did not change when thin radiation fog formed. When optically thick adiabatic fog formed, deposition rates were seen to decrease with time or be generally lower than for thinner radiation fog. Further observations are required to establish if the behaviours found are typical for all fogs.

  3. Review on the Analysis and Research of Fog Physicochemical Characteristic Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to review the analysis and research on the physicochemical characteristic observation aspect of fog. [Method] To understand the roles of fog microphysical characteristic and chemical reaction on the formation, dissipation, development of fog, the interaction between the microphysical structure, chemical characteristic of fog and the aerosol in the environment, the analysis and research on the micro-physicochemical observation aspect of fog were mainly introduced here. We also ...

  4. Continental Fog Attenuation Empirical Relationship from Measured Visibility Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nadeem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO has the great potential for future communication applications. However, weather influenced reduced availability had been the main cause for its restricted growth. Among different weather influences fog plays the major role. A new model generalized for all FSO wavelengths, has been proposed for the prediction of continental fog attenuation using visibility data. The performance of the proposed model has been compared with well known models for measured attenuation data of Continental fog. The comparison has been performed in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE.

  5. A Girl in the Fog(习作)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周水霞

    2000-01-01

    It's a fresh morning, somewhat full of fog.The white fog is not heavy, but it fills the whole morning, the whole world, even the whole heart of the slim girl. She is wandering through the vague fog, holding some thick books in her slim arms near her chest. Her step is slow and shaky. She seems not to be thinking. Only her two bright eyes, which seem to be full of little tears, are saying her helplessness, her loss, her despair, her depression and all her disappointment. The foggy world makes her feel them m...

  6. Extreme fog events in Poland with respect to circulation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustrnul, Z.; Czekierda, D.; Wypych, A.

    2010-09-01

    Fog is a phenomenon which belongs to a group of so-called hydrometeorites and, according to the different dictionaries, it is a suspension of water droplets or ice crystals in the ground layer of the air that impairs visibility in the horizontal direction below 1 km. The phenomenon of fog, although much less dynamic or violent than other extreme phenomena, such as thunderstorms or hail, is equally dangerous and brings about huge social and economic complications. Land and air transportation suffer and fog may sometimes leads to a complete crippling of the whole economy in an area where fog occurs. The main objective of the study is determination of the circulation types bringing extreme fog events in Poland. The duration of fog at each meteorological station was considered as the main input data originated from 54 synoptic stations located across the country. The mentioned data series cover the period of 56 years (1951-2006). The occurrence of fog depends on meteorological conditions caused to a large extent by a given synoptic situation and local terrain conditions. In this study, according to its objectives, only circulation conditions are taken into consideration. These have been described by 5 different circulation classifications (Grosswetterlagen, Litynski, Osuchowska-Klein, Niedzwiedz and Ustrnul). Situations when this phenomenon occurred across a large part of the country were taken into detailed consideration. Special attention was paid to fog coverage during 24-hour periods. In this work, in light of certain doubts about the homogeneity of the observation material available, the intensity of fog was not included, as it requires additional and very tedious analysis. In the first step all cases of fog during the 1966-2006 study period which lasted 24 hours at more than 10 of the considered weather stations, i.e: at least 5 stations have been considered. As expected, in most cases, either a centre of a classical high pressure system or a high pressure wedge

  7. Fog water chemical composition in different geographic regions of Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Sobik, Mieczysław; Klimaszewska, Kamila; Nowiński, Kamil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The fog water samples were collected with the use of both passive and active fog collectors during 2005-2006 at 3 sites: lowland in northern Poland (Borucino; 186 m a.s.l.), valley basin in southern Poland (Zakopane; 911 m a.s.l.) and mountain top (Szrenica Mt.; 1330 m a.s.l.) in south-western Poland. For all daily samples (Borucino—25; Zakopane—4 and Szrenica—155), electric conductivity, pH, and concentrations of some anions: Cl -, F -, Br -, NO 2-, NO 3-, SO 42-, PO 43-and cations: NH 4+, Ca 2+, K +, Na + and Mg 2+ were measured. The selected ions were determined using ion suppressed chromatography (IC). Fog consists of a specific type of atmospheric phenomena. Results obtained on the basis of analysis of suitable fog samples can be treated as a source of valuable information on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences depending on region, altitude, local morphology and, last but not least, fog origin. A distinct contrast is evident in the concentration and chemical composition between lowland radiation fog (represents lower layers of the atmosphere which are more influenced by continental emissions) versus orographic slope fog represented by a summit station, Mt Szrenica. It is partly induced by a distinction in weather conditions favouring fog existence, height of fog formation and its microphysical parameters. Acidity was associated with high concentrations of excess sulphate and nitrate in the fog water samples. Ammonium and calcium concentrations represent the most important neutralizing inputs. Collected cloud water at Szrenica Mt. includes solute contributions from emission sources located at much larger upwind distances. The fact that 95% of fog/cloud deposition is concentrated during SW-W-NW-N-NE, atmospheric circulation exerts an influence on the environmental quality of montane forests in the Sudety Mts. At numerous conspicuous convex landforms, where fog/cloud deposition becomes at least as important

  8. Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella recovered from non-sanitized and sanitized broiler hatching eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitizing hatching eggs may reduce the chances that a flock will become colonized with Salmonella and reduce the numbers of other microorganisms, such as Enterobacteriaceae, that can depress hatchability. An experiment was conducted to determine if a quaternary-biguanide sanitizer applied as foam ...

  9. Machine learning based Intelligent cognitive network using fog computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyang; Li, Lun; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) based on artificial intelligence is proposed to distribute the limited radio spectrum resources more efficiently. The CRN framework can analyze the time-sensitive signal data close to the signal source using fog computing with different types of machine learning techniques. Depending on the computational capabilities of the fog nodes, different features and machine learning techniques are chosen to optimize spectrum allocation. Also, the computing nodes send the periodic signal summary which is much smaller than the original signal to the cloud so that the overall system spectrum source allocation strategies are dynamically updated. Applying fog computing, the system is more adaptive to the local environment and robust to spectrum changes. As most of the signal data is processed at the fog level, it further strengthens the system security by reducing the communication burden of the communications network.

  10. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An empirical downscaling technique to predict daily fog occurrence at Cape Town International Airport from low-level atmospheric circulation is developed by using the Principal Component Regression option of the Climate Predictability Tool. NCEP 12...

  11. Humidification - Fogging and other evaporative cooling in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Weel, van P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fogging, misting, roof sprinklers, pad-and-fan and other techniques based on water evaporation are effective tools for improving the growing conditions in a greenhouse when humidity is low. They should be used wisely though.

  12. Humidification - Fogging and other evaporative cooling in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Weel, van P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fogging, misting, roof sprinklers, pad-and-fan and other techniques based on water evaporation are effective tools for improving the growing conditions in a greenhouse when humidity is low. They should be used wisely though.

  13. Fog Collection and Sustainable Architecture in Atacama Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suau, C.

    2010-07-01

    It is imperative to integrate renewable energy and climate into zero-carbon buildings in arid lands, particularly when it is reinforced by natural and social science-based innovation in natural and built environs. The aim is twofold: On one hand, to establish potential natural and urban habitats and their yields required in different scales of intervention and, on another hand, augment rate and yield of fog collection used for drinking and irrigation in chosen locations. The purpose of this study is to integrate zero-carbon energy, landscape and sustainable architecture as a whole and thus envision potential inhabitation through self-sufficient space-frame configurations along the coast of Tarapacá Region in Chile. In a sequential way, this study distinguishes three scales of interventions: A. Territorial scale. It consists of rural and natural zones along the shore of Tarapacá Region: Fog oases, creeks or corridors. The strategic allocation of large fog collectors can bring local agriculture back and thus stop rural emigration; and also repair existing fragile ecosystems in several fog oases by harvesting and distributing mainly crop water. B. Local scale. The space-frame fog collectors are allocated in Alto Patache (fog oasis) and Iquique city (low-income sprawl of Alto Hospicio). These artefacts can supply both water and electricity to small communities through forestation, sustainable micro-agriculture and complementary electrification. C. Domestic scale. It consists of the design of autonomous housing configuration based in polygonal space-frames. This inhabitable unit is modular, deployable and lightweight; with an adjustable polyvalent membrane which performs as water repellent skin (facing South and SW winds) and shading device facing Equator. In addition, a domestic wind turbine is installed within the structural frame to provide autonomous electrification. Water collector, filtering (purification) and irrigation network is designed with available

  14. An Overview of the MATERHORN Fog Project: Observations and Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, I.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Hoch, S. W.; Silver, Z.; Creegan, E.; Leo, L. S.; Pu, Zhaoxia; De Wekker, S. F. J.; Hang, Chaoxun

    2016-09-01

    A field campaign design to study fog processes in complex terrain was a component of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. The experiment was conducted in the Wasatch Mountains during January 5-February 15, 2015. Fog and in particular, Ice fog (IF), defined as fog composed of only ice crystals, was studied during a part of the campaign, and this component of the program was dubbed MATERHORN-Fog. Ice fog often occurs in mountainous regions due do rapid cooling, such as radiative cooling, advective cooling, and cooling associated with mountain circulations (e.g., slope and valley winds). A variety of major instrument platforms were deployed, which included meteorological towers, a SODAR, a LiDAR, ceilometers, and a tethersonde profiler. In addition, in situ measurements took place at several locations surrounding Salt Lake City and Heber City. During the campaign, ice fog occurred at temperatures below -5 °C down to -13 °C and lasted for several hours until radiative heating became significant. The visibility (Vis) during ice fog events ranged from 100 m up to 10 km. At the Heber City site an array of sensors for measuring microphysical, radiative, and dynamical characteristics of IF events were deployed. Some local effects such as upslope advection were observed to affect the IF conditions. As expected during these events, ice water content (IWC) varied from 0.01 up to 0.2 g m-3, with radiative cooling fluxes as strong as 200 W m-2; turbulent heat and moisture fluxes were significantly lower during fog events than those of fog dissipation. At times, the measured ice crystal number concentration was as high as 100 cm-3 during periods of saturation with respect to ice. N i was not a constant as usually assumed in forecasting simulations, but rather changed with increasing IWC. Measurement based statistics suggested that the occurrence of IF events in the region was up to 30 % during the study period in the winter of 2015

  15. Impact of Reduced Visibility from Fog on Traffic Sign Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Belaroussi, Rachid; Gruyer, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In camera-based Advance Driver Assistance System (ADAS) such as traffic sign recognition, some failure may be inferred by adverse meteorological conditions, in particular under foggy weather. This paper investigates the effects of reduced visibility from fog in an ADAS operating range, more specifically a traffic sign detection algorithm. For this purpose, we produced a database of synthetic images containing road signs with and without fog, that is intended to be shared with the scientific c...

  16. Scalable distributed computing hierarchy: cloud, fog and dew computing

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Karolj; Davidović, Davor; Afgan, Enis; Sović, Ivan; Šojat, Zorislav

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the conceptual approach for organization of the vertical hierarchical links between the scalable distributed computing paradigms: Cloud Computing, Fog Computing and Dew Computing. In this paper, the Dew Computing is described and recognized as a new structural layer in the existing distributed computing hierarchy. In the existing computing hierarchy, the Dew computing is positioned as the ground level for the Cloud and Fog computing paradigms. Vertical, complementary, hier...

  17. Fog Computing: Focusing on Mobile Users at the Edge

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Tom H.; Gao, Longxiang; Li, Zhi; XIANG, YANG; Wei, Guiyi; Sun, Limin

    2015-01-01

    With smart devices, particular smartphones, becoming our everyday companions, the ubiquitous mobile Internet and computing applications pervade people daily lives. With the surge demand on high-quality mobile services at anywhere, how to address the ubiquitous user demand and accommodate the explosive growth of mobile traffics is the key issue of the next generation mobile networks. The Fog computing is a promising solution towards this goal. Fog computing extends cloud computing by providing...

  18. The influence of fog on car following distance

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, V.; BEAUDOIN, E; de Boer, E

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis of distance misperception in fog has recently been corroborated by a series of fog chamber studies (Cavallo et al., 2000), showing an overestimation of 30-60 % of vehicle distance in foggy conditions, when the vehicle lights but not its outline remained visible. To validate these findings in a more ecological setting, we studied the control of following distance in a driving simulator experiment. Results revealed shorter following distances in all foggy conditions, irrespective...

  19. Vertical profile of fog microphysics : a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, Frédéric; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Mazoyer, Marie; Bourrianne, Thierry; Etcheberry, Jean-Michel; Gaillard, Brigitte; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Barrié, Joel; Barrau, Sébastien; Defoy, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and development of fogs result from the non-linear interaction of competing radiative, thermodynamic, microphysical and dynamical processes and the forecasting of their life cycle still remains a challenging issue. Several field campaigns have been carried out at the SIRTA observatory in the Paris suburb area (France). These experiments have shown that fog events exhibit large differences of the microphysical properties and various evolutions during their life cycle. To better understand relationships between the different processes and to validate numerical simulations it is necessary however to document the vertical profile of the fog microphysics. A CDP (Cloud Droplet Spectrometer) from DMT (Droplet Measurement Technology, Boulder, CO) has been modified to allow measurements of the droplet size distribution in fog layers with a tethered balloon. This instrumental set-up has been used during a field campaign during the winter 2013-214 in the Landes area in the South West of France. To validate the vertical profiles provided by the modified CDP, a mast was equipped with microphysical instruments at 2 altitude levels with an another CDP at 24 m and a Fog Monitor FM100 at 42 m. The instrumental set-up deployed during this campaign is presented. Data collected during a fog event that occurred during the night of 5-6 March 2014 are analysed. We show that microphysical properties such as droplet number concentration, LWC and mean droplet size, exhibit different time evolution during the fog life cycle depending on the altitude level. Droplet size distribution measurements are also investigated. They reveal sharp variations along the vertical close to the top of the fog layer. In addition it is shown that the shape of the size distributions at the top follows a time evolution typical of a quasi-adiabatic droplet growth.

  20. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  1. Characterization of contaminants from a sanitized milk processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cleto

    Full Text Available Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank--transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties.

  2. Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics: design, manufacture and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Vesco, S; Tagliaferri, V

    2014-08-01

    Self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings are of utmost interest in several manufacturing domains. In particular, fabrics and textile materials are often pre-treated by impregnation or incorporation with antimicrobial pesticides for protection purposes against bacteria and fungi that are pathogenic for man or other animals. In this respect, the present investigation deals with the design and manufacture of self-cleaning and self-sanitizing coatings on plastic fabrics. The functionalization of the coatings was yield by incorporating active inorganic matter alone (i.e., photo-catalytic TiO2 anatase and Ag(+) ions) inside an organic inorganic hybrid binder. The achieved formulations were deposited on coextruded polyvinylchloride-polyester fabrics by air-mix spraying and left to dry at ambient temperature. The performance of the resulting coatings were characterized for their self-cleaning and self-sanitizing ability according to standardized testing procedure and/or applicable international regulations.

  3. The turbulent structure and transport in fog layers observed over the Tianjin area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinxin; Wu, Bingui; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the vertical structure and turbulence activities in fog events. Three fog cases that occurred in the winter of 2010 over Tianjin, China were selected, including two advection-radiation fog events and an advection fog event. Field observations collected at a 255-m tall meteorological tower in Tianjin were analyzed, including turbulence measurements using the eddy covariance systems installed at three levels, measurements of temperature, horizontal wind and humidity collected at 15 levels, surface radiation fluxes and horizontal visibility. The results suggest that the advection fog was more enduring and thicker than the advection-radiation fog. The fog events were characterized by low wind speed throughout the fog layer. A temperature inversion and low-level jet were observed above the advection-radiation fog layer. The surface net radiation reflected some differences among the fog events. The collapse of turbulence was a necessity for the formation fog, and moderate turbulence was favorable to the development and maintenance. The heat and water vapor fluxes in the advection-radiation fog were weaker than those in the advection fog, in which the stratification was slightly unstable. The relationships among the turbulent transport efficiencies of water vapor, temperature and momentum were examined. The results suggest the applicability of local similarity in the fog layer for the momentum transport efficiency.

  4. Effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling the adherence of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus to domestic kitchen surfaces Eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e de sanitização no controle da adesão de Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis e Staphylococcus aureus em superfícies usadas em cozinhas domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Dias Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of cleaning and sanitizing procedures in controlling Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Pseudomonasfluorescens adhered to granite and stainless steel was evaluated. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in the adherence of pure cultures of these microorganisms to stainless steel. The numbers of P. fluorescens and S. Enteritidis adhered to granite were greater (p 0.05 between the surfaces. However, a significant difference was observed (p A eficiência dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização no controle de Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis e Pseudomonasfluorescens aderidas em granito e aço inoxidável foi avaliada. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na adesão destes microrganismos quando em cultura pura, em aço inoxidável. O número de células aderidas de P. fluorescens e S. Enteritidis foi maior (p 0,05 entre as superfícies. Entretanto, observou-se uma diferença (p < 0,05 entre as soluções sanitizantes utilizadas. Hipoclorito de sódio e ácido peracético apresentaram maior ação bactericida (p < 0,05 que o composto de amônia quaternária. Observou-se que S. aureus apresentou menor resistência à ação desses sanitizantes. Os resultados mostram a importância da adequada realização dos procedimentos de limpeza e sanitização para evitar a adesão bacteriana e formação de biofilme.

  5. The Waterless Portable Private Toilet: An Innovative Sanitation Solution in Disaster Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkyun; Hashemi, Shervin; Han, Mooyoung; Kim, Tschungil; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophes can occur without warning and inevitably cause short-term and long-term problems. In disaster zones, having an action plan to alleviate difficulties can reduce or prevent many long-lasting complications. One of the most critical and urgent issues is sanitation. Water, energy, personnel, transportation, and the allocation of resources in disaster areas tend to become very limited during emergencies. Sanitation systems suffer in the process, potentially leading to crises due to unsafe and unhygienic surroundings. This article explores the problems of current sanitation practices in disaster areas and identifies the essential characteristics of sustainable sanitation systems. This study also presents a plan for an innovative and sustainable sanitation system using a waterless, portable, private toilet, in addition to a procedure for collecting and disposing waste. The system is agronomic, is socially acceptable, prevents contact with human waste, and can be used for individuals or families. Environmental pollution and social problems (such as sexual harassment) can be reduced both during and after restoration.

  6. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  7. Research on measurement method of optical transmittance of the artificial fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianghua; Jian, Chaochao; Cui, Guangzhen; Lv, Xuliang; Rong, Xianhui

    2016-10-01

    The attenuation of light was a common result that the light was absorbed and scattered by the artificial fog particles when it transmitted in the artificial fog. The absorbing attenuation process of light transmission in the artificial fog was that the artificial fog converting incident light energy into other forms of internal energy (such as heat energy). The scattering attenuation process of light transmission in the artificial fog was that the artificial fog particles intercepting incident radiation energy to form infrasonic waves and to radiate peripherally so that the incident light energy was reduced on the original direction of transmission. The mechanism of light transmission attenuation in the artificial fog was analyzed. The formation method of the artificial fog was expounded and the measuring principle of the artificial fog transmittance was described. A simple and reliable measurement method of the optical transmittance of the artificial fog in the fog chamber was proposed. The optical transmittance measurement system of the artificial fog was built by using incandescent lamp, power with steady current and voltage, lens, selenium photocell, micro-galvanometer, optical bench, hygrothermograph, humidifier, etc. Under different conditions of humidity, the optical transmittance of the artificial fog was obtained on the basis of measuring the photocurrent before the fog was formed in the fog chamber. The test results show that the measurement system is stable and reliable. During the 43 minutes after the artificial fog was formed, the optical transmittance of the artificial fog was averagely less than 5 percent and the optical transmittance increased gradually with the extension of time. In addition, the optical transmittance of artificial fog didn't produce obvious change while air humidity increased from 68.7% to 85%. The measurement system can be used to measure transmittance of smoke screen, water mist and other aerosol.

  8. Fog-drip contributions to soil moisture as determined through passive fog collector measurements, leaf wetness data, and soil moisture at Pepperwood Preserve, Sonoma County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, L.; Dodge, C.; Fernandez, D.; Weiss, P. L.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Torregrosa, A.

    2016-12-01

    Summertime coastal fog advects from the ocean and transports water inland in the form of fog droplets to forests and grasslands. The amount of fog water delivered to the soil through fog drip from foliage and other surfaces that have captured and accumulated the droplets is often difficult to quantify due to many challenges including the difficulty of measuring the relatively small variations in soil moisture that accompany fog events. This study details summer season records collected from 4 sites at the Pepperwood Preserve in Santa Rosa, CA. Fog drip volumes were measured using 1 m2 standard fog collectors located at a grassland site for the past three summers. Soil moisture measurements were collected for portions of the three summer seasons from three sites: two oak woodland understory sites and a grassland site on the edge of a forest. One oak woodland site was within 400 m of the standard fog collector grassland site. Leaf wetness sensors (LWS) were co-located at all soil moisture sites. We observe a much higher frequency of wet periods at the grassland site than at the nearby oak woodland site during the summer fog season. One hypothesis is that the oak canopy acts to protect the LWS at the oak woodland site from nocturnal radiative cooling, thereby reducing condensation and dew formation. Another hypothesis is that the oak woodland canopy tends sheltered the understory during light fog events, resulting in edge effects that may tend to reduce fog deposition within the canopy. Leaf and soil moisture measurements both during fog events and during periods without fog but when dew point is reached may provide a more complete picture of non-rain mechanisms of moisture delivery to the foliage and the soil. Investigations are on-going to include corresponding meteorological data (wind speed and direction, relative humidity and temperature) to understand relative contributions to the soil associated with both fog and dew and to better distinguish between fog and

  9. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC's Non-Thermal Sanitation by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma technology sanitizes fresh fruits and vegetables without the use of consumable chemicals and without...

  10. User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 37th WEDC International Conference, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2014 Sustainable Water and Sanitation services for all in a fast changing world User perceptions regarding sanitation technologies in South Africa Ms L C. Duncker, South Africa Briefing...

  11. Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water supply, sanitation and health risks in Douala, Cameroon. ... out in March 2007 among 1400 households with respect to the water supply, sanitation and ... The companies present in the quarters discharge their wastewater in the drains.

  12. Dry sanitation concepts with inspiration from nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Hesselberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    design methods that search nature for animals and plants that solve similar problems. The paper describes how four conceptual sanitation solutions for dry toilets solving problems with smell, cleaning and flies can be made in collaboration between a design engineer and a biologist using biomimetic design......Poor sanitation is a major problem for health and water resources in many developing countries. Inexpensive but also attractive toilets could be a way to fight these problems. However, radical new ideas are needed to identify innovative solutions. Such novel ideas might be found by using systematic...

  13. Development of hybrid fog detection algorithm (FDA) using satellite and ground observation data for nighttime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hyeong; Han, Ji-Hae; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a hybrid fog detection algorithm (FDA) using AHI/Himawari-8 satellite and ground observation data for nighttime. In order to detect fog at nighttime, Dual Channel Difference (DCD) method based on the emissivity difference between SWIR and IR1 is most widely used. DCD is good at discriminating fog from other things (middle/high clouds, clear sea and land). However, it is difficult to distinguish fog from low clouds. In order to separate the low clouds from the pixels that satisfy the thresholds of fog in the DCD test, we conducted supplementary tests such as normalized local standard derivation (NLSD) of BT11 and the difference of fog top temperature (BT11) and air temperature (Ta) from NWP data (SST from OSTIA data). These tests are based on the larger homogeneity of fog top than low cloud tops and the similarity of fog top temperature and Ta (SST). Threshold values for the three tests were optimized through ROC analysis for the selected fog cases. In addition, considering the spatial continuity of fog, post-processing was performed to detect the missed pixels, in particular, at edge of fog or sub-pixel size fog. The final fog detection results are presented by fog probability (0 100 %). Validation was conducted by comparing fog detection probability with the ground observed visibility data from KMA. The validation results showed that POD and FAR are ranged from 0.70 0.94 and 0.45 0.72, respectively. The quantitative validation and visual inspection indicate that current FDA has a tendency to over-detect the fog. So, more works which reducing the FAR is needed. In the future, we will also validate sea fog using CALIPSO data.

  14. Numerical simulation of radiation fog in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Musson-Genon, L.; Carissimo, B.; Dupont, E.

    2009-09-01

    The interest for micro-scale modeling of the atmosphere is growing for environmental applications related, for example, to energy production, transport and urban development. The turbulence in the stable layers where pollutant dispersion is low and can lead to strong pollution events. This could be further complicated by the presence of clouds or fog and is specifically difficult in urban or industrial area due to the presence of buildings. In this context, radiation fog formation and dissipation over complex terrain were therefore investigated with a state-of-the-art model. This study is divided into two phases. The first phase is a pilot stage, which consist of employing a database from the ParisFog campaign which took place in the south of Paris during winter 2006-07 to assess the ability of the cloud model to reproduce the detailed structure of radiation fog. The second phase use the validated model for the study of influence of complex terrain on fog evolution. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete simulations and validation technique used is to compare the simulated results using the 3D cloud model of computational fluid dynamical software Code_Saturne with one of the best collected in situ data during the ParisFog campaign. Several dynamical, microphysical parameterizations and simulation conditions have been described. The resulting 3D cloud model runs at a horizontal resolution of 30 m and a vertical resolution comparable to the 1D model. First results look very promising and are able to reproduce the spatial distribution of fog. The analysis of the behavior of the different parameterized physical processes suggests that the subtle balance between the various processes is achieved.

  15. 49 CFR 229.137 - Sanitation, general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanitation, general requirements. 229.137 Section... Cab Equipment § 229.137 Sanitation, general requirements. (a) Sanitation compartment. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all lead locomotives in use shall be equipped with a...

  16. 46 CFR 121.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 121.704 Section 121.704... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies with 33 CFR part 159....

  17. 46 CFR 184.704 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation devices. 184.704 Section 184.704... TONS) VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.704 Marine sanitation devices. A vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device that complies...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.401 - Marine sanitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marine sanitation... Miscellaneous § 1304.401 Marine sanitation devices. No person operating a commercial boat dock permitted under... equipped with a marine sanitation device (MSD) unless such MSD is in compliance with all...

  19. 46 CFR 131.940 - Marine sanitation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine sanitation device. 131.940 Section 131.940... Miscellaneous § 131.940 Marine sanitation device. Each vessel with installed toilet facilities must have a marine sanitation device in compliance with 33 CFR part 159....

  20. 25 CFR 91.13 - Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. 91.13 Section... INDIAN VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.13 Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal. Health, sanitation, and sewerage disposal problems within the village reserves shall be subject to and controlled...

  1. 25 CFR 141.17 - Health and sanitation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health and sanitation requirements. 141.17 Section 141.17... THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.17 Health and sanitation... sale any goods that are banned for health or sanitation reasons from retail sale by any Federal...

  2. The influences of macro- and microphysical characteristics of sea-fog on fog-water chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2014-05-01

    During a sea-fog field observation campaign on Donghai Island in the spring of 2011, fog-water, visibility, meteorological elements, and fog droplet spectra were measured. The main cations and anions in 191 fog-water samples were Na+, NH{4/+}, H+, NO{3/-}, Cl- and SO{4/2-}, and the average concentrations of cations and anions were 2630 and 2970 μeq L-1, respectively. The concentrations of Na+ and Cl- originated from the ocean were high. The enhancement of anthropogenic pollution might have contributed to the high concentration of NH{4/+}, H+, and NO{3/-}. The average values of pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were 3.34 and 505 μS cm-1, respectively, with a negative correlation between them. Cold fronts associated with cyclonic circulations promoted the decline of ion loadings. Air masses from coastal areas had the highest ion loadings, contrary to those from the sea. The ranges of wind speed, wind direction and temperature corresponding to the maximum total ion concentration (TIC) were 3.5-4 m s-1, 79°-90° and 21°C-22°C, respectively. In view of the low correlation coefficients, a new parameter Lr was proposed as a predictive parameter for TIC and the correlation coefficient increased to 0.74. Based on aerosol concentrations during the sea-fog cases in 2010, we confirmed that fog-water chemical composition also depended on the species and sizes of aerosol particles. When a dust storm passed through Donghai Island, the number concentration of large aerosol particles (with diameter > 1 μm) increased. This caused the ratio of Ca2+/Na+ in fog-water to increase significantly.

  3. Outdoor FSO Communications Under Fog: Attenuation Modeling and Performance Evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-18

    Fog is considered to be a primary challenge for free space optics (FSO) systems. It may cause attenuation that is up to hundreds of decibels per kilometer. Hence, accurate modeling of fog attenuation will help telecommunication operators to engineer and appropriately manage their networks. In this paper, we examine fog measurement data coming from several locations in Europe and the United States and derive a unified channel attenuation model. Compared with existing attenuation models, our proposed model achieves a minimum of 9 dB, which is lower than the average root-mean-square error (RMSE). Moreover, we have investigated the statistical behavior of the channel and developed a probabilistic model under stochastic fog conditions. Furthermore, we studied the performance of the FSO system addressing various performance metrics, including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit-error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that in communication environments with frequent fog, FSO is typically a short-range data transmission technology. Therefore, FSO will have its preferred market segment in future wireless fifth-generation/sixth-generation (5G/6G) networks having cell sizes that are lower than a 1-km diameter. Moreover, the results of our modeling and analysis can be applied in determining the switching/thresholding conditions in highly reliable hybrid FSO/radio-frequency (RF) networks.

  4. Mercury in fog on the Bay of Fundy (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Charles D.; Richards, William; Arp, Paul A.

    Mercury concentrations in fog water, collected during the summer of 2003, were found to vary along a geospatial gradient from Grand Manan (an island at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy, with Hg levels 42-435 ng l -1), the main coastline of New Brunswick at Point Lepreau (2-33 ng l -1), to an inland location in Fredericton, Canada (3.5 ng l -1). Hg concentrations were higher during days when air masses were stationary and fog conditions were extended over several days. High concentrations on Grand Manan were most likely due to continued atmospheric deposition of Hg into fog banks of long duration, high air turbulence along the steep 100 m cliffs, and decreasing droplet size with increasing air temperature during the course of the day. We found that fog Hg deposition was about 0.4-7.5% of wet Hg deposition along the coastal area, whereas on Grand Manan Island, fog Hg deposition from was 31-74% of wet Hg deposition.

  5. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  6. Impurities in a lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352: identification and role of sanitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Munir N; Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Khaselev, Nona; Lozano, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify two impurities in the parenteral lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352, investigate the role of sanitizing agents as their potential source, evaluate their effect on drug product stability, and develop a strategy to prevent their contamination of the drug product. The two impurities were identified as o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol based on liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and chromatographic comparison to authentic samples. The LC/MS spectra of commercially available o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol showed identical patterns of fragmentation and the same retention times as the impurities identified in the BMS-204352 lyophilized product. Levels of these impurities were low and ranged between 0.2-0.3 microg/vial as determined by HPLC and using an authentic external reference standard. To confirm the hypothesis that the commercial sanitizing agents used in the sterile area were the source of these phenolic impurities, several product samples were spiked with the sanitizing agents. Both o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol were detected in the spiked samples. Further investigation revealed that o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol are active ingredients of these commercial sanitizing agents. Drug product samples containing the phenolic impurities showed no potency loss following storage at 30, 50, and 70 degrees C indicating these impurities had no adverse effect on product stability. These studies suggest that sanitizing agents used in the sterile area, although may be present at trace levels below typical cleaning procedure detection methods, need to be properly controlled and closely monitored during the manufacturing of injectable products, particularly highly potent drugs. Sanitizing agents, even though not used on product contact surfaces, may potentially contaminate a product through vapor transfer in an open environment.

  7. 9 CFR 3.31 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.31 Section 3.31 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  8. 9 CFR 3.107 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.107 Section 3.107 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  9. 9 CFR 3.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation. 3.56 Section 3.56 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  10. 21 CFR 211.56 - Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation. 211.56 Section 211.56 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL... rodents, birds, insects, and other vermin (other than laboratory animals). Trash and organic waste matter...

  11. 21 CFR 178.1010 - Sanitizing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weight of 3,300, and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether. Additionally, the aqueous solution may contain... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS.... (4) An aqueous solution containing iodine, butoxy monoether of mixed (ethylene-propylene...

  12. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  13. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  14. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  15. The Road to Food Safety and Sanitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Food is one of the most essential substance factors for human being. And safety and sanitation is one of the most important requirements for food without doubt. Every consumer likes to enjoy the safest supplies of food products in the world.

  16. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...

  17. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  18. The pioneer study of fog detection and horizontal precipitation measurement at subtropical highland of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P. H.; Lai, K. L.

    2010-07-01

    Heavy rainfall in highland caused by the interaction of tropical storms and sharp terrain is one of the major natural disasters in Taiwan. But there is no quantitative measurement on the fog and its horizontal precipitation (HP) to estimate the storage of water by plants in the highland region of Taiwan. In this pioneer study, we studied the fog detection and its horizontal precipitation amount, existence length and monthly variation at Kuan-Wu recreation area in Shei-Pa National Park of Taiwan. The 20-year (1988~2007) record length of meteorological data at Kuan-Wu was analyzed first to build up the background information of the local weather. The FDID (fog detection and interception device) including two fog detectors, two fog collectors and auto-shooting digital camera was delivered in this field program. The parallel experiment indoor with a fog tunnel also confirms the performance of polypropylene net used in FDID. FDID has collected data in the field over one year, and the preliminary results show that some components of FDID present the capability of fog event detection and give quantitative data of fog interception. The digital images in 5-min interval via fog collector data detected over 90% happening of fog event in the data available days. Through the RGB diagnosis in different pixel domains (different distances to the camera) on the digital images, the fog events are distinguished into light, medium and heavy fog events. The characteristics of daily and monthly variations of fog events could be explained through the terrain and local climate effects well. We also found the horizontal precipitation from fog provides ~11% extra water amount in the no-rain days. The happened possibility of fog & stratus cloud with The MTSAT geostationary IR channels by Central Weather Bureau is also validated by the FDID in-situ measurement. It shows that the remote sensing product of fog detection in nighttime has good correlation with FDID ground measurement.

  19. Fog and Tidal Current Connection at Cape Cod Canal-Early Recognition and Recent Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Alfred H.

    1982-02-01

    Notes by Gardner Emmons about the initiation of low advective fogs on Cape Cod are presented. Subsequent measurements made in these fogs confirm his suggestion that mixing and temperature changes associated with tidal currents account for the fog. Puzzling temperature measurements that are at apparent variance with the mixing theory of fog formation are presented. It is proposed that these temperature discrepancies are due to the effects of water vapor condensation on the sea water surface.

  20. Probabilistic Model for Free-Space Optical Links Under Continental Fog Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzuki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The error characteristics of a free-space optical (FSO channel are significantly different from the fiber based optical links and thus require a deep physical understanding of the propagation channel. In particular different fog conditions greatly influence the optical transmissions and thus a channel model is required to estimate the detrimental fog effects. In this paper we shall present the probabilistic model for radiation fog from the measured data over a 80 m FSO link installed at Graz, Austria. The fog events are classified into thick fog, moderate fog, light fog and general fog based on the international code of visibility range. We applied some probability distribution functions (PDFs such as Kumaraswamy, Johnson SB and Logistic distribution, to the actual measured optical attenuations. The performance of each distribution is evaluated by Q-Q and P-P plots. It is found that Kumaraswamy distribution is the best fit for general fog, while Logistic distribution is the optimum choice for thick fog. On the other hand, Johnson SB distribution best fits the moderate and light fog related measured attenuation data. The difference in these probabilistic models and the resultant variation in the received signal strength under different fog types needs to be considered in designing an efficient FSO system.

  1. A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced When Dry Ice Is Placed in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Ford, Nathan; No, Jin-Hwan; Ott, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas…

  2. Observations and modeling of fog by cloud radar and optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Hoogeboom, P.; Russchenberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    Fog is a significant factor affecting the public traffic because visibility is reduced to a large extent. Therefore the determination of optical visibility in fog from radar instruments has received much interest. To observe fog with radar, high frequency bands (millimeter waves) have the best

  3. Observations and modeling of fog by cloud radar and optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Hoogeboom, P.; Russchenberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    Fog is a significant factor affecting the public traffic because visibility is reduced to a large extent. Therefore the determination of optical visibility in fog from radar instruments has received much interest. To observe fog with radar, high frequency bands (millimeter waves) have the best optio

  4. First Steps for a Giant FOG: Searching for the Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guattari, Frederic; Lucas, Alexandra; Foughali, Ghaieth; Bigueur, Alexandre; de Toldi, Elliot; Schreiber, Ulrich; Wassermann, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Based on recent experiences in constructing very low noise fibre-optic gyroscopes (FOG) dedicated to seismology, we will present first performance results of a large fibre-optic coil (approx. 1m diameter). Next to in house (iXBlue) factory testing the self-noise of the new sensor is estimated by co-locating it to existing high performance large ring lasers located in Wettzell and Fürstenfeldbruck (Germany), respectively. The reason for constructing this huge FOG is to evaluate experimentally the physical limits (if any exists) of this kind of technology. While this experiment is probing the fundamental limits of FOGs technology and thus is interesting from the construction point of view, it also serves as a first step for cost effective very low noise laboratory rotational seismometer and leads in a second step to performance improvements on portable rotational seismometer

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of laser attenuation characteristics in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Sun, Chao; Zhu, You-zhang; Sun, Hong-hui; Li, Pan-shi

    2011-06-01

    Based on the Mie scattering theory and the gamma size distribution model, the scattering extinction parameter of spherical fog-drop is calculated. For the transmission attenuation of the laser in the fog, a Monte Carlo simulation model is established, and the impact of attenuation ratio on visibility and field angle is computed and analysed using the program developed by MATLAB language. The results of the Monte Carlo method in this paper are compared with the results of single scattering method. The results show that the influence of multiple scattering need to be considered when the visibility is low, and single scattering calculations have larger errors. The phenomenon of multiple scattering can be interpreted more better when the Monte Carlo is used to calculate the attenuation ratio of the laser transmitting in the fog.

  6. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  7. Scavenging of urban air emissions by Fog at Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses upon the understanding of fog water chemistry in Delhi city. Total seventy fog water samples were collected at two different sites in Delhi during December 2014 to March 2015. Selected parameters such as pH, major anions (Cl-, F-, NO3- and SO42-) and major cations (NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) were determined in the samples. The pH of the fog water collected during the monitoring period at Site I (traffic intersection) varied from 4.68 to 5.58 indicating the acidic nature of fog water while at the site II (green cover area), it ranged from 6.11 to 6.88 having slightly lower acidity. At the Site I, the average concentration of Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NH4+ was recorded as 1.5 X 10-2, 8 X 10-3, 4 X 10-3 and 1 X 10-2 μEqu/L respectively. Such values of ionic species may be attributed to the local sources, including factories, motor vehicle emissions and civil construction etc. However, non-local sources such as moderate- and long-range transport of sea salt also had significant influence on ionic content of fog water. In general the Na+ ratio values were found to be higher side suggesting the influence of non-marine sources. Extremely high values of Cl-/ Na+ ratios indicated the contribution from combustion of organochlorine compounds. Hence, the higher ratios of inorganic ions and acidic pH revealed that fog is an effective mechanism for the scavenging of various pollutants emitted by different sources in the city.

  8. Indoor test of the fog's effect on FSO link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Abir; Abdaoui, Abderrazak; Touati, Farid; Khandakar, Amith; Bouallegue, Ammar

    2017-02-01

    In order to distinguish the most rigorous model, we made a comparison between measurements data and the mostly used empirical models. These models use the visibility as a basic parameter to predict the fog attenuation. In order to measure the visibility, we used a laser lamp of 532 nm and two light sensors. The experimental set up is composed of a fog machine and two KORUZA terminals operating at 1310 nm and 1550 nm, respectively. Every one minute, the measured attenuation is averaged to one value then compared to the attenuation calculated based on measured visibility and according to the empirical models cited previously.

  9. OPEN-LOOP FOG SIGNAL TESTING AND WAVELET ELIMINATING NOISE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUYun-zhao; WANGShun-ring; MIAOLing-juan; WANGBo

    2005-01-01

    An open-loop fiber optic gyro (FOG) testing system is designed. The noise characteristic of open-loop fiber optic gyro signals is analyzed. The wavelet eliminating noise method is discussed and compared with other methods, such as smoothing and low-pass filter methods. Results indicate that the wavelet eliminating noise method can satisfy the measuring demand of the FOG weak output signal with noise disturbing. The wavelet analysis method can efficiently eliminate the noise and reserve the information of the signal. The eliminating noise effect of using different wavelet base functions is compared. The effectiveness of multiresolution wavelet analyses of eliminating noise is proved by experimental results.

  10. Estimation of fog deposition on epiphytic bryophytes in a subtropical montane forest ecosystem in northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chieh; Lai, I.-Ling; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    The fog meteorology, fog chemistry and fog deposition on epiphytic bryophytes were investigated from July 2000 to June 2001 in the Yuanyang Lake forest ecosystem. The elevation of the site ranges from 1650 to 2420 m, at which the high frequency of fog occurrence throughout the year has been thought to be of benefit to the establishment of the primary Taiwan yellow cypress forest [ Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder] and to the extensive growth of the epiphytic bryophytes. A weather station including a visibility sensor and an active fog collector was installed for fog meteorological and chemical study. The fog deposition rate on epiphytic bryophytes was estimated by measuring the increase rate in plant weight when exposed to fog. Average fog duration of 4.7 and 11.0 h per day was measured in summer months (June to August) and the rest of the year, respectively. November 2000 was the foggiest month in which the average fog duration reached 14.9 h per day. The ionic composition of fog water revealed that the area was less polluted than expected from literature data. The in situ exposure experiments done with the dominant epiphytic bryophytes showed an average fog deposition rate of 0.63 g H 2O g -1 d. w. h -1, which approximated 0.17 mm h -1 at the stand scale. The nutrient fluxes estimated for February 2001 showed that for all ions, more than 50% of the ecosystem input was through fog deposition. These results demonstrate the importance of epiphytic bryophytes and fog deposition in nutrient cycling of this subtropical montane forest ecosystem. The incorporation of fog study in the long-term ecosystem research projects is necessary in this area.

  11. Analysis of the Sea Fog in the Sea Around the Great Wall Station,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀荣; 薛振和

    2001-01-01

    The synoptic analysis of sea fog in western Antarctic sea region is made based on the observation data in the Chinese Antarctic station, Great Wall Station, from December 1994 to November 1995, and the facsimile weather charts issued by Chile. It is found that more than 90% fog in this region is the advection cooling fog. Also, the synoptic mechanism of the fog creation and distinction is discussed by analyzing the pressure field, the temperature field and the upperlevel stratification. Finally, the focus of attention in forecasting fog is pointed out.

  12. What is a Fog Node A Tutorial on Current Concepts towards a Common Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Tordera, Eva Marin; Masip-Bruin, Xavi; Garcia-Alminana, Jordi; Jukan, Admela; Ren, Guang-Jie; Zhu, Jiafeng; Farre, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Fog computing has emerged as a promising technology that can bring the cloud applications closer to the physical IoT devices at the network edge. While it is widely known what cloud computing is, and how data centers can build the cloud infrastructure and how applications can make use of this infrastructure, there is no common picture on what fog computing and a fog node, as its main building block, really is. One of the first attempts to define a fog node was made by Cisco, qualifying a fog ...

  13. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  14. Adaption of the Air Weather Service Fog Model to Forecast Radiation Fog Events in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    First, I must thank James O’Sullivan from St. Louis University. Your assistance in providing the fog model program and your answers to my many questions...Numerical Forecasting of Radiation Fog. Part I: Numerical Model and Sensitivity Tests. Mon. Wea. Rev.., 122, 1218-1230. Dyer R. M., and F. L. Gerald , 1989...pp. Holton , J. R., 1992: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology. 3rd Ed., Academic Press, 511 pp. Mahrt, L., M. Ek, J. Kim, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 1991

  15. Hierarchical Surface Architecture of Plants as an Inspiration for Biomimetic Fog Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Barthlott, W; Koch, K

    2015-12-01

    Fog collectors can enable us to alleviate the water crisis in certain arid regions of the world. A continuous fog-collection cycle consisting of a persistent capture of fog droplets and their fast transport to the target is a prerequisite for developing an efficient fog collector. In regard to this topic, a biological superior design has been found in the hierarchical surface architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare) awns. We demonstrate here the highly wettable (advancing contact angle 16° ± 2.7 and receding contact angle 9° ± 2.6) barbed (barb = conical structure) awn as a model to develop optimized fog collectors with a high fog-capturing capability, an effective water transport, and above all an efficient fog collection. We compare the fog-collection efficiency of the model sample with other plant samples naturally grown in foggy habitats that are supposed to be very efficient fog collectors. The model sample, consisting of dry hydrophilized awns (DH awns), is found to be about twice as efficient (fog-collection rate 563.7 ± 23.2 μg/cm(2) over 10 min) as any other samples investigated under controlled experimental conditions. Finally, a design based on the hierarchical surface architecture of the model sample is proposed for the development of optimized biomimetic fog collectors.

  16. Crowd Sensing-Enabling Security Service Recommendation for Social Fog Computing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Su, Zhou; Wang, Shen; Li, Jianhua

    2017-07-30

    Fog computing, shifting intelligence and resources from the remote cloud to edge networks, has the potential of providing low-latency for the communication from sensing data sources to users. For the objects from the Internet of Things (IoT) to the cloud, it is a new trend that the objects establish social-like relationships with each other, which efficiently brings the benefits of developed sociality to a complex environment. As fog service become more sophisticated, it will become more convenient for fog users to share their own services, resources, and data via social networks. Meanwhile, the efficient social organization can enable more flexible, secure, and collaborative networking. Aforementioned advantages make the social network a potential architecture for fog computing systems. In this paper, we design an architecture for social fog computing, in which the services of fog are provisioned based on "friend" relationships. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt at an organized fog computing system-based social model. Meanwhile, social networking enhances the complexity and security risks of fog computing services, creating difficulties of security service recommendations in social fog computing. To address this, we propose a novel crowd sensing-enabling security service provisioning method to recommend security services accurately in social fog computing systems. Simulation results show the feasibilities and efficiency of the crowd sensing-enabling security service recommendation method for social fog computing systems.

  17. The Structure and Formation Mechanism of a Sea Fog Event over the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jingtian; LI Pengyuan; FU Gang; ZHANG Wei; GAO Shanhong; ZHANG Suping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog event occurring over the Yellow Sea on 11 April 2004 was investigated based upon obser-vational and modeling analyses. From the observational analyses, this sea fog event is a typical advection cooling case. Sea surface temperature (SST) and specific humidity (SH) show strong gradients from south to north, in which warm water is located in the south and consequently, moisture is larger in the south than in the north due to evaporation processes. After fog formation, evaporation process provides more moisture into the air and further contributes to fog evolution. The sea fog event was reproduced by the Re-gional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) reasonably. The roles of important physical processes such as radiation, turbulence as well as atmospheric stratification in sea fog’s structure and its formation mechanisms were analyzed using the model results. The roles of long wave radiation cooling, turbulence as well as atmospheric stratification were analyzed based on the modeling results. It is found that the long wave radiative cooling at the fog top plays an important role in cooling down the fog layer through turbulence mixing. The fog top cooling can overpower warming from the surface. Sea fog develops upward with the aid of turbulence. The buoyancy term,i.e., the unstable layer, contributes to the generation of TKE in the fog region. However, the temperature inversion layer prevents fog from growing upward.

  18. An innovative artificial fog production device improved in the European project “FOG”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, M.; Hirech, K.; André, P.; Boreux, J. J.; Lacôte, P.; Dufour, J.

    2008-03-01

    Transport safety is a major goal in the European Union. Low visibility conditions, especially due to fog, increase the risk of major accidents (chain collision). Innovative products have been developed by the automotive industry, including equipment manufacturers, to increase the level of safety of car passengers and drivers. Testing of these products requires the simulation or artificial reproduction of low visibility (fog) conditions with good stability and reproducibility characteristics. We report on the results of the European Union funded "FOG" project to improve road transport safety through fog production in an experimental test chamber located at the Clermont-Ferrand laboratory for research on road safety and visibility. The project developed a prototype of a small-scale climatic chamber, an improved fog production spraying device, a laser-based visibility measurement device, a reduced scale transmissometer, and a combined indoor climate-fog production simulation software. The ability of the fog chamber to test for driver reaction was also investigated. Recent developments include a device able to produce stable visibility levels and homogeneous fog, representative of various types of natural water droplet distribution. The fog characteristics were determined and compared to natural fog. Results are presented for a selection of conditions including stabilized visibility levels for dense fog and two kinds of droplet distributions.

  19. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Perdomo

    Full Text Available Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2, a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6, is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K324, 471, 915, 955 [corrected]. Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE, while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2's nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status.

  20. School environment and sanitation in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Majra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : A school child educated about the benefits of sanitation and good hygiene behavior is a conduit for carrying those messages far beyond the school walls, bringing lasting improvement to community hygienic practices. Aims : To study the status of school environment and sanitation in rural India. Settings and Design: Government schools in rural Karnataka, cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: Twenty schools were randomly selected for the study. Informed consent was taken from the Heads of the schools. A pre tested close ended questionnaire was used to get the information. The minimum standards for sanitation of the school and its environment in India were used as the guiding principles to evaluate the appropriateness/ adequacy of the various attributes. Statistical analysis used: Percentages and proportions. Results : Out of 20 schools selected, one fourth of the schools were located/ sited at inappropriate places. Only half of the schools had appropriate/ adequate structure. Eighteen (90% of the schools were overcrowded. Ventilation and day light was adequate for 12(60% and 14(70% of the schools respectively. Cleanliness of school compound/classrooms was adequate in 80% of the schools. There were no separate rooms for serving the midday meals in any of the schools under study. Eighteen (90% of the schools were having drinking water points. Liquid and solid waste disposal was insanitary in six (30% and eight (40% of the schools respectively. Only half of the schools had adequate latrines for boys and 60% for girls. Only two (10% of the schools had adequate hand washing points with soap. Conclusions : Environment and sanitation facilities at many of the schools are not fully satisfactory.

  1. History and Technology of Terra Preta Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino De Gisi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the Millennium Development Goals for significantly reducing the number of people without access to adequate sanitation, new holistic concepts are needed focusing on economically feasible closed-loop ecological sanitation systems rather than on expensive end-of-pipe technologies. An analysis of a former civilization in the Amazon (nowadays Brazil highlights the possibility to close the loop with a more sustainable lifestyle integrating soil fertility, food security, waste management, water protection and sanitation, renewable energy. Terra Preta do Indio is the anthropogenic black soil produced by ancient cultures through the conversion of bio-waste, fecal matter and charcoal into long-term fertile soils. These soils have maintained high amounts of organic carbon several thousand years after they were abandoned. Deriving from these concepts, Terra Preta Sanitation (TPS has been re-developed and adopted. TPS includes urine diversion, addition of a charcoal mixture and is based on lactic-acid-fermentation with subsequent vermicomposting. Lacto-fermentation is a biological anaerobic process that generates a pre-stabilization of the mixture. The main advantage of lacto-fermentation is that no gas and no odor is produced. What makes it particularly interesting for in-house systems even in urban areas. Instead, vermicomposting is an aerobic decomposition process of the pre-digested materials by the combined action of earthworms and microorganisms. It transforms the carbon and nutrients into the deep black, fertile and stable soil that can be utilized in agriculture. No water, ventilation or external energy is required. Starting from ancient Amazonian civilizations traditional knowledge, the aim of this work is to present TPS systems adopted nowadays.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Transformations in an Urban Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsaraj, K.; Wornat, M. J.; Chen, J.; Ehrenhauser, F.

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generated from incomplete combustion of fuels, coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic activities. These are ubiquitous in all environments, especially the atmosphere. PAHs generally are found in the gaseous form and associated with the particles in the atmosphere. They are also found in the atmospheric water present in the form of fog, mist, rain, snow and ice. Particles (aerosols) in the atmosphere invariably contain a thin film of water which tends to have a high affinity for the adsorption of gaseous PAHs. Molecular dynamic simulations clearly show that the air-water interface is a preferable surface for adsorption of large molecular weight PAHs and atmospheric oxidants (e.g., O3, OH, 1O2, NO3). Thus, photochemical transformation of adsorbed PAHs in fog droplets is a possibility in the atmosphere. This could lead to the formation of water-soluble oxy-PAHs which are potential precursors for secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Field work in Baton Rouge and Houston combined with laboratory work in thin film reactors have shown that this hypothesis is substantially correct. Field data on fog and aerosols (pre- and post-fog) will be enumerated. Laboratory work and their implications will be summarized. The thin film surface environment resulted in enhanced reaction kinetics compared to bulk phase kinetics. The influence of surface reactions on the product compositions is evaluated by performing experiments with different film thicknesses.

  3. Real-time WAMI streaming target tracking in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Ning; Deng, Anna; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    Real-time information fusion based on WAMI (Wide-Area Motion Imagery), FMV (Full Motion Video), and Text data is highly desired for many mission critical emergency or security applications. Cloud Computing has been considered promising to achieve big data integration from multi-modal sources. In many mission critical tasks, however, powerful Cloud technology cannot satisfy the tight latency tolerance as the servers are allocated far from the sensing platform, actually there is no guaranteed connection in the emergency situations. Therefore, data processing, information fusion, and decision making are required to be executed on-site (i.e., near the data collection). Fog Computing, a recently proposed extension and complement for Cloud Computing, enables computing on-site without outsourcing jobs to a remote Cloud. In this work, we have investigated the feasibility of processing streaming WAMI in the Fog for real-time, online, uninterrupted target tracking. Using a single target tracking algorithm, we studied the performance of a Fog Computing prototype. The experimental results are very encouraging that validated the effectiveness of our Fog approach to achieve real-time frame rates.

  4. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  5. Fog Computing to protect real and sensitivity information in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thogaricheti Ashwini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing can simply be described as computing based on the internet. In the past, people depended on physical computer storage or servers to run their programs. However, with the introduction of cloud computing, people as well as business enterprises can now access their programs through the internet. Due this ease, software companies and other agencies are shifting more towards cloud computing environment. To achieve better operational efficiency in many organizations and small or medium agencies is using Cloud environment for managing their data. It is a combination of a number of computing strategies and concepts such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, virtualization and other which rely on the Internet. Cloud Computing provides an easy way for accessing, managing and computation of user data, but it also has some severe security risks. Very common risks now days are data theft attacks. Data theft considered one of the top threats to cloud computing by the Cloud Security Alliance is. To deal with such cases and malicious intruders there are some techniques which are used to secure user data. A new technology called “Fog computing” is gaining attention of the cloud users nowadays. Fog computing improves the Quality of service and also reduces latency. According to Cisco, due to its wide geographical distribution the Fog computing is well suited for real time analytics and big data.Fog computing is a paradigm that extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the network. Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end-users.

  6. Fog-Influenced Submicron Aerosol Number Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikova, N.; Zdimal, V.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of fog on aerosol particle number size distributions (PNSD) in submicron range. Thus, five-year continuous time series of the SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) data giving information on PNSD in five minute time step were compared with detailed meteorological records from the professional meteorological station Kosetice in the Czech Republic. The comparison included total number concentration and PNSD in size ranges between 10 and 800 nm. The meteorological records consist from the exact times of starts and ends of individual meteorological phenomena (with one minute precision). The records longer than 90 minutes were considered, and corresponding SMPS spectra were evaluated. Evaluation of total number distributions showed considerably lower concentration during fog periods compared to the period when no meteorological phenomenon was recorded. It was even lower than average concentration during presence of hydrometeors (not only fog, but rain, drizzle, snow etc. as well). Typical PNSD computed from all the data recorded in the five years is in Figure 1. Not only median and 1st and 3rd quartiles are depicted, but also 5th and 95th percentiles are plotted, to see the variability of the concentrations in individual size bins. The most prevailing feature is the accumulation mode, which seems to be least influenced by the fog presence. On the contrary, the smallest aerosol particles (diameter under 40 nm) are effectively removed, as well as the largest particles (diameter over 500 nm). Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the projects GAUK 62213 and SVV-2013-267308. Figure 1. 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile of aerosol particle number size distributions recorded during fog events.

  7. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential source of organic mercury to the overlying fog bank.

  8. Advective, orographic and radiation fog in the Tarapacá region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereceda, P.; Osses, P.; Larrain, H.; Farías, M.; Lagos, M.; Pinto, R.; Schemenauer, R. S.

    A project in northern Chile was undertaken to determine the origin and behaviour of fog in the coastal and inland locations of the Tarapacá Region. In the Pampa del Tamarugal, 50 km from the sea, conditions exist for the formation of radiation fog. Advective fog has been studied on the coast and orographic fog was observed at a few coastal sites near mountain ranges with elevations above 1000 m. Fog water collected by two standard fog collectors (SFC) for 3 1/2 years showed an average flux of 8.5 l m -2 day -1 on the coast and 1.1 l m -2 day -1 inland 12 km from the coastline. On only a few days in 10 months was water collected at the inland site of Pampa del Tamarugal. GOES satellite images are shown to illustrate the pattern of formation of the stratocumuli cloud over the sea, its approach to the coastline, the entrance of fog by corridors through the coastal range and the presence of radiation fog inland. The results are important for the understanding of fog formation and dissipation along the coastal mountain range and for the recognition of potential sites for the installation of fog water collectors, which can be used as a water source in the Atacama Desert. The results also provide vital information for use in the preservation of the unique ecosystems of the most arid desert of the world.

  9. STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF POLLUTING FOG IN GUANGZHOU AREA IN SPRING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dui; LI Fei; DENG Xue-jiao; BI Xue-yan; WANG Xin-hua; HUANG Xiao-ying

    2009-01-01

    Samples of fog water collected in the area of Guangzhou during February,March and April of 2005 are used in this work to study the chemical composition of fog water in polluting fog there. Three typical episodes of polluting tbg are analyzed in terms of ionic concentration and their possible sources. It is fuund that the concentration of various ions in fog water is much higher than those in rainwater. Fog not only blocks visual range but contains liquid particles that result in high degree of pollution and are very harmful to human health. SO4= is the anion with the highest concentration in fog water,followed by NO3.For the cation,Ca++ and NH4+ are the highest in concentration. It is then known that rainwater is more acidic than lbg water,indicating that ionic concentration of lbg water is much higher than that of rainwater,but there are much more buffering materials in fog water,like NH4+ and Ca++. There is significant enrichment of Ca++,SO4=. and Mg++ in fog water. In the Guangzhou area,tbg water from polluting fog is mainly influenced continental environment and human activity. The episodes of serious fog pollution during the time have immediate relationships with the presence of abundant water vapor and large amount of polluting aerosol particles.

  10. Analysis of an extremely dense regional fog event in Eastern China using a mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chune; Yang, Jun; Qiu, Mingyan; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Su; Li, Zihua

    2010-03-01

    An unusually dense regional advection-radiation fog event over Anhui and the surrounding provinces in eastern China during Dec. 25-27, 2006, was investigated. At its mature stage, the fog covered most Anhui and parts of the surrounding provinces, reducing visibility to 100 m or less. It lasted more than 36 consecutive hours in some places. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5), together with back-trajectory analysis, was used to investigate this fog event. The observations from a field station as well as hundreds of routine stations, along with two sets of visibility computing methods, were used to quantitatively and objectively validate the MM5 simulated liquid water content (LWC) and visibility. The verifications demonstrate that MM5 has a better fog predictability for the first day compared to the second day forecast, and better fog predictability compared to dense fog predictability with regard to the probability of detection (POD) and the threat score (TS). The new visibility algorithm that uses both LWC and number density of fog droplets significantly outperforms the conventional LWC-only based one in the fog prediction in terms of the POD score, especially for dense fog prediction. The objective verification in this work is the first time conducted for MM5 fog prediction, with which we can better understand the performance of simulated temporal and spatial fog coverage. The back-trajectory and sensitivity experiments confirm that subsidence and the steady warm and moist advections from southeast and southwest maintained the dense fog while the northwesterly dry wind resulted in dissipation of the fog.

  11. Macro- and Micro-Structures of Heavy Fogs and Visibility in the Dayaoshan Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Belonging to the southern subtropical moist type of monsoon climate, the Nanling mountainous area experiences heavy fogs whenever quasi-stationary fronts appear there from September to May. There can be as many as 15-18 days of heavy fogs per month. Fogs have more serious consequences in the Lechang-Ruyuan section of the Beijing-Zhuhai Expressway (the longest expressway in China) that passes through the main part of the Nanling Mts., where the road rises from 200 m to more than 800 m above sea level (ASL). For a major motorway in the mountainous areas of Nanling Mts., two multidisciplinary integrated field observations were carried out, which measured visibility by the naked eyes, visibility by instrument, spectrum of fog-drops, liquid water content (LWC) of fog, tethered sounding, dual-parameter low-level sounding, turbulence diffusion within fog layers, aerosol spectra of size and composition, sampled fog water compositions, and sampled rainwater compositions. Typical cases were probed for their analyses of synoptics, micro- and macro-structures and microphysics. It is understood that heavy fogs take place with high frequency in the area and bring about serious consequences. Being typical advection and upslope fogs, they are in essence low-lying clouds appearing at high altitudes, which are closely related with the activity of South China frontal processes, especially the South China quasi-stationary fronts, and reflect on the role of local terrain as well. The heavy fogs are characteristic of long duration, extremely low visibility, well-organized lump-shaped structure, large-size fog-drops, moderate concentration, high LWC, and stronger turbulent diffusion within the fog layers than in fine sky. They differ much from radiation fogs, which are better documented in previous study in China. It is found that fog LWC is in significant anti-correlation with visibility so that large LWC is associated with small visual range. It is also noted that one of the reasons

  12. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia.

  13. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.; Malambo, D.H.; Gonzalez Perez, M.E.; Nobela, H.N.; De Pooter, L.; Spit, J.; Hooijmans, C.M.; Van de Vossenberg, J.; Greya, W.; Thole, B.; Van Lier, J.B.; Brdjanovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods—lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment—were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lim

  14. Sanitation in the time of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1991-01-01

    Cholera, identified by violent diarrhea, cramps, vomiting, and dehydration, is spreading through Peru into Colombia, Ecuador, Child, and Brazil. Water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae is used for washing food and/or drinking thereby transmitting the disease. PAHO estimates 6 million people in South America may get cholera within the next 3 years. This cholera epidemic is the result of unsanitary conditions in which the urban poor in South America live. In fact, in Lima, Peru, 40% of the people do not have potable, piped water available. These individuals fetch their water from far away taps and private vendors both of which are not necessarily safe. In addition, 40% do not have access to a sewage system. Further, 80% of sick people in developing countries have a water related illness, be it transmitted by contaminated water or by insects and snails that reproduce in the water. Diarrhea is the most deadly of these conditions. Indeed every year 10-20 million children die from the effects of diarrhea which include malnutrition, dehydration, and shock. Yet 940 million people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 1.7 billion do not have a sanitary means of disposing of human wastes, despite the fact that the UN decreed the 1980s the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. Nevertheless UNICEF efforts did bring communal taps, odorless latrines, and/or pour flush toilets to 1.2 billion people. These types of sanitation costs $20-25/person whereas conventional sewers cost $350/person. Low technology supplied water averages $30/person compared to $200/person for piped water. Peru has spent $43 million on emergency medical care for cholera victims which could have provided low cost clean water and sanitation for almost 800,000 poor.

  15. [The Amazon Sanitation Plan (1940-1942)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rômulo de Paula; Hochman, Gilberto

    2007-12-01

    The article addresses the Amazon Sanitation Plan and the political context in which it was formulated between 1940 and 1941. It examines the role of Getúlio Vargas, the activities of the plan's main protagonists (such as Evandro Chagas, João de Barros Barreto, and Valério Konder), its key proposals, and its demise as of 1942 upon creation of the Special Public Health Service (Sesp), which grew out of cooperation agreements between Brazil and the US following both nations' involvement in World War II. A reproduction of the Plan as published in the Arquivos de Higiene in 1941 is included.

  16. Star Family Seen Through Dusty Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    missed a significant number of globular clusters, particularly close to the disc of the Galaxy, where dense clouds of dust and gas obscure the view. In the early times of extragalactic astronomy this area was called the 'Zone of Avoidance' because extragalactic stellar systems appeared to be very rare in this part of the sky. Searching for the missing globular clusters in our Galaxy requires observations in the infrared, because infrared radiation is able to penetrate the thick 'galactic fog'. Using modern, sensitive infrared detectors, this is now possible. Completing the census is not only a challenge for its own sake, as finding new globular clusters is useful for several additional reasons. For example, analysing their orbits allows astronomers to draw conclusions about the distribution of mass in the Galaxy. Star clusters can therefore be used as probes for the large-scale structure of the Milky Way. "It has been estimated that the region close to the Galactic Centre might contain about 10 so far unknown globular clusters and we have started a large campaign to unveil and characterise them," explains Helmut Meusinger, from the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany, and part of the team. The astronomers carried out a systematic and automated large-scale (14,400 square degrees) search for globular cluster candidates in the entire Galactic Plane, based on the near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). Eventually, only about a dozen candidate objects remained. The astronomers observed these candidates with the SofI instrument attached to ESO's New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla (Chile), taking images through three different near-infrared filters. The new images are ten times deeper and have a much better angular resolution than the original 2MASS images, thereby allowing the astronomers to resolve at least partly the dense accumulation of stars in the globular cluster candidates. One of these candidates had the number 1735 in the list of

  17. Coastal Fog in Atlantic Canada: Characterization and Projection in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, P.; Hartery, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Wheeler, M.; Miller, J.; Bhatia, S.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2016-12-01

    Marine and coastal fog in Atlantic Canada is usually advective and favored by the meeting of the warm Gulf Stream and cold Labrador Current. As moist warm air moves over cold water, it cools down and becomes supersaturated. The interactions between microphysical, dynamical and radiative processes can also be a determining element in the formation and persistence of fog, which makes fog forecasting a highly challenging task. Current parameterizations within models suffer notably from unresolved microphysical problems such as neglecting droplet concentration, which leads to errors in droplet density predictions of up to 50%. In the scope of improving our understanding of fog and its characteristics, our research group conducted a field study on the coast of Nova Scotia in Eastern Canada during the fog season of 2016. Meteorological variables, droplet and aerosol size distributions, chemical speciation and fog water composition were measured. Results from this study will be presented, along with projections in a changing climate.

  18. A kind of integrated method discuss of fOG signal processing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Pan, Xin; Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In view of the circuit miniaturization need in project application of fiber optic gyroscope(FOG), a new integrated technical scheme adopting system in package(SIP) for signal processing circuit of FOG was put forward. At first, the principle on signal processing circuit of FOG was analyzed, and the technical scheme adopting SIP based on low-temperature co-fired substrate technology was presented according to circuit characteristic and actual condition. Secondly, under the prerequisite of the concept introduction of SIP and LTCC, the SIP prototype of signal processing circuit of FOG was trialed produced,and it passed through the debug test. This SIP modular is an overall circuit complete integrated the signal processing circuit of FOG, and only a potentiometer and EPROM do not case outside. The testing results indicate that SIP is a kind of feasible scheme that carries out miniaturization for signal processing circuit of FOG.

  19. Connections Between Cold Air Pools and Mountain Valley Fog Events in Salt Lake City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachere, Catherine N.; Pu, Zhaoxia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the connection between cold air pools and fog events in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Statistical analyses are conducted using soundings and reported automated surface observing system data from Salt Lake International Airport for the last eighteen cold seasons (October to March, during 1997-2015). A Chi-square test of independence is performed on identified cold air pool, and fog events to determine whether the two events are correlated. Conditional probabilities are then computed to investigate the occurrence of fog, given the presence of a cold pool. These probabilities are compared against that of random fog generation in the mid-winter. It is concluded that the dependence between cold air pools and fog events is statistically significant. The presence of a cold pool makes the formation of fog more likely than random generation.

  20. Real-time secondary aerosol formation during a fog event in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fog event was monitored with state-of-the art real-time aerosol mass spectrometers in an urban background location in London (England during the REPARTEE-I experiment. Specific particle types rich in hydroxymethanesulphonate (HMS were found only during the fog event. Formation of inorganic and organic secondary aerosol was observed as soon as fog was detected and two different mechanisms are suggested to be responsible for the production of two different types of aerosol. Nitrate aerosol is produced in the liquid phase within the droplet. Contrary to previous studies, the formation of HULIS was observed on interstitial particles rather than evaporated fog droplets, suggesting heterogeneous formation mechanisms depending on parameters other than the water content and not fully understood. Not only are secondary aerosol constituents produced during the fog event, but the primary aerosol is observed to be processed by the fog event, dramatically changing its chemical properties.

  1. Competency-Based Modules in Food Sanitation and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Ilagan-Manzano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the food safety practices among food service establishments in order to increase awareness among students the dangers of food poisoning. The output of this study may serve as a tool for information dissemination. The study used the descriptive method research. The respondents of the study were the supervisors of selected fast-food chains and deluxe hotels in Manila. Descriptive Statistics was used to describe the basic features of the data in the study and to validate the data gathered. The safety of consumers is the paramount responsibility of any food service establishment. Standards, procedures and guidelines are developed to prevent the outbreak of food borne illnesses and intoxication. However, these standards, procedures and guidelines as food sanitation and safety will be meaningless if they are not study implemented through education, information, dissemination, and training among the personnel. Food safety is everybody’s concern. It is in this context that the researcher tried in her own lifestyle way to help by proposing these competency-based modules.

  2. The role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available (DWA). Sanitation technology demonstration will play an important role in assisting stakeholders in decision- making processes with regards to sanitation options and general design issues related to sustainable human settlements. 1. Introduction... and decision making regarding sanitation technologies. The Centre will present sanitation technology providers and users an open process to understanding comparable and accessible sanitation technologies with assistance of the personnel on site. Visits...

  3. IUKF neural network modeling for FOG temperature drift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zha; Jiangning Xu; Jingshu Li; Hongyang He

    2013-01-01

    A novel neural network based on iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF) algorithm is established to model and com-pensate for the fiber optic gyro (FOG) bias drift caused by tempe-rature. In the network, FOG temperature and its gradient are set as input and the FOG bias drift is set as the expected output. A 2-5-1 network trained with IUKF algorithm is established. The IUKF algorithm is developed on the basis of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The weight and bias vectors of the hidden layer are set as the state of the UKF and its process and measurement equations are deduced according to the network architecture. To solve the unavoidable estimation deviation of the mean and covariance of the states in the UKF algorithm, iterative computation is introduced into the UKF after the measurement update. While the measure-ment noise R is extended into the state vectors before iteration in order to meet the statistic orthogonality of estimate and mea-surement noise. The IUKF algorithm can provide the optimized estimation for the neural network because of its state expansion and iteration. Temperature rise (-20-20◦C) and drop (70-20◦C) tests for FOG are carried out in an attemperator. The temperature drift model is built with neural network, and it is trained respec-tively with BP, UKF and IUKF algorithms. The results prove that the proposed model has higher precision compared with the back-propagation (BP) and UKF network models.

  4. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  5. Numerical Analysis of Thermo Hydraulic Conditions in Car Fog Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramšak, M.; Žunič, Z.; Škerget, L.; Jurejevčič, T.

    2009-08-01

    In the article a coupled heat transfer in the solid and fluid inside of a car fog lamp is presented using CFD software CFX [1]. All three basic principles of heat transfer are dealt with: conduction, convection and radiation. Two different approaches to radiation modeling are compared. Laminar and turbulent flow modeling are compared since computed Rayleight number indicates transitional flow regime. Results are in good agreement with the measurements.

  6. Influence of Nox Emissions on Central Valley Fog Frequency and Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    From 1930-1970, California's Central Valley (CV) radiation fog significantly increased, with locations such as Fresno seeing an 83% growth in fog frequency. However, in the last 30 years, researchers identified a 50% reduction in fog days (Baldocchi and Waller, 2014). The dominant hypotheses suggest that the decline in fog can be explained by rising temperatures associated with climate change or urban heat island effect. This assertion fails to explain the significant increase in CV fog midcentury. Here we instead assert that changes in air pollution, rather than climate, better explain this upward-then-downward temporal trend. As unregulated emissions increased NOx concentration from 1930-1970, it directly contributed to the formation of ammonium nitrate, the CV's dominate wintertime aerosol, which size range and hygroscopicity make efficient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Upon emission mitigation, NOx concentration declined rapidly, therefore reducing the CCN available for fog formation. Using over 75 years of meteorological measurements, we developed a detailed CV fog climatology. Additionally, we compiled a record of surface CV NOx concentration from 1963-Present as an indicator of subsequent secondary aerosol formation. We used this data to analyze the spatial and temporal correlation between fog frequency and mechanistic drivers of fog formation, including temperature, dewpoint, precipitation, wind speed, and aerosol concentration. In addition to the upward-then-downward temporal trend, CV fog frequency exhibits a pronounced north-south gradient, with fog consistently more frequent and persistent in southern latitudes than northern. Unlike temperature and wind speed records, precipitation and dewpoint trends exhibit a similar north-south spatial pattern. However, only NOx concentration adheres to both the upward-then-downward temporal trend and the north-south spatial distribution. Thus, we conclude that fog trends in the CV best correlate both temporally

  7. The characteristics of sea fog with different airflow over the Huanghai Sea in boreal spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; WANG Xin; ZHOU Wen; HUANG Huijun; WANG Dongxiao; ZHOU Faxiu

    2010-01-01

    Using the observations from ICOADS datasets and contemporaneous NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets during 1960-2002, the study classifies the airflows in favor of sea fog over the Huang-hai (Yellow) Sea in boreal spring (April-May) with the method of trajectory analysis, and analyzes the changes of proportions of warm and cold sea fogs along different paths of airflow. According to the heat balance equation, we investigate the relationships between the marine meteorological conditions and the proportion of warm and cold sea fog along different airflow paths. The major results are summarized as follows. (1) Sea fogs over the Huanghai Sea in spring are not only warm fog but also cold fog. The proportion of warm fog only accounts for 44% in April, while increases as high as 57% in May. (2) Four primary airflow paths leading to spring sea fog are identified. They are originated from the northwest, east, southeast and southwest of the Huanghai Sea, respectively. The occurrence ratios of the warm sea fog along the east and southeast airflow paths are high of 55% and 70%, while these along the southwest and northwest airflow paths are merely 17.9% and 50%. (3) The key physical processes governing the warm/cold sea fog are heat advection transport, longwave radiation cooling at fog top, solar shortwave warming and latent heat flux between air-sea interfaces. (4) The characteristics of sea fog along the four airflow paths relate closely to the conditions of water vapor advection, and the vertical distribution of relative humidity.

  8. FOG RISKS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: PLANE CRASH AT SMOLENSK (RUSSIA) ON 10.04.2010

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fog, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities. Fog severely diminishes visibility, sometimes to such an extent that landing may become impossible. Fog is a serious weather threat and hazard in aviation and may produce deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place at Smolensk (Russia), on 10.04.2010, when the presidential aircraft, which was transporting Poland’s President, together with an official delegation, to commemorate 70 years from the Katyn ma...

  9. UAV Applications for Thermodynamic Profiling:Emphasis on Ice Fog Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Fernando, Joseph; hoch, sebastian; pardyjack, Eric; Boudala, faisal; Ware, Randolph

    2017-04-01

    Ice fog often occurs over the Arctic, in cold climates, and near mountainous regions about 30% of time when temperatures (T) drop to -10°C or below. Ice fog affects aviation operations, transportation, and local climate. Ice Nucleation (IN) and radiative cooling play an important role by controlling the intensity of ice fog conditions. Ice fog can also occur at T above -10°C, but close to 0°C it mainly occurs due to freezing of supercooled droplets that contain an IN. To better document ice fog conditions, observations from ice fog events of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol effects on Climate (ISDAC) project (Barrow, Alaska), Fog Remote Sensing And Modeling (FRAM) project (Yellowknife, Northwest Territories), and the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) project (Heber City, Utah), were analyzed. Difficulties in measuring small ice fog particles at low temperatures and low-level research aircraft flying restrictions prevent observations from aircraft within the atmospheric boundary layer. However, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be operated safely to measure IN number concentration, Relative Humidity with respect to ice (RHi), T, horizontal wind speed (Uh) and direction, visibility, and possibly even measuring ice crystal spectra below about 500 micron, to provide a method for future research of ice fog. In this study, thermodynamic profiling was conducted using a Radiometrics Microwave Radiometer (PMWR) and Vaisala CL51 ceilometer to describe vertical spatial and temporal development of ice fog conditions. Overall, ice fog characteristics and its thermodynamic environment will be presented using both ground-based and airborne platforms such as a UAV with new sensors. Some examples of measurements from the UAV and a DMT GCIP (Droplet Measurement Technologies Ground Cloud Imaging Probe), and challenges related to both ice fog measurements and visibility parameterization will also be presented.

  10. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar; Naila Yasmin; Farrukh Chishtie; Imran Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the ...

  11. Fog removal in the declines of underground mines in sub-arctic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Martikainen, Anu

    2007-01-01

    Fogging is a common safety hazard observed especially in the declines of underground mines located in sub-arctic regions. Fog forms when saturated air loses internal energy by mixing with a colder air stream, by simply ascending through the ventilation system of the mine, or when contact with cold wall-rock decreases air temperature. Studies concerning fogging in underground mines are rare. Technological advances and more complete theoretical knowledge gained by research in many other fie...

  12. 21 CFR 1240.95 - Sanitation of water boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitation of water boats. 1240.95 Section 1240.95... DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.95 Sanitation of water boats. No vessel engaged in interstate traffic shall obtain water for drinking and culinary purposes from any water boat unless the...

  13. Exposure-response relationship of neighbourhood sanitation and children's diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngmee Tiffany; Lou, Wendy; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To assess the association of neighbourhood sanitation coverage with under-five children's diarrhoeal morbidity and to evaluate its exposure-response relationship. We used the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 29 developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, conducted between 2010 and 2014. The primary outcome was two-week incidence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age (N = 269014). We conducted three-level logistic regression analyses and applied cubic splines to assess the trend between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity. A significant association between neighbourhood-level coverage of improved household sanitation and diarrhoeal morbidity (OR [95% CI] = 0.68 [0.62-0.76]) was found. Exposure-relationship analyses results showed improved sanitation coverage threshold at 0.6. We found marginal degree of association (OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.77-0.87]) below the threshold, which, beyond the threshold, sharply increased to OR of 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67) at sanitation coverage of 1 (i.e. neighbourhood-wide use of improved household sanitation). Similar exposure-response trends were identified for urban and rural subgroups. Our findings suggest that neighbourhood sanitation plays a key role in reducing diarrhoeal diseases and that increase in sanitation coverage may only have minimal impact on diarrhoeal illness, unless sufficiently high coverage is achieved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Dutch Elm Disease Control: Intensive Sanitation and Survey Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; David P. Worley

    1977-01-01

    Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season. The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more...

  15. 9 CFR 305.3 - Sanitation and adequate facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitation and adequate facilities. 305.3 Section 305.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... OF VIOLATION § 305.3 Sanitation and adequate facilities. Inspection shall not be inaugurated if...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 1002.14 Section 1002.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Disposing...

  17. 36 CFR 2.14 - Sanitation and refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sanitation and refuse. 2.14 Section 2.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.14 Sanitation and refuse. (a) The following...

  18. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot...

  19. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by JD Nelson and Associates Dr. Tichenor’s Antiseptic Gel, by Dr. G.H. Tichenor Antiseptic Co. Clean Well All-Natural Hand Sanitizer, Clean Well All-Natural Hand Sanitizing Wipes, and Clean Well All-Natural Antibacterial Foaming Hand Soap, by Oh So Clean Inc., ...

  20. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Cairncross

    Full Text Available In the final article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation, Sandy Cairncross and colleagues outline what needs to be done to make significant progress in providing more and better hygiene, sanitation, and water for all.

  1. Gluten-induced cognitive impairment ("brain fog") in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Gregory W

    2017-03-01

    Much is known about the serious neurological effects of gluten ingestion in coeliac disease patients, such as sporadic ataxia and peripheral neuropathy, although the causal links to gluten are still under debate. However, such disorders are observed in only a small percentage of coeliac patients. Much less is known about the transient cognitive impairments to memory, attention, executive function, and the speed of cognitive processing reported by the majority of patients with coeliac disease. These mild degradations of cognitive functions, referred to as "brain fog," are yet to be formally recognized as a medical or psychological condition. However, subtle tests of cognitive function are measurable in untreated patients with coeliac disease and improve over the first 12 months' therapy with a gluten-free diet. Such deficits also occur in patients with Crohn's disease, particularly in association with systemic inflammatory activity. Thus, cognitive impairments associated with brain fog are psychologically and neurologically real and improve with adherence to a gluten-free diet. There is not yet sufficient evidence to provide a definitive account of the mechanism by which gluten ingestion causes the impairments to cognitive function associated with brain fog, but current evidence suggests that it is more likely that the causal factor is not directly related to exposure to gluten. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. On Study of Sea Fog over the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, G.; Gao, S.; Yang, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, X.; Chen, Y.; Xue, D.; Shen, J.

    2010-07-01

    A ubiquitous feature of the Yellow and Bohai Sea (YBS) in the eastern Asian region is the frequent occurrence of the sea fog in spring and summer season. The pioneer work on sea fog over YBS can be traced back to Prof. Binhua Wang as early as 1940's. He investigated sea fog systematically and published his book Sea Fog in 1985 (by China Ocean Press and Springer-Verlag). Recently, a research group in the Department of Marine Meteorology at Ocean University of China (OUC) continued sea fog research collaborated with Shandong Meteorological Bureau and Qingdao Meteorological Bureau under the financial supports of National Natural Science Foundation of China and China Meteorological Administration. Their researches involved in both observation analyses and high-resolution modeling of sea fog over YBS. In this talk, the brief history of sea fog research in China will be reviewed firstly. Then, a typical heavy sea fog event over YBS occurred in the morning of 11 April 2004 will be documented by using all available observational data and high-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) modeling results. Finally, the applications of a quasi-operational sea fog forecasting system which was mainly based on RAMS model will be introduced.

  3. Canopy-atmosphere interactions under foggy condition—Size-resolved fog droplet fluxes and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Walk, J. B.; Deventer, M. J.; Degefie, D. T.; Chang, S.-C.; Juang, J.-Y.; Griessbaum, F.; Klemm, O.

    2016-03-01

    Microphysical processes of fog and their spatial and temporal pattern are a challenge to study under natural conditions. This work focuses on the development of bidirectional fluxes of fog droplets above a forest canopy in northeastern Taiwan. Bidirectional fluxes occurred regularly, start from the smallest droplet class (<2.66 µm diameter), and subsequently extend to larger droplets up to 7.41 µm diameter. The development of the bidirectional fluxes with positive (upward) fluxes of smaller droplets and downward fluxes of larger fluxes is associated with a temperature gradient and with the activation of fog droplets according to the Köhler theory. Small fog droplets develop close to the canopy as result of evapotranspiration and subsequent condensation. The rapid growth of small fog droplets and the accelerated growth of activated droplets, a process which is more likely to occur at higher levels of the fog layer, lead to a sink of small droplets and a source of larger droplets within the fog. This is in accordance with the observation that positive droplet number fluxes of small fog droplets outnumber the negative fluxes from the larger fog droplets. For liquid water, the net flux is negative.

  4. Crash risk analysis during fog conditions using real-time traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2017-05-30

    This research investigates the changes of traffic characteristics and crash risks during fog conditions. Using real-time traffic flow and weather data at two regions in Florida, the traffic patterns at the fog duration were compared to the traffic patterns at the clear duration. It was found that the average 5-min speed and the average 5-min volume were prone to decreasing during fog. Based on previous studies, a "Crash Risk Increase Indicator (CRII)" was proposed to explore the differences of crash risk between fog and clear conditions. A binary logistic regression model was applied to link the increase of crash risks with traffic flow characteristics. The results suggested that the proposed indicator worked well in evaluating the increase of crash risk under fog condition. It was indicated that the crash risk was prone to increase at ramp vicinities in fog conditions. Also, the average 5-min volume during fog and the lane position are important factors for crash risk increase. The differences between the regions were also explored in this study. The results indicated that the locations with heavier traffic or locations at the lanes that were closest to the median in Region 2 were more likely to observe an increase in crash risks in fog conditions. It is expected that the proposed indicator can help identify the dangerous traffic status under fog conditions and then proper ITS technologies can be implemented to enhance traffic safety when the visibility declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An Alarming Increase in Winter Fog Events Over Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. K., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to examine climatological characteristic of fog using ground based observations of meteorological parameters over Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) of Indian subcontinent. Long term (1971-2010) trend is estimated for 30 stations of IGP and further, spatial and temporal variability of fog over the study area was also assessed using Geo-statistical tools. Differential fog prone areas has been identified using spatial cluster analysis, this approach is unique and help us to understand fog behavior more closely in the given region. Mann - Kendall statistical test and Kendall tau's statistics were used to explain temporal variability and trend analysis. Decadal time series analysis (1971-2010) revealed net overall significant increase of 99% over IGP. Additionally, geo-statistical analysis performed to extract spatial distribution characteristics, revealed that the IGP is high fog prone zone with fog occurrence frequency of more than 66 % days during the study period. Diurnal variability indicates the peak occurrence of fog is between 0600-0900hrs local time and average daily fog persistence extends to 5 to 7 hours during peak winter season. The results would offer new perspective to take proactive measures in reducing the irreparable damage that could be caused due to changing trends of fog.

  6. Integration of Local Observations into the One Dimensional Fog Model PAFOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Christina; Schneider, Werner; Masbou, Matthieu; Bott, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    The numerical prediction of fog requires a very high vertical resolution of the atmosphere. Owing to a prohibitive computational effort of high resolution three dimensional models, operational fog forecast is usually done by means of one dimensional fog models. An important condition for a successful fog forecast with one dimensional models consists of the proper integration of observational data into the numerical simulations. The goal of the present study is to introduce new methods for the consideration of these data in the one dimensional radiation fog model PAFOG. First, it will be shown how PAFOG may be initialized with observed visibilities. Second, a nudging scheme will be presented for the inclusion of measured temperature and humidity profiles in the PAFOG simulations. The new features of PAFOG have been tested by comparing the model results with observations of the German Meteorological Service. A case study will be presented that reveals the importance of including local observations in the model calculations. Numerical results obtained with the modified PAFOG model show a distinct improvement of fog forecasts regarding the times of fog formation, dissipation as well as the vertical extent of the investigated fog events. However, model results also reveal that a further improvement of PAFOG might be possible if several empirical model parameters are optimized. This tuning can only be realized by comprehensive comparisons of model simulations with corresponding fog observations.

  7. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan

    2015-10-01

    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  8. Multirule Based Diagnostic Approach for the Fog Predictions Using WRF Modelling Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Payra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of fog onset remains difficult despite the progress in numerical weather prediction. It is a complex process and requires adequate representation of the local perturbations in weather prediction models. It mainly depends upon microphysical and mesoscale processes that act within the boundary layer. This study utilizes a multirule based diagnostic (MRD approach using postprocessing of the model simulations for fog predictions. The empiricism involved in this approach is mainly to bridge the gap between mesoscale and microscale variables, which are related to mechanism of the fog formation. Fog occurrence is a common phenomenon during winter season over Delhi, India, with the passage of the western disturbances across northwestern part of the country accompanied with significant amount of moisture. This study implements the above cited approach for the prediction of occurrences of fog and its onset time over Delhi. For this purpose, a high resolution weather research and forecasting (WRF model is used for fog simulations. The study involves depiction of model validation and postprocessing of the model simulations for MRD approach and its subsequent application to fog predictions. Through this approach model identified foggy and nonfoggy days successfully 94% of the time. Further, the onset of fog events is well captured within an accuracy of 30–90 minutes. This study demonstrates that the multirule based postprocessing approach is a useful and highly promising tool in improving the fog predictions.

  9. Mechanisms of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposit formation in sewer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia; de los Reyes, Francis L; Leming, Michael L; Dean, Lisa O; Lappi, Simon E; Ducoste, Joel J

    2013-09-01

    FOG deposits in sewer systems have recently been shown to be metallic salts of fatty acids. However, the fate and transport of FOG deposit reactant constituents and the complex interactions during the FOG deposit formation process are still largely unknown. In this study, batch tests were performed to elucidate the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation that lead to sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). We report the first formation of FOG deposits on a concrete surface under laboratory conditions that mimic the formation of deposits in sewer systems. Results showed that calcium, the dominant metal in FOG deposits, can be released from concrete surfaces under low pH conditions and contribute to the formation process. Small amounts of additional oil to grease interceptor effluent substantially facilitated the air/water or pipe surface/water interfacial reaction between free fatty acids and calcium to produce surface FOG deposits. Tests of different fatty acids revealed that more viscous FOG deposit solids were formed on concrete surfaces, and concrete corrosion was accelerated, in the presence of unsaturated FFAs versus saturated FFAs. Based on all the data, a comprehensive model was proposed for the mechanisms of FOG deposit formation in sewer systems.

  10. Investigating factors leading to fogging of glass vials in lyophilized drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Oeschger, Richard; Roehl, Holger; Bauer Dauphin, Isabelle; Worgull, Martin; Kallmeyer, Georg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2013-10-01

    Vial "Fogging" is a phenomenon observed after lyophilization due to drug product creeping upwards along the inner vial surface. After the freeze-drying process, a haze of dried powder is visible inside the drug product vial, making it barely acceptable for commercial distribution from a cosmetic point of view. Development studies were performed to identify the root cause for fogging during manufacturing of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody drug product. The results of the studies indicate that drug product creeping occurs during the filling process, leading to vial fogging after lyophilization. Glass quality/inner surface, glass conversion/vial processing (vial "history") and formulation excipients, e.g., surfactants (three different surfactants were tested), all affect glass fogging to a certain degree. Results showed that the main factor to control fogging is primarily the inner vial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. While Duran vials were not capable of reliably improving the level of fogging, hydrophobic containers provided reliable means to improve the cosmetic appearance due to reduction in fogging. Varying vial depyrogenation treatment conditions did not lead to satisfying results in removal of the fogging effect. Processing conditions of the vial after filling with drug product had a strong impact on reducing but not eliminating fogging.

  11. Sanitation policy and spatial planning in urban East Africa: Diverging sanitation spaces and actor arrangements in Kampala and Kisumu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses sanitation policies and spatial planning in Kampala (Uganda) and Kisumu (Kenya) from colonial times to date and their implications for the sitting of sanitation technologies and involving actors. During colonial times, a strict spatial duality was maintained between immigrants i

  12. Experimental FSO network availability estimation using interactive fog condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turán, Ján.; Ovseník, Łuboš

    2016-12-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) is a license free Line of Sight (LOS) telecommunication technology which offers full duplex connectivity. FSO uses infrared beams of light to provide optical broadband connection and it can be installed literally in a few hours. Data rates go through from several hundreds of Mb/s to several Gb/s and range is from several 100 m up to several km. FSO link advantages: Easy connection establishment, License free communication, No excavation are needed, Highly secure and safe, Allows through window connectivity and single customer service and Compliments fiber by accelerating the first and last mile. FSO link disadvantages: Transmission media is air, Weather and climate dependence, Attenuation due to rain, snow and fog, Scattering of laser beam, Absorption of laser beam, Building motion and Air pollution. In this paper FSO availability evaluation is based on long term measured data from Fog sensor developed and installed at TUKE experimental FSO network in TUKE campus, Košice, Slovakia. Our FSO experimental network has three links with different physical distances between each FSO heads. Weather conditions have a tremendous impact on FSO operation in terms of FSO availability. FSO link availability is the percentage of time over a year that the FSO link will be operational. It is necessary to evaluate the climate and weather at the actual geographical location where FSO link is going to be mounted. It is important to determine the impact of a light scattering, absorption, turbulence and receiving optical power at the particular FSO link. Visibility has one of the most critical influences on the quality of an FSO optical transmission channel. FSO link availability is usually estimated using visibility information collected from nearby airport weather stations. Raw data from fog sensor (Fog Density, Relative Humidity, Temperature measured at each ms) are collected and processed by FSO Simulator software package developed at our Department. Based

  13. Can fog contribute to the nutrition of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana? Uptake of a fog solute tracer into foliage and transport to roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Ling; Schroeder, Walter H; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Mohl, Carola; Chou, Chang-Hung

    2007-07-01

    Yellow cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder) is the predominant tree species of Taiwan's nutrient-poor, mountain fog forests. Little is known about the potential contribution of solute uptake from fog to the overall nutrition of these trees. Shoots of yellow cypress seedlings were misted with artificial fog containing the tracer rubidium (Rb) in laboratory and field experiments to determine if there is solute uptake from the fog. After misting shoots for six weeks, substantial amounts of tracer were detected in unexposed roots by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy bulk analysis. Possible routes of entry were examined by element imaging with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Direct uptake of the tracer into leaves across the cuticle and epidermis was small, excluding this as the major uptake path. Accumulations of Rb were found on leaf surfaces along the edges of the leaves. The almost daily changes in fog coverage and air humidity may enhance the accumulation of fog solutes at leaf edges. Accumulation of Rb was also found in narrow clefts between opposite leaves and between the outermost and underlying alternating stacked leaves. The clefts provide a direct passage from the leaf surface to the space beneath the imbricate leaves and the underlying alternate leaves, possibly facilitating solute uptake from fog, which in turn may contribute to the nutrition of yellow cypress.

  14. Sanitation subsidies. Encouraging sanitation investment in the developing world: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiteras, Raymond; Levinsohn, James; Mobarak, Ahmed Mushfiq

    2015-05-22

    Poor sanitation contributes to morbidity and mortality in the developing world, but there is disagreement on what policies can increase sanitation coverage. To measure the effects of alternative policies on investment in hygienic latrines, we assigned 380 communities in rural Bangladesh to different marketing treatments-community motivation and information; subsidies; a supply-side market access intervention; and a control-in a cluster-randomized trial. Community motivation alone did not increase hygienic latrine ownership (+1.6 percentage points, P = 0.43), nor did the supply-side intervention (+0.3 percentage points, P = 0.90). Subsidies to the majority of the landless poor increased ownership among subsidized households (+22.0 percentage points, P < 0.001) and their unsubsidized neighbors (+8.5 percentage points, P = 0.001), which suggests that investment decisions are interlinked across neighbors. Subsidies also reduced open defecation by 14 percentage points (P < 0.001).

  15. Analysis of the formation of fog and haze in North China Plain (NCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Quan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available North China Plain (NCP is one of the most populated and polluted regions in China. During the recent years, haze and fog occur frequently and cause severely low visibility in this region. In order to better understand the impact of aerosol particles on the formation of haze and fog, a long-term record of haze and fog occurrences in the past 56 years (from 1954–2009 over NCP is analyzed. The results show that there are rapid changes in the occurrences of haze and fog over NCP. The occurrences of haze and fog were low during 1970–1980, and reached a maximum during 1981–1998. After 1999, the occurrences of haze and fog slightly decreased. There was a nonlinear relationship between the occurrences of haze and fog. When the occurrence of haze was lower than 40 days yr−1, the occurrence of fog was strongly proportional to the occurrence of haze. However, when the occurrence of haze was high (larger than 75 days yr−1, the occurrence of fog was not sensitive to the occurrence of haze. In order to better understand the relationship between the occurrences of haze and fog as well as the effect of aerosol particles on the formation of haze and fog, an in-situ field experiment was conducted during a period with a mixed occurrence of haze and fog. The analysis of the experiment suggests that there were considerably high aerosol concentrations during the measurement period, with an averaged aerosol number concentration of 24 000 cm−3. The measurement also shows that a large amount of aerosol particles can act as condensation nuclei to enhance the formation of fog droplets. As a result, a large amount of fog droplets (>1000 cm−3 with small size in radius (5–6 μm were observed during the fog period, resulting in extremely low visibility (less than 100 m.

  16. An automated fog monitoring system for the Indo-Gangetic Plains based on satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dinesh; Chourey, Reema; Rizvi, Sarwar; Singh, Manoj; Gautam, Ritesh

    2016-05-01

    Fog is a meteorological phenomenon that causes reduction in regional visibility and affects air quality, thus leading to various societal and economic implications, especially disrupting air and rail transportation. The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the entire the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), as frequently observed in satellite imagery. The IGP is a densely populated region in south Asia, inhabiting about 1/6th of the world's population, with a strong upward pollution trend. In this study, we have used multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for developing an automated web-based fog monitoring system over the IGP. Using our previous and existing methodologies, and ongoing algorithm development for the detection of fog and retrieval of associated microphysical properties (e.g. fog droplet effective radius), we characterize the widespread fog detection during both daytime and nighttime. Specifically, for the night time fog detection, the algorithm employs a satellite-based bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: MODIS band-22 (3.9μm) and band-31 (10.75μm). Further, we are extending our algorithm development to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the spatial-temporal variation of fog. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system would be of assistance to air, rail and vehicular transportation management, as well as for dissemination of fog information to government agencies and general public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  17. A Heavy Sea Fog Event over the Yellow Sea in March 2005:Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a heavy sea fog episode that occurred over the Yellow Sea on 9 March 2005 is investigated.The sea fog patch, with a spatial scale of several hundred kilometers at its mature stage, reduced visibility along the Shandong Peninsula coast to 100 m or much less at some sites. Satellite images, surface observations and soundings at islands and coasts, and analyses from the Japan Meteorology Agency (JMA) are used to describe and analyze this event. The analysis indicates that this sea fog can be categorized as advection cooling fog. The main features of this sea fog including fog area and its movement are reasonably reproduced by the Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Model results suggest that the formation and evolution of this event can be outlined as:(1) southerly warm/moist advection of low-level air resulted in a strong sea-surface-based inversion with a thickness of about 600 m; (2) when the inversion moved from the warmer East Sea to the colder Yellow Sea, a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) gradually formed at the base of the inversion while the sea fog grew in response to cooling and moistening by turbulence mixing; (3) the sea fog developed as the TIBL moved northward and (4) strong northerly cold and dry wind destroyed the TIBL and dissipated the sea fog. The principal findings of this study are that sea fog forms in response to relatively persistent southerly warm/moist wind and a cold sea surface, and that turbulence mixing by wind shear is the primary mechanism for the cooling and moistening the marine layer. In addition, the study of sensitivity experiments indicates that deterministic numerical modeling offers a promising approach to the prediction of sea fog over the Yellow Sea but it may be more efficient to consider ensemble numerical modeling because of the extreme sensitivity to model input.

  18. The Potential for Scaling Up a Fog Collection System on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Fessehaye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog is an untapped natural resource. A number of studies have been undertaken to understand its potential as an alternative or complementary water source. In 2007, a pilot fog-collection project was implemented in 2 villages on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea. The government of Eritrea, buoyed by the project’s positive results, has encouraged research into and application of fog-collection technologies to alleviate water-supply problems in this region. In 2014, this study was undertaken to assess the coverage, prevalence, intensity, and seasonality of fog on the Eastern Escarpment of Eritrea and consequently to identify potential beneficiary villages. Three independent methods used in the study—satellite image analyses, personal interviews, and a standard fog collector—produced reasonably similar characterizations of fog coverage and timing. The period with high fog incidence is mainly between November and March, with the highest number of fog days per year (96 on the central Eastern Escarpment and decreasing frequency to the south (78 days and north (73 days. The fog intensity on the central Eastern Escarpment is very high and in most cases reduces visibility to less than 500 m. In this period, a light to moderate breeze blows predominantly from the north and northeast. More than half of the villages in the region currently have a reliable water-supply system. The rest depend on seasonal roof-water harvesting, rock-water harvesting, and truck delivery and, therefore, could potentially benefit from fog collection as a supplementary water source. In particular, fog water could be useful for a small number of beneficiaries, including public services like schools and health facilities, where conventional water-delivery systems are not viable.

  19. A Case Study of the Mechanisms Modulating the Evolution of Valley Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, C.; Nadeau, D. F.; Gultepe, I.; Hoch, S. W.; Román-Cascón, C.; Pryor, K.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Creegan, E. D.; Leo, L. S.; Silver, Z.; Pardyjak, E. R.

    2016-09-01

    We present a valley fog case study in which radiation fog is modulated by topographic effects using data obtained from a field campaign conducted in Heber Valley, Utah from January 7-February 1, 2015, as part of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) program. We use data collected on January 9, 2015 to gain insight into relationships between typical shallow radiation fog, turbulence, and gravity waves associated with the surrounding topography. A ≈ 10-30 m fog layer formed by radiative cooling was observed from 0720 to 0900 MST under cold air temperatures (≈-9 °C), near-saturated (relative humidity with respect to water ≈95 %), and calm wind (mostly conditions. Drainage flows were observed occasionally prior to fog formation, which modulated heat exchanges between air masses through the action of internal gravity waves and cold-air pool sloshing. The fog appeared to be triggered by cold-air advection from the south (≈200°) at 0700 MST. Quasi-periodic oscillations were observed before and during the fog event with a time period of about 15 min. These oscillations were detected in surface pressure, temperature, sensible heat flux, incoming longwave radiation, and turbulent kinetic energy measurements. We hypothesize that the quasi-periodic oscillations were caused by atmospheric gravity waves with a time period of about 10-20 min based on wavelet analysis. During the fog event, internal gravity waves led to about 1 °C fluctuations in air temperatures. After 0835 MST when net radiation became positive, fog started to dissipate due to the surface heating and heat absorption by the fog particles. Overall, this case study provides a concrete example of how fog evolution is modulated by very weak thermal circulations in mountainous terrain and illustrates the need for high density vertical and horizontal measurements to ensure that the highly spatially varying physics in complex terrain are sufficient for hypothesis testing.

  20. Effect of aerosol concentration and absorbing aerosol on the radiation fog life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalick, Z.; Kühn, T.; Korhonen, H.; Kokkola, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Analogous to cloud formation, the formation and life cycle of fogs is largely influenced by aerosol particles. The objective of this work is to analyze how changes in aerosol properties affect the fog life cycle, with special emphasis on how droplet concentrations change with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and on the effect that absorbing black carbon (BC) particles have on fog dissipation. For our simulation case study, we chose a typical fall time radiation fog at mid-latitudes (45° north) in fairly highly polluted conditions. Our results show that CCN concentrations have a strong influence on the fog lifetime. This is because the immediate effect of CCN on cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC) is enhanced through two positive feedback loops: (1) Higher CDNC leads to more radiative cooling at the fog top, which leads to even stronger activation and (2) if CDNC is higher, the average droplet size is smaller, which slows down droplet removal through sedimentation. The effect that radiation fogs have on solar surface irradiation is large - the daily mean can change by 50% if CCN concentrations are doubled or halved (considering a reference CCN mixing ratio of 800 #/mg). With the same changes in CCN, the total fog lifetime increases 160 min or decreases 65 min, respectively. Although BC has a noticeable effect on fog height and dissipation time, its relative effect compared to CCN is small, even if BC concentrations are high. The fog formation is very sensitive to initial meteorological conditions which may be altered considerably if fog was present the previous day. This effect was neglected here, and future simulations, which span several days, may thus be a valuable extension of this study.

  1. 21 CFR 111.15 - What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What sanitation requirements apply to your... Plant and Grounds § 111.15 What sanitation requirements apply to your physical plant and grounds? (a...) Sanitation supervisors. You must assign one or more employees to supervise overall sanitation. Each of...

  2. Changes in concentration and size distribution of aerosols during fog over the south Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vimlesh Pant; C G Deshpande; A K Kamra

    2010-08-01

    Measurements of the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles in the size-ranges of 0.5–20 m and 16–700 nm diameters were made during six fog episodes over the south Indian Ocean. Observations show that concentrations of particles of all sizes start decreasing 1–2 hours before the occurrence of fog. This decrease is more prominent for coarse particles of < 1 m diameter and continues until 10–20 minutes before the onset of fog when particle concentrations in all size ranges rapidly increase by one/two orders of magnitude in ∼20 minutes. Thereafter, concentrations of particles of all sizes gradually decrease until the dissipation of fog. After the fog dissipation, concentrations of coarse mode particles rapidly increase and restore to their pre-fog levels but concentrations of the Aitken mode particles decrease slowly and reach their pre-fog levels only after 1–2 hours. The net effect of fog is to change the bimodal size distributions of aerosols with a coarse mode at 1.0 m and an accumulation mode at 40–60 nm to a power law size distribution. It is proposed that the preferential growth and sedimentation of the coarse mode hygroscopic particles in the initial phase cause a large decrease in the aerosol surface area. As a result, the low vapour pressure gases which were initially being used for the growth of coarse mode particles, now accelerate the growth rates of the accumulation and Aitken mode particles.

  3. 76 FR 44906 - Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...), of an amended cancellation order for the pesticide product Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog, a pesticide product containing Piperonyl Butoxide and Pyrethrins. The registrant of Foremost 4809-ES...

  4. Characteristics of the Boundary Layer Structure of Sea Fog on the Coast of Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Huijun; LIU Hongnian; JIANG Weimei; HUANG Jian; MAO Weikang

    2011-01-01

    Using boundary layer data with regard to sea fog observed at the Science Experiment Base for Marine Meteorology at Bohe,Guangdong Province,the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and the characteristics of the tops of the fog and the clouds were analyzed.In addition,the effects of advection,radiation,and turbulence during sea fog were also investigated.According to the stability definition of saturated,wet air,the gradient of the potential pseudo-equivalent temperature equal to zero was defined as the thermal turbulence interface.There is evidence to suggest that two layers of turbulence exist in sea fog.Thermal turbulence produced by long-wave radiation is prevalent above the thermal turbulence interface,whereas mechanical turbulence aroused by wind shear is predominant below the interface.The height of the thermal turbulence interface was observed between 180 m and 380 m.Three important factors are closely related to the development of the top of the sea fog:(1) the horizontal advection of the water vapor,(2) the long-wave radiation of the fog top,and (3) the movement of the vertical turbulence.Formation,development,and dissipation are the three possible phases of the evolution of the boundary-layer structure during the sea fog season.In addition,the thermal turbulence interface is the most significant turbulence interface during the formation and development periods; it is maintained after sea fog rises into the stratus layer.

  5. Drop size distributions and related properties of fog for five locations measured from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, J. Allen

    1994-01-01

    Fog drop size distributions were collected from aircraft as part of the Synthetic Vision Technology Demonstration Program. Three west coast marine advection fogs, one frontal fog, and a radiation fog were sampled from the top of the cloud to the bottom as the aircraft descended on a 3-degree glideslope. Drop size versus altitude versus concentration are shown in three dimensional plots for each 10-meter altitude interval from 1-minute samples. Also shown are median volume radius and liquid water content. Advection fogs contained the largest drops with median volume radius of 5-8 micrometers, although the drop sizes in the radiation fog were also large just above the runway surface. Liquid water content increased with height, and the total number of drops generally increased with time. Multimodal variations in number density and particle size were noted in most samples where there was a peak concentration of small drops (2-5 micrometers) at low altitudes, midaltitude peak of drops 5-11 micrometers, and high-altitude peak of the larger drops (11-15 micrometers and above). These observations are compared with others and corroborate previous results in fog gross properties, although there is considerable variation with time and altitude even in the same type of fog.

  6. Cloud and fog computing in 5G mobile networks emerging advances and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markakis, Evangelos; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Pallis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the challenges and solutions related to cloud and fog computing for 5G mobile networks, and presents novel approaches to the frameworks and schemes that carry out storage, communication, computation and control in the fog/cloud paradigm.

  7. Chemical Composition of Sea Fog Water Along the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanyu; Niu, Shengjie; Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Feng

    2012-12-01

    The chemical and microphysical properties of sea fog were measured during a field experiment on Donghai Island, Zhanjiang of China from March 15 to April 18, 2010. The average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) value of the six sea fog cases during the experiment was 5.2 and 1,884 μS/cm. The observed total ion concentration of sea fog was four orders of magnitude higher than those in the North Pacific and other sea areas of China. The dominant anion and cation in all sea fog water samples were Cl- and Na+, respectively. From backward trajectory analysis and ion loading computation, it can be concluded that the ions in the samples were transported either from pollutants in distant industrial cities or from local ion deposition processes. The concentration of Ca2+ in the sea fog water samples in Case 2 suggested that a dust storm in the Inner Mongolia, a northern region of China several thousand kilometers away, could reach the South China Sea. The data also showed that the sea fog droplet spectrum over the South China Sea is unimodal. Through relationship analysis, it is illustrated that the evolution of microphysics (such as droplet concentration, diameter, and liquid water content) during fog process could affect the chemical properties of sea fog.

  8. A Hybrid Scheme for Fine-Grained Search and Access Authorization in Fog Computing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Xuejiao; Jiang, Mingda

    2017-01-01

    In the fog computing environment, the encrypted sensitive data may be transferred to multiple fog nodes on the edge of a network for low latency; thus, fog nodes need to implement a search over encrypted data as a cloud server. Since the fog nodes tend to provide service for IoT applications often running on resource-constrained end devices, it is necessary to design lightweight solutions. At present, there is little research on this issue. In this paper, we propose a fine-grained owner-forced data search and access authorization scheme spanning user-fog-cloud for resource constrained end users. Compared to existing schemes only supporting either index encryption with search ability or data encryption with fine-grained access control ability, the proposed hybrid scheme supports both abilities simultaneously, and index ciphertext and data ciphertext are constructed based on a single ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE) primitive and share the same key pair, thus the data access efficiency is significantly improved and the cost of key management is greatly reduced. Moreover, in the proposed scheme, the resource constrained end devices are allowed to rapidly assemble ciphertexts online and securely outsource most of decryption task to fog nodes, and mediated encryption mechanism is also adopted to achieve instantaneous user revocation instead of re-encrypting ciphertexts with many copies in many fog nodes. The security and the performance analysis show that our scheme is suitable for a fog computing environment. PMID:28629131

  9. Bionic development of textile materials for harvesting water from fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, J.; Stegmaier, Th.; Linke, M.; Planck, H.

    2010-07-01

    The supply of drinking water is one of the great challenges for mankind in the future. At present about one billion people have no access to clean drinking water. Particularly in developing countries the supply of potable water is often insufficient. A centralized water supply can often not be implemented because of technical and logistical problems. In certain remote areas, a connection to a public water supply net is economically or technically not feasible, e.g. in settlements on small islands, in isolated sea bays or in mountainous areas. Water supply represents a fundamental problem for terrestrial organisms. In fact, plants and animals of dry areas have developed various methods for obtaining water. The potential for a technical transfer of these natural solutions is far from being well evaluated. An example for obtaining water in arid environments is fog harvesting. Particularly in environments which receive extremely low rates of precipitation, organisms can be found which are capable of obtaining water from fog. The goal of this project is a detailed study of the underlying strategies and mechanisms and their application in technical devices for fog harvesting of drinking water. The project concentrates on the development of textile materials which are optimized for their use in large harvesting collector arrays that are able to supply multi-family houses and/or schools up to smaller villages with water. We expect that techniques can also be used in irrigation systems. The lecture presents the transfer strategy of biological strategies into textile-based devices and first successful field studies.

  10. Fog Induced Aerosol Modification Observed by AERONET, Including Occurrences During Major Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Giles, D. M.; Rivas, M.; Singh, R. P.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bruegge, C. J.; Li, Z.; Platnick, S. E.; Arnold, T.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Burton, S. P.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Sinyuk, A.; Dubovik, O.; Arola, A. T.; Schafer, J.; Artaxo, P.; Smirnov, A.; Chen, H.; Goloub, P.

    2015-12-01

    The modification of aerosol optical properties due to interaction with fog is examined from measurements made by sun/sky radiometers at several AERONET sites. Retrieved total column volume size distributions for cases identified as aerosol modified by fog often show very a large 'middle mode' submicron radius (~0.4 to 0.5 microns), which is typically seen as a component of a bimodal sub-micron distribution. These middle mode sized particles are often called cloud-processed or residual aerosol. This bimodal accumulation mode distribution may be due to one mode (the larger one) from fog-processed aerosol and the other from interstitial aerosol, or possibly from two different aerosol species (differing chemical composition) with differing hygroscopic growth factors. The size of the fine mode particles from AERONET retrieved for these cases exceeds the size of sub-micron sized particles retrieved for nearly all other aerosol types, suggesting significant modification of aerosols within the fog or cloud environment. In-situ measured aerosol size distributions made during other fog events are compared to the AERONET retrievals, and show close agreement in the residual mode particle size. Almucantar retrievals are analyzed from the Kanpur site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in India (fog in January), Beijing (fog in winter), Fresno, CA in the San Joaquin Valley (fog in winter), South Korea (Yellow Sea fog in spring), Arica on the northern coast of Chile (stratocumulus), and several other sites with aerosol observations made after fog dissipated. Additionally, several major air pollution events are discussed where extremely high aerosol concentrations were measured at the surface and during which fog also occurred, resulting in the detection very large fine mode aerosols (residual mode) from AERONET retrievals in some of these events. Low wind speeds that occurred during these events were conducive to both pollutant accumulation and also fog formation. The presence of fog then

  11. Acid fog deposition and the declining forest in Tanzawa mountains, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, M.; Shigihara, A.; Goto, S.; Nanzai, B.

    2010-07-01

    Since 1988, we have investigated fog chemistry in Mt. Oyama, Tanzawa mountains, Japan, and acid fog has been frequently observed there. We have observed fog on Mt. Oyama by using a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain, by using a visibility meter at the top of the mountain, and by an active fog sampler at the mountainside. We have reported the fog frequency at the top of Mt. Oyama to be 46% measured by the video camera, but it was overestimated. The visibility measured at the top of the mountain is the most reliable index, and the top of the mountain is covered with fog for about 30%. The frequency of about 15% was added for the case of the visibility of a few km when it was measured by a night view video camera placed at the base of the mountain (8.5 km far from the top). Fog-water deposition increases with the increasing altitude to be much larger than the rain-water deposition. The factors affecting on the occult precipitation intensity were investigated by the simultaneous measurement of the rainfall intensity under a canopy, the wind speed and direction, and the visibility at the top of the mountain. Air pollution has been improved recently in Japan, but acid fog is not improved and has been affecting the leaves of the trees. In Tanzawa mountains, many fir trees and beech trees are declining, while cedar trees show no decline symptoms. We have investigated the effect of acid fog on the trees of these species by exposing simulated acid fog on the seedlings of the species. Seedlings of fir and beech are much damaged by the long term exposure of pH 3 fog, while cedar seedlings are not affected by the acid fog. By the exposure of simulated acid fog, the epicuticle wax is eroded at first, then the cross linking polycation between sugar chains of cell wall is ion-exchanged with proton and the cell wall is swollen, and the membrane calcium is desorbed from the membrane, which lowers the tolerance of the trees to the climate change. Fir and beech

  12. Traffic accident and emission reduction through intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Tan, Jin-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Heavy fog weather can increase traffic accidents and lead to freeway closures which result in delays. This paper aims at exploring traffic accident and emission characteristics in heavy fog, as well as freeway intermittent release measures for heavy fog weather. A driving simulator experiment is conducted for obtaining driving behaviors in heavy fog. By proposing a multi-cell cellular automaton (CA) model based on the experimental data, the role of intermittent release measures on the reduction of traffic accidents and CO emissions is studied. The results show that, affected by heavy fog, when cellular occupancy ρ traffic accidents is much higher; and CO emissions increase significantly when ρ traffic accidents and level of CO emissions become reasonable. Obviously, the measure can enhance traffic safety and reduce emissions.

  13. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, T.; Dupont, J.-C.; Hammer, E.; Hoyle, C. R.; Haeffelin, M.; Burnet, F.; Jolivet, D.

    2015-06-01

    The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Relative humidity is large in the mist-fog-mist cycle, and aerosols most efficient in interacting with visible radiation are hydrated and compose the accumulation mode. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of these hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 0.4 μm were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, under ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with a cumulated fog duration of 96 h, and a cumulated mist-fog-mist cycle duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down from 5 to a few kilometres, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha) increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm-3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC) increased beyond 7 mg m-3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and some aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the aerosol accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Nha also increased on average by 60 % after fog formation. Consequently, the mean contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% from hydrated aerosols smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% from larger aerosols. The standard deviation was large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or 3 times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm-3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm-1. We observed an influence of

  14. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  15. Characteristics of bacterial community in fog water at Mt. Tai: similarity and disparity under polluted and non-polluted fog episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Min; Xu, Caihong; Chen, Jianmin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Jiarong; Lv, Ganglin

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria, widely distributed in atmospheric bioaerosols, are indispensable component in fog water system and play an important role in atmospheric hydrological cycle. However, little is known about the bacterial community dynamics and ecological function, especially under the increasing serious air pollution events in North China Plain. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of bacterial community structure, variation and environmental influence about fog water collected at Mt. Tai und...

  16. A New Algorithm for Sea Fog/Stratus Detection Using GMS-5 IR Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myoung-Hwan AHN; Eun-Ha SOHN; Byong-Jun HWANG

    2003-01-01

    A new algorithm for the detection of fog/stratus over the ocean from the GMS-5 infrared (IR) channel data is presented. The new algorithm uses a clear-sky radiance composite map (CSCM) to compare the hourly observations of the IR radiance. The feasibility of the simple comparison is justified by the theoretical simulations of the fog effect on the measured radiance using a radiative transfer model. The simulation results show that the presence of fog can be detected provided the visibility is worse than 1 km and the background clear-sky radiances are accurate enough with known uncertainties. For the current study, an accurate CSCM is constructed using a modified spatial and temporal coherence method, which takes advantage of the high temporal resolution of the GMS-5 observations. The new algorithm is applied for the period of 10-12 May 1999, when heavy sea fog formed near the southwest coast of the Korean Peninsula. Comparisons of the fog/stratus index, defined as the difference between the measured and clear-sky brightness temperature, from the new algorithm to the results from other methods, such as the dual channel difference of NOAA/AVHRR and the earth albedo method, show a good agreement. The fog/stratus index also compares favorably with the ground observations of visibility and relative humidity.The general characteristics of the fog/stratus index and visibility are relatively well matched, although the relationship among the absolute values, the fog/stratus index, visibility, and relative humidity, varies with time. This variation is thought to be due to the variation of the atmospheric conditions and the characteristics of fog/stratus, which affect the derived fog/stratus index.

  17. Microphysical Characteristics of Sea Fog over the East Coast of Leizhou Peninsula, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lijuan; NIU Shengjie; ZHANG Yu; XU Feng

    2013-01-01

    Microphysical properties of sea fog and correlations of these properties were analyzed based on the measurements from a comprehensive field campaign carried out from 15 March to 18 April 2010 on Donghai Island (21°35″N,110°32′5″E) in Zhanjiang,Guangdong Province,China.There were four types of circulation pattern in favor of sea fog events in this area identified,and the synoptic weather pattern was found to influence the microphysical properties of the sea fogs.Those influenced by a warm sector in front of a cold front or the anterior part of low pressure were found to usually have a much longer duration,lower visibility,greater liquid water content,and bigger fog droplet sizes.A fog droplet number concentration of N> 1 cm-3 and liquid water content of L≥0.001 g m-3 can be used to define sea fogs in this area.The type of fog droplet size distribution of the sea fog events was mostly monotonically-decreasing,with the spectrum width always being >20 μ.m.The significant temporal variation of N was due in large part to the number concentration variation of fog droplets with radius <3 μm.A strong collection process appeared when droplet spectrum width was >10 μm,which subsequently led to the sudden increase of droplet spectrum width.The dominant physical process during the sea fog events was activation with subsequent condensational growth or reversible evaporation processes,but turbulent mixing also played an important role.The collection process occurred,but was not vital.

  18. The application of appropriate technologies and systems for sustainable sanitation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, Louiza C

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development, which encompasses sustainable sanitation, is defined as development that is appropriate, has the specific objectives of accelerated growth, targeted interventions and community mobilisation to eradicate poverty and focuses...

  19. The status of hygiene and sanitation practice among rural model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    were involved in the study; comparison of hygiene and sanitation practices of a ... Qualitative data were also collected in June 2011 to complement the findings of the quantitative data from a purposively selected group of women and men ...

  20. Privatization of Water and Sanitation Services in Kenya: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2009-05-14

    May 14, 2009 ... billion people lack access to improved water sources and 2.6 billion lack access to appropriate sanitation.1 Countries across the world are increasingly looking to .... Subsequent international conferences related to freshwater ...

  1. Spectroscopic imaging technologies for online food safety and sanitation inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, ARS, USDA is one of the leading groups for the development of optoelectronic sensing technologies and methodologies for food quality, safety, and sanitation inspection. High throughput hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques use Ram...

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TYPE I MARINE SANITATION DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This performance test was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two Type I Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs): the Electro Scan Model EST 12, manufactured by Raritan Engineering Company, Inc., and the Thermopure-2, manufactured by Gross Mechanical Laboratories, Inc. Performance...

  3. Basic sanitation policy in Brazil: discussion of a path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana Cristina A de; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the position of dominance enjoyed by state sanitation companies dictates the public policy decision-making process for sanitation in Brazil. These companies' hegemony is explained here through the analysis of a path that generated political and economic incentives that have permitted its consolidation over time. Through the content analysis of the legislation proposed for the sector and the material produced by the stakeholders involved in the approval of new regulations for the sector in 2007, the study identifies the main sources of incentive introduced by the adoption of the National Sanitation Plan, which explain certain structural features of the current sanitation policy and its strong capacity to withstand the innovations proposed under democratic rule.

  4. Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    This study examined the state of sanitation facilities and hygiene behaviour in .... a good network of tarred internal road, regular electricity supply, piped-borne .... condominial sewerage) that have been used with great success in. 3. India and ...

  5. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  6. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  7. Non-Thermal Sanitation By Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a non-thermal technology based on atmospheric-pressure (AP) cold plasma to sanitize foods, food packaging materials, and other hardware...

  8. Modelling Water-Sanitation Relationship in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An effective understanding of water and sanitation supply in developing states such as Edo-state is a veritable tool in addressing uneven distribution of these utilities. This research study focuses on the evaluation of water and sanitation supply in the state using baseline and demand responsiveness approaches to capture data on water and sanitation supplies in all the 18 local government areas in the State. Variables such as coverage of access or no access to water and sanitation supply, sources of water and incidences of water-related diseases were captured and technically analysed. The output of the analysis revealed that 62% representing 1,346, 649, population could not access portable water, while 38% corresponding to 813,199 could fairly access portable water in 1993. However, coverage for safe drinking water between 1993 and 2002 in Edo-State is not significant at 95% confidence interval. In addition, 72% (2,009,566 population did not have any access to sanitation; while 28% (777,210 population had fair supply of sanitation. The regions with poor sanitation and water index are Etsako central, Etsako west, Esan west, Esan north-west, while Oredo, Akoko-Edo, Egor and Owan east have improved sanitation and water index. The results obtained also indicate widespread of water and sanitation related diseased in the State with the recorded highest cases of Schistosomaisis (134, 361:43%; Typhoid (81,981:27%; Cholera (62,191:20% and Diarrhea (29,893:10% respectively. Water harvesting is the major source of water supply in the Edo-state with 69.8% in Etsako West, 65.6% in Esan north East 65.5% in Etsako central while Oredo and Akoko-Edo had 5.9% and 4.3% respectively. Protected water supply from pipe borne water and borehole were noticeable in Oredo with 54.2%, 19.9% and Akoko-Edo with 5.2% and 6.0 respectively. The result on social sector expenditure shows that water and sanitation had least allocation of 18.4%, while Education, Health and

  9. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their

  10. Role of the CSIR/WRC Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre in creating awareness, sharing information and in decision-making regarding sanitation technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR and the Water Research Commission (WRC) have envisioned a Sanitation Technology Demonstration Centre to provide a cutting-edge environment for bringing to light old and new, as well as promising sanitation technologies. The purpose...

  11. Improving Sanitation and Health in Rural Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In rural Alaskan communities personal health is threatened by energy costs and limited access to clean water, wastewater management, and adequate nutrition. Fuel-­-based energy systems are significant factors in determining local accessibility to clean water, sanitation and food. Increasing fuel costs induce a scarcity of access and impact residents' health. The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences (SNRAS), NASA's Ames Research Center, and USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) have joined forces to develop high-efficiency, low­-energy consuming techniques for water treatment and food production in rural circumpolar communities. Methods intended for exploration of space and establishment of settlements on the Moon or Mars will ultimately benefit Earth's communities in the circumpolar north. The initial phase of collaboration is completed. Researchers from NASA Ames Research Center and SNRAS, funded by the USDA­-ARS, tested a simple, reliable, low-energy sewage treatment system to recycle wastewater for use in food production and other reuse options in communities. The system extracted up to 70% of the water from sewage and rejected up to 92% of ions in the sewage with no carryover of toxic effects. Biological testing showed that plant growth using recovered water in the nutrient solution was equivalent to that using high-purity distilled water. With successful demonstration that the low energy consuming wastewater treatment system can provide safe water for communities and food production, the team is ready to move forward to a full-scale production testbed. The SNRAS/NASA team (including Alaska students) will design a prototype to match water processing rates and food production to meet rural community sanitation needs and nutritional preferences. This system would be operated in Fairbanks at the University of Alaska through SNRAS. Long­-term performance will be validated and operational needs of the

  12. Enhanced extinction of visible radiation due to hydrated aerosols in mist and fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Elias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses the contribution of aerosols to the extinction of visible radiation in the mist-fog-mist cycle. Measurements of the microphysical and optical properties of hydrated aerosols with diameters larger than 400 nm, composing the accumulation mode, which are the most efficient to interact with visible radiation, were carried out near Paris, during November 2011, in ambient conditions. Eleven mist-fog-mist cycles were observed, with cumulated fog duration of 95 h, and cumulated mist-fog-mist duration of 240 h. In mist, aerosols grew up by taking up water at relative humidities larger than 93%, causing a visibility decrease below 5 km. While visibility decreased down to few km, the mean size of the hydrated aerosols increased, and their number concentration (Nha increased from approximately 160 to approximately 600 cm−3. When fog formed, droplets became the strongest contributors to visible radiation extinction, and liquid water content (LWC increased beyond 7 mg m−3. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode co-existed with droplets, as interstitial non-activated aerosols. Their size continued to increase, and a significant proportion of aerosols achieved diameters larger than 2.5 μm. The mean transition diameter between the accumulation mode and the small droplet mode was 4.0 ± 1.1 μm. Moreover Nha increased on average by 60% after fog formation. Consequently the mean aerosol contribution to extinction in fog was 20 ± 15% for diameter smaller than 2.5 μm and 6 ± 7% beyond. The standard deviation is large because of the large variability of Nha in fog, which could be smaller than in mist or three times larger. The particle extinction coefficient in fog can be computed as the sum of a droplet component and an aerosol component, which can be approximated by 3.5 Nha (Nha in cm−3 and particle extinction coefficient in Mm−1. We observed an influence of the main formation process on Nha, but not on the contribution to fog

  13. Factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu eFernandez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles and the use of social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always impact the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation.This paper presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services.The paper first describes the context and strategies of the program which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The paper analyses social, educational, economic, demographic and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  14. Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of Sanitation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Haddad, Marilu; Ingram, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Local governments in both Mexico and the U.S. spend considerable money on public services, which do not always bring the expected results. For instance, a large part of the public budget is destined to solve social and health problems, such as public sanitation. Government has attacked the problem by providing public sanitation infrastructure (such as garbage and recycling receptacles) and by using social ad campaigns. However, these efforts do not always affect the habits of residents and bring the desired changes in city sanitation. This article presents a case study that used a participatory method to address an innovative city sanitation effort: The Clean City Program in Puebla, Mexico. This program adopted social marketing techniques, a discipline born in the 70s when the principles and practices developed to sell products and services started to be applied to sell ideas, attitudes, or behaviors. Social marketing programs have been adopted by governments to change attitudes and behavior in areas such as public services. The article first describes the context and strategies of the program, which included the use of the promotora model to engage community members. The researchers then make use of qualitative data gathered throughout program planning and implementation to evaluate the impact of the social marketing programs and its effectiveness. The article analyzes social, educational, economic, demographic, and cultural factors that influence the effectiveness of sanitation programs and presents recommendations for strategies to engage community members in community sanitation programs.

  15. Teachers and Sanitation Promotion: An Assessment of Community-Led Total Sanitation in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Geremew, Abiyot; Atalie, Fisseha; Yetie, Messele; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-06-21

    Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory approach to addressing open defecation that has demonstrated success in previous studies, yet there is no research on how implementation arrangements and context change effectiveness. We used a quasi-experimental study design to compare two interventions in Ethiopia: conventional CLTS in which health workers and local leaders provided facilitation and an alternative approach in which teachers provided facilitation. In 2012, Plan International Ethiopia trained teachers from 111 villages and health workers and leaders from 54 villages in CLTS facilitation. The trained facilitators then implemented CLTS in their respective villages for a year. Latrine ownership, use, and quality were measured with household surveys. Differences between interventions were explored using surveys and interviews. The decrease in open defecation associated with teacher-facilitated CLTS was 8.2 percentage points smaller than for conventional CLTS (p = 0.048). Teachers had competing responsibilities and initially lacked support from local leaders, which may have lessened their success. Teachers may be more appropriate for a supporting rather than leading role in sanitation promotion because they did demonstrate ability and engagement. Open defecation decreased by 15.3 percentage points overall but did not change where baseline open defecation was below 30%. Ownership of a latrine with stable flooring increased by 8.7 percentage points overall. Improved latrine ownership did not change during the intervention. CLTS is most appropriate where open defecation is high because there were no significant changes in sanitation practices or latrine upgrades where baseline open defecation was low.

  16. Standard practice for modified salt spray (fog) testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers and sets forth conditions for five modifications in salt spray (fog) testing for specification purposes. These are in chronological order of their development: 1.1.1 Annex A1, acetic acid-salt spray test, continuous. 1.1.2 Annex A2, cyclic acidified salt spray test. 1.1.3 Annex A3, seawater acidified test, cyclic (SWAAT). 1.1.4 Annex A4, SO2 salt spray test, cyclic. 1.1.5 Annex A5, dilute electrolyte cyclic fog dry test. 1.2 This practice does not prescribe the type of modification, test specimen or exposure periods to be used for a specific product, nor the interpretation to be given to the results. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicabilit...

  17. [Food Sanitation Act and Minamata Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Immediately after the official recognition of Minamata disease (1956.5.l) a study group at Kumamoto University suggested that Minamata disease was caused by food poisoning. The next year, this suggestion was accepted by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). Prior to the decision to apply the Food Sanitation Act (FSA), the local government asked MHW for the application of FSA. Soon after, the chief of the Public Health Bureau replied to the local government that the application of FSA to the Minamata area was impossible. Epidemiological investigations of residents and polluted areas, therefore, were not carried out. Data essential for the screening for exposed residents were unavailable. The criteria for the screening were presented. The Environmental Agency (EA) presented the criteria in the form of notice in 1971, which were revised in 1977. Notwithstanding the clear difference between the original and revised criteria, EA insisted that these two sets of criteria were quite similar. This insistence by EA and the absence of epidemiological data on residents and polluted area resulted in the present confusion about Minamata disease. The application of FSA was stopped by bureaucrats who had no interest in the environmental problems and by several scientists patronized by stakeholders (Chisso, Japanese Association of Chemical Industries, MHW and EA). Stakeholders suppressed science.

  18. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  19. Mesoscale numerical simulation study of warm fog dissipation by salt particles seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Guo, Xueliang; Liu, Xiang'e.; Gao, Qian; Jia, Xingcan

    2016-05-01

    Based on the dynamic framework of WRF and Morrison 2-moment explicit cloud scheme, a salt-seeding scheme was developed and used to simulate the dissipation of a warm fog event during 6-7 November 2009 in the Beijing and Tianjin area. The seeding effect and its physical mechanism were studied. The results indicate that when seeding fog with salt particles sized 80 µm and at a quantity of 6 g m-2 at the fog top, the seeding effect near the ground surface layer is negative in the beginning period, and then a positive seeding effect begins to appear at 18 min, with the best effect appearing at 21 min after seeding operation. The positive effect can last about 35 min. The microphysical mechanism of the warm fog dissipation is because of the evaporation due to the water vapor condensation on the salt particles and coalescence with salt particles. The process of fog water coalescence with salt particles contributed mostly to this warm fog dissipation. Furthermore, two series of sensitivity experiments were performed to study the seeding effect under different seeding amounts and salt particles sizes. The results show that seeding fog with salt particles sized of 80 µm can have the best seeding effect, and the seeding effect is negative when the salt particle size is less than 10 µm. For salt particles sized 80 µm, the best seeding effect, with corresponding visibility of 380 m, can be achieved when the seeding amount is 30 g m-2.

  20. An Analysis and Modeling Study of a Sea Fog Event over the Yellow and Bohai Seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a sea fog event which occurred on 27 March 2005 over the Yellow and Bohai Seas was investigated observationally and numerically. Almost all available observational data were used, including satellite imagery of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-9, three data sets from station observations at Dandong, Dalian and Qingdao, objectively reanalyzed data of final run analysis (FNL) issued by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) results. Synoptic conditions and fog characteristics were analyzed. The fog formed when warm,moist air was advected northwards over the cool water of the Yellow and Bohai Seas, and dissipated when a cold front brought northerly winds and cool, dry air. In order to better understand the fog formation mechanism, a high-resolution RAMS modeling with a 6km×6km grid, initialized and validated by FNL data, was designed. A 48h modeling that started from 12 UTC 26 March 2005reproduced the main characteristics of this sea fog event. The simulated lower visibility area agreed reasonably well with the sea fog region identified from the satellite imagery. Advection cooling effect seemed to play a significant role in the fog formation.

  1. Development testing of large volume water sprays for warm fog dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.; Beard, K. V.

    1986-01-01

    A new brute-force method of warm fog dispersal is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray induced air flow. Fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of the technique depends upon the drop size spectra in the spray, the height to which the spray can be projected, the efficiency with which fog laden air is processed through the curtain of spray, and the rate at which new fog may be formed due to temperature differences between the air and spray water. Results of a field test program, implemented to develop the data base necessary to assess the proposed method, are presented. Analytical calculations based upon the field test results indicate that this proposed method of warm fog dispersal is feasible. Even more convincingly, the technique was successfully demonstrated in the one natural fog event which occurred during the test program. Energy requirements for this technique are an order of magnitude less than those to operate a thermokinetic system. An important side benefit is the considerable emergency fire extinguishing capability it provides along the runway.

  2. Radiative characteristics of fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains during northern winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Arya, R.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP), spread across northern parts of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh is a hot-spot for fog formation during northern winter. The unavailability of long-term fog data over the IGP from any space based platform incites the utilization of monthly International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP-D2) cloud data for studying fog at this region. Fog is primarily represented as low level stratus and stratocumulus clouds in ISCCP cloud data. Top of atmosphere cloud radiative forcing measured by Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System instruments onboard Aqua/Terra satellites indicates a net radiative cooling by fog over the IGP region. Also, the analysis of gridded surface temperature data from India meteorological department suggests that negative temperature anomalies prevail over the regions of radiative cooling exerted by fog. These negative anomalies in surface temperature may cause further dipping of the temperature over the IGP during fog years. This study suggests that foggy winter will be colder than non-foggy winter over the IGP.

  3. A Study of Aerosols Transportation around City Boundary in the Fog Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; Li, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B. L.; Wang, Q. T.

    2011-09-01

    The structure of city surface seriously affects transport and diffusion of pollutant aerosol particles in the fog weather. So dynamic model population balance model (PBM) of aerosol particles and multiphase-coupled flow model were established to describe the fluid-particle system of fog. Based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method, a study of aerosols transportation around city boundary was conducted. The computed results show a part of aerosols change into droplets during the formation of fog, and the average sizes of aerosols, droplets are about 0.032 7 μm and 28.7 μm with time evolution to 60 min. For the development of fog, with time of 60 min and wind of 2 m/s, the number of aerosol is down to 84.5% of initial value, and the average particle size is down to 22.1 μm accordingly. During the dissipation of fog, the numbers of aerosol and fog droplet are decreased to the 1.65% and 0.016 5% of initial value. As wind speed rising, the turbulent motion strength of particles is increased. Eventually, the droplets have almost disappeared, and a small number of aerosols are still suspended in the atmosphere. The computed results reflect the transport and dynamic characteristics for respirable aerosols around city boundary during three stages of fog.

  4. An object-oriented based daytime over land fog detection approach using EOS/MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiongfei; Liu, Liangming; Li, Wei; Dong, Pei

    2009-09-01

    A new algorithm is presented for land fog detection from daytime image of Earth Observation System Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS/MODIS) data. Due to its outstanding spatial and spectral resolutions, this image is an ideal data source for fog detection. The algorithm utilizes an object-oriented technique to separate fog from other cloud types. In this paper, MOD35 product is first introduced to exclude cloud-free areas, and high clouds are removed with MODIS 26 band, and then a parameter named Normalized Difference Fog Index (NDFI) is proposed based on Streamer radiative model and MODIS data for fog detection. Through segmenting NDFI image into regions of pixels, and computing attributes (e.g. mean value of brightness temperature) for each region to create objects, each object could be identified based on the attributes selected to determine whether belongs to fog or cloud. Algorithm's performance is evaluated against ground-based measurements over China in winter. The algorithm is proved to be effective in detecting fog accurately based on two different test cases.

  5. Improvement of fog predictability in a coupled system of PAFOG and WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonheung; Yum, Seong Soo; Kim, Chang Ki

    2017-04-01

    Fog is difficult to predict because of the multi-scale nature of its formation mechanism: not only the synoptic conditions but also the local meteorological conditions crucially influence fog formation. Coarse vertical resolution and parameterization errors in fog prediction models are also critical reasons for low predictability. In this study, we use a coupled model system of a 3D mesoscale model (WRF) and a single column model with a fine vertical resolution (PAFOG, PArameterized FOG) to simulate fogs formed over the southern coastal region of the Korean Peninsula, where National Center for Intensive Observation of Severe Weather (NCIO) is located. NCIO is unique in that it has a 300 m meteorological tower built at the location to measure basic meteorological variables (temperature, dew point temperature and winds) at eleven different altitudes, and comprehensive atmospheric physics measurements are made with the various remote sensing instruments such as visibility meter, cloud radar, wind profiler, microwave radiometer, and ceilometer. These measurement data are used as input data to the model system and for evaluating the results. Particularly the data for initial and external forcings, which are tightly connected to the predictability of coupled model system, are derived from the tower measurement. This study aims at finding out the most important factors that influence fog predictability of the coupled system for NCIO. Nudging of meteorological tower data and soil moisture variability are found to be critically influencing fog predictability. Detailed results will be discussed at the conference.

  6. The combined Fog Monitoring System of ARPAV over the Veneto Region, Po Valley - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichini, F.; Rossa, A.; Zardini, F.; Monai, M.; Calza, M.; Della Valle, A.; Gaspari, V.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of fog is a frequent problem in the Po Valley. The consequent reduction in visibility has a strong impact on the road, air, ship and railway traffic. Both, fog monitoring and forecasting, constitute significant challenges, not least due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the phenomenon. ARPAV (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto) is the regional meteorological service of the north-eastern Italian region Veneto and, as such, is responsible for meteorological support to institutional and private users. Real-time visibility information over an extended area would represent an interesting product for road and transport safety. In the framework of the FP7 project Roadidea, (14 partners from 8 different countries, Dec 2007 - Aug 2010) on road safety and traffic control ARPAV developed pilot system for the fog monitoring. The main idea of this fog monitoring methodology is to merge information derived from different observation platforms, i.e. satellite low stratus cloud classification, direct visibility monitoring, statistical estimation of low visibility from meteorological parameters at the ground. This information is translated into probability maps of fog occurrence and information weight on a common grid (4x4 km) covering the flat portion of the region Veneto. These weights are used to combine the three data sources into the final fog probability map. A probabilistic verification applied to the fog monitoring product yields encouraging results, and is systematically more skillfull than the fog probabilities derived from the individual data sources. First real-time products are now available on the ARPAV Fog Pilot website for a group of specific users (motorway head office, road police, national railways and others) and are under testing.

  7. Increase California-Oregon Coastal Summer Sea Level Fog from 1950 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis is presented of the marine fog distribution based upon the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) ship observations taken during 1950-2007. Deep fog occurrence is reported in routine weather reports that are encoded in an ICOADS ship observation. Occurrence is estimated by the number of deep fog observations divided by the total present weather observations in a one-degree area centered on latitude and longitude grid point intersections. The mean fog occurrence for the summer (June-July-August) 1950-2007 was computed for each one degree point. There is a long term, deep fog occurrence maximum on the California-Oregon coast with its highest value of 16.6 % at 38° N 123° W. This fog maximum is coincident with coldest June-July-August sea surface temperatures (SST) along the coast. To compute annual averages of the maximum, a block average was based on the 19 over water grid points with the deep fog occurrences generally greater than 0.6 times the highest long term maximum value that extended along the California-Oregon coast from 37° N to 44° N. The June-July-August block averaged, annual value computed for each of the 58 summers for the period 1950-2007 has a distinct positive trend. A line fitted to the data has a deep fog percent occurrence increase of +7.4 % from 1950 through 2007 or a trend of +0.13 % per year. The Mann-Kendall test was applied and the trend is significant at the 0.05 level. The increase in long term coastal fog is coincident with a decrease in the California-Oregon coastal SST. The SST decrease is consistent with interior California land temperatures increasing, increasing the cross shore sea level pressure gradient, and increasing the along coast winds creating a positive feedback that causes more upwelling and lower SST.

  8. Summer water use by California coastal prairie grasses: fog, drought, and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jeffrey D; Thomsen, Meredith A; Dawson, Todd E; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2005-10-01

    Plants in the Mediterranean climate region of California typically experience summer drought conditions, but correlations between zones of frequent coastal fog inundation and certain species' distributions suggest that water inputs from fog may influence species composition in coastal habitats. We sampled the stable H and O isotope ratios of water in non-photosynthetic plant tissue from a variety of perennial grass species and soil in four sites in northern California in order to determine the proportion of water deriving from winter rains and fog during the summer. The relationship between H and O stable isotopes from our sample sites fell to the right of the local meteoric water line (LMWL) during the summer drought, providing evidence that evaporation of water from the soil had taken place prior to the uptake of water by vegetation. We developed a novel method to infer the isotope values of water before it was subjected to evaporation in which we used experimental data to calculate the slope of the deltaH versus deltaO line versus the LMWL. After accounting for evaporation, we then used a two-source mixing model to evaluate plant usage of fog water. The model indicated that 28-66% of the water taken up by plants via roots during the summer drought came from fog rather than residual soil water from winter rain. Fog use decreased as distance from the coast increased, and there were significant differences among species in the use of fog. Rather than consistent differences in fog use by species whose distributions are limited to the coast versus those with broader distributions, species responded individualistically to summer fog. We conclude that fogwater inputs can mitigate the summer drought in coastal California for many species, likely giving an advantage to species that can use it over species that cannot.

  9. Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Catherine; Malambo, Dennis Hanjalika; Perez, Maria Eliette Gonzalez; Nobela, Happiness Ngwanamoseka; de Pooter, Lobke; Spit, Jan; Hooijmans, Christine Maria; de Vossenberg, Jack van; Greya, Wilson; Thole, Bernard; van Lier, Jules B; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2015-10-29

    In this research, three faecal sludge sanitizing methods-lactic acid fermentation, urea treatment and lime treatment-were studied for application in emergency situations. These methods were investigated by undertaking small scale field trials with pit latrine sludge in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was able to reduce the E. coli count in the sludge to below the detectable limit within 1 h applying a pH > 11 (using a dosage from 7% to 17% w/w, depending faecal sludge alkalinity), urea treatment required about 4 days using 2.5% wet weight urea addition, and lactic acid fermentation needed approximately 1 week after being dosed with 10% wet weight molasses (2 g (glucose/fructose)/kg) and 10% wet weight pre-culture (99.8% pasteurised whole milk and 0.02% fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota). Based on Malawian prices, the cost of sanitizing 1 m³ of faecal sludge was estimated to be €32 for lactic acid fermentation, €20 for urea treatment and €12 for hydrated lime treatment.

  10. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape

    2015-11-01

    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  11. Dew, fog, and rain as supplementary sources of water in south-western Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Lekouch, I.; Muselli, Marc; Kabbachi, B.; Ouazzani, Jalil; Melnytchouk-Milimouk, Iryna; Beysens, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This study reports on one year (May 1, 2007 - April 30, 2008) of dew, fog and rain measurements carried out in the dryland area of Mirleft, Morocco in order to be used as alternative or supplemental sources of water. Four standard dew condensers and a passive fog net collector of 1 m² surfaces were used. Meteorological data were collected. 178 dew events (18.85 mm), 31 rain events (48.65 mm) and 7 significant fog episodes (1.41 mm) occurred, corresponding to almost 40%...

  12. FOGCAST: Probabilistic fog forecasting based on operational (high-resolution) NWP models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbou, M.; Hacker, M.; Bentzien, S.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of fog and low clouds in the lower atmosphere can have a critical impact on both airborne and ground transports and is often connected with serious accidents. The improvement of localization, duration and variations in visibility therefore holds an immense operational value. Fog is generally a small scale phenomenon and mostly affected by local advective transport, radiation, turbulent mixing at the surface as well as its microphysical structure. Sophisticated three-dimensional fog models, based on advanced microphysical parameterization schemes and high vertical resolution, have been already developed and give promising results. Nevertheless, the computational time is beyond the range of an operational setup. Therefore, mesoscale numerical weather prediction models are generally used for forecasting all kinds of weather situations. In spite of numerous improvements, a large uncertainty of small scale weather events inherent in deterministic prediction cannot be evaluated adequately. Probabilistic guidance is necessary to assess these uncertainties and give reliable forecasts. In this study, fog forecasts are obtained by a diagnosis scheme similar to Fog Stability Index (FSI) based on COSMO-DE model outputs. COSMO-DE I the German-focused high-resolution operational weather prediction model of the German Meteorological Service. The FSI and the respective fog occurrence probability is optimized and calibrated with statistical postprocessing in terms of logistic regression. In a second step, the predictor number of the FOGCAST model has been optimized by use of the LASSO-method (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). The results will present objective out-of-sample verification based on the Brier score and is performed for station data over Germany. Furthermore, the probabilistic fog forecast approach, FOGCAST, serves as a benchmark for the evaluation of more sophisticated 3D fog models. Several versions have been set up based on different

  13. Improvement of the Fog Detection based on Himawari-8 over the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. W.; Sohn, E. H.; Ryu, G. H.; Jang, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) services fog detection using Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) data for nowcasting. But, it is not easy to detect fog over complex terrain using COMS. Recently, Japan Meteorological Agency launched Himawari-8 geostationary satellite and releases data from July 2015. It has better spatial and spectral resolution than COMS, so it seems that Himawari-8 may have good sensitivity to detect fog. In this study, fog detection based on COMS methodology is applied and tested using Himawari-8 measurement over the Korean peninsula. A method has four threshold tests as follows: 1. Dual Channel Difference (DCD) between 12.3㎛ and 13.3㎛ (DCD1) test to remove higher cloud. 2. DCD between 3.9㎛ and 10.4㎛ (DCD2) test to detect night fog. 3. DCD between Clear Sky Brightness Temperature (CSTB; Maximum brightness temperature of 10.4㎛ during before 15 days) and 10.4㎛ (DCD3) test to set bottom layer. 4. 0.64㎛ albedo test to detect day fog. The fog detection from COMS and Himawari-8 were compared to understand each characteristics and performance at same condition. At night, typically showing similar DCD2, Himawari-8 has smaller value than COMS in the fog area. It seems that Himawari-8 receives a stronger signal because Spectral Response Function (SRF) of AHI is narrower than MI. In addition, improved spatial resolution (AHI: 2km; MI: 4km for IR channels) might enhance sensitivity of fog detection over mountainous area (Fig.1) In evaluation of accuracy, Probability of Detection (POD) and False Alarm Ratio (FAR) of Himawari-8 are 73%, 39% respectively (COMS POD: 65%; FAR: 55%) below 1K of DCD3 at Oct. 2015, when the radiation fog occurs a lot in Korea. The result shows that Himawari-8 has good performance of fog detection near the ground. Also, It is analyzed that reduce over-detection by using a variety of channels. In conclusion, fog detection using Himawari-8 data and similar methodology with COMS shows

  14. 浅谈雾和霾%Discussion on Fog and Haze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗万强

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the causes, hazards of fog and haze, describes the influence of fog and haze on people's lives and puts forward scientific methods control fog and haze.%从雾和霾的成因、危害等方面的不同,进行了详细的论述,阐述了雾和霾对人们生活的影响,提出了应对雾和霾,科学预防、减小危害的方法。

  15. [Fog water absorption by the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong

    2006-06-01

    Xishuangbanna is located at the northern margin of tropics. Its climate is different from that of typical tropics, but the rainforest there is not very different from that of the typical tropics in Southeast Asia. The main problems in Xishuangbanna are seasonal drought and low temperature. Fog may contribute to the development of rainforest here, but related studies are few. This study is aimed to know whether the leaves of epiphytes and non - epiphytes in Xishuangbanna can directly absorb fog water and contribute to their water status recovery, and whether epiphytes are more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The study was conducted in dry season, and four species of epiphytes and six species of non - epiphytes were investigated. The effect of fog was imitated by spraying leaves with distilled water. For epiphytes and non - epiphytes, their leaf water potential (phi), relative water content (RWC), and amount of absorbed water increased gradually with the time of spraying, but the phi of epiphytes increased more quickly than that of non - epiphytes. The leaves of epiphytes Bolbitis scandens and Rhaphidophora decursiva could absorb fog water more quickly, and increase their RWC more greatly than those of non - epiphytes, indicating that these epiphytes were more competent than non - epiphytes in their leaf fog water absorption. The fog water absorption capacity of the leaves in epiphytic orchid Coelogyne occultata and Staurochilus dawsonianus was lower than that in Amischotolype hispida and Mananthus patentflora, but higher than that in other four non - epiphytes. The phi of epiphytes at early evening when no fog was formed was significantly lower than that at early morning, suggesting that fog water was absorbed by epiphytes at night to improve their leaf water status. Non - epiphytes did not need to absorb fog water directly through leaves, and they could recover their leaf water status through absorbing soil water by root system

  16. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    Water scarcity is the bottleneck for agriculture and development of Peru’s coast and subject to aggravation due to climate change. Until present day, Peru’s coast in general and the Lima Metropolitan Area (LMA) in particular have enjoyed to a great extend the effect of the country’s high altitude glaciers that serve as a buffer for the capital’s water demand during the highland dry season. However, climate models predict the disappearance of this buffer system below 5.500 masl by 2015, leaving one of the driest places on earth with yet another decrease in freshwater supply (Zapata 2008). The deviation of water resources from the highlands has led already to allocation conflicts. Peru is in urgent need of new concepts for water management. Fog harvesting was introduced to South America in the 1980s and has since been implemented at various locations in North and Central America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australia. The Standard Fog Collector (SFC) as described by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) has proven to be a successful instrument for this purpose. Apart from a number of small scale investigations, the design of the collector has barely been changed over the past three decades (e.g. Gioda et al. 1993). Within the framework of the presented project, financed primarily by the Global Exploration Fund of the National Geographic Society and Bayer AG, new fog collectors were designed at pilot and full scale. Best results in terms of simplicity of construction and water yield were obtained by a metal frame structure called Eiffel. While covering the same amount of space as an SFC and using the same Raschel 65% shadow net, the Eiffel collector harvested up to 2.650 liters of water within a frame of 8x4m compared to up to 600 liters of water harvested by a SFC at the same location. In combination with a simplified maintenance concept, our collectors present an economically competitive alternative to water supply by truck delivery in a region that is not likely to

  17. Numerical Prediction of Cold Season Fog Events over Complex Terrain: the Performance of the WRF Model During MATERHORN-Fog and Early Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zhaoxia; Chachere, Catherine N.; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Pardyjak, Eric; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    A field campaign to study cold season fog in complex terrain was conducted as a component of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program from 07 January to 01 February 2015 in Salt Lake City and Heber City, Utah, United States. To support the field campaign, an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to produce real-time forecasts and model evaluation. This paper summarizes the model performance and preliminary evaluation of the model against the observations. Results indicate that accurately forecasting fog is challenging for the WRF model, which produces large errors in the near-surface variables, such as relative humidity, temperature, and wind fields in the model forecasts. Specifically, compared with observations, the WRF model overpredicted fog events with extended duration in Salt Lake City because it produced higher moisture, lower wind speeds, and colder temperatures near the surface. In contrast, the WRF model missed all fog events in Heber City, as it reproduced lower moisture, higher wind speeds, and warmer temperatures against observations at the near-surface level. The inability of the model to produce proper levels of near-surface atmospheric conditions under fog conditions reflects uncertainties in model physical parameterizations, such as the surface layer, boundary layer, and microphysical schemes.

  18. Fog-harvesting potential of lubricant-impregnated electrospun nanomats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalia, Boor Singh; Anand, Sushant; Varanasi, Kripa K; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2013-10-22

    Hydrophobic PVDF-HFP nanowebs were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method and proposed for harvesting fog from the atmosphere. A strong adhesive force between the surface and a water droplet has been observed, which resists the water being shed from the surface. The water droplets on the inhomogeneous nanomats showed high contact angle hysteresis. The impregnation of nanomats with lubricants (total quartz oil and Krytox 1506) decreased the contact angle hysteresis and hence improved the roll off of water droplets on the nanomat surface. It was found that water droplets of 5 μL size (diameter = 2.1 mm) and larger roll down on an oil-impregnated surface, held vertically, compared to 38 μL (diameter = 4.2 mm) on a plain nanoweb. The contact angle hysteresis decreased from ~95 to ~23° with the Krytox 1506 impregnation.

  19. Cooling analysis of a light emitting diode automotive fog lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadravec Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of cooling fins inside of a light emitting diode fog lamp is studied using computational fluid dynamics. Diffusion in heat sink, natural convection and radiation are the main principles of the simulated heat transfer. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved by the computational fluid dynamics code, including Monte Carlo radiation model and no additional turbulence model was needed. The numerical simulation is tested using the existing lamp geometry and temperature measurements. The agreement is excellent inside of few degrees at all measured points. The main objective of the article is to determine the cooling effect of various heat sink parts. Based on performed simulations, some heat sink parts are found to be very ineffective. The geometry and heat sink modifications are proposed. While radiation influence is significant, compressible effects are found to be minor.

  20. Polydiacetylene sensor interaction with food sanitizers and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yueyuan; Northcutt, Julie; Hanks, Tim; Miller, Ian; Pennington, Bill; Jelinek, Raz; Han, Inyee; Dawson, Paul

    2017-04-15

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles are of interest as biosensors, particularly for pathogenic bacteria. As part of a food monitoring system, interaction with food sanitizers/surfactants was investigated. PDA vesicles were prepared by inkjet-printing, photopolymerized and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The optical response of PDA vesicles at various concentrations verses a fixed sanitizer/surfactant concentration was determined using a two variable factorial design. Sanitizer/surfactant response at various concentrations over time was also measured. Results indicated that only Vigilquat and TritonX-100 interacted with PDA vesicles giving visible colour change out of 8 sanitizers/surfactants tested. PDA vesicle concentration, sanitizer/surfactant concentration, and time all had a significant (P<0.0001) effect on colour change. As they are highly sensitive to the presence of Vigilquat and TritonX-100, PDA sensors could be used to detect chemical residues as well as for detection of various contaminants in the food industry.

  1. In situ detection of the chemistry of individual fog droplet residues in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinhui; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Zhang, Guohua; Wang, Xinming; Brechtel, Fred J.; Chen, Duohong; Li, Mei; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-08-01

    We use a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor to measure the chemical compositions of individual submicron fog droplet residues. This is the first report on single particle mass spectrometry measurements of fog droplet residual particles at ground level in an urban area. We show that most of the fog droplet residues were composed of elemental carbon (EC) (67.7%), followed by K-rich (19.2%) and mineral dust/metal (12.3%) particles. The predominance of EC-containing particles demonstrated that these particles could be effective fog nuclei and highlights the important influence of anthropogenic emissions on regional climate system. Compared with interstitial and ambient aerosols, nitrate was enhanced, sulfate was depressed, and ammonium- and organics-containing particles were hardly found in the fog droplet residues during fog events, suggesting that dust and metal particles containing nitrate may be preferentially activated and that ammonium and organics may not play important roles in fog formation in Guangzhou. We also present direct observational evidence that trimethylamine and hydroxymethanesulfonate are not found within fog droplet residues, although we previously observed enhanced gas-to-particle partitioning of these compounds by fog processing. Additionally, higher fraction or intensities of [K]+, [Fe]+, and [SiO3]- were found in fog droplet residues than in ambient and interstitial particles.

  2. Fogging formulations for fixation of particulate contamination in ductwork and enclosures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maresca, Jr., Joseph W.; Kostelnik, Lori M.; Kriskivich, James R.; Demmer, Rick L.; Tripp, Julia L.

    2015-09-08

    A method and an apparatus using aqueous fixatives for fogging of ventilation ductwork, enclosures, or buildings containing dust, lint, and particulates that may be contaminated by radionuclides and other dangerous or unsafe particulate contaminants, which method and apparatus are capable of (1) obtaining full coverage within the ductwork and (2) penetrating and fixing the lint, dust and large particles present in the ductwork so that no airborne particles are released during or after the application of the fixative. New aqueous fogging solutions outperform conventional glycerin-based solutions. These aqueous solutions will fog using conventional methods of application and contain a surfactant to aid wetting and penetration of the lint and dust, a binder to stabilize loose or respirable particles, and an agent to aid in fogging and enhance adhesiveness. The solutions are safe and easy to use.

  3. Characterization of Fogging and Develop-Loading Effects in Electron-Beam Direct-Writing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Jun-ichi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Maruyama, Takashi; Sugatani, Shinji

    2012-06-01

    We investigated long-range critical dimension (CD) error factors, such as fogging and develop loading, to improve CD uniformity in electron-beam direct-writing (EBDW) technology. It was found that the impact of both effects reached 20 mm and the CD of the monitor pattern decreased by no less than 10%. Fogging and develop loading were separated by comparing the newly designed test patterns that were exposed using both EB and a krypton-fluoride excimer laser. We confirmed that the impact of fogging and develop loading by arranging dummy patterns with a density of 40% was estimated to be +8.9 and -18.9% in the CD, respectively. Based on success in separating each effect, fogging and develop loading were decreased by applying an antistatic agent and multipuddle development, respectively.

  4. The cooling and moistening effect on the formation of sea fog in the Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jian; ZHOU Faxiu

    2006-01-01

    With the sea surface observations from ICOADS for the years 1960~2002, the conditions of cooling, evaporation and water vapor transportation are analyzed and compared for the formation of seasonal sea fog in April-July in the Huanghai Sea. It is found that sea surface cooling is always existent during the fog seasons while sea surface evaporation only appears in April-June in the Huanghai Sea. Local evaporation alone is not sufficient to form fogs though it may lead to light ones. Water vapor transported from the low-latitudes accomplished by specific synoptic systems is the most important condition for sea fog formation. In general, the moistening effect is more important than the cooling one.

  5. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient. PMID:28737733

  6. A Secure and Verifiable Outsourced Access Control Scheme in Fog-Cloud Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Wang, Junxiong; Wang, Xin; Li, Hui; Yang, Yintang

    2017-07-24

    With the rapid development of big data and Internet of things (IOT), the number of networking devices and data volume are increasing dramatically. Fog computing, which extends cloud computing to the edge of the network can effectively solve the bottleneck problems of data transmission and data storage. However, security and privacy challenges are also arising in the fog-cloud computing environment. Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) can be adopted to realize data access control in fog-cloud computing systems. In this paper, we propose a verifiable outsourced multi-authority access control scheme, named VO-MAACS. In our construction, most encryption and decryption computations are outsourced to fog devices and the computation results can be verified by using our verification method. Meanwhile, to address the revocation issue, we design an efficient user and attribute revocation method for it. Finally, analysis and simulation results show that our scheme is both secure and highly efficient.

  7. Satellite based classification (haze, fog) and affected area estimation over Indo - Pak Sub-Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Badar; Zafar, Sumaira

    2016-07-01

    Northern Pakistan and bordering Indian Punjab experience intense smog and fog during fall and winters. Environmentalists have been raising their voices over the situation and demanded control over regional emissions to save the livelihood of millions of dwellers whose trade, commerce and agriculture is at stake because of long smog/ fog spells.. This paper estimates the area affected by haze, smog and fog during 2006- 2010. MODIS (geo-referenced MODIS subsets India1, 2 &3) of the area in Pakistan and India from 2006 to 2010 for the period October to February) were analyzed using state of the art software ENVI 4.2 and ArcGIS 10.2. This process resulted in area belonging to each class that is; haze, smog and fog. On the basis of density, haze and fog cover was determined. Variations in fog cover, its density and identification of location of fog initiation process were also determined using near real time (30 minutes) METEOSAT-7 IODC data where actually fog formation started and then extended to the area of favorable conditions. Haze has been noticed to intensify due to massive burning of agricultural waste (rice husk) in India and Pakistan towards the end of October each year. MODIS thermal anomalies/fire data (MYD 14) were also used to verify this activity on the ground, which results in hazy conditions at regional level during fall months. Haze-affected area during 2006 to 2010 in Pakistan ranged from 155,000 Km2 to 354,000 Km2 and in India it ranged from 333,000 Km2 to 846,000 Km2. Similarly winter fog cover during this period in Pakistan varied from 136,000 Km2 to 381,000 Km2 and in India it was estimated at 327,000 Km2 to 566,000 Km2. This phenomenon was more prominent in India than in Pakistan where and fog cover was at least twice than that was observed in Pakistan. It has been noted that area covered by fog, smog and haze doubled during the study period in the region. Atmospheric dimming during autumn/ fall also reduces the mixing height leading to greater

  8. The boundary layer characteristics in the heavy fog formation process over Beijing and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Guangzhi; BIAN; Lingeng; WANG; Jizhi; YANG; Yuanqi

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) observational data made available from the project "973" under the auspices of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - entitled the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX), including the measurements by a wind profiler, captive airships, tower-based boundary layer wind and temperature gradient observational instruments (ultrasonic anemometers and electronic thermometers), air composition samplers, conventional upper-air, surface and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) observations, this paper herewith analyzes, in a comprehensive manner, the occurrence of a heavy fog event over Beijing in February 2001, including its formation, development, persistence, dynamic and thermodynamic features as well as evolving stratification structures within the boundary layer at different stages. The results suggested: (i) as a typical case of urban heavy fog, before the fog onset over Beijing, a temperature inversion existed in the lower atmosphere, the smokes and the pollutants like SO2 and NO2 had been accumulated at a lower level. Proceeding the fog event, with the increase of SO2 and NO2 concentrations, condensability increased sharply. On the contrary, during the fog process, with increasing condensability, SO2 and NO2 concentrations decreased. This indicated that, acting as condensation nucleus, these accumulated pollutants were playing a key role in catalyzing the fog condensation. (ii) By analyzing mean gradient-, pulsation- and turbulence-distribution patterns derived from the wind measurements taken by the aforementioned tower-based instruments, they all indicated that about 10 hours before the fog onset, a signal foretelling potential strong disturbances in the lower boundary layer was detected, and a significant rise of both mean and disturbance kinetic energies was observed, revealing that the low-level wind shear was strengthened before the fog onset

  9. Preventing SQL Injection through Automatic Query Sanitization with ASSIST

    CERN Document Server

    Mui, Raymond; 10.4204/EPTCS.35.3

    2010-01-01

    Web applications are becoming an essential part of our everyday lives. Many of our activities are dependent on the functionality and security of these applications. As the scale of these applications grows, injection vulnerabilities such as SQL injection are major security challenges for developers today. This paper presents the technique of automatic query sanitization to automatically remove SQL injection vulnerabilities in code. In our technique, a combination of static analysis and program transformation are used to automatically instrument web applications with sanitization code. We have implemented this technique in a tool named ASSIST (Automatic and Static SQL Injection Sanitization Tool) for protecting Java-based web applications. Our experimental evaluation showed that our technique is effective against SQL injection vulnerabilities and has a low overhead.

  10. Fog forecasting: ``old fashioned'' semi-empirical methods from radio sounding observations versus ``modern'' numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtslag, M. C.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Holtslag, A. A. M.

    2010-07-01

    Fog forecasting is a very challenging task due to the local and small-scale nature of the relevant physical processes and land surface heterogeneities. Despite the many research efforts, numerical models remain to have difficulties with fog forecasting, and forecast skill from direct model output is relatively poor. In order to put the progress of fog forecasting in the last decades into a historical perspective, we compare the fog forecasting skill of a semi-empirical method based on radio sounding observations (developed in the 60s and 70s) with the forecasting skill of a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction model (MM5) for The Netherlands. The semi-empirical method under investigation, the Fog Stability Index, depends solely on the temperature difference between the surface and 850 hPa, the surface dew point depression and the wind speed at 850 hPa, and a threshold value to indicate the probability of fog in the coming hours. Using the critical success index (CSI) as a criterion for forecast quality, we find that the Fog Stability Index is a rather successful predictor for fog, with similar performance as MM5. The FSI could even been optimized for different observational stations in the Netherlands. Also, it appears that adding the 10 m wind as a predictor did not increase the CSI score for all stations. The results of the current study clearly indicate that the current state of knowledge requires improvement of the physical insight in different physical processes in order to beat simple semi-empirical methods.

  11. Particulate contribution to extinction of visible radiation: Pollution, haze, and fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Thierry; Haeffelin, Martial; Drobinski, Philippe; Gomes, Laurent; Rangognio, Jerome; Bergot, Thierry; Chazette, Patrick; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Colomb, Michèle

    2009-06-01

    A data set acquired by eight particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique, which is French for Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research) during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The study focuses on a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 65 and 35 000 m, the site is either downwind the Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed during the night by radiative cooling. In 6 h, visibility decreased down from 30 000 m in the clear-sky regime to 65 m within the fog, because of advected urban pollution (factor 3 to 4 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). Computations of aerosol optical properties, based on Mie theory, show that extinction in clear-sky regime is due equally to the ultrafine modes and to the accumulation mode. Extinction by haze is due to hydrated aerosol particles distributed in the accumulation mode, defined by a geometric mean diameter of 0.6 μm and a geometric standard deviation of 1.4. These hydrated aerosol particles still contribute by 20 ± 10% to extinction in the fog. The complementary extinction is due to fog droplets distributed around the geometric mean diameter of 3.2 μm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5 during the first fog development stage. The study also shows that the experimental set-up could not count all fog droplets during the second and third fog development stages.

  12. Fog/Low Visibility Forecasting from NCEP - Current Status and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B.; Dimego, G.; Gultepe, I.

    2010-07-01

    Low visibility(fog is very hazardous to air/land traffic and is beeing particularly emphasized at National Weather Service(NWS) of NOAA and in NextGen, a future Air Traffic Management System of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), United States. As of now however, fog forecast is still not operational guidance from National Centers for Environment Prediction (NCEP), an official numerical weather prediction (NWP) center of NWS, due to its complexity and computational resource limitation. Instead, it is only diagnosed by local weather forecasters through either model output statistics (MOS) or other variables based upon their forecasting experience. Nevertheless, research on numerical fog prediction has been conducting at NCEP. Recently, in an effort to add it to NCEP’s operational guidance as a step to echo the requirement from NWS and the NextGen of FAA, low visibility/fog forecast was experimentally implemented and tested at NCEP. In this paper, predictions of fog and low visibility (fog from two ensemble forecast systems are also presented. One is the Short Range Ensemble Forecast System (SREF), the other is the Very Sort Range Ensemble Forecast System (VSREF). Through verifications, deterministically and probabilistically from November 2009 to March 2010 on North America, the fog and low visibility predictabilities for various models and ensembles are compared and discussed. The results show that the general performances of fog and low visibility prediction from the single model forecast systems are still low, but the application of ensemble, either in low or high resolution, has shed light on its performance improvement. Furthermore through this study, where the efforts should be focused on in the models or methods are also suggested.

  13. IFCIoT: Integrated Fog Cloud IoT Architectural Paradigm for Future Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Munir, Arslan; Kansakar, Prasanna; Khan, Samee U.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel integrated fog cloud IoT (IFCIoT) architectural paradigm that promises increased performance, energy efficiency, reduced latency, quicker response time, scalability, and better localized accuracy for future IoT applications. The fog nodes (e.g., edge servers, smart routers, base stations) receive computation offloading requests and sensed data from various IoT devices. To enhance performance, energy efficiency, and real-time responsiveness of applications, we propose a reco...

  14. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Athari; Saeed Soltani; Marc A. Rosen; Seyed Mohammad Seyed Mahmoudi; Tatiana Morosuk

    2015-01-01

    The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT), a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG), and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG). The results show that (1) a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2) at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle...

  15. Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7902 ● DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War by...Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The Fog of Cyber War by Alexander Kott and Ananthram Swami Computational and Information Sciences ...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) December 2015–February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Science Planning and Strategy Meeting: The

  16. Can headway reduction in fog be explained by impaired perception of relative motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Stéphane; Cavallo, Viola; Marendaz, Christian; Boer, Erwin R; Vienne, Fabrice

    2009-06-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a better understanding of driver behavior in fog. Impaired perception of changes in headway is hypothesized to be one of the reasons for shorter following distances in foggy conditions as compared with clear weather. In the experiments described here, we measured response time for discriminating between whether the vehicle ahead is getting closer or farther away. Several visibility conditions were studied, ranging from a no-fog condition to a condition in which the vehicle could be seen only by its rear fog lights. Fog conditions increased response times when the outline of the vehicle was barely visible or not visible at all. The longer response times in fog were attributable to the low contrast of the vehicle outline when still visible and to the smaller spacing between the two lights when the outline could not be properly perceived. Moreover, response times were found to be shorter for shorter following distances and for faster accelerations. Reducing headway could be a way for drivers to achieve faster discrimination of relative motion in foggy weather. More specifically, shortening one's following distance until visibility of the lead vehicle changes from bad to good may have a perceptual control benefit, insofar as the response time gain compensates for the reduction in headway under these conditions. Potential applications include improving traffic safety. The results provide a possible explanation for close following in fog and point out the importance of rear-light design under these conditions.

  17. Fog water collection with SFC on the mountain Velebit (Croatia) during the period 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileta, M.; Likso, T.

    2010-07-01

    Zavižan (1594 m above sea level) is the highest mountain station in Croatia and it is equipped with SFC (standard fog collector). It is situated on Velebit Mountain which is the boundary between maritime and continental climate. The methodology used was described in Schemenauer and Cereceda (1994) and is based on the use of the standard fog collector (SFC) of 1 m ² of polypropylene mesh. Fog water collection with SFC started in the summer 2000. With the annual mean temperature of 5. 1° C the year 2000 was the warmest year in the available measurements (1953-2009). A significant increase in annual temperature was observed during the whole period 2000-2009. Among ten the warmest years on Zavižan, five were observed in this century (2000, 2007, 2008, 2002 and 2009). The paper discusses the daily fog water amounts collected during the different long periods in the warm parts of the examined period 2000-2009. Fog water collected in days without precipitation are analysed separately. Also a number of days with fog in the monitoring period have been analysed with respect to the 1961-1990 reference period. Maximum one day value of 27.8 l /m² was recorded in October 2003, while the highest daily rate in days without rain was 19.0 l/m² in October 2002. Synoptic situation for days with maximum one day-value in 2009 has been analysed.

  18. Results of attenuation measurements for optical wireless channels under dense fog conditions regarding different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecker, B.; Gebhart, M.; Leitgeb, E.; Sheikh Muhammad, S.; Chlestil, C.

    2006-08-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) has gained considerable importance in this decade of demand for high bandwidth transmission capabilities. FSO can provide the last mile solution, but the availability and reliability issues concerned with it can not be ignored, and requires thorough investigations. In this work, we present our results about light attenuation at 950 and 850 nm wavelengths in continental city fog conditions with peak values up to 130 dB/km and compare them with attenuation under dense maritime conditions with peak values up to 480 dB/km. Dense fog is the most severe limiting factor in terrestrial optical wireless applications and light propagation in fog has properties in the spatial, spectral and the time domain, which are of importance to free-space optic data communication. In 2004 (within a short term scientific mission of COST 270) measurements of very dense maritime fog and low clouds were made in the mountains of La Turbie, close to the coast of southern France. Using the same equipment, the measurements were continued for the conditions of the continental city of Graz, Austria. This campaign was done in the winter months from 2004 to 2005 and 2005 to 2006 and allows us to compare fog properties for different environments, and the impact of snow fall. We provide detail analysis of a fog and a snow event for better understanding of their attenuation behavior.

  19. Meeting drinking water and sanitation targets of MDGs. Water use & competition in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek van der, Marjolijn

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation is of vital importance for human beings. Improving the access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation in developing countries is therefore one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to be me

  20. OVERCOMING POVERTY TRAP: THE CASE OF WATER & SANITATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Leilani Masniarita Pohan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming Poverty Trap : The Case of  Water & Sanitation in Indonesia. Poverty trap is a cycle in which poor individuals exhibit low health quality due to malnutrition and limited access to health related facilities. Poor health causes low productivity which eventually cycles back to low income. Indonesia significantly reduced poverty from 15.6% in 1990 to 3.3% in 2010. However, this achievement is not conveyed equally across regions. Using data form RAND Corporation, estimations showed that access to sanitation and clean water play a crucial role in improving one’s health quality.   Keywords: poverty trap, productivity, income, health facility.

  1. Measurements of Mercury in Rain and Fog Water from the Central Coast of California Measurements of Mercury in Rain and Fog Water from the Central Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Ortiz, C.; Acosta, P.; Ryan, J. P.; Collett, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can bioaccumulate in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and poses a health risk to humans and wildlife who consume those organisms. This widespread problem is exemplified by a recent survey of game fish from 152 California Lakes, which found that at least one species in 74% of the lakes sampled exceeded the lowest health threshold for methylmercury. The atmosphere is known to be an important pathway for transport of anthropogenic and natural Hg emissions sources. In this study, we investigated wet deposition of Hg through the precipitation of fog and rain water on the Central Coast of California. Fog (or marine stratus) is common on the California Central Coast and is a significant contributor to the hydrologic cycle, yet concentrations of Hg in fog have not previously been measured in this region. Our samples were collected from a small boat in the Monterey Bay, at the harbor in Moss Landing, and from a rooftop on the University of California, Santa Cruz campus, during June - July 2011 using a Caltech Active Strand Cloud Water Collector-2 that has been used previously for collection of Hg samples. Aqueous samples were analyzed for total Hg using EPA method 1631. Rainwater samples were also collected in Santa Cruz between March and June 2011. Hg concentrations ranged from 1-19 ng/L in fog and from 1-3 ng/L in rain. A previous study in Santa Cruz found a wider range of 2-18 ng/L Hg in rain, and previous studies of Hg in fog from the U.S. and Canada reported concentrations of 2-430 ng/L. Thus, our results are consistent with previous findings that Hg concentrations in fog water are at least as high, if not higher than Hg concentrations in rain. This suggests that in environments where fog is an important contributor to total precipitation, like coastal California, a significant fraction of Hg wet deposition may be occurring via fog precipitation.

  2. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Cumming

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015 outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  3. Does global progress on sanitation really lag behind water? An analysis of global progress on community- and household-level access to safe water and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the "sanitation deficit" is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990-2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post-2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.

  4. Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? An Analysis of Global Progress on Community- and Household-Level Access to Safe Water and Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Elliott, Mark; Overbo, Alycia; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the “sanitation deficit” is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post–2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both. PMID:25502659

  5. Exploring the determinants of sanitation success in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munamati, Muchaneta; Nhapi, Innocent; Misi, Shepherd

    2016-10-15

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) missed the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target by a wide margin. However, there are a few African countries which made remarkable progress towards achieving the sanitation target. While the general factors that influence sanitation success are widely known, some of the few studies that have investigated the SSA sanitation situation have arrived at different conclusions regarding the determinants of sanitation success. The objectives of this paper were to establish the key determinants of sanitation success in SSA countries and to classify the SSA countries based on factors associated with sanitation success. This was achieved by analysing data drawn from 46 SSA countries. An objective methodological approach, using regression and cluster analyses to reveal the underlying sanitation success factors, has been adopted. A total of 11 economic and socio-political independent variables were tested against the dependent variable; proportion of the 2015 population that has gained access to sanitation since 2000. Regression results showed consistent and robust association between sanitation success and education for the national, rural and socio-political samples (p values 0.018-0.038). These results suggest that the level of education contributed to sanitation success in SSA during the MDG period. For the urban sample, a negative association was demonstrated between sanitation success and access to improved water sources (p = 0.034). This implies that countries which made huge sanitation gains had low coverage of improved water sources. The results from cluster analysis showed that countries which achieved great sanitation success were characterized by the highest education levels, incomes, population densities, political stability and high proportions of urban population. The knowledge of the key determinants of sanitation success could help in the formulation and design of appropriate policies and interventions to improve

  6. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  7. Keeping Kids Safe: A Guide for Safe Food Handling & Sanitation for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Because children under age 5 are susceptible to food-borne illnesses and children in diapers present special sanitation and health problems, food safety and sanitation are emerging as important issues for child care providers. This booklet is designed to give providers and parents a quick and easy reference for food safety and sanitation. The…

  8. 21 CFR 111.360 - What are the requirements for sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for sanitation? 111.360... for Manufacturing Operations § 111.360 What are the requirements for sanitation? You must conduct all manufacturing operations in accordance with adequate sanitation principles....

  9. 75 FR 952 - Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge Regulations for the Florida Keys National Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 15 CFR Part 922 Draft Marine Sanitation Device Discharge... of biodegradable effluent incidental to vessel use and generated by marine sanitation devices, and to require marine sanitation devices be locked to prevent discharges into the sanctuary. DATES:...

  10. The human right to water and sanitation: reflections on making the system effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The Millenium Development Goal (MDG) on water has been more successful than the MDG on sanitation. Does this have implications for the human right to sanitation? This chapter argues that there are key differences between access to water and sanitation in terms of the legal content of both, the physi

  11. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  12. Fog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the Eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Boris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of fog water were collected at Baengnyeong Island (BYI in the Yellow Sea during the summer of 2014. The most abundant chemical species in the fog water were NH4+ (mean of 2220 μM, NO3− (1260 μM, SO4−2 (730 μM, and Na+ (551 μM, with substantial contributions from other ions consistent with marine and biomass burning influence on some dates. The pH of the samples ranged between 3.48 and 5.00, with a mean of 3.94, intermediate within pH values of fog/cloud water reported previously in Southeast Asia. Back trajectories (72 h showed that high relative humidity (> 80 % was encountered upwind of the sampling site by all but one of the sampled air masses, and that the fog composition at BYI can be impacted by several different source regions, including the Sea of Japan, Northeastern China, and the East China Sea. Sulfur in the collected fog was highly oxidized: low S(IV concentrations were measured (mean of 2.36 μM in contrast to SO4−2 and in contrast to fog/cloud S(IV concentrations from pollutant source regions; organosulfate species were also observed and were most likely formed through aging of mainly biogenic volatile organic compounds. Low molecular mass organic acids were major contributors to total organic carbon (TOC; 36–69 %, comprising a fraction of TOC at the upper end of that seen in fogs and clouds in other polluted environments. Large contributions were observed from not only acetic and formic acids, but also oxalic, succinic, maleic, and other organic acids that can be produced in aqueous atmospheric organic processing (AAOP reactions. These samples of East Asian fog water containing highly oxidized components represent fog downwind of pollutant sources and can provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. In particular, these samples demonstrate the result of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols and fogs.

  13. Thermal strain along optical fiber in lightweight composite FOG : Brillouin-based distributed measurement and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Shu; Sanada, Teruhisa; Takeda, Nobuo; Mitani, Shinji; Mizutani, Tadahito; Sasaki, Yoshinobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2014-05-01

    Thermal strain significantly affects stability of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) performance. This study investigates thermal strain development in a lightweight carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) FOG under thermal vacuum condition simulating space environment. First, we measure thermal strain distribution along an optical fiber in a CFRP FOG using a Brillouin-based high-spatial resolution system. The key strain profile is clarified and the strain development is simulated using finite element analysis. Finally, several constituent materials for FOG are quantitatively compared from the aspect of the maximum thermal strain and the density, confirming the clear advantage of CFRP.

  14. Detection of nighttime sea fog/stratus over the Huanghai Sea using MTSAT-1R IR data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shanhong; WU Wei; ZHU Leilei; FU Gang; HUANG Bin

    2009-01-01

    A dual channel difference (DCD) method is applied to detect nighttime sea fog/stratus over the Huanghai Sea using the infrared (IR) data of shortwave (3.5-4.0 μm) and longwave (10.3-11.3 μm) channels from the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT)-IR, i.e., shortwave minus longwave brightness temperature difference (SLTD). Twenty-four sea fog events over the Huanghai Sea during March to July of 2006 and 2007 are chosen to determine a suitable value of SLTD for nighttime sea fog/stratus detection, and it is found that the value of-5.5-2.5℃ can be taken as a criterion. Two case examples of sea fog events are especially demonstrated in detail utilizing the criterion, and the results show that the derived sea fog/stratus coverage is quite reasonable.This coverage information is very helpful to analyze the formation and evolution of sea fog/stratus during night and can provide sea fog researchers with observational evidences for model results verification. However, more efforts are needed to further obtain vertical extent information of sea. fog/stratus and attempt to discriminate between sea fog and stratus.

  15. O processo administrativo-sanitário como instrumento de efetividade das ações de vigilância sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joedson de Souza DELGADO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se o processo administrativo-sanitário oriundo da Lei n. 6.437/1977, suas formalidades e tramitação no contexto da vigilância sanitária. Aborda-se a complementação de outras regras jurídicas em sentido amplo para caracterizar adequadamente uma situação como infração sanitária. Destaca-se a importância da sistematização do Direito Sanitário sancionador com observância aos primados da ampla defesa e do contraditório em face do atributo da coercibilidade presente no poder de polícia. Revisa-se o material bibliográfico acerca do tema, com ênfase na doutrina administrativa sanitária e estudam-se os elementos do poder normativo e do poder de fiscalização, percorrendo a edição de regramentos técnicos que estabelecem condutas obrigatórias, vedadas ou permitidas. Conclui-se que a norma processual, prevista na Lei n. 6.437/1977, contempla um conjunto de medidas que realiza a prevenção dos riscos e a proteção dos danos à saúde com a responsabilidade legal diante do descumprimento ao ordenamento jurídico-sanitário, mas que alguns institutos devem ser atualizados revistos, assim como apurado o modelo de cobrança administrativa e judicial das multas sanitárias. ABSTRACT Analyzed the administrative-sanitary process from the Brazilian Law n. 6.437/1977, his rules and procedure in the context of the sanitary vigilance. Approached the complementation of other juridical rules in a wide sense to characterize adequately a situation as sanitary infraction. Stands out the relevance of the systematization of Sanitary Law punitive, with observance in the priority of the ample defense and the contradictory in front of the attribute of present repression in the power of the police. Revised the bibliographical material over of the topic, emphatically in the administrative sanitary doctrine and study the elements of the normative power and of the power of inspection, crossing the edition of technical regulations that establish

  16. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    of community initiated actions. Based on these findings, we suggest that future hygiene promotion strategies aim for a closer match between community priorities and government hygiene policies, e.g. by allowing for a larger diversity of low-cost sanitation solutions. Scaling up participatory community...

  17. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Prevention. Appendix A Size/Cost Factors Used to Determine Inspection Fees Impacts Approximate Vessel size... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  18. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Prevention. Appendix A ] Size/Cost Factor Approximate cost per GRT Vessel size GRT \\1\\ (in U.S. dollars... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services...

  19. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, S.M.; Spiller, M.; Leusbrock, I.; Zeeman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Many developing countries struggle to provide wastewater and solid waste services. The backlog in access has been partly attributed to the absence of a functional sanitation planning framework. Various planning tools are available; however a comprehensive framework that directly links a governmen

  20. Sanitation Health Risk and Safety Planning in Urban Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was ... areas around major cities in developing countries. ... microbial analysis (Luiza et al, 2015). Health .... handling food remains a key cost effective and .... and solid waste systems are considered to be .... municipal sanitation planning system has not.

  1. Seminar on Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, unit two of the curriculum guide is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Four major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, providing sanitary conditions in food service establishments, discusses safe use and storage of cleaning…

  2. Seminar On Sanitation for Restaurant Owners and Managers. Unit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    Intended for use in conducting short seminars on sanitation for restaurant owners and managers, the conceptual outline is organized to provide four hours of classroom instruction. Two major concepts are emphasized. The first concept, the effect of sanitary practices on the financial profits of food service, focuses on: (1) service and quality to…

  3. Effect of residual sanitizers on Salmonella enterica biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella enterica are a diverse group of bacteria that represent a serious risk to public health. Bacterial attachment on food and contact surfaces can lead to biofilm formation, and once in this state, bacteria are more resistant to sanitization and may serve as a continuous contam...

  4. Hygiene and sanitation requirements in Danish biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixen, H.J.

    1997-08-01

    According to Danish regulations, systematic pathogen reducing treatment is required, when industrial by-products and waste products, and urban waste, ie garbage from households and sewage sludge, are processed, before being used - without restrictions - as fertilizers on agricultural land. An adequate pathogen reducing effect (PRE) can be achieved in the digestion tanks and sanitation tanks of the biogas plants, provided they are operated correctly and respect the criteria of the official requirements. The FS-method is a microbiological indicator method based on faecal streptococci (enterococci) (FS). It may be used to check the sanitation effect achieved by the treatment in a tank. The effect is expressed numerically by the log{sub 10}-reduction of the numbers of FS measured in the biomass before and after treatment. The PRE was examined in 10 large-scale biogas plants during a period of 2-3 years. It was demonstrated that properly directed and well-functioning thermophilic digestion tanks ensure the removal of most pathogenic microorganisms from organic waste and slurry. The removal of pathogens by the treatment in mesophilic digestion tanks is incomplete. Systematic studies of the processes of inactivation of bacteria and virus in slurry and in animal tissues gave evidence that the PRE is enhanced in the microbiological environment of thermophilic digestion tanks. The sanitation criteria, ie combinations of temperature/time, for the processing of biomass in digestion tanks and sanitation tanks in biogas plants are specified. (au) 19 refs.

  5. Analyzing sanitation characteristics in the urban slums of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szanto, G.L.; Letema, S.C.; Tukahirwa, J.; Mgana, S.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban slums in East Africa exhibit deplorable sanitary conditions. Despite (inter)national efforts, slum sanitation provision remains inadequate and the projected population growth forecasts a worsening of this crisis. The core of the problem is that available knowledge about the local feasibility o

  6. The use of sanitation products in milk and cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kalit

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering hygienic conditions in cheese production the aim of thispaper was to investigate the influence of using some sanitation* products in milk and cheese production on family farms. This investigation was a part of the project “Improving the quality of Tounj cheese produced on family farms”. By use of the sanitation products, during milk production, significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometrical mean of total bacterial count from 3.54 x 105 to 8 x 103 in mL of milk, as well as significant (P<0.01 decrease of geometric mean of somatic cell count from 3.1 x 105 to 2.4 x 105 in mL of milk was observed. The ratio of hygienically unacceptable cheeses, according to the Regulations of microbial standards for foods (NN 46/94., significantly (P<0.01 decreased as well. Because of the new requests and standards, the sanitation products are more in use in both milk and cheese production on family farms. Investigated sanitation products were suitable for use in milk and Tounj cheese production.

  7. 7 CFR 58.146 - Cleaning and sanitizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... surfaces shall be subjected to an effective sanitizing treatment prior to use, except where dry cleaning is... above the floor in clean, dry locations and in a self draining position on racks constructed of... adjustment and condition of mechanical parts. (c) Milk transport tanks. A covered or enclosed wash dock and...

  8. The Quality of Fog Water Collected for Domestic and Agricultural Use in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemenauer, Robert S.; Cereceda, Pilar

    1992-03-01

    One exciting new application of meteorology is the prospect of using high-elevation fogs as an and land's water resource. This has now become reality in northern Chile where a pilot project has used 50 fog collectors to generate an average of 7200 1 of water per day during three drought years. The chemical composition of the fog water is of primary importance and is examined in this paper.A small, carefully cleaned fog-water collector was used at the site (elevation 780 m) to study the incoming fog (cloud). The ion and trace-element concentrations met Chilean and the World Health Organization's (WHO) drinking-water standards. The pH values, however, were at times extremely low. Samples from 1987 and 1988 were consistent with those from the larger dataset in 1989. The lowest observed pH was 3.46. The acidity was associated with high concentrations (89%) of excess sulfate in the 15 fog-water samples (based on Cl as the seawater tracer element). The NO3/SO4 equivalents ratio for the fog samples was 0.18, showing the dominance of SO4 in determining the acidity of the fog samples. The relative abundances of ions and trace elements in the dry deposition are very similar to those in the fog water, suggesting that the aerosols originate primarily from evaporated cloud droplets over the ocean. Based on enrichment-factor calculations (with Cl as the indicator element for seawater and A1 for the earth's crust), sea salts were the main source of Na+, Mg++, and Cl in the fog water; soil dust was the main source of Fe, Al and Ti; and other sources provided Ca++, K+, NH4+, Br SO4NO3 As,Cd,Pb,V,Mn,Ni,Cu,SrSb,and Ba in the fog water.The use of enrichment factors based on the relative abundances in soil extracts suggests that As, V, Cu, and Sr may be available from wetted soil dust.The output from the large (48 m2) fog collectors was also acceptable, except for several of the 24 trace elements, which exceeded the maximum allowable values in the first flush of water after a dry

  9. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  10. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2012-02-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries, according to both Jaccard and Sorenson indices. These findings provide the first evidence of a difference in community composition and microbial culturability of aerosols associated with fog compared to clear conditions. The data support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms, which may include relief from UV inactivation, desiccation, and oligotrophic microconditions. This study provides a strong case for ocean to terrestrial transport of microbes and a potential connection

  11. Development of the one dimensional Fog Model PAFOG for operational Use at Munich Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, C.; Schneider, W.; Rohn, M.; Röhner, P.; Beckmann, B.-R.; Masbou, M.; Bott, A.

    2010-07-01

    Reduced visibility due to heavy fog is a hazard for land, sea, and air traffic. Especially for air transportation systems, reduced visibility leads to significant cost increments. Therefore, it is of particular importance to predict poor visibility fog events at airports accurately. In iPort-VIS, part of an aviation research program funded by the German Ministry for economy and technology, a site specific fog forecast system for Munich airport will be developed in cooperation between DWD, the German Aviation Control (DFS) and University of Bonn. The principal component of this forecast system is the one dimensional fog forecast model PAFOG (PArameterised FOG) that will be upgraded to operational use. The model consists of a parameterised microphysics scheme. The particle size distribution of cloud droplets is taken into account by a lognormal distribution and the visibility is calculated dependent on liquid water content and droplet concentration based on the Koschmieder formula. The turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer is treated by the Mellor and Yamada closure scheme of order 2.5 in which a prognostic equation for the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is solved. Radiative transports are considered by a Delta-Two-Stream Method with 18 spectral bands. Due to the fact that fog is a small scale complex phenomenon with high spatial and temporal variability, detailed knowledge of the atmospheric boundary layer structure is fundamental to get a realistic fog forecast. A time nudging scheme has been developed for integrating local observations (vertical profiles of temperature and specific humidity) periodically during the forecast. The system has been tested in several case studies with data from Lindenberg observatory and will be adapted to Munich airport with a new measurement system that will be installed by DWD. A second version of the nudging scheme, driven by the forecast of the high-resolution COSMO-DE model by DWD, is currently under development.

  12. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  13. Analysis of fog effects on terrestrial Free Space optical communication links

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider and examine fog measurement data, coming from several locations in Europe and USA, and attempt to derive a unified model for fog attenuation in free space optics (FSO) communication links. We evaluate and compare the performance of our proposed model to that of many well-known alternative models. We found that our proposed model, achieves an average RMSE that outperforms them by more than 9 dB. Furthermore, we have studied the performance of the FSO system using different performance metrics such as signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, bit error rate (BER), and channel capacity. Our results show that FSO is a short range technology. Therefore, FSO is expected to find its place in future networks that will have small cell size, i.e., <1 km diameter. Moreover, our investigation shows that under dense fog, it is difficult to maintain a communications link because of the high signal attenuation, which requires switching the communications to RF backup. Our results show that increasing the transmitted power will improve the system performance under light fog. However, under heavy fog, the effect is minor. To enhance the system performance under low visibility range, multi-hop link is used which can enhance the power budget by using short segments links. Using 22 dBm transmitted power, we obtained BER=10-3 over 1 km link length with 600 m visibility range which corresponds to light fog. However, under lower visibility range equals 40 m that corresponds to dense fog, we obtained the same BER but over 200 m link length. © 2016 IEEE.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization as innovative technology in sustainable sanitation in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Ariane [Engineers Without Boarders (Germany), Berlin (DE). Project ' ' Carbonization as Sanitation' ' (CaSa)

    2011-07-01

    The need for sustainable systems is apparent as climate change and other adverse anthropogenic activities continue to negatively affect the soil fertility in Africa. One of the indicators of the loss of soil fertility is the continuous decrease in soil organic matter, which is the major building block of a fertile soil. This is mainly attributed to the inappropriate practice of human-beings of taking more substances from the ecosystem than the amount replaced. As the soil fertility is increasingly lost, food insecurity, due to dropped productivity of the soil, is becoming a critical issue in many areas of Africa, Tanzania is not any different in this respect. On the other hand, most people in rural areas of Africa still lack possibilities to cover their daily energy needs in a more sustainable way and many people mainly rely on firewood. This, in turn, has an adverse impact on the climate and the soil, causing a local viscous circle of poor soil and productivity conditions. Moreover, the sanitation coverage of those areas is very low and there is a need for appropriate sanitation systems. Therefore, the aim of this project is, to conduct research on the possibility of establishing a self-sustaining system for the rural areas of Kagera, Tanzania, to address the three basic issues: sanitation, energy supply and soil fertility. The system consists of a small-scale biogas digester, a urine diverting dehydrating toilet (UDDT) and an adaptive hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) unit. Biogas is produced from crop residues and other domestic organic waste. The fermentation residues and the dehydrated fecal matter from the UDDT is then treated with HTC. The carbonised and sanitized residue is then applied as soil amendment to improve the soil fertility as manifested by the Terra Preta in the Amazon. This holistic approach is a new development in ecological sanitation. Therefore, a comprehensive sustainability assessment including environmental, economic and socio

  15. Adopt or Adapt: Sanitation Technology Choices in Urbanizing Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunga, Richard M; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Jenkins, Marion W; Brown, Joe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a mixed-methods study examining adaptation strategies that property owners in low-income, rapidly urbanizing areas in Malawi adopt to address the limitations of pit latrines, the most common method of disposing human excreta. A particular challenge is lack of space for constructing new latrines as population density increases: traditional practice has been to cap full pits and simply move to a new site, but increasing demands on space require new approaches to extend the service life of latrines. In this context, we collected data on sanitation technology choices from January to September 2013 through 48 in-depth interviews and a stated preference survey targeting 1,300 property owners from 27 low-income urban areas. Results showed that property owners with concern about space for replacing pit latrines were 1.8 times more likely to select pit emptying service over the construction of new pit latrines with a slab floor (p = 0.02) but there was no significant association between concern about space for replacing pit latrines and intention to adopt locally promoted, novel sanitation technology known as ecological sanitation (ecosan). Property owners preferred to adapt existing, known technology by constructing replacement pit latrines on old pit latrine locations, reducing the frequency of replacing pit latrines, or via emptying pit latrines when full. This study highlights potential challenges to adoption of wholly new sanitation technologies, even when they present clear advantages to end users. To scale, alternative sanitation technologies for rapidly urbanising cities should offer clear advantages, be affordable, be easy to use when shared among multiple households, and their design should be informed by existing adaptation strategies and local knowledge.

  16. Book review, Sanità animale, Salvatore Montinaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Un manuale strutturato per fornire un quadro d'insieme della materia e chiarire il metodo logico con il quale trovare i riferimenti scientifici e normativi necessari per affrontare il lavoro di tutti i giorni: così viene presentato Sanità animale, un volume che rispetto ai pochi testi analoghi sul mercato, si distingue per l'utilizzo parco di stralci normativi, comunque sistematicamente citati, in modo da renderne agevole la consultazione. L'attenzione maggiore è spostata verso l'analisi scientifica e normativa delle problematiche affrontate, delle peculiarità delle singole malattie e dei principi d'intervento sul campo. Il medico veterinario Salvatore Montinaro, forte dell'esperienza maturata in diverse amministrazioni (Regione, ASL, IZS riesce nell'intento di descrivere in maniera semplice, ma completa e dettagliata, il funzionamento della sanità animale e della lotta alle malattie diffusive animali. Come esplicita nell'introduzione del capitolo Norme Veterinarie e SSN: "Non si cercherà in questa sede di ripercorrere la storia della veterinaria pubblica, dal codice di Hammurabi in poi: ci si limiterà piuttosto a uno sguardo retrospettivo nella storia recente, finalizzato a identificare in modo sistematico, partendo dal generale per arrivare al particolare, i principali punti di riferimento che caratterizzano il quadro normativo della sanità pubblica veterinaria". Anche per questo il manuale è indirizzato soprattutto a coloro che già lavorano, o che intendono lavorare, nei servizi veterinari di sanità animale delle Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ponendosi come un testo "professionale" e un sussidio tecnico da avere a portata di mano. Salvatore Montinaro, classe 1967, svolge la sua attività professionale come dirigente del servizio veterinario di sanità animale della ASL di Nuoro, inoltre, fa parte del gruppo di esperti comunitari del TAIEX ed è consulente tecnico della FAO.

  17. 小型精密FOG IMU的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳典豪; 陈宏

    2004-01-01

    Raytheon最近研制出一种用于F/A18,能够为GPS制导武器,如JDMA和JSOW,提供远距离精确目标信息的先进瞄准前视红外(ATFLIR)系统(AN/ASQ228)。达到远距离瞄准这些武器所要求的精度需要研制一种能够提供精确瞄准线的小型精密惯性测量装置(IMU)。IMU使用速度/位置匹配方法与飞机上的GPS/惯性系统进行传递对准,要求IMU漂移率非常低,这样在直飞和平飞过程中瞄准线的漂移最小。本文将讨论Raytheon的设计和比较及IMU制造商Fibersense(光纤传感)生产的小型光纤陀螺(FOG)IMU。它重3.5磅,在战斗机飞行环境下漂移率远远小于0.1°/h。

  18. Engineering a visual system for seeing through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, J.; Pavel, M.; Ahumada, A.; Sweet, B.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the requirements for on-board aircraft sensor systems that would allow pilots to 'see through' poor weather, especially fog, and land and rollout aircraft under conditions that currently cause flight cancellations and airport closures. Three visual aspects of landing and rollout are distinguished: guidance, hazard detection and hazard recognition. The visual features which support the tasks are discussed. Three broad categories of sensor technology are examined: passive millimeter wave (PMMW), imaging radar, and passive infrared (IR). PMMW and imaging radar exhibit good weather penetration, but poor spatial and temporal resolution. Imaging radar exhibits good weather penetration, but typically relies on a flat-earth assumption which can lead to interpretive errors. PMMW systems have a narrow field of view. IR has poorer weather penetration but good spatial resolution. We recommend using both millimeter-wave and infrared sensor systems, blending the images using multiresolution digital-image pyramid-processing technology, and fusing the resulting real-time images with stored database imagery of the same scene.

  19. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renyi; Gomez, Mario E.; Yang, Lingxiao; Levy Zamora, Misti; Hu, Min; Lin, Yun; Peng, Jianfei; Guo, Song; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Jianjun; Cheng, Chunlei; Hu, Tafeng; Ren, Yanqin; Wang, Yuesi; Gao, Jian; Cao, Junji; An, Zhisheng; Zhou, Weijian; Li, Guohui; Wang, Jiayuan; Tian, Pengfei; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie; Secrest, Jeremiah; Du, Zhuofei; Zheng, Jing; Shang, Dongjie; Zeng, Limin; Shao, Min; Wang, Weigang; Huang, Yao; Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Yujiao; Li, Yixin; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Cai, Li; Cheng, Yuting; Ji, Yuemeng; Zhang, Fang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Liss, Peter S.; Duce, Robert A.; Kolb, Charles E.; Molina, Mario J.

    2016-11-01

    Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.

  20. Possible ground fog detection from SLI imagery of Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Christina L; Moores, John E

    2016-01-01

    Titan, with its thick, nitrogen-dominated atmosphere, has been seen from satellite and terrestrial observations to harbour methane clouds. To investigate whether atmospheric features such as clouds could also be visible from the surface of Titan, data taken with the Side Looking Imager (SLI) on-board the Huygens probe after landing have been analysed to identify any potential atmospheric features. In total, 82 SLI images were calibrated, processed and examined for features. The calibrated images show a smooth vertical radiance gradient across the images, with no other discernible features. After mean-frame subtraction, six images contained an extended, horizontal feature that had a radiance value that lay outside the 95% confidence limit of the predicted radiance when compared to regions higher and lower in the images. The change in optical depth of these features were found to be between 0.005 and 0.014. It is considered that these features most likely originate from the presence of a fog bank close to the h...

  1. Clearing the Cosmic Fog - The Most Distant Galaxy Ever Measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A European team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) has measured the distance to the most remote galaxy so far. By carefully analysing the very faint glow of the galaxy they have found that they are seeing it when the Universe was only about 600 million years old (a redshift of 8.6). These are the first confirmed observations of a galaxy whose light is clearing the opaque hydrogen fog that filled the cosmos at this early time. The results were presented at an online press conference with the scientists on 19 October 2010, and will appear in the 21 October issue of the journal Nature. "Using the ESO Very Large Telescope we have confirmed that a galaxy spotted earlier using Hubble is the most remote object identified so far in the Universe" [1], says Matt Lehnert (Observatoire de Paris) who is lead author of the paper reporting the results. "The power of the VLT and its SINFONI spectrograph allows us to actually measure the distance to this very faint galaxy and we find that we are seeing it when the Universe was less than 600 million years old." Studying these first galaxies is extremely difficult. By the time that their initially brilliant light gets to Earth they appear very faint and small. Furthermore, this dim light falls mostly in the infrared part of the spectrum because its wavelength has been stretched by the expansion of the Universe - an effect known as redshift. To make matters worse, at this early time, less than a billion years after the Big Bang, the Universe was not fully transparent and much of it was filled with a hydrogen fog that absorbed the fierce ultraviolet light from young galaxies. The period when the fog was still being cleared by this ultraviolet light is known as the era of reionisation [2]. Despite these challenges the new Wide Field Camera 3 on the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope discovered several robust candidate objects in 2009 [3] that were thought to be galaxies shining in the era of reionisation. Confirming the

  2. Optical Thickness and Effective Radius Retrievals of Low Stratus and Fog from MTSAT Daytime Data as a Prerequisite for Yellow Sea Fog Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational nowcasting techniques for sea fog over the Yellow Sea rely on data from weather satellites because ground-based observations are hardly available. While there are several algorithms for detecting low stratus (LST that are applicable to geostationary weather satellite data, sea fog retrieval is more complicated. These schemes mostly need ancillary data such as Cloud Optical Thickness (COT and Droplet Effective Radius (DER. To retrieve the necessary parameters for sea fog detection over the Yellow Sea, the Comprehensive Analysis Program for Cloud Optical Measurement (CAPCOM scheme developed by Kawamoto et al. (2001 was adapted to the Japanese Multifunctional Transport Satellites (MTSAT system-Japanese Advanced Meteorological Imager (JAMI. COT and DER values were then retrieved for 64 cases over the Yellow Sea (= 85,000 LST pixels and compared with the COT and DER products from the MYD06/MOD06, CAPCOM-MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and CloudSat (cloud radar. Results showed that the COT and DER values retrieved from JAMI were satisfactory. The MTSAT-2 JAMI data delivered better COT values than the MTSAT-1R JAMI data, due to the re-calibration of MTSAT-2 JAMI’s visible (VIS band in 2011. Similarly, improvements were seen in DER retrieval, even though the VIS re-calibration primarily affects COT retrieval. By comparing the difference in stratus thickness calculated by MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2, the COT and DER retrieved from MTSAT-2 JAMI can be used in ground fog retrieval schemes. These values exhibit less bias, especially in cases involving high cloud top and thin cloud thickness. Both the COT and DER retrievals from MTSAT-2 JAMI offer potential as reliable parameters for Yellow Sea fog detection.

  3. Water and sanitation in schools: a systematic review of the health and educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Christian; Le, Thanh-Tam; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children's health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  4. Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature on the effects of water and sanitation in schools was performed. The goal was to characterize the impacts of water and sanitation inadequacies in the academic environment. Published peer reviewed literature was screened and articles that documented the provision of water and sanitation at schools were considered. Forty-one peer-reviewed papers met the criteria of exploring the effects of the availability of water and/or sanitation facilities in educational establishments. Chosen studies were divided into six fields based on their specific foci: water for drinking, water for handwashing, water for drinking and handwashing, water for sanitation, sanitation for menstruation and combined water and sanitation. The studies provide evidence for an increase in water intake with increased provision of water and increased access to water facilities. Articles also report an increase in absenteeism from schools in developing countries during menses due to inadequate sanitation facilities. Lastly, there is a reported decrease in diarrheal and gastrointestinal diseases with increased access to adequate sanitation facilities in schools. Ensuring ready access to safe drinking water, and hygienic toilets that offer privacy to users has great potential to beneficially impact children’s health. Additional studies that examine the relationship between sanitation provisions in schools are needed to more adequately characterize the impact of water and sanitation on educational achievements.

  5. Towards “Sustainable” Sanitation: Challenges and Opportunities in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While sanitation is fundamental for health and wellbeing, cities of all sizes face growing challenges in providing safe, affordable and functional sanitation systems that are also sustainable. Factors such as limited political will, inadequate technical, financial and institutional capacities and failure to integrate safe sanitation systems into broader urban development have led to a persistence of unsustainable systems and missed opportunities to tackle overlapping and interacting urban challenges. This paper reviews challenges associated with providing sanitation systems in urban areas and explores ways to promote sustainable sanitation in cities. It focuses on opportunities to stimulate sustainable sanitation approaches from a resource recovery perspective, generating added value to society while protecting human and ecosystem health. We show how, if integrated within urban development, sustainable sanitation has great potential to catalyse action and contribute to multiple sustainable development goals.

  6. Apaf-1-deficient fog mouse cell apoptosis involves hypopolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane,ATP depletion and citrate accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iyoko Katoh; Shingo Sato; Nahoko Fukunishi; Hiroki Yoshida; Takasuke Imai; Shun-ichi Kurata

    2008-01-01

    To explore how the intrinsic apoptosis pathway is controlled in the spontaneous fog (forebrain overgrowth) mutant mice with an Apaf1 splicing deficiency,we examined spleen and bone marrow cells from Apaf1+/+(+/+) and Apaf1fog/fog (fog/fog) mice for initiator caspase-9 activation by cellular stresses.When the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (△Ψm) was disrupted by staurosporine,+/+ cells but not fog/fog cells activated caspase-9 to cause apoptosis,indicating the lack of apoptosomc (apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (Apaf-1)/cytochrome c/(d)ATP/procaspase-9) function in fog/fog cells.However,when a marginal (~20%) decrease in △Ψm was caused by hydrogen peroxide (0.1 mM),peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholinosydnonimine (0.1 mM) and UV-C irradiation (20 J/m2),both +/+ and fog/fog cells triggeredprocaspase-9 auto-processing and its downstream cascade activation.Supporting our previous results,procaspase-9 pre-existing in the mitochondria induced its auto-processing before the cytosolic caspase activation regardless of the geuotypes.Cellular ATP concentration significantly decreased under the hypoactive AΨm condition.Furthermore,we detected accumulation of citrate,a kosmotrope known to facilitate procaspase-9 dimerization,probably due to a feedback control of the Krebs cycle by the electron transfer system.Thus,mitochondrial in situ caspase-9 activation may be caused by the major metabolic reactions in response to physiological stresses,which may represent a mode of Apaf-1-independent apoptosis hypothesized from recent genetic studies.

  7. Fog Collection Pilot Project (FCPP) in the Eastern Escarpments of Eritrea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherezghiher, T.

    2010-07-01

    Eritrea is water scarce country that relies heavily on underground water reserve and more than 80% of the rural population does not have access to safe and clean drinking water. In the rural areas, shallow hand dug wells are the primary sources of water and in most cases their discharge rate is deteriorating due to the recurrent drought. Particularly, in the targeted project areas underground water reserve is hard to find due to the steep topography. However, in these parts of Eritrea one will find a sector of mountains, about 700 km long, where the wind transports moist air from the Red Sea forming fog on the highlands. The area of the FCPP is the region of Maakel, near the villages Nefasit and Arborobu. The overall objective of his FCPP was to provide supplementary water supply system from large fog collectors (LFCs) in order to increase access to safe and clean drinking water in the targeted Schools and surrounding villages. Communities and students were organized to participate in the implementation of the project. Forty LFCs were established in all the targeted areas in previously evaluated potential locations. The project was implemented by Vision Eritrea, a National NGO in partnership with the country's' Water Resource Department; Fog Quest a Canadian NGO and Water Foundation, a German NGO, who also funded the project. The FCPP focused on introducing a new innovative water harvesting technology which is a crucial element for the survival of the people in the mountainous escarpment of the country; and with prospect of locally owned solutions for a sustainable management of and access to natural resource. Preliminary evaluation of the project showed that there was a good production of fog water, with an average of 6-8 litters/m2/day on the low intensity of fog and from 12 -18 litters on the high fog intensity. A functional water committee was established and trained on water management and maintenance of the LFC. They also developed water bylaw by which the

  8. Retrieving fog liquid water content using a new 94 GHz FMCW cloud radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, F.; Thies, B.; Bendix, J.

    2010-07-01

    The vertical distribution of the liquid water content (LWC) in fog and low stratus is a critical microphysical parameter since it essentially influences the interaction between these low level clouds and the solar and terrestrial radiation. Despite of this importance there are only few investigations concerning LWC-profiles during fog events, which are mainly restricted to balloon borne measurements and suffer from a low temporal resolution. Therefore, no continuous records covering the whole life cycle of fog events can be provided for climatology studies. A new ground based frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) cloud radar has the po-tential to fill this lack of knowledge. Working at a frequency of 94 GHz (wavelength 3 mm) it is ideal for monitoring low level water clouds. The radar can detect clouds at a minimum height range of ~30 m and provides a vertical resolution of 4m: This offers the potential to retrieve detailed vertical structures of fog and low stratus. The reconstruction of the LWC-profile can be accomplished due to the close relationship be-tween the cloud LWC and the detected radar reflectivity. However, this relationship depends strongly on the drop size distribution within the cloud. The strength of the radar reflectivity is related to the sixth power of the drop size distribution and the LWC is related to the latter by the third power. Former studies yielded the existence of different fog evolutionary stages with characteristical drop size distributions. In order to explore the effect of the different drop size distribution on the relationship between the radar reflectivity and the LWC we conducted radiative transfer calculations with characteristical drop size distributions and LWC-profiles taken from the literature. For this purpose we adapted the radiative transfer model (RTM) QuickBeam developed for the Cloudsat satellite to our ground based microwave radar. Beside the adaptation to the verti-cal resolution of the ground based cloud

  9. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  10. CONSIDERATIONS OF THE FOG REGIME IN THE AIRPORTS AREA FROM MOLDAVIA TERRITORY (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHIDON DANA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the airports area where the possibility of frequent mists and lasting fog exist, there is a risk that the aviation activity shut down for hours and sometimes for days. The paper is based primarily on the factual material represented by continually measured data during the 1961-2012 period by the weather stations witch are located in Iaşi, Bacău and Suceava airports area. Of all the airports located on the Moldova territory, the Iasi airport have lowest risk of occurrence of fog (33 days/year, and the opposite, with the highest number of days with fog, is Bacău airport (57 days/year. Annual average duration of fog case is between 5.4 hours at Iași and 8.3 hours at Suceava. In all that three airports, calculations based on long sequences of observations (1961 - 2012 have indicated that the annual number of days with fog presents a downward trend, more pronounced in Bacău and Suceava airports.

  11. The fog-3 gene and regulation of cell fate in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R.; Kimble, J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the same interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Chemical characterization of fog and rain water collected at the eastern Andes cordillera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beiderwieden

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During a three month period in 2003 and 2004, the chemistry of fog and rainwater were studied at the 'El Tiro' site in a tropical mountain forest ecosystem in Ecuador, South America. The fogwater samples were collected using a passive fog collector, and for the rain water, a standard rain sampler was employed. For all samples, electric conductivity, pH, and the concentrations of NH4+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl−, NO3−, PO43−, and SO42− were measured. For each fog sample, a 5 day back trajectory was calculated by the use of the HYSPLIT model. Two types of trajectories occurred. One type was characterized by advection of air masses from the East over the Amazonian basin, the other trajectory arrived one from the West after significant travel time over the Pacific Ocean. We found considerably higher ion concentrations in fogwater samples than in rain samples. Median pH values are 4.58 for fog water, and 5.26 for the rain samples, respectively. The median electric conductivity was 23 μS cm−1 for the fog and 6 μS cm−1 for the rain. The continent samples exhibit higher concentrations of most ions as compared to the pacific samples, but these differences could not be detected statistically.

  13. Brain "fog," inflammation and obesity : key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoharis Constantin Theoharides

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain fog is a constellation of symptoms that include reduced cognition, inability to concentrate and multitask, as well as loss of short and long term memory. Brain fog characterizes patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, celiac disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, mastocytosis and postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS, as well as minimal cognitive impairment, an early clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain fog may be due to inflammatory molecules, including adipocytokines and histamine released from mast cells (MCs further stimulating microglia activation, and causing focal brain inflammation. Recent reviews have described the potential use of natural flavonoids for the treatment of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The flavone luteolin has numerous useful actions that include: anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, microglia inhibition, neuroprotection, and memory increase. A liposomal luteolin formulation in olive fruit extract improved attention in children with ASDs and brain fog in mastocytosis patients. Methylated luteolin analogues with increased activity and better bioavailability could be developed into effective treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders and brain fog.

  14. Comparison of advection and steam fogs: From direct observation over the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Ki-Young; Ha, Kyung-Ja; Mahrt, Larry; Shim, Jae-Seol

    2010-11-01

    Sea fog occurs frequently over the Yellow Sea in spring and summer, which causes costly or even catastrophic events including property damage, marine accidents, public health and financial losses. Case studies of advection and steam fogs using direct observation over the sea are constructed to better understand their formation, evolution and dissipation. A southerly wind supplies moisture to initiate advection fog events (AFs). Approximately -100 to -200 W m-2 of latent heat flux and -70 W m-2 of sensible heat flux during mature AFs are characterized with stable stratification which maintains dense fog by limiting downward mixing of dryer air. Steam fogs (SFs) develop from flow of cold air over warmer water, but are normally of limited persistence. During the SFs, a northerly wind decreases the air temperature below the sea surface temperature, which increases the relative humidity through evaporation from the warmer ocean. During mature SF, 360 W m-2 of latent heat flux and 150 W m-2 of sensible heat flux are characterized with neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions. The increase in wind speed and wind shear mixes dry air downward to the surface and limits the duration of the SF.

  15. Fog as a Potential Indicator of a Local Water Source in Valles Marineris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cecilia W. S.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2016-10-01

    Images from Mars Express suggest that water ice fog may be present in Valles Marineris while absent from the surrounding plateau. Using a regional atmospheric model, we investigate planetary boundary layer processes and discuss the implications of these potential water ice fog. Results from our simulations show that the temperature inside Valles Marineris appears warmer relative to the plateaus outside at all times of day. From the modeled temperatures, we calculate saturation vapor pressures and saturation mixing to determine the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere for cloud formation. For a well-mixed atmosphere, saturated conditions in the canyon imply supersaturated conditions outside the canyon where it is colder. Consequently, low clouds should be everywhere. This is generally not the case. Based on potential fog observations inside the canyon, if we assume the plateau is just sub-saturated, and the canyon bottom is just saturated, the resulting difference in mixing ratios represents the minimum amount of vapor required for the atmosphere to be saturated, and for potential fog to form. Under these conditions, we determined that the air inside the canyon would require a 4-7 times enrichment in water vapor at saturation compared to outside the canyon. This suggests a local source of water vapor is required to explain water ice fog appearing within the confines of Valles Marineris on Mars.

  16. Observation of sandhill cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Suarez, Manuel J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Lutes, Jim; Woyczik, Wendy; Krapfl, Jon; Sojda, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of birds flying in low visibility conditions remain poorly understood. We had the opportunity to monitor Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) flying in heavy fog with very low visibility during a comprehensive landscape use study of refuging cranes in the Horicon Marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. As part of the study, we recorded flight patterns of cranes with a portable marine radar at various locations and times of day, and visually counted cranes as they departed the roost in the morning. We compared flight patterns during a fog event with those recorded during clear conditions. In good visibility, cranes usually departed the night roost shortly after sunrise and flew in relatively straight paths toward foraging areas. In fog, cranes departed the roost later in the day, did not venture far from the roost, engaged in significantly more circling flight, and returned to the roost site rather than proceeding to foraging areas. We also noted that compared to mornings with good visibility, cranes flying in fog called more frequently than usual. The only time in this 2-year study that observers heard young of the year calling was during the fog event. The observed behavior of cranes circling and lingering in an area while flying in poor visibility conditions suggests that such situations may increase chances of colliding with natural or anthropogenic obstacles in the vicinity.

  17. Channel modeling and performance evaluation of FSO communication systems in fog

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Free space optical (FSO) communication has become more exciting during the last decade. It has unregulated spectrum with a huge capacity compared to its radio frequency (RF) counterpart. Although FSO has many applications that cover indoor and outdoor environments, its widespread is humped by weather effects. Fog is classified as an extreme weather impairment that may cause link drop. Foggy channel modeling and characterization is necessary to analyze the system performance. In this paper, we first address the statistical behavior of the foggy channel based on a set of literature experimental data and develop a probability distribution function (PDF) model for fog attenuation. We then exploit our PDF model to derive closed form expressions and evaluate the system performance theoretically and numerically, in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and outage probability. The results show that for 10-3 outage probability and 22 dBm transmitted power, the FSO system can work over 80 m, 160 m, 310 m, and 460 m link length under dense, thick, moderate, and light fog respectively. Increasing the transmitted power will have high impact when the fog density is low. However, under very dense fog, it has almost no effect. © 2016 IEEE.

  18. A visibility improvement technique for fog images suitable for real-time application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamashita, Koichi; Ito, Takashi; Matoba, Narihiro; Kuno, Tetsuya; Sugiura, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    Cameras used in outdoor scenes require high visibility performance under various environmental conditions. We present a visibility improvement technique which can improve the visibility of images captured in bad weather such as fog and haze, and also applicable to real-time processing in surveillance cameras and vehicle cameras. Our algorithm enhances contrast pixel by pixel according to the brightness and sharpness of neighboring pixels. In order to reduce computational costs, we preliminarily specify the adaptive functions which determine contrast gain from brightness and sharpness of neighboring pixels. We optimize these functions using the sets of fog images and examine how well they can predict the fog-degraded area using both qualitative and quantitative assessment. We demonstrate that our method can prevent excessive correction to the area without fog to suppress noise amplification in sky or shadow region, while applying powerful correction to the fog-degraded area. In comparison with other real-time oriented methods, our method can reproduce clear-day visibility while preserving gradation in shadows and highlights and also preserving naturalness of the original image. Our algorithm with low computational costs can be compactly implemented on hardware and thus applicable to wide-range of video equipments for the purpose of visibility improvement in surveillance cameras, vehicle cameras, and displays.

  19. Fog2 is required for normal diaphragm and lung development in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and other congenital diaphragmatic defects are associated with significant mortality and morbidity in neonates; however, the molecular basis of these developmental anomalies is unknown. In an analysis of E18.5 embryos derived from mice treated with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, we identified a mutation that causes pulmonary hypoplasia and abnormal diaphragmatic development. Fog2 (Zfpm2 maps within the recombinant interval carrying the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutation, and DNA sequencing of Fog2 identified a mutation in a splice donor site that generates an abnormal transcript encoding a truncated protein. Human autopsy cases with diaphragmatic defect and pulmonary hypoplasia were evaluated for mutations in FOG2. Sequence analysis revealed a de novo mutation resulting in a premature stop codon in a child who died on the first day of life secondary to severe bilateral pulmonary hypoplasia and an abnormally muscularized diaphragm. Using a phenotype-driven approach, we have established that Fog2 is required for normal diaphragm and lung development, a role that has not been previously appreciated. FOG2 is the first gene implicated in the pathogenesis of nonsyndromic human congenital diaphragmatic defects, and its necessity for pulmonary development validates the hypothesis that neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia may also have primary pulmonary developmental abnormalities.

  20. Comparative Exergoeconomic Analyses of Gas Turbine Steam Injection Cycles with and without Fogging Inlet Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Athari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of exergoeconomic analyses of a simple gas turbine cycle without a fogging system (SGT, a simple steam injection gas turbine cycle (STIG, and a steam injection gas turbine cycle with inlet fogging cooler (FSTIG. The results show that (1 a gas-turbine cycle with steam injection and simultaneous cooling has a higher power output than the other considered cycle; (2 at maximum energy efficiency conditions the gas turbine has the highest exergy efficiency of the cycle components and the lowest value of exergy efficiency is calculated for the fog cooler, where the mixing of air and water at greatly different temperatures causes the high exergy destruction; and (3 utilization of the fogging cooler in the steam injection cycle increases the exergy destruction in the combustion chamber. Furthermore, the simple gas turbine cycle is found to be more economic as its relative cost difference, total unit product cost, and exergoeconomic factors are less than those for the two other configurations. However, its efficiency and net power output are notably lower than for the gas turbine with steam injection and/or fog cooling. The total unit product cost is highest for the simple gas turbine with steam injection.

  1. Dimethyl Mercury in Seawater: a Potential Source of Monomethyl Mercury in Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coale, K. H.; Heim, W. A.; Olson, A.; Chiswell, H.; Byington, A.; Newman, A.; Bonnema, A.; Johnson, M.; Fernandez, D.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Parker, C.

    2015-12-01

    Our collaborative studies show that maritime advective fog transports monomethyl mercury (MMHg) from the oceans to land where terrestrial biota accumulate this neurotoxin to high levels. To date the source of MMHg and the mechanism of this cycling remain unknown. We show that the rate of gaseous evasion of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) is fairly large. Vertical gradients of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) from cyclonic eddies in the California Current indicate an evasive loss of this compound of over 10 pmol m-2 d-1 from these and other upwelling systems. Previous experiments, however, indicated that the rate of photolytic demethylation of DMHg to MMHg is extremely slow in seawater. In this study we performed photodemethylation experiments in both natural seawater and seawater acidified to pH = 5 (the pH of fog). These results confirm the low rates of photodemethylation of DMHg previously observed, yet also show that photodemethylation is a significant factor in the demethylation of DMHg at low pH and thus a potential source of MMHg in fog. These findings suggest photodemethylation may occur atmospherically, and may explain both the high concentrations of MMHg found in fog, and the difference in concentrations of MMHg found in fog water vs rainwater.

  2. Effects of rejuvenator seal and fog seal on performance of open-graded friction course pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A. Qureshi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An open-graded friction course (OGFC is a special-purpose surface layer of hot-mix asphalt (HMA pavement that is increasingly being used around the world. Owing to its numerous benefits, OGFC is being regularly used as a final riding surface on interstate and high-traffic expressways by different highway agencies in the United States. However, some OGFC sections have experienced premature failure due to ravelling only after 6-8 years of service life. To maintain an effective, longer service life and enhanced performance of OGFC, preventive maintenance has been considered essential. There are several approaches to maintaining OGFC, one of which is the application of a fog seal and rejuvenator seal. A fog seal can reduce ravelling and extend the service life of OGFC while a rejuvenator seal can revitalise the existing aged asphalt binder in the top OGFC layer. This research focuses on optimising the fog and rejuvenator seal application rates by evaluating their effectiveness in terms of surface friction and durability. Three types of seal material were evaluated: Pavegaard (PG and Pavepreserve (PP asphalt rejuvenators and a cationic slow-setting asphalt emulsion (CSS-1H as a fog seal. Improvement in abrasion resistance of OGFC pavement was observed on application of fog and rejuvenator seals but surface friction was reduced to some extent. Hamburg test clearly shows a trend that the medium application rate of 0.10 gallon/square yard is better in enhancing resistance to rutting/moisture susceptibility of OGFC.

  3. Examination of Microphysical Relationships and Corresponding Microphysical Processes in Warm Fogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春松; 刘延刚; 牛生杰; 赵丽娟; 于华英; 程穆宁

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the microphysical relationships of 8 dense fog events collected from a comprehensive fog observation campaign carried out at Pancheng (32.2◦N, 118.7◦E) in the Nanjing area, China in the winter of 2007 are investigated. Positive correlations are found among key microphysical properties (cloud droplet number concentration, droplet size, spectral standard deviation, and liquid water content) in each case, suggesting that the dominant processes in these fog events are likely droplet nucleation with subsequent condensational growth and/or droplet deactivation via complete evaporation of some droplets. The abrupt broadening of the fog droplet spectra indicates the occurrence of the collision-coalescence processes as well, although not dominating. The combined effects of the dominant processes and collision-coalescence on microphysical relationships are further analyzed by dividing the dataset according to visibility or autocon-version threshold in each case. The result shows that the specific relationships of number concentration to volume-mean radius and spectral standard deviation depend on the competition between the compensation of small droplets due to nucleation-condensation and the loss of small droplets due to collision-coalescence. Generally, positive correlations are found for different visibility or autoconversion threshold ranges in most cases, although negative correlations sometimes appear with lower visibility or larger autoconversion thresh-old. Therefore, the compensation of small droplets is generally stronger than the loss, which is likely related to the sufficient fog condensation nuclei in this polluted area.

  4. Environmental effects of fog oil and CS usage at the Combat Maneuver Training Center, Hohenfels, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Snyder, C.T.

    1992-03-01

    In response to environmental concerns at the Combat Maneuver Training Center (CMTC), Hohenfels, Germany, the US Army 7th Army Training Command commissioned a scientific study by Argonne National Laboratory to investigate specific issues. The study involved three parts: (1) a field study to determine if fog oil and CS (a compound named after its discoverers, B.B. Carson and R.W. Stoughton) were accumulating in the CMTC environment, (2) a screening of selected soil samples for the presence of US Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants, and (3) a literature review of the health effects of fog oil and CS, as well as a review of training practices at CMTC. No fog oil or fog oil degradation products were detected in any soil, sediment, or vegetation sample collected at CMTC. Trace quantities of one or more priority pollutants were tentatively detected in three of eight soil and sediment samples. However, the priority pollutant concentrations are so low that they pose no environmental or health hazards. No evidence of widespread or significant contamination in the training areas was found. Crucial data needed to fully evaluate both acute and chronic health effects of civilian exposures to CS at CMTC are not available. On the basis of the available literature, long-ten-n health effects in the civilian population near CMTC that could result from the use of fog oil and CS during training activities are believed to be negligible.

  5. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Waldo-Mendoza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  6. Development of a proposed standard method for assessing the efficacy of fresh produce sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Harris, L J; Ward, T E; Kajs, T M

    2001-08-01

    A series of studies was done for the purpose of developing a proposed standard method to evaluate point-of-use home sanitizers for fresh produce. Preliminary experiments were done to determine the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes after inoculation onto the surface of ripe tomatoes and drying for up to 24 h at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. Within 2 h, the initial population (6.88 log10 CFU/tomato) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by approximately 3 log10, while reductions in similar initial populations of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were approximately 1 and 0.6 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively, after 40 min and 3 h. A pilot study evaluated treatment with 200 ppm free chlorine and a prototype Fit produce wash (Fit) for their efficacy in killing a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes spot inoculated on tomatoes using the proposed inoculation and recovery procedures. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with chlorinated water, Fit, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Each tomato was then placed in a plastic bag and rinsed with 200 ml of sterile water by vigorously agitating for 30 s to simulate a procedure consumers might use for sanitizing and rinsing produce in a home setting. Each tomato was transferred to a second bag, and 20 ml of sterile 0.1% peptone was added; tomatoes were rubbed by hand for 40 s. Populations of Salmonella or L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and the 0.1% peptone wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit resulted in > or = 3.07 and > 6.83 log10 reductions, respectively, in Salmonella. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and Fit reduced the number of L. monocytogenes by > or = 3.33 and > or = 4.96 log10 CFU/tomato, respectively. The proposed standard method for testing the efficacy of point-of-use produce sanitizers needs to be evaluated for reproducibility of results through a larger scale series of experiments.

  7. Not just beneficiaries: fostering participation and local management capacity in the Tojquia fog-collection project, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, M.; Rojas, F.; Schemenauer, R. S.

    2010-07-01

    The largest fog collection project in the world at this time is the FogQuest project in Tojquia, in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. While much attention in the past has been devoted to developing the fog collection technology and finding and evaluating appropriate sites, there is also an opportunity in Guatemala to focus on implementation factors for long-term success in community fog-collection projects. Drawing from the themes of appropriate technology, integrated water-resource management and demand-responsive approaches, this paper details the participatory and management strategies undertaken by FogQuest in the ongoing fog collection project in Tojquia. Through a collaborative effort with the community association Mam Ma Qosquix, 30 large fog collectors are in place providing a daily average of 6000 liters of water to over 130 individuals. The current critical development, it is argued, is a discussion on the successes and ongoing challenges in gender mainstreaming, to ensure women’s participation, and capacity building, to ensure operation and maintenance capacity is built for the long term. Lessons learned include the importance of fostering trust as a precursor to collaborative effort and recognizing that an engagement will be for the long-term. True sustainability will be reached when the beneficiaries are themselves managers of a fog water collection system. By sharing our experiences we hope to encourage reflection on these important issues, which are relevant throughout the entire planning process, especially when establishing new initiatives.

  8. Approaches to promote handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low- and middle income countries: a mixed method systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Hannes, Karin; Govender, Tashlin; Naidoo, Selvan; Avau, Bert; Vande Veegaete, Axel; Musekiwa, Alfred; Lutje, Vittoria; Cargo, Margaret; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Young, Taryn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical to the survival of people and the planet. The Sustainable Development Goal 6 (i.e. ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’) addresses the issues relating to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. It is unclear which Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) promotional approach is the most effective for sanitation and hygiene behaviour change, and other outcomes le...

  9. A Review- Fog Computing and Its Role in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Pande

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fog computing extends the Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network, thus enabling a new breed of applications and services. Dening characteristics of the Fog are: a Low latency and location awareness; b Wide-spread geographical distribution; c Mobility; d Very large number of nodes, e Predominant role of wireless access, f Strong presence of streaming and real time applications, g Het-erogeneity. In this paper we argue that the above characteristics make the Fog the appropriate platform for a number of critical Internet of Things (IoT services and applications, namely, Connected Vehicle, Smart Grid , Smart Cities, and, in general, Wireless Sensors and Actuators Net-works (WSANs.

  10. A resource-sharing model based on a repeated game in fog computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of cloud computing techniques, the number of users is undergoing exponential growth. It is difficult for traditional data centers to perform many tasks in real time because of the limited bandwidth of resources. The concept of fog computing is proposed to support traditional cloud computing and to provide cloud services. In fog computing, the resource pool is composed of sporadic distributed resources that are more flexible and movable than a traditional data center. In this paper, we propose a fog computing structure and present a crowd-funding algorithm to integrate spare resources in the network. Furthermore, to encourage more resource owners to share their resources with the resource pool and to supervise the resource supporters as they actively perform their tasks, we propose an incentive mechanism in our algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed incentive mechanism can effectively reduce the SLA violation rate and accelerate the completion of tasks.

  11. A resource-sharing model based on a repeated game in fog computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Nan

    2017-03-01

    With the rapid development of cloud computing techniques, the number of users is undergoing exponential growth. It is difficult for traditional data centers to perform many tasks in real time because of the limited bandwidth of resources. The concept of fog computing is proposed to support traditional cloud computing and to provide cloud services. In fog computing, the resource pool is composed of sporadic distributed resources that are more flexible and movable than a traditional data center. In this paper, we propose a fog computing structure and present a crowd-funding algorithm to integrate spare resources in the network. Furthermore, to encourage more resource owners to share their resources with the resource pool and to supervise the resource supporters as they actively perform their tasks, we propose an incentive mechanism in our algorithm. Simulation results show that our proposed incentive mechanism can effectively reduce the SLA violation rate and accelerate the completion of tasks.

  12. The role of emission background on fog chemistry at some selected mountain tops in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godek, M.; Błaś, M.; Polkowska, Z.; Sobik, M.

    2010-07-01

    Sudety Mountains and Western Carpathians form significant orographic thresholds and airflow deformation as a consequence. Fog deposition play a dominant role within the structure of the wet deposition. Intensive development of power industry in surroundings of the mountains resulted in catastrophic ecological disaster in forest ecosystems, which became clearly visible since 1978. Air pollution concentration in Western Sudetes between 1979 and 1982 achieved the highest level ever measured in Europe and pH values of fog and precipitation below 3,8 were observed frequently. Due to this situation only in Polish part of Sudety Mountains over 13500 ha of forest have been destroyed and 92,7% of remaining conifers was classified as partially damaged. Currently pollutants emission decreases, none the less still acquires high level and cumulated effect on soil and trees reacts. Since the beginning of XXI century forest disaster proceeds in the Western Carpathians and the territorial range of disaster still continous to expand. The main goal of the project was to compare chemical structure of fog from different mountainous locations in the context of emission background and different circulation directions. There were 3 measurement points installed for collecting daily samples of fog deposition from February 2009 to January 2010. Each point has been located on the top of the mountain on the altitude range between 1200 and 1400 m a.s.l., as well as selected as a representative for wider mountainous area: Mt. Szrenica (Western Sudety Mountains), Mt. Snieznik (Eastern Sudety Mountains), Mt. Skrzyczne (Western Carpathians). They form horizontal profile from Northwest do Southeast with the lenght about 300 kilometres. Solid and liquid samples of fog were collected daily using passive fog collectors. It was established that the efficiency of fog precipitation decreases significantly from the Western Sudety Mts to the east. Solid fog deposit amounts 4 times higher volume of water at

  13. Research and implementation of digital detection method on closed loop FOG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Di; LI Xu-you; SUN Yao

    2004-01-01

    In the strapdown inertial navigation system, the Fiber Optical Gyro(FOG) must have high precision to give accurate navigation information. In this paper, a digital closed loop detection method based on the ramp wave modulating technigue is introduced. DSP and FPGA have many advantages in digital signal processing. In the design, by using DSP, a complex arithmetic operation is completed to meet the needs of closed loop control of FOG within a short time. All kinds of control signals are produced easily by FPGA, under which DSP could work properly. Combining the DSP and FPGA, the detecting method is implemented successfully. In the end, the result of test and performance is given. From the result we can conclude that the precision of FOG is improved and the noises are limited to a low level.

  14. Fluid mechanics simulation of fog formation associated with polluted atmosphere produced by energy related fuel combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Liaw, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that large quantities of atmospheric aerosols with composition SO4(-2), NO3(-1), and NH4(+1) have been detected in highly industrialized areas. Most aerosol products come from energy-related fuel combustion. Fluid mechanics simulation of both microphysical and macrophysical processes is considered in studying the time dependent evolution of the saturation spectra of condensation nuclei associated with polluted and clean atmospheres during the time periods of advection fog formation. The results demonstrate that the condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere provide more favorable conditions than condensation nuclei associated with a clean atmosphere to produce dense advection fog, and that attaining a certain degree of supersaturation is not necessarily required for the formation of advection fog having condensation nuclei associated with a polluted atmosphere.

  15. Child rights, right to water and sanitation, and human security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, Ross

    2012-06-15

    The article explores the intersection between child rights, water scarcity, sanitation, and the human security paradigm. The recognition of child rights has been advanced through the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international legal instruments, while water rights are increasingly affirmed in international law and through the historic July 2010 United Nations General Assembly resolution that strengthened the legal foundation for water security and human rights. Yet there remains a development gap in terms of child access to clean and secure water sources for basic human development needs. The human security paradigm provides a legal and humanitarian foundation for the extension of child rights related to water and sanitation. Copyright © 2012 Pink.

  16. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  17. Use of propolis in the sanitization of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2014-07-09

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  18. Improving Sanitation Project Management for Unsewered Rural Communities in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M MAHI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic potential in Morocco is limited, droughts are more frequent, resulting of climate change, and increasing water demand relating to the population growth and socio-economic development. Morocco has invested in the urban sanitation sector through the establishment of the National Liquid Sanitation Program. In rural Area, the intervention in this sector remains limited due to various constraints. In order to support the efforts of establishment of the National Rural Assainissment Program (PNAR, we conducted a case study that recommended the treatment of wastewater by an innovative process used for the first time in Morocco. We realized, first, a pilot experiment at the douar (Unstructured Village Talat Marghen within the rural Municipality of Aghouatim a few km from Marrakech. The innovative aspect of the project is managerial proposes covering the different technical aspects, management and institutional innovation, to meet the various constraints that characterize the rural areas.

  19. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui

    2011-01-01

    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  20. The toilet tripod: understanding successful sanitation in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kathleen; Louis, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Building toilets and getting people to use them is critical for public health. We deployed a political ecology approach specifically to identify the multi-scalar political, economic, and environmental factors influencing toilet adoption in rural India. The research used ethnographic and technical methods in rural villages of West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh over the period September 2012 to May 2013. The elements of successful sanitation adoption depended on three factors (i.e., toilet tripod): (1) multi-scalar political will on the part of both government and NGOs over the long term; (2) proximate social pressure, i.e., person-to-person contact between rural inhabitants and toilets; (3) political ecology, i.e., assured access to water, compatible soil type, and changing land use. This research contributes to studies of sustainable development and global public health by developing a theory and framework for successful sanitation.

  1. Designing interactive technology for crowd experiences - beyond sanitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerasawmy, Rune

    2014-01-01

    experience within interaction design. This dissertation introduces an understanding of crowd experience as a distinct type of social experiences driven by non-rational behavior. This conceptual understanding is established in the intersection between sociological crowd theory and a pragmatist perspective...... sanitization. The domain of my experimental design inquiries is at sporting events. From extensive theoretical studies and my empirical explorations I present a perspective on modern and professionalized sporting events as sanitized, where the spectator experiences and technology are being produced, controlled......This dissertation concerns the topic on designing interactive technology for crowd expe- riences. It takes the outset in the experience-oriented design approach within interaction design, exploring the research question how can we conceptually understand and design interactive technology for crowd...

  2. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feás, Xesús; Pacheco, Lazaro; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health. PMID:25007823

  3. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their he

  4. SANitation CHoice Involving Stakeholders : a participatory multi-criteria method for drainage and sanitation system selection in developing cities applied in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, van J.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: sanitation; drainage; planning; multi-criteria decision analysis; stakeholder dialogues, developing countries The poor living in slums and other unplanned urban areas in developing countries have no access to adequate drainage and sanitation provisions with grave consequences to their he

  5. The Influence of Freezing Drizzle on Wire Icing during Freezing Fog Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue; NIU Shengjie; L(U) Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    Both direct and indirect effects of freezing drizzle on ice accretion were analyzed for ten freezing drizzle events during a comprehensive ice thickness,fog,and precipitation observation campaign carried out during the winter of 2008 and 2009 at Enshi Radar Station (30°17′N,109°16′E),Hubei Province,China.The growth rate of ice thickness was 0.85 mm h-1 during the freezing drizzle period,while the rate was only 0.4 mm h-1 without sleet and freezing drizzle.The rain intensity,liquid water content (LWC),and diameter of freezing drizzle stayed at low values.The development of microphysical properties of fog was suppressed in the freezing drizzle period.A threshold diameter (Dc) was proposed to estimate the influence of freezing drizzle on different size ranges of fog droplets.Fog droplets with a diameter less than Dc would be affected slightly by freezing drizzle,while larger fog droplets would be affected significantly.Dc had a correlation with the average rain intensity,with a correlation coefficient of 0.78.The relationships among the microphysical properties of fog droplets were all positive when the effect of freezing drizzle was weak,while they became poor positive correlations,or even negative correlations during freezing drizzle period.The direct contribution of freezing drizzle to ice thickness was about 14.5%.Considering both the direct and indirect effects,we suggest that freezing drizzle could act as a “catalyst” causing serious icing conditions.

  6. Role of sea ice in air-sea exchange and its relation to sea fog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解思梅; 包澄澜; 姜德中; 邹斌

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous stereoscopic sea-ice-air comprehensive observation was conducted during the First China Arctic Expedition in summer of 1999. Based on these data, the role of sea ice in sea-air exchange was studied. The study shows that the kinds, distribution and thickness of sea ice and their variation significantly influence the air-sea heat exchange. In floating ice area, the heat momentum transferred from ocean to atmosphere is in form of latent heat; latent heat flux is closely related to floating ice concentration; if floating ice is less, the heat flux would be larger. Latent heat flux is about 21 23.6 W*m-2, which is greater than sensible heat flux. On ice field or giant floating ice, heat momentum transferred from atmosphere to sea ice or snow surface is in form of sensible heat. In the floating ice area or polynya, sea-air exchange is the most active, and also the most sensible for climate. Also this area is the most important condition for the creation of Arctic vapor fog. The heat exchange of a large-scale vapor fog process of about 500000 km2 on Aug. 21 22,1999 was calculated; the heat momentum transferred from ocean to air was about 14.8×109 kW. There are various kinds of sea fog, radiation fog, vapor fog and advection fog, forming in the Arctic Ocean in summer. One important cause is the existence of sea ice and its resultant complexity of both underlying surface and sea-air exchange.

  7. Why do households invest in sanitation in rural Benin: Health, wealth, or prestige?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elena; Günther, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Seventy percent of the rural population in sub-Saharan Africa does not use adequate sanitation facilities. In rural Benin, as much as 95% of the population does not use improved sanitation. By analyzing a representative sample of 2000 rural households, this paper explores why households remain without latrines. Our results show that wealth and latrine prices play the most decisive role for sanitation demand and ownership. At current income levels, sanitation coverage will only increase to 50% if costs for construction are reduced from currently 190 USD to 50 USD per latrine. Our analysis also suggests that previous sanitation campaigns, which were based on prestige and the allure of a modern lifestyle as motives for latrine construction, have had no success in increasing sanitation coverage. Moreover, improved public health, which is the objective of public policies promoting sanitation, will not be effective at low sanitation coverage rates. Fear at night, especially of animals, and personal harassment, are stated as the most important motivational factors for latrine ownership and the intention to build one. We therefore suggest changing the message of sanitation projects and introduce new low-cost technologies into rural markets; otherwise, marketing strategies will continue to fail in increasing sanitation demand.

  8. Peracetic acid products expand sanitizing, organic water treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Jokumsen, Alfred; Larsen, Villy J.; Henriksen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. PAA is among the few disinfectants approved for organic aquaculture

  9. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Xesús Feás; Lazaro Pacheco; Antonio Iglesias; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE) and fresh whole head (FWH) lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH) and propolis (PS), during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW) was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all case...

  10. Atmospheric pollutants in fog and rain events at the northwestern mountains of the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-González, Ricardo; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gándara, Jesús, E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Pontevedra-Pombal, Xabier, E-mail: xabier.pombal@usc.es [Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry Department, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago Campus, E15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). While the hydrosphere is the main reservoir for PAHs, the atmosphere serves as the primary route for global transport of PCBs. In this study, fog and rain samples were collected during fourteen events from September 2011 to April 2012 in the Xistral Mountains, a remote range in the NW Iberian Peninsula. PAH compounds [especially of low molecular weight (LMW)] were universally found, but mainly in the fog-water samples. The total PAH concentration in fog-water ranged from non-detected to 216 ng · L{sup −1} (mean of 45 ng · L{sup −1}), and was much higher in fall than in winter. Total PAH levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 1272 and 33 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, LMW and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Diagnostic ratio analysis (LMW PAHs/HMW PAHs) suggested that petroleum combustion was the dominant contributor to PAHs in the area. Total PCB levels in the rain and fog events varied from non-detected to 305 and 91 ng · L{sup −1} for, respectively, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms and 5–10 Cl atoms. PCBs, especially those with 5–10 Cl atoms, were found linked to rain events. The occurrence of the most volatile PCBs, PCBs with 2–3 Cl atoms, is related to wind transport from far away sources, whereas the occurrence of PCBs with 5–10 Cl atoms seems to be related with the increase of its deposition during rainfall at the end of summer and fall. The movement of this fraction of PCBs is facilitated by its binding to air-suspended particles, whose concentrations usually show an increase as the result of a prolonged period of drought in summer. - Highlights: • There is no work about both PAHs and PCBs in fog-rain events. • None of the existing works is about the case of the northwestern mountains

  11. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dueker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s−1 the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28

  12. Formation of Oxidized Organic Aerosol (OOA) through Fog Processing in the Po Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardoni, S.; Paglione, M.; Rinaldi, M.; Giulianelli, L.; Massoli, P.; Hillamo, R. E.; Carbone, S.; Lanconelli, C.; Laaksonen, A. J.; Russell, L. M.; Poluzzi, V.; Fuzzi, S.; Facchini, C.

    2014-12-01

    Aqueous phase chemistry might be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of the organic aerosol (OA) observed in the atmosphere, and could explain some of the discrepancies between OA concentration and properties predicted by models and observed in the environment. Aerosol - fog interaction and its effect on submicron aerosol properties were investigated in the Po Valley (northern Italy) during fall 2011, in the framework of the Supersite project (ARPA Emilia Romagna). Composition and physical properties of submicron aerosol were measured online by a High Resolution- Time of Flight - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS), a Soot Photometer - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS), and a Tandem Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS). Organic functional group analysis was performed off-line by Hydrogen - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) spectrometry and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Aerosol absorption, scattering, and total extinction were measured simultaneously with a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), a Nephelometer, and a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Spectrometer particle extinction monitor (CAPS PMex), respectively. Water-soluble organic carbon in fog-water was characterized off-line by HR-TOF-AMS. Fourteen distinct fog events were observed. Fog dissipation left behind an aerosol enriched in particles larger than 400 nm, typical of fog and cloud processing, and dominated by secondary species, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and oxidized OA (OOA). Source apportionment of OA allowed us to identify OOA as the difference between total OA and primary OA (hydrocarbon like OA and biomass burning OA). The formation of OOA through fog processing is proved by the correlation of OOA concentration with hydroxyl methyl sulfonate signal and by the similarity of OOA spectra with organic mass spectra obtained by re-aerosolization of fog water samples. The oxygen to carbon ratio and the hydrogen to carbon ratio of

  13. Winter fog monitoring over south asia by using multi satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Naila

    2016-07-01

    committing The South Asian region in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in particular hold about 1/6th of the world's population and is considered as one of the major hotspots of increasing atmospheric pollution. Due to growing population and globalization, South Asia is experiencing high transformations in the urban and industrial sectors. Fog is one of the meteorological/environmental phenomena which can generate significant social and economic problems especially a major havoc to air and road traffic. Meteorological stations provide information about the fog episodes only on the basis of point observation. Continuous monitoring as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution can only be possible through the use of satellite imagery. Current study focus on winter fog episodes over South Asian region using Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Level 2 terra Product and MODIS Aerosol Product and OMI Absorbing Aerosol Index. The datasets used in this study includes MODIS Corrected Reflectance RGBs are used to analyse fog situation over study area. MOD04 level 2 Collection 6 data is used to study aerosol load and distribution which are characterised using aerosol type land. In order to study the variation of ground based observations from satellite data MODIS, CALIPSO, AERONET and high volume air Sampler were used. Objectives of the study was to map the spatial extent of fog as well as monitor its causes and similarly to analyze the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over South Asia with particular focus over Indo Gangetic Plans (IGP). Current studies show an increase in AOD from past few decades over South Asia and is contributing to poor air quality in the region due to growing population, urbanization, and industrialization. Smoke and absorbing aerosol are major constituent of fog over south Asia. Furthermore, winter 2014-15 extended span of Fog was also observed over South Asia. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD) and AERONET

  14. Robot Vision to Monitor Structures in Invisible Fog Environments Using Active Imaging Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seungkyu; Park, Nakkyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Active vision is a direct visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Range-gated imaging (RGI) technique providing 2D and 3D images is one of emerging active vision technologies. The RGI technique extracts vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, objects are illuminated for ultra-short time by a high intensity illuminant and then the light reflected from objects is captured by a highly sensitive image sensor with the exposure of ultra-short time. The RGI system provides 2D and 3D image data from several images and it moreover provides clear images from invisible fog and smoke environment by using summing of time-sliced images. Nowadays, the Range-gated (RG) imaging is an emerging technology in the field of surveillance for security applications, especially in the visualization of invisible night and fog environment. Although RGI viewing was discovered in the 1960's, this technology is, nowadays, more and more applicable by virtue of the rapid development of optical and sensor technologies, such as highly sensitive imaging sensor and ultra-short pulse laser light. In contrast to passive vision systems, this technology enables operation even in harsh environments like fog and smoke. During the past decades, several applications of this technology have been applied in target recognition and in harsh environments, such as fog, underwater vision. Also, this technology has been demonstrated 3D imaging based on range-gated imaging. In this paper, a robot system to monitor structures in invisible fog environment is developed using an active range-gated imaging technique. The system consists of an ultra-short pulse laser device and a highly sensitive imaging sensor. The developed vision system is carried out to monitor objects in invisible fog environment. The experimental result of this newly approach vision system is described in this paper. To see invisible objects in fog

  15. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dueker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s−1 the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28% and fog (21% libraries. The fog and

  16. Influence of fog on stratification and turbulent fluxes over the ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lennartsson, Linda

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis a case of advection fog over the Baltic Sea is studied. The period examined is from June 5th to 7th 1995. Data is taken from the instrumented mast, situated on the island Östergarnsholm, a small and flat island without trees outside of Gotland. From the measurements among others the heat flux, relative humidity and temperature are analyzed. In the evening June 5th 1995 the fog is advected in over Östergarnsholm. This can both be seen from the increasing relative humidity and th...

  17. Persistent and Widespread Winter Haze & Fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains: A climatological perspective from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R.

    2014-12-01

    Each year during winter season (December-January), dense fog engulfs the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in southern Asia, for more than a month, disrupting daily life of millions of people inhabiting the IGP. The widespread nature of the fog is frequently visible in satellite imagery, extending over a stretch of ~1500 km; that covers parts of Pakistan, northern India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Both, haze and fog are a tightly-coupled system over the IGP, during winter months, and have been a major environmental/climatic issue since the past several decades. Trends in poor visibility suggest a significant increase in worsening air quality and foggy days over the IGP. The persistent and widespread nature of the winter haze and fog is strongly influenced by the regional meteorology during wintertime, i.e. a stable boundary layer, low temperatures, high relative humidity and light winds. The valley-type topography of the IGP, adjacent to the towering Himalaya, and high concentrations of pollution aerosols, further favors the persistence of hazy/foggy conditions. A satellite-based observational portrayal will be presented, using various cloud, aerosol and radiation datasets, to characterize the widespread nature of winter haze and fog, based on a multi-sensor assessment from MODIS, CERES, AVHRR and CALIPSO datasets. More specifically, based on these observations, we will present results on: long-term trends/variability of winter haze and fog, vertical characterization of aerosol/fog/low-clouds, as well as assessment of the direct radiative effect of the region-wide haze/fog system. Results from this work are anticipated to shed light on the overall interactions within the highly persistent and tightly-coupled haze-fog phenomena. Additionally, against the backdrop of a changing climate scenario, possible linkages between the winter-time fog cover, regional meteorology and aerosol loading will also be discussed over the IGP.

  18. Variability of SO2 in an intensive fog in North China Plain: Evidence of high solubility of SO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Xuexi Tie; Weili Lin; Junji Cao; Jiannong Quan; Liang Ran; Wanyun Xu

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in an intensive fog event between November 5 and November 8,2009,in a heavily SO2-polluted area in North China Plain (NCP),to measure SO2 and other air pollutants,liquid water content (LWC) of fog droplets,and other basic meteorological parameters.During the fog period,the concentrations of SO2 showed large variability,which was closely related to the LWC in the fogdroplets.The averaged concentration of SO2 during non-fog periods was about 25 ppbv,while during the fog period,it rapidly reduced to about 4-7 ppbv.Such large reduction of SO2 suggested that a majority of SO2 (about 70%-80%) had reverted from gas to aqueous phase on account of the high solubility of SO2 in water in the fog droplets.However,the calculated gas to aqueous phase conversion was largely underestimated by merely using the Henry's Law constant of SO2,thus suggesting that aqueous reaction of SO2 in fog droplets might play some important role in enhancing the solubility of SO2.To simplify the phenomenon,an "effective solubility coefficient" is proposed in this study.This variability of SO2 measurement during the extensive fog event provides direct evidence of oxidation of SO2 in fog droplets,thus providing important implications for better understanding of the acidity in clouds,precipitation,and fogs in NCP,now a central environmental focus in China due to its rapid economic development.

  19. Near-real time Monitoring of the widespread winter Fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains using satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, D. L.; Gautam, R.; Rizvi, S.; Singh, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The persistent and widespread winter fog impacts the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) on an annual basis, disrupting day-to-day lives of millions of people in parts of northern India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The IGP is a densely-populated region located south of the Himalaya, in the northern parts of south Asia. During the past three decades or so, associated with growing population and energy demands, the IGP has witnessed strong upward trends in air pollution, particularly leading to poor air quality in the winter months. Co-occurring with the dense haze over the IGP, severe fog episodes persist throughout the months of December and January. Building on our recent work on satellite-based detection of fog, we have further extended the detection capability towards the development of a near-real time (NRT) fog monitoring system using satellite radiances and products. Here, we use multi-spectral radiances and aerosol/cloud retrievals from Terra/Aqua MODIS data for NRT fog monitoring over the IGP for both daytime as well as nighttime. Specifically, the nighttime fog detection algorithm employs a bi-spectral brightness temperature difference technique between two spectral channels: 3.9 μm and 11 μm. Our ongoing efforts also include extending fog detection capability in NRT to geostationary satellites, for providing continuous monitoring of the onset, evolution and spatial-temporal variation of fog, as well as the geospatial integration of surface meteorological observations of visibility, relative humidity, temperature. We anticipate that the ongoing and future development of a fog monitoring system may be of particular assistance to air and rail transportation management, as well as of general interest to the public. The outputs of fog detection algorithm and related aerosol/cloud parameters are operationally disseminated via http://fogsouthasia.com/.

  20. A study on transition of stratus cloud into sea fog over the Yellow Sea near the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.; Song, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Sea fog is still the difficult issue in the numerical weather prediction even if the computation power as well as the parameterization of physics and dynamic for numerical modeling has been developed during past several decades. Numerical weather prediction for the evolution of sea fog requires the vertical high resolution and the sophisticated physics including cloud formation, turbulence and radiation. This study tries to couple 1D turbulence model with 3D regional model to solve the intrinsic deficiency of 3D regional model in terms of vertical resolution. In general, 1D turbulence model employs the vertical resolution to resolve turbulence structure within planetary boundary layer. However, horizontal advections of heat and moisture and large scale subsidence are not predicted by 1D turbulence model and therefore they should be parameterized by 3D regional model output. This study uses Parameterized FOG (PAFOG) model as 1D turbulence model and Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) as 3D regional model. In winter season, sea fog is formed over the Yellow Sea near the Korean Peninsula relatively rarely, compared with summer season. Nine of sea fogs are observed from 2002 to 2006. Prior to the formation of sea fog in winter season, stratus cloud is observed. It may imply that stratus is related to the formation of sea fog in winter season. This study tries to identify the transition mechanism of stratus into sea fog over the Yellow Sea using numerical simulation. Preliminarily, numerical simulation results in the formation of stratus within convective boundary layer, prior to the formation of sea fog. This stratus cloud is lowered into the sea surface and then sea fog is formed over the Yellow Sea near the Korean Peninsula. The lowering process of stratus cloud into the sea surface is related to turbulent effect on the bottom of stratus cloud and large scale subsidence on the stratus top. A detailed characteristic of the lowering process will be presented in the

  1. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  2. Application of time series modeling in initial alignment of strapdown fiber optic gyro (FOG) compass system%时间序列建模在光纤捷联罗经系统初始对准中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 宋镜明; 李治民; 晁代宏

    2013-01-01

    Fiber Optic Gyro (FOG) random errors seriously affect the initial alignment accuracy of strapdown FOG compass system. In order to minimize FOG random error, a method for time sequence modeling of FOG random drift was presented, and Kalman filter was built. In the process of modeling, statistical test and corresponding pretreatment of FOG drift was essential, as the estimation procedures were available only for stable, normal and zero- mean series. Model was selected by judging the characteristic of "tail off" and "cut off", and the order was determined by final prediction error (FPE) criterion. Burg algorithm based on Levinson constraints was adopted to solve the model parameters. Based on Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model, system equations and observations were established, and Kalman Filter was carried out. The experimental result shows that Kalman Filter, which bases on AR (3) model, can effectively eliminate random errors. Not only the method improves the alignment accuracy, but also shortened the alignment time.%光纤陀螺(FOG)随机漂移严重影响捷联罗经系统初始对准的精度。通过对陀螺随机漂移进行建模,然后设计合适的卡尔曼滤波器进行滤波,可以减少随机漂移。在建模过程中,首先要对光纤陀螺随机漂移数据进行平稳性,正态性和零均值检验,之后进行数据预处理。通过相关函数的特点“拖尾”或者“截尾”来进行模型识别,采用最终输出误差准则选择模型的最佳阶数,然后采取Levison关系约束的Burg算法求解模型参数。根据模型建立系统方程和观测方程,然后进行卡尔曼滤波。实验结果表明,基于AR(3)模型的卡尔曼滤波可以有效的减少随机误差。这种方法不仅可以提高初始对准精度,也可以缩短对准时间。

  3. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF THE MACRO- AND MICRO-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DENSE FOG IN THE AREA SOUTH OF THE NANLING MOUNTAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xue-jiao; WU Dui; SHI Yue-qin; TANG Hao-hua; FAN Shao-jia; HUANG Hao-hui; MAO Wei-kang; YE Yan-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Using the composite field observational data collected in the area south of the Nanling Mts. and numerical modeling, the seasonal features of dense fog and visibility, fog drop spectrum and physicalconcept of fog forming have been analyzed. The occurring frequency of low visibility(≤200 m) is very high with a mean of 24.7%, a maximum of 41.8% from the end of autumn to winter and next spring. The fog processes that occur in the area south of the Nanling Mts. in spring and winter result from the interactions of complicated micro-physical processes, the local terrain, water vapor transportation and the influencing weather system. The fog processes are arisen from advection or windward slope, which is much different from the radiation fog. Cooling condensation due to the air lifted by the local mountain plays an important role in fog formation. Windward slope of the mountain is favorable to the fog formation. Dense fog can occur at lower altitudes in the windward slope of mountain, resulting in the lower visibility. The fog is mainly of small-drop spectrum with smaller number-density than that of urban fog, and its drop spectrum has descending trend in the section of smaller diameter. The inverse relationship between fog water content and visibility is the best among several relationships of micro-variables. In addition to micro-physical processes of fog body itself, the motion of irregular climbing and crossing over hillside while the fog body is being transported by the wind are also important reasons for the fluctuation of micro-physical parameters such as fog water content.

  4. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections.

  5. Leaf-trait responses to irrigation of the endemic fog-oasis tree Myrcianthes ferreyrae: can a fog specialist benefit from regular watering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, David A; Balaguer, Luis; Mancilla, Rosa; González, Virginia; Coaguila, Daniel; Talavera, Carmelo; Villegas, Luis; Ortega, Aldo; Jiménez, Percy; Moreno, José M

    2012-01-01

    Myrcianthes ferreyrae is an endemic, endangered species, with a small number of individuals located only in hyperarid, fog-oases known as lomas along the Peruvian desert in southern Peru, where fog is the main source of water. Following centuries of severe deforestation, reforestation with this native species was conducted in the Atiquipa lomas, Arequipa-Perú. On five slopes, five 2-year-old seedlings were irrigated monthly with water trapped by raschel-mesh fog collectors, supplementing natural rainfall with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mm month(-1) from February to August 2008. We measured plant growth, increment in basal diameter, height and five leaf traits: leaf mass area (LMA), leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C), nitrogen per leaf area, total leaf carbon and stomatal density; which are indicative of the physiological changes resulting from increased water supply. Plant growth rates, estimated from the variation of either shoot basal diameter or maximum height, were highly correlated with total biomass. Only LMA and δ(13)C were higher in irrigated than in control plants, but we found no further differences among irrigation treatments. This threshold response suggests an on-off strategy fitted to exploit pulses of fog water, which are always limited in magnitude in comparison with natural rain. The absence of a differential response to increased water supply is in agreement with the low phenotypic plasticity expected in plants from very stressful environments. Our results have practical implications for reforestation projects, since irrigating with 20 mm per month is sufficient to achieve the full growth capacity of this species.

  6. Forecasting of radiation fog with a new decision support system based on automatic LIDAR-ceilometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffineur, Quentin; Haeffelin, Martial; Bravo-Aranda, Juan-Antonio; Drouin, Marc-Antoine; Casquero-Vera, Juan-Andrés; Dupont, Jean-Charles; De Backer, Hugo

    2017-04-01

    Radiation fog is the most frequent cause of surface visibility below 1 km, and is one of the most common and persistent weather hazards encountered in aviation and to nearly all forms of surface transport. Forecasting radiation fog can be difficult, a number of approaches have been used to integrate the satellite data, numerical modeling and standard surface observations. These approaches lack generally the vertical and temporal resolution, representation of boundary layer and microphysical processes. They typically do not represent accurately the activation processes of fog droplets that depend on the chemical and physical properties of the aerosols. The automatic LIDAR-ceilometer (ALC) primarily designed for cloud base height detection has greatly improved over the last years and now offers the opportunity to analyse in near real-time the backscatter signal in the boundary layer that potentially contains major information to predict radiation fog formation or not. During the preliminary stage of fog formation, the backscatter profile may be influenced by atmospheric humidity due to the presence in the atmosphere of hygroscopic aerosols that see their size increase with their moisture content inducing an increase of the backscatter magnitude. In the framework of TOPROF (COST-ACTION, http://www.toprof.imaa.cnr.it/) activities, collaboration was initiated between the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI) and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédéction Atmosphérique (SIRTA, IPSL) to develop a forward stepwise screening algorithm (PARAFOG) to help prediction of radiation fog formation. PARAFOG is a new decision support system for radiation fog forecasting based on analysis of the attenuated backscatter measured by ALCs, found at most airports, which provides information about the aerosol-particle hygroscopic growth process (Haeffelin et al., 2016). The monitoring of this hygroscopic growth process could provide useful warning to forecasters, in

  7. Simulation of fog influence on laser beam distribution in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasinek, Vladimir; Latal, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Vitasek, Jan; Witas, Karel; Hejduk, Stanislav

    2012-10-01

    Optical fibreless data networks P2P offer fast data transmissions with big transmittance from 1- 10 Gbps on a distance of 1- 6 km. Perfections of such networks are especially flexibility, rapid creation of communications. Sensitivity to atmospheric influences, necessity of light on sight belongs to disadvantages. Transmission through atmosphere be characterized by non-stationarity, inhomogeneity, the influences have random character. It means immediately that it is possible only with difficulty to project conclusions concerning to the measurement on one line upon fiberless line in another position. Contribution tackles a question of forming of the artificial hazy atmospheres, finding the statistical parameters of artificially created foggy atmospheres that could be reproduced to real environment. This work describes created laboratory apparatus powered with fog generator, heat source and ventilating fans, which allow in a controlled way to change the optical transmission inside the bounded space. Laser diode radiation at wavelength of 850 nm is transmitted into created space like this which is scanned with optical power meter after passing of artificially created turbulent vaporous environment. Changes in intensity of the passed lights are captured; the mean value and maximum deviation from the mean value are computed. In this way it is possible to change the reached specific attenuation in dB/km. Owing to turbulences it happens to deviations from the mean value, these abnormalities are characterized by the distribution function that describes the size of turbulences in time. By the help of ergodic theorem then it is possible to deduce that the distribution function of the foggy turbulences gained at continuous time evaluation has same history like the distribution function gained behind the same conditions in the setup in other times. It holds as well that these distribution functions are the same for variety of points in experimental space, provided there are

  8. Impact of Rainfall on Diarrheal Disease Risk Associated with Unimproved Water and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani,Darlene; Goldstick, Jason E.; Cevallos,William; Trueba, Gabriel; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity in areas with limited access to safe water and sanitation. As water and sanitation interventions continue to be implemented, it will be important to understand the ecological context in which they can prevent diarrhea. We conducted six serial case control studies in Ecuador to estimate the risk of diarrhea from unimproved water and sanitation and the potential for effect modification by rainfall. Unimproved water source and unimproved san...

  9. Impact Evaluation of a Large-scale Rural Sanitation Project in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Lisa; Shah, Manisha; Olivia, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sanitation and poor hygiene behavior cause a tremendous disease burden among the poor. This paper evaluates the impact of the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing project in Indonesia, where about 11 percent of children have diarrhea in any two-week period and more than 33,000 children die each year from diarrhea. The evaluation utilizes a randomized controlled trial but is un...

  10. Effect of hand sanitizer on the performance of fingermark detection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Scott; Neskoski, Melissa; Spindler, Xanthe; Lennard, Chris; Roux, Claude

    2017-03-06

    Hand sanitizers have seen a rapid increase in popularity amongst the general population and this increased use has led to the belief that hand sanitizers may have an effect on subsequent fingermark detection. Based on this hypothesis, three alcoholic and two non-alcoholic hand sanitizers were evaluated to determine the effect they had on the detection of fingermarks deposited after their use. The following fingermark detection methods were applied: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, physical developer (porous substrate); and cyanoacrylate, rhodamine 6G, magnetic powder (non-porous substrate). Comparison between hand sanitized fingermarks and non-hand sanitized fingermarks showed that the alcohol-based hand sanitizers did not result in any visible differences in fingermark quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, however, improved the quality of fingermarks developed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and ninhydrin, and marginally improved those developed with magnetic powder. Different parameters, including time since hand sanitizer application prior to fingermark deposition and age of deposited mark, were tested to determine the longevity of increased development quality. The non-alcoholic hand sanitized marks showed no decrease in quality when aged for up to two weeks. The time since sanitizer application was determined to be an important factor that affected the quality of non-alcoholic hand sanitized fingermarks. It was hypothesized that the active ingredient in non-alcoholic hand sanitizers, benzalkonium chloride, is responsible for the increase in fingermark development quality observed with amino acid reagents, while the increased moisture content present on the ridges resulted in better powdered fingermarks.

  11. Hand sanitizer-dispensing door handles increase hand hygiene compliance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiarz, Lukasz S; Savoie, Brent; McGuire, Mark; McConnell, Lauren; Nagy, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Improving rates of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) has been shown to reduce nosocomial disease. We compared the HHC for a traditional wall-mounted unit and a novel sanitizer-dispensing door handle device in a hospital inpatient ultrasound area. HHC increased 24.5%-77.1% (P sanitizer-dispensing door handle, whereas it remained unchanged for the other rooms. Technical improvements like a sanitizer-dispensing door handle can improve hospital HHC.

  12. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical isola...

  13. Comparative assessment of antimicrobial efficacy of different hand sanitizers: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhaman Mulchand Jain; Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa; Arun Suresh Dodamani; Prashanth, Vishwakarma K.; Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of four different hand sanitizers against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis as well as to assess and compare the antimicrobial effectiveness among four different hand sanitizers. Materials and Methods: The present study is an in vitro study to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy of Dettol, Lifebuoy, PureHands, and Sterillium hand sanitizers against clinical i...

  14. Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esrey, S A; Potash, J B; Roberts, L; Shiff, C

    1991-01-01

    A total of 144 studies were analysed to examine the impact of improved water supply and sanitation facilities on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma...

  15. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna R S Hulland

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60 and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes based on stress (high to low and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions. Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  16. Sanitation, Stress, and Life Stage: A Systematic Data Collection Study among Women in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Kristyna R S; Chase, Rachel P; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Biswal, Bismita; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates how inadequate access to water and sanitation is linked to psychosocial stress, especially among women, forcing them to navigate social and physical barriers during their daily sanitation routines. We examine sanitation-related psychosocial stress (SRPS) across women's reproductive lives in three distinct geographic sites (urban slums, rural villages, and rural tribal villages) in Odisha, India. We explored daily sanitation practices of adolescent, newly married, pregnant, and established adult women (n = 60) and identified stressors encountered during sanitation. Responding to structured data collection methods, women ranked seven sanitation activities (defecation, urination, menstruation, bathing, post-defecation cleaning, carrying water, and changing clothes) based on stress (high to low) and level of freedom (associated with greatest freedom to having the most restrictions). Women then identified common stressors they encountered when practicing sanitation and sorted stressors in constrained piles based on frequency and severity of each issue. The constellation of factors influencing SRPS varies by life stage and location. Overall, sanitation behaviors that were most restricted (i.e., menstruation) were the most stressful. Women in different sites encountered different stressors, and the level of perceived severity varied based on site and life stage. Understanding the influence of place and life stage on SRPS provides a nuanced understanding of sanitation, and may help identify areas for intervention.

  17. Trends in coastal Arctic fog and its influence on the surface energy balance of glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, H.; Gueye, S.Y.; van Boxel, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Breakup of sea ice causes advection and steam fog, which can be persistent over oceans and coasts but diminishes inland. Arctic warming has increased summer sea ice decline and open water exposure, affecting heat and moisture fluxes and therefore cloud formation. Cloudiness has generally increased o

  18. Microphysical Parameterization of Arctic Diamond Dust, Ice Fog, and Thin Stratus for Climate Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Girard, Eric; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    ... and entrainment are weak, like ice fogs, thin stratus, and diamond dust. The parameterization is tested into the Local Climate Model (LCM), which is the single column version of the Northern Aerosol Regional Climate Model (NARCM). NARCM is a regional model with an explicit representation of the aerosol physics and with the physics package of the Canadian Climat...

  19. FOG RISKS IN AVIATION. CASE STUDY: PLANE CRASH AT SMOLENSK (RUSSIA ON 10.04.2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞCHIOPU COSMIN-LIVIU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fog, irrespective of its forms, has a negative impact on all aviation activities. Fog severely diminishes visibility, sometimes to such an extent that landing may become impossible. Fog is a serious weather threat and hazard in aviation and may produce deadly events. One such unfortunate event took place at Smolensk (Russia, on 10.04.2010, when the presidential aircraft, which was transporting Poland’s President, together with an official delegation, to commemorate 70 years from the Katyn massacre, simply crashed down close to the Smolensk North military aerodrome, at local hour 10:41:07.The present study actually makes an inventory of the extremely hazardous flying conditions, by thoroughly analyzing the weather reports and data, as well as visual and synoptic messages or official elements and information from that very day. All these materials show that the airdrome of destination was under the influence of a very active anti-cyclonic ridge, which accounted for very poor meteorological conditions. On such severe weather, the flight was doomed since greatly reduced visibility due to dense fog made landmarks orientation almost impossible and, furthermore, created false perceptions which led to fatal misjudgements and errors.

  20. Trends in coastal Arctic fog and its influence on the surface energy balance of glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, H.; Gueye, S.Y.; van Boxel, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Breakup of sea ice causes advection and steam fog, which can be persistent over oceans and coasts but diminishes inland. Arctic warming has increased summer sea ice decline and open water exposure, affecting heat and moisture fluxes and therefore cloud formation. Cloudiness has generally increased

  1. Use of a Sodar to Improve the Forecast of Fogs and Low Clouds on Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabas, Alain; Remy, Samuel; Bergot, Thierry

    2012-05-01

    A sodar was deployed at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle airport near Paris, France, in 2008 with the aim of improving the forecast of low visibility conditions there. During the winter of 2008-2009, an experiment was conducted that showed that the sodar can effectively detect and locate the top of fog layers which is signaled by a strong peak of acoustic reflectivity. The peak is generated by turbulence activity in the inversion layer that contrasts sharply with the low reflectivity recorded in the fog layer below. A specific version of the 1D-forecast model deployed at Roissy for low visibility conditions (COBEL-ISBA) was developed in which fogs' thicknesses are initialized by the sodar measurements rather than the information derived from the down-welling IR fluxes observed on the site. It was tested on data archived during the winters of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 and compared to the version of the model presently operational. The results show a significant improvement—dissipation times of fogs are better predicted.

  2. Oak Ridge fog and drift code (ORFAD) user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVerne, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    ORFAD is a computer program written for the purpose of providing estimates of fog and drift resulting from the operation of wet cooling towers. The program uses hourly weather data from tapes. The physical and calculational models are described, and detailed instructions are given for input preparation and running the program. A program listing and sample output are appended.

  3. Ice Fog and Light Snow Measurements Using a High-Resolution Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Gultepe, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Ice fog, diamond dust, and light snow usually form over extremely cold weather conditions, and they affect both visibility and Earth's radiative energy budget. Prediction of these hydrometeors using models is difficult because of limited knowledge of the microphysical properties at the small size ranges due to measurement issues. These phenomena need to be better represented in forecast and climate models; therefore, in addition to remote sensing accurate measurements using ground-based instrumentation are required. An imaging instrument, aimed at measuring ice fog and light snow particles, has been built and is presented here. The ice crystal imaging (ICI) probe samples ice particles into a vertical, tapered inlet with an inlet flow rate of 11 L min-1. A laser beam across the vertical air flow containing the ice crystals allows for their detection by a photodetector collecting the scattered light. Detected particles are then imaged with high optical resolution. An illuminating LED flash and image capturing are triggered by the photodetector. In this work, ICI measurements collected during the fog remote sensing and modeling (FRAM) project, which took place during Winter of 2010-2011 in Yellowknife, NWT, Canada, are summarized and challenges related to measuring small ice particles are described. The majority of ice particles during the 2-month-long campaign had sizes between 300 and 800 μm. During ice fog events the size distribution measured had a lower mode diameter of 300 μm compared to the overall campaign average with mode at 500 μm.

  4. Simulating Atmospheric Free-Space Optical Propagation; Part II: Haze, Fog, and Low Clouds Attenuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Maha

    2002-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Free-Space Optics deployment is proper understanding of optical signal propagation in different atmospheric conditions. In an earlier study by the author (30), attenuation by rain was analyzed and successfully modeled for infrared signal transmission. In this paper, we focus on attenuation due to scattering by haze, fog and low clouds droplets using the original Mie Scattering theory. Relying on published experimental results on infrared propagation, electromagnetic waves scattering by spherical droplet, atmospheric physics and thermodynamics, UlmTech developed a computer-based platform, Simulight, which simulates infrared signal (750 nm-12 μm) propagation in haze, fog, low clouds, rain and clear weather. Optical signals are scattered by fog droplets during transmission in the forward direction preventing the receiver from detecting the minimum required power. Weather databases describe foggy conditions by measuring the visibility parameter, which is, in general, defined as the maximum distance that the visible 550 nm signal can travel while distinguishing between the target object and its background at 2% contrast. Extrapolating optical signal attenuations beyond 550 nm using only visibility is not as straightforward as stated by the Kruse equation which is unfortunately widely used. We conclude that it is essential to understand atmospheric droplet sizes and their distributions based on measured attenuations to effectively estimate infrared attenuation. We focus on three types of popular fogs: Evolving, Stable and Selective.

  5. Povidone-iodine surgical scrub solution prevents fogging of the scope's lens during laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhosseini, Bijan

    2010-06-01

    Easy cleaning of the scope's lens in a syringe to prevent condensation during laparoscopic surgery is a simple and good way to use antifog solution more easily during laparoscopic surgery. This report explains a more inexpensive way to overcome condensation during laparoscopic surgery. Rubbing povidone-iodine surgical scrub solution on the scope's lens prevents its fogging during laparoscopic surgery.

  6. Characterization of the conserved interaction between GATA and FOG family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kasper; Liew, Chu Kong; Matthews, Jacqueline M; Gell, David A; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P

    2002-09-20

    The N-terminal zinc finger (ZnF) from GATA transcription factors mediates interactions with FOG family proteins. In FOG proteins, the interacting domains are also ZnFs; these domains are related to classical CCHH fingers but have an His --> Cys substitution at the final zinc-ligating position. Here we demonstrate that different CCHC fingers in the FOG family protein U-shaped contact the N-terminal ZnF of GATA-1 in the same fashion although with different affinities. We also show that these interactions are of moderate affinity, which is interesting given the presumed low concentrations of these proteins in the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the variant CCHC topology enhances binding affinity, although the His --> Cys change is not essential for the formation of a stably folded domain. To ascertain the structural basis for the contribution of the CCHC arrangement, we have determined the structure of a CCHH mutant of finger nine from U-shaped. The structure is very similar overall to the wild-type domain, with subtle differences at the C terminus that result in loss of the interaction in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the CCHC zinc binding topology is required for the integrity of GATA-FOG interactions and that weak interactions can play important roles in vivo.

  7. FOG: Fighting the Achilles' Heel of Gossip Protocols with Fountain Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champel, Mary-Luc; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Le Scouarnec, Nicolas

    Gossip protocols are well known to provide reliable and robust dissemination protocols in highly dynamic systems. Yet, they suffer from high redundancy in the last phase of the dissemination. In this paper, we combine fountain codes (rateless erasure-correcting codes) together with gossip protocols for a robust and fast content dissemination in large-scale dynamic systems. The use of fountain enables to eliminate the unnecessary redundancy of gossip protocols. We propose the design of FOG, which fully exploits the first exponential growth phase (where the data is disseminated exponentially fast) of gossip protocols while avoiding the need for the shrinking phase by using fountain codes. FOG voluntarily increases the number of disseminations but limits those disseminations to the exponential growth phase. In addition, FOG creates a split-graph overlay that splits the peers between encoders and forwarders. Forwarder peers become encoders as soon as they have received the whole content. In order to benefit even further and quicker from encoders, FOG biases the dissemination towards the most advanced peers to make them complete earlier.

  8. Ecosystem properties self-organize in response to a directional fog-vegetation interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Daniel E; Armesto, Juan J; Hedin, Lars O

    2014-05-01

    Feedbacks between vegetation and resource inputs can lead to the local, self-organization of ecosystem properties. In particular, feedbacks in response to directional resources (e.g., coastal fog, slope runoff) can create complex spatial patterns, such as vegetation banding. Although similar feedbacks are thought to be involved in the development of ecosystems, clear empirical examples are rare. We created a simple model of a fog-influenced, temperate rainforest in central Chile, which allows the comparison of natural banding patterns to simulations of various putative mechanisms. We show that only feedbacks between plants and fog were able to replicate the characteristic distributions of vegetation, soil water, and soil nutrients observed in field transects. Other processes, such as rainfall, were unable to match these diagnostic distributions. Furthermore, fog interception by windward trees leads to increased downwind mortality, leading to progressive extinction of the leeward edge. This pattern of ecosystem development and decay through self-organized processes illustrates, on a relatively small spatial and temporal scale, the patterns predicted for ecosystem evolution.

  9. Secondary organic aerosol formation in cloud and fog droplets: a literature evaluation of plausibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D.; Turpin, Barbara J.

    This paper investigates the hypothesis that cloud and fog processes produce fine organic particulate matter in the atmosphere. The evidence provided suggests that cloud and fog processes could be important contributors to secondary organic aerosol formation, and the contribution of this formation pathway should be further investigated. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (1) many organic vapors present in the atmosphere are sorbed by suspended droplets and have been measured in cloud and fog water, (2) organics participate in aqueous-phase reactions, and (3) organic particulate matter is sometimes found in the size mode attributed to cloud processing (i.e. the droplet mode). Specific compounds identified as potential precursors include aldehydes (e.g. formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde), acetone, alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and phenol), monocarboxylic acids, and organic peroxides. Carboxylic acids (e.g. diacids and oxo-acids), glyoxal, esters, organosulfur compounds, polyols, amines and amino acids are potential products of cloud and fog processing.

  10. Efficient and Anisotropic Fog Harvesting on a Hybrid and Directional Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jinbo

    2016-12-05

    A straight throughout superhydrophilic track that contains high contrast and directional wettability on a superhydrophobic surface is designed. Despite droplets that tend to slide more easily along a direction parallel to the track, it is found that such hybrid strip-pattern surfaces have higher fog harvesting efficiency along a direction perpendicular to the tracks due to the larger accumulation area for droplet removal.

  11. 49 CFR 393.24 - Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.24 Requirements for head lamps, auxiliary driving lamps and front fog lamps. (a) Headlamps. Every bus, truck and truck tractor shall be equipped with headlamps as required by... specifications in FMVSS No. 108 (49 CFR 571.108), SAE J581, and SAE J583, respectively....

  12. Hematopoietic overexpression of FOG1 does not affect B-cells but reduces the number of circulating eosinophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Du Roure

    Full Text Available We have identified expression of the gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator FOG-1 (Friend of GATA-1; Zfpm1, Zinc finger protein multitype 1 in B lymphocytes. We found that FOG-1 expression is directly or indirectly dependent on the B cell-specific coactivator OBF-1 and that it is modulated during B cell development: expression is observed in early but not in late stages of B cell development. To directly test in vivo the role of FOG-1 in B lymphocytes, we developed a novel embryonic stem cell recombination system. For this, we combined homologous recombination with the FLP recombinase activity to rapidly generate embryonic stem cell lines carrying a Cre-inducible transgene at the Rosa26 locus. Using this system, we successfully generated transgenic mice where FOG-1 is conditionally overexpressed in mature B-cells or in the entire hematopoietic system. While overexpression of FOG-1 in B cells did not significantly affect B cell development or function, we found that enforced expression of FOG-1 throughout all hematopoietic lineages led to a reduction in the number of circulating eosinophils, confirming and extending to mammals the known function of FOG-1 in this lineage.

  13. A Behavior of Strobe Light in Non-Visibility (Dense Fog) Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, a strobe light was used to understand the behavior of light in an aerosol-like non-visibility environment. Fog was injected into a vinyl pleated cylindrical fog box that is 1 m in diameter and 5.5 m in length. After the fog concentration became saturated in the fog box, the strobe light was set off at regular time intervals until the fog particles almost dissipated in the box. Images of the behavior of the light from the strobe were taken from outside of the fog box with a digital camera in line with the strobe light sync signal. In the case of a DBA (or severe accident) of the nuclear power plant accident, coolant should be injected over the reactor pressure vessel to cool the reactor core. Cold coolant that has been poured into the reactor pressure vessel would be discharged through the nozzles of the core spray system or through pipelines in the fire protection system. The discharging cold coolant would impact high temperature structures with surface temperatures of around 250 .deg. C or higher, such as the reactor pressure vessel that surrounds the reactor core, and then evaporate and turn into steam. The steam cools while forming mist (aerosol including radioactivity), which can cause a sharp drop in visibility. Assuming that a robot has been deployed to manage and mitigate the DBA (or severe accident) at the nuclear power plant, the robot must perform its task in a non-visibility environment. A color CCD/CMOS camera corresponding to visible wavelength (400 - 700 nm) can be attached to the robot for observation and navigation. The camera needs lights in order to secure a clear field of view. Generally, the aperture of a lens is correlated to the intensity of illumination. The brighter the light, the smaller the aperture can be. If the aperture becomes narrower to the size of a pin hole, a clearer image in deep focus can be obtained. As the aperture decreases in the half, the required amount of light doubles. The observed behavior of the strobe

  14. EFFECTS OF FOG PRECIPITATION ON WATER RESOURCES AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE JIZERA MOUNTAINS, THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Křeček

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water yield from catchments with a high evidence of fog or low clouds could be increased by the canopy fog drip. However, in areas with the acid atmospheric deposition, this process can lead to the decline of water quality. The aim of this study is to analyze fog related processes in headwater catchments of the Jizera Mountains (the Czech Republic with special attention to water quality and the drinking water treatment. In two years (2011-2012, the fog drip was observed by twelve passive fog collectors at transect of the Jizerka experimental catchment. Methods of space interpolation and extrapolation (ArcGis 10.2 were applied to approximate the areal atmospheric deposition of fog water, sulphur and nitrogen, in catchments of the drinking water reservoirs Josefův Důl and Souš. The mean annual fog drip from vegetation canopy was found between 88 and 106 mm (i.e. 7 to 9 percent of precipitation, and 11 to 13 percent of water yield, estimated by standard rain gauge monitoring. But, the mean annual load of sulphur and nitrogen by the fog drip was 1,975 and 1,080, kilograms per square kilometre, respectively (i.e. 55 and 48 percent of total deposition of sulphur and nitrogen, registered in the bulk. The acidification of surface waters leads to rising operational costs in the water treatment plants (liming, reduce of heavy metals, more frequent control of sand filters etc.. In a catchment scale, the additional precipitation, caused by the canopy fog drip, could be controlled by the effective watershed management (support of forests stands near the native composition with presence of deciduous trees: beech, mountain ash, or birch.

  15. The relation between moisture and liquid water content in fog - an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, S.; Griessbaum, F.; Chang, S.-C.; Chu, H.-S.; Hsia, Y.-J.; Klemm, O.

    2010-07-01

    In July 2009, microphysical measurements of orographic fog were performed above a montane cloud forest in north eastern Taiwan (Chilan mountain site). At this location, orographic fog appears almost every day. The goal of this work was to study the short term variations of the droplet size distribution (DSD), temperature, and relative humidity (RH), with a temporal resolution of 3 Hz. The relative humidity was calculated from precise temperature readings and absolute humidity (AH) measurements, recorded by a temperature sensor with an accuracy of 0.002°C (Model TR-1050, RBR Ltd.) and an infrared gas analyzer (Model Li-7500, LI-COR Biosciences), respectively. DSD's were measured by an optical droplet spectrometer (Model FM100, Droplet Measurement Technologies). It provides droplet spectra between 2 and 50 µm diameter. The liquid water content (LWC) of the fog was deduced from the measured DSD's. Data showed that orographic fog is composed of various air parcels of different size, RH and DSD. Three general types of fog parcels have been identified via the recorded DSD’s. DSD-type 1 is characterized by narrow spectra with maximum concentrations in the smallest size class and a continuous decrease towards greater diameters, DSD-type 2 represents slightly broader spectra with a plateau or second peak around 10 µm, and DSD-type 3 exhibits broad spectra with the droplet number concentrations peaking around 15 µm diameter. The appearance of the three different DSD-types is strongly related to RH and the general evolutional state of the fog. At the onset of a fog event, DSD’s are largely dominated by small droplets (DSD-type 1). Later on the spectra tend to become broader, RH shows relative low values, and DSD-type 3 is dominating the DSD’s. A statistical analysis of the characteristics of these parcels was performed and yielded large variability in persistence, RH, and LWC. DSD-type 2 showed the shortest durations and can, therefore, be regarded as a transitional

  16. Physics of Fresh Produce Safety: Role of Diffusion and Tissue Reaction in Sanitization of Leafy Green Vegetables with Liquid and Gaseous Ozone-Based Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynkaryk, Mykola V; Pyatkovskyy, Taras; Mohamed, Hussein M; Yousef, Ahmed E; Sastry, Sudhir K

    2015-12-01

    Produce safety has received much recent attention, with the emphasis being largely on discovery of how microbes invade produce. However, the sanitization operation deserves more attention than it has received. The ability of a sanitizer to reach the site of pathogens is a fundamental prerequisite for efficacy. This work addresses the transport processes of ozone (gaseous and liquid) sanitizer for decontamination of leafy greens. The liquid sanitizer was ineffective against Escherichia coli K-12 in situations where air bubbles may be trapped within cavities. A model was developed for diffusion of sanitizer into the interior of produce. The reaction rate of ozone with the surface of a lettuce leaf was determined experimentally and was used in a numerical simulation to evaluate ozone concentrations within the produce and to determine the time required to reach different locations. For aqueous ozone, the penetration depth was limited to several millimeters by ozone self-decomposition due to the significant time required for diffusion. In contrast, gaseous sanitizer was able to reach a depth of 100 mm in several minutes without depletion in the absence of reaction with surfaces. However, when the ozone gas reacted with the produce surface, gas concentration was significantly affected. Simulation data were validated experimentally by measuring ozone concentrations at the bottom of a cylinder made of lettuce leaf. The microbiological test confirmed the relationship between ozone transport, its self-decomposition, reaction with surrounding materials, and the degree of inactivation of E. coli K-12. Our study shows that decontamination of fresh produce, through direct contact with the sanitizer, is more feasible with gaseous than with aqueous sanitizers. Therefore, sanitization during a high-speed washing process is effective only for decontaminating the wash water.

  17. The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for

  18. Caught in the thickness of brain fog: exploring the cognitive symptoms of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony James Ocon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS is defined as greater than 6 months of persistent fatigue that is experienced physically and cognitively. The cognitive symptoms are generally thought to be a mild cognitive impairment, but individuals with CFS subjectively describe them as brain fog. The impairment is not fully understood and often is described as slow thinking, difficulty focusing, confusion, lack of concentration, forgetfulness, or a haziness in thought processes. Causes of brain fog and mild cognitive impairment have been investigated. Possible physiological correlates may be due to the effects of chronic orthostatic intolerance in the form of the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and decreases in cerebral blood flow. In addition, fMRI studies suggest that individuals with CFS may require increased cortical and subcortical brain activation to complete difficult mental tasks. Furthermore, neurocognitive testing in CFS has demonstrated deficits in speed and efficiency of information processing, attention, concentration, and working memory. The cognitive impairments are then perceived as an exaggerated mental fatigue. As a whole, this is experienced by those with CFS as brain fog and may be viewed as the interaction of physiological, cognitive, and perceptual factors. Thus, the cognitive symptoms of CFS may be due to altered cerebral blood flow activation and regulation that are exacerbated by a stressor, such as orthostasis or a difficult mental task, resulting in the decreased ability to readily process information, which is then perceived as fatiguing and experienced as brain fog. Future research looks to further explore these interactions, how they produce cognitive impairments, and explain the perception of brain fog from a mechanistic standpoint.

  19. Severe haze episodes and seriously polluted fog water in Ji'nan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinfeng; Chen, Jianmin; Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Weijun; Yang, Lingxiao; Wen, Liang; Wang, Wenxing; Wang, Xinming; Collett, Jeffrey L; Shi, Yang; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Sui, Xiao; Sun, Xiaomin; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2014-09-15

    Haze episodes often hit urban cities in China recently. Here, we present several continuous haze episodes with extremely high PM2.5 levels that occurred over several weeks in early 2013 and extended across most parts of the northern and eastern China-far exceeding the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Particularly, the haze episode covered ~1 million km(2) on January 14, 2013 and the daily averaged PM2.5 concentration exceeded 360 μg m(-3) in Ji'nan. The observed maximum hourly PM2.5 concentration in urban Ji'nan reached 701 μg m(-3) at 7:00 am (local time) in January 30. During these haze episodes, several fog events happened and the concurrent fog water was found to be seriously polluted. For the fog water collected in Ji'nan from 10:00 pm in January 14 to 11:00 am in January 15, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the major ions with concentrations of 1.54 × 10(6), 8.98 × 10(5), and 1.75 × 10(6) μeq L(-1), respectively, leading to a low in-situ pH of 3.30. The sulfate content in the fog sample was more than 544 times as high as those observed in other areas. With examination of the simultaneously observed data on PM2.5 and its chemical composition, the fog played a role in scavenging and removing fine particles from the atmosphere during haze episodes and thus was seriously contaminated. However, the effect was not sufficient to obviously cleanse air pollution and block haze episodes.

  20. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  1. Reflections on Public Health: Captain Hart and Sanitation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-01

    This podcast consists of segments of an interview conducted by Capt. Kathleen McDuffie, CDC, with Capt. Russell Hart, a 100 year old retired sanitary engineer of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps as he reflects on his work in environmental sanitation and the development of local health departments. The interview was conducted in 2006.  Created: 10/1/2006 by Coordinating Center for Health Information and Service (CCHIS), National Center for Health Marketing (NCHM).   Date Released: 1/7/2009.

  2. Estimating the Cost and Payment for Sanitation in the Informal Settlements of Kisumu, Kenya: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiyu, Sheillah; Swilling, Mark; Rheingans, Richard; Cairncross, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu’s informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices. Our study finds that sanitation constitutes approximately 54% of the rent paid in the settlements; and dynamics such as landlords and tenants preferences, and sharing of sanitation facilities influence provision and payment for sanitation. This study contributes to general development by estimating the cost of sanitation, and further identifies barriers and opportunities for improvement including the interplay between landlords and tenants. Provision of sanitation in informal settlements is intertwined in social and economic dynamics, and development approaches should target both landlords and tenants, while also engaging various stakeholders to work together to identify affordable and appropriate sanitation technologies. PMID:28067812

  3. Evaluating the capabilities and uncertainties of droplet measurements for the fog droplet spectrometer (FM-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size spectra measurements are crucial to obtain a quantitative microphysical description of clouds and fog. However, cloud droplet size measurements are subject to various uncertainties. This work focuses on the evaluation of two key measurement uncertainties arising during cloud droplet size measurements with a conventional droplet size spectrometer (FM-100: first, we addressed the precision with which droplets can be sized with the FM-100 on the basis of Mie theory. We deduced error assumptions and proposed how to correct measured size distributions for these errors by redistributing the measured droplet size distribution using a stochastic approach. Second, based on a literature study, we derived corrections for particle losses during sampling with the FM-100. We applied both corrections to cloud droplet size spectra measured at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch for a temperature range from 0 °C to 11 °C. We show that Mie scattering led to spikes in the droplet size distributions using the default sizing procedure, while the stochastic approach reproduced the ambient size distribution adequately. A detailed analysis of the FM-100 sampling efficiency revealed that particle losses were typically below 10% for droplet diameters up to 10 μm. For larger droplets, particle losses can increase up to 90% for the largest droplets of 50 μm at ambient windspeeds below 4.4 m s−1 and even to >90% for larger angles between the instrument orientation and the wind vector (sampling angle at higher wind speeds. Comparisons of the FM-100 to other reference instruments revealed that the total liquid water content (LWC measured by the FM-100 was more sensitive to particle losses than to re-sizing based on Mie scattering, while the total number concentration was only marginally influenced by particle losses. As a consequence, for further LWC measurements with the FM-100 we strongly recommend to consider (1 the error arising due to Mie

  4. Evaluating the capabilities and uncertainties of droplet measurements for the fog droplet spectrometer (FM-100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Spiegel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Droplet size spectra measurements are crucial to obtain a quantitative microphysical description of clouds and fog. However, cloud droplet size measurements are subject to various uncertainties. This work focuses on the error analysis of two key measurement uncertainties arising during cloud droplet size measurements with a conventional droplet size spectrometer (FM-100: first, we addressed the precision with which droplets can be sized with the FM-100 on the basis of the Mie theory. We deduced error assumptions and proposed a new method on how to correct measured size distributions for these errors by redistributing the measured droplet size distribution using a stochastic approach. Second, based on a literature study, we summarized corrections for particle losses during sampling with the FM-100. We applied both corrections to cloud droplet size spectra measured at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch for a temperature range from 0 °C to 11 °C. We showed that Mie scattering led to spikes in the droplet size distributions using the default sizing procedure, while the new stochastic approach reproduced the ambient size distribution adequately. A detailed analysis of the FM-100 sampling efficiency revealed that particle losses were typically below 10% for droplet diameters up to 10 μm. For larger droplets, particle losses can increase up to 90% for the largest droplets of 50 μm at ambient wind speeds below 4.4 m s−1 and even to >90% for larger angles between the instrument orientation and the wind vector (sampling angle at higher wind speeds. Comparisons of the FM-100 to other reference instruments revealed that the total liquid water content (LWC measured by the FM-100 was more sensitive to particle losses than to re-sizing based on Mie scattering, while the total number concentration was only marginally influenced by particle losses. Consequently, for further LWC measurements with the FM-100 we strongly recommend to consider (1 the

  5. The true costs of participatory sanitation: Evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jonny; Saywell, Darren; Shields, Katherine F; Kolsky, Pete; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-12-01

    Evidence on sanitation and hygiene program costs is used for many purposes. The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate. Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory behavior-change approach that presents difficulties for cost analysis. We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia. Data collection included implementation checklists, surveys, and financial records review. Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed. Results are disaggregated by intervention, cost category, actor, geographic area, and project month. The average household size was 4.0 people in Ghana, and 5.8 people in Ethiopia. The program cost of CLTS was $30.34-$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15-$19.21 in Ethiopia. Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions. Local investments ranged from $7.93-$22.36 per household targeted in Ghana, and $2.35-$3.41 in Ethiopia. This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behavior-change intervention. The findings can be used to inform policy and finance decisions, plan program scale-up, perform cost-effectiveness and benefit studies, and compare different interventions. The costing method is applicable to other public health behavior-change programs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  7. A caracterização do risco sanitário nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Rogério Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da caracterização do risco sanitário (avaliação e gerenciamento de risco nos processos administrativos da vigilância sanitária, a partir de um estudo de caso relativo ao controle sanitário de portos, aeroportos e fronteiras. A análise de decisões tomadas no âmbito de processos sanitários permitiu evidenciar que o grau de risco é superficialmente tratado neles, inferindo-se que a caracterização do risco nos referidos processos aproxima-se mais da aplicação do senso comum do que de uma abordagem científica.

  8. Forced FOG1 expression in erythroleukemia cells: Induction of erythroid genes and repression of myelo-lymphoid transcription factor PU.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tohru; Sasaki, Katsuyuki; Saito, Kei; Hatta, Shunsuke; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Harigae, Hideo

    2017-02-16

    The transcription factor GATA-1-interacting protein Friend of GATA-1 (FOG1) is essential for proper transcriptional activation and repression of GATA-1 target genes; yet, the mechanisms by which FOG1 exerts its activating and repressing functions remain unknown. Forced FOG1 expression in human K562 erythroleukemia cells induced the expression of erythroid genes (SLC4A1, globins) but repressed that of GATA-2 and PU.1. A quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated increased GATA-1 chromatin occupancy at both FOG1-activated as well as FOG1-repressed gene loci. However, while TAL1 chromatin occupancy was significantly increased at FOG1-activated gene loci, it was significantly decreased at FOG1-repressed gene loci. When FOG1 was overexpressed in TAL1-knocked down K562 cells, FOG1-mediated activation of HBA, HBG, and SLC4A1 was significantly compromised by TAL1 knockdown, suggesting that FOG1 may require TAL1 to activate GATA-1 target genes. Promoter analysis and quantitative ChIP analysis demonstrated that FOG1-mediated transcriptional repression of PU.1 would be mediated through a GATA-binding element located at its promoter, accompanied by significantly decreased H3 acetylation at lysine 4 and 9 (K4 and K9) as well as H3K4 trimethylation. Our results provide important mechanistic insight into the role of FOG1 in the regulation of GATA-1-regulated genes and suggest that FOG1 has an important role in inducing cells to differentiate toward the erythroid lineage rather than the myelo-lymphoid one by repressing the expression of PU.1.

  9. The evolution of the right to water and sanitation: differentiating the implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.; Gupta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, the right to water has been seen mainly as implicitly subsumed under other social human and political rights. The global recognition of the need for access to sanitation services has led to formulations of a right to sanitation that emphasizes both the responsibilities of States and the

  10. Stability of nonfouling electroless nickel-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings after exposure to commercial dairy equipment sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Application of nonfouling coatings on thermal processing equipment can improve operational efficiency. However, to enable effective commercial translation, a need exists for more comprehensive studies on the stability of nonfouling coatings after exposure to different sanitizers. In the current study, the influence of different commercial dairy equipment sanitizers on the nonfouling properties of stainless steel modified with electroless Ni-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings was determined. Surface properties, such as dynamic contact angle, surface energy, surface morphology, and elemental composition, were measured before and after the coupons were exposed to the sanitizers for 168 cleaning cycles. The fouling behavior of Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel coupons after exposure was also evaluated by processing raw milk on a self-fabricated benchtop-scale plate heat exchanger. The results indicated that peroxide sanitizer had only minor effect on the Ni-PTFE-modified stainless steel surface, whereas chlorine- and iodine-based sanitizers influenced the surface properties drastically. The coupons after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide sanitizer accumulated the least amount of fouling material (4.44±0.24mg/cm(2)) compared with the coupons exposed to the other 3 sanitizers. These observations indicated that the Ni-PTFE nonfouling coating retained antifouling properties after 168 cycles of exposure to peroxide-based sanitizer, supporting their potential application as nonfouling coatings for stainless steel dairy processing equipment.

  11. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H.G.; Spiller, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can tak

  12. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  13. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  14. Innovations in sanitation for sustainable urban growth; modernized mixtures in an east african context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.; Van Vliet, B.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanisation of poverty and informality in East Africa poses a threat to public health and environmental protection, perpetuating social exclusion and inequalities, while it creates service gaps. Neither conventional on-site sanitation nor modern centralised off-site sanitation provisions are

  15. 46 CFR 166.15 - Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training for maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation... maintenance of discipline; ship sanitation; fire and lifeboat drills. All students shall be trained to obey... observed in order that proper discipline may be maintained on shipboard. They shall also be instructed...

  16. Profile of Knowledge Management, Basic Sanitation and Attitudes towards Clean and Health Community in Kupang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikmah; Ardi, Muhammad; Yahya, Mohamad; Upa, Muhamad D. Pua; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2017-01-01

    The objective of research is to describe the knowledge and attitude of basic sanitation management community in Kupang City. This type of research is a survey research using quantitative approach. Data were collected by using the instrument in the form of test knowledge of basic sanitation management and attitude questionnaire. The data was then…

  17. 9 CFR 590.516 - Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.516 Sanitizing and drying of shell eggs prior to breaking. (a) Immediately prior to breaking, all shell eggs shall be spray...

  18. Menu Planning, Food Consumption, and Sanitation Practices in Day Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Martin, Ruth E.; Lan, William Y.; Chappell, James A.; Ahmad, Mahassen

    2000-01-01

    In 102 day care centers, data were collected on nutritional content of menus, compliance with guidelines, children's food consumption, and safety/sanitation. Although menus exceeded recommended daily allowances, quantities of food were below recommendations. No menu components were consumed by more than 65% of children. Sanitation problems were…

  19. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... sanitation requirements. (a) No person shall sell, transport, offer for sale or transportation, or...

  20. 36 CFR 3.13 - What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? 3.13 Section 3.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... to the use of Marine Sanitation Devices (MSD)? (a) Discharging sewage from any vessel,...