WorldWideScience

Sample records for foer att minska

  1. Titanium dioxide. An effective additive for minimisation of alkali vaporisation; Titandioxidadditiv. En effektiv tillsats foer att minska alkalifoeraangning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Groenberg, Carola; Oehrman, Olov

    2008-10-15

    If an additive of titanium dioxide can limit the release of alkali under practical combustion conditions it may significantly reduce the ash related operational problems in real furnaces. The aim with this project is therefore to investigate if an additive of titanium dioxide could reduce the vaporisation of alkali during practical combustion conditions and determine the optimum mixing ratio between the fuel and titanium dioxide. Controlled combustion experiments with varied amounts of titanium dioxide in straw pellets were performed in a pellet burner together with sampling of particles in the flue gas (impactor and absolute filter), analysis of the flue gas composition (FTIR) and chemical analyses of the collected particles and bottom ashes (ICP, SEM/EDS, and XRD). The experimental results from this study showed that an increasing amount of titanium dioxide additive reduced the concentration of fine particles in the flue gas. The particle concentration was reduced from 241 mg/Nm3 to 163 mg/Nm3 for an optimum amount of titanium dioxide additive. Furthermore, the concentration of HCl and SO{sub 2} in the flue gas increased when the titanium dioxide was introduced to the straw pellets. Independent of titanium dioxide additive or not, no titanium was detected in the submicron particles. This indicates that titanium is a refractory element that is not vaporised during the combustion process. The chemical composition of the flue gas particles was also influenced by titanium dioxide additive. In general, the amounts of O, Na, and P were increased in the same time as the amounts of S, Cl, and K were reduced when more titanium dioxide was introduced to the straw pellets. From the particle concentration in the flue gas and the chemical composition of the fine particles, the particle bound elemental concentration of Na, P, S, Cl, and K could be estimated. From this investigation the concentration of potassium in the flue gas was reduced from 126 mg/Nm3 to 77 mg/Nm3 when more titanium dioxide was introduced to the straw pellets. However, in the same time the concentration of phosphorous was increased from 1 mg/Nm3 to 9 mg/Nm3. This result indicates that the vaporisation of potassium was reduced and phosphorous was increased from the fuel bed when titanium dioxide was introduced to the straw pellets during the combustion process. The ash that was collected in the pellet burner was defined as bottom ash in the investigation. The amount of bottom ash increased when more titanium dioxide was added to the pellets since titanium is a refractory material. The Si/K and Ca/K ratios in the bottom ash were reduced when titanium dioxide was introduced to the fuel. Since both Si and Ca are refractory elements that do not vaporise during combustion, this indicates that the vaporisation of potassium from the fuel is reduced when more titanium dioxide is introduced to the straw pellets. From the analyses of the flue gas and the bottom ash the degree of vaporised potassium from one experiment could be estimated. From the analysis of the bottom ash, 31 % of the potassium in the original fuel has been vaporised during combustion of pure straw. When titanium dioxide was introduced to the fuel the vaporisation of potassium reduced significantly and for a Ti/K ratio between 1.0-1.4 only 14-18 % of the potassium vaporised, i.e. a 50 % reduction of potassium release. From the analysis of the flue gas instead, 11.3 % of the potassium was released to the gas phase during combustion of clean straw. The degree of vaporised potassium was reduced to about 7 % for a Ti/K ratio between 1.0-1.4, i.e. a 40 % reduction of potassium release. The amount of vaporised potassium during combustion of straw was clearly reduced when titanium dioxide was introduced as additive to the fuel. This means that the potassium in the fuel reacts with the titanium in the fuel bed and form a very temperature stable compound. From the XRD investigation, the crystalline phase KTi{sub 8O16} could be found in the bottom ash. Probably, potassium is also bound in an amorphous phase containing K, Ti, Si, and O. Titanium dioxide additive could either be pure titanium dioxide that is introduced to the fuel or co-firing of a potassium rich fuel with waste wood that contains titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide (titanium white) is the most common pigment in white colour. During 1998 about 20 000 ton titanium dioxide was used as white pigment in Sweden, however not only as wood colour. An estimation of the amount of titanium containing waste wood showed that about 124 ton pure titanium is released during demolition of buildings in Sweden each year. The price for pure titanium dioxide powder varies between 17-20 SEK/kg (1 SEK approx 0.13 USD) dependent on the quality of the powder. The price for titanium dioxide additive depends on the potassium content in the fuel and optimal mixing ratio of titanium dioxide additive.

  2. Additive for reducing operational problems in waste fired grate boilers; Additiv foer att minska driftproblem vid rostfoerbraenning av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Hermansson, Sven; Liske, Jesper; Larsson, Erik; Jonsson, Torbjoern; Zhao, Dongmei

    2013-09-01

    The combustion of waste implies a risk for deposits and corrosion in different parts of the combustion facility. In recent years, research and tests have been performed in order to find ways to mitigate these problems in waste-fired plants. Most waste-fired plants in Sweden are grates whereas most of the research has been carried out in fluidized bed plants. The purpose of this project is to examine whether co-firing of sewage sludge and waste can reduce deposition and corrosion also in grate-fired boilers as has been shown in fludised beds. The objective is to determine the deposit growth and its composition as well as describing the initial corrosion attack. Representing sulphur-rich waste, elementary sulphur is also added to the waste and thereby compared with sludge as an additive. The target groups for this project are plant owners, researchers, consultants and authorities. Tests were performed in a 15 MWth waste-fired boiler with moving grate at Gaerstadverket, Tekniska Verken (Linkoeping). The boiler produces saturated steam of 17 bars and 207 deg C, and the normal fuel mixture contains of household and industry waste. The results show that co-firing with as heigh as 20 weight-% SLF (25 energy-%) was possible from an operational point of view, but the deposit rate increased especially at the two warmest positions. Generally the deposit rate was highest in the position closest to the boiler and decreased further downstream. During the tests a lot higher amount of SLF than normal was used (recommended mix is 5-10 % of SLF) this to be able to see effects of the different measures. Up to 23 weight-% of the rather moist sewage sludge was possible to fire when co-firing waste and SLF, without addition of oil. By adding sludge the deposit rate decreased but the increase upon adding SLF to ordinary waste was not totally eliminated. In the tests 'Avfall and SLF' the deposits were rich in chlorine. High concentrations of metal chlorides were found in the interface between the steel and the metal oxide. This weakens the adhesion of the oxide to the steel surface and thus increases the corrosion rate. By addition of sewage sludge or sulphur the initial corrosion was decreased on both the low-alloyed steel T22 and the stainless steel 304L; sewage sludge being a little better than sulphur. Qualitatively, the corrosion attack firing SLF was similar to that firing ordinary waste, but the attack was stronger. At material temperatures of 500 deg C and 420 deg C - corresponding to superheaters - alkali chloride corrosion dominated, while at 280 deg C - corresponding to furnace walls - a melt of KCl/ZnCl2 is likely to have accelerated the corrosion. This difference between different material temperatures was especially pronounced in the 'Avfall and the SLF' cases. Higher zinc content in the fuel can therefore increase risk of corrosion. The higher content of iron, lead, copper and zink in the ash from the SLF case corresponds to the content of SLF compared with ordinary waste. Comparing the present tests with similar tests in fludised beds, grate firing resulted in higher deposit rate on the exposed test rings. This can at least partly be attributed to the lack of empty pass in the present grate boiler and to some differences in fuel composition: more chlorine and less sulphur in the waste used in this project. However, the effect of adding sludge was similar but not as strong as in the fluidised bed tests. To summarise, the results show that co-firing SLF with sludge can be advantageous also in a grate-fired boiler. Because of the high heating value of SLF, this combination also makes it possible to add a high fraction of moist sewage sludge.

  3. Omvårdnadsåtgärder för att minska rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn 0-18 år i samband med en röntgenundersökning : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen, Nadja; Imsirovic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Att besöka en röntgenavdelning kan vara något nytt och skrämmande för många barn. Den nya miljön kan orsaka rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn. Därför är det viktigt att röntgensjuksköterskan har kunskap om barnets behov för att upplevelsen på röntgenavdelningen ska vara så bra som möjligt. Syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att beskriva omvårdnadsåtgärder för att minska rädsla, oro och ångest hos barn 0-18 år i samband med röntgenundersökning. Metod: Detta arbete är en litteraturstu...

  4. Strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. A study of some Annex 1 countries; Strategier foer att minska koldioxidutslaeppen. En studie av naagra Annex 1 laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, M.; Olofsdotter, A.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the development of carbon dioxide emissions and the energy systems in a number of countries. The analysis also includes the strategies chosen by the countries to reduce the emissions.

  5. Methodology - evaluation of strategies -and the system for taking care of spent nuclear fuel; Metodval - utvaerdering av strategier och system foer att ta hand om anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report deals with the question of how the Swedish spent nuclear fuel is to be disposed of. What are the requirements? What are the alternatives? In the main chapter of the report, an evaluation is made of the KBS-3 method compared with other strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. An appendix to the report presents in general terms how the KBS-3 method has developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. The report is one of a number of supporting documents for SKB's applications for construction and operation of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. In parallel with and as a basis for the present report, SKB has prepared the reports 'Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Principles, strategies and systems for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010a/, 'Jaemfoerelse mellan KBS-3-metoden och deponering i djupa borrhaal foer slutlig foervaring av anvaent kaernbraensle' ('Comparison between the KBS-3 method and deposition in deep boreholes for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel') /Grundfelt 2010b/ and 'Utvecklingen av KBS-3-metoden. Genomgaang av forskningsprogram, saekerhetsanalyser, myndighetsgranskningar samt SKB:s internationella forskningssamarbete' ('Development of the KBS-3 method. Review of research programmes, safety assessments, regulatory reviews and SKB's international research cooperation') /SKB 2010a/. The reports are in Swedish, but contain summaries in English. The first report is an update of the comprehensive account of alternative methods presented by SKB in 2000. The second report presents a comparison between the KBS-3 method and the Deep Boreholes concept, plus a status report on research and development in the area of Deep Boreholes. The last report describes how the KBS-3 method has been developed from the end of the 1970s up to today. It further describes how the

  6. Manuell arytmitolkning och defibrillering prehospitalt för att minska avbrott i bröstkompressioner

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Andreas; Erling, Kristofer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Todays guidelines for advanced CPR emphasize chest compressions with good quality and early defibrillation. Prehospital CPR performed by ambulance crew, an automated external defibrillator (AED) is used. The AED analyzes the heart rhythm and the performer is following the advice to chock the heart or not, given by the AED. During on-going CPR there are sequences when no chest compression is performed known as hands-off time. Hands-off time includes the time for the AED to ...

  7. Att tänka socialpsykologiskt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Inger Glavind

    Att tänka socialpsykoloskt är en introduktion till socialpsykologi. Syftet är att ge en introduktion till vad det innebär att tänka sociologisk om olika problemställningar. Boken tar upp olika tanketraditioner som vardagslivsteori, fenomenologi och symbolsk interaktionism, men hämtar också inspir...

  8. Indicators and calculation methods for monitoring policy for energy efficiency; Indikatorer och beraekningsmetoder foer att foelja upp politik foer energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency objectives can be absolute or relative. With absolute objectives the energy use of a given year should be at a certain level, for example, 80 percent of today's energy use. With a relatively objective energy use should be related to something else such as gross domestic production (GDP) or gross national income (GNI). Depending on how the goals are formulated the requirements of the policy instruments introduced to contribute to the achievement of objectives will vary. In addition to the Energy Services Directive objective (Directive 2006/32/EC) an objective has been set for the EU which means that energy consumption in 2020 will be 20 percent more efficient compared to a reference scenario. Estimates of the impact analysis of the EU Action Plan for energy efficiency 2011 indicates that the EU's energy input for energy purposes should be a maximum of 1474 Mtoe. The savings compared to the energy use reference scenario which are projected to be 1842 Mtoe will thus amount to 368 Mtoe in 2020. There are reasons to pay attention to the definition of key terms. Energy conservation and energy efficiency for example are used in a number of non synonymous ways even in EU documents. It has consequences including the interpretation of the objective. Sweden has set an objective to reduce energy intensity in terms of energy input in relation to GDP by 20 percent by the year 2020 with 2008 as base year. Sweden's intensity objective takes, unlike the EU's energy efficiency objective, account of the actual economic development. EU's energy efficiency objective is based on a forecast of the economic development. Sweden also has an objective of energy consumption per square meter of residential and commercial buildings. It should be reduced by 20 percent by 2020 and by 50 percent by 2050. Furthermore, there is a focus that energy efficiency in transport must improve in order to contribute to the environmental objective of reduced climate impact. EU's energy efficiency objective is not currently mandatory and has not yet been distributed. It is therefore also unclear how the monitoring should be done, but a starting point might be to monitor countries' contribution to the objective through a set of indicators

  9. Two-stage combustion, a new concept in reducing alkali related operational problem; Tvaastegsfoerbraenning, ett nytt koncept att minska alkalirelaterad driftproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoernhede, Anders; Hermansson, Sven; Seemann, Martin; Alamia, Alberto; Larsson, Anton; Davidsson, Kent; Niklasson, Fredrik; Atongka Tchoffor, Placid; Jones, Frida

    2012-07-01

    A possible way to reduce alkali related problems during thermal conversion of fuels into heat and power is to thermally split the fuel into a relatively alkali-lean gas stream and a relatively alkali-rich char stream. The alkali-lean gas stream could then be combusted and used for high-temperature purpose, e.g. superheating of steam. The char residue could be combusted for heating of e.g. steam tubes at inferior temperatures. The purpose of this project has been to study and demonstrate such two-stage combustion, with separation of the early devolatilization from alkali-rich fuels for steam superheating. Within the project, it has been investigated if this type of thermal conversion is thermo-economically feasible. Furthermore, it has been investigated in laboratory and pilot scale trials, which kinds of fuels, temperature levels and fuel residence times that are required to achieve a flue gas with significantly lower concentrations of alkaloids, compared to single-stage conversion. The results from the thermo-economical simulations show that it is possible to arrange the heat exchanger surfaces in a power plant for thermal two-stage conversion. Compared to traditional one-stage combustion, the electricity efficiency could be increased from 35 % to more than 38 %. However, the results from combustion, gasification and pyrolysis in lab, together with gasification trials in the Chalmers pilot plant, show that the investigated woody fuels (bark and wood pellets) do not seem to be feasible for two-stage conversion. These fuels emit alkaloids exclusively in conjunction with the devolatilization in opposite to the desired effect. On the other hand, straw is a potential fuel candidate for two-stage conversion, since straw emits alkaloids during both devolatilization and char conversion. Furthermore, the results show that increased temperature generally causes increased alkali release. From the results it is suggested that the propensity of a fuel to release alkali during devolatilization or char conversion rely on if the alkali is bound organically to the fuel or as soluble or non-soluble salts. Chemical fractionation could, therefore, possibly be used as analysis method for the suitability of a fuel to be used in two-stage conversion. Future trials and investigations of two-stage conversion for separation of a alkali-lean gas of with the devolatilization should, hence, be preceded by chemical fractionation and limited to fuels that are expected to release alkaloids during the char conversion.

  10. AT&T: "Apologies Are Not Enough."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Brinson, Susan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes AT&T's long distance service interruption in New York on September 17, 1991, as a serious threat to its corporate image. Analyzes the advertising actions taken by AT&T to restore its image. Discusses three primary strategies developed in the advertising: mortification, plans for correction, and bolstering. (HB)

  11. Att utveckla en webbapplikation för att sälja presentböcker

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att beskriva hur man utvecklar en internetbokhandel i form av enwebbapplikation samt att dokumentera erfarenheter från programutveckling. För att kompensera för konkurrenternas stordriftsfördelar valdes en inriktning mot att säljapresentböcker. Genom att leverera ett komplett paket med inslagning och personlig hälsningtillsammans med boken ska det bli möjligt att uppnå lönsamhet. Utvecklingen har skett i ett enmansprojekt och den ensamme projektmedlemmen har...

  12. Viljan till fysisk aktivitet : en intervention avsedd att stimulera ungdomar att bli fysiskt aktiva

    OpenAIRE

    Isberg, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Jenny Isberg (2009): Viljan till fysisk aktivitet – en intervention avsedd att stimulera ungdomar att bli fysiskt aktiva. Örebro Studies in Sport Sciences 6, 141 pp. Physical education (PE) at school may play an important role in the process of becoming physically active in the adolescence and in developing a physically active lifestyle. The opportunities for teachers to provide positive physical activity experiences to the student population extend regularly over the school terms. For some s...

  13. 78 FR 69878 - AT&T Corporation, a Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Notice of Affirmative... workers and former workers of AT&T Corporation, a subsidiary of AT&T Inc., Business Billing Customer Care... supplied by Business Billing Customer Care to other locations within the United States. With respect to...

  14. Capacity for management of combustible and organic wastes; Kapacitet foer att ta hand on braennbart och organiskt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Johan [Profu AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    A ban on deposition of combustible wastes will be introduced in 2002. A similar ban concerning organic wastes will be introduced in 2005. Because landfilling is the most common treatment today, we need new forms of waste treatment within a couple of years.The aim of this investigation is to map and analyse supply and demand for wastes covered by the new bans.

  15. Prerequisites for an effective use of ashes in road construction; Foerutsaettningar foer att askor kommer till anvaendning i vaegar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Moeffaert, Denis van [Scandiaconsult Sverige AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjurstroem, Henrik; Berg, Magnus [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svedberg, Bo [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this project was to compile how different EU-countries have overcome the obstacles for the use of ashes in road constructions and conclude what has to be done in Sweden. An assumption and starting point for the study is that the use of ashes is beneficial. The study is focused on other EU countries through interviews with relevant actors in Belgium, Netherlands, France, England, Finland and Denmark. The conditions in these countries vary. Netherlands and Denmark were pioneers and have today many years of experience of using ashes in road construction. At the time for this investigation there were however drawbacks - in Netherlands due to mismanagement of ashes in large road constructions and in Denmark because of the introduction of stricter regulations. Belgium and England are making efforts towards recycling of ashes although only small amounts have been used hitherto. In some regions of France, ashes are used to a vast degree, which is mainly due to a strong network of material suppliers marketing ashes together. In Finland, finally, a comprehensive program for research and development were undertaken during the 1990s. An output of this program was guidelines, which facilitate the use of ashes. Typical obstacles for the use of recycled materials in constructions in Sweden have in previous projects been identified as 1) ambiguous laws and regulations, 2) lack of experiences, 3) weak economical incentives, 4) material-related decisions are made too late in project planning and, 5) lack of methods for showing the benefits of recycling. The experiences from the studied countries confirm that points 1, 3 and partly 2 also are valid there. Lack of competence can only be reconciled by active marketing. Point 5 can be overcome by the use of environmental system analysis (ESA) in which both the road construction and alternative management (e.g. disposal) of ashes are included. This type of analyses has not been carried out in the studied countries (except a few examples in Denmark) but it is still promising to introduce ESA in Sweden dependant on the institutional situation here. A recommendation for Sweden is to formulate policies promoting the use of ashes on a regional level while clear regulations should be introduced on a practical level. Further, concepts for cooperation between different actors and quality assurances should be introduced.

  16. Controlling of processes for producing energy carriers by means of biotechnique. Reglering av processer foer att producera energibaerare med bioteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandenius, C F

    1987-01-01

    The most suitable parameter to reducing production cost is controlling of sugar content when converting sulfite lye or cellulose hydrolysate to ethanol. By keeping the sugar content low in the end product the yield and productivity are improved. A sensor for ethanol in the yeast tank has been developed and the continous analysis of glucose has been performed by means of an analyser for enzymes.

  17. Miljöfokuserade start-ups : En empirisk undersökning om nystartade företags förutsättningar att minska sin miljöpåverkan

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Daniel; Sjögren, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine what possibilities start-up companies have to work in an environmentally sustainable way, and what barriers they face in that context. The study moreover presents enabling factors which help start-ups realize opportunities and overcome barriers. To fulfill the purpose, it has been divided into two research questions, which follows: What opportunities and barriers do start-up companies, who want to work in an environmentally sustainable way, fac...

  18. Lean hos masskundanpassande producenter : Att masskundanpassa produkter effektivt

    OpenAIRE

    Makdisi, Jacob; Suddek, Nawras

    2016-01-01

    Massproduktion har varit viktigt för producerande företag genom många decennier. Massproduktionär förmågan att kunna producera och erbjuda stora volymer till låga priser. Utvecklingenav kunders efterfrågan har däremot den senaste tiden gått mot kundanpassade produkter. Priset förväntas ligga på samma nivå som massproducerade produkter. Utmaningen förföretagen är att kunna massproducera samtidigt som kunders varierande behov tillgodoses. Kundanpassning innebär att produkter utformas och produc...

  19. 78 FR 55103 - Notice of Proposed Exemption involving AT&T Inc. (Together With AT&T Inc.'s Affiliates, AT&T or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... the issues to be addressed and include a general description of the evidence to be presented at the... January 1, 2018 0.0 January 1, 2019 0.0 Total 2.975 The Applicant represents that these minimum required... unilateral right to trigger the Put Option. Settlement. At the sole election of AT&T, Inc., or any other...

  20. Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Johansson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Forskning om rektors ledarskap är omfattande, men studier som undersöker gymnasierektors arbetssituation och ledarskap är mer sällsynta. Avsikten med den föreliggande studien var att bidra till att denna kunskapslucka fylls igen. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio gymnasierektorer genomfördes med fokus på rektors arbetsuppgifter, möjlighet att planera och styra arbetet, förväntningar kring ledarskapet, samt möjlighet att utvecklas och lära i arbetet. I resultaten av den tematiska analysen framträdde fyra teman: (1 ledarskapsideal, (2 kollegialt stöd, (3 ledarskap i en förändringsbenägen organisation, och (4 begränsat utrymme för reflektion. Ett övergripande, gemensamt tema: "Ledarskapsparadox" speglar de högst varierande omständigheter och förhållanden i vardagen som en gymnasierektor ska kunna hantera, vilka också präglar resultatet av analysen. Ett något oväntat resultat var att gymnasierektor upplevde stort, eget ansvar för elevernas bästa. Studien kastar nytt ljus på gymnasierektorers ledarskap, och bidrar till ökad förståelse för vad rollen som ledare för en komplex organisation som gymnasieskolan kan innebära. Genom att knyta an till en arbetspsykologisk ledarskapsteori och formulera en arbetspsykologisk hypotes kan studien bidra till forskningen om arbetsintegrerat lärande (AIL.

  1. Mödrars upplevelser av att drabbas av postpartumdepression

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Rebecca; Pitkämäki, Kia

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Postpartumdepression (PPD) drabbar mellan 8-15% av alla kvinnor som föder barn och innebär stora påfrestningar för både modern, partnern och spädbarnet. Utvecklandet av PPD har multifaktoriella orsaker som tidigare psykiatrisk sjukdom, dåligt parförhållande och brist på socialt stöd. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av postpartumdepression. Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt där vetenskapliga artiklar motsvarande studiens syfte granskades. Samtliga a...

  2. Att vara "container" för patienten : En studie om hur sjukhuskuratorer upplever att de påverkas av det patientnära arbetet

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Oskar; Holmstedt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Sjukhuskuratorer har samtal med patienter som lider till exempel av depression, ångest eller andra besvär orsakade av psykosociala faktorer så som stress, livskriser eller alkohol. I denna studie ställdes frågan vilka effekter det patientnära arbetet kan ha för sjukhuskuratorn. Syftet var att utifrån ett emotionsteoretiskt perspektiv undersöka hur sjukhuskuratorer upplever att de påverkas av det patientnära arbetet. I studien ställdes frågan vad sjukhuskuratorer upplever att det patientnära a...

  3. Feminismens skilda erfarenheter : Problematiken att kombinera islam och feminism för muslimska kvinnor i Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Malmberg, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Till följd av att en muslimsk kvinna misshandlades i en förort till Stockholm på grund av att hon bar slöja, genomfördes den politiska manifestationen Hijabuppropet. Denna manifestation resulterade i att kvinnor uppmanades att beslöja sig i syfte att visa solidaritet för den misshandlade kvinnan, och muslimska kvinnor som en marginaliserad samhällsgrupp. Agerandet möttes med en stark kritik från bland annat den svenska kvinnorörelsen som menade att slöjan är anti-feministisk och representerar...

  4. AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) Aftermath of Antitrust. Preserving Positive Command and Control,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    carriers to provide any to~ ecommunications needed when the requirement cannot be met through any other source of supply, in time of war or emergency or In...Implementation Plan Figure VI-2. The New AT&T Logo The Implementation Plan 99 AT&T Corporate H OsJ ECommunications AM Transtech Tecihnolgies Information

  5. Possibilities for improved practice, decision support for permit applications of ash utilization in constructions; Laett att goera raett, beslutsunderlag foer miljoeproevning av askor i anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna; Johansson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Aasa; Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Combustion of solid biofuels, peat and different types of waste in Sweden for the purpose of energy production generates approximately 1.3 million tonnes of residues yearly. These have varying chemical and technical properties, depending on the type of fuel, the combustion process and the type of furnace. From a technical point of view, some of the ashes may be used for civil works. However, the Swedish Environmental Code requires that operators obtain a permit from the local environmental authorities if ashes are utilized for construction purposes. Previous studies on the application and permitting process have indicated that it can be improved, in particular both the information provided by the operators and the decision process. The stakeholders involved in the decision process have expressed that they have limited knowledge on expected environmental impacts from the utilization of ashes in civil works and that existing knowledge not is being fully applied in practice. The aim of this project was to improve the decision support for permit application of ash utilization in constructions. The goals were to - initiate and develop the discussion regarding which information should be used in the decision process - suggest the scope and content of the information to be supplied in the permit application - contribute to improved communication between different stakeholders - identify possibilities of using the knowledge obtained by research for decision support The stakeholders' (operators and environmental authorities) opinions and viewpoint on the assessment and application process were achieved through interviews. The results from the interviews were presented and discussed during a seminar. Both the interviews and the seminar provided information, but at the same time they served to initiate a discussion on permit application procedure and to increase the communication between different stakeholders. The outcomes from these activities (interviews and seminar) form the basis for the discussion in this report. The views and thoughts of the stakeholders differed greatly regarding both their previous experiences of permitting processes and their views on the preferred content of permit applications. It was therefore concluded that a general praxis is needed on the scope of the information that should be requested in an application. However, it is not possible and it is not desirable that this praxis is detailed. Instead, the general praxis needs to be complemented with separate guidelines for specific ashes and for the relevant and specified utilization of these ashes. Such guidelines need to be established and agreed upon by all the stakeholder groups involved. Suggestions are given on which aspects to be considered in the application process, based on the Swedish Environmental Code. Furthermore, improved cooperation and improved dialogue are needed between stakeholders involved in permitting processes for ash utilization. The aspects suggested need to be further elaborated and agreed upon and long term goals and strategies for ash management in Sweden should be discussed. The different stakeholders involved in the permitting process have sometimes very different starting-points and these needs to be understood by the other stakeholders in order to achieve a constructive communication. In conclusion, to obtain decisions that are based on current legislation and to achieve that through an efficient process, the demands from the authorities need to be more clearly expressed as well as good quality information needs to be provided by the operators. Finally, the different stakeholders involved in the permitting process need to discuss and agree upon goals and strategies for utilization of combustion residues

  6. SCR at bio fuels combustion - phase 2. Measures to extend catalyst life time; SCR vid biobraensleeldning - etapp 2. Aatgaerder foer att foerlaenga katalysatorns livslaengd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Bodin, Henrik; Sahlqvist, Aasa [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Khodayari, Raziyeh; Odenbrand, Ingemar [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering II

    2000-07-01

    In this project phase, the deactivation of catalysts during combustion of bio fuels, and different methods of regeneration have been investigated. The overall purpose is to improve the economic and technical possibilities to use SCR at bio fuels combustion. The two different methods for regeneration are washing with water and so called sulphation (treatment with sulphur dioxide). The results from wood fired FB-boilers show that the catalyst lose 25% (average) of the relative activity during a normal heat production season. The tendency is that a boiler with short residence time between final combustion and catalyst and/or high flame temperatures gives a faster deactivation. Such unfavourable conditions arise in FB-boilers with a large part of the combustion in freeboard/cyclone. The alkali content of the fuel (wood fuel) is of minor importance for the deactivation rate compared with the combustion conditions. The flue gas temperature within the interval 250 - 375 deg C is not an important parameter for the deactivation in the time interval 3 000 - 6 000 h. The 'new' honeycomb catalysts that were tested during phase two, BiotypA-C, evidently show different deactivation trends. The highly active BiotypC e.g. increases its activity during the first thousand hours. Calculations indicate that BiotypC at 315 deg C requires the smallest volume of catalyst over ten years of operation in order to maintain given performance. Practical consequences for downstream equipment also need to be carefully checked. Sulphation with SO{sub 2} works in the laboratory as a regeneration method for all of the tested samples. The sulphatised samples deactivation are almost comparable to a fresh sample when exposed to flue gas. About 80 % of the lost activity can be regained only by using sulphation. Plate-type catalysts gets a somewhat lower increase in activity compared to honeycomb-types, probably related to chemical rather than geometric design. High SO{sub 2}-concentration gives a quicker sulphation, but not a greater increase in activity after long time. The recommendation is to sulphatise with 500 ppm SO{sub 2} during at least 16 hours at high flue gas temperature. Since ammonium salts may give problems on downstream equipment (e.g. air preheaters) it is recommended that the ammonia dosage is closed during the sulphation. A simple model is presented for calculation of optimal procedure according to local conditions. The experiments with water washing show that the main part (65 - 80 %) of the potassium on the catalyst is washed out during 45 minutes in water. Also sulphur is washed out and must be replaced by sulphation. Some vanadium is lost (depending on type of catalyst) by washing in sulphuric acid, but not to a significant extent in water. The combination of water washing and sulphation gives about 75 - 120 % activity relative fresh samples depending on type of catalyst. Water washing combined with sulphation gives approximately 6 % higher activity at 300 deg C compared to sulphation alone, approximately 10% higher at 375 deg C (honeycomb {approx} 60% k/k{sub 0}). The advantage of washing increase by increased potassium content in the catalyst.

  7. Guidelines for calculating impacts on the Swedish environmental objectives from altered energy use; Vaegledning foer att beraekna paaverkan fraan foeraendrad energianvaendning paa de svenska miljoemaalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Ulrik

    2009-01-15

    The guidelines in this report have been developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, within a project financed by the Environmental Objectives Council, the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The idea originated from an earlier project for the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, where the potential of a business model for energy efficiency (Energy Performance Contracting, EPC) to contribute to fulfil the national environmental objectives was studied. When environmental impacts from the studied EPC projects was to be calculated, it was evident how many difficult methodological choices one is faced with when trying to follow up the environmental impacts from projects changing the energy use. A second project was then performed to further analyse the issues involved. The result is this guideline report. The guidelines are on the first hand directed at companies and municipalities performing projects with effects on the energy use, that want to calculate impacts from these on the Swedish environmental objectives. The guidelines can also be useful for county administrations, central authorities and other actors with interest in the issues. A starting point for the recommendations is the Swedish environmental objectives, with focus on those of special interest in relation to energy use and airborne emissions. These are Reduced climate impact, Clean air, Natural acidification only, Zero eutrophication and A good built environment. The environmental objectives are mainly concentrated on what affects the Swedish environment. However, not only emissions in Sweden cause such effects, but also emissions in other countries can be transported by air and fall down and cause impacts in Sweden. Thus, the guidelines focus on Sweden, but include to a certain extent also emissions in other countries. Another starting point is that the guidelines are developed to follow up effects from individual projects or measures. This differs in fundamental aspects from follow up of effects within a geographic unit (for example a municipality) or of environmental impacts from an organisation on a yearly basis. When following up environmental impacts from something other than a project perspective, the recommendations given are not doubtlessly applicable, since what are the most correct methodological choices differ depending on the starting point. The report is called guidelines, and not handbook or manual. This is because of the fact that there are many aspects to consider in the topical methodological choices, and the recommendations are to be considered as approximations. The aim of the report is therefore also to function as a knowledge survey in the area of environmental assessment of energy use, with in-depth background information of the recommendations and references to supplementary literature. The guidelines cover stationary energy use (hence, transport is not covered), with primary energy and life cycle perspectives to embrace total environmental impacts and facilitate comparisons between energy carriers. However, comparisons should always be made with caution, since there are several aspects to consider in conversions between energy carriers. Such aspects are how impacts are transferred between local, national and international levels, between Sweden and other countries, or between different environmental objectives. Weighting between such aspects are very difficult, and measures that reduce impacts in general are therefore preferable, when this is possible

  8. Measurements of emissions during waste wood combustion to identify refurbishment needs; Maetning av emissioner vid foerbraenning av RT-flis foer att identifiera eventuella ombyggnadsaatgaerder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindau, Leif

    2003-01-01

    The background to this project is the new EU directive 2000/76/EG regarding incineration of waste. This directive may have an effect on emission limits for Swedish plants firing waste wood. It may lead to needs of refurbishment in e.g. the area of flue gas cleaning equipment. In order to produce a basis to evaluate the need for such upgrading, measurement of metals, HCI, SO{sub 2} , CO, TOC and dioxin have been carried out on three plants firing wood waste: a grate boiler (Handeloeverket P11), one circulating fluid bed boiler (Aaterbruket in Lomma), and a bubbling fluidised bed boiler (Johannes in Gaevle, firing 50% waste wood). The measurements have mainly been carried out after boiler, equivalent to upstream flue gas cleaning. The results are that the demands of the EU directive on most points can be managed with existing equipment if this consists of electrostatic precipitator or bag filter with good performance and flue gas condensor. Without flue gas condensor, there is a need for other measures for 1-10 and for grate boilers, SO{sub 2} as well. The requirements in the directive for TOC is weaker than the demand on CO, and correspondingly, the demand on CO is driving. The level of dioxin from the boiler (upstream filter) exceeds allowed emission, and is in the range of 0,1-2 ng TE/Nm{sup 3} tg, 6 % O{sub 2} . Existing equipment will meet the emission limit for the lower levels (0,1-0,3) , but not safely for the higher levels (1,5-2). Correspondingly, there may be a need for equipment upgrading, e.g. in the form of activated carbon injection upstream flue gas filter.

  9. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest HCI emission, before the flue gas condensing plant, was noted for the reference fuel (approx. 245 Mg/nm{sup 3}); The highest SO{sub 2} emission, in the upper furnace, was also noted for the reference fuel (over 50 mg/nm{sup 3}). Levels after the condensing plant could not be measured. 25 % meat powder injection gave the highest NO{sub x}-emission (approx. 50 mg/MJ). The high heavy metal content in ash could not bee correlated to the content in the fuel fractions. The unburnt carbon content in bottom ash is remarkably lower for 25 % meat powder injection into reference fuel. The conclusion is that the operation parameters for the oiler are optimized for this specific fuel fraction and the amount injected. Tests with a fouling probe near the first superheater showed that at a temperature of 400 deg C 10% napkin waste gave most fouling. This is interesting as the lowest HCl-emission level was noted for napkins, maybe depending on that the chlorine is present in the depositions. The project results point in the direction that co-combustion of different refuse fractions will be possible within the existing environmental legislation and maybe also within the new EU directive 2000/76/EG. Although flue gas condensation is necessary to get acceptable emissions of HCl and SO{sub 2}. Further general research is thus needed and several R and D project areas are listed in the report. Deeper studies of the combustion process in furnace are important in future project.

  10. Method to produce combustible gas with low tar content out of biomass. Foerfarande foer att ur biomassa framstaella en tjaerfattig braennbar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindman, N

    1988-01-11

    The gas is led in a controlled flow to a vertical reactor shaft with a circulating fluidized bed containing dispersed calcined limestone. The biomass is pyrolyzed by means of the reactor heat in order to produce tarry gas and charcoal. While the gas flows upward in the reactor shaft the tar is gasified in a heterogeneous catalytic reaction with limestone. Charcoal and limestone are separated from the gas at the top of the reactor shaft and brought back to the fluidized bed for combustion. (L.F.).

  11. 76 FR 14697 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, CT; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, CT; Notice of Revised Determination on... Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven, Connecticut to...: All workers of Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division, New Haven...

  12. 76 FR 5831 - Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T Division, New Haven...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Support Services, Advertising And Media AT&T Division, New Haven, Connecticut; Notice of Affirmative... workers and former workers of Amdocs, Inc., Global Support Services, Advertising and Media AT&T Division..., Advertising and Media AT&T Division. The investigation also revealed that the firm is not a Supplier or...

  13. Kritisk självreflektion i komplexa frågor: Att hjälpa studenterna att ta makten över sitt tänkande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wolrath Söderberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Den här artikeln handlar om studenters kritiska självreflektion. Utgångspunkten är att de former av kritiskt tänkande som vi traditionellt odlar inom högskolan är otillräckliga när det gäller vår tids kritiska frågor, som exempelvis klimatfrågan. När det rör sig om komplexa och värdeladdade frågor där många perspektiv kan vara giltiga har vi att förhålla oss till olika mänskliga mekanismer som på olika vis hindrar oss från att tänka och agera klokt, exempelvis polarisering, bekräftelsebias, glapp mellan tanke och handling och olika former av legitimeringsstrategier för att låta blir att ta ansvar. Här diskuteras sådana hinder och hur vi kan förhålla oss till dem i högre utbildning.

  14. Hur fungerar datorer? : En fallstudie av att utveckla pedagogisk multimedia för ett datorhistoriskt museum.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahl, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Få människor vet hur datorer fungerar, vilka komponenter de är uppbyggda av och hur dessa samverkar. I detta examensarbete har en prototyp till en multimediepresentation utvecklats. Presentationen kommer att placeras på ett datorhistoriskt museum och dess syfte kommer där att vara att hjälpa människor förstå hur datorer fungerar. Prototypen är baserad på bilder och enklare animationer som förklarar samverkan och funktion hos de olika datorkomponenterna, bland annat genom att visa scenarier so...

  15. Att stärka innovation i mjukvaruföretag

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Detta examensarbete har två huvudsakliga mål. Det ena är att utöka funktionaliteten i mjukvaran C3Loops för att underlätta för musiker som producerar elektronisk musik som vill använda mjukvaran i liveframträdanden. Det andra är att titta närmre på hur processmodeller för mjukvaruutveckling stödjer innovation. Denna rapport ger läsaren ett tvärvetenskapligt perspektiv. Tre för ämnet relevanta teoretiska områden, innovation, software-engineering och design tas upp. C3Loops projektet används so...

  16. Att lita på andras blodgåva : Åsikter om att homosexuella män i praktiken nekas donera blod

    OpenAIRE

    Elwin, Elin

    2015-01-01

    Denna kandidatuppsats undersöker vilka upp­fattningar sjuksköterskor och homo­sexuella män har kring reglerna för blodgivning, med inriktning på att homosexuella män i praktiken inte får donera blod. Studien har genomförts med kvalitativ intervju som metod. Resultatet framhäver att mina informanter klassificerat blod och människor olika, där både utländskt blod och svenskt blod rangordnas efter potentiell risk för smitta. Sjuksköterskorna och de homosexuella männen hanterar även reglerna olik...

  17. Att veta när man ska göra det man vet att man ska göra : om barn med ADHD, uppfattning av tid och att komma ihåg att göra det man har planerat

    OpenAIRE

    Hillertz, Anna

    2005-01-01

    I den här studien undersöks om det är bristande tidsuppfattning som orsakar sämre prospektivt minne hos barn med diagnos ADHD. Studien syftar även till att utreda vad prospektivt minne har för relation till arbetsminne och exekutiva funktioner. Studien har genomförts genom att två grupper, en grupp barn med diagnos ADHD och en kontrollgrupp, har utfört uppgifter som ger mått på prospektivt minne, tidsuppfattning, arbetsminne och exekutiva funktioner. Barnen i ADHD-gruppen har även deltagit i ...

  18. An att site-based recombination reporter system for genome engineering and synthetic DNA assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael J; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Val, Marie-Eve; Mazel, Didier

    2017-07-14

    Direct manipulation of the genome is a widespread technique for genetic studies and synthetic biology applications. The tyrosine and serine site-specific recombination systems of bacteriophages HK022 and ΦC31 are widely used for stable directional exchange and relocation of DNA sequences, making them valuable tools in these contexts. We have developed site-specific recombination tools that allow the direct selection of recombination events by embedding the attB site from each system within the β-lactamase resistance coding sequence (bla). The HK and ΦC31 tools were developed by placing the attB sites from each system into the signal peptide cleavage site coding sequence of bla. All possible open reading frames (ORFs) were inserted and tested for recombination efficiency and bla activity. Efficient recombination was observed for all tested ORFs (3 for HK, 6 for ΦC31) as shown through a cointegrate formation assay. The bla gene with the embedded attB site was functional for eight of the nine constructs tested. The HK/ΦC31 att-bla system offers a simple way to directly select recombination events, thus enhancing the use of site-specific recombination systems for carrying out precise, large-scale DNA manipulation, and adding useful tools to the genetics toolbox. We further show the power and flexibility of bla to be used as a reporter for recombination.

  19. An Overview of Research and Development Projects at the AT&T National Teletraining Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Alan G.; Balthazar, Lee B.

    Research and development projects at the AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) National Teletraining Center (NTC) are geared toward increasing understanding of the various psychological, sociological, ergonomic, and environmental factors involved in teletraining, and toward improving the ability to manage the distance learning…

  20. 76 FR 44036 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, AT&T Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... developed portion of the AT&T facility on October 25 and 29, 2010. In addition, several salamander larvae... were rejected due to the presence of other Federally listed species, including vernal pool fairy shrimp...

  1. Detta var inte för mig : En kvalitativ studie om idrottslärares val att byta yrke

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Anton

    2017-01-01

    I detta arbete studeras varför idrottslärare i större utsträckning väljer att lämna sitt yrke för ett annat. Tidigare studier visar att 18 procent av nyutbildade idrottslärare slutar inom loppet av fyra år. Den genomsnittliga arbetsperioden som idrottslärare är ungefär nio år. Med en metod av öppna intervjuer kommer fem före detta idrottslärare att svara på varför just de slutade som idrottslärare för att fortsätta arbeta inom något annat. Dessa svar har sedan granskats ur en handlingsteori o...

  2. Structural features of single-stranded integron cassette attC sites and their role in strand selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouvier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that cassette integration and deletion in integron platforms were occurring through unconventional site-specific recombination reactions involving only the bottom strand of attC sites. The lack of sequence conservation among attC sites led us to hypothesize that sequence-independent structural recognition determinants must exist within attC sites. The structural data obtained from a synaptic complex of the Vibrio cholerae integrase with the bottom strand of an attC site has shown the importance of extra helical bases (EHB inside the stem-loop structure formed from the bottom strand. Here, we systematically determined the contribution of three structural elements common to all known single-stranded attC site recombination substrates (the EHBs, the unpaired central spacer (UCS, and the variable terminal structure (VTS to strand choice and recombination. Their roles have been evaluated in vivo in the attIxattC reaction context using the suicide conjugation assay we previously developed, but also in an attCxattC reaction using a deletion assay. Conjugation was used to deliver the attC sites in single-stranded form. Our results show that strand choice is primarily directed by the first EHB, but the presence of the two other EHBs also serves to increase this strand selection. We found that the structure of the central spacer is essential to achieve high level recombination of the bottom strand, suggesting a dual role for this structure in active site exclusion and for hindering the reverse reaction after the first strand exchange. Moreover, we have shown that the VTS has apparently no role in strand selectivity.

  3. ZS "Lejas Dandēni" attīstības iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Makars, Aigars

    2014-01-01

    Lai uzņēmums būtu konkurētspējīgs un iegūtu ilgtspējīgu attīstību, ir svarīgi izpētīt tā iekšējo un ārējo vidi, lai atklātu esošās problēmas, kas ietekmē uzņēmuma konkurētspēju un attīstības iespējas. Maģistra darba mērķis izstrādāt rīcības risinājumus tālākai ZS "Lejas Dandēni" konkurētspējas uzlabošanai un attīstībai. Lai sasniegtu maģistra darba mērķi, autors ir izvirzījis sekojošus uzdevumus - analizēt konkurētspējas teorētiskos aspektus, analizēt uzņēmuma iekšējo un ārējo vidi, veikt SV...

  4. Barns preoperativa rädsla : Litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Komsi, Matilda

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att genom en litteraturstudie undersöka barns preoperativa rädsla, vilka faktorer som bidrar till den preoperativa rädslan samt vilka metoder som sjukskötaren kan använda sig av för att minska rädslan inför operation. Forskningsfrågorna som ställs är: Hur kan sjukskötaren handla för att minska den preoperativa rädslan? och Vilka metoder kan sjukskötaren använda sig av för att minska den preoperativa rädslan? Som vårdvetenskapliga utgångspunkter har Katie Erik...

  5. Kustību pilnveide valodas attīstības traucējumu korekcijā pirmsskolas vecuma bērniem

    OpenAIRE

    Kampusa, Zane

    2012-01-01

    Diplomdarbā “Kustību pilnveide valodas attīstības traucējumu korekcijā pirmsskolas vecuma bērniem” autore apskata pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu valodas attīstības īpatnības. Uzmanība tiek vērsta uz sensitīvā valodas attīstības perioda un citu priekšnoteikumu nozīmi bērna valodas sekmīgai attīstībai pirmsskolas vecumā. Diplomdarbā autore sniedz ieskatu, kādi var būt runas un valodas attīstības traucējumu cēloņi un veidi. Tiek raksturotas pirmsskolas vecumposma bērnu attīstības īpatnības, kā arī dot...

  6. She’s the Boss – HR och kvinnligt chefskap : Hur Human Resources kan arbeta för att främja kvinnorschefskarriärer

    OpenAIRE

    Linderfyhr, Jessica; Malm, Mikaela

    2017-01-01

    Enligt undersökningar som chefsorganisationen Ledarna publicerar årligen finns det en återkommande problematik med att rekrytera unga kvinnor till chefspositioner. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka vad som kan inverka på kvinnors vilja att söka en chefstjänst och att utforma en HR strategi som främjar och motiverar kvinnor att söka chefstjänster. Unga kvinnor kan känna tvekan inför chefskap på grund av känslan av bristande erfarenhet och svårighet med att identifiera sig med den ster...

  7. Att utforma en teknisk manual : Med tillhörande riktlinjer

    OpenAIRE

    Runvall, Linda; Parantainen, Satu

    2007-01-01

    Vi, Linda Runvall och Satu Parantainen, har gjort vårt examensarbete för företaget Leine & Linde i Strängnäs. De tillverkar pulsgivare som används inom industrin. Examensarbetet bestod av att göra om en befintlig manual och skriva guidelines (riktlinjer) till Leine & Lindes personal. Under vårt examensarbete har vi använt oss av våra kunskaper inom informationsdesign. Rune Pettersson, professor i informationsdesign vid Mälardalens högskola, beskriver ämnet informationsdesign såhär: ”I...

  8. "Att slänga sig ut i det okända..." : En utredning av utmaningen att skapa en föreställning utgående ifrån improvisation

    OpenAIRE

    Krusberg, Catrine

    2014-01-01

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka nyckelelementen i att skapa en föreställning med improvisation som utgångspunkt. Forskningen fokuserar på skapandeprocessen av monologpjäsen Gillar, gillar inte, med frågeställningen: hur skapar jag en fungerande föreställning utan en befintlig dramaturgisk text som referens? Vad händer på scengolvet då jag som skådespelare har enbart de ramar som temat medför? Vad är för- och nackdelarna med att utgå ifrån detta slag av fri impro...

  9. Att arbeta i restaurangbranschen : En kvalitativ studie om arbetstagares upplevelser av psykosocial arbetsmiljö och stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Emma

    2016-01-01

    En utgångspunkt för arbetslivet bör vara att skapa en arbetsmiljö som ger individer förutsättningar att ingå, kvarstå och utvecklas i arbetet. Arbetsmiljön är betydande för både individers hälsa och verksamheters utveckling samt förutsättningar för tillväxt. Arbetsplatsen betonas därmed vara en betydande arena för förebyggande insatser. Det är arbetsgivaren som har huvudsakligt ansvar för arbetsmiljön. Ingen arbetstagare ska riskera att skadas eller drabbas av ohälsa i arbetet. Syftet med stu...

  10. Bildskapande i relation till genus i förskolans verksamhet : Att skapa sig själv och genus

    OpenAIRE

    Brännlund, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Studiens syfte är att bidra till ökad medvetenhet för verksamma inom förskolans område kring frågor som rör pedagogers förhållningssätt kring relationen mellan bildskapande och genus, men även hur dessa förhållningssätt kan påverka barnens möjligheter i deras bildskapande. En viktig fråga som burits med från starten av arbetet och som lyser igenom i resultatdelen har varit: Vilka möjligheter att förhålla sig till bildskapande och genus kan uppstå om ett kritiskt sätt att tänka kring könsstere...

  11. IK "HOLS" attīstības stratēģija

    OpenAIRE

    Zvirgzds, Jānis

    2011-01-01

    Tā kā gan valsts, gan starptautiskā līmenī nepārtraukti notiek straujas un bieži vien pretrunīgas izmaiņas, tad, lai tām pielāgotos vai tās izmantotu, uzņēmumam jāanalizē šo pārmaiņu ietekme uz tā saimniecisko darbību un nepārtraukti jāattīstās. Darba mērķis: izstrādāt individuālā komersanta „Hols” attīstības stratēģiju, pamatojoties uz uzņēmējdarbības iekšējās un ārējās vides analīzi. Bakalaura darba rezultātā noskaidrots, ka pēdējos gados uzņēmējdarbības ārējā vide, ir īpaši ekonomisk...

  12. Att ligga som föräldrarna bäddar : En kvantitativ studie om ungdomars sexuella handlingsutrymme

    OpenAIRE

    Hellberg, My; Sarin, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Sammanfattning Denna studie avser att undersöka ungdomars sexuella handlingsutrymme. Syftet är att studera om det sexuella handlingsutrymmet uppfattas olika när det gäller ungdomar med, respektive utan, en lindrig intellektuell funktionsnedsättning. I analysen har särskild hänsyn tagits till tre bakgrundsfaktorer; ungdomars kön, föräldrars födelseland samt föräldrars religiositet. Definitionen av det sexuella handlingsutrymmet bygger på den unges uppfattning om vårdnadshavarens restriktioner ...

  13. Choices of action and its influence on farmers' attitudes regarding willow and reed canary grass cultivation; Betydelsen av olika handlingsalternativ foer oekat intresse hos lantbrukare att odla salix och roerflen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Aasa; Paulrud, Susanne; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-02-15

    The contribution of energy crops from the agricultural sector is an example of a resource that has a potential to increase substantially in the near future. However, one problem is the lack of interest in cultivating energy crops within the agricultural Several studies have shown that there are a number of reasons for farmers not becoming involved in energy crops. Besides biological aspects, market potential and profitability the farmers are also affected by the available resources on the farm, the effect of the crops on the surroundings, work load, liquidity and the perceived risks. The overall aim with the present study is to increase the knowledge about how to change farmers' attitudes regarding energy crop cultivation, i.e. making them more interested. This study also shows that there is a large fraction of farmers that generally believe they have no or little knowledge of energy crops, such as willow, reed canary grass and hemp. The fraction of farmers considering there is a larger probability of future cultivation of these crops with increased knowledge is also quite large. Energy crop cultivation does not suit everybody. Generally, growing willow and reed canary grass is an alternative for farmers having another business besides agricultural business. Characteristics for these farms are working hours <1500 hours and that the machines are partly owned

  14. Power plants structures offshore - a method for locally increasing the biologic diversity in the Baltic Sea?; Kraftverkskonstruktioner i havet - en metod foer att lokalt oeka den biologiska maangfalden i Oestersjoen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, Torleif

    2005-02-01

    Preliminary research results from Kalmar Sound (Baltic Sea) reviewed in this report indicate the the submarine constructions of an offshore wind power plant can have positive effects on stationary fish as well as benthic animals and algae. This happens even though the total surface of the wind power plants is but a minor part of the surface of the wind power park. It is reef effect, bringing in foreign substrates and structures in the marine environment that causes this effect.

  15. The inhibition effect of 211At-Te colloid and Na211 at injections on murine Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Juan; Wang Xizhong; Zhang Jiazao

    1992-01-01

    Na 211 At and 211 At-Te colloid injections are prepared. It has been demonstrated that the 211 At-Te colloid is stable in vivo and in vitro, and can be applied in the study of biology and medicine. In the report, the model of Murine Ehrlich Ascites Cells cultured in vivo and in vitro is elected for a series of experiments. It has been proved that Na 211 At and 211 At-Te colloid injections possess an inhibition effect on tumor cells. The inhibition effect was expressed in surviving of the mice and inhibiting growth of tumor as well as the changes of enzyme activity. Meanwhile, it was also noticed that Na 211 At and 211 At-Te colloid injections of various dose inhibited the absorb of pyrimidine nucleosides in Murine Ehrlich Ascites Cells. And the effect is not reversible. It is closely related to the dose administrated and 50% inhibition rate needs about 1.48 x 10 5 Bq/ml culture

  16. Integrāļa attīstības vēsture un daudzveidība

    OpenAIRE

    Baune, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba “Integrāļu attīstības vēsture un daudzveidība” mērķis ir izpētīt integrāļu attīstības vēsturi un to, kā apgūst integrāļu teoriju mūsdienās, saistot to laukumu un tilpumu aprēķināšanu, iepriekš izpētot būtiskos jautājumus skolas matemātikas programmās. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no ievada, trīs nodaļām un secinājumiem. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek aplūkots matemātikas priekšmets un tā vēsturiskā loma cilvēces attīstībā. Otrajā nodaļā tiek aplūkota integrāļu rašanās un attīstības vēsture....

  17. Att sluta eller inte sluta : En litteraturstudie om tobaksavvänjningsmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Bjellman, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Att sluta eller inte sluta? En litteraturstudie om tobaksavvänjningsmetoder Bjellman, K. Tobaksbruket har en lång historia, och de tobaksrelaterade sjukdomarna kostar samhället miljarder i sjukvårdskostnader och produktionsbortfall varje år. Andelen rökare minskar stadigt i Sverige, idag röker ca 15 procent av befolkningen. Resultaten från olika metoder för tobaksavvänjning är tämligen blygsamma, och ugefär nittio procent av de som slutar röka gör det på egen hand. Syftet med denna studie var...

  18. Architecture of the 99 bp DNA-six-protein regulatory complex of the lambda att site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingmin; Mierke, Dale F; Biswas, Tapan; Lee, Sang Yeol; Landy, Arthur; Radman-Livaja, Marta

    2006-11-17

    The highly directional and tightly regulated recombination reaction used to site-specifically excise the bacteriophage lambda chromosome out of its E. coli host chromosome requires the binding of six sequence-specific proteins to a 99 bp segment of the phage att site. To gain structural insights into this recombination pathway, we measured 27 FRET distances between eight points on the 99 bp regulatory DNA bound with all six proteins. Triangulation of these distances using a metric matrix distance-geometry algorithm provided coordinates for these eight points. The resulting path for the protein-bound regulatory DNA, which fits well with the genetics, biochemistry, and X-ray crystal structures describing the individual proteins and their interactions with DNA, provides a new structural perspective into the molecular mechanism and regulation of the recombination reaction and illustrates a design by which different families of higher-order complexes can be assembled from different numbers and combinations of the same few proteins.

  19. Measuring attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to intimate partner violence: the ATT-RECOURSE scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu

    2014-06-01

    Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV.

  20. Främja medarbetarnas engagemang : Ett ledarskapsverktyg för att öka engagemang och undvika utbrändhet

    OpenAIRE

    Järnström, Ida

    2016-01-01

    De senaste åren har engagemang varit ett mycket omtalat ämne, då forskning har visat att engagemang har en positiv inverkan på organisationens framgång. Dagens turbulenta värld tvingar dock organisationerna att kräva högre prestationer av sina medarbetare trots färre resurser, vilket kan resultera i oengagemang och utbrändhet. Detta bekräftas utgående från gallupundersökningar, vilka visar att en endast en liten del av medarbetarna verkligen är engagerade på sina arbetsplatser. Syftet med...

  1. Tunaweza - Vi kan! : Om att använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland

    OpenAIRE

    Åman, Julia

    2016-01-01

    I detta examensarbete behandlar jag hur man kan använda drama som metod för att stärka unga flickors självkänsla i ett utvecklingsland. Arbetet kretsar kring de erfarenheter jag fick när jag gjorde mitt konstnärliga examensarbete som dramainstruktör på en grundskola i Tanzania. I kapitel ett, två och tre redogör jag för hur kvinnors situation ser ut i Tanzania, lyfter fram hur fysisk bestraffning påverkar ett barns självkänsla, och framhäver att åsikterna gällande effekt...

  2. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste - Final report. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of weathered mine waste; Aska och roetslam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall - Slutrapport. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taet- och taeckskikt foer vittrat gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Karlsson, Ulrika [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2006-02-15

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas are covering which decreases the volume of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste (tailings) has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. Unfortunately, the covering was not, from the start, carried out in a way that made it possible to evaluate the data. For instance, data about the surface and groundwater quality prior to the covering is lacking. Sulphidic minerals are also very common in the area, giving rise to acidic groundwater from other parts of the area, which haven't been remediated. This report is a final report where all phases are presented (phase 1 and 2). Focus in phase 1 has been on characterization of the material that has been used for covering and initiation of a monitoring program. In phase 2 focus has been on evaluation of monitoring data and the pros and cons of the deposit regarding the environment. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering increases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals decreases. An increase was observed for pH, calcium, potassium, sodium, arsenic, barium, chromium and copper. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt, lead and zinc was observed. Other benefits with the remediation is also discussed (increased plant growth and an area for storing timber). From the results an approach towards future covering of weathered mine waste with ash and sludge is presented.

  3. Ash and sludge covering of mine waste. Benefits and/or risks using ash and sludge for covering of mine waste; Askor och roetslam som taeckskikt foer gruvavfall. Foerdelar och/eller risker med att anvaenda aska och slam som taeckskikt foer gruvavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, Mattias; Johansson, Inger [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre

    2004-01-01

    One of the main sources for metal pollution in Sweden is mine waste. One way to decrease the leaching of metals from mine waste areas is covering which decreases the formation of acid drainage. There is a shortage of appropriate materials to use for covering, and excavation of till and clay from the environment might cause damages on the landscape. Previous studies have demonstrated that sludge and ashes are suitable materials for covering of waste deposits. When covering mine waste with ash and sludge various positive effects would arise, since the production of drainage water decreases as well as the pH increases due to the high buffer-capacity of the ash. In Ervalla outside Oerebro an area with mine waste has been covered with ash and sludge. This area gives a unique possibility to study benefits and/or risks with the covering of mine waste with ash and sludge. This report is a summary of the first phase of the project and the focus has been on characterisation of the material that has been used for covering. Also a monitoring program for the area has started. Preliminary findings indicate that that the covering decreases the leaching of some metals whereas the leaching of some metals increases. A decrease in the concentration of iron, nickel, cobalt and lead was observed and an increase was observed for arsenic, barium, chromium and copper.

  4. Vērtspapīru tirgus attīstība Baltijas valstīs

    OpenAIRE

    Kalniņa, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis bija noteikt vērtspapīra tirgus attīstības tendences, salīdzināt Baltijas akciju tirgus rādītājus un pamatojoties uz iegūtajiem rezultātiem, novērtēt Baltijas akciju tirgus attīstības tendences. Darba pamatuzdevumos ietilpa pašreizējā Baltijas akciju tirgus stāvokļa analīze. Izstrādātais darbs sastāv no trim daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek dots īss vērtspapīra tirgus vispārīgais raksturojums un vērtspapīru tirgus instrumentu raksturojums. Darba otrajā daļā tiek doti Baltij...

  5. Interneta veikalu izstrāde un to attīstības tendences Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Krūze, Raitis

    2013-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir „Interneta veikalu izstrāde un to attīstības tendences Latvijā” un tā mērķis ir analizēt, izvērtēt un uzskaitīt pamatnostādnes, kas nepieciešamas sekmīgai interneta veikala izstrādei, ka arī, veicot Latvijas interneta veikalu tirgus un tā vides izpēti, apkopot galvenās attīstības tendences, kas kalpotu kā palīgmateriāls jauna interneta veikala izstrādē. Diplomdarbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā autors veic interneta veikalu priekšrocību un trūkumu uzskaiti, snie...

  6. SIA "Baltic Motors, Ltd" produkti, to attīstības iespējas

    OpenAIRE

    Silavs, Mārtiņš

    2011-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „SIA „Baltic Motors, Ltd produkti, to attīstības iespējas” tiek aplūkota Ford un Mazda automašīnu oficiālā pārstāvja darbība Latvijā, pašreiz sniegto produktu un pakalpojumu nozīmība veiksmīgai nākotnes darbībai, nozares raksturojums, produktu kustība mainīgajos apstākļos. Darba aktualitāti nosaka cilvēku nepieciešamību, uzskatu maiņa ekonomisko apstākļu ietekmē. Darba autors secina, ka cilvēki rūpīgāk izvērtē jaunu produktu iegādi, ir jūtīgi pret cenu izmaiņām, kas jauno a...

  7. Restorānu franšīzes attīstība Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Zaļā, Magda

    2013-01-01

    'Jauniem uzņēmējiem, kam trūkst kompetences biznesa uzsākšanai, un uzņēmumiem, kuriem nākas izvērtēt alternatīvas paplašināšanās metodes, risinājums var būt franšīze. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir piedāvāt priekšlikumus restorānu franšīzes uzņēmumu attīstībai Latvijā un ārpus tās. Darbā aprakstīta franšīzes attīstība, veidi; salīdzināti franšīzes restorāni Latvijā, pētīts to potenciāls ārvalstīs un ārvalstu franšīzes potenciāls Latvijā; analizētas priekšrocības; noteikti attīstības faktori;...

  8. An attack of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces the expression of attAGP, an attachment protein of the host tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Markus; Belastegui-Macadam, Xana; Kaldenhoff, Ralf

    2006-11-01

    Dodder or Cuscutaceae are holoparasitic plants subsisting on other dicotyledonous plants. The infection process is initiated by adherence of Cuscuta prehaustoria to the host surface, followed by penetration attempts by hyphae. In the case of a successful infection, these organs connect the parasite's vascular tissue to that of the host. Here we show that contact of Cuscuta reflexa prehaustoria to tomato induces the expression of a new arabinogalactan protein (AGP), attAGP, in the tomato precisely at the site of dodder attack. We show that attAGP is a plasma membrane-bound cell wall-localized protein. Using the RNAi technique and attAGP-targeted virus-induced gene silencing, we observed a correlation between attAGP expression level and force of attachment of the parasite to host tomatoes. If the expression level of attAGP was reduced, the C. reflexa attachment capability was significantly reduced, too. We conclude that C. reflexa infection induced a signal in the host leading to expression of tomato attAGP, which promotes the parasite's adherence.

  9. Genetic analysis of attTn7, the transposon Tn7 attachment site in Escherichia coli, using a novel M13-based transduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, M I; Flores, C C; Davis, A J; Lichtenstein, C P

    1989-05-05

    The large (14 kb; kb = 10(3) bases) bacterial transposon, Tn7 (encoding resistance to trimethoprim and streptomycin/spectinomycin), has unusual properties. Like other elements, Tn7 transposes with low efficiency and low target-site specificity, but Tn7 also transposes, with high frequency in a unique orientation, to a preferred "attachment" site, called attTn7, in the Escherichia coli chromosome and similarly into plasmids containing attTn7. We developed a novel bacteriophage M13-based assay system to measure the transposition frequency of Tn7 to M13mp phage vectors containing attTn7 on a cloned 1 kb fragment of chromosomal DNA. Phage harvested from a Tn7 donor strain were used to infect recipient bacteria with selection for trimethoprim resistance. Transposition frequency, expressed as the number of trimethoprim-resistant colonies per plaque-forming unit, was found to be approximately 10(-4) to M13mp::attTn7, in contrast to 10(-10) to M13mp recombinants with approximately 1 kb insertions of other, "generic brand", DNA. By deletion analysis of M13mp::attTn7, we show that attTn7 is contained within a 64 base-pair region; sequences adjacent to the actual insertion site and encoding the carboxy terminus of the glmS gene are required. This assay also provided evidence for transposition immunity conferred by the right end of Tn7.

  10. Unusual Structure of the attB Site of the Site-Specific Recombination System of Lactobacillus delbrueckii Bacteriophage mv4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Frédéric; Coddeville, Michèle; Ordonez, Romy Catoira; Ritzenthaler, Paul

    1999-01-01

    The temperate phage mv4 integrates its genome into the chromosome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus by site-specific recombination within the 3′ end of a tRNASer gene. Recombination is catalyzed by the phage-encoded integrase and occurs between the phage attP site and the bacterial attB site. In this study, we show that the mv4 integrase functions in vivo in Escherichia coli and we characterize the bacterial attB site with a site-specific recombination test involving compatible plasmids carrying the recombination sites. The importance of particular nucleotides within the attB sequence was determined by site-directed mutagenesis. The structure of the attB site was found to be simple but rather unusual. A 16-bp DNA fragment was sufficient for function. Unlike most genetic elements that integrate their DNA into tRNA genes, none of the dyad symmetry elements of the tRNASer gene were present within the minimal attB site. No inverted repeats were detected within this site either, in contrast to the lambda site-specific recombination model. PMID:10572145

  11. Att tillämpa återkommande mätning av kundnöjdhet i IT-projekt : En vidareutvecklad modell baserad på modellerna American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) och SERVQUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Karlmats, Roberg; Karlsson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    I dagens samhälle är det allt viktigare för företag att behålla sina existerande kunder då konkurrensen blir allt hårdare. Detta medför att företag försöker vidta åtgärder för att vårda relationer med sina kunder. Detta problem är även högst relevant inom IT-branschen. Inom IT-branschen är det vanligt att arbeta agilt i IT-projekt. Vår samarbetspartner har sett ett ökat behov av att mäta servicekvalitet på ett återkommande sätt inom IT-projekt, detta för att mäta relevanta variabler som sträc...

  12. ProSAAS-derived peptides are differentially processed and sorted in mouse brain and AtT-20 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Wardman

    Full Text Available ProSAAS is the precursor for some of the most abundant peptides found in mouse brain and other tissues, including peptides named SAAS, PEN, and LEN. Both SAAS and LEN are found in big and little forms due to differential processing. Initial processing of proSAAS is mediated by furin (and/or furin-like enzymes and carboxypeptidase D, while the smaller forms are generated by secretory granule prohormone convertases and carboxypeptidase E. In mouse hypothalamus, PEN and big LEN colocalize with neuropeptide Y. In the present study, little LEN and SAAS were detected in mouse hypothalamus but not in cell bodies of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons. PEN and big LEN show substantial colocalization in hypothalamus, but big LEN and little LEN do not. An antiserum to SAAS that detects both big and little forms of this peptide did not show substantial colocalization with PEN or big LEN. To further study this, the AtT-20 cells mouse pituitary corticotrophic cell line was transfected with rat proSAAS and the distribution of peptides examined. As found in mouse hypothalamus, only some of the proSAAS-derived peptides colocalized with each other in AtT-20 cells. The two sites within proSAAS that are known to be efficiently cleaved by furin were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to convert the P4 Arg into Lys; this change converts the sequences from furin consensus sites into prohormone convertase consensus sites. Upon expression of the mutated form of proSAAS in AtT-20 cells, there was significantly more colocalization of proSAAS-derived peptides PEN and SAAS. Taken together, these results indicate that proSAAS is initially cleaved in the Golgi or trans-Golgi network by furin and/or furin-like enzymes and the resulting fragments are sorted into distinct vesicles and further processed by additional enzymes into the mature peptides.

  13. KOMMUNIKATIVT LEDARSKAP ett ledarskap för moderna organisationer : Kvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet

    OpenAIRE

    Axäll, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    AbstractTitle: Communicative leadership – a leadership for modern organizationsQualitative research attempting to define the concept.(Kommunikativt ledarskap – ett ledarskap för moderna organisationerKvalitativ studie med ansats att definiera begreppet.)Author: Jenny AxällAim: The aim of this essay is to try to find the essence of and a definition of the communicative leadership. Questions asked are: How can communicative leadership be described? How can it be practiced? What does it demand o...

  14. Att vara eller icke vara ansvarsfull : En fallstudie om en kommunikationsbyrås samhällsansvar

    OpenAIRE

    Odén, Sofie; Larsson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Title: Att vara eller icke vara ansvarsfull - En fallstudie om en kommunikationsbyrås samhällsansvar Authors: Anna Larsson, Sofie Odén Number of pages: 65 This study propose to increase the understanding of how a communication agency is working in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility. To narrow the field of study this thesis was conducted from a stakeholder perspective. The empirical material has been acquired through a qualitative study. To get a clear and valid view of the given resu...

  15. Minimering av momentförluster i en hypoidväxel

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Syftet med detta projektarbete var att minska energiförlusterna i Getrag All Wheel Drives hypoidväxlar (se kapitel 7.2.3). Uppdraget bestod främst av att minska förlusterna när systemet endast driver på två hjul och de övriga hjulparen endast överför låga kraftmoment, detta förhållande benämns draggmoment. För att kunna utvärdera och peka på förbättringsområden var första steget i arbetet att lokalisera och värdera enskilda komponenter som tillförde förluster. De ingående komponenter som stud...

  16. Den inre och yttre självkänslans betydelse för tendensen att bruka self-handicapping

    OpenAIRE

    Ottosson, Olivia

    2008-01-01

    Självkänsla är något vi ständigt bär med oss och den inverkar på vårt agerande samt våra val i livet. Johnson (2003) delar in självkänslan i två delar den inre och yttre, vilka kan kombineras till fyra personligheter. Forskning har visat att självkänslan samvarierar med tendensen till att bruka self-handicapping. Self-handicapping innebär att människan skapar hinder för sig själv påhittade eller verkliga. Etthundrasju studenter fyllde i en enkät bestående av 58 påståenden, vilken mätte inre, ...

  17. Att inte bara älska, utan också respektera : - En litteraturstudie om respektens betydelse i barnets uppväxt

    OpenAIRE

    Aspholm, Matilda

    2010-01-01

    Syftet med denna studie var att förstå respektens betydelse i barnets uppväxt och för familjens samspel samt att få reda på hur man kan förmedla respekt genom fostran och samspel. Syftet var också att granska ifall det finns motsvarigheter mellan de vetenskapliga fostringsteorierna och innehållet i fostringsböcker, som är riktade till föräldrar. Barns rättigheter och lagstiftning inom området tas upp som grund för arbetet. Den teoretiska referensramen består av socialt samspel, föräldrask...

  18. L'atténuation intrinsèque des ondes sismiques. Troisième partie : Mécanismes régissant l'atténuation. Intrinsic Attenuation of Seismic Waves. Part Three: Mechanisms Governing Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbie T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les mécanismes qui régissent l'atténuation sont très complexes et encore mal compris actuellement. Certains mécanismes ont pu être éliminés comme le phénomène de frottement grain à grain du fait des amplitudes de déformation usuelles en sismique. Il. semble que les mécanismes responsables soient différents dans le cas de roches sèches (aux conditions de laboratoire et dans le cas de roches plus ou moins saturées. Dans le cas de roches sèchesl'atténuation semble provenir à la fois d'un hystérésis microcapillaire et d'une rupture des liaisons hydrogènes entre les hydroxyles de la surface et les molécules d'eau. Dans le cas de roches saturées, les candidats les plus probables au phénomène d'atténuation sont les mécanismes de Biot et de squirt flow . Le mécanisme de Biot est la possibilité d'avoir des mouvements différentiels globaux (ou plutôt moyennés à l'échelle de l'échantillon entre la matière solide et le fluide. Le squirt flowconsiste en un phénomène de relaxation visqueuse dont l'excitateur est extérieur : le liquide à l'intérieur de la cavité poreuse jaillit sous l'effet d'une pression de pore locale. The mechanisms governing attenuation are highly complex and still poorly understood at present. Some mechanisms have been eliminated, such as the grain-to-grain friction, due to the usual deformation amplitudes in seismic exploration. The mechanisms responsible for attenuation seem to be different for dry rocks (under laboratory conditions and more or less saturated rocks. For dryrocks, attenuation seems to come from both a microcapillary hysteresis and a break of the hydrogen bonds between the surface hydroxyls and water molecules. For saturated rocks, the most probable causes of attenuation are Biot mechanisms and squirt flow. The Biot mechanism Is the possibility of having overall differential movements (or rather averaged ones on the scale of the sample between the solid matrix and the fluid

  19. Vad och hur gör de? − att synliggöra lärande i grundskolans slöjdpraktik via videoetnografi och mikroanalys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikeln bygger på resultat och erfarenheter av etnografiskt insamlade videoinspelningar från grundskolans slöjdundervisning utgående från tre studier; dels vid ett projekt med förstudier under slutet av 1990-talet (Johansson, 1996, dels vid avhandlingsprojektet Slöjdpraktik i skolan (Johansson, 2002 och dels inom forskningsprojektet Kommunikation och lärande i slöjdpraktiker, (”Komolär-projektet”, under 2005−2010 (Lindström, Borg, Johansson & Lindberg, 2003.Att insamla empiri i autentiska slöjdmiljöer är av intresse då lärandesituationer kan synliggöras när elever med hjälp av material och redskap arbetar med att tillverka artefakter. Utifrån detaljerade analyser av slöjdaktiviteter går det att upptäcka det som utspelar sig och möjligheter ges att uppfatta något annat jämfört med vad man kan tro känna väl eller ha förenklade och till och med felaktiga uppfattningar om. Videoobservationer möjliggör att antaganden istället görs på empiriskt grundat datamaterial. Med risk att videofilma och analysera det man tror sig veta och söka har forskningsprojektens insamlingar mer förutsättningslöst arbetat efter vad och hur elever och lärare gör i slöjdpraktik och vad man får veta när slöjdaktiviteter analyseras mer ingående. Videomaterialen har analyserats både på en mer övergripande nivå och detaljerat med hjälp av mikroanalyser. Därefter har lärandet synliggjorts och beskrivits bland annat i teman för att visa hur personerna är resurser för varandra och hur lärandet utvecklas genom olika språkanvändning och med slöjdpraktikens fysiska redskap och material.Sökord: metod, slöjd, klassrumsforskning, videoetnografi, mikroanalysURN:NBN:no-29955

  20. The ΦBT1 large serine recombinase catalyzes DNA integration at pseudo-attB sites in the genus Nocardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Herisse

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid vectors based on bacteriophage integrases are important tools in molecular microbiology for the introduction of foreign DNA, especially into bacterial species where other systems for genetic manipulation are limited. Site specific integrases catalyze recombination between phage and bacterial attachment sites (attP and attB, respectively and the best studied integrases in the actinomycetes are the serine integrases from the Streptomyces bacteriophages ΦC31 and ΦBT1. As this reaction is unidirectional and highly stable, vectors containing phage integrase systems have been used in a number of genetic engineering applications. Plasmids bearing the ΦBT1 integrase have been used to introduce DNA into Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis strains; however, they have not been widely studied in other actinobacterial genera. Here, we show that vectors based on ΦBT1 integrase can stably integrate into the chromosomes of a range of Nocardia species, and that this integration occurs despite the absence of canonical attB sites in these genomes. Furthermore, we show that a ΦBT1 integrase-based vector can insert at multiple pseudo-attB sites within a single strain and we determine the sequence of a pseudo-attB motif. These data suggest that ΦBT1 integrase-based vectors can be used to readily and semi-randomly introduce foreign DNA into the genomes of a range of Nocardia species. However, the precise site of insertion will likely require empirical determination in each species to avoid unexpected off-target effects.

  1. EU:s nya varumärkesdefinition : En utredning av vad borttagandet av kravet på grafisk återgivning kommer att innebära för möjligheten att registrera okonventionella varumärken

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Mathilda; Petersson, Frida

    2017-01-01

    Sedan det första steget togs mot en harmoniserad varumärkesrätt inom EU har grafisk återgivning varit ett krav vid registrering av varumärken, men kravet på grafisk återgivning försvinner i och med EU:s nya varumärkesreform. Syftet med denna uppsats är att belysa och utreda vad detta kommer att innebära för möjligheten att registrera okonventionella varumärken. Utredningen är inriktad på följande okonventionella varumärken: doftmärken, smakmärken, ljudmärken, känselmärken, rörelsemärken och h...

  2. Webb Couture : En studie om hur modedesign kan inspirera och förändra webbdesignprocessen för att utmana User Experience standarder

    OpenAIRE

    Carlfjord, Adam; Gustavsson, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Webbdesign är ett hantverk med potential till oändlig variation och oräkneliga möjligheter, men det är även en process styrd av standarder och förhållningssätt för att optimera resultatet för slutanvändaren. Begrepp så som user experience och framför allt user experience design har i och med utvecklingen blivit allt viktigare aktörer inom webbdesign. Samtidigt som de underlättar i utvecklingsprocessen genom att diktera hur design bör utformas, skapar de inte också då begränsningar av potentia...

  3. IKEA:s gråa hål : Hur IKEA kan få 50+ att handla mer möbler

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Patrik; Persson, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Syfte: Uppsatsen syfte är att beskriva och analysera varför IKEA-besökare i Karlstad, som tillhör kundgruppen 50+, väljer att inte handla möbler i samma utsträckning som de yngre besökarna. Metod: Uppsatsens undersökning grundas på en kvalitativ och en kvantitativ metod. Den kvalitativa metoden består av 20 öppna intervjuer med människor i kundgruppen 50+. Den kvantitativa metoden kompletterar den kvalitativa och består av frågeformulär som samtliga intervjuobjekt fick fylla i efter intervj...

  4. "Toore puuga kütmine on raiskamine ..." = "Att elda med sur ved är slöseri ..." : [luuletused] / Gunnar D. Hansson ; tlk. Mati Sirkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hansson, Gunnar D.

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Toore puuga kütmine on raiskamine ..." = "Att elda med sur ved är slöseri ..."; "Esimest päeva rändab tuul ..." = "Första dagen vandrar vinden ..."; "Päike tuli lähemale ..." = "Solen kom närmare ..."; "Nagu oleks kõik möödas ..." = "Som om allt vore över ..."

  5. "Private Banking" un tā attīstības perspektīvas Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgileviča, Oļesja

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz Latvijas komercbanku darbības analīzi, identificēt „Private Banking” apkalpošanas sistēmas būtību, īpatnības un problēmas, kā arī izstrādāt priekšlikumus pilnveidošanai. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no trīs nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā tiek veikta analīze „Private Banking” teorētiskajos aspektos. Apakšnodaļās tiek analizēta vēstures attīstība, jēdziena skaidrojums, biznesa modeļa būtība un „Private Banking” apkalpošanas īpatnības un pakalpojumi. Otrajā nodaļ...

  6. Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ackesjö

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det b

  7. Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling relaterad till fatigue, livskvalitet samt self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterlund, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund Cancerdrabbade lider ofta av cancerrelaterad fatigue (CRF) och försämrad livskvalitet under och efter behandling. Hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet (HFA) kan minska risken för dessa negativa konsekvenser. HFA påverkas bl.a. av träningsrelaterad self-efficacy, dvs tilltron till egen förmåga att vara fysisk aktiv. Syfte Att undersöka HFA hos personer under adjuvant cancerbehandling vid diagnos och efter sex månader samt att undersöka om de med en stabil HFA hade lägre CRF, högre livskval...

  8. Partial diversion of a mutant proinsulin (B10 aspartic acid) from the regulated to the constitutive secretory pathway in transfected AtT-20 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, D J; Halban, P A; Kahn, C R; Weir, G C; Villa-Komaroff, L

    1989-01-01

    A patient with type II diabetes associated with hyperproinsulinemia has been shown to have a point mutation in one insulin gene allele, resulting in replacement of histidine with aspartic acid at position 10 of the B-chain. To investigate the basis of the proinsulin processing defect, we introduced an identical mutation in the rat insulin II gene and expressed both the normal and the mutant genes in the AtT-20 pituitary corticotroph cell line. Cells expressing the mutant gene showed increased...

  9. Informācijpratības un sadarbības prasmes attīstīšana ar WebQuest mācību modeli

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbis, Mārtiņš

    2011-01-01

    Informācijpratības un sadarbības prasmes attīstīšana ar WebQuest mācību modeli. Gulbis M., zinātniskais vadītājs Dr.chem.,. docents Logins J., kvalifikācijas darbs, 41 lappuses, 6 attēli, 7 tabulas, 2 pielikumi, 25 literatūras avoti. Latviešu valodā. WEBQUEST, PROJEKTA APRAKSTS, DARBA UZDEVUMI, SPIRTI, FENOLI, INFORMĀCIJPRATĪBA, SADARBĪBAS PRASMES. Darbā veikta literatūras izpēte par WebQuest mācību modeļa izmantošanu ķīmijas mācību procesā, lai attīstītu skolēnu informācijpratību un sa...

  10. "Amoralle" zīmola attīstības stratēģija starptautiskajā tirgū

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovska, Viktorija

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba „Amoralle zīmola attīstības stratēģija starptautiskajā tirgū” mērķis ir pētot starptautiskā mārketinga un preču virzīšanas tirgū metodes, kā arī luksusa zīmola nozīmes uzņēmumā teorētisko pamatojumu, izanalizēt „Amoralle” darbību Latvijā un izstrādāt uzņēmuma attīstības plānu starptautiskajā tirgū. Darbā tika apskatīts zīmola jēdziens, patērētāju uzvedība luksusa zīmola izvēlē, luksusa zīmols, starptautiskais zīmols un sadarbības zīmols. Autore apkopoja Latvijas uzņēmēju int...

  11. Franšīzes attīstības iespējas pakalpojumu sektorā Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovs, Edgars

    2015-01-01

    Mūsdienās uzņēmējdarbības attīstīšanai arvien biežāk tiek izmantots franšīzes biznesa modelis. Tādējādi uzņēmējiem īsā laika periodā ļaujot attīstīt uzņēmējdarbību. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot Latvijas tirgus pievilcību franšīzes biznesa modeļa realizācijai, no mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu perspektīvas. Bakalaura darbā var iepazīties ar trim nodaļām, kurās detalizēti tiek apskatīta mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu, kā arī franšīzes teorētiskie aspekti un tirgus analīze Latvijā. Nosl...

  12. Konkurētspējas analīze medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Kadincovs, Artūrs

    2013-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma ir „Konkurētspējas analīze medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā”. Medicīnas tūrisms mūsdienās ir eksporta pakalpojums ar augstu pievienoto vērtību, kurš pozitīva scenārija rezultātā nes lielus ienākumus uzņēmējdarbības videi un valsts ekonomikai un rada labi apmaksātu speciālistu pieprasījumu. Pēc autora domām, medicīnas tūrisma attīstībai Latvijā ir perspektīvs scenārijs, jo Latvijai ir visss nepieciešamais, gan kvalificēts darbaspēks, gan resursi, turklāt pietiekoši ...

  13. Mobilā mārketinga izmantošana un tā attīstības perspektīvas Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Treija, Solveiga

    2014-01-01

    Solveiga Treija. Maģistra darbs „Mobilā mārketinga izmantošana un tā attīstības perspektīvas Latvijā.” Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz teorijas atziņām par mobilo mārketingu, mobilo ierīču lietotāju aptaujas rezultātiem un padziļināto interviju ar nozares speciālistiem rezultātiem, novērtēt mobilā mārketinga izmantošanu Latvijā, kā arī izstrādāt priekšlikumus mobilā mārketinga attīstībai uzņēmējdarbībā Latvijā. Pirmajā nodaļā pētīta mobilā mārketinga būtība, galvenie rīki un ...

  14. Internetveikala E-diplomatic mārketinga stratēģija un attīstības prognozes.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorčenko, Jeļena

    2013-01-01

    Darba mērķis ir izpētīt globālo Interneta tirdzniecības vidi, tās attīstības un beznodokļu tirdzniecības kā tirdzniecības specifiskā veida, attīstības iespējas Internetā; izvērtēt internetveikala E-diplomatic kopējo darbības stratēģiju un mērķus, izstrādāt atbilstošu mārketinga stratēģiju. Darbs sastāv no 3 pamatdaļām. Pirmā daļa ir darba teorētiskā bāze, tajā raksturota elektroniskās tirdzniecības mārketinga specifika un īpatnības. Otrā daļā tiek veikta pasaules elektroniskās tirdzniecīb...

  15. Methods to use biomass, consisting of peat and wood material, to extract fiber substance to be used to make paper pulp and a fuel product. Saett att ur biomassa, bestaaende av torv och vedmatarial, utvinna en foer tillverkning av en pappersmassaprodukt laemplig fibermassa samt en braensleprodukt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J A.I.

    1985-12-16

    Peat cut from the upper layers is used to make paper pulp of low density. The wood material of the peat is mechanically separated three times. The result is a pulp of peat fibres and wood fibres and dewatered colloidal peat to be used as a fuel. (M.B).

  16. Inhibitory effects of a selective Jak2 inhibitor on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asari Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Asari, Kazunori Kageyama, Yuki Nakada, Mizuki Tasso, Shinobu Takayasu, Kanako Niioka, Noriko Ishigame, Makoto Daimon Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan Purpose: The primary cause of Cushing’s disease is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas. EGFR signaling induces POMC mRNA-transcript levels and ACTH secretion from corticotroph tumors. The Jak–STAT pathway is located downstream of EGFR signaling; therefore, a Jak2 inhibitor could be an effective therapy for EGFR-related tumors. In this study, we determined the effect of a potent and selective Jak2 inhibitor, SD1029, on ACTH production and proliferation in mouse AtT20 corticotroph tumor cells.Materials and methods: AtT20 pituitary corticotroph tumor cells were cultured after transfection with PTTG1- or GADD45β-specific siRNA. Expression levels of mouse POMC, PTTG1, and GADD45β mRNAs were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. ACTH levels were measured using ACTH ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to examine protein expression of phosphorylated STAT3/STAT3. Viable cells and DNA fragmentation were measured using a cell-proliferation assay and cell-death detection ELISA, respectively. Cellular DNA content was analyzed using fluorescence-activated cell sorting.Results: SD1029 decreased POMC and PTTG1 mRNA and ACTH levels, while increasing GADD45β levels. The drug also decreased AtT20-cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, but did not alter cell-cycle progression. SD1029 also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. PTTG1 knockdown inhibited POMC mRNA levels and cell proliferation. However, combined treatment with PTTG1 knockdown and SD1029 had no additive effect on POMC mRNA levels or cell proliferation. GADD45β knockdown inhibited the SD1029-induced decrease in POMC mRNA levels and also partially inhibited the decrease in cell proliferation.Conclusion: Both

  17. Reduktion av slöseri inom den spanska ölindustrin : – en studie av åtgärder och metoder i spåren av krisen

    OpenAIRE

    Carlström, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Den rådande eurokrisen har påverkat det spanska samhället och den spanska ölindustrin negativt. Industrin står inför utmaningar vad gäller minskad försäljning och förändrade kundpreferenser. I tider då intäkterna och försäljningen minskar finns det många sätt att öka sina marginaler. Ett av detta sätt är att börja arbeta med resurseffektivitet och att se till att slöseriet av de resurser man har minskar. De frågor studien besvarar är hur bryggeriindustrin i Spanien har arbetat för att minska ...

  18. Millennials : Hur företag ska arbeta med styrning för att behålla den nya generationen

    OpenAIRE

    Lemchen, Gabriella; Gjärdman, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Generationen millennials ses av många ledare som lata, krävande men även illojala. Vilket har gjort det svårt för många företag att leda, styra samt förankra dem. Anledningen grundar sig mångt och mycket i en generationskrock där ledare ur de äldre generationerna inte vet hur de ska styra den yngre generationen. Millennials är framstående inom kunskapsintensiva tjänsteföretag idag och är även den generation som byter arbetsgivare mer frekvent än tidigare generationer. Det är därför vitalt för...

  19. Evidensgraderingssystemet GRADE : Ett sätt att granska vetenskaplig kunskap om metoder och arbetssätt i hälso- och sjukvården

    OpenAIRE

    Roback, Kerstin; Carlsson, Per

    2009-01-01

    Beslut om införande av nya behandlingsmetoder och arbetssätt i sjukvården präglas alltid av en viss grad av osäkerhet. De studier som gjorts av metodens för- och nackdelar kan vara av olika god kvalitet och därmed ge mer eller mindre säkra resultat. Efter att användningen av systematiska litteraturstudier vid medicinsk teknologiutvärdering tog fart på 1980-talet började man efterfråga ett beslutsunderlag som även tar hänsyn till olika studiers kvalitet. Detta initierade utvecklingen av flera ...

  20. Våga vara dig själv : Att förstå och skapa en illusion av ljus med digitala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jasmin; Lundbladh, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Vi omges ständigt av ljus i vår vardag, det finns naturligt ljus samt artificiellt. Även under de grå dagarna finns det ljus och dess närvaro är alltid där även om den inte alltid är som klarast. I detta kandidatarbete beskrivs ljuset ur olika synvinklar, men framförallt hur Rembrandt och impressionisterna i sina konstverk använt ljuset i sitt skapande. För att få en bredare syn på vår process tar vi hjälp av de två begreppen “fluid” och “fire” som kommer från aktör-nätver...

  1. Kan ekologisk och ekonomisk hållbarhet kombineras? : En studie av en neoklassisk jämviktsmodell och dess relation till hållbarhet

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, David

    2015-01-01

    Bakgrunden till examensarbetet är att aktiviteter kopplat till den globala ekonomin samt tillväxt av denna har skapat en situation som i dagsläget inte uppfyller den ekologiska dimensionen av hållbarhet. Lösningar för att minska den miljöpåverkan som sker idag samtidigt som ekonomisk tillväxt sker har kritiserats och istället föreslås ekonomier med låg eller ingen tillväxt. Med bakgrund till detta har forskningsprojektet Bortom BNP-tillväxt startat och examensarbetet genomförs hos ekonomiska ...

  2. Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléne Johansson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan, och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att beskriva skillnader i kunnande och vad som framstår som svårt för elever med liten eller ingen erfarenhet av att lägga ut mönster på ett tyg inför tillklippning och hur kunnandet förändras med ökande erfarenhet, liksom vilka nya svårigheter som följer med att elever arbetar med mönster av ökande komplexitet. Det som vid en första blick kan framstå som samma handling utvecklas över tid från något som framstår som enkel handling till att utvecklas i komplexitet. I de tvekan-situationer som beskriv finns potential för ett förändrat deltagande, där förändringen idealt är ett mer kompetent deltagande där ingen tvekan förekommer. Med ökad förtrogenhet kan uppmärksamheten förflyttas till något annat. Det vi är förtrogna med blir till rutiner och därmed behövs det en avvikelse för att fånga uppmärksamheten. I avvikelsen ligger möjligheterna till fortsatt lärande. Artikelns empiriska exempel synliggör dessa skillnader i kunnande som annars oreflekterat kan uppfattas som lika. Eleverna bygger in kunskap i sina handlingar, fokus flyttar från att inte veta vad man tittar på till självklarheten i handlingen. Eleverna lär sig se och urskilja.

  3. Establishment of real time allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR for detection of HBV YIDD (ATT mutation and evaluation of its application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbin Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term use of nucleos(tide analogues can increase risk of HBV drug-resistance mutations. The rtM204I (ATT coding for isoleucine is one of the most important resistance mutation sites. Establishing a simple, rapid, reliable and highly sensitive assay to detect the resistant mutants as early as possible is of great clinical significance. METHODS: Recombinant plasmids for HBV YMDD (tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate and YIDD (tyrosine-isoleucine-aspartate-aspartate were constructed by TA cloning. Real time allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR (RT-AS-LNA-qPCR with SYBR Green I was established by LNA-modified primers and evaluated with standard recombinant plasmids, clinical templates (the clinical wild type and mutant HBV DNA mixture and 102 serum samples from nucleos(tide analogues-experienced patients. The serum samples from a chronic hepatitis B (CHB patient firstly received LMV mono therapy and then switched to LMV + ADV combined therapy were also dynamically analyzed for 10 times. RESULTS: The linear range of the assay was between 1×10(9 copies/μl and 1 × 10(2 copies/μl. The low detection limit was 1 × 10(1 copies/μl. Sensitivity of the assay were 10(-6, 10(-4 and 10(-2 in the wild-type background of 1 × 10(9 copies/μl, 1 × 10(7 copies/μl and 1 × 10(5 copies/μl, respectively. The sensitivity of the assay in detection of clinical samples was 0.03%. The complete coincidence rate between RT-AS-LNA-qPCR and direct sequencing was 91.2% (93/102, partial coincidence rate was 8.8% (9/102, and no complete discordance was observed. The two assays showed a high concordance (Kappa = 0.676, P = 0.000. Minor variants can be detected 18 weeks earlier than the rebound of HBV DNA load and alanine aminotransferase level. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, cost-effective, high sensitive, specific and reliable method of RT-AS-LNA-qPCR with SYBR Green I for early and absolute quantification of HBV YIDD (ATT coding for isoleucine

  4. Att drabbas av cancer i tonåren : En kvantitativ studie om hälsorelaterad livskvalitet två till fyra år efter diagnos

    OpenAIRE

    Hiding, Markus; Lavemark, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Syfte Studiens syfte var att undersöka: självskattad hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos tonåringar som drabbats av cancer två år (T5), tre år (T6) och fyra år (T7) efter diagnos, samt att jämföra deras skattningar med en referensgrupp randomiserad från befolkningen.   Metod Tonåringarna med cancer besvarade SF-36 2 år (N=38), 3 år (N=42) samt 4 år (N=39) efter diagnos. En referensgrupp (N=300) randomiserad av Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) besvarade samma formulär vid ett tillfälle. Samtlig data...

  5. Noziedzīgi iegūtu līdzekļu legalizāciju ietekmējošie faktori attīstības valstu banku sektoros un Latvijas komercbankās

    OpenAIRE

    Golovina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums - Noziedzīgi iegūtu līdzekļu legalizāciju ietekmējoši faktori attīstības valstu banku sektorā un Latvijas komercbankās. Maģistra darba mērķis - noskaidrot un izanalizēt faktorus, kuri ietekmē noziedzīgi iegūtu līdzekļu legalizāciju attīstības valstu banku sektorā un Latvijas komercbankās. Maģistra darba metodoloģija – kvalitatīvā metode, kuras gaitā tika izstrādāta aptaujas anketa; dokumentu analīze – zinātniskās literatūras apkopošana un analīze, lai izprastu...

  6. Hur hotellgäster väljer att ta ton & vad vill de egentligen ha? : En kvantitativ studie om gästers uppfattning av service recovery inom hotellbranschen.

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Caroline; Sundholm, Matilda

    2015-01-01

    Hotellbranschen är en bransch som ständigt expanderar. Även om beläggningsgraden på hotellen inte ökar avsevärt växer antalet övernattningar på hotell vilket tyder på en ökad konkurrensbild på marknaden. Samtidigt fokuserar tjänsteföretagen alltmer på företagets personalresurser och att kunna erbjuda något utöver kärntjänsten för att differentiera företagets position på marknaden. På ett hotell där hotellrummen är den huvudsakliga tjänsten läggs ett allt större f...

  7. Ledarskapet och de två faktorerna : En induktiv studie för att förstå hur organisationsfaktorer och könsstereotyper påverkar ledarskap

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Hampus; Tang, Vinh; Vannfält, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Sammanfattning   Titel: Ledarskapet och de två faktorerna: En induktiv studie för att förstå hur organisationsfaktorer och könsstereotyper påverkar ledarskap.   Seminariedatum: 2018-01-09   Akademi: Akademin för Ekonomi, Samhälle och Teknik, Mälardalen Högskola   Ämne/kurs: FOA300, examensarbete i företagsekonomi på kandidatnivå.   Författare: Larsson, Hampus 930903, Tang, Vinh 940523, Vannfält, Jessica 911031   Handledare: Magnus Linderström   Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att genom en i...

  8. cDNA cloning and characterization of mouse DTEF-1 and ETF, members of the TEA/ATTS family of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockey, C E; Shimizu, N

    1998-02-01

    Members of the TEA/ATTS family of transcription factors have been found in most representative eukaryotic organisms. In vertebrates, the TEA family contains at least four members, which share overlapping DNA-binding specificity and have similar transcriptional activation properties. In this article, we describe the cDNA cloning and characterization of the murine TEA proteins DTEF-1 (mDTEF-1) and ETF. Using in situ hybridization analysis of mouse embryos, we found that mDTEF-1 and ETF transcript distributions substantially overlap. ETF is expressed throughout the embryo except in the myocardium early in development, whereas late in development, it is enriched in lung and neuroectoderm. Mouse DTEF-1 is expressed at a much lower level throughout development and is substantially enriched in ectoderm and skin, as well as in the developing pituitary at midgestation. Northern blot analysis of adult mouse tissue total RNA showed that both ETF and mDTEF-1 are abundant in uterus and lung relative to other tissues. Using gel mobility shift assays and GAL4-fusion protein analysis, we demonstrated that the full coding sequences of ETF and mDTEF-1 encode M-CAT/GT-IIC-binding proteins containing activation domains.

  9. Franšaizings kā starptautiskā biznesa iespēja un tā attīstība Latvijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolģe, Daiga

    2014-01-01

    Arvien biežāk uzņēmumi pielieto franšīzes metodi sava biznesa attīstīšanā, it īpaši, gadījumos, kad uzņēmums vēlas ar minimālu investīciju daudzumu apgūt jaunus tirgus. Savukārt pērkot franšīzi ir iespējams iegūt lielu potenciālo klientu skaitu ar jau pazīstama zīmola palīdzību un atbalstu no franšīzes devēja, kas ir īpaši izdevīgi mazāk pieredzējušiem uzņēmējiem. Baklaura darba mērķis ir sniegt vērtējumu franšīzei kā starptautiskai biznesa iespējai un izdarīt secinājumus un priekšlikumus...

  10. Differential effects of the new glucocorticoid receptor antagonist ORG 34517 and RU486 (mifepristone) on glucocorticoid receptor nuclear translocation in the AtT20 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, B W M M; Ruigt, G S F; Craighead, M; Kitchener, P

    2008-12-01

    Glucocorticoid agonists bind to cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and subsequently translocate as an agonist-GR complex into the nucleus. In the nucleus the complex regulates the transcription of target genes. A number of GR antagonists (RU486, progesterone, RU40555) have also been shown to induce receptor translocation. These compounds should be regarded as partial agonists. For the nonselective progesterone receptor antagonists, RTI3021-012 and RTI3021-022, it was shown that GR antagonism is possible without the induction of GR translocation. In the present studies, the new GR antagonist, ORG 34517, was investigated for its potential to induce GR translocation and to antagonize corticosterone-induced GR translocation in the AtT20 (mouse pituitary) cell line. ORG 34517 was compared to RU486. In contrast to RU486, ORG 34517 (at doses up to 3 x 10(-7) M) did not induce GR translocation, but was able to block corticosterone (3 x 10(-8) M) induced GR translocation. ORG 34517 can be regarded as a true competitive GR antagonist without partial agonistic activities.

  11. 3-4 gadīgu bērnu runas prasmju attīstīšana didaktiskajās spēlēs

    OpenAIRE

    Zavicka, Vita

    2017-01-01

    . Darba tēma – 3-4 gadīgu bērnu runas prasmju attīstīšana didaktiskajās spēlēs Kvalifikācijas darba autore – Vita Zavicka. Zinātniskā darba vadītāja – Aija Kalve. Teorijas darba daļā raksturota bērnu valodas prasmju attīstība pedagoģijas, psiholoģijas skatījumā, bērna runas attīstības pēctecības nodrošināšana. Raksturotas pirmskolas bērnu vārdu krājuma likumsakarības, vadoties pēc MK noteikumiem Nr. 533 par valsts pirmsskolas izglītības vadlīnijām, ka galvenais bērna darbības vei...

  12. Pierādījumu institūta civilprocesā attīstība Latvijā no 1918. gada un tā pēctecības izpausmes

    OpenAIRE

    Keišs, Oskars

    2015-01-01

    Oskars Keišs, maģistra darbs „Pierādījumu institūta civilprocesā attīstība Latvijā no 1918.gada un tā pēctecības izpausmes”. Maģistra darba mērķis – izskatīt un analizēt pierādījumu institūtu civilprocesā, tā pēctecību un attīstību Latvijā no 1918. gada, tā nozīmi. Maģistra darba uzdevumi - normatīvo aktu un juridiskās literatūras izpēte un analīze, tiesas spriedumu izpildes nozīmes un būtības raksturojums, vēsturiskās attīstības izpētīšana, priekšlikumu izteikšana. Maģistra darbā iz...

  13. Vāciešu dzīves līmeņa atainojums televīzijas reklāmu attēlos un tekstos

    OpenAIRE

    Krauja, Līga

    2007-01-01

    Krauja Līga. Vāciešu dzīves līmeņa atainojums televīzijas reklāmās attēlos un tekstos: Bakalaura darbs. Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte, 2007 Darba apjoms 38 lpp Darbā tiek apskatīta vāciešu dzīves līmeņa parādīšanās televīzijas reklāmās. Īpaša uzmanība tiek pievērsta tam, kā vāciešu dzīves līmenis tiek attēlots reklāmu tekstos: rakstītos, mutiskos un ar attēlu palīdzību. Darba mērķis ir saprast reklāmas uzbūvi un, pamatojoties uz to, analizēt televīzijas reklāmas, arī atsevišķus reklāmas...

  14. YouTube izmantošana vācu valodas kā svešvalodas stundās rakstītprasmes attīstīšanai pamatskolā

    OpenAIRE

    Krūma, Līga

    2014-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma ir „YouTube izmantošana vācu valodas kā svešvalodas stundās rakstītprasmes attīstīšanai pamatskolā. Diplomdarba tēmas izvēli noteica fakts, ka Latvijā nav daudz pētījumu par YouTube, un ka šī video interneta mājaslapa, var piedāvāt jauninājumus vācu valodas kā svešvalodas stundās rakstītprasmes attīstīšanai. Darba teorētiskā daļa veido pedagoģiskās un metodiskās literatūras analīze. Teorētiskās pētniecības darba gaitā tika izstrādāti un izmēģināti rakstītprasmes attīsto...

  15. Småföretagarnas Bootstrapping : en kvantitativ studie om hur småföretagens bootstrappinganvändning förklaras utifrån företagens livscykel

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anton; Nilsson, Pontus

    2017-01-01

    Arbetslösheten i Sverige uppgick under 2017 års första månad till 7,3 procent. En aktuell faktor för att minska arbetslösheten är entreprenörskap. Entreprenörskap är en viktig del i utvecklingen för att driva småföretag. Småföretagen svarar för en betydande del av Sveriges sysselsättning, men lider av låg överlevnadsgrad. För att öka sannolikheten för överlevnad använder många småföretag olika bootstrappingmetoder. Syftet med bootstrapping är att finna lösningar på resursbehov och kan därför ...

  16. The BlcC (AttM) lactonase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens does not quench the quorum-sensing system that regulates Ti plasmid conjugative transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sharik R; Farrand, Stephen K

    2009-02-01

    The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches the quorum-sensing system. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of the mutation, induction, or mutational derepression of blcC on the accumulation of acyl-HSL and on the conjugative competence of strain C58. The induction of blc resulted in an 8- to 10-fold decrease in levels of extracellular acyl-HSL but in only a twofold decrease in intracellular quormone levels, a measure of the amount of active intracellular TraR. The induction or mutational derepression of blc as well as a null mutation in blcC had no significant effect on the induction of or continued transfer of pTiC58 from donors in any stage of growth, including stationary phase. In matings performed in developing tumors, wild-type C58 transferred the Ti plasmid to recipients, yielding transconjugants by 14 to 21 days following infection. blcC-null donors yielded transconjugants 1 week earlier, but by the following week, transconjugants were recovered at numbers indistinguishable from those of the wild type. Donors mutationally derepressed for blcC yielded transconjugants in planta at numbers 10-fold lower than those for the wild type at weeks 2 and 3, but by week 4, the two donors showed no difference in recoverable transconjugants. We conclude that BlcC has no biologically significant effect on Ti plasmid transfer or its regulatory system.

  17. Dömda att leva i skuggan : En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hälsan hos personer med albinism i Rwanda, utifrån begreppen diskriminering, coping och socialt stöd

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonkuru, Elsie Diane

    2016-01-01

    Bakgrund: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) är en ärftlig sjukdom som fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt påverkar de drabbade individerna. Okunskap, fördomar och myter om albinism utgör de största orsakerna till den diskriminering som personer med albinism utsatts för särskilt i vissa länder i Afrika söder om Sahara. Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva hälsan hos personer med albinism i Rwanda, utifrån begreppen diskriminering, coping och socialt stöd. Metod: En kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats ligger t...

  18. Pulsmätning och stegräkning från Android Wear : Utveckling av en applikation för att spara mätdata

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Detta examensarbete beskriver utvecklingen av en applikation för att överföra data från en Android Wear smartklocka till en Android smarttelefon som sedan skickar datan vidare till en server. Servern sätter in datan i en MySQL-databas. Android Wear smartklockornas sensorer undersöks även. Smartklockorna har sensorer för stegräkning och pulsmätning. I examensarbetet beskrivs det hur sensorerna fungerar. Därtill genomgås Androids historia i korta drag samt basfunktionerna i Android operativsyst...

  19. [Ose, Ieva. Livonijas pilu attēli no marķīza Pauluči albuma - Abbildungen der livländischen Burgen im Album des Marquis Paulucci] / Ivar Leimus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leimus, Ivar, 1953-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Livonijas pilu attēli no marķīza Pauluči albuma = Abbildungen der livländischen Burgen im Album des Marquis Paulucci. LU Latvijas vēstures institūts; Latvijas Akadēmiska biblioteka. (Rīga, 2008.) Kuramaa, Liivimaa ja Eestimaa pildialbumitest, mis tõenäoliselt on valminud aastatel 1827-1830, mis on nüüd välja antud ühiste kaante vahel. Tekst tõlgitud saksa keelde

  20. Efeito da aplicação foliar de boro e zinco sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da pinheira Leaf spray fertilization of boron and zinc on production, SST and ATT in fruits of pear and sugar apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Faria Simão Canesin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulverizações foliares com produtos contendo micronutrientes, dentre os quais os produtos quelatizados, são utilizadas com relativa freqüência em frutíferas, sem o embasamento científico adequado, principalmente entre os agricultores mais tecnificados. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da aplicação via foliar de B e Zn sobre a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da Pereira-Japonesa e da Pinheira. O experimento foi conduzido numa área irrigada, situada no cinturão verde do município de Ilha Solteira-SP. O solo da área foi classificado como Podzólico Vermelho-Escuro. Foram utilizadas plantas de Pereira-Japonesa, cultivar Okussankichi e de Pinheira. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1. apenas água; T2. ácido bórico; T3. sulfato de zinco; T4. T2 + T3; T5. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T6. sulfato de zinco + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA; T7. T5 + T6; T8. ácido bórico + uréia + ácido cítrico + EDTA + molibdato de sódio + enxofre + cloreto de cálcio; T9. sulfato de zinco + ácido cítrico + EDTA + sulfato de Fe + sulfato de Mn + sulfato de Mg, e T10. T8+T9. Foram utilizadas doses de 110 g ha-1 de B e 250 g ha-1 de Zn, em cada aplicação. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e, para comparação de médias, foi utilizado o teste de Tukey. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que: 1 a produção e os teores de SST e ATT dos frutos da pereira-japonesa e da pinheira não foram influenciados pela aplicação foliar de B e de Zn; b a mistura de ácido bórico com quelatos foi eficiente no fornecimento de B às plantas de pereira- japonesa, o mesmo não ocorrendo para pinheira, c o sulfato de zinco + produtos quelatizantes foram eficientes no aumento dos teores foliares de Zn somente na pereira.Leaf spray using liquid products with micronutrients, among them, quelates are usual in fruit trees. However, there

  1. Att argumentera om ekonomisk legitimitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2011-01-01

    What counts as ‘work’ in societies is a matter of dispute. This paper treats such disagreements as part of broader struggles over economic legitimacy wherein people use language persuasively to make accounts of their own and others’ activities. It briefly introduces activities around which...... these struggles have developed, and argues that these rhetorical interventions into public life appeal to, and try to affect, an audience’s common sense of their social world. The paper places emphasis on the ways in which building and rejecting analogies between different activities can be an important part...

  2. Sagatavoto runu izmantošana angļu valodas stundās vidusskolēnu publiskās runas iemaņu attīstīšanai

    OpenAIRE

    Rukkalne, Agnese

    2009-01-01

    Diplomdarba autore savas prakses laikā pamanīja, ka skolēniem bija grūtības runāt publikas priekšā. Skolēniem bija problēmas argumentēt savu viedokli un precīzi izteikt savas domas, bet mūsdienās tas ir svarīgi, lai dabūtu darbu, spētu labi prezentēt savas idejas un prastu pārliecināt citus - tāpēc cilvēkiem ir jāattīsta publiskās uzstāšanās prasmes. Diplomdarba autore izmantoja sagatavotās runas angļu valodas stundās, lai attīstītu vidusskolēnu publiskās runas iemaņas. Izvēlētā pētījuma m...

  3. Refleksīvās dienasgrāmatas argumentatīvās rakstītprasmes attīstībai angļu valodas stundās vidusskolā

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, Zane

    2013-01-01

    Šis pētījums tika veits lai noteiktu vai refleksiju dienasgrāmatas var tikt pielietotas vidusskolas angļu valodas mācību stundās, lai attīstītu argumentatīvās rakstītprasmes. Lai to uzzinātu, tika izmantots gadījuma pētījums. Gadījuma pētījumā tika pārbaudīta skolēnu argumantatīvo rakstītprasmju attīstība, izmantojot refleksiju dienasgrāmatu analīzi, kā arī pirms- un pēc-testu. Skolēni veica ierakstus refleksiju dienasgrāmatās pēc katras mācību stundas, kas koncentrējās uz argumentatīvo prasm...

  4. Vad behöver eleverna undervisning i för att utveckla sitt skrivande? Förväntningsnormer och didaktiska beslut i svensklärares bedömningssamtal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Blomqvist

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available I studien samtalar tre lärargrupper om elevers skrivande och skrivundervisning i ämnet svenska på gymnasiet. Det teoretiska perspektiv som läggs på dessa samtal är didaktiskt och inriktas på hur lärare formulerar och använder bedömningsinformation om elevers skrivande för beslut om skrivundervisningens innehåll. Resultatet visar att lärares bedömningar av elevers skrivande behandlar fler och delvis andra aspekter av skrivförmåga än vad deras didaktiska beslut sedan omfattar. De kvalitetsuppfattningar och förväntningsnormer som lärarna uttrycker i sina bedömningar av elevers skrivande inriktas huvudsakligen på texters kommunikativa kvaliteter, den stilistiska utformningen och textuppbyggnaden, följt av ämnesinnehåll och källanvändning. De didaktiska beslut som fattas utifrån bedömningen av elevers texter inriktas däremot i stort sett enbart på att eleverna behöver skrivundervisning i att disponera text och att använda källor. Detta gör att överensstämmelsen är låg mellan lärarnas beslut om skrivundervisningens inriktning och deras förväntningar på vad eleverna ska kunna. De didaktiska besluten omfattar i begränsad utsträckning den bedömningsinformation som lärarna själva har formulerat.Nyckelord: Skrivbedömning, kvalitetsuppfattningar, förväntningsnormer, didaktiska beslut, formativ bedömning, svenskämnets didaktik, svenska på gymnasietAbstractThis article presents an analysis of teacher group discussions about students’ writing in the subject of Swedish in upper secondary school. The study adopts a pedagogical perspective on these discussions and focuses on examining teachers’ expressed assessment criteria and relating them to their pedagogical decision-making. The results reveal that the teachers’ assessments of students’ writing focus on much more, and partly other, criteria than their pedagogical decisions. The quality standards that teachers express in the discussions about

  5. Stop distances for ten studless winter tires

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Niclas; Andrén, Henrik; Larsson, Roland; Fransson, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    Denna rapport innehåller stoppsträckor för tio omgångar dubbfria vinterdäck. Arbetets huvudmål är att kunna skapa en grund för vinterdäcksklassificering. Så småning om skall traffikanter kunna få relevant information om olika däckens förmåga att skapa tillräckligt väggrepp på farliga vinterväglag. Vägverket ser ett ökat behov av kunskap då dubbdäcksanvändandet kommer att minskas i framtiden.

  6. Läget i berggrummet : En kvalitativ undersökning av inverkande faktorer i arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum

    OpenAIRE

    Miladi, Lubna

    2014-01-01

    Strävan efter att minska risker för arbetsskador och uppnå en god arbetsmiljö är betydelsefull idag inte minst på byggarbetsplatser.   Syftet med examensarbetet var att, utifrån kartläggning av arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats, belysa några faktorer som har inverkan på arbetsmiljön. Magisteruppsatsen har begränsats till att undersöka arbetsmiljön på en byggarbetsplats i ett bergrum. Några organisatoriska faktorer som säkerhetskultur, attityder, kunskap samt fysiska faktorer som belysning, b...

  7. Emocionālā intelekta attīstība 16 -18 gadus veciem pusaudžiem un tā saistība ar vecāku audzināšanas stilu.

    OpenAIRE

    Poļakova, Anželika

    2011-01-01

    Šī pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot, vai vecāku izvēlētais audzināšanas stils ir saistīts ar emocionālā intelekta attīstību. Pētījumā piedalījās 64 respondenti: 32 sievietes no 16 līdz 18 gadiem un 32 vīrieši no 16 līdz 18 gadiem. Respondenti pārstāv dažādas sociāli ekonomiskas grupas. Tika izmantotas šādas metodes: Bar-Ona emocionālā intelekta aptauja (Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), Bar-On, 1999) un Buri Vecāku audzināšanas stila aptauju (Buri Parental Authority Questionnaire- PAQ...

  8. Att öka mottagligheten för branded content genom hyper-personalisering : En användarstudie mot målgruppen för digitala tidskrifter inom populärkultur.

    OpenAIRE

    Sombo, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    I denna studie utreder jag om hur branded content mottas av målgruppen för digitala tidskrifter inom populärkultur genom en framträdande teknik in webb-personalisering, hyper-personalisering. Målgruppen för denna studie är unga opinionsbildare som konsumerar innehåll från digitala tidskrifter som exempelvis Nöjesguiden. Branded content, sponsrat innehåll, är innehåll som skapas för att ett varumärke skall förknippas med en kreatörs målgrupp. Alltså kan ett varumärke be Nöjesguiden skapa redak...

  9. The rehabilitation of attention in patients with mild cognitive impairment and brain subcortical vascular changes using the Attention Process Training-II. The RehAtt Study: rationale, design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Emilia; Poggesi, Anna; Valenti, Raffaella; Della Rocca, Eleonora; Diciotti, Stefano; Mascalchi, Mario; Inzitari, Domenico; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2016-10-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) may cause attentional and executive cognitive deficits. No drug is currently available to improve cognitive performance or to prevent dementia in SVD patients, and cognitive rehabilitation could be a promising approach. We aimed to investigate: (1) the effectiveness of the Attention Process Training-II program in the rehabilitation of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and SVD; (2) the impact of the induced cognitive improvement on functionality and quality of life; (3) the effect of training on brain activity at rest and the possibility of a training-induced plasticity effect. The RehAtt study is designed as a 3-year prospective, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: (1) MCI defined according to Winblad et al. criteria; (2) evidence of impairment across attention neuropsychological tests; (3) evidence on MRI of moderate/severe white matter hyperintensities. All enrolled patients are evaluated at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, according to an extensive clinical, functional, MRI and neuropsychological protocol. The baseline RehAtt cohort includes 44 patients (66 % males, mean ± SD age and years of education 75.3 ± 6.8 and 8.3 ± 4.3, respectively). After baseline assessment, patients have been randomly assigned to 'attention training' or 'standard care'. Treatments and follow-up visits at 6 months are completed, while follow-up visits at 12 months are ongoing. This study is the first attempt to reduce attention deficits in patients affected by MCI with SVD. The results of this pilot experience will represent an essential background for designing larger multicenter, prospective, double-blinded, randomized and controlled clinical trials. NCT02033850 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier).

  10. Biedrības "Latvijas Universitātes Sports" zīmola izveide un attīstīšana integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā

    OpenAIRE

    Dārznieks, Kārlis

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir, pamatojoties uz zīmola un mārketinga komunikāciju teorijas analīzi, izpētīt biedrības ,,Latvijas Universitātes sports’’ zīmola veiksmīgas izstrādes un pozicionēšanas iespējas integrēto mārketinga komunikāciju kontekstā, nosakot visatbilstošāko zīmola pozicionēšanas stratēģiju, kā arī izstrādāt komunikāciju plānu zīmola attīstīšanai. Rezultātā tiek izanalizētas līdzšinēji realizētās integrētā mārketinga komunikācijas zīmola atpazīstamības veidošanai, kā arī izstrādāts...

  11. Vidējā pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu iztēles attīstības sekmēšana zīmēšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Stricka, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Darba nosaukums: Vidējā pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu iztēles attīstības sekmēšana zīmēšanā. Darba autore: Ilona Stricka. Darba zinātniskā vadītāja: dr. paed., lekt. Antra Randoha. Darbs sastāv no ievada, 2 daļām, literatūras un avotu saraksta, pielikuma. Darba pirmajā daļā autore iepazīstina ar iztēles jēdziena skaidrojumu dažādu pedagogu un psihologu teorētiskajām atziņām. Zīmēšanas būtību, veidiem un iztēles sekmēšanas pedagoģiski psiholoģiskiem nosacījumiem zīmēšanas procesā. Otrajā daļā au...

  12. Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, Agnese

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā „Cilvēka attēlojums nacionālsociālisma laikā: vācu cilvēka tēls plakātos” tiek noskaidrota sievietes, vīrieša un jaunieša loma sabiedrībā. No 1933. līdz 1945. gadam Vācijā pastāvošā nacionālsociālistiskās ideoloăija ietekmēja propagandas saturu, kā arī noteica sabiedrības locekĜu domāšanas veidu un uzskatus. Darba gaitā tiek aplūkotas tā laika Vācijā valdošās politiskās idejas, mediju un propagandas, kā arī Trešā reiha valodas īpatnības. Darba galvenais pētījumu...

  13. Džuče ideoloģijas attīstība un tās ietekme Ziemeļkorejas ārpolitikā (2011-2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Šķestere, Ildze

    2017-01-01

    Šī bakalaura darba nosaukums ir “Džuče ideoloģijas attīstība un tās ietekme Ziemeļkorejas ārpolitikā (2011-2016)”. Mūsdienās Ziemeļkorejas ārpolitika ir īpaši svarīga austrumāzijas reģionā, tāpēc šajā darbā tiek aplūkots viens no iespējamajiem ietekmējošajiem faktoriem tajā – džuče ideoloģija.Uzsvars šajā darbāir likts uz ideoloģijas vēsturi un tās pamatelementiem, kā arī tajā tiek pielietota detalizētāk pieeja apskatot kā katrs no Ziemeļkorejas līderiem to paplašināja. Sākot no Kim Il Song, ...

  14. Faktorer som påverkar barndödligheten i Etiopien

    OpenAIRE

    Östman, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Temat för detta examensarbete är barndödlighet i Etiopien. Syftet är att undersöka den höga småbarnsdödligheten, orsakad av diarré och malaria. Detta är ett beställningsarbete för organisationen PADet, som har ett samarbete med yrkeshögskolan Arcada. Med småbarn menas i denna studie, barn under fem år. Frågeställningarna för arbetet är, Vilka är de främsta orsakerna som påverkar småbarnsdödligheten vid diarré och malaria? Och Vad görs idag för att minska på småbarnsdödligheten vid diarré och ...

  15. Fysisk träning som vård av muskuloskeletala störningar bland datorarbetande : - en litteraturöversikt

    OpenAIRE

    Renvall, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sammandrag: Ämnet för denna litteraturöversikt är fysisk träning som vård av muskuloskeletala funktionsstörningar bland datorarbetande. Dessa arbetsrelaterade muskuloskeletala funktionsstörningar är mycket vanliga. Arbetsförhållandena nuförtiden gör att tiden som används vid datorn förlängs och att minska belastningen med endast rätt arbetsergonomi kan orsaka andra problem. Förlängda arbetspass, låg variation i muskelns kontraktionsnivå och ökad monotoni kan bli följden av optimerad erg...

  16. Reālijas un valodas īpatnību attēlošana literārā tekstu tulkojumā (pamatojoties uz Aleksandra Puškina romāna „Kapteiņa meita”)

    OpenAIRE

    Širado, Nataļja

    2008-01-01

    Šīs darbs Reālijas un valodas īpatnību attēlošana literāra tekstu tulkojumā (pamatojoties uz Aleksandra Puškina romana „Kapteiņa meita”) ir veltīts reālijas tulkošanas problēmai literārajos tekstos. Šī darba mērķis bija analizēt dažādus A.S. Puškina romāna „Kapteiņa meita” tulkojumus lai izpētīt metodes, kuras tulkotāji lietoja, lai attēlotu reālijas un valodas īpatnības kuriem piemīt vēsturiskais un kulturālais kolorīts, kā arī tiem, kuriem nav ekvivalenta Angļu valodā. Kā arī izpētīt tu...

  17. Patientstråldosjämförelse vid konventionell urografi och lågdos CT-urografi

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Jignasa; Bertell, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Röntgensjuksköterskans huvudområde är radiografi som innefattar bland annat användning av joniserande strålning. CT undersökningar av urinvägssystemen och dess funktion ökar. CT ger en högre stråldos till patienter, jämfört med konventionell röntgen, vilket kan medföra olika sorters skador hos den som bestrålats. ALARAprincipen skall användas för att minska joniserande strålning så mycket som möjligt. Studien är utförd på Höglandsjukhuset i Eksjö där de har implementerat lågdosprotokoll på CT...

  18. Sabiedrisko attiecību loma uzņēmuma mērķu sasniegšanā: Latvijas Investīciju un attīstības aģentūras gadījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Adamane, Alise

    2014-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Sabiedrisko attiecību loma uzņēmuma mērķu sasniegšanā: LIAA gadījuma analīze”. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir noskaidrot, kāda ir sabiedrisko attiecību loma Latvijas Investīciju un attīstības aģentūras mērķu sasniegšanā. Darba teorētiskā bāze sastāv no nodaļas par sabiedrisko attiecību raksturojumu, kas sevī ietver sabiedrisko attiecību skaidrojumu, mērķus, funkcijas, sabiedrisko attiecību modeļus, iekšējo un ārējo komunikāciju un nodaļas par sabiedrisko attiecību sk...

  19. Didaktisko spēļu izmantošana apkārtnes mācību stundās skolēniem ar vidēji smagiem garīgās attīstības traucējumiem

    OpenAIRE

    Zarecka, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Diplomarba tēma ir „Didaktisko spēļu izmantošana apkārtnes mācību stundās skolēniem ar vidēji smagiem un smagiem garīgās attīstības traucējumiem”. Pētījuma mērķis: Diplomdarbā teoretiskajā daļā tiek apskatītās pedagoģiskās atziņas par didaktiskajām spēlēm: pedagogus F.Frēbeļa, M.Montesori, K.Ušinska, J.Tihejevas, A.Sorokinas, A.Bondarenko, O.Svenne, I.Kapostas darbu apskats; tiek analizēts terminu „spēle” un „rotaļa” salidzinājums; tiek apskatīta didaktisko spēļu klasifikācija; tiek a...

  20. Eiropas Savienības uzņēmējdarbības vide start-up uzņēmumu attīstīšanai (salīdzinošā analīze ar ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapenieks, Kristaps

    2014-01-01

    Maģistra darbā „Eiropas Savienības uzņēmējdarbības vide start-up uzņēmumu attīstīšanai (salīdzinošā analīze ar ASV)” tiek pētīts, kā uzņēmējdarbības vide ietekmē start-up uzņēmējdarbības aktivitāti un kur uzņēmējdarbības vide ir piemērotāka start-up uzņēmējdarbībai – Eiropas Savienībā vai ASV. Lai iegūtu atbildi uz šiem jautājumiem, maģistra darbā tiek pētīts, kas ir start-up uzņēmums un kā to ietekmē ārējā uzņēmējdarbības vide, salīdzināti vides faktoru dati par četrām Eiropas Savienības da...

  1. Terror management after a recent suicide att empt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Enikolopov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a controversial phenomenon that people of different cultures and evenof different epochs have had difficulty naming. It used to be an enduring themeof many medical, psychological, philosophical, and moralistic discussions. It is aparadoxical act of ultimate self-destruction, a flight from life to death. To commitsuicide is to overcome the fear of personal death and to make a step into nothingness.Such a desperately brave deed requires an abandonment of one’s sense ofimmortality, which we all have, a change of values and worldviews. But if one’ssuicide attempt proves unsuccessful, the question becomes how to explain to oneselfand others one’s recent act of self-violence. To discover these explanations, weconducted a study of 319 people, ranging in age from 18 to 25; they were all eitherstudents (n = 156 or patients in an emergency toxicology ward (people who hadattempted to poison themselves, n = 163. This article summarizes theories of suicidalbehavior and of the fear of death together with the ideas of cultural anthropologistE. Becker on these matters and puts suicide into the terror-managementperspective. The suicidal act is viewed as a mortality salience, and the hypothesisis that people who deny their recent suicide attempt (n = 33 and who have one (n= 95 or several (n = 35 suicide attempts in their personal history exhibit differentterror-management patterns in comparison with each other and with the controlgroup. They fall back on different resources with various degrees of effectiveness.Implications of these results for understanding suicidal and postsuicidal behaviorare discussed and suggestions for rehabilitation are made.

  2. Method for drying of biomass. Saett att torka biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S

    1987-06-01

    Peat or biomass is dried in at least two steps. In the first step the material is dried by flue gases in a heat exchanger, the steam pressure being higher than in the subsequent drying step. The steam generated is separated from the solid phase and used for heating the second step.

  3. Foxp3 (-/ATT polymorphism contributes to the susceptibility of preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential influence of Foxp3 polymorphism on preeclampsia (PE susceptibility, we conducted a case-control study in Han Chinese women. METHODS: Foxp3 genotyping was determined by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP in 156 PE patients and 252 age-frequency matched controls. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of Foxp3 specific transcription factor in 30 PE and 30 normal pregnant women. RESULTS: The positive rate of Foxp3 expression in PE (26.67% was significant difference from that in normal control (63.33%, P<0.05. The frequency of Foxp3-6054 TT genotype was significantly lower in PE patient than that in control. No significant difference was found in Foxp3-3279 genotypes between PE and control, as well as for the variant allele. The frequency of Foxp3-6054A/-3279C haplotype in PE was significantly higher than that in control (P<0.01, while the frequency of Foxp3 6054T/-3279C haplotype was significantly lower in PE patient than that in control (P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the immune suppression function in PE patients is weakened, which may result in the occurrence of PE. Foxp3 polymorphism (rs5902434 may be a potential contributor for the development of PE in Han Chinese women.

  4. Att bygga en brandbook : ett projekt i att ena ett företag och dess verksamheter

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Jenny; Sahlberg, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop a visual identity and a brand book for the company Yakobs Ram & Reklam (Yakobs Frame and Advertising). To answer the question of how a brand book should be designed for a company that manage several businesses within one brand a qualitative approach including a case study has been conducted.This qualitative method included research on brand building, logotypes, colour, design and typography and interviews with the company Yakobs Ram & Reklam an...

  5. Methodology for Environmental Impact Assessment; Metodik foer miljoekonsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmlund, Anna (Structor Miljoebyraan Stockholm AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report is an appendix to 'Environmental Impact Assessment Interim storage, encapsulation and disposal of spent nuclear fuel'. The appendix presents the methodology and criteria used in support investigations to conduct impact assessments.

  6. Statistics 2003 - in nuclear medicine; Isotopstatistik 2003 - foer nukleaermedicinsk verksamhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene; Richter, Sven

    2004-12-01

    In this compilation the use of radioactive substances in therapies and in vivo examinations during 2003 at all hospitals in Sweden is presented. For each nuclide, examination type, chemical form, way of administration, number of reporters, total number of examinations, mean activity used, and minimum and maximum activity is presented. Of the compilation it becomes known that during 2003 approximately 103,000 examinations and 3,300 therapies were performed. The total dose to the population from diagnostic procedures was 452 manSv.

  7. Policy instruments for offshore wind power; Styrmedel foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederholm, Patrik (Luleaa Technical Univ., Luleaa (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The future economic potential for offshore wind power is considered to be very good, and there is a strong interest in European wind power industry to improve the technology and generate additional experience. To enable such technology and a market introduction of offshore wind power it is believed that a supplementary or an alternative support for the offshore wind energy is required. This report aims to analyze conditions of different financial instruments to effectively support the rollout of offshore wind power in Sweden. Our mandate does not include an analysis whether any funding is economically justified or not, but a discussion about the objectives of such instruments is necessary for the second stage in order to discuss the instrument characteristics and design. The report takes up a number of different arguments in order to target a specific support for any single technology. An important message from this part of the analysis is that the strongest argument that can be used to extend a special generous support for offshore wind power is that its socio-economic costs may be lower, in the long run, than those which currently apply to established power production lines (e.g. on-shore wind). Any funding should be considered primarily as a means of political action, i.e. a measure not to meet today's short-term goals (eg quota requirement of certificate system) but to cut costs in order to reach the future (long term) goals. The offshore wind energy can be a very interesting candidate for such support, not least because of the favorable wind conditions that exist at sea. For these cost reductions to be realized, it is important to establish niche markets for the turbines and construction work that will be necessary. Such a technology policy presupposes a real development and not solely R and D and D projects. The report presents the results of previous research that supports this assumption, but it makes no attempt to assess whether the relevant effects are sufficient or not. However, it is important to indicate that a technology policy focused on offshore wind power is unlikely to be economically justified from a strictly national perspective, but should largely seen as a way for Sweden to take international responsibility in climate and energy policy. The instruments analyzed are: (a) higher share certificates for offshore wind in the certificate system: (b) increased pilot project support, (c) continued eco bonus and/or increased environmental bonus, (d) take over the cost of power system connection and any reinforcements, (e) feed-in tariffs (f) tender on designated locations; (g) the tender in which the operator selects an appropriate place; (h) investment; and (i) net interest income. These instruments are analyzed based on the following criteria; cost, technology development, expansion rate, the burden on state budget long-term and stable rules, simplification, and industrial policy objectives. The judgments made should be considered primarily as a discussion paper rather than as an overall assessment of the efficacy of control. A important conclusion is that the instruments should be introduced to ensure stable conditions for a continuous expansion, and the assessment is that the feed-in tariffs and tender may be interesting candidates for such aid. A series of outstanding issues remain regarding such design of these instruments, and these should be explored further in-depth study

  8. Small scale pelletizing equipment for agriculture; Smaaskalig pelleteringsanlaeggning foer lantbruket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne (The Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Wallin, Mikael (Sweden Powers Chippers AB, Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Refining agricultural raw materials is one way for farmers to increase the value of their products. For example, briquettes or pellets made from straw, reed canary grass or hemp can sell for a higher price than in loose or baled forms. The aim of this project was to develop and build a plant for small-scale production of pellets on the farm. Working together with the farmer, the plant would then be tested and adapted for small-scale production of pellets from straw, reed canary grass and hemp. The project also aimed to investigate and summarise suitable systems and solutions for breaking up bales in preparation for use in the pellets module. A pelleting system has been developed and built as a container module (measuring 6 x 2.80 x 2.50 m) by Sweden Power Chippers (SPC). The container system includes a fuel store with push floor, a grinder, an SPC pellet press (pp150, capacity 150 kg/hour for woodbased material), a conveyor belt and a cooling system. The practical operation of the plant was tested on two Swedish farms: Laattra gaard in Vingaaker and Ek gaard in Vara. The bales were broken up in preparation for pelleting using a straw mill of model Tomahawk 505M. The project has demonstrated that the SPC plant has the capacity to be used for agricultural pelleting of fuels from straw, canary reed grass and hemp. Some modification and continued adjustment of the feed system for the fuel remains to be done in order to optimise and ensure the reliability of the pelleting process. A certain amount of modifications to the plant is required to enable cost-effective transportation between different locations. Tests showed that each batch of fuel was unique, even from the same raw material, and that optimisation of the dies is necessary for each specific case. Training is required to run the plant. The farmers have been able to run the plant themselves, for example, starting up the plant, changing the sieve on the grinder, changing dies etc. In order for such small-scale pelleting plants to be economically viable, cheap raw materials or good prices for the final product (pellets) is necessary. The agricultural raw material that is currently considered to have the best economic potential for small-scale processing is straw (for bedding pellets). Since the plant is suitable for mobile use, it can be used for several purposes, for example production of bedding pellets in the autumn and fuel pellets in the spring and summer

  9. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine; Doskatalogen foer nukleaermedicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil [Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik; Johansson, Lennart [Norrlands Universitetssjukhus, Umeaa (Sweden). Avd. foer radiofysik

    2004-09-01

    The work with a Swedish catalogue of radiation absorbed doses to patients undergoing nuclear medicine investigations has continued. After the previous report in 1999, biokinetic data and dose estimates (mean absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and effective dose) have been produced for a number of substances: {sup 11}C- acetate, {sup 11}C- methionine, {sup 18}F-DOPA, whole antibody labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I, fragment of antibody, F(ab'){sub 2} labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I and fragment of antibody, Fab' labelled with either {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I. The absorbed dose estimates for these substances have been made from published biokinetic information. For other substances of interest, e.g. {sup 14}C-urea (children age 3-6 years), {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid, {sup 14}C-xylose and {sup 14}C-triolein, sufficient literature data have not been available. Therefore, a large number of measurements on patients and volunteers have been carried out, in order to determine the biokinetics and dosimetry for these substances. Samples of breast milk from 50 mothers, who had been subject to nuclear medicine investigations, have been collected at various times after administration of the radiopharmaceutical to the mother. The activity concentration in the breast milk samples has been measured. The absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to the child who ingests the milk have been determined for 17 different radiopharmaceuticals. Based on these results revised recommendations for interruption of breast-feeding after nuclear medicine investigations are suggested.

  10. Changed market conditions for biogas production; Foeraendrade marknadsvillkor foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colnerud Granstroem, Sigrid; Gaaverud, Henrik; Glimhall, Alexandra

    2010-10-15

    The Swedish gas market consists mainly of the natural gas network that extends through the southwestern Sweden, and the local biogas markets. Biogas share of the Swedish gas market is growing steadily. The fact that the Swedish gas net is limited and fragmented forms an obstacle for biogas use to expand. That the gas market as a whole, natural gas included, must develop and expand is therefore a prerequisite for the large potential for Swedish Biogas to be realized. This in contrast with the ultimate objective to completely replace natural gas in the Swedish gas market. When policy changes are made in order to support biogas it is crucial for long-term competitiveness of biogas that these changes should not impact the natural gas market and hinder its development. Such a scenario would ultimately mean that also biogas development opportunities deteriorate. Biogas operations encounter three main problems that prevent or impede its expansion in the gas market. First, the potential for profitability in biogas production must be enhanced. Second, natural gas and biogas markets should be more integrated with each other. Thirdly, the biogas must be distributed in a cost-effective manner. The present investigation aims to supplement the Natural Gas Act with special provisions which takes into account the input and transmission of biogas. In addition to the production of biogas, it is now the producer's responsibility to clean the gas from water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide and to augment the calorific value of the gas to the standard of Danish natural gas quality by propane addition and to ensure that the physical connection to network is available. There are thus a number of options available for shifting demarcation between biogas production and network operations. Short-term competitiveness of biogas would be strengthened most if purification and spiking the gas with propane and the connection to the network was imposed on network owners. In the longer term, it is not obvious that such a change would be beneficial for biogas as such a change could have long term adverse effects on the competitiveness of natural gas against other energy sources. The Energy Market Inspectorate has decided, therefore, not as desirable for the network owner to have responsibility for treatment or network connection. EI therefore considers that it is reasonable that the responsibility for propane spiking is imposed on the network operators. Network owner may then also able to refrain from propane spiking of the biogas and instead lower the heating value of the Danish natural gas - an attractive alternative if natural gas imports from other countries would be under consideration

  11. Units for radiation protection work; Storheter foer straalskyddsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindborg, L

    1997-06-01

    ICRU has defined special measurable (operational) quantities for radiation protection. A consequence of using the operational quantities is that hand-held and personal dosemeters can give different measuring results in the same radiation situation. The differences vary and are caused by the geometry of the radiation field. The units have well documented relations to e.g. the ICRP effective dose and equivalent dose to an organ or tissue. Therefore, it is possible to estimate these doses from a measured value of e.g. the ambient dose equivalent. ICRU and ICRP have recently reviewed these relations in two important commonly issued reports (Report 57 and Publication 74). This report tries to show the value of understanding these units and their relations and is primarily meant to be used for educational purposes. 11 refs.

  12. Biomass Gasifier for Computer Simulation; Biomassa foergasare foer Computer Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Jens; Leveau, Andreas; Hulteberg, Christian [Nordlight AB, Limhamn (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    This report is an effort to summarize the existing data on biomass gasifiers as the authors have taken part in various projects aiming at computer simulations of systems that include biomass gasification. Reliable input data is paramount for any computer simulation, but so far there is no easy-accessible biomass gasifier database available for this purpose. This study aims at benchmarking current and past gasifier systems in order to create a comprehensive database for computer simulation purposes. The result of the investigation is presented in a Microsoft Excel sheet, so that the user easily can implement the data in their specific model. In addition to provide simulation data, the technology is described briefly for every studied gasifier system. The primary pieces of information that are sought for are temperatures, pressures, stream compositions and energy consumption. At present the resulting database contains 17 gasifiers, with one or more gasifier within the different gasification technology types normally discussed in this context: 1. Fixed bed 2. Fluidised bed 3. Entrained flow. It also contains gasifiers in the range from 100 kW to 120 MW, with several gasifiers in between these two values. Finally, there are gasifiers representing both direct and indirect heating. This allows for a more qualified and better available choice of starting data sets for simulations. In addition to this, with multiple data sets available for several of the operating modes, sensitivity analysis of various inputs will improve simulations performed. However, there have been fewer answers to the survey than expected/hoped for, which could have improved the database further. However, the use of online sources and other public information has to some extent counterbalanced the low response frequency of the survey. In addition to that, the database is preferred to be a living document, continuously updated with new gasifiers and improved information on existing gasifiers.

  13. Water and steam sampling systems; Provtagningssystem foer vatten och aanga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2009-10-15

    The supervision of cycle chemistry can be divided into two parts, the sampling system and the chemical analysis. In modern steam generating plants most of the chemical analyses are carried out on-line. The detection limits of these analyzers are pushed downward to the ppt-range (parts per trillion), however the analyses are not more correct than the accuracy of the sampling system. A lot of attention has been put to the analyzers and the statistics to interpret the results but the sampling procedures has gained much less attention. This report aims to give guidance of the considerations to be made regarding sampling systems. Sampling is necessary since most analysis of interesting parameters cannot be carried out in- situ on-line in the steam cycle. Today's on-line instruments for pH, conductivity, silica etc. are designed to meet a water sample at a temperature of 10-30 deg C. This means that the sampling system has to extract a representative sample from the process, transport and cool it down to room temperature without changing the characteristics of the fluid. In the literature research work, standards and other reports can be found. Although giving similar recommendations in most aspects there are some discrepancies that may be confusing. This report covers all parts in the sampling system: Sample points and nozzles; Sample lines; Valves, regulating and on-off; Sample coolers; Temperature, pressure and flow rate control; Cooling water; and Water recovery. On-line analyzers connecting to the sampling system are not covered. This report aims to clarify what guidelines are most appropriate amongst the existing ones. The report should also give guidance to the design of the sampling system in order to achieve representative samples. In addition to this the report gives an overview of the fluid mechanics involved in sampling. The target group of this report is owners and operators of steam generators, vendors of power plant equipment, consultants working in Sweden that come in contact or are involved in cycle chemistry

  14. Substrate Handbook for Biogas Production; Substrathandbok foer biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, My; Uldal, Martina (AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    Today, co-digestion plants in Sweden treat a broad range of different substrates, of which some have not previously been used for anaerobic digestion. The major part of this organic waste derives from households, restaurants, food industries and farms. When evaluating a new substrate as feed for anaerobic digestion, several different aspects need to be taken into consideration, such as anaerobic degradability, TS/VS content, nutrient composition and risk for mechanical problems. Consequently, there is a need for practical guidelines on how to evaluate new substrates as raw materials for biogas production, including not only gas yield but also what practical and microbiological problems that may arise when the specific substrate is treated together with other substrates in the plant. The aim with this handbook is to provide a basis on how to evaluate new substrates as feed for anaerobic digestion. The intention is that this material will save time and effort for the personnel at the plant when they come in contact with new types of waste. Also, the aim is to facilitate the process of identifying new substrates within the ABP-regulation (1774/2002) and what requirements are then demanded on handling. The work with the handbook has been divided in three different parts; (1) an extensive literature study and a compilation of the achieved results, (2) interviews with personnel at most of the Swedish co-digestion plants to identify substrates and problems of interest, and (3) lab tests of selected substrates. The lab tests included Bio Methane Potential (BMP) tests as well as a simple characterization of each substrate based on fat/protein/carbohydrate content. All data origins from anaerobic digestion within the mesophilic temperature range, but the results and discussion are applicable also for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The result of this work is a written report together with an Excel file which are to be directly used by the biogas plants as a basis in the every day work. The Excel file is intended to work as a living document to be incorporated in calculation templates etc, where new data and information can be added gradually. It includes approximately 40 different substrates, for which the following parameters are given; TS-content, VS-content, methane content, gas yield, methane yield, nutrient composition, ABP-category, possible mechanical problems, other comments and source of information. In addition, the results from the BMP-tests and characterization of in total around 20 different substrates are given. These results points to the difficulty of proposing the final methane production for a substrate only from a rough characterization based on fat/protein/carbohydrate content

  15. Microbiologic handbook for biogas plants; Mikrobiologisk handbok foer biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aasa; Schnuerer, Anna

    2009-05-15

    There is today great interest in the biogas process. The reason for interest is that this process offers an opportunity to stabilize and reduce various types of organic waste, while also generating clean renewable energy in the form of biogas. Purified biogas is a good alternative to gasoline and diesel as motor fuel and can also be used for heating and electricity production. Behind efficient biogas production lies a complex microbiological process. For biogas to be formed many different species of microorganisms have to be active. A disturbance of this teamwork leads to a reduction in biogas production or in the worst case that the process stops. In order to operate a biogas process in an efficient manner, it is necessary to have knowledge of the underlying microbiology and how microorganisms function. Today Swedish biogas plants have personnel with great technical knowledge, while the biological knowledge often is more limited. It has been difficult to find appropriate Swedish language literature in the field. This handbook aims to increase the microbiological expertise of staff at the biogas plants and thus to facilitate the stable operation and optimization of gas production

  16. Absorbed Doses to Patients in Nuclear Medicine; Doskatalogen foer nukleaermedicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Mattsson, Soeren; Johansson, Lennart; Fernlund, Per; Nosslin, Bertil

    2007-04-15

    The Swedish radiation protection authority, (SSI), has supported work on estimates of radiation doses to patients from nuclear medicine examinations since more than 20 years. A number of projects have been reported. The results are put together and published under the name 'Doskatalogen' which contains data on doses to different organs and tissues from radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostics and research. This new report contains data on: {sup 11}C-labelled substances (realistic maximum model), amino acids labelled with {sup 11}C, {sup 18}F or {sup 75}Se, {sup 99m}Tc-apcitide, {sup 123}I-labelled fatty acids ({sup 123}I- BMIPP and {sup 123}I-IPPA) and revised models for previously reported {sup 15}O-labelled water, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (rest as well as exercise) and {sup 201}Tl-ion Data for almost 200 substances and radionuclides are included in the 'Doskatalogen' today. Since the year 2001 the 'Doskatalogen' is available on the authority's home page (www.ssi.se)

  17. Opportunity and potential for fuel cell systems for energy in buildings; Moejlighet och potential foer braenslecellsystem foer energifoersoerjning i byggnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin (Catator AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    While planning for new sustainable and environmentally friendly communities in Sweden, discussions on using fuel cells for small-scale power and heat production (mCHP) are today on-going. Examples of such communities are Sege Park in Malmoe and Norra Djurgardsstaden in Stockholm, where several members of the Swedish Construction Industry's Organisation for Research and Development (SBUF) are participating in the development. The status and the potential of using fuel cell based mCHP compared to conventional heat and power production technology and other mCHP-technologies (Internal combustion engine (ICE), Stirling) is today therefore a very interesting question for both the energy and the building sector, who also ask for more knowledge within the field. This work focuses on this purpose. The main goals of this report are: 1. To give an overall description of different existing fuel cell technologies and necessary belonging system components. The fuel cell systems are discussed and evaluated based on parameters such as efficiencies, fuel flexibility, life-time, complexity, maturity and cost. The systems are compared to mCHPs based on small heat engines (Internal combustion, Stirling). 2. To give a state-of-the-art report on fuel cell based mCHPs and to describe possibilities and risks related to different technologies. 3. To guideline for future choices of system solutions suitable for different building constructions and different geographical placements. The work is limited to systems suitable for small houses (< 5 kWe) and larger residential buildings (< 50 kWe) situated in population centres/cities where infra-structures for natural gas/biogas and the national grid are available. The project has been performed by Catator AB on the request of SBUF with support from the Swedish Gas Centre (SGC AB), Skanska and Catator. The study is based on the open literature, the information given by leading fuel cell system suppliers and Catator's own knowledge and experience in the field. Today, there are in general three different fuel cell technologies that are in focus for mCHPs: Low and high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (LT/HT-PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Among these, LT-PEMFC is the most mature technology and is therefore today dominating the market (80 %). As reforming method, steam reforming with downstream atmospheric gas clean-up is the most commonly applied since this is the method resulting in the highest efficiency. In the near future, LT-PEMFC is expected to be replaced by the less mature SOFC, since the use of the latter technology opens up for significant system simplifications, higher electrical efficiencies (40-45 % instead of 30-35 %) and more efficient heat recovering. Japan is by far the world's leading country in the development and the distribution of fuel cell based mCHPs. In EU, the development in Great Britain and Germany are dominating the market. In Sweden, only three different fuel based mCHPs have been installed and tested so far. Two of those were placed in Hammarby Sjoestad in Stockholm during the period 2002-2008. The third one, called ComfortPower, was developed by Catator during 2010 and is hybridised with a heat pump module. In Japan, there are today almost 6000 fuel based mCHPs installed and in operation in private houses and public buildings. Since May 2009, there is a approx1 kWe/2 kWth commercially available system, called ENE-FARM, for operation on either natural gas/LPG/kerosene. Results such as 35-45 % and 85-90 % in electrical and total system efficiency, respectively, in combination with promising life-time data, i.e. approx 0.5-1 % degradation during almost 20 000 hours operation, have been achieved. The big remaining challenge is the cost. Today, the price of ENE-FARM is 210 kSEK without subsidies. The cost and hence so also the price is however expected to drastically decrease with on-going stack and components improvements and increasing production volumes. In year 2015, the price is expected to be around 40-60 kSEK, i.e in the same range as corresponding ICE-based mCHPs cost today, provided that the production volume reaches around 100 000 units/year/supplier. Similar results and predictions have been reported from leading system suppliers in EU. The market potential for mCHPs is strongly dependent on the geographical placement.

  18. Preliminary plan for decommissioning - repository for spent nuclear fuel; Preliminaer plan foer avveckling - slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, Bengt; Tiberg, Liselotte (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is part of the KBS-3 system, which also consists of a central facility for interim storage and encapsulation of the spent nuclear fuel and a transport system. The nuclear fuel repository will be a nuclear facility. Regulation SSMFS 2008:1 (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations on safety of nuclear facilities) requires that the licensee must have a current decommissioning plan throughout the facility lifecycle. Before the facility is constructed, a preliminary decommissioning plan should be reported to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. This document is a preliminary decommissioning plan, and submitted as an attachment to SKB's application for a license under the Nuclear Activities Act to construct, own and operate the facility. The final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel consists of an above ground part and a below ground part and will be built near Forsmark and the final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR. The parts above and below ground are connected by a ramp and several shafts, e.g. for ventilation. The below ground part consists of a central area, and several landfill sites. The latter form the repository area. The sealed below ground part constitutes the final repository. The decommissioning is taking place after the main operation has ended, that is, when all spent nuclear fuel has been deposited and the deposition tunnels have been backfilled and plugged. The decommissioning involves sealing of the remaining parts of the below ground part and demolition of above ground part. When decommissioning begins, there will be no contamination in the facility. The demolition is therefore performed as for a conventional plant. Demolition waste is sorted and recycled whenever possible or placed in landfill. Hazardous waste is managed in accordance with current regulations. A ground investigation is performed and is the basis for after-treatment of the site. The timetable for the closure is linked to when the last nuclear reactor is taken out of service. Current plans are based on 50-60 years operation of NPPs. The decommissioning of the disposal facility can begin in early 2070s and is expected to take about 15 years.

  19. ”Det enda säkra är att vi inte kommer att följa planen” : En kvalitativ studie av tillämpningen av kriskommunikationsteorier för att skydda anseendet

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Anders; Olsson, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    The value of a good reputation for organizations is increasing today as consumers and citizens become more aware of brands. If a crisis hits an organization, there is now more to lose than before concerning reputation. Therefore the organization’s communication strategies must be developed to sustain the organization’s reputation during and after a crisis. In the field of crisis communication there are two distinguished theories which concern what an organization with help from crisis communi...

  20. Measuring Technique for emission of carbon dioxide - principles and costs for monitoring within the framework of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme; Maetteknik foer koldioxidutslaepp - principer och kostnader foer oevervakning inom ramen foer EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter foer koldioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Peter; Gustavsson, Lennart; Magnusson, Bertil; Loefdahl, Gunn-Mari

    2004-07-01

    The report describes different methods to monitor the variables, used to calculate the emission of carbon dioxide, within the framework of the Emissions Trading Scheme. All factors such as the amount of material (e.g. fuel used from supply data or measurement), the thermal value, transition- or emission factor and any oxidation factor of the material, are discussed. The main part of the report, chapters 3-5, deals with the measurements of the so called activity data, i.e. primarily the amount of fuel and carbonaceous materials which will result in CO{sub 2}- emission, and which is introduced to, or which is the result of a process in the form of a product. A background regarding metrological aspects is given, primarily how the uncertainty of the different monitoring levels of the reported CO{sub 2}-values, can be met. Chapter 6 deals with the thermal value, transition- or emission factor and the oxidation factor. As a conclusion from putting together this report, we can verify that there are many different types of scales and flow-meters (for liquids) that technically have the potential to determine the amount of fuel/material with sufficiently low measurement uncertainty, even to reach the highest verification level of 1 %. But to make this work in practice, a number of requirements must be met. The measuring instruments must be installed and maintained in such a way that the capability of the instruments really is utilized. In many cases, there must also be routines on how to handle the results from the measurements, including e.g. correction for temperature etc. A tip for those that quickly wish to find vital information is to use the compilations that can be found as figures in the report. In the compilation over 'Conditions' Chapter 4, information on the prerequisites that must be met for the measuring instrument related to the different verification (uncertainty) levels, is compiled in one diagram, with codes referring to short descriptions. Regarding the choice of instrument, essential data is compiled regarding area of use and related costs.

  1. Livskrisens inverkan på arbetslivet - En kvalitativ studie om individers upplevelser av att återgå till arbetet efter att en livskris inträffat

    OpenAIRE

    Perret, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Research in personal crises and their impact on an individual's life has largely focused on specific diseases and external tragedies. Studies on personal life crises have however, during the last decades shifted from a focus on psychiatric research to including socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Research in employment and work-life balance also shows a growing interest in incorporating the individual perspective, whereas these two disciplines have a lot to offer in studying individuals’ ...

  2. Att skapa platser i naturmiljöer: Om hur vardagliga praktiker i en I Ur och Skur-förskola bidrar till att ge platser identitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Änggård

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Title: The construction of places in outdoor environments: About how every day practices in an outdoor preschool contribute to places identitiesAbstract: The purpose of this paper is to use data from an ethnographic study to analyse how places are given identities in an outdoor preschool. The preschool had 32 children between 1½ and 6 years divided in two groups. Each group had chosen their 'own' place that they generally visited three days a week. On the way to the places the same paths were used every day. Within the places different parts were used for normal preschool activities like eating, sleeping or playing. When the staff dramatized and the children played fantasy play the places were loaded with symbolic meanings. All these practices contributed to the process where the places were given identity.

  3. Effekterna av att ”flippa”ett klassrum med fokus på att lära ut engelska som andraspråk

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Yasmin; Säberg, Maja

    2016-01-01

    This literature review analyses what advantages and disadvantages can be gained by utilizing the flipped classroom method. The Swedish curriculum has been taken into consideration when conducting this review in order to see whether the method is compatible with the aim of the subject of English in the Swedish upper secondary school. Two key principles behind the flipped classroom are ‘active learning’ and ‘student-centered learning’. These key principles have been discussed and contrasted wit...

  4. Prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of applications for an encapsulation facility and a repository for spent nuclear fuel; Utgaangspunkter foer SSI:s granskning av ansoekan foer en inkapslingsanlaeggning och ett slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2006-09-15

    The report outlines some fundamental prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of SKB coming applications for an encapsulation facility (according to the act on nuclear activities) and for the complete final disposal system (according to the act on nuclear activities and the environmental code). The report summarize how the SSI look at the decision making process considering radiation protection requirements according to SSI:s regulations and general advices and earlier standpoints regarding SKB:s RandD-programme. The report also describe the present reviewing capacity of SSI and constitute therefore the basis for the planning of SSI:s review organisation in the prospect of coming applications on nuclear waste facilities (encapsulation facility and a deep disposal repository). It should be noted that the report reflects the present situation. Due to a number of factors as for example changes in SKB:s coming RandD-programme, future governmental decisions, adjustments of SSI:s financial resources or new facts in the case, will of course have an effect on how SSI finally will organise the review work. SSI:s home page will continuously be updated with the latest information in this respect.

  5. Maritime prerequisites for development of infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Maritima foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahnstroem, Johan; Molitor, Edvard; Raggl, Karl-Johan; Sandkvist, Jim [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    This study has provided an initial picture of where the most interesting ports and areas available for future expansion of a maritime infrastructure for LNG. On the basis of supplying vessels with LNG as fuel, from a long term perspective, we recommend locating LNG terminals in or near major ports and around the big ship routes. Given the current age distribution of ships operating waters of the Baltic Sea, almost 20% of the vessels are 30-40 years old and likely to be replaced by 2015 - 2020. Thus, there is a potential for newly built ships will be equipped with LNG operation. Selected criteria s; Size of the LNG terminal and hence the need for the size of the fairway and the area of land. Proximity to traffic routes with much ship traffic. Proximity to the major port. Proximity to consumers on the land side. On the basis of selected criteria and analyzed for possible location of the terminal it can be noted that a number of Swedish ports are found suitable. For example, ports of Sundsvall, Gothenburg and Helsingborg has been identified as suitable, but with different starting point and different types and sizes of terminals possible.

  6. Genetic variation for characters of importance for growth in Salix viminalis L. Final report; Genetisk variation foer karaktaerer av betydelse foer tillvaext hos Salix viminalis L. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Gullberg, Urban [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology

    2000-04-01

    The overall goal for this project was to study the genetic variation and the genetic relationships for different growth characters and for water use efficiency (WUE) in Salix viminalis and also to use this knowledge to formulate breeding goals for Salix. Two factorial crossings with Swedish and Polish origin, each with 320 families have been used. Part of the Polish material was used to study the genetic variation for carbon isotope quota. Carbon isotope quota gives a measure of the WUE for the plant. Crossings have been made to change and improve the WUE in Salix viminalis. Construction of a genetic linkage map has started and the map can be used to identify genetic markers for WUE. The results show that most of the growth characters have both additive genetic variation and also a high degree of dominance genetic variation. A strategy in the breeding where both additive and dominance variation can be utilized should be adopted. WUE show mainly additive genetic variation but also a high heritability. This gives great opportunities to improve Salix material for WUE through recurrent selection.

  7. Program description for the program Demonstration program for electric vehicles 2011-2015; Programbeskrivning foer programmet Demonstrationsprogram foer elfordon 2011-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The program's efforts aim at, firstly, from a user perspective identify and possibly eliminate barriers for large-scale introduction of electric vehicles on the Swedish market. Through various research activities based in the real environment experience may be drawn from both vehicle use and different types of behavior. Infrastructure tests on a sufficient scale give the combined effect of real-life test environments for the combination of vehicles and charging environments as well as a base for experiences of softer issues around electric vehicles. Precisely these behavioral experiences are difficult to reach via the related but more technically focused programs such as, FFI (Vehicle strategic research and innovation) and Energy efficient road vehicles. Several systems for electrification of vehicles exist today, and further initiatives for solutions are on the way. It is therefore very important to examine which systems give the highest total energy efficiency. It is also relevant for these different systems in a real environment to explore the potentials and difficulties that may arise in larger implementations

  8. Demonstration program for small-scale straw fuel systems. Pre-study for the Swedish Energy Agency; Demonstrationsprogram foer smaaskaliga straabraenslesystem. Foerstudie foer Energimyndigheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Cecilia (Hushaallningssaellskapet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Arkeloev, Olof (LRF Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-02-15

    Energy crops from arable land is still an almost entirely untapped potential as a fuel for heating. Canary grass, straw and hemp could eventually form an important part of the raw-material from agriculture. For this production to increase and become a viable alternative to conventional farming it is required, however, that the whole production chain from cultivation to end-use is developed. The aim of this pilot study has been to make suggestions for the design of a Demonstration project of small-scale fuel straw-crops. The programme's vision is to within 6 years build up a number of demonstration plants for small-scale briquetting/pelletizing of straw fuels in different parts of the country. In addition, potential producers of raw materials and other actors in the programme will be made aware what opportunities and conditions there are to process the agro-fuels in small-scale production facilities. The overall objective of the programme is to increase knowledge about how straw fuels and/or residues can be used as raw material in small-scale production of briquettes/pellets, and enhance the understanding of how producers take part in different business models. In the short term, the objective of the programme to build up a network of pellets and briquettes producing demonstration. Within the activities of the programme it is proposed that demonstration is built up of at least 7 different places in the country. This is in order to be able to gain experience on the basis of local and regional conditions. Demonstration refers both to demonstrate the entire chain with existing proven technology, and to improve technologies, reduce costs and make the production and user experience. On the other hand, the intention may be to test the new technology. Demonstration refers to smaller installations and with a production capacity of plants should vary from about 100 to 500 kg/h produced fuel. Operations are limited to the supply of raw material, cultivation and harvest of which is not included in the programme. The programme includes research and development. Funding for the programme is proposed to a maximum of 56 million kronor during a 6-year period

  9. Pilot study of Bio-jet A-1 fuel production for Stockholm-Arlanda Airport; Foerstudie foer biobaserat flygbraensle foer Stockholm-Arlanda Flygplats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl; Hagstroem, Martin; Hermann, Fredrik

    2009-11-15

    The air traffic industry faces big changes in the near future, one being how to reduce their share of the CO{sub 2}-emissions. Therefore LFV set the framework to investigate the pre-conditions for a biorefinery plant in conjunction with Arlanda Airport. The biorefinery is based on advanced gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to a bio-jet fuel product. Locations at Brista and Igelsta were studied for two different process plant configurations, with each 50 kton bio-jet fuel annual capacity, or 290 and 610 MW{sub th} biomass input, respectively. The biomass-to-fuels efficiency was 46 % and total net efficiency was 79 %. The capital investment was calculated as 5.1 and 7.4 billion SEK, and production costs of 8300 SEK (812 EUR/1183 USD) and 5000 SEK (490 EUR/714 USD) per cubic meter bio-jet, respectively, whereas the Jet A-1 fuel today costs some 6000 SEK, at crude oil price of USD 67 per barrel

  10. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of candidate sites for the deep repository; Geovetenskapligt inriktat program foer undersoekning och utvaerdering av platser foer djupfoervaret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, Anders; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, R.; Follin, S.; Pettersson, Stig; Selroos, J.O

    2000-08-01

    Methods and technology for the geoscientific studies of the rock are the main subjects for this report, but programmes for studying the surface ecosystems and other conditions at the surface are also described.

  11. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - including criteria for Sb and As; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - inklusive haltkriterier foer Sb och As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola (Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Jones, Celia; Pettersson, Michael; Elert, Mark (Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    Swedish producers, authorities and users have acknowledged the need for common environmental guidelines for residues. The objective of this project has been to develop a proposal for common environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications. The project has a narrow risk assessment with application on an strictly nearfield, local perspective and focus on a limited set of substances. Health aspects for construction workers are not covered in the project. The starting point in the risk assessment is the assumption that ashes may be used just like any conventional construction material. Special requirements or regulations regarding precautionary actions in the handling of ashes, regarding the site or surroundings will be avoided. The guiding principle has been the precautionary principle: reuse of ash is acceptable only if it constitute an insignificant risk to health and environment. The calculations are based on defined emission- and exposure scenarios. The concept of insignificant risk imply that the impact in the defined points of compliance does not exceed established health- and environmental criteria. The model address health risks associated with spreading of particles and exposure by dust, oral intake, dermal contact and intake by vegetables or wild grown berries and consumption of ground water. Off-site environmental effects in surface waters and in soil as well as health- and environmental risks in the post use phase are also considered. Exposure by dust is addressed in the same way as in the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines for contaminated soil [12]. The guidelines values for exposure by dust, oral intake, dermal contact and intake by vegetables or wild grown berrys are total content, whereas the guidelines for exposure by consumption of ground water or environmental effects in surface waters are based on leaching properties of the ash. The guidelines rely on a conceptual model, defined emissions and exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc generally shows a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Antimony and lead in ashes fall above the guideline values for leaching in some cases. The total content of arsenic in many ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction even when taking the oral bioavailabity of arsenic in ashes in consideration. To a lesser extent this also holds for total content of lead. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and accidentally oral intake are crucial. In both cases arsenic sets the limits. Toxicological criteria can be critical and choosing toxicological based criteria instead of current drinking water limits reduces calculated risks with antimony. In Sweden discrete risk factors are used for evaluating drinking water compared other exposure pathways for arsenic. A practice that has an significant effect on calculated risks. Model calculations indicate that fluoride constitute only an insignificant risk. Chloride and sulfate in ashes may, depending on the construction, constitute a certain effect with respect to the drinking water quality in a local well. The comparison between the calculated guideline values and the ash data that was available showed that the majority of the ashes could be used in a road construction without implying a significant risk to health or environment.

  12. Tool for calculation of the life cycle cost for different heating systems in one-family houses; Verktyg foer beraekning av livscykelkostnaden foer olika vaermesystem i smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Jenny; Strand, Hanna [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    The Excel-based tool can be used by the consumer and covers the following heating systems: direct electric heating (alt. in combination with an air source heat pump), electric boiler (alt. in combination with an air source heat pump), fuel oil boiler, wood pellets boiler, natural gas boiler, exhaust air heat pump, ground source heat pump (surface soil or boreholes) and district heating. A few case studies are reviewed in order to illustrates the use of the tool.

  13. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the bedrock conditions at Forsmark. The detailed investigations will employ, apart from established and earlier practiced methods, also further refined and newly developed techniques and methods for investigations and modelling. The report describes the present status for investigation and modelling methodology and techniques and also provides an overview of currently planned method developments. The report also presents a proposed scenario for how the detailed investigations, in light of presently available knowledge and techniques, should be conducted. Starting points for the investigation programme in this context are the reference design of the facility and remaining uncertainties associated with the site descriptive model and underground design. The scenario high-lights those investigations which, more or less as a matter of routine work, will be performed closely coordinated with the progression of the underground excavation work. The investigations related to the development of the deposition areas will primarily be linked to the sequences pilot drilling followed by excavation of deposition tunnels, and pilot drilling with subsequent full-face drilling of deposition holes. Continuous supervision of the fulfilment of design premises and documentation of the facility are in this context important issues. Information acquired during the construction process will also provide the substantial basis for the assessment of the long-term safety of the final repository. Further, it is emphasised in the report that supplementary investigations will be performed, if the information in any respect is regarded as insufficient. Such investigations may as well be performed from the ground surface. The final repository will in different ways have an impact on the surrounding environment. Monitoring of such changes is therefore an important and integral part of the detailed investigations. Until the construction work for the final repository is initiated, the detailed investigation programme will be modified and made more circumstantial, including results of planned developments . These updates will be accounted for in ensuing versions of the programme

  14. Preconditions for the development of land-based infrastructure for liquefied natural gas (LNG / LBG); Foerutsaettningar foer utbyggnad av landbaserad infrastruktur foer flytande gas (LNG/LBG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Paradis, Hanna; Haraldsson, Kristina; Beijer, Ronja; Stensson, Peter (AaF Industry AB(Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The conversion potential to replace oil in the energy intensive industries and diesel in heavy transport is estimated in the study to 6.8 TWh and 10 TWh per year, respectively. Several alternative fuels compete for this conversion potential. What fuels will take market share depends on several factors such as price, availability of fuel, availability of process technology and vehicles, technology development and possible future technological advances. For liquid methane to compete a new infrastructure is required that in a cost effective manner makes it possible to distribute the liquid methane to the regions where the need is the greatest. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. The study points out three nodes, Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa, which is suitable for distribution of liquid methane to the central and northern Sweden. The three hubs are suitable for freight transfer to trucks as well as rail and shipping. A strategic nationwide network of refueling stations is also proposed, with a total of 18 new stations, in addition to the filling stations in southern and central Sweden that are already planned or in operation. Both the availability and use of liquid methane in Sweden today is limited. Liquid natural gas, LNG (liquefied natural gas), is primarily used as a backup to biogas plants, in a few industries and as supply for a few filling stations for compressed gas. The availability of LNG and also liquid biogas (LBG liquefied biogas), will increase in coming years. In 2011, two new LNG import terminals are put into operation in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad in Norway and two additional import terminals are planned in Gothenburg and Lysekil. Furthermore, two production plants for liquid biogas production have started, and four additional plants are planned, which together will produce around 0.5 TWh LBG annually. It is also likely that in the coming years there will be almost ten filling stations for liquid methane in operation in southern Sweden. The market analysis shows that several industries in the iron and steel industry are already interested in converting to LNG, mainly to cope with environmental demands. Also in the chemical industry there is an interest in using LNG, while many of the companies in the pulp and paper industry do not see LNG as a particularly attractive option. The latter have access to their own fuel and several companies have also adopted policies aiming at becoming fossil fuel free in the near future. The total conversion potential to replace oil with LNG industry amounted to 6.8 TWh/year, divided among 100 users. The greatest potential is in central Sweden (Dalarna, Gaevleborg, Vaermland) and along the Norrland coast. With today's distribution system, including truck delivery from import terminals in Nynaeshamn and Fredrikstad, virtually the entire southern Sweden is within reach of LNG deliveries. Transport distance is too long to be economically feasible to supply industries in central and northern Sweden. To provide these regions with LNG the intermodal freight terminals in Gaevle, Sundsvall and Luleaa would be able to function as strategic hubs. These three terminals covering the areas and industries that according to the market analysis is most interesting for LNG supplies, and are all well connected both by road, rail and seaway, allowing for transfer between different modes. All harbours also have the potential to qualify for receiving LNG deliveries by ship. There is also an interest in using liquid methane for heavy transport and coaches/intercity buses, because the distribution of liquid methane is cost effective, and the vehicles get longer range due to the high energy density of liquid methane. Yet, however, the availability of vehicles is limited and the infrastructure is not developed, but both the availability of vehicles and refueling stations will increase in coming years. In total, about 10 TWh/year of diesel needs to be replaced i n the heavy vehicle sector, among other reasons to meet environmental goals, which is assumed to correspond to the conversion potential in the heavy duty vehicle sector in the long term (2030). A rough estimate of the possible development means that the demand for biomethane, in the form of LBG, and CBG (compressed biogas), by 2020 will amount to 1.5 TWh/year for heavy duty transport applications and to about 1 TWh/year LNG for long-range heavy duty transport. Furthermore, it is estimated to be possible that the production capacity of LBG double by 2020, reaching around 1 TWh/year.

  15. Appropriate methodology for the basic characterization of ash for acceptance at landfill; Laemplig metodik foer grundlaeggande karakterisering av aska foer acceptans paa deponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket), waste may be placed in a landfill only after basic characterisation and compliance with certain criteria on limits. This includes percolation tests, prCEN/TS 144053, and batch leaching tests, SS-EN 12457-3. The latter standard states amongst other things that 'the procedure may not be applicable to materials reacting with the leachant', and there are similar statements in the standard for the percolation test. It is stated in the criteria for acceptance (paragraphs 15-16) that (translation by the present author) 'in those cases where the test methods mentioned are not applicable, a method in which chemical equilibrium is intended to be achieved between the waste and the leachant should be used for comparison of equivalent limits'. However, in the very most cases, ashes from incineration and combustion are tested without any consideration of their very well known reactive properties. In this report, methodology has been investigated for the ageing of ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Ageing has been carried out in air-tight glass vessels (jars) in order to simulate bulk conditions. The variations have included two different water contents together with 0, 1, 4 and 17 weeks of ageing. The ashes investigated are fly ashes form facilities in Halmstad, Joenkoeping, Lidkoeping and Linkoeping. The furnaces at Lidkoeping are of the fluidized bed type and the other ones are of the grate fired type. At the time of sampling, the fuel at Linkoeping comprised largely recycled wood chips, and the other facilities burned mainly domestic waste and waste from industry. The results of the work support a recommendation to age ashes before they are subjected to leach testing. Before ageing, water should be added to a surplus relative to what may be consumed in chemical reactions, but not so superfluously that a mirror comprising free water may remain on the surface. It is recommended that the ageing takes place during at least one week, and preferably for more than one month. In no case was it observed that the ageing gave rise to an increased leach rate. Nonetheless, it is recommended that this is investigated on a case by case basis and for such elements that can be suspected to show an increase in the leach rate with time. For e g zinc, lead and copper, the ageing gave rise to a reduction of the leaching by some order of magnitude. The largest reduction was observed for the highest values. It was assessed that the ageing in many cases may imply that the leaching meets the criteria of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for disposal of waste on a landfill for non-hazardous waste. The reduction may also imply that ashes can be qualified to be used in geotechnical constructions

  16. Conditions for new biofuel raw materials. Systems for small scale briquetting and pelletizing; Foerutsaettningar foer nya biobraensleraavaror. System foer smaaskalig brikettering och pelletering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Holmgren, Kristina (The Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Rosenqvist, Haakan; Boerjesson, Paal (Environmental and Energy Systems Studies, Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    The increasing demand for biomass has driven exploitation of the most easily available and cheapest biomass resources such as sawmill waste and logging residues. More knowledge is needed about exploitation and production of potential new biomass resources, currently not used for energy production (or only to a very small extent), in order to meet the future demands from various biomass users. The project aimed to examine the conditions for use of 'new' biomass materials for heat production from technical, economic and other perspectives (price trends, attitudes etc.). More specifically, the study looked at which biomass raw materials have the best characteristics for processing into briquettes and pellets in small-scale production plants (1 000 - 10 000 tonnes fuel produced per year) situated close to the source of the raw material. The study includes a comprehensive analysis of the appropriateness of the different raw materials and a case study including cost estimates for the entire production chain for production of briquettes from reed canary grass on a chosen farm (Laattra gaard). The raw materials judged to have potential to supplement the current biomass range for heat production are willow (and to a certain extent other fast-growing hardwoods), straw and reed canary grass. In the future, other perennial grasses may be of interest. Other forestry products that may help to meet in creasing demand include logging residues, stumps and wood from thinning and precommercial thinning. The study shows that the prerequisites for processing these raw materials into briquettes and pellets in small-scale production plants are relatively good from several aspects (technology, economics, market) but are limited by the types of end user that can use that form of biomass. The study concluded that straw has a low production cost and good prerequisites as a raw material for production of fuel briquettes, fuel pellets and horse bedding pellets. However, use is limited by the raw material's combustion characteristics. Reed canary grass has the best potential nationally to be used as a raw material in small-scale production plants. For reed canary grass, briquette production is favourable over pellet production because pellets production is more expensive, involves a more advanced process and is dependent on a small-scale household market in order to be profitable. The results show that a price difference of 90 Swedish kronor/MWh between reed canary grass in bales and briquettes is sufficient for briquette production to be more profitable than bales for larger heating plants. The production of pellets from the products of thinning and precommercial thinning in small local plants can become a viable alternative where a shortage of traditional raw materials (e.g. sawmill waste) begins to limit the supply of cheap raw materials to larger pellets production plants. However, this is dependant on the technology and methods becoming more cost effective and on the demand for refined biomass continuing to increase. One alternative is biomass polygeneration in combined heat and power plants where pellets are produced from forestry raw materials. In the introductory phase, it may be of interest to use existing technology in the form of mobile pellet plants

  17. Atténuer la contamination du sol dans les sites miniers abandonnés ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 févr. 2018 ... Innovation. Solutions. Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les nouvelles du CRDI chaque mois. Abonnez-vous · Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique de confidentialité · Transparence · Utilisation du site Web.

  18. Undergraduate Students Attıtudes towards Educatıonal Uses of Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Usun, Salih

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of undergraduate students towards the educational uses of the Internet. A 27-item questionnaire was administered to 207 undergraduate students at the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education (CITE) of the Faculty of Education of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University during the fall 2002 semester. The five items that met with the strongest agreement from the sample were the following: 1- The Internet is as important as ...

  19. Att bygga manlig kropp och identitet : Mediabilder av bodybuilding i 1960-talets Sverige

    OpenAIRE

    Klinkert Egrenius, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This study is about how bodybuilders in the 1960s are produced in the Swedish media image. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the male, muscular, body and identity is portrayed in the media image. Through an analysis of how daily- and evening newspapers reported, negotiated and linguistically produced bodybuilding and its practitioners, I hope to access these representations which together can be considered to form a specific discourse about bodybuilding. The language used by journali...

  20. Economy, energy and environment - Methods to analyze connections; Ekonomi, energi och miljoe - metoder att analysera samband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlroth, Sofia; Finnveden, Goeran; Hochschorner Elisabeth [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Ecology; Ekvall, Thomas [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Systems Technology; Wadeskog, Anders; Palm, Viveka [Statistics Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Accounts

    2003-12-01

    This report gives a review of instruments that can be used for finding economic, structural and environmental effects of decisions in the environmental area, and describe what is possible to achieve, economically and technically. Twelve different aspects are used for characterizing the instruments. Applications and limitations of the instruments are discussed. For many instruments there exists a lively discussion on their weaknesses and limitations. We focus on system analytical instruments, i.e. environment-economic methods, energy and energy-economic modelling and environment-system-analytical tools In the economic area we discuss I/O-analyses, CGE-models and econometric models as well as a few descriptive analytica tools: Cost-benefit analysis, CBA and Life Cycle Analyses.

  1. Gestion des forêts et des ressources hydriques pour l'atténuation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les collines de la région népalaise de l'Himalaya abritent une partie importante de la population du pays. Or, il s'agit d'une région particulièrement vulnérable aux répercussions des changements climatiques. Les faibles précipitations et les températures élevées qui ont marqué l'hiver 2008-2009 ont été à l'origine de la ...

  2. Att göra (e)sport : om datorspel och sportifiering

    OpenAIRE

    Thiborg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Competitive computer gaming, under the name e-sport, have become a popular activity inSweden and worldwide. Within the e-sport community the question about the relationbetween the e-sport and sport has been discussed. Despite of this, very few sport scientistshave studied e-sport. The aim of this licentiate thesis is to create an understanding of thephenomenon e-sport. As a theoretical framework the concept of sportification was used. Inthree articles aspects of sportification in e-sport was ...

  3. A p An atte proces empt t ss of da oward awada s stan awan b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-07

    Aug 7, 2014 ... used as “sorrel meat” or Iyu (Schippers, 2000) and Borno where the .... copper sulphate (CuSO4) and selenium oxide (SeO2) in the ratio. 10:5:1 was ... boric acid containing four drops of bromocresol green/methyl red indicator ...

  4. Om behovet att skilja mellan empiriska och begreppligt konstitutiva frågor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schaffar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article clarifies the fundamental difference between empirical and conceptual questions in education. In the ongoing debate about the role of philosophy of education, many authors either unreflectively assume or actively demand that philosophy of education should try to adapt to (empircal science. Through a discussion of the possibilities of a child to open up to educational processes (Herbart: Bildbarkeit the article illustrates how philosophical reflection on education fundamentally differs in character from empirical approaches. It suggests that one important task for philosophy of education is to clarify what questions can be answered empirically from those that are constitutive of our understanding of education. Wittgenstein’s later philosophy is used as a central starting point in this article.

  5. Gestion des forêts et des ressources hydriques pour l'atténuation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapports. Web of resilience : cross-scale implications of forest and water management for adaptation-mitigation and food security in the Nepal Himalayas ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations liées aux ...

  6. Att arbeta med hög servicekvalitet inom säsongsproblematik

    OpenAIRE

    Princis, Kim

    2017-01-01

    The research has studied a middle-sized organisation running hospitality services in a Nordic winterseason town. The purpose has been to study how high quality of service can be attained within seasonality problematics. Seasonality problematics generally include high turn-over of employees, the need to frequently adapt labor to demand and an instability in revenue. In total 21 interviews has been conducted with management, employees and customers, and combined with a survey of 50 respondents ...

  7. Mindfulness i arbetet : En intervjustudie om upplevelser av att utöva mindfulness i arbetet

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman, Magdalena; Matsson, Malin

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness can be a method in health promotion for the prevention of work-related stress. In the current study six informants provide their experiences, through semi-structured interviews, how mindfulness can be practiced at work, what conditions are considered to increase and decrease implementation in everyday work and how mindfulness changed the individual in their way of work. The thematic analysis resulted in  four themes; become a lifestyle, focused presence, the organization's role an...

  8. Att frigöra (sig från) moderns begär

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2010-01-01

    into representations of one consciousness that could be seen as the little son’s. As I see the film it is as much about a son dealing with the sexuality of his parents (looking much like murder) as about a man and a woman dealing with the loss of their son. Thus the opening scene in a remarkable way transforms...

  9. Application des TIC à l'atténuation des effets des catastrophes dans ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'Amérique centrale est souvent aux prises avec des inondations et des ... (SIG) et de traitement des images, afin de cartographier les dangers et de modéliser les ... de l'Institut d'étude du développement international de l'Université McGill.

  10. Att ”nollställa bakgrunder” för en effektiv skola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Schwartz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Anneli Schwartz ”Resetting backgrounds”for the purpose of an effective school. The present article is based on research in a multi-cultural school. It deals with a particular kind of pedagogy, Monroe pedagogy, aiming at overcoming the disadvantages of multi-culturalism. The main focus of the text is on how this kind of pedagogy is made use of in school. Monroe pedagogy lays stress on individual qualities, strong classification and framing of ducationalknowledge and hard work for school success. These factors are mphasised at the expense of sociological variables such as socio-economic background, gender and ethnicity, which are supposed to stay outside the school walls. However, the research presented in this text shows that Monroe pedagogy is unable to attain its formal aims. The pupils do not reach higher levels of performance. The research has made use of a critical ethnography approach informed theoretically by the work of Basil Bernstein.

  11. Removal of radionuclides from household water; Metoder foer avlaegsnande av radionuklider fraan hushaallsvatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Turtiainen, T.; Haemaelaeinen, K.; Salonen, L.; Arvela, H.

    2007-02-15

    Research upon methods for removing radionuclides from household water was initiated in Finland in 1995. Three research projects, of which two were carried out with National Technology Agency of Finland and one with CEC, have been completed by the end of 2002. One of the main objectives of the research was to compose a guidebook for consumers and water treatment companies. Radon can be removed from household water by aeration and by activated carbon filtration. Aerators that are well designed and set up can remove over 90% of waterborne radon. The best aerators have achieved removal efficiencies that are nearly 100%. However, setting up an aeration system requires thorough planning. Also, activated carbon filtration removes radon efficiently. The removal efficiencies have been over 90%, often nearly 100%. Depending on the water quality and usage, the carbon batch inside the filter needs to be changed every 2 - 3 years. Since activated carbon filters emit gamma radiation while in use, they should not be installed inside the dwelling but in a separate building or by the well. It is recommended that uranium be removed from drinking water by anion exchange, which is the most efficient removal method for this purpose. Typically, the removal efficiencies are nearly 100%. The one exception is the so called tap filter, the removal efficiency of which depends on uranium concentration in raw water and the rate of water flow. High saline concentration in water may extricate uranium from ion exchange resin. Changes in plumbing pressure or pH-value do not have any significant influence in uranium retention. Removal efficiencies of lead and polonium vary a lot depending on the chemical form in which they occur in water. They can be reliably removed from water by reverse osmosis only. Other treatment methods, such as ion exchange and activated carbon filtration, remove lead and polonium partly. Lead and polonium are removed more efficiently when they are bound onto smaller particles than larger particles. Testing simultaneous removal of radon, iron and magnesium by two commercial devices gave promising results: radon removal efficiency was over 98%. Furthermore, it was found that certain fluoride removal equipment can be applied to simultaneous removal of uranium, radium, lead and polonium. (orig.)

  12. Consequences for invertebrates of the use of forest fuel; Skogsbraensleanvaendningens konsekvenser foer ryggradsloesa djur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weslien, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the consequences of increased use of forest fuel for, primarily, red-listed (i.e. disappeared, threatened, vulnerable, rare or care demanding) invertebrates in Sweden. The report concentrates in invertebrate animals that largely live in parts of trees, trees or in tree biotopes that today are not utilised in conventional forestry but which to varying extents may be affected by increased removal of forest fuel. Certain environments should not in any way be utilised for removal of fuel, whereas others can be used provided that relevant consideration is taken to nature. Felling residues such as processor piles are of little value for red-listed species. Lying or standing trees left in the felling areas are of great importance for invertebrates in the category `care demanding` and should not be removed. Return of stabilised slowly available ashes have so far had little effect on the soil fauna studied, but there are no data on long-term effects. Fire-damaged trees are very valuable and should be saved. In the event of felling large burnt over areas, a selection of fire-damaged trees and groups of trees should be left. Forest edges, certain rocky outcrops in arable fields, and wooded meadows are frequently very species-rich environments and should usually not be used. In environments where overgrowing is a problem removal of fuel in the form of a careful thinning is positive for the invertebrate fauna. Old deciduous trees, both in the forest and in the cultivated countryside are valuable environments for many species and should be saved. If the interest in biofuels leads to deciduous trees being given extra space this will be positive for the fauna, provided that a continuity of old and dead deciduous trees is assured. Requirements for consideration to nature differ slightly in different parts of Sweden. 12 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and development (R and D), demonstration (D) and investment and production subsidies. In order to study development of and changes in the socio-technological-system, we identify indicators that describe the wind power development. The indicators show: (i) changes in technology development; (ii) cost development due to technology and market development; (iii) development of actors, institutions and organisations and changes in their commitment to wind power development. From this analysis of the changes in the wind power system over time, the impact of the policy instruments on the development of the technology and market of wind power is assessed. Lastly, we discuss the tardiness in market development and identify possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent in Sweden. The study of the development of the Swedish wind power system shows how public energy policy and the impact of policy instruments shaped turbine technology and market development. The governmental interventions made during the 1970s and 1980s were limited to RD and D measures. These steered both the choice of technology; i.e. turbine development with a focus on large (over 1 MW), two-bladed, flexible turbines, and the early market development in Sweden, with a limited number of actors, institutions and organizations. The number of wind turbines manufactured in Sweden is low and by 2000 there had not been a commercial breakthrough for the technology developed. The R and D-programmes have, however, generated knowledge and increased competence regarding wind power technology. The introduction of investment and production subsidies in the early 1990s changed the focus from technology development to a more general focus on market development and the production of wind power. The change in policy increased the diversity of actors involved in the development process and a market for commercially available, three-bladed, Danish turbines grew in Sweden. The investment and production subsidies have increased the installation rate in Sweden, which in turn has secured further RD and D-projects, including research areas such as acceptance, attitudes, noise and other environmental impacts. Compared to other countries the wind power development has been slow in Sweden. In 2000, 25 years of policy support to technology and market development of wind power had resulted in 240 MW installed capacity and a wind power production of 440 GWh/year, which contributed with 0,3% of the total electricity production in Sweden. The report concludes that early inflexible steering of technology and market development, together with a lack of comprehensive, long-term strategy, insufficient continuity in policy interventions and weak combinations of policy programmes and measures have impeded the technology and market development of wind power in Sweden.

  14. Operation experiences of landfill gas engines; Motorer foer deponigas - Tillgaenglighet och drifterfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejfors, Charlotte; Grimberger, Goeran [AaF-Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    The gas that is obtained from landfilled waste is produced by bacteria that digest organic material in an anaerobic environment. Landfill gas consists mainly of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour. It may be used either as auxiliary fuel in boilers close to the landfill or to generate electricity by means of a gas engine. Several plants where landfill gas is used in gas engines have had serious problems, a. o. with burned exhaust valves. These problems may occur already after a short period of operation, which influences the profitability. The purposes of the project reported were to collect operational experience in Sweden with engines using landfill gas as fuel, to identify which problems there are and which actions or improvements have been implemented in order to correct for these problems. Today, there are 9 facilities where landfill gas is used to fuel a total of 13 gas engines. In addition, there is an engine in Goeteborg which has scarcely been in operation after its installation because there is not enough gas. Contact has been taken with all these facilities. Many have pointed out that the gas engines are sensitive in the vicinity of maximum load, where the control system requires an even gas flow and a stable composition of the gas. A counter-measure in the facilities is to avoid running the engine at full load. All engines are equipped with a lean-NO{sub x} system in order to minimise NO{sub x} emissions. Many have remarked that the lean-NO{sub x} system shuts the engine off when emissions exceed the allowed limits. There is a consensus that spark plugs and ignition cables have created operational problems. These have been changed more frequently than originally expected. Another problem, which has caused operational problems and a need for maintenance, is deposits mainly in the combustion chamber, in valves and cylinder heads. Deposits and high exhaust gas temperature have led to burnt exhaust gas valves and cylinder heads on half of the engines. The actions taken depend on how serious the problem was. The characteristics of the production of landfill gas is an important factor. Most facilities have overestimated the volume of gas produced, which has lead to oversized engines and a specific cost, SEK per kW{sub el} produced, which is higher than calculated. However, many point out that running the engines on part load most of the time contributes to lower maintenance costs. It has been decided that combustible waste shall not be landfilled starting from 2002, and that organic waste shall not be landfilled starting from 2005. These decisions will lead to a further reduction of the production of landfill gas. Today, there is no interest for investing in new engines running on landfill gas. The laws that are considered are one reason, and the other reason is the low price for electricity. However, the number of engines running on biogas could increase in the future. A problem that should be investigated further, not only for landfill gas engines but also for biogas engines, is the deposits that have been observed. What is their composition? None of the facilities interviewed have analysed which elements and which compounds are found in these deposits. Is there any difference between engines from different manufacturers, depending on their solution for controlling fuel and air, the temperature of air, etc?.

  15. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  16. Laws for local energy systems. A review; Lagar foer lokala energisystem. En oeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylund, S I [Bygginfo AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Moe, N; Bjoerk, J [Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK), Stockholm (Sweden); Goethe, S; Froste, H [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Solna (Sweden); Larsen, B; Gyberg, A [Boverket, Karlskrona (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    This report gives a popular descriptive orientation of existing laws regarding the establishment of small-scale energy technology, like wind power plants, heat pumps, solar heating and others, and also of more efficient power generation. In the first part of the report 11 different local energy systems are described, together with their environmental impact. The second part gives a review of more than 20 laws. The central content of the laws are described, not the complete text

  17. Purification of methanol for transportation use; Rening av metanol foer anvaendning som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenck, Anna von; Jansson, Mikael; Ljungquist, Pierre

    2008-11-15

    In this study a techno-economic analysis has been performed on the possibility of separating malodours sulphur compounds from the methanol obtained in the condensate after the evaporation in the kraft pulping process. The application for the clean methanol should be as transportation fuel. Two cases have been simulated in the simulation model Hysys, Case 1 using only distillation and Case 2 were distillation has been complemented with chemicals to further reduce the organic sulphur content. An economical analysis has been performed and it has been showed that the production cost for the cleaned methanol is in the range 2.7-4.2 SEK/l methanol

  18. Hybrid vehicles - an alternative for the Swedish market; Hybridfordon - ett alternativ foer den svenska bilparken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, Karl-Erik; Bucksch, S

    2000-06-01

    The object of this report is to assemble information on and describe the situation for the development of hybrid vehicles and various alternatives within this field of development. In the report the description is concentrated mainly on the combination of combustion engine and electric battery, which is the most common combination in present day hybrid vehicles. In order to take a glimpse into the future even the combination of fuel cells and electric battery is described. The light duty electric hybrid vehicles which have been developed up to now are mainly parallel hybrids. If the development of hybrid systems takes place it will most certainly concern light duty vehicles which will come to be parallel hybrids equipped with an Otto or a diesel engine, depending on what the manufacturers wish to back. In the report the use of series hybrid vehicles is estimated to be limited to heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. Hybrids will not be likely to be relevant for heavy-duty vehicles, with the exception of those lorries which operate in city centres, i.e. lorries which are used to distribute goods to shops, garbage vehicles and certain types of working vehicle for service purposes. Continued development of the hybrid system for buses seems uncertain for various reasons. If there is a technical breakthrough in the manufacture of batteries and simultaneously the manufacturers increase their efforts to develop hybrid vehicles, the situation can be changed so that there is a speedier introduction of hybrid vehicles for heavy-duty vehicles.

  19. Energy statistics of apartment buildings in 2012; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data regarding energy used for heating and hot water in Swedish apartment buildings (2012) in terms of heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  20. Indirect Energy for Road and Railway Transportation in Sweden; Indirekt energi foer svenska vaeg- och jaernvaegstransporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2005-02-01

    Besides energy for propulsion, there are a number of considerable indirect energy categories in the life-cycle of transport systems, e.g. construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and manufacture and service of vehicles. Indirect energy represents 64-66% of the total amount of energy used in the railway sector, while the corresponding share in the road sector is 42-45%. Consequently, decision-making and planning processes regarding transport infrastructure and environmental impacts should also consider indirect energy-use. Two energy case studies have been carried through; the railroad project Botniabanan in the north of Sweden, and the motorway tunnel Soedra Laenken in Stockholm. The result for Botniabanan corresponds with the Swedish railroad average, but Botniabanan contributes to decreased energy use in the transport sector as a whole. The infra structural energy use for Soedra Laenken is considerably higher than the Swedish road average. Soedra Laenken also contributes to an increase of the energy use in the transport sector as a whole.

  1. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Hans

    2013-03-15

    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero Emission Vehicle Program, and Clean Fuels Outlet. The latter two are important for the fuel cell vehicle introduction. US Department of Energy delivered a final report covering activities with more than 180 fuel cell vehicles between 2005 and 2011. The vehicles made more than half a million trips and were refuelled more than 33,000 times. The project exceeded the expectations and basically all goals were met. Mercedes-Benz leases about 200 cars to selected users. BMW and Toyota have initiated collaboration covering fuel cell technologies, among others. Toyota has presented a new fuel cell stack, a new concept vehicle and stated a start of deliveries for 2015. The stack can now be placed under the driver's seat. Honda promises a new fuel cell vehicle 2015. Nissan has presented a new stack and a concept car using it. Collaboration with Daimler is discussed. All in all has the situation for fuel cell vehicles not changed very much since previous report. The time until deliveries of fuel cell vehicles shall take place in several thousand units is now only two years and if nothing happens soon on the refuelling infrastructure side it will be difficult both to find buyers of the vehicles and provide fuel to this large volume of vehicles.

  2. Survey of biological processes for odor reduction; Kartlaeggning och studie av biologiska processer foer luktreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Rosell, Lars [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hall, Gunnar [SIK Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This project aims to characterize chemical and subsequently odor emissions from a digester plant located closed to Boraas in Sweden (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB). The digestion produces mainly 2 by-products, biogas and high quality organic biofertilizer. Biogas is a renewable source of electrical and heat energy and subsequently digester have a promising future. Unfortunately, release of unpleasant odours is one of the problems that may limit development of the technique as odours strongly influence the level of acceptance of the neighbours. The number of complaints due to odours depends mostly, upon the degree of odour release, the weather condition and plant environment (which influence the risks for spreading out), and the tolerance of the neighbours. These parameters are strongly variable. Many processes inside the plant distributed on a large surface may contribute to odour release. Chemical emissions were studied, in this project, by extensive sampling inside the plant. Results were then evaluated regarding risk for odour releases. The goal was to suggest controls and routines to limit releases. The conditions leading to the higher risks for odour emissions were studied by performing sampling at different periods of the year and subsequently different weather conditions. At first, places for measurement were chosen together with personal of the plant. Three zones are considered to mainly contribute to the odour emissions: the landfill region, the cisterns region and the leaching lake region. Totally 13 places were studied with regard to odour and chemical emissions under 2008-2009 at different weather conditions. Some results from a previous project (2007) are also presented here. Results show that the spreading out of can be maintained to an acceptable level as long as the plant is functioning without disturbances. The early stages of the treatment of waste should be confined in locals with closed doors to avoid spreading out of odours. Through controlled ventilation, the air from these buildings can be treated in a biofilter. Biofilter are effective to remove most of the odorous compounds. But the biofilter's function must be regularly verified to avoid operational disturbances. Chemical emissions profiles at different places show how complex is the composition of the emission och how it varies from places to places and time to time. The project confirms and underlines that there are many causes to the global odour emitted from waste plants. Some compounds are important to survey, as for example limonene and ammonia in the tanks and biofilter regions and sulphur compounds in the landfills.

  3. Guidance for emergency planning in nuclear power plants; Vaegledning foer insatsplanering i kaerntekniska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ekdahl, Maria (Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Ringhals has been a model for this study, but the purpose has been to make the report applicable at all nuclear power plants in Sweden. The work has been done in close co-operation with the Swedish nuclear power plants and Rescue Services in the nuclear power municipalities Oesthammar, Oskarshamn, and Varberg. The internal fire brigade at the nuclear power plants has also been involved. A document will also be published as a further guidance at efforts of the type fires, which are mentioned in the enclosed document. After a fire in a switchgear room in 2005 the need of making the existing effort planning more effective at nuclear power plants was observed. The idea with the planning is to plan the effort in order to give the operational and emergency staff a good and actual support to come to a decision and to start the mission without delay. The risk information is showed by planning layouts, symbols and drawings as basis, give risk information and effort information. The effort information shows outer arrangements, manual action points, fire installations, passive fire safety etc. The risk information is shown by risk symbols. Their purpose is to give a fast overview of the existing risks. Reactor safety effects is the ruling influence if an effort has to be done in order to secure safety for a third person. In order to make an effort in an area personal risks for rescue staff, such as electricity risks, radiological risks, chemicals and gas bottles with compressed gases, has to be eliminated. For complicated missions detailed instructions are needed in order to handle specific risks. In a group discussion different people with pertinent knowledge has to value which problematic efforts need detailed instruction. Missions that have to be analyzed in a work group as above are: fire may affect the reactor safety, fire that may threaten the structural integrity, chemical discharge with big consequence on environment/third person and handling of gas system (compressed systems). A support for planning the missions is information of different types of fires. Type of fire is a short description of how a certain type of fire may develop and if possible its risks and also choice of extinguishing agents and methods. The type of fires is found in the app. no 6. Education of operation and rescue staff is an important factor in order to handle a situation as effective as possible

  4. The precautionary principle as a rational decision criterion; Foere var-prinsippet som rasjonelt beslutningsgrunnlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-12-01

    The paper asks if the precautionary principle may be seen as a rational decision criterion. Six main questions are discussed. 1. Does the principle basically represent a particular set of political options or is it a genuine decision criterion? 2. If it is the latter, can it be reduced to any of the existing criteria for decision making under uncertainty? 3. In what kinds of situation is the principle applicable? 4. What is the relation between the precautionary principle and other principles for environmental regulation? 5. How plausible is the principle's claim that the burden of proof should be reversed? 6. Do the proponents of environmental regulation carry no burden of proof at all? A main conclusion is that, for now at least, the principle contains too many unclear elements to satisfy the requirements of precision and consistency that should reasonably be satisfied by a rational decision criterion. (author)

  5. Grate monitoring systems, state of the art; Metoder foer rosteroevervakning, dagslaegesbestaemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet [Aaf Processdesign AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    During a number of years research and development projects have been made to present methods of monitoring the grate in a grate fired boiler. The monitoring is interesting in order to be able to increase efficiency, increase burn-out of ash, improve the status of emissions, improve transportation of ash and fuel through the furnace, reduce costs for operation and maintenance, handle greater loads etc. Improvement of the combustion has been concentrated to the development of the gas phase combustion. In the past few years the computer development has progressed rapidly and the use of optical monitoring methods have been made possible for monitoring grates. To analyse state of the art of optical grate monitoring systems three different methods have been used, literature search, inquiry where plant owners were asked if they have used grate monitoring systems and if so what experiences they have, and interviews with scientists and users. The inquiry investigation was made during spring 2000 and supplemented with a few known users of grate monitoring systems in august 2000. The interviews were made during august 2000. The methods which have been examined are: Video monitoring; Computer vision; IR-pyrometry; IR-camera technology; Laser measuring methods; Acoustic pyrometry. The survey showed that video monitoring is useful to monitor the fuel bed and an aid to the operators. A good cooling and cleansing system is essential to make the system reliable. If the system is aided with computer vision the computer will show numbers which can be used in the control system. These have been tried at a couple of sites but the system is still being developed and no sites uses this function fully automated. Infrared measurements have been tried in number of research projects. The IR-pyrometer technique is good for measuring temperature but the reliability is too low for some of the users. IR-cameras are used in several waste incineration plants to control the combustion. The systems where signals from an IR-camera is processed in computer function well but are too expensive. A camera, without image processing software, computer and control system coupling, costs >300 000 SEK (>35 000 EURO). Laser technologies have not been tested in this application, although, is worth trying because costs are decreasing for both laser and computers. Laser methods can be used both to temperature measurements and bed structure measurements. Acoustic pyrometry is not useful in this application because it is developed for gas measurements. To continue the development of optical grate monitoring the recommendations are to continue with computer vision. A combination of computer vision and IR pyrometer is worth trying. A preliminary experiment with laser methods is recommended.

  6. Pressure Separators for District Cooling; Tryckvaexlare foer fjaerrkyla - Teknik och funktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, Bror-Arne [Fludex AB, Goeteborg (SE)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    About 10 pressure separators run today in commercial operation in district heating networks. Undoubtedly, the pressure separator has become a new tool for more efficient operation of district heating systems. The pressure separator makes it possible to keep different parts of the pipe network at different pressure levels without the unavoidable temperature losses of heat exchangers. The objectives of this project are to find the answers of two questions. The first question is: Will the pressure separator function in district cooling systems if it is designed in the same way as for district heating? The only difference should then be the temperatures of operation. The second question is: Is there a modified design that will perform better in district cooling systems? To find the answers of the two questions, a test rig was built in Rosenlund Power Station in Goeteborg. Also computer simulations were carried out to clarify actual phenomena. The answer to the first question is: Yes/no. Measurements show that the original design of the pressure separator can be made working at temperatures of operation typical for district cooling. It will, however, be very sensitive and is not recommended for practical applications. The answer to the second question is: Yes, there is. This makes the details of the original design less interesting. The modified design is characterized by 'Differential pressure control' instead of temperature layer control'. This means a working principle that is completely independent of operational temperatures. The TVX-tank is replaced by a 'short cut' with a spring loaded checkvalve. One of the control valves creates a differential pressure that is too low to open the check valve but high enough to keep the next checkvalve in the next short cut closed. Measurements and computer simulations show that the pressure separator in the modified design works very well in district cooling applications. The temperature losses of heat exchangers are eliminated and the safety level retained. Thrilling possibilities to save electricity exist in some cases. Most cost effective is the pressure separator if the larger areas with several customers have their pressure level adjusted in one and the same pressure separator. The disadvantage of the pressure separator is mainly that it requires a far-sighted planning of the head diagram of the entire district cooling network.

  7. Knowledge preservation for the future - Phase 1; Kunskapsbevarande foer framtiden - Fas 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen-Schrire, Monica; Jander, Hans; Waniewska, Katarina (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    This report summarises the work done in the field of knowledge preservation regarding a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and in other selected countries. The purpose of the report is to provide a basis for a proposal for an action plan for knowledge preservation regarding a repository for spent nuclear fuel. The report is based upon identified key documents, interviews with key persons, and other relevant sources of information identified throughout the working process. To preserve information and knowledge regarding the repository of spent nuclear fuel for future generations is no simple task. The report covers the basic principles and methods for information preservation and transfer, and describes their advantages and disadvantages. The report also covers topics such as the time perspective, target groups, context, and discusses the difference between the concepts information and knowledge. The conclusions of the report include a number of recommendations for how SKB can continue the work to produce a proposal for an action plan for how the knowledge about a repository for spent nuclear fuel can be kept for future generations

  8. Review of portable applications of fuel cell technology 2008; Teknikbevakning av portabla tillaempningar foer braenslecellstekniken 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Eva; Lundblad, Anders; Wennstam, Emelie

    2009-03-15

    The definition of portable fuel cells, or micro fuel cells as they are often called, is usually that its nominal power is below 250 W. There are, however, several widely separated applications and technical challenges in the span up to 250 W. Portable fuel cells from 1-10 W have potential applications in hand held electronics, wireless sensors, wireless networks and less power demanding equipment for outdoor life such as bicycle lamps, head lamps etc. The technical challenges involved here are mainly about cost, miniaturizing, dealing with heat rejection/cooling, stability/life and the fuel cell infrastructure - how shall the user 'fill' his/her fuel cell? Medium-sized, portable fuel cells between 10-50 W have potential applications in portable military equipment, larger portable electronics such as DVD players, camcorders and laptops (both for direct power and for charging of integrated batteries), to operate rescue equipment and as reserve power, and to replace some stationary power (APU). Also in this area challenges lie in cost, miniaturizing and heat rejection. Larger portable fuel cells of 50-250 W can for example be used in military equipment for charging of batteries, in rescue equipment and medical treatments, in boats and mobile homes, in small electric vehicles (manned or unmanned) and for remote power. In this type of replacement products the cost aspect is important, e g for material and system components. In this technique survey report we have analysed in total 31 pure micro fuel cell companies. In addition, we have also studied 14 larger electronic companies active in the fuel cell development. The three main technologies for portable fuel cell systems are Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Micro fuel cells that have been sold and have been available on the market up till today have been of the PEMFC and DMFC type and have mainly been used, to a limited extent, in niche applications such as toys, military applications, education and emergency/reserve power. Those applications are important for small companies to motivate and finance ventures at an early stage, but it is the potential market in portable electronics that explains why several large electronics companies for a long time have put large resources in the development of micro fuel cells. Among the larger consumer electronics companies the dominant technology choice is fuel cells of the DMFC type. The market for fuel cells in portable electronics is to start with as external chargers. There are several such products on the market today. It is not until the next phase, when miniaturizing and power density have been further improved, that the micro fuel cells will supply the portable electronic products directly, and then often in hybrid systems with a battery as back up to better cope with start up and power peaks. There will be several years before the micro fuel cells are ready to be introduced on a wide front as the primary power source for computers and mobile phones

  9. Energy statistics for one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2008; Energistatistik foer smaahus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    The survey of energy statistics in 2008 on one- and two-dwelling buildings, including agricultural one- and two-dwelling buildings, is based on a sample of 6 852 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in June 2008. The non-response rate was 39 percent. The presentation provides data on energy use, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor areas for the total population and for various subdivisions. During the last two years the number one- and two-dwelling buildings heated solely by district heating has greatly increased. The total use of district heating has increased by 32 percent. The use of oil for hot water and heating of one- and two dwelling buildings has decreased by 21 percent compared to 2007, and by 75 percent during the last five-year period. Nearly 40 percent of one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated completely or partially with a heat pump. However, the sharp increase in the number of heat pumps during the last five-year period has nearly come to a standstill in the last two years. About 42 percent of all one- and two-dwelling buildings in Sweden are heated by electricity as the only source of heat, including houses that are heated by heat pumps. Combined heating with electricity and biomass fuel is the second most common heating method, followed by heating with solely biomass fuel. 17 100 kWh electricity per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by direct electricity exclusively and 18 800 kWh in one- and two dwelling buildings heated by water-borne electricity exclusively or 130 kWh per square metre of heated surface area (incl. electricity for household purposes). 2.5 cubic metres of oil per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by oil exclusively or 18.7 litres of oil per square metre of heated surface area. 12.7 TWh electricity for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings, including the electricity used in combinations with other types of heating, but excluding electricity for household purposes which is estimated to 10.5 TWh. 6.8 millions cubic metres of firewood in one- and two-dwelling buildings, 927 000 cubic metres of wood chips and 470 000 tons of pellets. This amount corresponds to 11.4 TWh. A total of 31.5 TWh was used for heating and hot water during 2008

  10. Energy statistics for multi-dwelling buildings in 2008; Energistatistik foer flerbostadshus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-09-15

    82 percent of the total heated area in multi-dwelling buildings in 2008 was heated by district heating. District heating was also used in combination with other types of heating to heat another 3 percent of the area. The percentage of area that is only heated by oil is approximately 1 percent, a slight decrease compared to 2007. Oil is also used in combination with other types of heating for approximately 1 percent of the area. The use of heating oil has decreased from 75 000 m3 in 2007 to 51 000 m3 in 2008. Natural gas and gasworks' gas consumption has decreased compared to 2007. The total water consumption was 278 millions m3. The average use was 1 698 litres per m2. Average usage of energy in 2008: 17.7 litres or (176.1 kWh) of oil per for multi-dwelling buildings in 2008, 148 kWh district heating per m2, 123 kWh electricity per m2 Total usage of energy in 2008 25.7 TWh was the total consumption of energy for heating and hot water in multi dwelling buildings in 2008

  11. Preliminary study on gas-driven vehicles; Foerstudie om teknik foer gasdrivna fordon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission KE E Consultant AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Ryden, C. [Stockholm MFO AB (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles has been a subject of interest for a long time and alternative fuels have also been subject to extensive investigations. Studies and investigations of the alternatives have resulted in many positive and useful results in that both advantages and disadvantages of different fuels have been evaluated. An important prerequisite for an introduction of new fuels for motor vehicles is that engines and vehicles have been developed and adapted to the new fuel. In most of the cases there are specific differences in composition and physical function between alternative fuels and the commercial fuels, petrol and diesel oil. There is therefore a need for both engines and the exhaust control systems to be developed in order to take the full advantages of the positive property of the new fuel. The aim of the project was to study the technical development of natural gas and biogas fuelled engines and vehicles which had taken place during the last few years, from both a national and an international perspective. The method used has been to visit, among others, various car manufacturers in order to ascertain the state of the art concerning the development of gaseous-fuelled vehicles. In addition an extensive literature study has been carried out aiming at a widening of the knowledge about the development of natural gas fuelled vehicles in especially in USA, Europe and Japan. The results are presented in this report, which hopefully gives a broad picture of the state of the art of current gaseous-fuelled vehicles and information concerning the technology used for the development.

  12. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were also made to determine the influence of secondary air, tertiary air and classifier settings. The results show, although a little inconclusive, that the air supplies do not influence the signal and that the particle size distribution, connected to the classifier settings also does not influence the signal. It is only the coal mass flow that is directly correlated to the IR sensor signal. More investigations should be performed regarding the connection between the classifier setting and IR signal. Filters and averaging need to be implemented to achieve a satisfactory operation in an online installation

  13. Artificial neural networks for monitoring the gas turbine; Artificiella neuronnaet foer gasturbinoevervakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [Inst. foer Energivetenskaper, Lunds Univ. (Sweden)

    2011-10-15

    Through available historical operational data from gas turbines, fast, accurate, easy to use and reliable models can be developed. These models can be used for monitoring of gas turbines and assist in the transition from today's time-based maintenance to condition based maintenance. For the end user this means that, because only operational data is needed, they can easily develop their own tools independent of the manufacturer. Traditionally these types of models are constructed with physical relations for e.g., mass, energy and momentum. To develop a model with physical relations is often laborious and requires classified information which the end user does not have access to. Research has shown that by producing models using operational data a very high model precision can be achieved. When implementing these models in a power plant computer system the gas turbine's performance can be monitored in real time. This can facilitate fault detection at an early stage, and if necessary, stop the gas turbine before major damage occurs. For the power plant owner, this means that the gas turbine reliability is increased since the need for maintenance is minimized and the downtime is reduced. It also means that a measure of the gas turbine's overall status is continuously available, with respect to e.g. degradation, which helps in the planning of service intervals. The tool used is called artificial neural networks (ANN), a collective name for a number of algorithms for information processing that attempts to mimic the nerve cell function. Just like real networks of neurons in a brain, these artificial neural networks have the ability to learn. In this case, neural networks are trained to mimic the behavior of gas turbines by introducing them to data from real gas turbines. After a neural network is trained it represents a very accurate model of the gas turbine that it is trained to emulate.

  14. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector; Biomassebaserade energibaerare foer transportsektorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO{sub 2} emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO{sub 2}/ha,year) and costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction (SEK/kg CO{sub 2}) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO{sub 2} emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO{sub 2} emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  15. Regulations for storage and transport of biofuels; Regler foer foervaring och transport av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmefors, Elin; Karlsson, Emelie

    2012-07-01

    The trend towards a fossil-free agriculture is of great importance. Partly due to the fossil fuel energy is finite but also because of the importance of agriculture to reduce the environmental impact of food production. There are also an economic aspect. It is likely that in the near future will be economically burdensome being limited to fossil fuels. Therefore, it is important that agriculture is well prepared to move towards alternative biofuels. The introduction of alternative fuels in agriculture as a substitute for diesel has proven more difficult than in other industrial sectors, depending on both the specific technical conditions and a regulatory framework that may not have been written with agriculture as target. LRF, Farmers' Association, has instructed the JTI, Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, identifying which rules, laws and regulations that will affect farmers at the farm level that for their own use stores and manages one of the most likely future biofuels for agricultural tractors.

  16. Device for dewatering of raw biomass. Anordning foer avvattning och uppluckring av raa biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubat, J; Aabom, J J.V.; Klason, T C.F.; Bultzingsloewen, F von

    1993-09-27

    This invention concerns a device for loosening of raw biomass through roll dewatering. It is primarily applicable for comminuted and milled raw wood. The invention is of special interest for the production of pulverized wood fuel

  17. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  18. Production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture; Produktionsfoerutsaettningar foer biobraenslen inom svenskt jordbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the production conditions of bioenergy in Swedish agriculture and how these conditions can vary due to different factors. The conclusion is that the potential for producing bioenergy in Swedish agriculture will vary significantly depending on which energy crops are cultivated, which type of agricultural land is utilised and the geographical location of the production. Furthermore, different crop residues and other by-products from agriculture, utilised for energy purposes, will affect the bioenergy potential. To which extent this physical/biological potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. The report starts with a description of current crop production in Sweden, expressed in energy terms, the energy needed for this production and the regional variation in crop yields. The local variations in cultivation conditions are also analysed, as well as variations over the area of a single farm. Another aspect discussed is the production conditions of energy crops on previous farm land not currently utilised. The report includes an analysis of the potential supply of crop residues and other by-products for energy purposes, such as straw, tops and leaves of sugar beets, manure etc, as well as the regional variation of these residues and by-products. A similar analysis is made of the regional production conditions and potential biomass yields of traditional crops and new energy crops. These analyses also include energy balance calculations showing the energy input needed for different production systems in relation to the harvested biomass yield, and the potential for increased biomass yields in the future. Based on the findings of these various analyses, calculations are made showing some examples of how much bioenergy Swedish agriculture can deliver, depending on how much agricultural land is utilised for energy production, the geographical location of this land and its productivity, and which energy crops are grown. The report ends with a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased implementation of different bioenergy production systems.

  19. Systems for apartment buildings heat pumps. Final report; System foer fastighetsvaermepumpar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakervall, Daniel (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden)); Rogstam, Joergen; Grotherus, Maarten (Sveriges Energi- och Kylcentrum, Katrineholm (Sweden))

    2009-05-15

    A fast growing segment of the heat pump business is the apartment building applications. Historically the experience base related to such installations is limited. However, this application is more complex than the much more widely spread domestic applications. The core idea of the project was to generate and collect information to avoid mistakes and to encourage the heat pump technology. By interviewing the 'market' and compiling the information good recommendations has been achieved. It is of great importance to convey the best available recommendations to the installers on the market to avoid pit holes and highlight the opportunities for installers and end consumers. A website has been design and built, www.sfvp.se, which contains useful tools for installers and potential system customers. A number of calculation tools to estimate heat requirement, cost of different heating systems, primary energy need, LCC, etc. are all available. The core of the site is the database containing heat pump installations with related data of importance. The data available is such key data as performance figures, cost of installation, etc. Today 104 system installations are collected in the database and these are marked in a colour coding to indicate the quality of the input data. Installations verified with measurement are given higher significance. It has been an unexpected challenge to find documented systems, so one of the conclusions of the project is that there is a great need for further measurement on the field. More information should be directed to the customers to request such equipment when systems are installed. The database enables statistical analysis of the key figures and it can be seen that the average seasonal COP is 3.2 and there are small differences between exhaust air and ground source heat pumps. It should be emphasised that the number of installations do not give statistical confidence for all kinds of analysis yet. Field measurements in apartment buildings have shown good agreement between the installations. In the specific case 5 exhaust air heat pumps were analysed and the average seasonal COP was about 3 and the energy coverage was 60% on a yearly basis. These heat pumps replaced district heating but kept that source as supplementary heat source

  20. Demonstration Platform for near-zero energy buildings - small houses; Demonstrationsplattform foer naeranollenergibyggnader - smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Svein; Fahlen, Per; Axell, Monica; Kovacs, Peter; Ylmen, Peter; Staahl, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of the Swedish Energy Agency, SP has investigated and recommended how one could form a platform for demonstration of single family houses as nearly zero energy houses. SP suggests that TMF, the national trade and employers' association of the wood processing and furniture industry in Sweden, should administrate this platform. The reason being that members of TMF produce almost 80% of all single family houses in Sweden. TMF also has the capacity to launch a demonstration platform in a reasonable short time. SP has also compiled a set on technical criteria regarding properties related to energy use that should be met by demonstration projects within the platform. One presumption has been that a house that meets the criteria in the south of Sweden also should meet the criteria in the north of Sweden. The reason being to promote an industrialized and cost effective building process. Another ambition has been not to disfavor smaller single family houses. The main criteria are on very energy efficient building envelopes and very efficient building services systems. The criteria are therefore more detailed than the current Swedish building regulations

  1. Description of Euro codes for concrete constructions; Beskrivning av Eurokoder foer betongkonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, Bo (Bo Westerberg Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Eurocodes, which are common European standards for design of structures for buildings and facilities, prepared by the European Standardisation Committee (CEN) and is published in Sweden by the Swedish Institute for Standards (SIS). Sweden, like the other CEN-member countries, is in the process of replacing their national dimensioning rules with Eurocodes. In an ongoing investigative work on requirements for design, analysis and control of concrete structures with a focus on reactor containment SSM wants to clarify what is needed to ensure mechanical integrity of these structures. The study will form the basis for the development of draft rules for concrete structures. The project aimed to provide SSM factual basis for his valuation of the Eurocode applicability of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The report describes the Eurocodes relating to design of concrete structures. These are: EN 1990: Basis of structural design; EN 1991: Actions on structures; EN 1992: Design of concrete structures; EN 1993: Design of steel structures; EN 1994: Design of composite steel and concrete structures; and, EN 1998: Design of structures for earthquake resistance

  2. Optimized district heating supply temperature for large networks; Optimerad framledningstemperatur foer stora fjaerrvaermenaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Lisa; Boman, Katarina

    2012-02-15

    The supply temperature of the Uppsala district heating network was optimized using a model-based control strategy. Simulation of the network showed that the supply temperature could be decreased by in average 8 deg and the electricity production of the plants supplying the network could be increased with 2.5 % during the period January- April, giving an extra income of 1.2 MSEK due to increased income from electricity sales

  3. Legionella bacteria in combustion air humidifiers; Legionella i luftuppfuktare foer foerbraenningsluft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Jessica; Hansson, Helen; Cederfeldt, Ola; Axby, Fredrik

    2007-10-15

    Over the last couple of years several outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease has occurred around the world. The source of infection varies, but in many cases the bacteria has been traced back to cooling towers. The common denominator for most of the sources of infection has been water systems with high oxygen levels and a system temperature ranging from 20 to 40 deg C. If a water system furthermore has high levels of other bacteria/microorganisms, then it is also probable that favorable conditions for legionella bacteria exist within the system. These conditions consist well with conditions in combustion air humidifiers in district heating plants and therefore it can be suspected that legionella may thrive also in these types of air humidifiers. In order to examine if legionella bacteria exists in combustion air humidifiers, and in what quantity, ten different district heating plants where selected for a survey. The goal of the survey is to get a general picture of the extent of the occurrence of legionella bacteria in different types of air humidifiers. This was done by taking legionella tests in three different types of air humidifiers in district heating plants. The first step of the testing was conducted by measuring the level of legionella bacteria in water samples from the air humidifiers in the different plants. The water samples were taken from water that circulates in the air humidifiers. A few months later another water sample was taken from the same location. Two district heating plants, where legionella bacteria had been detected, were selected for further testing after compiling the results from the first two tests. The further testing involved fuel gas analysis to see if any of the plants fuel gas contained legionella bacteria. The test results show that a major part of the district heating plants in the survey have heterotrophic bacteria in their water systems, which implies the possibility of growth of legionella bacteria. About half of the plants had positive test results for legionella, three of them contained Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. In the second test round, two of the plants had positive test results but only one of them was verified to L. pneumophila sg 1. Both the fuel gas analyses showed negative results for legionella bacteria and the level of heterotrophic bacteria was low or nonexistent. In this report the occurrence of legionella bacteria in combustion air humidifiers has mainly been treated as a working environmental risk. A risk assessment for the plant with the highest amount of legionella bacteria shows that the growth of legionella primary should be minimized/eliminated. As a compliment, personal safety devices such as respiratory protection should be used during revision work in water tanks or while cleaning the water system, i.e. when the risk for water aerosols is greater than during normal operation of the plant. The employer is responsible to inform all personal who might become infected with legionella. There should also be routines for reporting as well as routines for both proactive and reactive measures. From the test results the conclusion that legionella bacteria occur in combustion air humidifiers can be drawn. In addition legionella bacteria can occur in all three studied types of air humidifiers; rotating-, lamella- and scrubber air humidifiers. It is difficult to predict how great a risk it is that legionella bacteria will occur in the different types of air humidifiers. The risk of legionella bacteria transferring from the water systems to outgoing fuel gas varies in the different types of air humidifiers. It is obvious that the risk of transferring legionella bacteria to the fuel gas is greater in rotating air humidifiers and in lamella air humidifiers where both fuel gas and air is washed with water from the same water system. There is also a risk of transferring legionella bacteria to fuel gas in scrubber air humidifiers where the air humidifier and the condenser have a common water system.

  4. Energy Balance of Bio-ethanol - A Review; Energibalans foer bioetanol - en kunskapsoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2006-03-15

    This review presents a synthesis of various Swedish and international studies on the bio-ethanol energy balance, and an analysis of how and why their results differ. Other methods, such as exergy- and emergy analysis, are discussed and compared with the energy analysis method. Finally, potential improvements of the energy efficiency in bio-ethanol production are discussed. The energy balance is here expressed as the ratio of the energy content of the fuel to the primary energy input for the entire production cycle of the fuel. The energy balance of ethanol from cereals is, on average, 1.6, and varies between 0.7 and 2.8. Corresponding average figures for ethanol from corn, sugar beets and lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. energy forest) are 1.4, 1.8 and 3.2, respectively. There are several reasons why the energy balances differ between the different studies, even where the feedstock is identical. The sources of differences can be divided between those related to differences in local and geographical conditions, and those related to differences in the methodological approach applied. Depending on the definition of the system that is studied (systems boundaries), and how the energy input is divided between the ethanol and the by-products generated in the process (allocation methods), the energy balance may differ by a factor of 5. Thus, it is impossible to make reliable and fair comparisons between different studies unless all assumptions are clearly presented and defined. Results from exergy- and emergy analysis of bio-ethanol often show significantly different results from those presented in energy analyses. It is, however, not useful to compare these different results since the various methods have different focuses and are answering different questions. The energy balance of cereal-based ethanol can be improved by more efficient cultivation methods, but mainly by improved conversion processes. One possibility is by using bio-refineries where not only ethanol but also biogas, heat and electricity are produced from cereals and, for example, energy forest.

  5. Energy statistics for one- and two-dwelling buildings in 2007; Energistatistik foer smaahus 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    The survey of energy statistics in 2007 on one- and two-dwelling buildings, including agricultural one- and two-dwelling buildings, is based on a sample of 6,849 buildings. The survey was carried out as a mail survey in June 2007. The non-response rate was 37 percent. The presentation provides data on energy use, number of one- and two-dwelling buildings, and heated floor areas for the total population and for various subdivisions. The use of oil for hot water and heating of one- and two-dwelling buildings has decreased by 23 percent compared to 2006, and by 71 percent the last 5 years. The number of air heat pumps increased by 41 per cent compared to 2006 and the total number of heat pumps increased from over 500 000 to over 650 000. More than 45 percent of the one- and two-dwelling buildings are heated by electricity exclusively, including buildings heated by air heat pump. About 20 percent are heated by a combination of bio fuel and electricity and about 3 percent are heated by oil exclusively. 17,200 kWh electricity per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by direct electricity exclusively and 20,300 kWh in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by water-borne electricity exclusively or 132 kWh per square metre of heated surface area (incl. electricity for household purposes). 2.8 cubic metres of oil per household in one- and two-dwelling buildings heated by oil exclusively or 19.9 litres of oil per square metre of heated surface area. 13.5 TWh electricity for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings, including the electricity used in combinations with other types of heating, but excluding electricity for household purposes which is estimated to 10,4 TWh. 258,000 cubic metres of oil (about 2.6 TWh) for households in one- and two-dwelling buildings. This includes mixed heating. 6.6 millions cubic metres of firewood in one- and two-dwelling buildings, 975,000 cubic metres of wood chips and 461,000 tons of pellets. This amount corresponds to 11.1 TWh. 3.9 TWh district heating in one- and two-dwelling buildings

  6. Requirements and solutions for future pellet technology; Krav och loesningar foer framtidens pelletsteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Roennbaeck, Marie; Ryde, Daniel; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Requirements and solutions for future pellet burning technologies Since 2006, sales of pellet burning technologies to the Swedish residential market have fallen. The main reasons for this decrease are: many of the economically favorable easy conversions from oil to pellets have been made; competition from heat pumps; warm winters; a stable electricity price; and the current structure of heating in residential buildings, where electric heating dominates. To change this falling trend pellets need to become more attractive to consumers. This project aimed to analyze the requirements for the next generation of pellets systems and to develop potential solutions, in collaboration with the pellets industry. More specifically, the study looked at consumers' attitudes toward heating choices and different heating through a survey to 2000 house owners across Sweden. The project included a market analysis of Swedish and international technologies and examines the conditions for Swedish pellet burning technology in different markets. In addition, new solutions and developments for Swedish pellets burning technology are described

  7. Electric vehicle batteries. Development status for the promising candidates; Elbilsbatterier. Utvecklingsstatus foer de fraemsta kandidaterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Johansson, Arne [Catella Generics AB, Jaerfaella (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    One driver for the EV and HEV programme of KFB is to study the effects of a large scale introduction of electric vehicles in the future. Catella Generics was contracted to investigate and report on the development status for EV batteries and the success potential for the different candidates, their development obstacles and alternative usage and on the links between different players. The batteries studied in greater detail have been evaluated according to special criteria like performance, cost, ruggedness, resource efficiency, safety and environmental impact and how that will influence their likely success. Models for the evaluation of EV batteries have been developed by the car manufacturers and authorities. We have based our investigation on the criteria established by USABC and the modifications made by PNGV for the energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Some basic conclusions reported as a result of this investigation are listed below: Lead-acid may have a role as energy storage in HEVs. Ni/Cd batteries are attractive from a technical standpoint, but questioned based on the environmental concern for cadmium. Ni/MH batteries are attracting a great attention in the medium term. Na/NiCl{sub 2} batteries have been successful in the German demonstration programme. Lithium batteries have a great potential in the long term. Metal/air batteries have been operated without problems, however there need for a special infrastructure is a major draw-back. Fuel cells and ultra capacitors are new alternative power sources for propulsion of EVs, however these are not included in this report.

  8. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing condition. The useful energy production as defined in the system for charge on nitrogen oxides is more intricate to define. Today Recovery boilers are not included in the system but it has been proposed from EPA to widen the system and also include them. For this system a definition is suggested where energy required for sulfur reduction as well as energy in produced high pressure steam are included. Heat reclaimed in flue gas scrubber, vent gas condenser or similar type of equipment should also be included.

  9. Model for safety reports including descriptive examples; Mall foer saekerhetsrapporter med beskrivande exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.

  10. Investigation of the responsibility for decommissioning of the Ranstad plant; Utredning av ansvaret foer Ranstadsverkets avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Haakan; Grundfelt, Bertil [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Froeberg, Magnus [Froeberg och Lundholm Advokatbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The issue of decommissioning, including demolition, of the nuclear facility at the Ranstad plant was raised gradually during 2006-2008. It was then found that it was unclear which company or companies that could be responsible for this decommissioning, economically as well as for the implementation. During this time and until the end of 2009, the concerned authorities, notably Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and SSM, collected a large amount of facts as a basis for assessing liability. This material now needed to be systematized and compiled in order to effectively be utilized in such an assessment. SSM also thought that it would be helpful if an independent party with experience in similar issues could contribute to the interpretation of the legal situation. These were the given conditions of the mission which Kemakta Konsult AB, with the assistance of lawyer Magnus Froeberg, were given by SSM in the autumn of 2009. The results are presented in this final report.

  11. Environmental optimization of foundations for offshore wind power; Miljoemaessig optimering av fundament foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Rosenberg, Rutger

    2008-05-15

    The study concerns only the marine environment, excluding seabirds, and is based on the level of knowledge available in 2007. The study focuses on three different types of foundations; gravity-monopile and jacket foundations. Also tripod-bucket and floating foundations are mentioned. The different characteristics of the foundations are discussed based on their environmental impact in five different areas; 1) epifouling and reef-effects, 2) operational noise, 3) changes in hydrographical conditions, 4) noise during construction, and 5) dissolved sediment during construction. Regarding epifouling, it is noted that the surface texture of the foundation (i.e. steel, concrete) is of less importance in the long run since the initial substrate soon will be covered with organisms, creating a rugged surface for later colonising organisms. It is rather the level of salinity, distance to shore, exposure, depth and turbidity of the water that decide which organisms that will dominate the different foundations after a few years. Generally all foundations for offshore wind power are expected to be dominated by filtering animals, such as blue mussels. A possible exception is if concrete is coated with a silicone product that limits larger organisms to establish on the foundations. This kind of surface treatment has not yet been used by the wind power industry but occurs on other submarine concrete constructions. The potential for an evident reef-effect increases with the complexity of the foundation structure. Hence, tripod and especially jacket foundations have better possibility to contribute to the reef-effect than monopile- and gravity foundations. Reef-effect, as well as epifouling, may be considered negative in some marine environments, such as possible valuable areas without any natural occurrence of hard substratum. In such areas new species may be introduced, changing the local ecological conditions. However, in many areas an increased level of biological diversity is viewed as a positive change, and here reef-effect and epifouling may be considered favourable. To amplify the reef-effect, scour protection devices may be designed to create more habitats. Operational noise from offshore wind farms has been shown to initially affect some organisms (mussels, fish) during experimental studies in small containers. Whether corresponding operational noise in field and during natural circumstances can cause any environmental impacts is not yet fully understood. Available information indicates that there is a common sound level peak from wind turbines at frequencies of 100 - 200 Hz. In the same frequency range cargo ships emit higher sound than wind power even over several kilometres distance. Based on the present lack of certainty, it can be motivated to minimize the sound at these frequencies in areas with special biological values, such as endangered organisms sensitive to stress. However, there are no indications that operational noise may significantly effect the environment beyond the vicinity of each foundation. Based on a limited number of measurements it seems as if gravity and monopile foundations emit noise of similar amplitude, but the frequency range of the gravity foundation is generally lower. There are no measurements of jacket foundation but theoretically these should emit less noise, at least within the lower frequency range. Even if little is known about future turbines and foundations, it should be technically possible to decrease the emitted noise level. The local conditions of the seabed have a large impact on the propagation of the noise, where shallow water and hard substratum allow the sound to propagate longer distances. The background noise is also of importance and in quiet areas there is theoretically a higher risk of environmental impacts than in areas with heavy ship traffic. Changes in the hydrographical conditions around a foundation are small and are expected to be of importance only in very narrow water passages. The gravity foundation probably has the largest impact on the local hydrography. However, no direct comparisons between the different foundations have been made. During the construction period extreme noise levels may occur, especially during pile-driving which is needed for most foundations except for gravity foundations. The noise level depends on the diameter of the piles that are driven into the sediment as well as the piling method. This means that the monopile foundation generally emits higher construction noise levels than jackets, while gravity foundations emit the least construction noise. Since the extreme noise levels from pile-driving, covering large areas, can be harmful to fish and marine mammals it is very important to minimize this disturbance. This can be done by the choice of foundation, by precautionary measures and by adapted methods of pile-driving.

  12. Analysis of markets for biofuels - Theme: Vehicle gas market; Analys av marknaderna foer biodrivmedel - Tema: Fordonsgasmarknaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In 2011 the Energy Agency was given an annual mission, which involved analyzing the current and future markets for ethanol and bio diesel. The mission resulted in a report that did a thorough analysis of price and market mechanisms in the Swedish and international market. This year's report aims to provide a situation analysis of the markets for ethanol and bio diesel, both first and second generation, with additional focus on certain market issues. This time, the Agency has also been asked to consider the market for vehicle gas, something that was not part of the original mandate from 2011. Regarding ethanol and bio diesel so have indentations made primarily on European protection duties.

  13. Energy Choices. Choices for the future energy use; Vaegval Energi. Vaegval foer framtidens energianvaendning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Kenneth; Fjaellman, Ted; Sjoegren, Helena (eds.)

    2009-03-15

    The primary objective of this energy project is to prepare data for decision-makers to show what practical measures can be taken to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Energy users play a key role in this task. It is the users who pay for and directly or indirectly choose how much and which energy we are using. We should be using energy in an efficient way in order to develop both our society and our industry. With regard to transport we see great potential for increased efficiency in plug-in hybrids and electric cars. But logistics also play an important role. In this area there is, among other things, a need for purchasers and sellers to jointly plan their requirements and deliveries. This would mean that more energy efficient forms of goods transport, such as the railways, could be used to a greater extent than is currently the case. In order to achieve increased efficiency in industry with high energy consumption, we are proposing that the Programme for Energy Efficiency be expanded to also include heating and new policy instruments that target the most energy-consuming processes. Low-energy buildings constitute systems of different technical solutions which have to work in unison to ensure that the effects of the energy saving subsystems are not lost. At the same time, a low-energy building has to function together with energy systems to supply surplus power to the electricity network. Private individuals, too, need to widen their system boundaries in their everyday life when it comes to choosing the services or products they buy, so that greater consideration is given to total energy consumption during the manufacture and active lifetime of the product or service in question. For society to become more energy efficient, analyses and measures need to take an overarching approach and ensure that subsystems work together to avoid sub optimisations. More than individual technical solutions are required to meet future challenges concerning the energy sector. It is about creating conditions that facilitate the development, control and management of large systems, where several different technical solutions work in parallel and in combination with each other. The management, planning and control of these systems is thus at least as important as the technical solutions themselves. This is the case in all the areas dealt with in the report. To work with larger systems requires considerably more analyses compared with the way we work today, when we break down decisions to include individual technical solutions or smaller subsystems. More research is thus required about analyses of larger systems and their energy effects, but also about better decision-making models that help companies and consumers in their everyday lives. This report does not cover the whole energy sector. We have included issues we consider to be the most relevant for implementation

  14. Human Factors methods concerning integrated validation of nuclear power plant control rooms; Metodutveckling foer integrerad validering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oskarsson, Per-Anders; Johansson, Bjoern J.E.; Gonzalez, Natalia (Swedish Defence Research Agency, Information Systems, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    The frame of reference for this work was existing recommendations and instructions from the NPP area, experiences from the review of the Turbic Validation and experiences from system validations performed at the Swedish Armed Forces, e.g. concerning military control rooms and fighter pilots. These enterprises are characterized by complex systems in extreme environments, often with high risks, where human error can lead to serious consequences. A focus group has been performed with representatives responsible for Human Factors issues from all Swedish NPP:s. The questions that were discussed were, among other things, for whom an integrated validation (IV) is performed and its purpose, what should be included in an IV, the comparison with baseline measures, the design process, the role of SSM, which methods of measurement should be used, and how the methods are affected of changes in the control room. The report brings different questions to discussion concerning the validation process. Supplementary methods of measurement for integrated validation are discussed, e.g. dynamic, psychophysiological, and qualitative methods for identification of problems. Supplementary methods for statistical analysis are presented. The study points out a number of deficiencies in the validation process, e.g. the need of common guidelines for validation and design, criteria for different types of measurements, clarification of the role of SSM, and recommendations for the responsibility of external participants in the validation process. The authors propose 12 measures for taking care of the identified problems

  15. Energy Choices. Choices for future technology development; Vaegval Energi. Vaegval foer framtidens teknikutveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billfalk, Lennart; Haegermark, Harald (eds.)

    2009-03-15

    In the next few years political decisions lie ahead in Sweden and the EU regarding the detailed formulation of the EU's so-called 20-20-20 targets and accompanying EU directives. Talks on a new international post-2012 climate agreement are imminent. The EU targets involve reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 20 per cent, increasing the proportion of renewable energy by 20 per cent and improving energy efficiency by 20 per cent - all by the year 2020. According to the analysis of the consequences of the targets that the Technology Development Group has commissioned, the reduction in carbon dioxide in the stationary energy system in the Nordic region will be 40 per cent, not 20 per cent, if all the EU targets are to be achieved. The biggest socio-economic cost is associated with achieving the efficiency target, followed by the costs associated with achieving the renewable energy target and the CO{sub 2} target. On the basis of this analysis and compilations about technology development, we want to highlight the following important key issues: Does Sweden want to have the option of nuclear power in the future or not? How to choose good policy instruments for new electricity production and networks? How best to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions of the transport sector and how to develop control and incentive measures that promote such a development? We are proposing the following: Carry out a more in-depth analysis of the consequences of the EU targets, so that the policy instruments produce the best combination as regards climate, economy and security of supply. To achieve the EU targets would require large investments in electricity production, particularly renewable energy, and in electricity networks. Internationally harmonized policy instruments and other incentive measures are required in order for the necessary investments to take place. The policy instruments have to provide a level playing field for all players in the energy sector. The large investments will present Swedish industry with a good opportunity to develop new technology and new system solutions. Speed up the permitting processes for plants and energy production and electricity networks. Prepare a long-term plan regarding decisions on strengthening the electricity networks, as well as a time schedule for associated decisions and processes. Furthermore, a joint plan regarding foreign connections should be developed for the Nordic region. Lobby for an EU-wide certificate system for renewable energy. The EU target on renewable energy will result in improved opportunities for Sweden to export electricity, but the certificate system currently in force in Sweden will result in the future surplus in electricity production being paid for by Swedish electricity customers. Carry out an immediate change in legislation to facilitate planning for new nuclear power. This is necessary if Sweden wants to replace electricity production from the two oldest nuclear power plants, which may have to close around 2020- 2025 for financial reasons. Power companies need to plan their investments and the safety authorities need to make their preparations. Since other existing nuclear power plants will be decommissioned on a relatively frequent basis in the period 2035-2045, there are even more reasons to keep open the option of new nuclear power. Invest heavily in Sweden in research, development, demonstration and implementation of new technology and systems in several areas. Swedish companies and universities should continue their investments in the area of CCS (capture and storage of carbon dioxide). This is necessary in order for it to be possible to evaluate the consequences of the technology for Sweden and its usefulness and safety in the longer term. A breakthrough is envisaged after 2020 and will in the first instance concern CCS at power stations, but CCS may also be applied to large point sources of carbon dioxide emissions from energy intensive industry. Formulate a national vision for plug-in hybrids and electric cars in Sweden. According to the proposal from the Energy Users Group, this means that Sweden will have 600,000 plug-in hybrids and electric cars in 2020. This could radically reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, oil consumption and energy consumption of the transport sector, as well as develop Swedish industry. The consequences for electricity production and electricity networks in Sweden will be moderate. Some infrastructure investments would be required, but this would also create some opportunities for energy storage in the electricity system. Introduce second-generation biofuels to reduce competition for land for food production, and to make production of biofuels more energy efficient. This will require political decisions in the next few years, particularly regarding policy instruments and regarding support for research and demonstration, even though commercial application of second-generation biofuels lies beyond 2020.

  16. Policy Instruments for an Increased Supply of Energy Crops; Styrmedel foer ett utoekat utbud av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, Maria; Widmark, Annika; Wiklund, Sven-Erik; Liljeblad, Anna

    2009-05-15

    At present, energy crops are not commonly used as fuel for heat and power production in Sweden, but as a result of increased competition for biomass, the interest for agricultural fuels such as willow, straw, reed canary grass and hemp increases. The purpose of this study is through a qualitative study that includes a literature study as well as case studies carried out by interviews, with respondents in the agriculture- and energy sectors highlight the conditions for increased production and use of energy crops. The main objective is to propose relevant policy instruments that could increase the production and use of energy crops. The purpose with the proposed policy instruments is that they should serve as a basis for discussions with politicians and authorities regarding the supply of bio fuels through the use of energy crops. The result of the study indicates that the main obstacle for increasing the production and use of energy crops is that the cultivation of energy crops today is unprofitable. To reduce the production costs it is necessary to improve the competitiveness of energy crops, primarily in relation to wood chips. The study shows that there is a potential for reduction of production costs through development of the logistics chain. Policy measures promoting the use of bio fuels exists today, but are not fully used to increase the share of energy crops in the bio fuel energy mix. The reason for this is that they are generally not as cost efficient as alternative bio fuels. It is important that competition issues are addressed, both regarding competition issues between different bio fuels, but also competition issues between various energy crops that exists today. Further obstacles to accelerate the introduction of energy crops at the market are high investment costs for establishment of some of the energy crops. From the analysis in this study, the following policy instruments are suggested in order to increase the production and the use of energy crops within the power and heat sector 1. Financing of practical research and development of the logistics chain including harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops 2. Investment support to farmers cultivating energy crops with high investment costs 3. Introduction of a national program for development of regional projects supporting cooperation between actors on the energy crop bio fuel market. 1. Financing of Practical Research and Development of the Logistics Chain To reduce the production costs in order to increase the profitability, support for practical research and development of the logistics chain, which includes harvesting, bundling, compression, preparation, feeding in (to the power plant), storage and transportation of energy crops, is suggested. For the success of practical research, it is important that the research is performed in close cooperation between farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain dealing with harvesting, storage and transport of energy crops and energy companies. One way to achieve such cooperation is that the energy companies take the initiative for common research efforts, since neither the farmers nor the contractors on the market for energy crops normally take part in research projects. Neither do they normally have experience of applying for research funds. Common research efforts are also important to find cost-effective solutions for the entire logistics chain. This means that the financing for the research could be a combination of public support and support from the heat and power sector. 2. Investment Support to Farmers Cultivating Energy Crops with High Investment Costs In order to initially increase the interest in energy crops, contribute to establish a market for production of energy crops and manage high initial investment costs, problem that farmers face at the transition from traditional production of grain to energy crops, a development of the existing investment support scheme to include an additional number of energy crops are suggested. One of the purposes by including an additional number of energy crops within the scheme is that the energy crops with the best condition with respect to the farmer's competence, the logistics entrepreneur's technical preconditions, different quality of the soils and the suitability of different energy crops in different geographical areas can be used in order to increase production and use of energy crops. 3. Introduction of a National Program for Development of Regional Projects Supporting Cooperation between Actors on the Energy Crop Bio Fuel Market. Experiences from bio energy projects both in Sweden and in Finland shows that regional cooperation projects between energy companies, farmers, entrepreneurs within the logistics chain and other actors may by cooperation achieve increased production and use of energy crops.

  17. Tests of Bed Agglomeration Tendency Using a Rotating Furnace; Roterugn foer bedoemning av sintringsbenaegenhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larfeldt, Jenny; Zintl, Frank [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Bed sintering is a well known problem in fluidised bed boilers. In order to avoid bed sintering the bed material turn over ratio is high which leads a high consumption of bed material. This work aims at developing and evaluating a method for testing the bed agglomeration tendency of a FB bed material by using a rotating furnace. A rotating furnace has been designed and tests have shown that three temperatures describing the increasing agglomeration tendency can be evaluated; TA when several particles stick to each other and to the crucible wall, TB when half of the material sticks to the wall and TC when almost all the material forms a ball in the crucible. Comparison with bed agglomeration tests has shown that TA is between 80 deg C to 130 deg C lower than the bed agglomeration temperature from fluid bed tests. It is shown that TB is closer to the bed agglomeration temperature and finally that the temperature TC is higher than the bed agglomeration temperature. It is concluded that in the rotating furnace sticking of particles is visualised early, and that this sticking will not cause defluidisation of the bed until more than half of the material in the crucible is sticky. Repeated tests has been performed at a heating rate of 5 deg/minute and a rotating speed of 12 rpm and a furnace inclination of 20 deg was found to give distinct results in the evaluation. The evaluation has shown to be reproducible at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, around 1,000 deg C, the evaluation was complicated by a poor picture quality which probably can be improved by proper cooling of the camera. It has also been shown that sticking of material in the rotating furnace could be detected at relatively low temperatures of 750 deg C that disappeared at higher temperatures. This is likely to be explained by melting salts that evaporates as temperature increase. At even higher temperatures the sticking reappeared until a ball was formed in the crucible. The latter sticking is probably related to melts of silica and the phenomena was also seen in a large number of tests with single crucibles and microscopic studies of heated materials.

  18. Natural refrigerants. Future heat pumps for district heating; Naturliga koeldmedier. Framtida vaermepumpar foer fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingvarsson, Paul; Steen Ronnermark, Ingela [Fortum Teknik och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Marcus [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Science

    2004-01-01

    International work on refrigerants is aiming at phasing out HFC. The solution might be natural refrigerants. Within 15-20 years, when present heat pumps for district heating in Sweden are likely not in service any longer, it might still be good economy to install new heat pumps since only the machines need to be replaced. This report describes the possibilities to use natural refrigerants. A first screening resulted in further study on some hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Water was considered to require too large volumes. In present plants it is practically not possible to use any natural refrigerants, partly because the compressors are not adapted. In new plants the situation is different. Today it is technically possible to install new heat pumps in the studied size, 15 MW{sub th}, using ammonia or hydrocarbons as refrigerant. But likely it is very difficult to get permits from authorities since the refrigerants are toxic or highly flammable. There is substantial international research on using carbon dioxide, and this refrigerant is also used in some applications. Carbon dioxide is used at high pressure and in a trans-critical process. Surprisingly, it turned out that one compressor manufacturer considers it possible to supply a heat pump for district heating within 5 years. This development has taken place in Russia, mainly for domestic use. Thus, within 15 to 20 years there will probably exist a technique where carbon dioxide is used. However, more development is needed. Additionally, low district heating return temperatures are also needed to get an acceptable COP. The investment cost for a heat pump installation is considered to be approx. 30 % higher when using ammonia or propane compared to using R134a. When using carbon dioxide there is in the longer run potential to get lower cost than for R134a. The COPs are almost identical if the systems are properly designed. In the carbon dioxide case the COP is somewhat lower, but has a potential for improvement in components, system and external preconditions. In the future it might be more interesting to use turbine driven heat pumps instead of electric motors. The absorption process is not considered to be an alternative to replace present heat pumps, but there is a certain niche where heat source and driving energy, considering temperature levels, are more suitable for district heating. A technique that seems to be an alternative to the compression cycle is a combination of compression and absorption. Using the media pair water and ammonia might be an interesting solution and should be compared to the alternative using carbon dioxide. A further study is recommended on this subject.

  19. Robust on-line monitoring of biogas processes; Robusta maettekniker on-line foer optimerad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aake; Hansson, Mikael; Kanerot, Mija; Krozer, Anatol; Loefving, Bjoern; Sahlin, Eskil

    2010-03-15

    Although demand for biomethane in Sweden is higher than ever, many Swedish codigestion plants are presently operated below their designed capacity. Efforts must be taken to increase the loading rate and guarantee stable operation and high availability of the plants. There are currently no commercial systems for on-line monitoring, and due to the characteristics of the material, including corrosion and tearing, robust applications have to be developed. The objective of this project was to identify and study different monitoring technologies with potential for on-line monitoring of both substrate mixtures and anaerobic digester content. Based on the prerequisites and demands at Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB's (BEMAB, the municipal energy and waste utility in the city of Boraas, Sweden) biogas plant, the extent of the problems, measurement variables and possible ways of managing these issues have been identified and prioritized. The substrate mixtures in question have a high viscosity and are inhomogeneous with variation in composition, which calls for further homogenization, dilution and filtration to achieve high precision in the necessary analyses. Studies of using different mixers and mills showed that the particle size (800 mum) needed for on-line COD measurement could not be achieved. The problem of homogenization can be avoided if indirect measurement methods are used. Laboratory tests with NIR (near-infra red spectroscopy) showed that VS can be predicted (R2=0,78) in the interval of 2-9% VS. Furthermore, impedance can give a measurement of soluble components. However, impedance is not sensitive enough to give a good measurement of total TS. Microwave technology was installed at the production plant and showed a faster response to changes in TS than the existing TS-sensor. However, due to technical problems, the evaluation only could be done during a limited period of ten days. BEMAB will continue the measurements and evaluation of the instrument. The project showed that pH-adjustment with Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can be a way of compensating for the losses of volatile compounds (up to 20% of VS), which occurs when standardized reference methods are used. This is a fundamental problem and requires further research. Monitoring of a laboratory-scale anaerobic digester with NIR showed that a previously developed multivariate model could predict propionate concentrations (R2= 0,92; RMSEP 0,39 g/L) in the interval 0-5 g/L, which is a relevant interval for inhibition (limit ca 3 g/L). A commercial FT-NIR instrument was subsequently installed at the production plant. However, the organic loading was decreased during the evaluation period due to process disturbances, at which the dynamic of the process was not in the range needed for prediction of e.g. propionate. Measurements and evaluation will continue during normal conditions after the completion of this project. Evaluation of a potentiometric sensor for ammonia with potential for on-line application showed low stability and a need for daily calibration, which therefore did not fulfill the requested demand. The project has demonstrated technologies with significant potential for on-line monitoring at production scale facilities, thus improving the knowledge base for making important decisions. Knowledge about on-line implementation has increased, and important insights into the limitations of standardized reference methods and substrate characteristics have been achieved. Instrument suppliers have in general a limited insight in the conditions at a biogas plant, which suggests that this type of WR-financed project is important for development in the area

  20. Practical implementation of joint projects for offshore wind; Praktiskt genomfoerande av gemensamma projekt foer havsbaserad vindkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Cooperation mechanisms are part of the renewable s directive and aims to member countries to cooperate on renewable energy to meet their national targets a cost effective way. The Energy Agency has in previous assignments analyzed the possibilities and limitations of cooperation mechanisms and other countries' interest in the cooperation mechanisms. In the Appropriation Directions for 2013, the Energy Agency has been asked to contribute to the continued analysis and practical preparations for a possible cooperation with other member countries. The assignment covers several different types of cooperation. This report represents the Agency's accounting of the part of the commission on cooperation through joint projects. This part include, in consultation with the industry to develop a proposal for the practical use for the implementation of possible joint projects for offshore wind power. The mission aims to create greater clarity and facilitate the possible implementation of joint projects.

  1. Energy statistics for non-residential premises 2012; Energistatistik foer lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data on a number of non-residential premises, heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  2. Digital analysis of air photography for sustainable forest management; Digital flygbildsteknik foer uthaallig skogsskoetsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, Sam; Loefmark, Magnus; Johansson, Desiree

    2001-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop methods for estimation of forest stand variables using digital analysis of near infrared air photography. Near Infrared air photography covering an area 200 km northwest of Stockholm was scanned and ortho rectified. Methods for digital classification, normalisation of view angle effects and estimation of parameters such as timber volume, stand density, crown coverage, species composition, defoliation and number of dead or dying trees have been developed. Major results were that the functions for normalisation on view angle effects on tree size as viewed from the focal point strongly improved the stand estimates. Timber volume, stand density, species composition as well as the ecological variables were estimated with accuracies comparable to those of subjective field inventory methods. In spite of the photography being of high quality, differences in colour between flight lines gave problems with separation of pine and spruce. This may be solved using post-classification manual editing, but will cause an increase in costs. In the future, digital cameras or calibration lamps within the photograph could further reduce this problem.

  3. Model for economic optimization of solar power plants; Beraekningsmodell foer ekonomisk optimering av solelanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widen, Joakim

    2011-01-15

    This is the final report from a project in which an early-design-phase tool for photovoltaic (PV) systems has been developed. The aim of the tool is to provide a quick and easy way to estimate the electricity production and the economy of a PV system. Although it is effective and easy to use, the model takes into account all the important factors that affect the design, performance and economy of a system, and makes it possible with more in-depth analyses as well. The intended users of the tool are both electricity end-users thinking on investing in a small-scale system and large investors planning in an early project phase for large-scale PV systems. The developed tool is a simulation tool rather than an optimization tool. However, as the model is efficient and simple to use, it is easy to vary parameters and input data in different scenarios to arrive at an optimal solution. In order for the tool to realistically estimate the load matching of a PV system, which depends on seasonal and diurnal variations in both load and production profiles, the computations are made on an hourly basis. An hourly resolution is the most common one in meteorological data and to increase the resolution further is neither practically possible nor required for accuracy. The hourly irradiation data used in the model were collected from the publicly available STRAaNG database, which is maintained by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). Idealized hourly load profiles for typical Swedish end-user categories are also included in the tool. A general computational model was implemented in Matlab, which provided easy testing, visualization and validation of the model. The computations involved can be summarized in four main steps: 1 Radiation computations. This involves a transposition of radiation components to the tilted plane of the PV array. The model takes the orientation of the system into account and uses assumed albedo values of the surroundings to add ground-reflected radiation. 2 PV system simulations. A simplified model of the PV system, including different loss mechanisms, is used to convert incident radiation to a power output from the system inverter. 3 Electricity use and load matching analyses. The interaction with the electricity distribution grid is determined from the power production and load profiles. 4 Economical analysis. The economy of the system is determined from the load matching analysis and depends on system costs, subsidies and different debiting and net metering alternatives. The exact model computations are summarized in Appendix A-D. The model has been compared to both the commercial tool PVSYST 4.1 and to empirical measurements on PV systems in the Swedish climate. The conclusion is that the performance of the developed model is similar to that of the commercial tool, although more in-depth analyses and extensive fine tuning of parameters can be done in PVSYST. The annual production and performance ratio of a typical system in the model is close to the production and average performance of a set of measured Swedish PV test systems. The model structure was implemented in the object-oriented programming language Java SE 6 with Java Web Start, which enables the creation of a platform-independent application with a graphical user interface that can be started from a web site without any requirements on local Java installations. The implemented model is with few exceptions identical to the one that was tested in Matlab. This application will be publicly available on the Elforsk website. In the report, the application is used to show how one small-scale and one large-scale system can be modeled and analysed

  4. Pretreatment of different waste streams for improvement in biogas production; Foerbehandlingsteknikers betydelse foer oekat biogasutbyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); del Pilar Castillo, Maria (JTI (Sweden)); Loren, Anders; Brive, Lena; Ekendahl, Susanne; Nordman, Roger (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biological breakdown of organic municipal and industrial waste to biogas is already in use today. The technology is of outmost importance to attain the environmental goals that our society has set regarding to sustainable development. Of decisive economic importance is the ability to obtain an increased amount of biogas from the same amount of substrate. Alternative resources for biogas production are at the same time of great interest in order to enable a large expansion of biogas production. The goal of applying a suitable pre-treatment step before anaerobic digestion is to open up the molecular structure of inaccessible biopolymers in order to facilitate access to the carbon for microorganisms involved in biological breakdown and fermentation to biogas. Our study shows that introducing a pretreatment step opens new perspectives for biogas production. Treatment of paper residuals by steam explosion increased methane production up to 400 Nm3/ton dry matter, to a double amount of methane yield compared to that of untreated paper. A novel method for pretreatment with an environment-friendly solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was also tested on lignocellulose-rich waste fractions from forest and agricultural. The NMMO-treatment increased the methane yields of spruce chips and triticale straw by 25 times (250 Nm3/ton dry matter), and by 6 times (200 Nm3/ton dry matter), respectively, compared to that of the untreated materials. Keratin-rich feather waste yielded around 200 Nm3 methane/ton dry matter, which could be increased to 450 Nm3/ton after enzymatic treatment and to 360 Nm3/ton after either chemical treatment with lime, or after biological treatment with a recombinant bacterial strain of Bacillus megaterium. However, the gain in increased amount of methane after a pretreatment step should be weighted against a possible increase in energy usage generated by the pretreatment. We have therefore performed a case study in which the energy balance for a biogas plant was calculated. We have calculated the changes that occur if a pretreatment step was included in the process. For the calculations data obtained during anaerobic digestion of paper waste treated by steam explosion were used. The results showed that while the methane production is increasing by 7,5 % the energy need of the process is decreasing by 21% when a pretreatment step by steam explosion is used instead of a hygienisation step. Batch anaerobic digestion gives methane yields and breakdown rates on pretreated and untreated material, which then can be compared, while continuous anaerobic digestion experiments enable evaluation of the long-term effects of the pretreatment. During the continuous anaerobic digestion experiments untreated or pretreated paper waste was tested in a co-digestion process with an existing waste mixture from Sobacken's biogas plant. However, it was hard to discern the effects of the treatment because the composition and characteristics of the waste mixture had larger impact on the co-digestion process than the pretreatment of the paper fraction part by itself. Nevertheless, our results of the continuous digestion most interestingly showed that a change in substrate composition can stabilize the digestion process with the effect of a 30 % increase in methane production compared to that of the existing original waste mixture. This raises new specific questions on how the composition of mixed-flows influences the biogas production and on how the structural and chemical characteristics of substrate resources, pretreated or untreated, affect the anaerobic digestion. These questions can be central points in future strategic research within the biological waste management area

  5. Degradation of cellulose in the presence of ash; Nedbrytningsmoenster foer cellulosa i naervaro av aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Tech. (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    This project evaluates the risks and possibilities that come up in mixtures of ash and cellulose. The focus is on alkaline degradation of cellulose and the impact on metal leaching. The literature survey shows that a combination of ash and cellulose affects both the mobility of metals and the degradation of cellulose in many ways. A combination of ash and cellulose could have positive effects on the degradation of cellulose since ash makes the pH rise in the material. Normally the pH decreases in a waste deposit with time, which results in a reduced biological degradation of the cellulose since the methanogenic organisms are sensitive for low pH values. However, even if the pH increases when cellulose is mixed with ash the methanogenic organisms could be inhibit by toxic metals. The highest degradation rate for cellulose is at natural pH values because of an effective biological degradation. If alkaline conditions appear when cellulose is mixed with ash or in contact with the leaching water the cellulose is going to be degraded by a slower process: non-biological degradation (peeling-off reactions). The main degradation product from peeling-off reactions of cellulose is isosaccharinic acid (ISA). ISA forms complex with metals, which results in increased mobilization and leaching of metals. From biological degradation the degradation products are mainly CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O under aerobic conditions and CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} under anaerobic conditions. In combinations of ash and cellulose is it possible that the formed carbon dioxide cause carbonation and fixation of metals in the ash. As mentioned, ash could result in an increment of the pH value in cellulose materials, but if the starting point is pure ash a mixture with cellulose could make the pH value decrease, in extreme cases down to 4-5, because of biological degradation. Therefore it is possible that the metal mobilization in ash will increase if the ash is mixed with cellulose. Increased leaching of metals in combinations of ash and cellulose could also be caused by complex binding between solvent acids from the degradation of cellulose and metals in the ash. The experiments in this study have shown that the degradation product ISA results in an increased content of Pb and Zn in the leaching water from fly ash. When the experimental conditions were set to comparable conditions as for a compact and covered deposit after 250 years the leaching of Pb increased from 31 to 39 % and the leaching of Zn from 1,8 to 2,3 % when the content of ISA was increased 20 times. The disadvantages of mixing ash and cellulose are probably more important than the advantages because of the risk for increased metal mobilization. However, in some applications, for example grouting of ash to stabilize a waste deposit, the risk for metal leaching have to be compared to the advantages of using the ash. The disadvantages with ash and cellulose combinations could also be turned to advantages in special applications with processes where complex binding with ISA could give a selective washing/leaching and simultaneously the remaining metals could be fixed through carbonation.

  6. Legislation of combustion of recovered bio fuels; Regelverk foer eldning av returtraeflis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, Henrik; Olvstam, Marie Louise [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    A research programme, concerning combustion of sorted waste wood with the objective to solve and answer the following questions has been started: * What types of problems can arise?, * What causes the problems?, and * How can the problems be solved? This first stage of the programme has focused on the first two questions. The problem when using chips from waste wood can be divided into different categories; operational problems, environmental problems as well as restrictions related to new EC-regulations. The environmental problems when burning wood waste are related to the chemical composition of the fuel. In some fuel deliveries, sorted waste wood has a content of heavy metals in the same range as for ordinary biofuels. In other cases, the degree of contamination is unacceptable. Fouling of heating surfaces is one of the most significant combustion problems for chips from waste wood. The rate of fouling and deposition on the heating surfaces will increase three to five times compared to ordinary biomass combustion in the same boiler and under the same conditions. Fouling has been shown to occur regardless of the furnace used, whereas the dimensions and design of the heating surfaces have a more significant influence. The deposits formed are more corrosive over a broader temperature range compared to deposits formed during combustion of ordinary wood chips. This expands the corrosion problems to surfaces constructed of lower alloyed steels such as furnace walls and primary superheaters. In addition to the typical components of wood ash (such as calcium, potassium and sulphur), zinc, lead and sometimes titanium are enriched in the deposits. Most fuel fractions of sorted waste wood will be affected by the new EC-restrictions for combustion of waste. This is due to the fact that analysis of these fuels show higher content of halogens and most heavy metals than for example analysis of clean wood chips. The EC-restriction will mean more stringent rules for emissions compared to the present levels for these plants. Both the environmental problems (air emissions and quality of ash) as well as the operational problems are, as mentioned above, caused by the fuel contamination. Inadequately sorted wood waste can contain metal objects, which among other problems can lead to blocking of grates or nozzles of fluid bed boilers. Even well classified wood waste contains contaminants such as wood preservatives (mainly As, Cr, Cu), paint (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ti and other metals) and adhesives (mainly nitrogen). However, classification can only be used to remove these contaminants to some extent. The quality can be improved by removal of the fine fraction containing a higher amount of metals than the larger fuel particles. Also crushed gypsum, sand etc are discharged with this fine fraction decreasing the levels of sulphur and silicon. However, contaminants derived from wood preservatives are not enriched in the fine fraction and are therefore difficult to remove by pre-treatments such as classification. Those remaining contaminants have to be handled within the furnace. This project indicates for example that the ratio between zinc, lead, sulphur, chloride and alkali influences corrosion and fouling. The restrictions on air emissions have to be solved with cleaning equipment. The result of this study also indicates that the recirculation of ash to the forest does not seem to be possible without a large amount of efforts and measures. The conclusions from this first step of the research programme are that further knowledge is needed concerning the following items; * Which quality restrictions have to be set on different fuels in order to meet present and future emission limits as well as standards for reprocessing and quality assurance. * The mechanisms for the formation of ash deposits. * The chemical processes of the combustion that occurs in the furnace as well as the significance of the interactions between the contents of zinc, lead, chloride, sulphur, sodium and potassium.

  7. Hourly metering for everybody. Benefits, regulations and economy; Timmaetning foer alla. Nytta, regelverk och ekonomi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badano, Andrea; Fritz, Peter; Goeransson, Anders; Linden, Magnus

    2007-12-15

    Today extensive investments in new modern electricity meters (AMR systems) are taking place in Sweden. The main reason for these investments is the new requirements on monthly meter readings, but these systems can generally do a lot more. Other Market Design projects have identified the need for more demand response in the electricity market and the important role of hourly settlement instead of profiling. With present rules and regulation there is an obvious risk that the new AMR technology will not be used to its full socio-economical potential. A survey made in this study implies that 90 % of the meters in which grid companies are investing today, make it possible to both register and store hourly meter values. A considerably lower share of the new systems will fully meet the demands of hourly settlement. Hourly settlement is both individually and collectively an advantage for the customer. Better tariffs and means of control should lead to a more cost-effective power system and in the long term also give lower electricity prices and higher security of supply. Customers can be well paid when decreasing electricity consumption when electricity price is high. Better statistics and follow-up will also lead to lower electricity consumption. Consequently, customers can make great use of hourly meter readings and management at hour-based level. At the same time, care must be taken how these possibilities are presented for the customers. They must be given information which is brought into line with each costumer's individual needs as far as possible. For power suppliers, hourly settlement would mean possibilities to offer new attractive tariffs to customers. It would give customers opportunities to reduce their electricity consumption and at the same time reduce risk exposure for the power supplier. With the power supplier and the customer having this knowledge about his electricity consumption, the power supplier is able to develop new services such as helping the costumer to analyze and influence his electricity consumption. Through clever grid tariffs, grid capacity can be used more efficiently. Also, management and surveillance can be offered to customers in order to optimize their electricity consumption both against the grid tariff and retail price. It also opens up for earning money through new kinds of services offered by the grid companies. It is then very important, however, that these services are developed in such a way so that the competition between power suppliers is not affected. To make grid companies voluntarily switch to hourly settlement for all its customers, changes in today's regulations are needed. In this study several of these requirements have been identified. In another ongoing Market Design project, 'Feasibility study for costumer flexibility', more information will be added for estimating what economical and environmental advantages hourly meter readings, new tariffs and new business opportunities can give

  8. Evaluation of methods for characterizations of deposits; Utvaerdering av metoder foer avlagringsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, J.; Bjoerkman, P. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    In boilers there are problems with deposits on parts exposed to the flue gas, in particular on heat exchanging parts and to an increasing extent with the changeover to the use of biofuels and wood waste fuels. In order to solve the problems deposits are examined by using a deposit probe and taking deposit samples from the interior of the boiler. In this report an evaluation of methods of analysis is performed based on experiences in both literature and laboratory work. The evaluation forms the basis of an instruction for deposit measurements in 'Vaermeforsks Maethandbok'. The procedure for use of deposit probes is treated as well as the importance of careful and well planned sample preparation before analysis. In the literature a large number of methods used for analysis of deposits from flue ashes and similar applications are found. The methods include chemical analyses of solids and liquids, analysis of crystal structures, thermal properties and the solid mechanics of the materials. Several methods, for example SEM-EDX, XRF, ICP, IC and methods for determining the mechanical and thermal properties are suited for a survey examination of a deposit, while more specialised methods with higher resolution can add information but require a clear framing of a question and in practice are suited for only separate samples. Examples from the latter category are AES, ESCA and TOF-SIMS.

  9. Leaching properties of natural aggregates. Rock materials and tills; Lakegenskaper foer naturballast. Bergmaterial och moraener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekvall, Annika; Bahr, Bo von; Andersson, Tove; Lax, Kaj; Aakesson, Urban [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this project is to produce leaching data for natural aggregates needed for assessment of the environmental impact of alternative materials aimed for use in for example road constructions. Both rock materials and tills are tested. The results shows that very little is leached from natural aggregate. A comparison with landfill criteria for inert waste and the Swedish regulations for drinking water shows that a few samples exceeds the criteria for fluoride ions. All other values are lower then these criteria, and a vast majority of the measurements are below the quantification limit.

  10. Conditions for lowering the flue gas temperature; Foerutsaettning foer saenkning av roekgastemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus

    2012-02-15

    In heat and power production, the efficiency of the power plant increases the larger share of heat from the flue gas that is converted to power. However, this also implies that the temperature of the heat exchanging surfaces is lowered. If the temperature is lowered to a temperature below the dew point of the flue gas, this would result in condensation of the gas, which in turn elevates the risk of serious corrosion attack on the surfaces where condensation occurs. Thus, it is important to determine the dew point temperature. One way of determining the dew point temperature is to use data on composition of the fuel together with operation parameters of the plant, thus calculating the dew point temperature. However, this calculation of the dew point is not so reliable, especially if hygroscopic salts are present. Therefore, for safety reasons, the temperature of the flue gas is kept well above the dew point temperature. This results in lowered over-all efficiency of the plant. It could also be expected that for a certain plant, some construction materials under certain operation conditions would have corrosion characteristics that may allow condensation on the surface without severe and unpredictable corrosion attack. However, by only using operation parameters and fuel composition, it is even harder to predict the composition of the condensate at different operation temperatures than to calculate the dew point temperature. If the dew point temperature was known with a greater certainty, the temperature of the flue gas could be kept lower, just above the estimated value of the dew point, without any increased risk for condensation. If, in addition, also the resulting composition of the condensate at different temperatures below the dew point is known, it can be predicted if the construction materials of the flue gas channel were compatible with the formed condensate. If they are compatible, the flue gas temperature can be further lowered from the dew point temperature with equal and small risk of corrosion, but with increased efficiency of the plant

  11. Validação dos questionários de conhecimento (DKN-A e atitude (ATT-19 de Diabetes Mellitus Validation of Diabetes Mellitus knowledge (DKN-A and attitude (ATT-19 questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa C Torres

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a adaptação transcultural dos instrumentos Diabetes Knowledge Scale e Attitudes Questionnaires, específicos para avaliação do conhecimento e atitudes de pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus. MÉTODOS: Os instrumentos foram submetidos às seguintes etapas: apresentação, tradução, back-translation, avaliação das equivalências semântica e idiomática, cultural e conceitual, e pré-teste. Os questionários foram aplicados em duas oportunidades, com intervalos de um mês, em uma amostra de 61 pacientes com Diabetes Tipo 2 cadastrados num hospital universitário. Utilizou-se um desenho de estudo de confiabilidade teste-reteste das respostas, que foram analisadas e estimadas pelo Coeficiente de Kappa. RESULTADOS: Os achados sugerem adequação do processo de adaptação cultural dos instrumentos para a língua portuguesa. Na análise de confiabilidade, o coeficiente de Kappa alcançou nível de concordância de moderada a forte (0,44 a 0,69 em grande parte das questões. CONCLUSÕES: Os instrumentos mostraram ser de fácil compreensão pelos sujeitos do estudo e confiáveis e válidos para uso na avaliação de programas educativos em Diabetes Mellitus na realidade brasileira.

  12. 78 FR 2600 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ..., Wireline Competition Bureau, Pricing Policy Division, (202) 418-1520 or (202) 418-0484 (TTY), or via email... competition in the market for special access services; possible changes to the Commission's pricing... in the coming months to assist the Commission in evaluating whether the pricing flexibility rules...

  13. The Impact of the AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) Divestiture on the Strategic Air Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    the corporate tel- ecommunications manager, think of the impact on the military communicator. For a corporation, poorly planned, installed, and main...tained telecommunications equipment and services may mean increased cost or lost profits. For the military communicator, the same prob- lems can mean ...effective telecommunications systems available, even if it means turning our backs on past methods and relationships with vendors. I 4 NOTES -CHAPTER

  14. Atténuation des risques pour la santé dans le secteur de l'extraction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Abstract for oral presentation : addressing health risk of communities residing close to stone quarrying and crushing unit using ecohealth framework in Central India. Reports. Assessing and mitigating health risks from stone quarrying and crushing industry in Bundelkhand region of Central India : final technical report, ...

  15. Streamlining Streaming : Tilläggsfunktioner och dess betydelse för att designa en streamingtjänst

    OpenAIRE

    Mähler, Viktor; Näslund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Streaming is a big field in todays digitalized society. The streaming market is huge, both in regards to the customer base, but also in regards to different providers and their stakes within this market. But how does the different providers go about in order to provide their users with added value? What does the user prioritize? The purpose of this study is to examine which additional functions can be considered important when designing a streaming service, which in turn will create an added ...

  16. Svårigheter och misslyckanden med att vara den"neutrala forskaren". En kritisk granskning av en normativ uppsats.

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Kate

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses difficulties and Failures with being a Neutral and objective scientist when writing about a subject which he or she is dedicated too.The purpose with this paper is to study the knowledge process, in other words, is some knowledge harder to see due to the scientist dedication to the subject or is some knowledge constructed due to the scientist dedication to the subject studied, and the process of intermediating, in other words, how to validate the results. Subject which is...

  17. Stimulation de la bio-innovation en vue d'atténuer la pauvreté en Asie

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , politiques et installations nécessaires à la bio-innovation. Toutefois, les produits issus de la bio-innovation ne sont généralement pas mis au service des millions de pauvres, qui n'ont guère accès aux technologies. Le projet a pour but de ...

  18. 77 FR 57504 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... closer to economically rational competition, and it [would] enable [the Commission], once such..., 2001, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit upheld the Pricing Flexibility Order, finding that...

  19. Att peka med hela handen : Om arbetsvillkor och kön bland första linjens chefer

    OpenAIRE

    Keisu, Britt-Inger

    2009-01-01

    Historically, leadership research has focused on managers’ characteristics and behavior, their leadership style and its implications for a business’s success. In contrast, this dissertation examines how working conditions in the workplace affect first-level managers’ everyday work, their possibilities to practice leadership, and consequently their leadership style. The theoretical framework guiding the dissertation is a gender analysis with a doing gender perspective and the methodology is a ...

  20. 78 FR 2571 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...., observed sales and purchases). This allows for an analysis that controls for factors that may vary widely... those factors that affect providers' decisions to expand existing networks, e.g., the non-price factors... Street SW., Room CY-A257, Washington, DC 20554. The complete text may be purchased from Best Copy and...

  1. 78 FR 67053 - Special Access for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers; AT&T Corporation Petition for Rulemaking To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... characteristics of the purchased service; and (4) other factors that influence the pricing decisions of special..., 445 12th Street SW., Room CY-A257, Washington, DC 20554. The complete text may be purchased from Best... competition and pricing decisions. Under each category, most of which would be collected from Providers, the...

  2. Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att möta patienter med prediabetes : -En kvalitativ intervjustudie

    OpenAIRE

    Elvingson, Veronika; Wiberg, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prediabetes is caused by relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance in the body tissue which leads to abnormal blood glucose levels. Prediabetes can over time lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes and its complications, it is important to identify early elevated blood glucose levels and thereby prediabetes. Objective: To describe nurses' knowledge and experience regarding the management of patients with prediabetes. Methods: Qualitative ...

  3. Open Fireplaces. A method to prevent smoking from open fires; Oeppna Spisar. Metod som foerhindrar oeppna spisar att ryka in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soedergren, David

    2007-04-15

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to account for a new method of limiting the risk of smoke leaking out from the open fireplace into the room. The improved functionality is obtained by adding a turnplate to the open fireplace mounted horizontally inside the lower edge at the hood of the open fire. The streams of smoke and air, which are cold of the contact with the cool surfaces in the stove, have a tendency to fall down along the inside of the hood and continue out into the room. The stream is stopped and redirected back up into the chimney by the turnplate. The development of the method is based on measuring of temperatures and air flows in a monitored fireplace. Tests have been carried out partially in a test fireplace in full scale and partially in a model of the test fireplace at the scale 1:2. The model fireplace is made in glass which makes it possible to study and photograph the streams of smoke inside of the fireplace and oil fog has been used for the demonstration. Temperatures on surfaces and gases in the fireplace have been measured during different periods of time. These measurements have shown that the greatest risk for backwards floating air currents occurs directly after having lit the fire and during some hour after that. It is during this time the temperatures in the fireplace will rise. Measurements and also film-recordings have therefore been concentrated to these periods of time. The heat gain from the fire has been measured in connection to the tests. The distribution of the heat through radiation and convection based on the temperature measurements is shown

  4. Stimulation de la bio-innovation en vue d'atténuer la pauvreté en Asie

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Briefs. Improving the small-scale aquaculture to enhance the livelihood of rural farmers. Download PDF. Studies. Lazy gardens : a sustainability experiment in the uplands of Northern Thailand. 49210. Studies. Enhancing sustained adoption of innovations : the case of bio-fertilizers, Philippines. 49207. Papers.

  5. Atténuation des risques pour la santé dans le secteur de la poterie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nouveau webinaire IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau. L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite collaboration avec le CRDI, organise un webinaire intitulé "Changements climatiques et gestion adaptive de l'eau: des... Voir davantageNouveau webinaire ...

  6. Tumor tracking and motion compensation with an adaptive tumor tracking system (ATTS): System description and prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Meyer, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Guckenberger, Matthias; Herrmann, Christian; Hess, Robin; Janka, Christian; Ma Lei; Mersebach, Torben; Richter, Anne; Roth, Michael; Schilling, Klaus; Flentje, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A novel system for real-time tumor tracking and motion compensation with a robotic HexaPOD treatment couch is described. The approach is based on continuous tracking of the tumor motion in portal images without implanted fiducial markers, using the therapeutic megavoltage beam, and tracking of abdominal breathing motion with optical markers. Based on the two independently acquired data sets the table movements for motion compensation are calculated. The principle of operation of the entire prototype system is detailed first. In the second part the performance of the HexaPOD couch was investigated with a robotic four-dimensional-phantom capable of simulating real patient tumor trajectories in three-dimensional space. The performance and limitations of the HexaPOD table and the control system were characterized in terms of its dynamic behavior. The maximum speed and acceleration of the HexaPOD were 8 mm/s and 34.5 mm/s 2 in the lateral direction, and 9.5 mm/s and 29.5 mm/s 2 in longitudinal and anterior-posterior direction, respectively. Base line drifts of the mean tumor position of realistic lung tumor trajectories could be fully compensated. For continuous tumor tracking and motion compensation a reduction of tumor motion up to 68% of the original amplitude was achieved. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that it is technically feasible to compensate breathing induced tumor motion in the lung with the adaptive tumor tracking system

  7. Atténuation des risques pour la santé dans le secteur de la poterie ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En effet, les potiers utilisent un carburant de piètre qualité (de la poussière de coton et du coton mazouté) pour faire fonctionner leurs fours en briques, ce qui engendre une importante pollution atmosphérique, contribuant ainsi aux problèmes de santé majeurs dans les secteurs environnants. Le présent projet vise à ...

  8. Öppna spisar : metod som förhindrar öppna spisar att ryka in

    OpenAIRE

    Södergren, David

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this thesis is to account for a new method of limiting the risk of smoke leaking out from the open fireplace into the room. The improved functionality is obtained by adding a turnplate to the open fireplace mounted horizontally inside the lower edge at the hood of the open fire. The streams of smoke and air, which are cold of the contact with the cool surfaces in the stove, have a tendency to fall down along the inside of the hood and continue out into the room. The str...

  9. L'entrepreneuriat, levier d'atténuation de la pauvreté et des conflits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En effet, à la fin d'août et au début de septembre, Karen Kun, l'éditrice, s'est rendue au Soudan afin d'accompagner Samer Abdelnour dans ses déplacements et d'observer le déroulement de ses travaux sur le terrain. C'était le cinquième voyage de M. Abdelnour dans ce pays en deux ans et demi. Mme Kun a relaté cette ...

  10. Atténuation des risques pour la santé dans le secteur de l'extraction ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... crushing industry : a practical manual for preventing accidents preserving health and keeping a company profitable [Oriya version]. Training materials. Seguridad y salud en la industria del chancado de piedras : un manual práctico de prevención de accidentes, mantenimiento de la salud y rentabilidad de la empresa ...

  11. Spel som ett berättande medium : Att kartlägga narrativets utveckling inom Tv-spel

    OpenAIRE

    Kedfors, Fredrik; Berg, Kaisa

    2014-01-01

    This essay is about the use of narrative in video games, and the discussion surrounding it. For years ludologists (game researchers) and narratologists (narrativity researchers) have been arguing about how to analyze narrativity in games. While ludologists have chosen to see games as a product by itself, and therefore something to be analyzed separately, narratologists instead see games as a narrative medium alongside film, theater and books. This essay starts by taking a look at the argument...

  12. Att vara kommunikativt låst : Professionellas berättande om (vanskliga) vårdrelationer

    OpenAIRE

    Blomberg, Helena; Stier, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to shed light on the social dynamic that characterizes communicative breakdowns. As a first stage, this has been explored through individual and group interviews with 34 healthcare professionals about situations where they claim there has been a communication breakdown. Based on the professionals’ testimonies, the research question was: how do professionals illustrate their experiences of communicative breakdowns? In terms of theory, the study draws upon an integrate...

  13. Simulation and cost analysis of systems for handling of fuel straw - applied to a heating plant in Skaane; Simulering och kostnadsanalys av hanteringssystem foer braenslehalm - tillaempning foer en vaermeanlaeggning i Skaane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - The total costs for delivery of fuel straw to heating plants ranged from about 130 SEK/MWh to 180 SEK/MWh (1 SEK approx 0.14 USD), depending on the payment to farmers for the straw, the storage method used, the profit margins of the contractors, etc. - The area investigated, which covered parts of the municipalities of Svaloev, Esloev and Kaevlinge, has very good conditions for harvest of straw compared with other parts of Sweden. The yield of winter wheat (and straw) is high, the road network is well developed, the fields are concentrated and large, the straw crops ripen early, and security of supply between years is high. - For a harvest and handling system with an average capacity of about 8 000 tonnes of straw per year, the simulations showed that a machine system with six balers, two loaders in the field, four transporters (tractor), one loader at the stores and lorry transport to the heating plant was cost-effective with regard to system performance (for example, expressed as the average amount of straw baled per year with a moisture content below 18%, the average quantity of straw per year put into storage prior to 1 October, the average lying time for the straw between threshing and baling, etc.). - Harvesting straw from various crops (in this case winter rape, rye and winter wheat) instead of only winter wheat had no major impact on costs, but increased the chance to harvest 'greyer' straw with lower contents of alkali metals, chlorine, etc. Only including fields of at least 5 ha had a minor impact on costs. Noticeable cost savings occurred when the field size limit was set to 10 ha or more. Increasing the moisture content limit at baling to 20% made it possible to harvest more straw, especially in years with difficult weather conditions. - The storage method used had a decisive impact on costs. Outdoor storage decreased the total costs to 133 SEK/MWh (7% storage losses), compared with 154 SEK/MWh for an equivalent harvest system with storage in machine sheds (0% storage losses, 60% of the construction costs assigned to the straw, the rest for other uses). - Increasing the bale weight from 530 kg to 700 kg (with unchanged dimensions of 1.2 m x 1.3 m x 2.4 m) produced cost savings of 15%. Having bales with an unchanged weight of 530 kg, but with a height of 1.0 m so that three bales could be stacked on top of one another during transport, resulted in similar cost savings. - In-depth studies are needed regarding the capacity of modern harvest and handling machines, stoppage frequency, etc. (i.e. time studies), the impact of various weather parameters on straw quality, the costs and storage losses for different storage methods, etc. - Dynamic event simulation is a useful method for analysing complex logistics systems where weather, plant biology, geography, soil characteristics, etc. have a major impact on the outcome

  14. Forecasts and restrictions on vibrations from rock excavation and transportation. Encapsulation Plant and Repository for spent nuclear fuel, Laxemar; Prognoser och restriktioner foer vibrationer fraan bergschaktning och transporter. Inkapslingsanlaeggning och slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle, Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Carl; Johansson, Sven-Erik (Nitro Consult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study describes the impact on the surroundings that may occur during rock excavation activities for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Laxemar and the encapsulation facility in Simpevarp. The study also includes vibrations created by heavy shipments related to activities at the final repository. The study will provide input to the environmental impact assessment and future design work. The survey area for buildings and facilities covered by the study extends approximately 1,000 metres from the proposed location of the final repository. For the encapsulation facility the survey area has been limited to residential buildings and summer houses within 1,000 metres of the proposed location. In addition, residential buildings along road 743 have been surveyed with regard to the impact of heavy shipments between Laxemar and Faarbo. The results of the surveys and information on planned rock excavation activities have been used to formulate preliminary restrictions and predictions of vibrations and air shock waves from blasting, as well as noise from rock drilling. Predictions have also been made of vibrations from heavy shipments, and a reference survey has been carried out in a residential building near road 743. The predictions of vibrations from blasting rounds reveal low or very low levels. No risk of damage to buildings or equipment is expected. Vibrations from blasting may, however, be perceptible within large parts of the study area, since the human perception threshold for vibration is very low. They will hardly be regarded as disturbing, however. When the accesses to the final repository have been built and rock excavation continues at repository level, the impact on the surroundings is expected to be minimal. The main reason for this is that the blasting will then occur at a depth of about 500 metres, at an ample distance to buildings at surface level. Predictions of air shock waves from blasting rounds indicate low levels. There is no risk of damage but air shocks may be audible at great distances during the first few years when surface facilities are being built and blasting is being done for the ramp and sunk shafts. They are not expected to be perceived as disturbing, since the blasting will be limited to a few times per day during the most intensive period. Structure-borne noise from rock drilling for the repository will not be audible due to large distances to buildings. Noise from above-ground drilling may be audible, but below guideline values. Also, the drilling is limited to a relatively short period of time. In Clab, indoor guideline values may be exceeded during drilling for the encapsulation facility. There is no risk of flyrock from blasting that could cause damage to the surroundings. The scope and nature of flyrock protection will be determined at a later stage, but as a general rule the initial blasting rounds, when the risk of flyrock is the greatest, will be carried out as controlled blasting. Vibrations in surrounding buildings caused by heavy shipments to and from the final repository are not expected to cause any damage, mainly due to the fact that the supporting ground along the transport routes is dominated by rock or till. The reference survey carried out in Oevrahammar verifies this and shows low vibration levels. If the future status of the concerned parts of road 743 is the same as today, disturbing vibrations are unlikely to occur, even if the heavy shipments increase in number. In summary, it is concluded that the guideline values and limit values stipulated in applicable standards, recommendations and guidelines for vibrations, air shock waves and noise from blasting activities, as well as noise from drilling and boring will be met by ample margin. The impact on the surroundings from blasting activities during the construction of the final repository and the encapsulation facility is therefore expected to be very limited

  15. Enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips for energy reductions in TMP production. A method for ranking of enzymes; Enzymatisk foerbehandling av flis foer energibesparing vid TMP tillverkning. Metod foer rankning av enzymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viforr, Silvia

    2010-11-15

    The production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) demands high levels of energy. This, together with current expensive energy prices of nowadays results in significant costs, which is the reason why there is a demand for processes that require less energy. One way of reducing energy consumption in TMP refining could be to pretreat the wood chips with enzymes before the subsequent refining step. However, enzymes molecules are relatively large, which limits the impregnation process, and so the pores in the fibre walls are not large enough to fit the size of the enzymes. By mechanically pretreating wood chips in a screw feeder and press equipment, this opens the wood structure significantly which increases enzyme penetration. If enzymes are used for reducing energy consumption in TMP processes, it is necessary to optimise the enzymatic effect during the pretreatment of wood chips. It is very expensive to evaluate completely the effect of enzymes in large scale refining. Thus there is a need for other relevant methods for rapidly and effectively evaluating the energy saving effects when it comes to refining enzymatic pretreated wood chips. The aim of this project was to find a method for ranking of enzymes for pretreatment of chips for energy savings at TMP production. This method was to be independent of the type of enzyme used and of the type of pretreated wood chips involved. In order to asses the method for ranking enzymes being used in the pretreatment of chips to reduce energy input during refining, a comparison between the method and a mill trial was carried out in the mill trial. A known chemical pretreatment was used; here it was sulphonation of the wood chips before refining with low sulphite levels. Further, a laboratory wing refiner was used as an evaluation equipment. The trial started with the running conditions for a wing refiner that the best correspond with industrial refining. An evaluation was made on the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on energy savings during refining, when an industrial enzyme was used, here a pectinase. An assessment of the method used in the mill trial showed that the method for ranking enzymes in the pretreatment of wood chips could benefit from using a wing as the laboratory refiner. The enzymatic pretreatment of wood chips with pectinases indicated a positive result when it come to the effect of the enzymes on reduction in energy consumption during TMP production. A wing refiner can be used as a tool for evaluation and ranking enzymes, when pretreating chips for reducing energy consumption. A survey of enzymes that are effective in the pretreatment of wood chips in order to reduce the energy input at TMP production is recommended to be done. The experimental costs for mapping the enzymes suitable for pretreatment of wood chips at TMP production using the evaluation method developed in this work may be significantly reduced

  16. A unit for environmentally adapted technology for transportation of passengers and goods. Individual personal transportation, electric and hybrid vehicles - a preliminary study; Enhet foer miljoeanpassad teknik foer person- och godstransporter - Individuell persontrafik, el- och hybridfordon - Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, D; Lumsden, K [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1996-02-01

    A unit for environmentally adapted transport at Chalmers Univ of Technology offers the possibility to enhance competence, to bestow decision makers with information and permits working with the processes needed. Regarding electric propulsion road vehicles, such a unit can coordinate the experiences from the Swedish projects. Further, it may maintain a secretariat and a managerial function to the database which will provide information to research councils, transport administrations and other government organizations, cities etc. The unit may also coordinate and submit research results and, in a long-term perspective, establish and administer field and laboratory vehicle testing. The unit may also function as a link between the vehicle industry and environmental organizations. The initial activities should include the establishment of a national database for electric vehicles and a full-time research post. The present study deals with individual personal transportation. Corresponding studies should be carried out for other areas in order to form a consistent profile for the unit. 38 refs

  17. RDandD Programme 2010. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste; Fud-program 2010. Program foer forskning, utveckling och demonstration av metoder foer hantering och slutfoervaring av kaernavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    The RD and D programme 2010 gives an account of SKB's plans for research, development and demonstration during the period 2011-2016. SKB's activities are divided into two main areas - the programme for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (the Loma program) and the Nuclear Fuel Program. The RD and D Programme 2010 consists of five parts: Part I: Overall Plan, Part II: Loma program, Part III: Nuclear Fuel Program, Part IV: Research on analysis of long-term safety, Part V: Social Science Research. The 2007 RD and D programme was focused primarily on technology development to realize the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The actions described were aimed at increasing awareness of long-term safety and to obtain technical data for application under the Nuclear Activities Act for the final repository for spent fuel and under the Environmental Code of the repository system. Many important results from these efforts are reported in this program. An overall account of the results will be given in the Licensing application in early 2011. The authorities' review of RD and D programme in 2007 and completion of the program called for clarification of plans and programs for the final repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, and the final repository for waste, SFL. This RD and D program describes these plans in a more detailed way

  18. Sweden's Future Climate in the short- and medium-term perspective. Basis for development of climate adaptation tools; Sveriges framtida klimat paa kort och medellaang sikt. Underlag foer utveckling av verktyg foer klimatanpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Parmhed, Oskar

    2008-12-15

    This report studies two questions - how the actual amount of greenhouse gas emissions has changed over time in comparison with previous assumptions and what will happen to Sweden's climate from short and medium term perspectives given the future development of the climate in general. The content of this report shall be used as the basis for continued work in the development of climate adaptation tools that can be used primarily in Sweden. The first section of this report presents the development of actual greenhouse gas emissions in recent years. Eight years have passed since IPCC published its emissions scenarios (SRES) and for this reason a comparison between the emissions levels from the report and the experimental data from observations made in recent years is well due. Measurements show that current levels of emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels exceed the average of the SRES families as a whole. Among other implications, this means that emission levels are significantly higher than the levels assumed in the climate scenarios of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability (Klimat- och saarbarhetsutredningen). There is little support from the experimental data to indicate that this rate of increase will subside. In addition, studies are indicating that the increased emissions are not solely attributable to a rise in population levels and increased wealth (GNP/capita). Another aspect is that the carbon intensity, measured as the amount of carbon dioxide per unit production price, has been declining since 2000. This is entirely contrary to the assumptions made in all of the emissions scenarios in SRES that carbon dioxide efficiency would continue to increase. The report therefore concludes that work with climate adaptation in Sweden must take into consideration to a greater extent than is currently done today the consequences of emissions levels that are in line with or exceed the highest SRES levels. The second section of this report takes a closer look at Sweden's future climate from both a short and medium term perspective. Socio-economic development and future climate conditions combined are the most influential factors in the creation of the context within which decisions about adaptation are made. Climate research generally tends to base the majority of its scenarios on relatively long time perspectives (100 years or more). Efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions also often need to apply a long-term perspective. However, it is more interesting within the framework of adaptation work to adopt a shorter perspective. There is currently a gap between the focus of climate research and the needs arising in conjunction with the adaptation of society to a changing climate. This report argues that society's need to adapt to a changing climate increases the demand for climate scenarios with shorter perspectives. The report revisits and compares several different estimations of what Sweden's climate might look like in the years 2030 and 2060. It can be stated that the uncertainty in the shorter-term perspective (2030) with regard to forced climate changes is relatively small, which is why focus should therefore lie on resolving the socio-economic uncertainties. However, in the longer-term perspective (2060), the uncertainty related to the development of the climate increases and for this reason a larger range of future climate scenarios should be considered. As a result of this reasoning, only one climate scenario is presented for 2030 while the climate in 2060 includes three scenarios

  19. District heating for increased biogas production. Technical and economical evaluation of district heating as heating source in biogas processes; Fjaerrvaerme foer utoekad biogasproduktion. Teknisk och ekonomisk utvaerdering av fjaerrvaerme foer uppvaermning av biogasprocesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Per (AaF-Consult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-11-15

    This report presents a technical evaluation, the potential and an economical evaluation of the increased net biogas production by using district heating as energy supply for different types of biogas production units. The study presents generalized results for different plant sizes. The district heating is considered as replacement of the heat produced by burning biogas in a hot-water boiler. Hence more biogas could be available for upgrading to fuel-gas quality to be used in vehicles as a renewable fuel. The study is aimed at biogas producers, district heating and combined heat and power (CHP) companies. Biogas has a composition of mostly methane (about 65 %) and carbon dioxide (about 35 %) and small amounts of other gases e.g. sulphur dioxide (H{sub 2}S). Biogas up-grading is a process where the methane content is increased to about 97 % by removing most of the other gases in e.g. an absorption unit. The Swedish biogas is mainly produced in several sewage treatment plants and some co-digestion units but is also collected from dumps. Biogas is produced by anaerobic microorganisms at temperatures of about 36 and 55 deg C which correspond to the thermal optimum for mesophile and thermophile bacteria respectively. Co-digestion of animal material which e.g. is contained in collected organic household waste has to be pasteurized at 70 deg C for 1h according to EU-regulations. Such regulations may also be introduced to the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants. Due to the fact that the process temperature is higher than the temperature of the substrate (sludge or organic waste material) as well as the outdoor temperature, both heating of the incoming substrate and compensation of heat losses are required. Traditionally most of the biogas has been burnt to generate the necessary heat for the process and premises at the plant. The excess gas has been burnt in a torch. In recent years the biogas produced in Sweden has found increased use as a renewable vehicle fuel. By using district heating for the heating of the process more biogas could be available for upgrading and thereby contribute to the use of renewable fuels. Of the total Swedish biogas production of about 1200 GWh in 2006, 220 GWh were used as vehicle-fuel. Plant and digester size data of Swedish production units have been used to create correlations between size and the total volume and area of the digesters. For different sizes the energy demand for heating up the process flow and the energy demand for heat-loss compensation has been estimated. For a medium size unit more accurate calculations have been made to estimate heat exchanger duties and necessary temperature levels. The results from a sensitivity analysis can be used to estimate energy demand and increased biogas potential for real production units operating at other conditions. District heating should be connected using a sub-station, i.e. by installing a heat exchanger, as a pre-heater to the gas boiler. The temperature requirement is 84 - 86 deg C for a process with pasteurization. For a mesophilic and a thermophilic process with no pasteurization the incoming district heating water must have a temperature of about 53 and 72 deg C respectively. The outgoing temperature of the district heating water will be about 71 if the incoming is 85 deg C. For a medium-sized Swedish sewage treatment plant (100 000 personal equivalents) with a mesophilic process the heat energy demand is in the range 1350 to 2100 MWh/year. By replacing this energy with district heating some 0.23 to 0.36 million Nm3 of internally consumed biogas can be made available for upgrading to vehicle-fuel. The contribution margin is estimated to be in the range of about 270 to 320 SEK/MWh giving a total annual saving of about 460 to 540 kSEK/year. A co-digestion plant having a size of about 40 000 ton of wet substrate per year (corresponding to approximately 2800 ton dry weight) with an energy-effective process design and insulation has an estimated energy consumption of 1000 and 2500 MWh/year for a mesophilic and thermophilic process respectively. The resulting cost-saving by using district heating can be in the ranges 280 to 330 kSEK/year (mesophilic) and about 670 to 790 kSEK/year (thermophilic)

  20. Multimodality and the literary text: making sense of Safran Foer's Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the applicability of a multimodal framework to the analysis of literature. The framework adopted is that proposed by Kress and Van Leeuwen (2001) and Van Leeuwen (2005). In seeking to develop a detailed and consistent methodology that will allow us to deal with multimodal te...... typographies, graphics, colour, layout, photographic images etc. - emphatically invites an analytical approach designed to understand meaning-making as an interplay of different semiotic modes....

  1. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Plant description layout D - Forsmark; Slutfoervarsanlaeggning foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Anlaeggningsbeskrivning layout D - Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    This document describes the final repository for spent nuclear fuel, SFK, which is located at Forsmark, in Oesthammar. The bedrock at the site is part of a so-called tectonic lens, in which the rock composition is relatively homogeneous and less deformed than outside the lens. The bedrock consists mainly of granite with high quartz content and good thermal conductivity. The central parts above ground are grouped in an operations area, located at the Soederviken on the south side of the intake duct for cooling water for nuclear power plant. Operating area is divided into an internal, secured portion, where the canisters of fuel are handled and there are links to the underground part, and a outer part, where the buffer, backfill and sealing used in the repository's barriers are produced. The above-ground part of the plant and also include storage of excavated rock, ventilation stations, and supplies of bentonite. The underground portion consists of a central area and a storage area. Caverns of the central area contain features for the underground operation. It communicates with the internal operating range above ground via a spiral ramp and several shafts. The ramp used to transport capsules of spent fuel and other heavy or bulky transport. The shafts are used to transport rock, buffer, backfill and staff, as well as for ventilation. The largest part of the space below ground is the repository where the canisters with the spent fuel are disposed. The capsules are deposited in vertical holes in the tunnels. When the deposit in a tunnel is complete, the tunnel is re-filled. The two main activities underground is rock work and disposal work, which are conducted separately from each other. Rock works covers all steps required to excavate tunnels and drill deposition holes, as well as to make temporary installations in the tunnels. To the landfill works count, besides the deposit of the capsule, the placement of the bentonite buffer in the deposition hole and backfilling and plugging of the deposition tunnels

  2. Critical factors for profitable combined production of heat, power and biofuels; Kritiska faktorer foer loensam produktion i bioenergikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohlgren, Ingrid; Gunnarsson, Emma; Lundqvist, Per; Stigander, Haakan; Widmark, Annika (AaF, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    During the last 5-10 years, research and development efforts have been made in the field of polygeneration of heat and power with production of 'other green' products such as transport fuels or wood pellets. The driving force for heat and power producers is the potential of increased profitability through additional sales of heat. The driving force for wood pellet and some transport fuel producers is the potential of low cost process steam or heat. However, in the case of gasification based transport fuel production processes the situation is different. The process generates a surplus of heat, which can benefit from the proximity of a district heating net. In addition, some polygeneration combinations could provide other advantages such as more efficient raw material handling. Together with these driving forces, the EU renewable energy directive (which targets 10 % renewable energy use in the transport sector by 2020), shows that the market for production of renewable transport fuel is expanding. To refine Swedish biomass resources to more highly valuable products such as wood pellets or renewable transport fuels would maintain industry and employment opportunities within Sweden and at the same time fulfils the international and national climate targets. The overall aim with this project is to describe the factors which are crucial for the opportunity for profitable polygeneration of heat, power and wood pellets or renewable transport fuels and how these factors influence the location of such a plant within Sweden. The important factors can be categorized as: (1) Supply of raw material, (2) distribution of raw material and products, (3) Demand of products and (4) Integration between the different plants. In this project, only general aspects are described and should be seen as guidance for the industry (both energy and forest industry) which has an interest in polygeneration. The project gives an overview of different possibilities, opportunities and prerequisites for profitable polygeneration plants. The aim is that different actors within the energy and forest industry should be able to use the results in their own more detailed investment analysis. The project is based on data and material in open literature, in depth interviews of important actors and suppliers within this field, and, finally, an analysis by the authors. The project covers three different polygeneration plants: (1) Combined heat, power and wood pellet production, (2) combined heat, power and ethanol production, and (3) Bio-SNG and heat production

  3. Time for final disposal of nuclear waste - society, technology and nature; Tid foer slutfoervaring. Samhaelle, teknik och natur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsling, Willis; Andersson-Skog, Lena; Haenninen, Hannu; Knutsson, Gert; Ma ttsson, Soeren; Stigh, Jimmy; Soederberg, Olof; Bolin, Bert; Nordlund, Erling

    2007-05-15

    This report consists of a number of independent contribution that treat different aspects of the nuclear waste complex, with the time perspective as a common starting point. The review does not pretend to cover the entire area, but the selected issues addressed are those of large general interest. First a general overview is given of how the nuclear waste issue has been treated in Sweden since the plans to use nuclear power begun be planned in the middle of the 1940s. The complex of problem around the nuclear waste issue is linked to our natural aversion against the development of nuclear weapons during they last 60-70 years, but also to the controversies around the peaceful use of the nuclear power that has happened during the latest 30-40 years. In chapters 3 the time perspective is considerably shorter, approximately 20 years. Here, construction and operation of an underground repository for nuclear waste is discussed. Such an undertaking has many resemblances with establishing an underground mine and there is much experience to learn from. In chapters 4 questions about the technical barriers are treated, the copper container, bentonite buffer and the backfilling. The copper container and bentonite buffer both have key roles to prevent ground water to come in contact with the spent fuel and that radioactivity is transported out into the environment. They must both fulfil their functions during the period when the fuel is dangerous, i.e. over 100,000 years. Different processes affects the repository, some during short periods, some during several 10,000 years. Specific intervals (from 10 years and up to 100,000 years) are indicated for the different processes, almost all with the starting point at the deposition of the waste. The possibility to gain experiences from natural analogies is treated in chapters 5. They can be seen as a prolonged experiment in natural systems where one reactor zone has been active for more than 100,000 years. The time perspective stretches itself millions of years backward in the time. In chapters 6, Geologic development, time periods on millions years backward are considered. Crystals that formed more than 1,700 million years ago can be studied today. The future climate development is an increasingly central question in the debate. The climate is governed of an ensemble of interacting astronomical factors that vary on time scales from 10,000- 100,000 years, and changes in the atmosphere's carbon dioxide concentration happen on time scales from 100 to a few thousand years, and may be caused of the man and/or nature.

  4. Guidelines for water and steam adapted to Swedish energy plants; Riktvaerden foer vatten och aanga anpassade till svenska energianlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats [Hellman Vatten AB, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    The project summons a revision of the Swedish Cycle Chemistry Guidelines with the purpose to create guidelines that are more explicit and thereby easier to adapt to in daily operations. The objective in general has not been to tighten the limiting values; some are stricter but some others are less strict. The boilers of today are usually fed with demineralised water as make-up water which has been reflected in the guidelines. In this project consideration has been taken upon the fact that many boilers, mostly industrial, have been in operation for many years according to old guidelines, without problems. In these cases the boilers may very well continue to operate without any costly reinvestments due to the new guidelines. The most important revisions in the guidelines are: Action levels have been introduced for the core parameters in the water-steam cycle. With action levels the operators will have some guidance to correct deviations in the cycle chemistry. The action levels are progressive in the sense that the more serious deviation from the guidelines, the shorter time to correct the problem. Guidelines for boilers up to 6.0 MPa operating on softened make-up water have been adjusted slightly and introduced with action levels. New guidelines for boilers with demineralised make-up water have been compiled. Within the project group there is a consensus that demineralised make-up water is preferable even for low pressure boilers. Varying chemistry regimes are used in the industry today. This report gives guidelines for the three dominating in Sweden; All Volatile Treatment (AVT), Caustic Treatment and Phosphate Treatment. Cation conductivity is a core parameter for supervision of steam quality for turbine operation, and in all international guidelines cation conductivity is included. However, the cation conductivity can rise above limits if organic dosing agents are used. This may be accepted as long as the pH-value is within the specifications and it can be shown that the high cation conductivity is not caused by excessive levels of aggressive salts.

  5. Measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, Kent; Eskilsson, David; Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kassman, Haakan; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2006-12-15

    Combustion of biofuel and waste wood is often accompanied by chlorine and alkali related operating problems such as slagging, deposit formation and corrosion on heat exchanger surfaces and bed agglomeration in fluidised bed boilers. In order to gain a greater insight into possible measures to overcome alkali related operating problems studies were carried out during 2005-2006. The results of the studies are presented in this report which includes work performed in the two following projects: 1 A5-509 Frame work - measures for simultaneous minimisation of alkali related operating problems 2 A5-505 Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials Full-scale experiments were carried out at Chalmers 12 MW{sub th} CFB boiler within the project A5-509. The purpose was to study the effect of various measures on bed agglomeration and deposit formation in connection with co-combustion of wood and straw pellets. The various measures included changing the bed material (blast furnace sand and olivine sand), adding various additives (kaolin, ammonium sulphate, elemental sulphur) and also co-combustion with sewage sludge. Furthermore results from kaolin experiments at the 26 MWth CFB boiler owned by Naessjoe Affaersverk were made available during the project and are also presented in this report. The results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that, already at the lowest dosage of kaolin, approx. 2 kg/MWh, the bed material agglomeration temperatures increased significantly. The dosage of kaolin can presumably be reduced somewhat further while still maintaining the high agglomeration temperature. Experiments with a higher dosage of kaolin, 7 kg/MWh, proved that kaolin could also reduce the risk of deposit problems. The experiments at Naessjoe showed also that addition of kaolin increased the agglomeration temperature of the bed material. Addition of sulphur in any form resulted in a reduced chlorine content in the deposits. Ammonium sulphate was more effective than elemental sulphur on the basis of added sulphur. However, no significantly positive effect was observed on the bed agglomeration. The risk for both agglomeration and deposits problems were reduced during co-combustion with sewage sludge. Further results from the experiments at Chalmers revealed that the effect of changing bed material was dependent on the type of bed material chosen. The blast furnace sand had a greater effect than olivine sand when reducing the risk of bed agglomeration. The content of alkali chlorides in the flue gas and in deposits were doubled when changing the bed material to olivine sand, compared to the reference case (a silica sand named silversand). Even in the experiments with blast furnace sand, the alkali chloride content in the deposits increased, but not as much as in the case with olivine sand. According to approximate estimations, the costs of the various measures will be in the range of 3-30 SEK/MWh. Simultaneous addition of sulphur and kaolin is an interesting approach which will be investigated in stage 2. Within the project A5-505, laboratory experiments were performed in a 5 kW bubbling fluidised bed reactor where the tendencies of bed agglomeration for wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp were studied in combination with different commercial bed materials. The results showed that straw had the greatest agglomeration tendency followed by red canary grass and industrial hemp. Furthermore the experiments showed that the fuel ash appeared in the bed as sticky separate ash particles and that the composition of the bed material had no significant effect on the agglomeration tendencies of the different fuels

  6. Annual Report 2011 for the Swedish CDM and JI program; Aarsredovisning 2011 foer Sveriges CDM och JI-program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The report is an annual report of the Swedish CDM [Clean Development Mechanism] and JI [Joint Implementation]program for 2011. The report shows aims and goals of the business and the work of individual CDM and JI projects and multilateral funds which have been performed over the entire duration of life and especially during 2011. The report presents volume orders, deliveries of emission reduction units as well as the volumes expected to be needed for the fulfillment of the national target by 2020. The report also includes information about the average price for the emission reductions as well as alternative costs.

  7. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  8. Electricity utilization for ventilation purposes in new and old offices; Elanvaendning foer ventilation i nya och gamla kontor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    The consumption of electric power for ventilation purposes in new office buildings is compared with an investigation made 1990-91. This study will be used in two planning scenarios, `frozen efficiency` and BaU (Business as Usual). With the technology of 1980s the power used for ventilation will increase from 190 GWh in 1991 to 210 GWh in the year 2010. The technology of the 1990s will give an increase to 205 GWh in the year 2010. 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Developing of FTIR- and new probe technique for combustion gas analysis; Utveckling av FTIR- och sondteknik foer gasanalys i foerbraenningsrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Annika; Andersson, Christer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Thulin, C [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Karlsson, Maria; Aamand, L E [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of the reported project has been to develop and field test a versatile measurement system for combustion gases based on the FTIR technique. The project has included the following stages: Development of gas sampling methods, Further development of the FTIR technique, Field testing of the measurement system. The development of evaluation routines based on CLS and PLS methods has lead to the conclusion that both methods are well suited for the application in question, which enables an automation of the evaluation procedure. However, the elaboration of versatile and quality controlled methods is time consuming and the application requires a qualified user. With the dilution probe prototype, a satisfactory rejection of particles is achieved at the same time as a good mixing of the dilution gas and the sample gas takes place. Sampling is performed without using a filter at the probe tip. The intended function of the probe requires that most particles can be rejected without giving rise to a too high dilution ratio. This was achieved in the middle and upper part of the CFB boiler. Comparisons of measurement data from field measurements with the developed probe concept and the `conventional` CTH extractive probe show that the results are in good agreement in many cases, but also that interesting discrepancies exist. Sampling artefacts have been noticed for the gases HCN and SO{sub 2}, where HCN and SO{sub 2} are found in higher concentrations when sampling with the dilution probe. Analyzed concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons (methane, ethene and acetylene) are throughout all the measurements lower when the dilution probe is used. 21 refs, 34 figs, 29 tabs

  10. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  11. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  12. Combined bio and solar heating system. Handbook for system design; Kombinerade bio- och solvaermesystem. Handbok foer systemutformning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this report is to compile the knowledge available concerning combined pellets and solar system in order to support companies in their systems design. This publication deals with experience gained in research on solar and pellet heating, and gives proposals to system design, various technical solutions, and how systems should be controlled. When solar and pellets are combined, there are many possibilities to interconnect the systems. There are different traditions in different countries, which makes the system solutions vary from country to country. A general conclusion is that conventional Swedish boilers with built-in hot water heater are not appropriate for conventional solar systems. It gives rise to complex solutions and it is difficult to achieve good stratification in the water tank. In a solar system, it is important that the tank can be discharged in such a way that sharp stratification is obtained. This means that the tank bottom must be chilled to the temperature of incoming cold water and that the middle part must be cooled to the same temperature as the radiator return. If solar panels even in winter can work to preheat the cold water of 10 to 20 C, a much better efficiency is obtained on collectors than if the radiator return must be preheated, which at best is at a temperature level of between 30 and 40 C. To this end, the radiator return is placed well up from the bottom of the tank and the tap water is preheated in a loop that starts in the tank bottom. Another important parameter in the tank design is that heat losses are kept low, it is important that the solar heat can produce the hot water even during overcast periods in summer and to keep energy consumption low. In modern houses where the tank is placed in the living area, it is important to avoid high temperatures in the room where the tank is placed. To obtain a good isolation one must ensure that there is an airtight layer across the isolation that also closes tightly against connections. Involuntary self-circulation in connecting circuits capable of cooling and mix the tank is prevented by check valves. In the design of the solar collector system it is important that overheating and stagnation can be met without glycol degradation or other damage. Partial evaporation allows the fluid to boil in a controlled way so that only vapor remains in the solar collectors. The liquid is collected in a major expansion tank and the system is refilled when the liquid condenses. Drainage system with water only is also an possibility, but requires greater care in the design to avoid breaking from freezing. Pellet stoves provides good comfort and low electricity demand in electrically heated houses with an open plan, i e. if the heat from the stove can spread to all rooms. Even in low energy houses, the air heater may be appropriate. In houses with more enclosed layout, a water tank-equipped stove and a water-based heating system are necessary. It is important that such systems are designed correctly to achieve good heating comfort and low electricity consumption

  13. Graetzel solar cell modules for outdoor applications, phase 2. Final report; Graetzel-solcellsmoduler foer utomhusapplikationer, fas 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Henrik [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The project 'Monolithic Dye PV Modules for Outdoor Applications' has been performed at IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation in Moelndal over the period June 2003 to December 2004. The possibility of the dye-sensitised solar cell technology compared to other PV technologies is to realise PV products with low cost/W{sub peak} in combination with a low investment cost for setting up a production unit. The latter is important since it opens for production by smaller companies and reduces the risk related to commercialisation. The technical efforts of the project have resulted in monolithic dye PV cells with efficiencies up to 7 %. The module preparation has been scaled up to module sizes of 200 cm{sup 2} using industrial manufacturing methods. These devices will be further developed in 2005 in the project 'Flexible Solar Cells'.

  14. Market prospects for SNG in Sweden and in Europe; Marknadsfoerutsaettningar foer SNG i Sverige och i Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmsjoe, Linda; Nilsson, Ronny (Grontmij AB (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Gas produced by gasification of biomass can be up-graded to so called SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) that can be jointly distributed in the natural gas grid. Sweden is in a favourable position to develop technology for production of SNG due to vast resources of suitable biofuels and crops. However, the possibilities to distribute SNG in Sweden are limited due to the fact that the natural gas grid is built out only in the Southern parts of the country. The Swedish natural gas grid is anyhow integrated to together with the European natural gas grid, which is essentially integrated over the national borders. A previous study reveals a lack of knowledge concerning means of control for promotion of SNG in other European countries and to what extent they can be used to stimulate the use of SNG and crossborder trade of SNG. Increased use of SNG, by utilisation of the existing infrastructure for natural gas is expected to significantly contribute to the EU targets for increased use of renewable energy, mitigation of greenhouse gases and improvement of supply of energy. The aim of this study is to analyse requirements for distribution of SNG, produced in Sweden, on the European market. The study comprises a comparison of means of control and promotion of renewable energy in other EU-countries influence on conditions for production of SNG in Sweden for use in transport, industry and the energy sector in Denmark, Germany, Netherlands and Great Britain as examples. Of special interest is to illustrate the possibilities to analyse the applicability of so called Green Gas, which is if SNG might be distributed in optional delivery points in the whole of the integrated European natural gas grid, independent of if such gas physically can reach the actual delivery points, as is the fact for Green Electricity. The comparison of the countries shows different conditions, both concerning the markets for gas and the ambitions of the different countries to development and utilisation of renewable gas in different sectors. The use of biogas is in great extent concentrated to production of electricity and heat in all of the countries but a development towards a more diversified utilisation, which predominantly mean increased use for transports is ongoing in Netherlands, Germany and Sweden. In these countries there are explicit ambitions to support the development and the ambitions are supported by adapted means of control. In Denmark and Great Britain the means of control mainly is directed on production of renewable electricity while there still appears to be uncertainties concerning support for use of SNG for transports or for joint distribution of SNG in the natural gas grid. Comparative estimations have been performed with the aim of demonstrate the highest production cost for SNG to be competitive in relation to fossil fuels. The estimations illustrate for the combined heat and power sector that SNG has the best possibilities to be competitive in relation to natural gas in the combined heat and power sector in Denmark and Great Britain. The competitiveness for SNG towards heating oil is relatively fair in all countries except Netherlands. The competitiveness towards natural gas is fair in Denmark and Sweden but poorer in other countries. For industrial use SNG is uncompetitive towards neither natural gas nor oil, because of strongly subsidised energy taxation for the industry in all of the countries in the study. SNG has a considerable competitive advantage towards petrol. Natural gas used as a motor fuel has a considerable fiscal advantage towards petrol in all countries except Denmark. Because SNG used as a motor fuel is imposed with the same taxes as natural gas in both Denmark, Great Britain and Netherlands the competitiveness is low towards natural gas in these countries. In these countries there is also no or very limited infrastructure for gaseous motor fuels. The support systems which exist in Germany and Netherlands have been implemented to increase production of renewable fuels, thus to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The support systems are expressively aimed to promote utilisation of biogas to stimulate investments in new production capacity or to support investments directly. The support is especially directed on digestion of manure and agricultural residues to achieve the double effect of mitigation of emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion and mitigation of methane from agriculture. In neither the literature studies performed nor by the contacts taken with trade associations in the actual countries during the study indicate that the systems for support of renewable energy in respective country would be applicable on imported SNG. Potential estimations from respective country shows in each and every case great potential for production of biogas and upgrading to SNG that not yet are exploited.

  15. Final summary report of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Program 1994 - 1997; Sammanfattning av det nordiska forskningsprogrammet foer kaernsaekerhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.; Lemmens, A. [eds.

    1999-11-01

    This is a summary report of the NKS research program carried out 1994 - 1997. It is basically a compilation of the executive summaries of the final reports on the nine scientific projects carried out during that period. It highlights the conclusions, recommendations and other results of the projects. (au)

  16. Recommendations for conversions of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds; Anvisningar foer konvertering av rosterpannor till fluidiserad baeddteknik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Ingman, Rolf [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    This report gives advice and recommendations for retrofitting of grate fired boilers to fluidising beds. Nine plants have been visited and experiences from these conversion projects have been gathered and analysed. Among the important points planning, fuel specification, heat balance calculations and clarifying of delivery limits can be mentioned. It is also important not to underestimate the need for education of the operational staff.

  17. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  18. Initial study of a method for IR measurements in boilers; Inledande studie av metod foer IR-maetning i aangpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Martin; Joensson, Magnus; Lundin, Leif [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    The tubes in steam boilers are required to be regularly inspected, in order to find water-side deposits, thinning of walls or material defects. This is for safety, problem-free operation and high availability. No non-destructive method of inspection is available today for finding deposits on the insides of boiler tubes. Nor is there any method that can not only detect deposits on the insides of the tubes but also monitor the tubes' wall thicknesses. A suitable method - reliable, safe, easy to use and cost-efficient - is therefore needed. One such method is to measure the surface temperature of a larger area of the diaphragm wall, using a non-contact method, and from the resulting information to assess the material thickness and possible water-side or steam-side deposits. An IR camera is used for non-contact measurement of the radiated energy from several adjacent surface elements, and thus also of their temperature. The temperature is displayed on the camera's screen to produce a picture of the temperature distribution. This is a well-established method today, and is used in applications such as the steel industry, the electricity industry, electronics and health care. The surface temperatures of the tube walls can be measured by inserting an IR camera on an arm into the combustion chamber, without anyone having to get inside the boiler. The combustion chamber is the part of the boiler that is of main interest for inspection, as it is the easiest to reach. Measurements are facilitated by higher temperatures and thus higher heat fluxes through the tube walls. Diaphragm wall temperatures can be measured quickly and rationally over large areas. Points of interest in inspections include determining where there are water-side deposits in the tubes, where tubes are thin, where flow is obstructed and where there might be material defects. With the exception of material defects, all of these mechanisms result in changes in the surface temperature, which in many cases are substantial and can easily be detected by the sensitive IR camera. This means that the data provides a good basis for reliable analyses. It must not be expected, however, that thermography alone can identify how thick a deposit is or when it needs to be removed, or how thin a tube is. The results must be checked by other methods. Thermography cannot be used as a replacement for invasive testing methods such as the removal of tube samples. What it can do, however, is to show which areas of a boiler need to be inspected more closely. It can also reduce the number of tube samples, and confirm that they have been taken from the correct level and correct part of the boiler, which reduces the time required for inspection. It can also be expected to find greatly thinned tubes and blocked tubes. Today's thermography technology is highly flexible and is often used in special applications. Thermography of the inside of a boiler is just one such special application. However, further work is needed if inspections are to produce reliable results.

  19. Technology and costs for decommissioning Swedish nuclear power plants; Teknik och kostnader foer rivning av svenska kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedin, Gunnar; Gustavsson, Boerje [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Carlsson, Jan [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    SKB has already performed three studies on available technology and approximate costs for decommissioning Swedish NPPs (years 1986, 1994 and 2000). The present report is an update of the year 2000 report with emphasis on areas that have been studied since the publication of that report. The report also gives a review of the technologies that have been chosen for decommissioning the Swedish reactors. The cost-estimation has also been updated and indexed to the present monetary situation. Areas in need for further studies are pointed in the report.

  20. NDT methods for life-time assessment of high temperature plant; Ofoerstoerande provning foer livslaengdsbedoemning av hoegtemperaturanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive literature study of NDT and analysis methods for residual life-time assessment of high temperature plant has been made. The study has been concentrated on components in boilers, steam piping and turbines in fossil fired power plant. Most types of components are exposed to creep which is also the life-time limiting mechanism in many cases. In addition to creep, other stresses and damages which appear in plant are described for each type of component. Thermal fatigue, corrosion and embrittlement as well as combined damage mechanisms are also life-time limiting in many cases. The literature shows a large number of NDT methods developed and under development in purpose to identify and measure the size and extent of damage in the components. The methods and their limitations are described in relation to the experience and understanding of character, distribution and development of damage in different situations. 83 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  1. Impurities in biogas - validation of analytical methods for siloxanes; Foeroreningar i biogas - validering av analysmetodik foer siloxaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrhenius, Karine; Magnusson, Bertil; Sahlin, Eskil [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    Biogas produced from digester or landfill contains impurities which can be harmful for component that will be in contact with the biogas during its utilization. Among these, the siloxanes are often mentioned. During combustion, siloxanes are converted to silicon dioxide which accumulates on the heated surfaces in combustion equipment. Silicon dioxide is a solid compound and will remain in the engine and cause damages. Consequently, it is necessary to develop methods for the accurate determination of these compounds in biogases. In the first part of this report, a method for analysis of siloxanes in biogases was validated. The sampling was performed directly at the plant by drawing a small volume of biogas onto an adsorbent tube under a short period of time. These tubes were subsequently sent to the laboratory for analysis. The purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the established method is fit for the purpose. This means that the method, as used by the laboratory generating the data, will provide data that meets a set of criteria concerning precision and accuracy. At the end, the uncertainty of the method was calculated. In the second part of this report, the validated method was applied to real samples collected in waste water treatment plants, co-digestion plants and plants digesting other wastes (agriculture waste). Results are presented at the end of this report. As expected, the biogases from waste water treatment plants contained largely higher concentrations of siloxanes than biogases from co-digestion plants and plants digesting agriculture wastes. The concentration of siloxanes in upgraded biogas regardless of which feedstock was digested and which upgrading technique was used was low.

  2. National responsibility in an enlarged European Union?; Nationellt ansvar foer anvaent kaernbraensle i en utvidgad Europeisk Union?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Per; Stendahl, Sara; Erhag, Thomas [Dept. of Law, School of Business, Economics and Law, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The principle of national responsibility has two sides: One about how Sweden takes responsibility for the wastes that arise in the country from nuclear power generation. The other side about the rights Sweden considers itself to have to prevent that spent nuclear fuel from other countries are disposed or stored in Sweden. The last aspect of the principle has been regulated in an explicit law against final waste disposal and intermediate storage of foreign spent nuclear fuel in Sweden. The question about how Sweden will take responsibility for the spent nuclear fuel that arises within the country is not regulated in law in a corresponding way. It can be argued that such a discrepancy in interpretation of the principle does not favour its legal strength. On the multilateral level, the question is regulated through the Non-proliferation treaty from 1970 and the convention about the safety in handling spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes that were added within the framework of IAEA 1997. Non-proliferation confirms the right of all States to develop a national civilian nuclear power industry and within the framework of this right lies also the competence to decide about the policy for the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. That is to say, the States have, according to the agreement, the freedom to apply a principle about exclusive national responsibility for managing the spent nuclear fuel and the radioactive wastes, as is clearly confirmed in the IAEA-convention. It should however be noted that the IAEA, since the beginning of the 1990s, has initiated several studies concerning the legal, political and the physical conditions for establishing multinational plants for intermediate storage or final waste disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level nuclear wastes. In reports a series arguments been presented which speaks for such a development. At the core of these arguments is the interest of winning economic and technological scale advantages, and the non-proliferation aspects. The political decision to take part in such international cooperation lies however without any doubt within the national competence. In the European Union the question about responsibility for spent nuclear fuel is not directly regulated. Common legislation initiatives from the commission concerning methods for disposal and storage of spent nuclear fuel has been blocked by member states. The EURATOM-treaty and the EU treaty have a potential reach to national regulation about handling of nuclear wastes and spent nuclear fuel. It should also be noted that there is no binding community legislation where the principle of national responsibility comes to expressions, although the the national legislation competence in the area is expressed in miscellaneous political documents. There exists a hypothetical possibility that the question about the member states' right to maintain a principle of national responsibility can be examined of the EU Court of Justice.

  3. World after Chernobyl. What does the nuclear accident mean to us. Vaerlden efter Tjernobyl. Vad betyder kaernkraftsolyckan foer oss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoequist, E; Eckered, T

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26 1986 is described, and in particular, the dissemination of information about the accident in Sweden and abroad. The authors also discuss the health impact to people in Sweden from the reactor accident, and the implications for the future of nuclear power.

  4. Syndrome, Symptom, Trauma-chains in Post-9/11 Novels: Safran Foer, Ken Kalfus and Don DeLillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    Perhaps Slavoj Zizek's famous or notorious exhortation ‘Enjoy Your Symptom!' set forth in a 1992 book of that title, containing his Lacanian analyses of Hollywood film, should more properly, esp. post 9/11, be formulated ‘enjoy your syndrome!' Certainly a whole new batch of trauma literature and ......, a larger cultural criticism is required to fully understand the development in question....

  5. Oil from peat and biomass. Final report of the seventh stage. Olja ur torv och biomassa. Slutrapport foer sjunde etappen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, O

    1986-11-01

    The production of automitive fuels from domestic sources can be produced according to different schemes for direct liquefaction. Experimental studies have been made concerning the problems connected with high pressure liquefaction, focused on composition and production of the contemplated recirculated solvent for dissolution. Special importance has been given to a fundamental study for the choice of raw materials, especially peat. Deactivation of catalysts for hydrotreatment has been initiated and analytical methods for the characterization of products have also been further developed. (G.B.).

  6. Process and sensor diagnostic: Data reconciliation for a flue gas channel; Process- och sensordiagnostik: Dataaaterfoerening foer ett roekgastaag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Christer; Dahlquist, Erik [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology

    2003-10-01

    The project has shown that model-based data reconciliation can be used in heat and power plants, but it needs support of soft sensors. Generally power plants are not equipped with more sensors than required by control systems, environment and financial reports. Soft sensors are needed to compensate for lack of redundancy in mass-flow sensors. Redundancy makes it possible to isolate gross errors. The smallest error needed to be determined sets the requirement on the process model accuracy. Tools available today from this project are; classification of different process sections with redundancy analysis and gross error detection. Quantification of the errors with the mass balance model has not been successful and this part needs further development. Theoretical comparison of the three different methods presented resulted in favour of data reconciliation based on a mass balance model. The mass balance model has a structure based on physical reality. The searches for gross errors are transparent to the user. It can handle sensor failure. The statistical linear model is preferred for smaller process sections when transparency is not needed and focus is on fast, simple and cheap implementation. Data reconciliation based on steady-state energy balance has the same origin as the mass balance model. Data reconciliation based on energy balance is harder to compute and its sensors difficult to classify. The drawback is complexity, but the strength is that the large number of temperature sensors can be used in the data reconciliation. Large gross errors are detected and quantified for most process mass flows with acceptable accuracy. Performances for small errors are not as good. Performance of the data reconciliation is strongly dependent on precision in the process models. This conclusion is drawn from comparison with other studies that show good performance for laboratory simulations. There are still many parts to develop further as: Soft sensors, tests for identification of gross errors, computation of covariance matrix, quantification of gross errors.

  7. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants; Predikterande emissionsmaetsystem (PEMS) foer emissionskontroll i biobraensleeldade foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnevie, H; Sarkoezi, L; Trenkle, S

    1996-08-01

    An alternative method for estimation of NO{sub x}-emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, `Predictive emission monitoring` (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NO{sub x}-emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NO{sub x}-emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  8. The forest as a historic source and sink for carbon dioxide; Skogen som historisk kaella respektive saenka foer koldioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kander, A [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Economic History

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the present project is to quantify the changes in the growing stock of timber between 1800 and 1985 in order to find out under which periods and to what extent the forest has served as a source resp. sink for carbon dioxide. These data are compared to the carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of fossil fuels under the same period. Another goal of the project is to find the order of magnitude of the effect of other potential sinks and sources for carbon dioxide. 32 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  9. Review study 1995. Localization of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Oeversiktsstudie 95. Lokalisering av djupfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report gives an overview of the studies performed by SKB pertinent to selection of a site for the Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels, and is written for both experts in the various fields involved, decision-makers and the interested general public. The review can not comprise all detailed factors necessary for deciding the localization, but deals mainly with conditions on the land surface and can point out areas which are not well suited or less interesting as a site. It also treats several scientific, technical and social bases in different parts of the country. 120 refs, 53 figs.

  10. Combustion plants and the Water Framework Directive. Methodology for consequence assessment; Vaermeanlaeggningar och Vattendirektivet. Metodik foer konsekvensbedoemning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossander, Annelie; Andersson, Jonas; Axby, Fredrik; Schultz, Emma; Persson, Maarten; Svaerd, Sara [Carl Bro AB, Kristianstad (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The project can be regarded as a natural continuation to the Vaermeforsk project M4-324 by Axby and Hansson: 'Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants - New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges'. The six different combustion plants studied in this project have been chosen mainly on the basis of their varying size, fuel, cleaning equipment and recipient. The significance of water as a finite resource in the global ecosystems has been more pronounced recently. In the light of the growing stresses on the water resources the European Parliament accepted the Water Framework Directive in year 2000. The main purpose with the directive is to achieve and preserve a 'good water status', among other things through a long term protection of available water resources. Enclosure X of the Framework Directive contains a list of chemical substances where 33 'prioritized substances' and 'prioritized, dangerous substances' are specified. The objective of the list is to reduce the discharges of prioritized substances, and to fully eliminate the prioritized, dangerous substances both from industry and other contexts. Twelve of the substances mentioned on the prioritized list can or could be found in the water coming out from combustion plants. A predominant part of these substances are to be totally phased out in the foreseeable future according to the Water Directive. This can result in restrictions in the permissions to let out water from combustion plants to the surroundings. The substances concerned are the heavy metals lead, cadmium, mercury and nickel, both as pure substances and included in compounds, as well as a number of different polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The intent of the project has been to use an accepted computational model to create an analytic method (an ecotoxicological risk assessment), with the aim to meet the new requirements from the Water Framework Directive. The method was created for and in cooperation with plant owners. The result is a model to analyze the stress on the recipient caused by the discharges from the plant. Within the project samples of water from the plants and the recipient have been taken out and analyzed. In the evaluation step of the project a comparison has also been made between results from the analyzes and values measured according to the ordinary control program of the plants. The current test procedures at the plants are considered as sufficient regarding metals, but should be extended with PAH analysis. Through an ecotoxicological risk assessment of the discharged water from a plant the plants real influence on the recipient can be mapped. Based on this risk assessment an estimation of the possible future water fees which the plant could be ordered to pay can also be made. The preparation of the Frame Water Directive is an ongoing process, which will continue until year 2015. The Frame Water Directive of today does not constitute any hindrance to the activities pursued at the examined plants. If the further development of the directive involves stricter discharge limits, most of the plants will manage this with their current production and water purification equipment, at least regarding their discharge of metals. When it comes to a possible PAH occurrence in the discharged water, it is uncertain what the ecotoxicological consequences are.

  11. Electricity utilization for ventilation purposes in new and old offices; Elanvaendning foer ventilation i nya och gamla kontor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The consumption of electric power for ventilation purposes in new office buildings is compared with an investigation made 1990-91. This study will be used in two planning scenarios, `frozen efficiency` and BaU (Business as Usual). With the technology of 1980s the power used for ventilation will increase from 190 GWh in 1991 to 210 GWh in the year 2010. The technology of the 1990s will give an increase to 205 GWh in the year 2010. 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Requirements for drilling and disposal in deep boreholes; Foerutsaettningar foer borrning av och deponering i djupa borrhaal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, Anders [QTOB, Haesselby (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    In this report experience from drilling at great depth in crystalline rock is compiled based on project descriptions, articles and personal contacts. Rock mechanical effects have been analyzed. The report also describes proposals made by SKB and other agencies regarding the disposal of and closure of deep boreholes. The combination of drilling deep with large diameter in crystalline rocks have mainly occurred in various research projects, such as in the German KTB project. Through these projects and the increased interest in recent years for geothermal energy , today's equipment is expected to be used to drill 5000 m deep holes , with a hole diameter of 445 mm , in crystalline rock. Such holes could be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. With the deposition technique recently described by Sandia National Laboratories in USA, SKB estimates that it might be possible to implement the disposal to 5000 m depth. Considering the actual implementation, drilling and disposal, and the far-reaching requirements on nuclear safety and radiation protection, it is considered an important risk getting stuck with the capsule-string, or part of it, above deposition zone without being able to get it loose. In conclusion, even if the drilling and the deposit would succeed there remains to verify that the drill holes with the deposited canisters meet the initial requirements and is long-term safe.

  13. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. F. Methods report; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. F. Metodrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Hallberg, Bengt; Karlsson, Sara

    2001-10-01

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report gives a review of the different exposure pathways that have been considered in the study. Radioecological data that should be used in calculations of radiation doses are based on the actual situation at the nuclear sites. Dose factors for children have been split in different age groups. The exposure pathways have been carefully re-examined, like the radioecological data; leading to some new pathways (e.g. doses from consumption of forest berries, mushrooms and game) for cesium and strontium. Carbon 14 was given a special treatment by using a model for uptake of carbon by growing plants. For exposure from aquatic emissions, a simplification was done by focussing on the territory for fish species, since consumption of fish is the most important pathway.

  14. Energy and Security: future-oriented studies for the Swedish Armed Forces; Energi och saekerhet: framtidsinriktade omvaerldsanalyser foer Foersvarsmakten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestensson, Malin; Jonsson, Daniel K.; Magnusson, Roger; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2009-01-15

    The report provides a basis for the Armed Forces long-term planning, and how changes in the global energy supply may mean new challenges and threats, as well as the advantages and disadvantages that can be associated with different future energy solutions for Armed Forces own activities, primarily relating to fuel and power during operation. One conclusion is that the potential conflict between energy security and climate-security can lead to far-reaching security implications and that continued global fossil dependency contributes to increased safety of political and military focus on a number of potential conflicts. A new such area may be the Arctic, as in the wake of climate change will become available for exploitation. Large scale global renewable energy can bring greater geographical spread - and reduced pressure on existing 'hot-spots'. Nuclear power is unlikely to be influential in the overall global energy security, but security problems associated with the production of nuclear materials can spread and be strengthened. Furthermore, the energy problems of connected to gaps between rich and poor, which may lead to social friction and conflict. The trend toward increased nationalisation and politicization of the energy is in contrast to free trade and market liberalism and may lead to further militarization of energy resources. Bilateral energy contracts may result in division within the EU and create a hindrance to joint positions and actions, such as in international efforts. As for Armed Forces own future energy solutions, the knowledge of alternative fuels (eg alcohols, diesel variants, gaseous fuels) and energy converters (eg hybrid vehicles, fuel cells) is reviewed. The following alternative principle solutions fuel and power are discussed: 1. Power from small-scale electricity generation via solar cells and small wind farms and power stations with liquid fuel as a supplement. Transport with plug-in hybrid vehicles, i.e. liquid propellants in combination nation with electric. 2. Liquid fuels for vehicles and for the power and heat generation with different fractions of renewable liquid fuel. 3. Fuel cells for power and operation of vehicles (hydrogen or other hydrogen-rich fuel). A more efficient use of energy should be the primary starting point for then balance the environmental, safety, cost effectiveness and operational requirements. The defense-related energy research should ultimately evolve to energy futures and environment analyses and interact with the technical research on energy, but the directions are carried out as separate project areas, since time perspectives, the interaction partners and beneficiaries of research are often different. External assessments should have a security policy focus on the longer term, but stress defense-specific challenges and requirements for new talents in the medium long term. As for Armed Forces own energy solutions, the research on one side to deal with both existing operational requirements and future challenges, the the other, both in Sweden and in international operations, which may require different approaches

  15. Optimization of the enzyme system for hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose substrates; Optimering av enzymsystemet foer hydrolys av foerbehandlade lignocellulosa substrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjerneld, Folke [Lund univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-06-01

    This project aims to clarify the reasons for the slow and incomplete enzymatic hydrolysis of certain lignocellulose substrates, particularly softwood e.g. spruce. Based on this knowledge we will optimize the enzyme system so that the yield of fermentable sugars is increased as well as the rate of hydrolysis. We will also study methods for recycling of the enzymes in the process by adsorption on fresh substrate. Progress in these areas will lead to improved process economy in an ethanol process. We collaborate with Chemical Engineering on hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose substrates and with Analytical Chemistry and Applied Microbiology on analysis of potential inhibitors. Within this main research direction the work at Biochemistry during this project period (since 970701) has been focused on the following areas: (1) Studies of the role of substrate properties in the enzymatic hydrolysis to clarify the reasons for the decrease in the rate of hydrolysis; (2) enzyme adsorption on lignin; (3) studies of recently identified low molecular weight endo glucanases which may be used for more effective penetration of small pores in pretreated substrates (this part is financed by the Nordic Energy Research Program). Central results during the period: In order to study the role of substrate properties for hydrolysis we have initiated investigations on steam pretreated substrates with several techniques. Measurements of pore sizes have been done with probe molecules of known molecular weights. Results show that probe molecules with diameters larger than 50 Aangstroem can more easily penetrate pretreated willow compared with spruce, which can be a part of the explanation for the better hydrolysability of hardwood substrates compared with softwood. We have started studies with electron microscopy of pretreated substrates at different degrees of enzymatic hydrolysis. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM) we can see significant differences in substrate structure in comparisons before and after hydrolysis. For better interpretation of enzyme effects on substrates we have started studies with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) where we aim to study enzyme binding to the cellulose and lignin parts of the substrate. Studies of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam pretreated spruce have been done to clarify the reasons for the drastic reduction on hydrolysis rate in the later stage of hydrolysis. Results show that the hydrolysis rate for the enzymes CBHI and EGI is reduced to 10% of the initial rate already after 60 min. Additions of fresh enzymes to the hydrolysed substrate leads to increased hydrolysis rate. Our conclusion is that the enzymes become unproductively bound to the substrate during the course of hydrolysis which leads to reduction of the effective enzyme concentration. In studies of the synergy between CBHI and EGI we have observed that the synergy between the enzymes is increasing during the hydrolysis, which can be explained by the increased need for the exo-enzyme CBHI to have access to free cellulose chain ends which can be formed by the action of endo glucanase I. This points to the possibility to increase the hydrolysis rate by addition of extra endo glucanase during the later stages of the hydrolysis. The adsorption of the enzymes on the lignin is of importance since the pretreated substrate is a lignocellulose complex. A strong adsorption to the lignin may reduce the amount of enzymes available for cellulose hydrolysis, and can reduce the possibilities for enzyme recycling. Our studies show that the central enzyme CBHI is strongly adsorbed to alkali extracted lignin and that the binding kinetics are fast.

  16. Measuring and heat losses for district heating systems in detached house areas; Maet- och vaermefoerluster foer fjaerrvaermesystem i smaahusomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederborg, Frederick; Nordgren, Ola [FVB Sverige ab, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Within 'low heat load' areas e.g. residential areas, with low energy consumption per individual customer, the resulting relationship between the heat loss and the energy sales is big. For these customers with low energy consumption, in particular during the summer season, concerns have been raised regarding the ability of the heat volume meters to register the true energy consumption. In order to determine the magnitude of the losses, the Swedish District Heating Association, has initiated a measuring project where measurements have been made in two separate residential areas with different system configurations and different temperature control programs. The measurements were performed from May 15, 2003 to September 23, 2004. The main objective for the project was to gather data and to analyse the magnitude of the total losses in the building systems. The relation between the heat losses and the measuring losses was also studied briefly. Two types of systems have been studied, on one hand a conventional district heating area with primary connected houses and on the other hand an area with secondary connected houses with PEX-pipes in Enkoeping. The heat and measuring losses at the area Munksundet in Enkoeping is 17 % at a 'load density' of 0,84. This value is somewhat lower than the accounted annual relative loss of 22-23 % stated in the report 'FVF 1997:11 Fjaerrvaerme till smaahus'. The results show that a secondary connected low temperature system with PEX-pipes is an interesting connection alternative for small houses. Also at the residential area Rotskaer in Skutskaer, the heat and measuring losses are lower than the accounted annual relative loss, about 24 % at a 'load density' of 0,49,which is to be compared with about 33 % annual relative loss according to the report 'FVF 1997:11'. Within this assignment there are difficulties to divide the measuring losses in short circuit flows and errors in the heat volume measurements. By study the actual deviation in water volume for both low and high load seasons it can though be seen that unregistered volumes are occurring all year round. This fact in combination with surveying of the holding flow lead to the conclusion that the holding circuits generate a significantly greater portion of the losses than unregistered use in the single house meters. The experiences from the accomplished measurements and data collection shows the great importance of a structured work with components, compatibility, routines for data collection, storage and back up of historical data. A considerable portion of the time in a measuring project should be spent on studying whether the system is compatible and well functioning at start, supervision and function control as well as spent on establishing routines for the measures to be taken during disturbances. The factors that influence the net coefficient and the relative heat loss are the structure of the area, temperature levels and degree of building connections, which is the reason to, that the area 'Munksundet' is accounting a lower net coefficient than the area 'Rotskaer'. The area 'Munksundet' is a denser area with a low temperature system and maximum rate of building connections.

  17. Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications - phase 2; Miljoeriktlinjer foer askanvaendning i anlaeggningsbyggande - etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David; Wik, Ola; Elert, Mark; Haakansson, Karsten

    2006-07-15

    Producers, authorities and users have acknowledged the need for common environmental guidelines for residues. The objective of this project has been to develop a proposal for common environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications. The project has a narrow risk assessment perspective and focus on a set of substances where a well developed environmental policy and knowledge are available. Health aspects for construction workers are not covered in the project. The starting point in the risk assessment is the assumption that ashes may be used just like any conventional construction material. Special requirements or regulations regarding precautionary actions in the handling of ashes, regarding the site or surroundings will be avoided. The guiding principle has been the precautionary principle: reuse of ash is acceptable only if it constitute an insignificant risk to health and environment. The calculations are based on defined emission- and exposure scenarios. The concept of insignificant risk imply that the impact in the defined points of compliance does not exceed established health- and environmental criteria. The model address health risks associated with spreading of particles and exposure by dust, oral intake, dermal contact and intake by vegetables or wild grown berries and consumption of ground water. Off-site environmental effects in surface waters and in soil as well as health- and environmental risks in the post use phase are also considered. Exposure by dust is addressed in the same way as in the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's guidelines for contaminated soil. The guidelines values for exposure by dust, oral intake, dermal contact and intake by vegetables or wild grown berries are total content, whereas the guidelines for exposure by consumption of ground water or environmental effects in surface waters are based on leaching properties of the ash. The guidelines rely on a conceptual model, defined emissions and exposure scenarios including exposure pathways and points of compliance. Risk evaluation becomes an issue of comparing the estimated (-modeled) increased concentrations at specified target points with general human and environmental toxicological criteria. Guidelines have been calculated for two different types of constructions, with or without an impermeable (asphalt-) pavement that prevents rain water from infiltrating into the road. Also the possible exposure of intruding ground water has been taken into account. A set of ashes, for which data on total content and leachability was available in the ALLASKA and MALTE database, have been classified according to three categories of applications/situations. The results show that due to lack of data it could not be assessed whether naphthalene, bens(a)pyren, antimony and selen in ashes imply an insignificant risk or not. Only guidelines for leachability could be calculated for antimony and selen, showing that 90% of the ashes fall below the guidelines and thus constitute an insignificant risk in a construction. Cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel and zinc show a large margin to the calculated guidelines for total content and leachability for most ashes. Thus, ashes in constructions constitute an acceptable risk with respect to these elements. Arsenic and lead in ashes fall below the guideline values for leaching, although with small margins in some cases. However, the total content of arsenic in some ashes exceeds the guideline values when used in an unpaved construction. Accordingly, it can not be excluded that the reuse of some ashes in some applications may imply a certain risk. Spreading as dust, deposition on vegetables and the subsequent intake has reveled itself as an important exposure pathway. Little data, theory and models are available on dust generation and transport, the calculations made here are rough and conservative. Also, guidelines for the ash construction left in place in the post use phase are difficult to determine. The health risk associated with intake of vegetables and accidentally oral intake are crucial. In both cases arsenic sets the limits. Model calculations indicate that fluoride constitute only an insignificant risk.. Chloride and sulfate in ashes may, depending on the construction, constitute a certain risk with respect to the drinking water quality in a local well. The comparison between the calculated guideline values and the ash data that was available showed that the majority of the ashes could be used in a road construction without implying a significant risk to health or environment. In the available set of ash data, each combination of incineration plant and fuel is only represented by few data. This makes it difficult to draw specific conclusions for a certain type of ash.. The model or framework for developing the general guidelines, presented herein, may also be used for site specific environmental risk assessments. If so, the model should be further developed to better describe the risk for exposure by dust.

  18. Feasibility study - Lowered bed temperature in Fluidised Bed boilers for waste; Foerstudie - Saenkt baeddtemperatur i FB-pannor foer avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    Waste incineration generally serves two purposes; 1) dispose of waste and 2) generation of heat and power. In the process of power production from waste fuels, the steam temperatures in super heaters are generally limited by the severe fouling and corrosion that occurs at elevated material temperatures, caused by high concentrations of alkali metals and chloride in the flue gas and fly ash. The overall aim of a continuation of present project is to determine if a reduced temperature of the bed zone in a fluidized bed waste incinerator reduces the amount of alkali chlorides in the flue gas. If so, a reduced bed temperature might enable increased steam temperature in super heaters, or, at unchanged steam temperature, improve the lifespan of the super heaters. The results from the project are of interest for plant owners wishing to improve performance of existing plants. The results may also be used to modify the design of future plants by boiler manufacturers. The aim of present pre-study was to determine how far the bed temperature can be reduced in a waste fired fluidized bed boiler in Boraas while maintaining a stable operation with sufficient combustion temperature in the freeboard to fulfil the directives of waste incineration. A continuation of the project will be based on the results from present study. The work is based on experiments at the test boiler. During the present study, no other measurements were performed apart from some sampling of bed material and ashes at different modes of operation. The experiments show that it is possible to alter the air and recycled flue gas in such a manner that the bed temperature is reduced from about 870 deg C to 700 deg C at 100% load and normal fuel mixture, while fulfilling the directive of 850 deg C at 2 seconds. Within normal variations of the fuel properties, however, the bed temperature increases to somewhat above 700 deg C if the fuel turns dry, while it falls below 650 deg C when the fuel turns wet. With constant O{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas, the emissions of CO were unaffected by changed ratios of air and recycled flue gas to reduce the bed temperature. However, the emissions of NO{sub x} tended to increase due to raised temperatures of about 40 deg C at the top of the furnace at maximum load. When increasing the amount of recycled flue gas to the bed, the concentration of oxygen is reduced and its implications upon the chemistry in the bed and possible accumulation of unburned fuel have not been investigated due to the short experimental period. Chemical analysis of sand from the bed showed that the concentration of chlorides in the sand increased more that 4 times after 30 hours of operation at reduced bed temperatures. This finding indicates that the chemical balance in the bed is significantly altered when the temperature is reduced. To determine the consequences for the operation of the boiler, further experiments and measurements that are more extensive are necessary. No measurable changes of alkali contents in the sand were observed.

  19. Evaluation of the Swedish biogas standard - basis for a future audit; Utvaerdering av svensk biogasstandard - underlag foer en framtida revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Mattias

    2011-04-15

    This report is intended to constitute a basis for a future revision of the SS 15 54 38, 'Motor fuels - Biogas as fuel for high-speed otto engines.' When it was published in 1999, it was not deemed appropriate to source compressed biomethane from landfill gas, because of its wider range of trace elements, often in relatively high concentrations, such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons. Siloxanes are also present in the gas from waste water treatment plants, but the assessment was made that upgrading methods available at the time reduced these levels sufficiently. By putting a maximum limit on the nitrogen content, landfill gas was effectively shut out. Technical Development (cryogenic upgrading making it possible to clean landfill gas to biomethane quality; stricter emissions standards for vehicles that has led to a higher level of sophistication in engine and aftertreatment technologies) has now made it necessary to better control the levels of all trace elements. The state of standardization is not satisfactory for CNG in general and renewable CNG (biomethane) in particular. Standardization at the international level is mostly qualitative. Most standards are at the national level and with the exception of Sweden biomethane is only standardized for injection on the natural gas network. A mandate (M/475, 2010) from the European Commission to develop the CEN standards for biomethane fed into the grid, or used directly as renewable CNG, may change this, and the issue will be addressed in a new committee (CEN/TC408 'Project Committee - Biogas for use in transportation and injection into natural gas pipelines'). A variety of trace elements has been discussed for inclusion in the new standards, where countries such as Holland and France stand out as supporters of more stringent and comprehensive regulations. This report's working group considers it like the regulation of substances such as siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons will lead to removal methods, which sufficiently lowers also the levels of many of the other trace elements discussed. With respect to microorganisms, it is likely that the current requirement of a 1 micron filter may be sufficient to reduce the levels of these to harmless levels. If pathogens would be present, then the absorbed dosage would be too small to constitute any real risk. Lowering the maximum level for total sulfur content is an important revision, because the high content of sulfur dioxide in exhaust gases has an inhibitory and aging impact on catalysts, with lean-burn engine applications as the most sensitive. It is clear that most of the sulfur has its origin in the odorization, THT being utilized in Sweden (tetrahydrothiophene, about 6 mg S/Nm3). More sulfur-poor and even sulfur-free alternatives are available on the market, where the sulfur-free option is a less likely candidate, due to its uncharacteristic odor. Siloxanes are suspected as accountable for many of the undiagnosed operational problems in NGV's, since they precipitate as solid silica during combustion. Problems with clogging of the lambda sensors have been attributed to the presence of elementary silicon in petrol. It is unknown whether similar problems might arise from the presence of siloxanes in compressed biomethane. Reported total concentrations of siloxanes after upgrading fall below 0.6 mg Si/Nm3. Whether to regulate volatile heavy metals such as mercury and arsenic or not is an issue that risks becoming a stumbling block in the discussions between the Swedish vehicle manufacturers, who want to see quantitative regulation of these, and the CNG industry, which believes that the level of these rarely reach above the detection level even in the raw gas, and even less so in upgraded gas. As in the case of siloxanes and halogenated hydrocarbons, a possible recourse is to standardize/certify according to substrate source, heavy metals being present in principle only in landfill gas. In addition to the biologically derived trace elements it is also evident that there is a need to more closely regulate the contents of oil and water. The fact is that most of the operational problems of NGV's may be attributed to elevated levels of these two substances. However, the biggest obstacle to solve in order to revise the current Swedish standard of biomethane is the lack of validated testing methods, such as for entrained oil in the gas and the halocarbons. SP has already today candidate testing methods that can be validated for the former two, and shortly the validation of the sampling and analysis of siloxanes will be finished.

  20. Gasification for fuel production in large and small scale polygeneration plants; Foergasning foer braensleproduktion i stor- och smaaskaliga energikombinat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, Jennie; Wennberg, Olle

    2010-09-15

    This report investigates the possibility of integrating biofuel production through gasification with an existing energy production system. Previous work within Vaermeforsk (report 904, 1012) has concluded that gasification for motor fuel production as a part of a polygeneration plant seems promising when looking at the energy efficiency. However, comparable data between different types of integration, energy plants and fuels was found to be needed in order to get a better understanding of how a gasifier would affect an energy system. The systems studied are the heat- and power production of a bigger city (Goeteborg) and a medium sized city (Eskilstuna), and a pulp mill (Soedra Cell Vaeroe). The latter already runs a commercial gasifier for burner gas production, where the gas is used in the lime kiln. The different types of polygeneration plants have been studied by setting up and evaluating mass- and energy balances for each system. The fuel products that are looked upon in this project are DME, methane, methanol and burner gas. The burner gas is used on site. The case studies have been evaluated based on energy efficiency for fuel production, electricity and district heating. The efficiency is foremost calculated for the higher heating value. In the case of the boiler integrated gasifier in Eskilstuna, the efficiencies have been calculated on the marginal fuel. We have also let the district heating remain unchanged

  1. Energy Efficiency and Conservation for Households - an Internet Site; Energispartips och energitester foer hushaall - en Internet hemsida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Internet site gives advice for energy conservation in households e.g. on space heating, lighting et cetera. You can also find energy tests of electric appliances, energy impacts of life styles, contact information for your local energy advisor and other information

  2. Analysis of environmental risks with an encapsulation plant and a final disposal repository; Miljoeriskanalys foer inkapslingsanlaeggning och slutfoervar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan; Herly, Lucien; Pettersson, Lars [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    This report covers non-radiological environmental risks related to an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. All stages of the above are covered. This means construction, operation, demolition and sealing. A risk, in this report, is defined as a combination of probability and consequence of an undesired event. An extensive and systematic effort has been made in order to identify all risks. If risks remain undetected it should be low probability events. The risks are also evaluated to see which risks are the more serious ones. A large part of the existing risks are oil or diesel on the ground. In general the main risks occur during the construction phase and they are similar to normal risks at every large construction project. Most of the above are discharges of oil products on the ground within the construction area. With a good organisation and a high environmental profile these discharges can be minimized and when needed cleaned. For some of the other risks the same is valid - with a good preventive work they can be reduced considerably. One event which has a relatively high probability for occurrence and which may not easily be cleaned is a damaged lorry leaking oil. The resulting damage depends on where it occurs and maybe also when. Neither in Forsmark nor in Oskarshamn there are common sources of water supply in direct connection to where lorries pass and the probability for a lorry accident to cause damage to the environment is limited. After the assessment and evaluation of risk reducing measures there is one risk that appears serious even though the probability is low. This risk is the possible influence of the final repository on the subsoil water. It is most important that a large effort is put on reducing this risk. The probability of traffic accidents with injuries or fatalities will increase slightly, especially during the second phase of the construction period, since the amount of traffic is expected to increase then. Of the identified risks some differ depending on the localisation of the establishment. Primarily this applies to everything related to transports. The risk that nature is affected by leaking lorries is in principle depending on location. However the difference between a localisation in Forsmark or in Oskarshamn is minor. The only identified difference is that the exit on to road 76 in Forsmark implies a higher risk for accidents than the corresponding exit on to E22 in Oskarshamn. The risk for affecting the subsoil water may differ depending on localisation but this is not covered in this report since the geological conditions are very carefully examined in other studies. All other risks (with the definition used in this report) appear to be sufficiently equal not to affect the choice of localisation. The risk assessment should be updated later when the planning has come further. Then the design of the facilities and the location of the canister manufacturing plant are more defined. Risk reducing measures such as bankings, pump capacities etc will also be defined more clearly than at the present time. Changes of the risks may have occurred and suggested measures may also be more concrete than at this early stage.

  3. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid bio fuels. The types of liquid bio fuels that have been studied are different qualities of bio-oils and glycerol that is a residual from biodiesel production. Vegetable bio-oils are the most commonly used in Swedish heat and power production amongst the liquid bio fuels. Vegetable oils can be extracted from a variety of different crops that grows all over the world. Due to today's fuel prices, the bio-oil that is used for heat and power production is mainly residue or by-products from industrial production of food, feed manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The most abundant bio-oils that have been encountered during the interview process have come from oil palm or rapeseed or a mix of different residues from which the biological origin is difficult to trace. Tall oil pitch, which is a by-product in the pulp industry, has held a non-negligible share in Swedish heat production. Experiments on combustion of glycerol have recently been carried out and these indicate that glycerol does have a potential. According to the district heating companies that were interviewed, they did not experience that lack of availability of bio-oils was a problem, although the quality of the bio-oils could vary greatly. Most district heating companies have developed specifications for the fuel to be purchased. All parties benefit from a good specification where the purchasing managers and the operational staff have consistent requirements. The liquid bio fuels used in Swedish heat production are, except for possibly the PFAD, not accepted products, but different types of residues or by-products. There is no commodity exchange where the products are traded and there are a variety of factors affecting the price formation, making the pricing very complex. The study discusses various aspects of the use of bio-oils with a focus on a few crops of particular interest. These are soybean, oil palm, rapeseed and jatropha. The first three are interesting because of their large production volume, but also because of the infective debates that have been going on about the environmental and social impacts of the increased demand for bio-oils. It is common knowledge that some initial problems occur when converting a plant from fossil oil to bio-oil. One of the interviewees summoned the situation with the words: 'It's been a process to learn where the problems are'. The different types of experiences that have been illuminated in the interviews are: - Key characteristics in the choice of fuel is considered to be ash content, the amount of alkali, the amount of glycerol, water content, viscosity, amount of particles and fuel price. - The quality of the bio-oils differ to a great extent, much more than the quality of fossil oil does. This makes it important to have well developed specifications for the procurement of bio-oil and a good strategy for the control of fuel quality.

  4. Function of all-metal separators for waste fuels. Phase 1; Funktion av allmetallseparatorer foer avfallsbraenslen. Etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, Juergen; Wrangensten, Lars

    2004-08-01

    Various waste incineration facilities, which use different types of waste fuels, have difficulties with a high content of non-magnetic metal, especially aluminum in their fuels. Aluminum may melt on the grate and can lead to corrosion or fouling in the furnace. Additionally, a high content of aluminum in the flyash may cause difficulties in terms of storage or further use of the ash as e.g. construction material. The industrial demand for efficient separators for non-magnetic metals from a fuel stream is rather large. There is however some uncertainty in the performance and efficiency of metal separators. Two types of separators can be found, the first type is called eddy current separator, the other type is based upon a metal detector with a sorting unit in the form of a chute or similar afterwards. An eddy current separator consists of a fast rotating drum containing several permanent magnets with alternating polarity. Due to the rotation, the change in the magnetic field induces eddy currents in conducting materials. The eddy currents cause a force in non-magnetic metal, the Lorentz force, which repels the material away from the rotating drum while all other material follows the systems flow direction. Systems equipped with a metal detector activate a mechanical sorting device, separate chute or air nozzles, when a metal particle is detected. In contrast to eddy current separators all types of metals can be detected and sorted out by systems based on metal detector. Several technical solutions for metal separation supplied by various manufacturers are described in the report. The companies have been asked to supply product information on the working principle, technical data, efficiency and limits for different types of metals. Two reference power plants have been visited and their experiences with all-metal separators are described. Haendeloeverket in Norrkoeping uses eddy current separators for separation of non-magnetic metals from household waste. Igelstaverket in Soedertaelje applies a metal detector coupled with a chute for metal separation from return wood waste and peat. At Igelstaverket it was found that the existing system works sufficiently well for fuels used in the power plant. At Haendeloeverket, the amount of aluminum found in the bottom ash and fly ash is not negligible. Up to 3-4 wt % non-magnetic metal can be measured in the bottom ash. Separation of aluminum from the waste fuel should with regard to economical aspects as well as technical aspects be improved. Difficulties with metal separation and system design are also discussed in the report.

  5. System and market study of bio-methane (SNG) from bio fuels; System- och marknadsstudie foer biometan (SNG) fraan biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valleskog, Martin (CMV Konsult (Sweden)); Marbe, Aasa; Colmsjoe, Linda (Grontmij AB (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    This study has examined whether the use of SNG produced from biofuels can constitute an alternative use for biofuel. Gasification technologies are studied: pressurized gasification with oxygen/steam, indirect gasification and hydrogen gasification. The objective of the project is to make a reasonable valuation of the production of SNG and through a market-study see if biofuel-based SNG can be an alternative to competing fuels. The report also discusses the supply and price of biofuels in Sweden. This use was 112 TWh in 2005 and assessed potential in year 2025 is 187 TWh. Biofuel prices show an upward trend and system of incentives affect the development of the biofuels market and price. The main incentives are electricity certificate system, energy and environmental taxes and emissions trading. Current energy and climate policies in Sweden and EU are expected to increase demand for biofuels and thus likely the prices. Increased volumes of waste tend to reduce pressure on the demand for biofuels generally. SNG is compared with natural gas and with other uses for biofuels and other competing fuels, depending on the application. The economic analysis has been conducted for three different cost levels in fuels and incentives, namely the year 2007, scenario in 2012 and scenario in 2020. The economics of SNG is evaluated for the three above-mentioned scenarios, both with respect to its cost of production, and in which market the SNG used (cogeneration, heating, industry and the automotive market). A sensitivity analysis has been conducted on the following parameters: fuel prices, electricity prices, the cost of emissions, taxes and investment. The results show that SNG is not a finished product available on the market today why additional support is required to make SNG competitive so that investment in production is stimulated. The production cost of SNG is between 380 - 410 SEK/MWh and necessary support is estimated to amount to 150 - 200 SEK/MWh on the basis of the current Swedish tax system. From a production standpoint, the industrial and automotive markets are best suited as recipients of SNG because demand is evenly distributed throughout the year, CHP and heat market at least favorable as it is heavily dependent on the variation of the heat demand during the year. By contrast, the biggest economic advantage is achieved when SNG is replacing natural gas and oil for heating. Secondly, in the sectors of power generation and vehicle fuel SNG is favored by subsidies. High electricity certificate prices and high power generation efficiency benefit SNG for cogeneration. The analysis of the current competitive situation leads to SNG require some form of financial support to become a commercially available energy resource. The fastest establishment of SNG facilities will be realized in which the natural gas network already established, as it gives access to the entire natural gas market. Industrial and automotive market has been steady demand over the year and can therefore form the basis for the draft instruments. Politically speaking, there is great interest to find renewable alternatives in the automotive market. If we are to invest in a new cogeneration installation is the most economical to gasify biofuel combustion the gas in a gas turbine with subsequent steam cycle (BIGCC). This is far more economical than to first convert the gas to SNG and then burn it in a combined natural gas plant. It requires, however, that the values on electricity certificate is relatively high, or that prices are high

  6. Silicon carbide based sensor system for minimized emissions in flue gases; Kiselkarbidbaserat sensorsystem foer minimering av emissioner i roekgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Bjorklund, Robert

    2012-02-15

    Control of the combustion process is necessary in order to operate boilers in an economic and environmentally acceptable manner. Large power plants can afford expensive measurement instruments to continuously monitor the composition of flue gas. Smaller facilities often lack complete gas analysis systems and it would be to their advantage to have access to inexpensive measurement equipment which could be installed at several points in the flue gas channel. Since oxygen concentration is such an important parameter for describing the combustion process the lambdasond is currently being used as an oxygen sensor in flue gas. It has the advantage of usage for more than 30 years in the automobile industry. Experience from that application has aided its introduction in the power industry. Conditions are not the same in the two branches but the lambdasond is an established technology, produced in large volume, widely available and inexpensive. Vehicle manufacturers continue to develop sensor technology and monitoring capabilities have been extended to CO, NOx and NH3. The latter is the result of SCR (selective catalytic reduction) of NOx by addition of NH3 (from urea), which has been introduced as an exhaust gas aftertreatment technology in diesel powered vehicles. The power industry can be expected to follow this trend by incorporating sensors for monitoring and control of SCR and SNCR (non-catalytic selective reduction) in flue gas applications. This report describes evaluation of silicon carbide based transistors, which have previously been studied in diesel exhaust gas and small boiler flue gas, for applications in larger power plants

  7. Study of flue gas condensing for biofuel fired heat and power plants; Studie av roekgaskondensering foer biobraensleeldade kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Gustafsson, J O; Nystroem, Johan; Johansson, Kent

    2000-11-01

    This report considers questions regarding flue gas condensing plants connected to bio-fuelled heat and power plants. The report consists of two parts, one where nine existing plants are described regarding technical issues and regarding the experience from the different plants. Part two is a theoretical study where heat balance calculations are made to show the technical and economical performance in different plant configurations and operating conditions. Initially the different parts in the flue gas condensing plant are described. Tube, plate and scrubber condensers are described briefly. The different types of humidifiers are also described, rotor, cross-stream plate heat exchanger and scrubber. Nine flue gas-condensing plants have been visited. The plants where chosen considering it should be bio-fuel fired plant primarily heat and power plants. Furthermore we tried to get a good dissemination considering plant configuration, supplier, geographical position, operating situation and plant size. The description of the different plants focuses on the flue gas condenser and the belonging components. The fuel, flue gas and condensate composition is described as well as which materials are used in the different parts of the plant. The experience from operating the plants and the reasons of why they decided to chose the actual condenser supplier are reported.

  8. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  9. Development of a dynamic drying model for for a combustion grate; Framtagande av en dynamisk torkmodell foer en foerbraenningsrost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, Henrik; Ramstroem, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of wet wood fuel at high grate loading requires good control of the burnout position to avoid unacceptably high content of unburnt fuel in the ash. To control the burn-out position, control actions on the grate feeding must be made with sufficient range and anticipation. One way to improve the understanding of the dynamic fuel bed response on changes in control system parameters is mathematical modelling. The research task has been to develop a mathematical model of a drying fuel bed on a moving grate. The model includes a simplified description of drying, pyrolysis and char combustion and also pusher/grate movement and primary air flow/distribution. The objectives of the project have been to establish the most likely mechanism for drying and ignition of a wet fuel bed on a moving grate by the use of mathematical modelling and also to create a tool for simulation of control system step responses. The target group for the project are individuals working in the area of control system development of grate fired boilers. Three different assumptions on drying and ignition front propagation in a bio fuel bed with 50 and 53 % moisture have been modelled: 1. Drying and ignition from an underlying char layer in a co-current primary air flow 2. Drying and ignition from an overlaying char layer in counter-current primary air flow 3. Drying and ignition from both an underlying and overlaying char layer The model with drying and ignition driven by an underlying char layer is the projection, which gives the fastest and time-wise the most similar course to what one normally sees in grate fired boilers. The model with drying and ignition from above is not capable of upholding a stable diffusion controlled burning char layer since too small quantities of heat is transferred into the fuel bed. The model with drying and ignition from both directions results in similar combustion rate as the first model. The similar course of combustion is due to the energy for drying mainly transported by convection. This model exhibit the same difficulty as the second model maintaining a burning char layer on the topside. A number of control system step responses have been calculated. The results show that control actions, which but comprise grate feeding only temporarily changes the fuel bed extension. After a course of curving in, the bed take in a steady state, which is almost identical to the initial position. The step answer analysis indicates that actions, which also include changes in primary air stoichiometry are more efficient methods to permanently change the bed extension and course of drying. By combining combustion theory with knowledge on fuel bed feeding the project has created a novel tool to estimate the short and long term consequences of control actions during grate combustion. The primary field of application for the model in its present design is step answer analysis.

  10. Transport systems - solid indigenous fuels. [Identification of fuel transport problems in Sweden]. Transportsystem foer fasta inhemska braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colliander, J

    1985-12-01

    The following problems have been indentified: - A rational structure of transporting requires an established and relatively open market. - The necessary rolling stock for fuel conveyance by rail is not available. - Roads have to be improved and new roads have to be built. Railways with low load now might get a motivation for reinforcement. - Because of the irregular spread of consumption storing and terminals problems will arise and increase the cost of transport. - Terminals and stores are situated at a convenient place for one single enterprice. On a far-away aim this will not be rational.

  11. The pulverization and handling of soft plastics for energy recovery; Soenderdelning och hantering av mjuka plaster foer energiutvinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Sven-Erik

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of the project has primarily been to investigate suitable equipment (mills, crushers, shredders) for the pulverization of different types of soft plastics from the agricultural sector (large sacks and silage plastic) and the peat extraction industry (plastic covers) with the aim of being able to use the plastic material as fuel in conventional solid waste-fired plants. Many of the mills that are used for pulverizing different types of biofuel have proved not to be particularly suitable for soft plastics. The project has comprised the following: * Contact with a number of plant owners with different types of plants (grate, CFB and BFB boilers) for a review of existing fuel handling and fuel feed equipment as well as the demands they make on the fuel that is to be fired. * Contact with Trio Plast concerning previous tests carried out in connection with the collection, baling, handling, pulverization and combustion of plastics from the agricultural sector. * Contact with mill suppliers for participation in the tests and for feedback on experience gained in connection with the pulverization of soft plastics. * Choice of a suitable plant for practical trials based on contact with the above plant owners as a reference group. * Practical trials in 5 mills with the pulverization of soft plastics from agriculture (silage plastic and large sacks) as well as plastic from peat extraction (plastic covers) and * Evaluation of technical, economic, energy-related and environmental preconditions. Following contact with several owners of solid waste-fired combustion plants, and after hearing their opinions, it became clear that many of them were doubtful about the combustion of plastic. They are primarily afraid of tripping superheaters, etc. Consequently, two plants without superheaters, one in Oestersund and the other in Malmoe, were chosen for the tests. The mills that were tested were: * A SIM mill from WahIkvist, Oedeshoeg Plant - a mobile slow-action pulverizer for different types of waste. * A Willibald mill from Svenska Neuero - a mobile hammer mill with a drive system mounted on a trailer frame. * An Untha mill from Presona - a mobile, slow-action, electrically-operated mill with cutting tools. * A Satum mill from Ekoteknik - a stationary mill of the slow-action type with rotating knife cutters, and * A Doppstadt mill from OP-maskiner - a mobile slow-action mill with hammers. Other mills been tested for milling soft plastics by Lunds Energi in Lomma and Soederenergi in SoedertaeIje are: * Lindner- kvarn from Franssons Recycling Machine. A low- speed machine with turnable teeth. (Lomma), and * Eco- crusher from Babcock. A low- speed waste crusher with two-rotor. (Soedertaelje). The results of the tests showed that those mills/crushers/shredders that can cope with the demand to pulverize plastic material with only one or two grinding runs are slow action units with cutting tools. Hammer mills do not function as effectively for the type of plastic material investigated. Tests of whether it was possible to fire the Jamtkraft plant in Oestersund with pulverized plastic showed that with a proportion of approximately 5 per cent of plastic fuel mixed together with other solid fuel, mainly sawdust, bark and wood chips, plant operation was for the most part satisfactory. The running period amounted to approximately two weeks. Among the problems that occurred, however, were that somewhat excessively long strips of plastic hung down in front of the level sensors that control the supply from the day silos and that the overfilling sensor in the fuel screw was affected by the plastic. These problems would probably have been more serious if a larger proportion of plastic had been used. In order to be able to complete the tests in Oestersund, relatively extensive contacts was needed with the municipal environmental and community planning office, which in turn obtained the views of the County Administrative Board in the county of Jaemtland. Finally, a permit was granted to fire approximately 300 tonnes of plastic material, although with certain reservations. The costs of handling plastics for transportation, pulverization and combustion will be relatively high and amount to between SEK 350 and 700 per tonne, the largest cost component of which being the pulverization cost. To this shall be added the costs of collecting the plastic. With a fuel valuation for the plastic as biofuel, lower costs are achieved corresponding to approximately SEK 500-1000 per tonne.

  12. Degradation rate of sludge/fly ash mixture used as landfill liner; Nedbrytningshastigheten foer taetskikt uppbyggda av slam och aska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Malin; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    In order to be able to use mixtures of ash and sludge as landfill liner an important aspect is to demonstrate that the degradation of organic matter is slow enough. Therefore, the goal of this project has been to find out for how long a landfill liner material of sludge and ash will be stable and keep its function. The degradation of organic material in two different mixtures of sludge and ash has been studied in laboratory experiments. The rate of degradation was then estimated for barriers of sludge and ash, taking into account construction techniques (mixture, compaction, water content), climate conditions (freezing, drying) and biological processes (NaN{sub 3} additive). The effect of the degradation on the permeability has also been quantified. Organic material may disappear for the landfill liner material through 1) initial leaching of soluble organic material, 2) leaching of organic material after chemical reactions or 3) evaporation during biological degradation. Bacterial activity was not found in the sludge/ash mixtures during the experiments. Therefore, the organic material is probably reduced mainly though leaching according to 1) and 2). The leached amount of TOC (total organic carbon) was measured for all samples of sludge/ash in several experimental cycles. The leached amount of TOC was compared to the initial amount of TOC in the material. The results show a small initial reduction of organic material through leaching but the TOC content in the material is then stabilized. In relation to the total weight of the material the leaching of TOC was similar for the mixtures with 80 % ash and 20 % ash. However, this means that a larger amount of TOC was leached out from the mixtures with a high ash content since the initial amount of organic material was smaller. General conclusions about which ash-sludge ratio that is suitable for a landfill liner material could not be drawn from the experiments from a degradation point of view. If the initial permeability is low enough (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) the results indicate that the leaching of TOC will be of less importance for the function of the barrier layer. The hydraulic conductivity was independent of the change in TOC, i.e. even though the organic material was reduced through chemical degradation and leaching the permeability was not negatively affected. Instead, the permeability was reduced in time and affected mainly by the compaction grade. Therefore, it is important to compact the landfill liner material and to mix the ash and sludge to a homogeneous mixture. Drying of the material increased the hydraulic conductivity: the barrier layer should therefore be kept moist. Freezing through cycles did not affect the permeability. Calculations on the basis of results from experiments with columns with an initial hydraulic conductivity of <1x10{sup -9} m/s show that the leaching of TOC stops after 38 years (NSR-Oeresundskraft) and 14 years (Bromma-Maelarenergi). The combination of reduced percolation and more immobilized TOC is expected to lead to very low leaching rates for organic material after this time. On basis of this study it is recommended to change the landfill liner material at Filborna in Helsingborg from clay to ash/sludge on a test area. During such large-scale tests it is suitable to control changes in the material to verify the results from the experiments.

  13. Foreign materials in a deep repository for spent nuclear fuels; Fraemmande material i ett djupfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Christiansson, Aa.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The effects of foreign substances introduced into a spent-fuel repository are reviewed. Possible impacts on processes and barrier-functions are examined, and the following areas are identified: Corrosion of the spent-fuel canister through the presence of sulfur and substances that favor microbial growth; impacts on the bentonite properties through the presence of cations as calcium, potassium and iron; radionuclide transport through the presence of complex-formers and surface-active substances.

  14. Environmental systems analysis for the beneficial use of ashes in constructions; Miljoesystemanalys foer nyttiggoerande av askor i anlaeggningsbyggande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, Erik; Olsson, Susanna; Magnusson, Ylva; Peterson, Anna [Ecoloop, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-02-15

    All building materials have an impact on the environment, conventional materials as well as recycled materials. But, since recycled materials are classified as waste, the use of them is more strongly restricted. The potential of saving natural materials and energy by the use of recycling materials are rarely considered. This report presents a method for environmental systems analysis considering the use of recycled materials in a wide perspective. Various scenarios for beneficial use or disposal of the residuals that occur in a region (province, county or municipality) are analysed. The method considers emissions to air and water as well as conservation of natural resources and energy. Two case studies have been carried out for the Uppsala County in Sweden. Case study 1 dealt with municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, where scenarios for beneficial use of ashes in 1) drainage layers in covering of landfills and 2) road construction were compared. Also a third scenario was included as a reference where the MSWI bottom ash was landfilled. The result of case study 1 showed that the use of ashes in road construction was the most beneficial alternative in terms of conservation of natural resources and energy, and also in terms leakage of several metals. The leakage of Arsenic and Zink were however more favourable in scenario 1 and the leakage of copper was more favourable in scenario 3. The second alternative where the ashes were used in drainage layer did not save as much natural resources and caused more emissions of heavy metals to water compared to the road construction application. In case study 2 the beneficial use of fly ash from peat combustion was analysed, including 1) the use of peat ash as a construction material in small county roads, 2) the use of peat ash mixed with sewage sludge as a covering material on landfills. Also this case study included a reference scenario in which the peat ash, generated in Uppsala County, was landfilled. The result from case study 2 indicated that the use of fly ash for county roads had on the one hand the largest use of crushed rocks but was on the second hand the most beneficial alternative regarding leakage of metals. From an energy point of view the alternative with covering of landfills was the most beneficial alternative up to a transport distance of 60 km for the ashes. All results are site-specific. From the synthesis of the whole project it was concluded that the developed method for environmental systems analysis has a potential to be a tool for strategic environmental assessments in regional natural resources plans, municipal planning and EIA. A weakness with this study is that water emissions are mostly based on laboratory leachate tests while data from full-scale studies would have been more relevant. Full scale tests are however rare and must be used with carefulness since they are very dependant on local conditions.

  15. Programme for the Environmental Control at the Swedish Nuclear Facilities, Revision; Omgivningskontrollprogram foer de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna, revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Ann-Marie

    2004-12-01

    This report contains a revised version of the Environmental Monitoring Programme for the Swedish Nuclear Facilities. The revision is based on earlier experiences and evaluations. Some samples have been excluded. Some have been added, for example spruce cone and the food products apple and currant. The sediment samples of 2 cm length have been completed with samples of 10 cm length every fourth year to follow the migration of radio nuclides down the sediment layers over time. The revised Environmental Monitoring Programme is valid from the 1st of January 2005.

  16. Control room philosophy: Principles of control room design and control room work; Kontrollrumsfilosofi: Principer foer kontrollrumsutformning och kontrollrumsarbete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skriver, Jan; Ramberg, Jasmine; Allwin, Pernilla [Scandpower Risk Management AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    In order to provide insights for improvement of work in control rooms several factors have to be considered. Knowledge of principles including control room philosophies will guide the recommended improvements. In addition to knowledge about specific principles an advantage for an organization can be an understanding of similarities and policies used in other high risk industry. The report has been developed on the basis of a document analysis of international standards and other guiding documents. (NUREG 0711, ISO 11064, ISO 6385, IEC 60964). In addition to the document analysis which has strived to compare the documents to see similarities in important principals, experience from working with control room design, modifications and evaluations in other high risk industries has pervaded the report. Important principles have been identified which are recommended to be included in a control room philosophy. Many of these are similar to the principles identified in the international standards. An additional principal which is regarded as important is the utilization of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) which can be used as a measure to target preventative means. Further more it is critical that the control room philosophy is easy to access and comprehend for all users. One of the challenges that remain after having developed a control room philosophy is how to utilize it in the daily work situation. It is vital that the document remains as a living document, guiding the continual improvement of the control room in the various life cycle stages.

  17. Process for increased biogas production and energy efficient hygienisation of sludge; Process foer oekad biogasproduktion och energieffektiv hygienisering av slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogstrand, Gustav; Olsson, Henrik; Andersson Chan, Anneli; Johansson, Niklas; Edstroem, Mats

    2012-07-01

    In Sweden there is a need to increase biogas production to meet the rising demand for biomethane as vehicle fuel but the amount of domestically available biomass to digest is limited. One way to help meet current and future demand for methane is to enhance the digestion of the substrates that are currently utilized. Vaexjoe municipality in southern Sweden is in the process of upgrading their facilities for biogas production at the Sundet waste water treatment plant. Their aim is to produce more biogas in order to meet the demand from an increasing methane-based local transit fleet. This is the backdrop to a joint project between JTI and Vaexjoe municipality where JTI's mobile pilot plant was used to study the possibility of extracting more biogas from the existing sewage sludge. In the future, Vaexjoe municipality also plans to co-digest source separated municipal organics with the sewage sludge, which will likely result in stricter demands in terms of hygienization of all utilized substrates. The goal of the project at hand was to demonstrate the possibility to produce more than enough additional biogas from existing sewage sludge to yield a net energy profit even with the added energy demand of ensuring the hygienic quality of the digestate through conventional pasteurization. Although the project was focused on the conditions at Sundet waste water treatment plant, the issues dealt with are general and the results are relevant to many waste water treatment plants in Sweden. The research, conducted between June 2011 and January 2012 were divided into two trials. The two trials, described schematically in Figure 1, represented two possible process configurations designed to reach the goal stated above. The key component of both process configurations is the addition of a post-digestion step to the existing single-step digestion process. In trial 1 the additional feature of dewatering between the two digestion steps served to reduce energy demand for pasteurization and increase the organic loading rate of the post-digester.

  18. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid bio fuels. The types of liquid bio fuels that have been studied are different qualities of bio-oils and glycerol that is a residual from biodiesel production. Vegetable bio-oils are the most commonly used in Swedish heat and power production amongst the liquid bio fuels. Vegetable oils can be extracted from a variety of different crops that grows all over the world. Due to today's fuel prices, the bio-oil that is used for heat and power production is mainly residue or by-products from industrial production of food, feed manufacturing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The most abundant bio-oils that have been encountered during the interview process have come from oil palm or rapeseed or a mix of different residues from which the biological origin is difficult to trace. Tall oil pitch, which is a by-product in the pulp industry, has held a non-negligible share in Swedish heat production. Experiments on combustion of glycerol have recently been carried out and these indicate that glycerol does have a potential. According to the district heating companies that were interviewed, they did not experience that lack of availability of bio-oils was a problem, although the quality of the bio-oils could vary greatly. Most district heating companies have developed specifications for the fuel to be purchased. All parties benefit from a good specification where the purchasing managers and the operational staff have consistent requirements. The liquid bio fuels used in Swedish heat production are, except for possibly the PFAD, not accepted products, but different types of residues or by-products. There is no commodity exchange where the products are traded and there are a variety of factors affecting the price formation, making the pricing very complex. The study discusses various aspects of the use of bio-oils with a focus on a few crops of particular interest. These are soybean, oil palm, rapeseed and jatropha. The first three are interesting because of their large production volume, but also because of the infective debates that have been going on about the environmental and social impacts of the increased demand for bio-oils. It is common knowledge that some initial problems occur when converting a plant from fossil oil to bio-oil. One of the interviewees summoned the situation with the words: 'It's been a process to learn where the problems are'. The different types of experiences that have been illuminated in the interviews are: - Key characteristics in the choice of fuel is considered to be ash content, the amount of alkali, the amount of glycerol, water content, viscosity, amount of particles and fuel price. - The quality of the bio-oils differ to a great extent, much more than the quality of fossil oil does. This makes it important to have well developed specifications for the procurement of bio-oil and a good strategy for the control of fuel quality.

  19. Guidance to regulations on trade with emission permits for carbon dioxide; Vaegledning till lagstiftning om handel med utslaeppsraetter foer koldioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-15

    This guidance is intended to facilitate application of the rules on emissions trading. The guidance is principally concerned with issues relating to permit appraisal and monitoring, but also discusses some terms common to permits and allocations, such as installation and operator. The guidance follows the same structure as the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations (NFS 2007:5) in order to provide direct support for the rules. The focus is on providing a general description of the responsibilities of the operator and application of the rules. In addition, some difficult terms and relationships are explained. However, no exhaustive description of the operator's responsibilities is given, nor are the rules on verification described. We therefore recommend that the guidance should be read in conjunction with the Trading Act, the Trading Ordinance and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The first chapter presents a brief description of the purpose of the trading scheme, and is followed by a chapter in which the rules on applying for permits and the application procedure are reviewed. The next chapter gives a description of how the operator should monitor emissions and how the rules for the monitoring plan work, as well as the options that exist for simplified monitoring. The next chapter looks at notifications the operator might have to make and what they should contain. Guidance is also provided on how the county administrative board should process these notifications. The conditions of the permit decision are also briefly described. This is followed by a short chapter on the emissions report and the materiality threshold. The final chapter comments on certain parts of the annexes to the regulations. The EU Emissions Trading Directive has been implemented in Sweden through the Emissions Trading Act (2004:1199) (the Trading Act), the Emissions Trading Ordinance (2004:1205), the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency regulations (NFS 2007:5) and general recommendations on carbon dioxide emission allowances and the Swedish Energy Agency regulations (STEMFS 2004:8) on an emission allowance registry. All these documents can be found at www.utslappshandel.se

  20. Alternative methods for evaluation of airtightness of the building envelope; Alternativa metoder foer utvaerdering av byggnadsskalets lufttaethet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Wahlgren, Paula

    2008-07-01

    Airtightness plays an important role when constructing energy efficient, sustainable and healthy buildings. In order to obtain airtight buildings, the airtightness needs to be evaluated during the construction phase. This enables improvements of the airtightness in an easy and cost-efficient way. During the construction phase, it is difficult to quantify the airtightness. However, detecting and sealing air leakages are good measures to improve the airtightness of the building. Several methods to detect air leakages are presented. A methodology to search for air leakages in buildings during construction has been developed, together with contractors and experts, and the methodology has been used at two building sites. The quantifiable airtightness of a building is determined by measuring the airflow that enters or exits the building at a certain pressure difference over the building envelope. In some cases it is not possible to measure air tightness according to standard. Therefore, a number of alternative methods have been evaluated. These methods include: extrapolation of measured data to a range used in standard measurements, using a buildings ventilation system fans to create a pressure difference over the building envelope, measuring the airtightness of a smaller part of the building (apartment, fire compartment or component) and tracer gas measurements

  1. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    The Government has instructed the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to put forward a proposal for how the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) should be developed after 2012, subject to the overall objective of continuing to reduce emissions with the aim of achieving the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change. In its Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) the EU has interpreted the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change as aiming to achieve emission reductions of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. According to Council Conclusions (13435/05), the EU has also decided that the Emissions Trading Scheme should continue after 2012. The starting point for this report is that, after 2012, the Scheme will be a key instrument in achieving cost-efficient emission reductions, not only within the EU but also globally, and regardless of whether, with effect from 2013, the Scheme has become a part of an international climate regime, or is serving as a transition to some future new international climate regime. The purpose of this report is to provide a proposal for how the Emissions Trading Scheme should be developed after 2012. The aim is to construct a system that helps to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases (maintaining climate integrity), that assists measures being taken where they are cheapest (cost efficiency), that is accepted by parties concerned and by the general public (confidence inspiring), and which does not adversely affect the competitiveness of business or industry (competition-neutral). The Agencies recommend that Sweden should adopt the following standpoints concerning development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme after 2012. (Recommended changes to the system presuppose a harmonised implementation throughout the EU.): In connection with international negotiations, Sweden should press for the Emissions Trading Scheme to be developed in such a way as to make it possible to achieve emission reductions in line with Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) in the form of total emission reductions of the order of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. Sweden should press for the Scheme to be linked with other trading schemes, subject to retention of climate integrity. Linking can strengthen global climate policy ties and influence countries not having internationally binding climate commitments towards participating in some climate policy agreement. Linking also helps to counter international distortion of competition. There should be considerable opportunities for the use of CDM (or equivalent) credits in the Scheme, given that the EU has strict commitments on emission reductions. In order to ensure the system's climate integrity and competition neutrality, efforts should be aimed at ensuring that the total quantity of allowances in the Trading Scheme is decided directly at EU level (i.e. top-down), instead of as today starting from national allocation plans (i.e. bottom-up). Sweden should promote continued expansion of the Scheme to other sectors and for other gases. In 2013, it should be expanded to include emissions of carbon dioxide and PFC from primary and secondary aluminium production, carbon dioxide from certain chemical industry sectors, nitrous oxide from certain chemical industry sectors and methane from active coal mines. The European road transport sector can be included in the Scheme. However, this will pose challenges in respect of the effects on industrial competitiveness and developments within the road transport sector. In order to be able to adopt a firm position in the matter of how the road transport sector should be treated in relation to the EU ETS, Sweden should initiate in-depth studies of consequences of different options, including a separate trading scheme for the European transport sector. Purely biofuelled combustion installations should be excluded from the Scheme, and the monitoring requirements for pure biofuel streams in combustion installations that partly use biofuels should be abolished. Sweden should press for a broad and harmonised definition of the term 'combustion installation', bearing in mind the possible consequences for small installations. Efforts should be made to encourage auction procedures as the basis of allowance allocation for all sectors within the Scheme. However, until competitors outside the EU encounter some form of cost in connection with their carbon dioxide emissions, industry covered by the Scheme can continue to be allocated free allowances, preferably according to benchmarks common to the entire EU. The electricity and district heating sectors within the EU should not be allocated free allowances. These sectors' allowances should be distributed to the market by means of auctions that are open to all parties within the EU ETS. New entrants of the electricity and district heating sectors should be required to purchase their allowances on the market. Until auction procedures are introduced for existing industrial participants in the scheme, new entrants in the industrial sector should be allocated free allowances in accordance with common EU benchmarks where possible. Any surpluses from reserves kept for new entrants should be cancelled. If reserves are maintained for free allocation to new entrants, allocation of allowances to plants that have closed should cease.

  2. Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants; Handbok - Utbytesbehov i kontrollsystem foer vaermekraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszynski, J. [Sydkraft Konsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Tage [Vattenfall Energisystem AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    Modernization of control equipment in more complex power plants, such as thermal power plants, requires special attention due to the almost complete change-over to new computerised technology. The introduction of new technology gives rise to great changes in both the process control systems and in operation and maintenance routines. The change-over to computerised technology also causes lack of spare parts and service for older equipment. The older technology becomes obsolete due to the great advantages that comes with new technology. Therefore, the lifetime of control equipment is not only coupled to traditional ageing and wear, such as oxidation and fatigue of material, but also to the fact that the old equipment is getting out of date. It becomes more and more common that this out-of-date factor, rather than ageing, sets the limit for the useful life of the equipment. The Handbook for replacement of process control systems in thermal power plants is thought to be a first help for engineers and managers who has the responsibility for process control modernization. The Handbook points out the factors that determines the service life of the control equipment. It also suggests what information is required in order to take a decision on modernization. The Handbook at its present form constitutes a first approach that leaves room for an extension later on. Any request to expand the Handbook should be put forward to Vaermeforsk or its partners

  3. Treatment of biofuel ashes for forest recycling; Behandling av aska fraan biobraenslen foer spridning paa skogsmark - etapp 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, H.; Sjoeblom, R. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Logging residues are the easiest available fuel for an increased production of energy in Sweden from renewable sources. A consequence of their removal from the forest is that the cycle of mineral nutrients is broken. The purpose of recycling the ash after this fuel to forest land is to compensate for the removal and close again the nutrient cycle. Recycling nutrients and returning the inorganic components of the biomass removed from the forest should be performed in accordance with general principles of environmental protection, health considerations and the good house-keeping of natural resources. The activities should also be carried out in accordance with the needs of the forest and energy plant owners regarding good technology and economy. This implies that functional requirements originating from these principles and needs should be clearly structured and formulated and that such requirements should provide a basis for the continued development work as well as for the implementation of suitable, economical and efficient systems. Returning inorganic constituents implies that the principle of recirculation is followed as well as that nutrients are brought back which improves accretion in the forest. At the same time, the risk of damage to the forest can be assessed as insignificant. Furthermore the risks to human health are also assessed to be insignificant provided that pertinent precautions are taken to avoid dusting. In the present report, technical and economical aspects of importance for the selection of method as well as for the establishment of a system are described and discussed. The need for further development work is identified in the following areas: functional requirements - operational requirements, sampling, testing and quality assurance, granulation, curing processes and drying/sintering. 102 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  4. Energy for Road Transport - Prospects towards year 2020 and later; Energi foer Vaegtransporter - utsikter mot 2020 och daerefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aahman, Max

    2009-02-15

    The last few years, production of alternative fuels has grown significantly. The driving force can be primarily attributed to a growing interest in protecting the climate and the policy initiatives resulting from this, rising oil prices and industrial and agricultural interests. However, the debate has increasingly begun to question the usefulness and impact of a continued expansion of biofuels. The report provides an overview of our knowledge with respect to climate benefits, and economic potential for the 1st generation of ethanol and biodiesel, 2nd generation biofuels and electricity via e.g. plug-in hybrids. The report also provides various scenarios of how Sweden can meet the adopted EU directive on renewable energy in the transport sector to 2020. The substitution of fuels in the transport sector has only just begun. Driving forces, including those visible in the criteria of the EU Directive, however, will aim for more climate-effective fuels based on waste and forest raw material compared to today's efforts. Effective grain based fuels can still retain a relatively large niche even in the longer term, since the investment is justified by several reasons, including agricultural policy. Electric vehicles are expected to be launched in the not too distant future. But it will take a long time before electricity consumption via eg plug-in hybrids is visible in the statistics. Increased demands on energy efficiency can drive a trend towards more expensive vehicles and also to change forms of ownership and use of vehicles, including increased car pooling

  5. Nærbilleder og modfortællinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several literary works have appeared which use formal experiments and intermedial strategies to thematize memory and history. Authors such as Alexander Kluge, W.G. Sebald, Daniel Mendelsohn, Monica Maron, Jonathan Safran Foer, Don DeLillo and Aleksandar Hemon include other, primarily...... visual, media such as film, photographs and drawings, in their works while dealing with historical events like the Holocaust or the 9/11 terror attack. My article discusses this tendency, analyzing works by Kluge, Sebald and Foer. They all work with photographs in their texts. I trace the differences...

  6. Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    'Akzo Nobel Science Award: Svensk upptaeckt botar framtidens cancerStockholm, 27 februari, 2003. Aarets Akzo Nobel Science Award Sweden paa 500 000 kronor gaar till professorn i medicinsk straalningsfysik Anders Brahme. Han prisas foer "sin unika forskargaerning inom straalbehandlingsysiken samt kombinationen av grundforskning, tillaempad forskning och interaktion med industrin"' (1 page).

  7. 60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan Sectra

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Helsingborgs kvinnor faar kraftigt saenkt straaldos fraan mammografi60 kvinnor per dag undersoeks nu med vaerldsunikt digitalt mammografisystem fraan SectraSectras digitala mammografisystem, Sectra MicroDose Mammography, har nu passerat 1.500 undersoekta kvinnor inom Helsingborgs Lasaretts screeningprogram foer mammografi" (1 page).

  8. System Integration Testing ofAdvanced Driver Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cioran, Anders

    2015-01-01

    En viktig faktor for att fortsatta forbattra traksakerheten ar genom att utveckla ochimplementera avancerade forarstodsfunktioner (ADAS) i fordon. Gemensamma aspekterhos de undersokta ADAS ar deras formagor att detektera och undvika farliga traksituationergenom att nyttja sensordata och fordonstillstand for att kontrollera fordonetsforyttning. Nya testmetoder maste overvagas eftersom nyutvecklade ADAS ar mer komplexaoch sakerhetskritiska. Detta arbete undersoker hur man kan testa nya ADAS fra...

  9. Att synas i butikshyllan -  En fallstudie om varumärkesexponering i butikshyllan för Brunneby Musteri och deras konkurrenter

    OpenAIRE

    Vallgren, Emma; Bolling Landtblom, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This report aims to examine how Brunneby Musteri is to update the brand attention for Brunneby Musteri at retail stores. Brunneby wish to assure their brand will catch the customers’ eye in the store and therefore get assistance to discover what to improve. The family business Brunneby Musteri (Brunneby) was founded in 1941 and is located nearby Göta Kanal in the county of Östergötland. Brunneby produce products such as lemonade, jam, jelly, marmelade, cider and vinegar. The company core valu...

  10. School shooting threats as a national phenomenon: comparison of police reports and psychiatric reports in Finland / Atte Oksanen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Emma Holkerie, Nina Lindberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oksanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Uuringust, milles analüüsiti ja võrreldi riskitegureid, mis viitavad 12-18 aastaste õpilaste kalduvusele sooritada tapmist. Uuringus tuginetakse Soome politsei ja psühhiaatrilistele raportitele. Erinevustest politsei ja psühhiaatrilistes raportites välja toodud riskiteguritest

  11. Test Firing of chunk wood - Is it possible to automate the fuel supply?; Proveldning av knubbved - Aer det moejligt att automatisera braenslematningen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Danielsson, Bengt-Olof

    2013-05-15

    Chunk wood is a wood fuel with a fuel particle length typically between 50 and 150 mm. The ad-vantage of chunk wood compared to wood chips is that the fuel dry as fast as fuel wood, but can be produced and handled as wood chip. Technologies for efficient producing, drying and distribution of Chunk wood have been developed since the 1970:s and machines for manufacturing the fuel is available on the market, but still there is no small-scale heating equipment in operation to burn the fuel automatically. The aim of the study was to investigate how the feeding and firing of chunk wood works in a standard 200 kW biomass boiler for various types of biofuels. The main focus was on studying how the fuel feeding system works using chunk wood and if the combustion and emissions are satisfactory. The boiler have a main fuel feeding auger screw connected to the bottom of the fuel storage, followed by a cell feeder and another auger screw that is feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber. The power consumption for the fuel feeding auger screws and the CO-emissions were measured during the firing period. In order to obtain reference values for the stresses in the fuel feeding system and the CO-emissions, regular wood chips were initially fired followed by the chunk wood firing. During the chunk wood firing period several interruptions in the fuel feeding occurred, as the trigger mechanism for the motor protection stopped the fuel supply. Most of the interruptions, however, could be resolved through manual reversing of the fuel feeding auger screw. Only at two occasions the entrance to the auger screw were manually cleared from large fuel pieces. The cell feeder and the auger screw feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber were stopped twice, and to continue operating the boiler it was enough to restart the feeding system. However, as they are both operated by the same motor we do not know whether the two shutdowns that occurred were caused by feeding problems in the auger screw or in the cell feeder. The stresses on the feeder screw varied during the test and during different operating periods, but when the first fuel feeding screw stops, the power requirements was more than three times the normal. The presence of the largest pieces in the chunk wood caused problems when the fuel was entering into the screw, and these problems caused most of the interruptions and the highest screw stress. High screw stress also arises when chunk wood slices get stuck between the auger screw and the cover. By releasing the upper part of the cover, so that the lid can move upwards seemed to reduce this problem. It thus seems beneficial with a greater distance between the lid and screw when chunk wood is to be used. The combustion performance seems to be satisfactory for chunk wood firing in these tests, however only the CO-emissions were measured. If the fuel can be produced without the presence of oversized pieces, the results show that there is a good chance that the fuel can be fired in conventional wood chip boilers of about 200 kW. The most important way forward from now on is to evaluate the market of chippers for chunk wood with respect to the presence of oversized pieces. If there are no chippers that provide adequate fuel without the presence of oversized pieces and it is impossible to develop such shippers, a more methodological work have to be put on developing the fuel feeding system.

  12. Lokālo aizguvumu nozīmju attīstības tendences Ziemeļrietumvidzemes izloksnēs (Baltijas somu valodu aizguvumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elga Kagaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available TENDENZEN DER BEDEUTUNGSENTWICKLUNG VON LOKALEN ENTLEHNUNGEN IN DEN MUNDARTEN NORDWESTLIVLANDS (Entlehnungen aus den ostseefinnischen Sprachen Zusammenfassung Bei den meisten lokalen Entlehnungen ist nach ihrem Eintritt und Adaptierung in der Rede der Mundartträger auch eine Weiterentwicklung der semantischen Struktur zu beobachten. Die Bedeutungserweiterung und Bildung sekundärer Bedeutungen trifft man bei in einem relativ breiterem Areal gebräuchlichen Entlehnungen, zumeist solchen, wo auch die Entlehnungsquelle ein polysemisches bzw. zur Polysemie tendiertes Wort ist. Die Bedeutungsentwicklung ist sowohl mit den allgemeinen Gesetzmäßigkeiten der Entwicklung von Polysemie (z.B., mit Bedeutungsübertragung: koska ‚(verdorrte Baumrinde; abgerissene Tannenrinde’ -> ‚Schale von Beeren und Hülsenfrüchten; Kornschale’ -> ‚vertrocknete Schicht auf der Oberfläche eines Stoffes; Kruste; Schorf’ -> ‚Haut (des Tieres’; topsis ‚kleines, auch altes Gefäß (aus Blech, Ton oder einem anderen Stoff’ -> ‚ein Gericht – Klumpen aus Erbsen und Hanf’ -> ‚ein Gewächs’ -> ‚dicker, stämmiger Mensch’ und der Einfügung von Wörtern in die Entwicklungsmodelle der semantischen Struktur, welche in der Entlehnersprache vorhanden sind, als auch mit Aktualisierung der konnotativen Elemente verbunden, derzufolge die entlehnten Lexeme emotional-expressive Färbung oder eine Gebrauchseinschränkung erfahren (z. B. magāt ‚schlafen’ -humorvolle bzw. ironische Färbung oder aber Gebrauch in Konversation mit Kindern. Bei Charakterisierung der semantischen Entwicklung von lokalen Entlehnungen soll auch der Umstand beachtet werden, daß diese Entwicklung der Spezifik der mündlichen Kommunikationsform ausgesetzt und mit Eigenartigkeiten der individuellen Auffassung und Äußerung der Mundartträger sowie verschiedenen extralinguistischen Umständen verbunden ist. Demzufolge können auch die semantischen Grenzen der Entlehnungen ungefähr werden, durch Kontamination auf verschiedenen Ebenen, darunter auch durch semantische Kontamination, hervorgerufene Erscheinungen zum Ausdruck kommen.

  13. Att skilja äkta kärlek från falsk. Manliga och omanliga kroppar i Martha Sandwall-Bergströms Kulla-Gullaserie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Jakbosson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘‘To distinguish true from false love: Manly and unmanly bodies in Martha Sandwall-Bergström’s Kulla-Gulla series.’’ The protagonist Gulla in Martha Sandwall-Bergström’s (1913-2000 Kulla-Gulla series (1945-51 encounters ’’true’’ and ’’false’’ love through two men, Tomas Tomasson and Ivan Malma. The hypothesis of this article is that true love is placed in a manly body and false love in an unmanly body. Tomas’ and Ivan’s manliness and unmanliness are constructed through characteristics which are marked by different power categories, such as gender, age, class, ‘‘race’’ and functionality. Therefore an intersectional perspective is used. I find that Tomas and Ivan have similar social positions except for their different classes. Tomas’ body is portrayed as manly, mobile and warm, whereas Ivan’s body is characterized as unmanly, immobile and cold. Tomas evokes love in Gulla, whereas Ivan arouses lust as well as ambivalence. Tomas’ manly body functions as a signal for true love and guides the reader as well as Gulla in distinguishing his true from Ivan’s false love. When Gulla chooses Tomas, she is defined as an adult.

  14. To use the full potential of electric metering - a step towards a more energy effective Sweden; Att utnyttja elmaetarnas potential - ett steg mot ett energieffektivare Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonter, Gina; Wiberg, Maria (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-04-15

    In line with national and international targets, the electricity market will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy, an increased share of electric plug-in vehicles, engaged consumers, who are conscious of their electricity use and produce their own electricity, and by smarter electricity distribution systems. This will put higher demands for stricter requirements on the available transmission capacity and on the security of supply. Elaborate metering systems is one condition for meeting the challenges facing the electricity market. Electricity metering is also relevant for a range of applications such as remote reading, management of customer relations, demand management and value added services. Utilizing meter data to provide feedback enables use of the electricity metering systems in order to obtain electricity conservation. As of July 2009 the Swedish electricity distributors are required to read and report the electricity use on a monthly basis for all customers with a safety fuse of up to 63 amps. Remote electricity reading is the main function in the current system, which means that the distribution system operator (DSO) is provided with metering data without the need for manual reading and that the customers are charged on a monthly basis for their actual electricity use (rather than an estimate). One reason for the introduction of monthly billing, based on actual electricity use, was to visualize the electricity use to the households. For the electricity use to become visual and controllable, it is important that customers receive feedback on their electricity use. The introduction of monthly billing implied an improvement of the feedback, but it can be further improved in order to allow greater savings. Improved feedback can be given by synthesizing high-resolution data to information presented in new ways, for example by means of in-home-displays, and web-based interfaces combined with counselling. Research shows that the electricity consumption can be reduced by up to 15 percent by using feedback. As a safeguard against future legislative demands over 50 percent of the household have been provided with meters that can handle hourly metering. However, hourly metering is not used to a great extent due to a lack of incentives for the distributors to make use of the hourly metering values. Furthermore not all meters have communication infrastructure that can manage daily collection of values. By changing the current demand of daily collection of values it is possible to employ hourly metering for 74 percent of the households. In addition, propositions of introducing a new metering standard speaks against further investments in the existing metering systems. The metering systems' ability to reflect the short term electricity balance for the consumers is a prerequisite for normal price mechanisms to maintain the security of supply. For that reason, there is a need of metering values with higher resolution in order to indirectly, i.e. by more dynamic tariffs, influence the customer to use less electricity during high load periods. By using hourly metering to the extent made possible with the existing metering systems, this type of service could be offered to a part of the Swedish households. Currently, only the electricity distributors have access to the metering values in the metering systems. This situation limits the business potential that arises from the development of metering services. The business potential is also limited by the fact that the possible savings from electricity conservation are small. Innovation and investments in metering services world be promoted by making metering data accessible to more stakeholders. The development would also be positively affected by higher electricity prices, institutional means of control that promote energy services, and an increasing awareness among consumers. A number of functions that will be important to address the changes facing the electricity market are often referred to in connection to smart grids; the charging of plug-in vehicles, virtual power plants, distributed generation and management of the electricity net. The development of electricity meters, and associated systems is an important prerequisite in the quest towards a smarter grid. These functions are not fully applicable with the existing electricity metering system. Enabling of these functions would probably require major investments in the network, more advanced meters and more advanced communications infrastructure

  15. Līvānu novada centrālās bibliotēkas vēsturiskā attīstība

    OpenAIRE

    Kokina, Sarmīte

    2007-01-01

    Publikāciju klāsts par Līvānu novada centrālās bibliotēkas vēsturi ir ierobežots. Tajās ietvertā informācijas ir fragmentāra. Informācija ir pieejama arī izkliedētajos un nepietiekami izpētītajos nepublicētajos materiālos, kuri atrodas gan Līvānos, gan arī Latvijas Valsts vēstures arhīvā. Informācija šim darbam tika iegūta arī no bijušo un tagadējo bibliotēkas darbinieku stāstījumiem. Kaut arī senākais ieraksts bibliotēkas inventāra grāmatā saglabājies no 1947. gada, ir zināms, ka jau pirm...

  16. Ökad arbetstrivsel och bättre resultat genom tjänstedesign : Att skapa möjlighet för distansarbete i naturen

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudron, Tjalling

    2014-01-01

    The report contains a survey on telecommuting in nature and how concepts around that information could look like. The client for the project is Lars Sandberg, Dotank AB in Karlstad. The project is implemented in the course Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design, MSCG22 of the faculty of health, science and technology at Karlstad University in the spring of 2014. Working flexibly and remotely in the so-called knowledge based professions is growing. That nature is an important source of r...

  17. I.Kanta idejas un to ietekme uz mūsdienu tiesību attīstību

    OpenAIRE

    Smiltēna, Anda

    2007-01-01

    Darbs ir veltīts Imanuela Kanta tiesību filozofijas analīzei, uzmanību pievēršot tiesību teorijas jautājumiem, kā arī šo ideju praktiskajai ietekmei mūsdienu tiesību zinātnē. Pirmajā nodaļā aprakstītas galvenās Kanta tiesību filozofijas idejas, kas veido tiesību teorijas bāzi, nosaka tiesību sistēmu un to veidojošo elementu īpašības, nodala tiesības no morāles, iezīmē kategoriskā imperatīva un brīvības kategorijas nozīmi tiesībās. Otrā nodaļa veltīta neokantisma kustībai tiesībās un tās galve...

  18. Att undervisa i teknik – försök till en utbildningsfilosofi utifrån Heidegger och Dewey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Blomdahl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to articulate a philosophy of education with respect to technology.The guiding idea is that the primary aim of technology education should be to help pupils to reflecton the nature of technology as a social and cultural phenomenon, as regards its effects on individuals,their society and the environment. Bearing in mind Heidegger’s ideas on the essence of technologyand Dewey’s philosophy of education, a notion of technology education as “technology re-presentation”is introduced. This process centres on the visualisation or construction of technical systems andartefacts with a view to understanding them in the way indicated above. As far as the nature of thisunderstanding is concerned, directives are given by Heidegger’s idea of a reflection (Besinnung onthe impact of technology on our present world-view and by Dewey’s concept of “reflective thinking”,which refers to the insight into the relation between our actions and their consequences.

  19. L'irrigation avec des eaux usées et la santé : Évaluer et atténuer les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 déc. 2009 ... Ce livre représente la réflexion la plus novatrice et la plus point pointue sur le sujet à l'heure actuelle et marque un tournant décisif dans l'histoire de l'utilisation des eaux usées pour l'irrigation, car il s'agit d'une contribution majeure à la préservation de l'eau et des nutriments, ainsi qu'à la santé et au ...

  20. "Att bli skapande av det nya" : Fem dramapedgogers uppfattningar av drama som verktyg i vuxnas lärande för hållbar utveckling

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation gives a back-ground presenting what Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and pedagogical drama is, and it presents research on drama-use in ESD. The aim of the study is to explore drama as a tool in adult learning for sustainable development, in a Western context. The assumption is made that drama does have a potential as a tool in learning for sustainable development, and the question of how is raised. The study has a qualitative approach and by interviewing five dra...

  1. Äldre människors berättelser om att bli och vara gammal tolkade utifrån genus- och etnicitetsperspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of the five studies that make up this thesis is to elucidate constructions of being old from the perspectives of gender and ethnicity. One of the studies uses quantitative data and four use qualitative data. The sample in study I consisted of 125 participants from the Umeå 85+ study, aged 85 to 103 years old, who were able to use Likert scales in responding to questions. Studies II and III involved content analysis of interviews with old persons scoring on the extremes of the ...

  2. Att leva och sälja sin dröm : Livsstilsföretagaren mellan familjeliv, marknadoch politisk retorik

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Cederholm, Erika; Sjöholm, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Living and selling a dream: Lifestyle entrepreneurship in the intersection between family, market and political rhetoric The article focuses on lifestyle entrepreneurship, characterised by a balancing work between personal lifestyle motives and economic motives. It builds on a qualitative study of business owners who have realized a life dream of starting a countryside business in the tourism and hospitality industry in Sweden. Through the notion of ”balancing work”, the analysis focuses on t...

  3. Ukrainas krīzes attēlojums plašsaziņas līdzekļos

    OpenAIRE

    Ķirse, Guna

    2015-01-01

    Plašsaziņas līdzekļi ir spēcīgs instruments valdošās sabiedrības daļas rokās, lai izplatītu ideoloģijai atbilstošas idejas. Šo darbu paveic attiecīgi izvēlēti valodas līdzekļi, kas ļauj uzsvērt vai, tieši otrādi, apslēpt dažādus uzskatus. Darba mērķis bija izpētīt, kā Ukrainas krīze tiek atspoguļota medijos no Krievijas, Ukrainas un Rietumu perspektīvas. Iegūtie dati, kurus veidoja 45 ziņu reportāžas, tika analizēti, izmantojot kritisko diskursa analīzi, un tika izvērtēta leksika, mākslinieci...

  4. A Study of Learners PerceptIon and AttItude towards BA/BSS Program of SSHL of Bangladesh Open UnIversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha SULTANA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present day open and distance education has become a significant way of the development of higher education. Bangladesh Open University (BOU, the only public institution in Bangladesh offers several formal and non-formal programs from secondary to post graduate level through distance mode. The main objectives of BOU’s program is to provide flexible and need based education particularly to the rural and disadvantaged groups like woman, agricultural workers, unemployed youths, uneducated adults, on-the-job people etc. The School of Social Science, Humanities and Language (SSHL at the BOU offers Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Social Science (BA/BSS to create efficient and skilled manpower in the country. The focuses of this paper is to find out learners’ views and attitude towards BA/BSS program at BOU. In this study, 187 respondents were randomly selected from 15 tutorial centers of 2 Regional Resource centers (RRCs of BOU. The study showed that 62% learners were male and the mean age of the learners was 34.05 years (minimum 22; maximum 54. More than 50% learners were married and nearly half (47.6% of them were private employees and 86.6% were Muslims. Amongst them, 72.2% were come from urban areas and residing around 23.08 km from the tutorial centers. Most (72% of the learners of BA/BSS program stated that the program was as usual but 24.1% expressed that it was difficult to understand but 97.7% learners responded that text materials were up to the mark. Regarding the media programs, 61% of the learners gave their opinion that TV programs were at the level best but they wanted to watch these at the evening or night schedule. It was surprising that 26.2% of the learners had bitter experience with the services of RRCs. Finally, some measures have been proposed to offer effective and more popular educational program through BOU.

  5. Brand Awareness, Ad Attıtudes and Ad Features Toward Engagement on Youtube: an Empırıcal Study of Green Automobıles

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Febriyanti Puspitasari; Chien Wen Shen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop suitable measurements for brand awareness, ad attitudes, ad features, and customer engagement on YouTube, also to investigate the relationships among brand awareness, ad attitudes, ad features toward engagements on YouTube and conduct an empirical study of green automobile videos on YouTube channel. YouTube as social media video sharing platform are used as a platform to investigate customer engagements. The study utilizes statistics data from YouTube c...

  6. The Sports Background, Personality, Att Itudes, and Social Competencies of Coaches and Assistant Coaches in the Just Soccer Program for Pupils with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliermann Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.

  7. Procedure of dewatering by pressing of biomass pulp, especially a peat cake. Saett att genom pressning avvattna en kaka av biomassa, foeretraedesvis en torvkaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, S

    1988-05-24

    The pulp is dewatered by pressing above 90 degrees C, the pulp water being displaced by warmer water under successively increased pressure. A device designed like a closed washing press is used. The pulp is subjected to dewatering, washing or displacement by warmer water and thus heating, and calendering. (O.S.).

  8. När E-sport blir en reseanledning : Motivation att resa som åskådare till E-sportsevenemang

    OpenAIRE

    Nordkvist, David

    2017-01-01

    E-sport is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. Hundreds ofthousands interested people travel every year as spectators to E-sport eventswhen professional E-sport stars compete against each other in the biggestgames in the world. It is an important subject to study because of the lack ofresearch and because of the recent growth of interest for E-sport in theworld. The aim of this thesis is to identify the motives behind travel to E-sport events. To answer the purpose of the thesis a...

  9. Upplevelser av reklam på Instagram : En studie om hur inlägg kan formas för att skapa olika typer av reklamupplevelser.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblad, Otilia

    2017-01-01

    In this study the focus is to explain user attitudes towards advertising on the social media Instagram. Instagram is a relatively new media that has opened up a new way to spread advertising. All people are unique and because of that every one interact and thing in different ways. Different types of posts circulate at Instagram where many can connect to advertising. But what does the recipient thinks about the ads? The document present a qualitative data based on notes and semistructured inte...

  10. Internprissättning och omkarakterisering : En studie av möjligheten att omkarakterisera gränsöverskridande transaktioner vid inkomstbeskattningen

    OpenAIRE

    Burmeister, Jari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the compilation thesis has been to compare the ability to recharacterize cross-border transactions under the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines, 2010 version (OECD Guidelines), and OECDs new guidance from the BEPS project 2015 (Final Report) with the possibility to reclassify legal transactions in accordance with Swedish domestic law. The latter is an interpretation of the Swedish Supreme Administrative Court’s (SAC) case law on the taxation of transactions based of their true im...

  11. Tid till att bli svensk: En studie av mottagandet av nyanlända barn och familjer i den svenska förskolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lunneblad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is from a study about the integration of young refugee children and their families in Sweden. The preschool has here a special responsibility in this mission for children in the age 1-5. The setting for the study is a multiethnic area located on the outskirts of the city. Methodologically an extended case is used. The study has so far been conducted during a period of 14 months doing fieldwork 1-2 days a week. The analyse focus on how the educators educate practice and talk about how the immigrant parents raise and foster their children. This is described as part of a wider ambition to integrate immigrants in Swedish society.

  12. Tobaksvanor i medelåldern : riskfaktormönster, rökstoppsattityder och erfarenheter av att sluta röka

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use, mostly smoking, has been a deeply rooted habit for many people for centuries. However, it was not until the second half of last century that the risks with smoking became obvious. Today when the bad consequences of smoking are recognized by almost all people, it is important to discuss why smokers choose to continue smoking. The main aim of this thesis is to try to better explain why some middle aged smokers choose to continue smoking in spite of knowledge of the huge mass of inf...

  13. Återvinning av dryckeskartonger : En studie som syftar till att öka återvinningsgraden av Tetra Paks förpackningar i Indonesien

    OpenAIRE

    Backlund, Per

    2014-01-01

    People of the modern world consume more than they ever used to do. Because of the close correlation between consumption and the amount of waste, the waste volume is also expected to increase. The purpose of this study is to examine if some measures in the recycling process from Sweden could be implemented in Indonesia. In fact, Indonesia is one of the countries in which the waste management system is struggling. Tetra Pak, one of the world leading producer of food packaging, is studied in thi...

  14. Outlet of products of biological treatment- what will be the future problems and opportunities?; Avsaettning av energiprodukter fraan biologisk behandling - vilka fraagestaellningar kommer att bli aktuella?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, Hanna

    2010-01-15

    Biological treatment and related products is a topical subject, which increases year after year, not only in Sweden but all over the world. In this phase of expansion, it is interesting to find out what subjects could become relevant for products from this treatment method in the future. The following products are incorporated in the concept 'energy products' from biological treatment: sludge from sewage treatment plants, digestate from waste digestion plants, biogas, ethanol, and products from biorefinery. Questions regarding the process of these products are not included in this project. The purpose is to bring forward a catalogue of ideas of current and future topics in the field of biological treatment. The goal is to identify development projects which could be of interest for upcoming programs at Waste Refinery. Issues and project proposals for each product have been identified by the writer's network, and in discussions tabled at a workshop arranged by Waste Refinery in the autumn of 2009. At the present time, almost all digestate is sold, but there are problems. Though the plants have found an outlet for their products, they do not receive adequate return on them. Moreover, a lot of water is being transported. Many stakeholders within Waste Refinery, as well as external stakeholders, have requested a project on refining of digestate. Other topical issues regarding digestate are how new, non-food substrates and additives affect the quality of the digestate. Sewage treatment plants have to pay large amounts of money for the disposal of sludge. If Waste Refinery can include sewage sludge in their range of work, there will be several synergies between sludge and digestate. Matters, that need to be solved in the near future, are how to best achieve hygienisation of sewage sludge in order to guarantee salmonella-free sludge. As for biogas, the demand will be determined by factors such as the access of raw material, whether it becomes a vehicle fuel to count on in the future, taxes and means of control (i.e. environmental objectives). Concrete project proposals regarding the gas composition and measurement of raw gas, as well as the minimization of emissions have been received. There are also many questions regarding the distribution of biogas. As for ethanol, the questions primarily regard the process and new substrates identified in interesting fields. Such matters and project ideas have, however, not been considered, as this report is intended to identify questions about the products. Contact with various ethanol producers and researchers has shown that there is, as it seems, no need for further development of ethanol as a product. Waste Refinery has already touched the subject of biorefinery in the WR 20 project, refinement of digestion residue. No project proposals have been identified for products from biorefinery, either by the writer's network or during the workshop. One proposal is to do a more thorough study of biorefinery under the management of Waste Refinery

  15. Musik och språk i förskolan ! : en intervjustudie om pedagogers arbete med musik i syfte att utveckla språket hos barn.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Sofia

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Government´s guidelines found in the curriculum for pre-schools, recommend that music should be an important resource for children. To stimulate children´s language is also an important part of this curriculum. It is every teacher`s proffessional duty to ensure that these guidelines are followed. Language is of unparallel importance in assisting an individual to grow and to function within a society. In my work about music and languages in pre-school the purpose is to investigate...

  16. Brand Awareness, Ad Attıtudes and Ad Features Toward Engagement on Youtube: an Empırıcal Study of Green Automobıles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Febriyanti Puspitasari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop suitable measurements for brand awareness, ad attitudes, ad features, and customer engagement on YouTube, also to investigate the relationships among brand awareness, ad attitudes, ad features toward engagements on YouTube and conduct an empirical study of green automobile videos on YouTube channel. YouTube as social media video sharing platform are used as a platform to investigate customer engagements. The study utilizes statistics data from YouTube channel. There are 7 green car model of video advertisements chosen as the sample of this study. Total number of observations are 633 green car video advertisements on YouTube. Comparison of full model and reduced model also multiple linear regression are conducted to analyze the relationship among brand awareness, ad attitudes, ad features toward engagements. The result shows thatbrand awareness and ad attitudes play very important role to engage customer on YouTube. Hence ad features doesn’t significantly play important role to engage customer on YouTube. The result of this research also shows that green or non-green messages which delivered by each video advertisement is not influence significantly. Indicate that it is important for company to consider use YouTube as one of video sharing platform to engage their customer through online video advertisements.This research model also can be used for another social media in example facebook, twitter, etc with different measurement. This research framework also can be used to analyze the effectiveness of company’s engagement process on YouTube. Online advertisers therefore should work with companies that operate social media websites especially use YouTube to increase the persuasive effects of interactivity, make advertised products more tangible for potential consumers, identify the most important attributes, and use these attributes in advertising. There is no previous research addresses about this kind of issues. The study combine three variables brand awareness, ad attitudes, and ad features toward engagement together and focus on YouTube as video sharing platform.

  17. Längtar du också till Fairadise : En studie om att ta emot och tolka en social marketing kampanj om hållbar turism

    OpenAIRE

    Rådestad, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this study is the question of what happens at the point of impact between receiver and message in the case of a social marketing campaign on Facebook promoting sustainable travel. Hence the aim of this study is to analyse the reception of the social marketing campaign Fairadise in a sample of 19 individuals.   The design of the study is therefore reception analysis with the help of four focus groups and thematic analysis to later identify patterns and themes in the gathered mate...

  18. Miljönyttan med att dumpstra : En livscykelanalys av återvinning och användning av matavfall från livsmedelsbutiker i Uppsala

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    The high level of food waste is a problem that arises along the production of food and is a contribution to climate change. Tons of food is unneccessary produced and in supermarkets large amounts of food that is perfectly edible is thrown away, because they are considered not salable. A lot of the food waste is still of good quality and possible to re-use. The gain of recycling food waste to its intended purpose as food has risen the interest of this project. A life cycle analysis has been ma...

  19. Energy Choices. Global Energy Trends and Problems to Supply the Energy Demand; Vaegval Energi. Globala energitrender och problem att tillgodose energibehoven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian (Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-09-15

    Although the use of renewable fuels is increasing, oil and other fossil fuels still dominate the global energy supply the next decades, as shown by a review of energy sector development from 1990 to today and projections up to 2030. Nothing indicates that the supplies of oil or any other fossil fuel will be depleted during the coming decades. Resource Nationalism has long characterized the oil market. OPEC has since 1970 successfully controlled the supply and price of oil for its producing member countries. The cartel's grip on the oil market has been strengthened in the 2000s commodity boom, not least as a result of improved production discipline among member countries. At the same time, the long-term trend in the world's great centers of consumption is towards a lower degree of self-sufficiency in energy. The EU dependence on import of oil is expected to rise to over ninety per cent by year 2030. In order to secure a stable energy supply, clear strategies in the oil-importing countries are needed. Tools include diversified import, storage and securing supplies through futures trading on commodity exchanges. Energy policy has long been focused on supply. But the environmental aspects of energy production and use has grown in importance and now the climate issue dominates the energy policy. So far, however, the policy measures to curb the effects of climate change has been both limited and cost-ineffective. The cost to seriously limit emissions of greenhouse gases will be high. To carry out serious climate measures will annually take at least one percent of global GDP, according to an estimate by the British economist Nicholas Stern. This can be compared to the additional cost of approximately five percent of global GDP as energy consumers had to absorb between 2005 and 2008 because of rising prices for fossil fuels

  20. Le e-commerce, facteur d’atténuation des iniquités territoriales en termes d’offre commerciale ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sieys

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Le e-commerce est un outil récent qui offre à tout un chacun la possibilité de vendre et d’acheter sur une plateforme virtuelle des biens et des services de toutes sortes. Il possède donc, en théorie, le potentiel de pallier les disparités spatiales d’accessibilité au commerce, qui peuvent être observées entre urbain, périurbain et rural. Notre article se propose d’analyser la façon dont le e-commerce est utilisé dans les différents types de territoires : nous mettons en évidence une similarité dans les pratiques des ménages, quel que soit leur territoire de résidence. Nous interprétons ces similarités par des pratiques de mobilité faciles (rapides et peu chères qui permettent aujourd’hui à une majeure partie des ménages un accès aux commerces traditionnels.

  1. Därför stannar vi kvar, trots allt : Faktorer som påverkar socialsekreterare att stanna kvar på arbetsplatsen

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Therefore, we remain, despite everything Factors affecting social workers to remain in the workplace       In studies conducted in the social welfare a complex picture regarding the social workers' job situation. The work of the public authority is complex and place high demands on the individual social worker. Social workers has a complex worksituation at the same time as many of the social offices has a high staff turnover and many teams go understaffed. Both in Sweden and internat...

  2. Status for cast stainless steel in older Swedish nuclear power plants, March 1996; Status foer gjutet rostfritt staal i aeldre svenska kaernkraftverk, mars 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trolle, M.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compile what is known about larger cast components primarly in older BWR nuclear power plants with external circulation pumps. The work includes metallurgical data and a compilation on the material that the owner of Oskarshamn 1, OKG AB, has delivered to The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate as a result of the investigation of these components. An overview of the investigations performed on the other Swedish plants of similar design during the annual outage 1995 is also described in this report. International experinece is also reported. The results from OKG AB show that there has been extensive cracking in both valves and pump casings and that they are probably resulting defects from the manufacturing process, but an environmental factor cannot be excluded. In order to get a complete picture of the situation in Swedish nuclear power plants a more extensive survey needs to be performed. Internationally the phenomenon of hot cracking in cast stainless steel is well known, but not as severe as in Oskarshamn 1. One question however that is discussed is the recommended amount of ferrite in these steels in order to avoid hot cracking without risking embrittlement of the ferrite phase. The Swedish utilities specify 3%, some European countries recommend 8%. Japan suggests ferrite contents up to 30%. 25 refs.

  3. Dynamic generation of socio-economic scenarios for climate change adaptation: methods, building blocks and examples; Dynamisk generering av socioekonomiska scenarier foer klimatanpassning: metod, byggstenar och exempel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Henrik; Dreborg, Karl Henrik

    2008-05-15

    There is a need for socio-economic scenarios in climate change adaptation work in order to help planners cope with uncertainty of the long term development of society. The United Nations' Panel of climate change (IPCC) has developed climate scenarios with substantially different climatic characteristics in a hundred years' perspective. However, in a 25-30 years' perspective, which is very long term in societal planning, the difference between the scenarios is small, while society may develop in different directions. Since measures of adaptation to a changing climate may have different impacts depending on future socio-economic conditions, there is a need for scenarios that describe different possible developments. With a time frame of 25 years scenarios are more useful than projections of single factors such as GDP or demography, because scenarios can capture structural changes of society. This report presents results from a first step of the development of a scenario tool for climate adaptation work in municipalities, regions, and sectors of society in Sweden. The tool is to be further developed in regional case studies with the aim to make it adaptable to the specific focus of interest of various planning agencies. Therefore, we primarily concentrate on developing external factors and different possible future states for these, and a methodology for combining them into scenarios. The report presents the main steps of the scenario methodology and building blocks for the scenario construction consisting of socio-economic factors of special importance for climate adaptation work. The 13 socio-economic factors are: Demography; International mitigation policy; International climate change adaptation policy, Swedish economy; Ideology and social cohesion; Climate change perception; Swedish governance; Environmental policy; Global energy paradigm; Swedish energy paradigm; Land use; Built environment; Transportation. For each factor different possible future states are suggested. It is a leading idea that a specific set of Swedish socio-economic scenarios should be tailored for each specific planning situation: The national level will be described from the point of view of the actual focal issue. The report also entails three examples of socio-economic scenarios. However, these have been designed on the basis of the general question of what impacts the conditions for climate change for Sweden at large. Socio-economic scenarios can support adaptation work in several ways. They can reveal challenges, both opportunities and threats, related to different directions of development for society. Scenarios may also elicit ideas of adaptation measures by widening the perceptions of what may happen in the future. Furthermore, they may be used for assessing measures or combinations of measures as regards the impact they will have in the different scenarios. Such an assessment may facilitate the development of a strategy that works reasonably well under several plausible future conditions

  4. Large scale development of wind power. Consequences for the national grid and the need for load balancing; Storskalig utbyggnad av vindkraft. Konsekvenser foer stamnaetet och behovet av reglerkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    Wind power is expected to growth rapidly in Sweden. The existing certificate system gives economic incentives for development of 17 TWh from renewable energy sources until 2016, compared to the 2002 level. The Swedish Energy Agency estimates that 9 TWh wind power will be built by 2020, given the present certificate system. However, a new planning goal of 30 TWh wind energy by 2020 has been proposed by the Agency. It is very important for Svenska Kraftnaet to follow the development in order to take the right actions to adapt the national grid to the increased share of wind power. The total increased need for balancing power is estimated to be: 1 400-1 800 MW for 10 TWh added wind power, and 4 300-5 300 MW for 30 TWh. About 15% of the increased balancing need must be assigned to automatically frequency regulating generation. The rest can be made up of sources that can be regulated on a minute- or hour-scale. The planned wind power risks to replace generation with regulating capacity, and it is important to continuously analyze if and how this happens, and which the consequences will be for the balancing capacity. The socio-economic effects for the national grid include increased investment cost and increased costs foe balancing and regulating. Massive expansion in North Sweden is the most costly alternative, with a capitalized cost estimated to 25 000 MSEK (about 4 000 MUSD) at an expansion of 30 TWh wind power. This can be compared to the estimated investment cost for the wind power expansion of 150 000 MSEK

  5. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    The pilot study was initiated by the need of a new technology that has been raised from the problem, and by the specifications of requirements, that has been described from the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The need has been crystallized by the energy company Maelarenergi AB, Vaesteraas, in their handling of bio fuel, among many other fuels. The company Maelarenergi AB can see a potential in the use of Salix of a considerable volume. There is a special need by the means of the big volume handling of Salix, since the Salix raw material must be able to be delivered under a longer period or for intermediate storage. 8-9 months could be an adequate storage period. The possibility for intermediate storage could do the flow of fuel raw material to the combined power and heating plant is harmonized to the special requirements of fuel. The storage capability in chipped raw Salix chips is very short and that's why chipped Salix are not going to be a sustainable system combined with the handle of big volume together with portioned inflow to the plant. The production of Salix chips in a system of direct chipping is a very delicate system. The ground conditions with frozen and dry grounds are important for a system with heavy machines. The last years have not given such climate conditions. A big problem with practicability has been coming up. The number of days for contract work during the harvest period without interruption, because of hard conditions, has been decreased to the level that the capacity very considerably falls below what is economical defensible. The needs of larger areas for harvesting during fewer days under good conditions counteract each other. In the 'hot flow' during the harvest when the harvest machine will work with escort vehicles/container transports in the field can be impossible to realize because of for example the breakdown of the soil structure. The organization around 'hot flow system' is a very heavy programme and demand good and secure weather conditions. Heavy rain or snow is a big problem during harvest season. The proposal from Maelarenergi AB has been carefully analysed and they think this is a solution with high potential. It should mean lower costs than in compare to using a mobile fossil driven cutter. Chipped Salix on farmland is a 'hot' flowchart, with big demand on among other things the logistic in and around the system. The possibility to direct consumption with chipped Salix has a limited storage capability. Chipped Salix is not possible to transport long distance, maximum 30 - 35 km, if it should keep the capacity to pay the procedure. The costs of transport will be too big in comparison to production value. Another advantage is the costs for intermediate storage. For example the area of the intermediate storage station, can be reduced when smaller volumes with higher density are handled. An overall analysis over the project 'Salix Maelardalen' point out very obviously that an alternative to the today direct chipping system is necessary and that development work around harvest with compressing bundle technique is very important. Big positive effects on environment can also be shown. Questions around 'compressed whole straw harvest of Willow' can be answered by a pilot study. There are o lot of aspects to pay attention to and 'smooth the road' to the growing production of Salix and it's rising as fuel raw material. The pilot study is going to penetrate the development of new harvest technique and earlier systems for 'compressed whole shoot harvest' of Salix. Needs and potential of new technique will be analysed and the study will also give suggestions to a new specification of requirements. The study will also suggest future developing projects. One of the purposes with the pilot project is that it could be a platform for future technical and practical research and even to be as a base for coming application in the field of innovative machinery development. The pilot study expects to answer 'which measures that must be done' to use the advantages in a new harvest system. Consumers of Salix raw material and Salix entrepreneurs are the target groups for this pilot study. To handle the Salix raw material during a longer period than today the water content for further storage must reach a level that's acceptable for storage. Developer of machinery and machinery system is a target group which has to follow the specifications of requirements. People working with research in the field of what new techniques can come up with in comparison to the techniques of today is of course also one important target group. New calculations and analyses must be done on the whole chain that includes produce of fuel energy from energy forest. The realization of the project is going to be as a pilot study based on the project 'Salix Maelardalen'. The value of a production of a new type of harvest technique for Salix is very great.

  6. Evaluation of regulations and norms for concrete constructions in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utvaerdering av regler och normer foer betongkonstruktioner i svenska kaernkraftsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovall, Ola (Scanscot Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In the SSM's regulations and recommendations, there are at present no specific requirements and adequate guidance on how concrete structures should be designed in case of new buildings or verification analyses of existing buildings. The result of the work presented in this report constitute the basis for SSM's ongoing regulatory project Investigation regarding requirements for construction, design, analysis and review of reactor containments and other safety-related building structures. The project includes the following: 1. Summary of the regulations and requirements that have been applied at the initial design and new construction of concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants. 2. Comparison and evaluation of relevant regulations published by the European and North American authorities. 3. Comparison and evaluation of relevant codes, standards, guidelines etc. for load-bearing concrete structures in different countries. 4. Conclusions and recommendations to the regulatory framework for the design of load-bearing concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants. Based on a comparison and evaluation of regulations from the U.S., Canada, France, the UK, Finland and Sweden, as well as guidelines established by the international organizations IAEA and EUR, the following general recommendations are provided as a regulatory framework for the design of load-bearing concrete structures at the Swedish nuclear power plants: 1. The Eurocodes will replace the BKR design rules of Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning as the conventional building regulations on the construction of nuclear power plants. 2. A general review and updating of the existing industry standard Design rules for buildings at nuclear facilities DRB:2001 is implemented. Reference is made to the Eurocodes with regard to conditions of conventional design rules

  7. Investigation and mapping of the requirements for lifting devices in a nuclear facility; Utredning och kartlaeggning av krav foer lyftanordningar inom kaernteknisk anlaeggning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell (Inspecta Sweden AB, Vaexjoe (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    This technical report covers the investigation and identification of requirements for lifting devices in nuclear facilities. The report is divided into the following Section: 1. A mapping of the regulatory framework for nuclear hoists in Finland, Germany and USA. 2. A description of how the international legal framework is applied in for replacement or modernization of lifts in the Swedish nuclear power plants. 3. In Europe, the new harmonized standard has been developed for conventional hoists. The rules appear in the 'EN-13 001'. The study will illustrate these rules, and how they currently apply in the nuclear industry in Sweden. 4. A comparison between the IKH's lifting standards and EN13001 which differences are highlighted and explained

  8. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results during the period 2002-2005. The report also presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are, as materials in geotechnical construction, and as nutrients in forestry. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; and A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, about 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The largest potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes some 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of methods to assess the impact on the environment, and the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. Guidelines with general limit values for road construction have been proposed. This work has also yielded an unexpected result: leaching of metals from ashes to soil and water is usually not the problem that it has been thought to be. However, highly soluble salts may be a cause for restrictions. Although one should interpret results from calculations with cautiousness it seems that dust from the roads settling on vegetables grown in the vicinity of a road is a larger problem. The tests used today to determine the geotechnical properties of materials aim primarily at checking if these are within specifications. As for other recovered materials, somewhat different tests must be used to ascertain that ashes can be used to provide a function. Three bottom ashes were investigated, and the results confirmed that the tests proposed are relevant. Some of the tests need to be refined. The properties related to moisture may become critical, in particular frost-heave in moist ashes. Work has been concluded with a handbook containing guidelines for building unpaved roads using fly ashes. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in mines. The main thrust in the Ash Programme for landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. Projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. These projects have been complemented with an investigation of the chemical stability of the digested sludge. Mine tailings have been studied in two projects: In the first project digested sludge is used as support for vegetation on the mounds. The second role filled by the sludge is to prevent oxygen from reaching the sulphides tailings. To prevent roots from the vegetation to reach the tailings, an intermediate layer with ash has been placed under the vegetation support layer. The high pH-value of the ash, its content of heavy metals and its hardness yield an effective barrier. In another project, the effect of covering tailings with a mixture of ash and digested sludge on leaching from the tailings mound has been monitored. The goal for the covering has been reached, i.e. reducing leakage through the surface in the mound and an ugly sterile surface has been converted to a green, useful surface. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain. The Ash Programme has strived at increasing interest for spreading ashes on forest soils by providing evidence for also short-term profits, such as effects on growth. In another project, old experiments where lime and ash have been spread to counteract the effects of acid rain in south-west Sweden have been examined and other studies have been re-examined. The results indicate that lime and ash treatment yielded an increased growth for spruce. The potential for improving the stability of ashes have been investigated in two projects. The data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska, available on the Internet site of the Ash Programme (www.askprogrammet.com)

  9. High temperature corrosion in biomass- and waste fired boilers. A status report; Kunskapslaeget betraeffande hoegtemperaturkorrosion i aangpannor foer biobraensle och avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, P; Ifwer, K; Staalenheim, A; Montgomery, M; Hoegberg, J; Hjoernhede, A

    2006-12-15

    Many biomass- or waste-fired plants have problems with high temperature corrosion on the furnace walls or at the superheaters, especially if the steam temperature is greater than 500 deg C. An increase in the combustion of waste fuels means that an increasing number of boilers have had problems. Therefore, there is great interest from plant owners to reduce the costs associated with high temperature corrosion. At the same time there exists a considerable driving force towards improving the electrical efficiency of a plant by the use of more advanced steam data. The purpose of the work presented here was to answer three main questions: What can be done to reduce high temperature corrosion with current fuel blends and steam temperatures? How can more waste fuels be burnt without an increased risk for corrosion? What needs to be done to reach higher steam temperatures in the future? The level of knowledge of high temperature corrosion in biomass- and waste-fired boilers has been described and summarised. The following measures are recommended to reduce corrosion in existing plant: Make sure that the fuel is well mixed and improve fuel feeding to obtain a more even spread of the fuel over the cross-section of the boiler. Use combustion technology methods to stabilize the oxygen content of the flue gases near the membrane walls and other heat transfer surfaces. Experiment with additives and/or supplementary fuels which contain sulphur in some form, for example peat. Reduce the flue gas temperature at the superheaters. Review soot-blowing procedures or protect heat transfer surfaces from soot blowers. Evaluate coated membrane wall panels in parts of the furnace that experience the worst corrosion. Test more highly alloyed steels suitable for superheaters and when replacing a superheater change to a more highly alloyed steel. For the future, the following should be considered: The role of sulphur needs to be investigated more and other additives should be investigated. Waste products that can reduce fouling and corrosion should be identified. Testing of high-alloyed steels, nickel-base alloys and coatings is needed. Also a better understanding of why some alloys are better than others. New boiler designs with reduced flue gas temperatures near the superheaters. Continue with better mixing of different fuel fractions and improved fuel feeding Improve boiler control to remove the CO peaks. Design superheaters with a larger gap between the loops and use less soot blowing.

  10. Summary of the program 'Environmentally correct utilization of ashes' at Vaermeforsk 2002-2005; Syntes av delprogrammet 'Miljoeriktig anvaendning av askor' foer 2002-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The present report summarizes the results form the projects that have carried out during the period 2002-2005. The report presents an evaluation of the programme and suggests priorities for the coming period, 2006-2008. The Ash Programme is a wide initiative including building up knowledge, work on guidelines, development work and communication. During the period 2002-2005, 61 projects have been performed. The utilizations of ashes that have been targeted are as secondary or recovered materials in geotechnical construction on the one hand, as nutrients in forestry on the other hand. Work has been carried out in four main areas: geotechnical constructions, landfills, recycling ash to soils, environment and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progresses along lines of development may be shown: A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilization of ashes in construction; A battery of tests that allow a discussion of the geotechnical properties of ashes in e.g. road construction; Continued development of the use of ashes together with wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills, the use of fly ash in gravel roads; Use of ashes from biofuels in concrete; Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth; A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as hazardous or non-hazardous. Each year, ca 1 million tons of by-products, or ashes, are produced at the Swedish combustion plants. The large potential market for these materials is in construction, which consumes ca 100 million tons of materials each year. The most immediate uses are in road construction, in landfills or as ballast or filler in concrete. The most important barriers for a use in e.g. road construction have been the absence of a method to assess the impact of the use of ashes in a construction on the environment, as well as the absence of relevant testing methods for the geotechnical properties of ashes. Both these barriers were addressed in parallel projects. The standards in force today on the use of ashes in cement and concrete refer to the utilization of coal ashes rich in silica. The Swedish ashes from biofuels do not fit into these standards. Their use as fine filler in concrete has been developed and demonstrated. Fly ash has been shown to be a replacement for cement in another type of construction. In mines, excavated ore volumes are filled with tailings stabilized with cement before the neighbouring volumes may be exploited. Fly ash may replace at least half of the cement, which also has been confirmed in pilot tests. The main thrust in the Ash Programme on landfills is on covers using ash and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment. Ashes provide the cover layer a high pH value that hinders biological degradation of the sludge as well as mechanical stability. In two parallel alleys projects have investigated mixing proportions between ash and digested sludge and prepared in all four pilot surfaces on landfills, with satisfactory results. The properties of these surfaces are now being followed up during a longer time. Landfills are today the largest consumers of ashes. The uses for ashes, e.g. as banking material or covers, and the experience gained have been reviewed. Ashes from biofuels have an important role to fill in a sustainable harvesting of biofuels. The removal of mineral nutrients in the shape of logging residues is compensated for by spreading the ashes to these areas, i.e. recycling or compensatory fertilization. Ashes provide also a more balanced supply of nutrients than lime or chalk to surfaces damaged by acid rain, the so-called vitalizing fertilization. In contrast to construction, where guidelines are needed, there are already guidelines, acceptance from authorities and ongoing activities. An important issue is the classification of combustion by-products according to the waste regulations. This requires a deep knowledge of the speciation of elements. This is almost impossible to attain for as complex materials as ashes. A simplified method has been developed: starting from present knowledge of the chemistry of ashes a conservative selection of compounds has been made for the elements found in an analysis. The regulations are then applied on an ash to determine whether it is or is not hazardous. To disseminate information about the properties of ashes, the data obtained within the Ash Programme have been collected in a database, Allaska. This database may be reached on the Internet site of the Ash Programme, www.askprogrammet.com. At the end of 2005, data for 244 samples have been recorded.

  11. Measures for simultaneous minimization of alkali related operating problems, Phase 2; Aatgaerder foer samtidig minimering av alkalirelaterade driftproblem, Etapp 2. Ramprogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Davidsson, Kent; Aamand, Lars-Erik; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Folkeson, Nicklas; Pettersson, Jesper; Svensson, Jan-Erik; Boss, Anna; Johansson, Linda; Kassman, Haakan

    2007-12-15

    Combustion of an increasing amount of biofuel and waste woods has resulted in certain environmental advantages, including decreased emissions of fossil CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and metals. On the other hand, a number of chloride and alkali related operational problems have occurred which are related to combustion of these fuels. Alkali related operational problems have been studied in a project consisting of two parts. The overall scope has been to characterise the operational problems and to study measures to minimise them. The first part was reported in Vaermeforsk report 997. In part two, additional measures have been included in the test plan and initial corrosion has been studied linked to the different measures. The tests have also in part two been carried out at the 12 MW CFB boiler at Chalmers. The effect of the selected measures has been investigated concerning both deposit formation and bed agglomeration, and at the same time emissions and other operational conditions were characterised. The second part of the project has among other things focused on: To investigate measures which decrease the content of alkali and chloride in the deposits, and consequently decrease the risk for corrosion (by investigating the initial corrosion). Focus was also on trying to explain favourable effects. To investigate if it is possible to combine a rather low dosage of kaolin and injection of ammonium sulphate. This was done in order to reduce both bed agglomeration and problems from deposits during combustion of fuels rich in chlorine. To investigate if co-combustion with sewage sludge, de-inking sludge or peat with high ash content, could give similar advantages as conventional additives. Investigate if ash from PFBC (coal ash and dolomite) is possible to use as an alternative bed material. In the reference case, straw pellets were co-combusted together with wood pellets. This fuel mixture gave high alkali and chlorine contents. Alkali was in surplus of chlorine. The agglomeration temperature is reduced by about 50 deg C after 12 h of combustion with wood and straw pellets. Sticky alkali-silicate particles reduce the agglomeration temperature. The bed sand particles are coated with alkali (potassium) and also calcium. The straw ash itself forms sticky parts which contribute to the low agglomeration temperature. Alkali chloride will be formed and vaporized to the gas phase. It will then be measured in the flue gas and will later condensate on the tubes in the back pass. Small amounts of alkali sulphates will also be formed. The alkali chloride content will increase from 1-2 ppm to 44 ppm in the flue gas when the straw pellets are added. The flue gas contains also 9 ppm SO{sub 2} and 85 ppm HCl. All measures had a positive influence on the agglomeration temperature (except the addition of ammonium sulphate which was added to the cyclone inlet and did not have any significant influence on the bed). The results also showed that all measures, except co-combustion with de-inking sludge and changing bed material to sieved bottom bed ash from a PFBC boiler (PFBC-ash), lowered the alkali chloride content in deposits and therefore the risk of corrosion. Initial corrosion was found in the reference case at test probes of 304L exposed 4 hours at 600 deg C. Chromium depletion of the tube material showed that the protected chromium oxide had been damaged. By comparing the different measures in part two, it could be concluded that cocombustion of sewage sludge gave the best overall effect. The judgement was based on the effects concerning bed agglomeration, level of alkali chloride in the flue gas, deposits and initial corrosion. One disadvantage of sewage sludge is the large amount of ash which increases the ash load significantly. In the tests the ash flow increased four times more than for the reference case. Simultaneous addition of kaolin and ammonium sulphate also had a favourable impact both in the bed and on the alkali chlorides in the gas phase. Dosage of kaolin did not reduce the effect of injected ammonium sulphate. Addition of kaolin will increase the ash load. The sulphur dioxide content will increase in the flue gas with addition of ammonium sulphate. Maybe sulphur reduction would be needed in some cases. The NO{sub x}-content decreases when adding ammonium sulphate but the ammonia content could increase. Co-combustion of peat could also be a very attractive alternative, but it is critical to select a suitable peat type. It is of special concern to avoid peat with a high content of calcium, since it can increase the vel of alkali chlorides by reacting with available sulphur. In these tests resulted 50% peat addition in higher agglomeration temperature and lower corrosion risk on the superheater tubes. Change of bed material to ash from the PFBC-boiler (coal ash and dolomite) can decrease problems with bed agglomeration, but there is a risk of increased deposit formation and corrosion.

  12. Pre-treatment of waste fuel with low-speed shredding and screening for fluidized bed incineration; Foerbehandling av avfallsbraensle foer fluidbaeddpannor med laangsamtgaaende valskross och saekerhetssiktning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Sven; Victoren, Anders; Niklasson, Fredrik; Jones, Frida

    2013-09-01

    In FB combustion of waste, an important cost factor is the pre-treatment of the waste fuel. The most common method of final levigation of the waste fuel is using hammer mills, which crushes the fuel with high force and high rotational speed. The advantage of the powerful hammer mill is, however, also a disadvantage. The fraction of fines becomes large, and the method is experienced to cause high maintenance costs and problems with accidental fires. A plausible alternative to the hammer mill is the shredder. The rotational speed of the shreeder is lower, while it cutting and slicing the waste fuel instead of grinding it. The shredder is, therefore, expected to yield less wear and tear, lower electricity consumption and less accidental fires. On the other hand, the shreeder may yield a higher fraction of oversized fuel particles, which could cause problems in the combustion, especially in smaller FB-plants with one single fuel supply conveyor. In this project, the framing of question has been if low-speed shredding in combination with screening of over sizes fuel particles, may function for smaller FB plants with one single fuel supplying conveyor. The aim of the project has been to support FB plant owners and manufacturers for independent comparision of the different fuel pre-treatment methods, via pre-treatment and combustions trials and economical comparisons. The concept of lowspeed shreddning and screening has been compared economically with a traditional hammer mill system and a shredding system designed for a larger FB plant. Moreover, combustion trials have been carried out with shredded and screened fuel, and hammer milled fuel, in two smaller parallel FB furnaces with one single fuel supplying conveyor per furnace. The fuels were analysed for particle size distribution and composition, and the operation during the combustion trial was evaluated. The economical evaluation of the new pre-treatment concept, with lowspeed shredding and screening, yielded an approximate cost of 104-118 SEK/tonne (12-14 /tonne) treated waste, which is the same as for the larger FB plant shredder system. The cost for the hammer mill system was determined to 155-185 SEK/tonne (18-22 /tonne) treated waste. The higher cost for the hammer mill system rely on the estimated higher maintenance and electricity consumption costs. The analysis of the particle size distribution of the fuel treated with lowspeed shredding and screening shows that the fuel satisfy the demands stipu-lated for combustion in smaller FB furnaces. Furthermore, the combustion trials show no obvious differences in operation quality, compared to the normal hammer milled fuel; no significant differences in level or stability in power, bed temperature or emission levels could be found. Nor was the frequency of spikes of CO of NO{sub x} increased, nor the frequency of violation of the stipulated 24-hrs, halv-hour, or ten-minute stipulated emission limits increased. In summary, the study gives initial support for the thesis that shedding and screening is just as feasible for fuel pre-treatment in smaller FB furnaces with one single fuel supply conveyor as traditional hammer milling systems. Furthermore, it is cheaper. Lowspeed shreddning should, therefore, be concidered as pre-treatment method for both larger as well as smaller FB incineration plants. Beyond the parameters that have been investigated within the scope of this project, availability and safety are important factors that speek for lowspeed shedders. However, these are questions that have to be further investigated.

  13. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas, (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  14. The importance of ash for the favourable properties of sewage sludge in co-firing; Askans betydelse foer roetslams goda samfoerbraenningsegenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidsson, K.; Jones, F.; Niklasson, F.; Ryde, D. [SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Boraas (Sweden); Gustafsson, G. [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Herstad Svaerd, S. [WSP Kraft and Vaerme, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Sewage sludge has been shown to have positive properties during cofiring with difficult fuels. The sludge mitigates deposition and corrosion which occur because of the fuels content of chlorine and alkali. The reason for the positive properties of sludge are its content of sulphur, phosphorus and aluminium silicates. Its high content of ash has also been discussed because the fly ash would constitute a large surface for alkali chlorides to condensate on and thereby avoid condensation on e.g. superheater surfaces. The ash could also blast the surface and thereby keeping them clean. The present project aims at testing the hypothesis that the ash in the sludge mitigates the deposition. Tests have been performed with synthetically produced waste pellets of which some were doped with inert particles in form of aluminium oxide. The tests were done in a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed. Deposit probes collected deposits during the combustion of doped and un-doped waste pellets, and the deposits were chemically analysed. The result shows that the inert particles do not have any effect on the amount of hard attached deposits. The particles ended up on the lee side of the probe where they deposited because of gravitation, but they could be easily removed. The remaining deposit was analysed and the effect of inert particles was a small decrease of the content of chlorine. Tests were also performed with pellets doped with sludge. In this case the amount of deposit and its content of chlorine decreased significantly. Different sewage sludges have different properties. The present results show that sludge for cofiring should not be chosen for its amount of ash but rather for its content of sulphur, phosphorous and aluminium.

  15. Nuclear industry practice for clearance of materials, facilities and buildings as well as land. Tutorial; Kaerntekniska industrins praxis foer friklassning av material, lokaler och byggnader samt mark. Handledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-12-15

    This handbook comprises the common practices of the Swedish nuclear industry for the clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil in order to be exempted from the Swedish Nuclear Activities Act and the Swedish Radiation Protection Act. After clearance the management/usage of material, rooms, buildings and soil is permitted without any control from the radiation protection point of view. Clearance is practiced to reduce the amount radioactive waste. Cleared material can be reused according to its original form, recycled or, if these two possibilities are not available, disposed as conventional waste. The working procedures described in this handbook are mainly based on the regulation SSMFS 2011:2 from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority: 'Regulations concerning clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil from activities with ionising radiation'. The purpose of this handbook is to serve as a tool and guidance for generating specific routines and instructions for clearance. It describes the principles, processes and routines that should be followed under a clearance procedure. The intention is to accomplish the current regulation by following the routines and principles described in this manual. This handbook spans over a large number of conditions towards clearance, such as facility specific conditions and different types of objects. Because not all the conceivable conditions and objects can be included here, the purpose has been to cover the most common types of clearance practices. The practices comprise: - Description of regulations and recommendations, Swedish and international, that represent the basis of the requirements in this handbook. - Presentation of the processes for clearance of material, rooms, buildings and soil. Those which cannot be cleared are considered as radioactive waste. A proposal for the decision-making process is presented. - Illustration for radiological surveys to systems and components, buildings and soil in regard to the radioactive substances carried during the activities. - Description of measuring methods and related technical equipment that can be used in a clearance process. Issues on radiological background in measuring places, detection limits and confidence of measurements are addressed. - Presentation of proposals on routines for clearance, as well as grouping of material flows from a clearance point of view, and discussion on sorting criteria. - Principles for quality assurance and documentation. Detailed directives must be addressed in every company's leading system. - Review on the need of competence for the personnel performing measurements, evaluating results and approving cleared material. Competence profiles for the different roles involved in the clearance process

  16. Guidance for classification of residues from combustion and incineration in accordance with the Swedish ordinance for waste; Vaegledning foer klassificering av foerbraenningsrester enligt Avfallsfoerordningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Peter [AaF Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Haglund, Jan-Erik [Soederenergi AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    A new ordinance for waste came into force in Sweden on the first of January 2002, replacing some previous ordinances. The new ordinance is based on certain EU directives and contains amongst other things new rules regarding how certain streams of waste are to be classified into hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste. In a number of cases, the classification is to be made according to whether or not the waste possesses one or more of a number o properties H1 - H14, i e if the waste contains hazardous substances. The new rules are based on the regulation that exists for chemical substances and preparations. When attempts have been made to use these new rules in practice - e g for residues from incineration and combustion - it has become apparent that they are very difficult or even impossible to apply. The primary reason for this is that the residues contain a very large number (thousands) of substances which would have to be analysed and for which the hazard would have to be assessed correctly in accordance with the criteria for the properties (H4 - H8 and H10 - H11). Furthermore, some of the properties listed in the ordinance for waste lack criteria for assessment of hazard. These are H13 (can give rise to another substance which may be hazardous, e g leachate) and H14 (hazardous to the environment). Moreover, there are significant differences between the Ordinance of waste and the regulation of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. It is on the latter that the rules in the Ordinance of waste are based, and this is also the cause of many of the questions and of the uncertainties in the classification. In the present report, a method is developed and described for classification of residues from combustion and incineration. The method is to be applicable in practice without compromising environmental and health aspects. As a part of the present work, a compilation of content and alteration of chemical substances in is carried out. In another chapter, the experience from implementation of European Union directives in other countries is described. The proposed simplified method proposed in Chapter 7 implies the following: Reference substances are selected for different inorganic and organic chemical substances in the residues. These reference substances are utilised as a basis for the classification against the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. This leads to a very substantially reduced need for analyses. The reference substances have been chosen in a conservative way so that the hazard for health and environment will not be underestimated. The main principles of the regulation on chemical products are applied, e g regarding weighting of the properties. The property H13 is assessed based on the properties H4 - H8 and H10 - H11. The property H14 is assessed based on the rules for environmental hazard in the regulations of the National Chemicals Inspectorate. In practice the simplified methodology in a normal practical case amounts to an assessment with respect to 15 metallic elements and four groups of organic substances. The degree of hazardousness is then figured based on certain schedules together with levels provided in available chemical data bases. One prerequisite for the application of the simplified methodology is that the residues at some point are contacted with water. In the end of the report (Chapter 8), the procedure for classification according to the simplified method is described and an example is given of a classification on a specific residue from combustion.

  17. Better and more efficient collaboration for increased use of field fuel in heating plants; Baettre och effektivare samverkan foer oekad anvaendning av aakerbraenslen i vaermeverken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkeloev, Olof (Agrovaest, Skara (Sweden)); Hellstroem, Chris; Hollsten, Ronnie (KanEnergi Sweden AB, Skara (Sweden)); Lindh, Carina (LRF Konsult, Skara (Sweden))

    2010-05-15

    Despite that the potential for field fuels in SW Sweden is great and that the combustion characteristics of fuels are known, the interest for field fuels has been low from farmers and heating plants. The purpose of the project is to identify why the introduction of field fuel into heating plants is going so slow and to suggest possible solutions. Field fuel is missing the general structure and tradition that is found in forest fuels in terms of harvesting, processing, logistics and business models. The overall long-term objective is a better and more effective cooperation between heating plants, farmers and logistic companies for the increased use of field fuels in heating plants. The potential for field fuel in the area is great but won't be sufficient to cover the need. The raw materials that exist today and are deemed will be relevant in the future are willow, straw and grain kernel. We have divided the heating plants into two groups; Small plants with a furnace less than 35 MW, and large plants with an effect over 35 MW. Common to both small and large heating plants is that there must be a willingness to receive and combust field fuels for the share of field fuels to increase. For the small heating plants to be able to receive and combust field fuels the knowledge of the combustion properties of these fuels must increase. Larger heating plants have better opportunities to use field fuels in their boilers when it comes to the technology and the know how. They have a more controlled handling and receiving of fuels. It is not uncommon that storing and blending of fuels will take place at their own facility. They also have more experience of handling a larger number of suppliers at the same time. The heating plants would like to see standardization in terms of fuel characteristics, and they prefer to obtain approximately the same burning performance regardless of delivery date. Today, the small heating plants do not have the routines to manage multiple small fuel suppliers. To increase the amount of field fuels in the small heating plants the farmers need to collaborate in small supplier groups and deliver a pre-mixed fuel with consistent quality. For this to work the heating plants need to find an effective method of quality assurance at the reception of the fuel and the supplier group needs to develop an internal quality assurance and billing system. The larger heating plants, over 35 MW, large fuel requirement means that the fuel shipments should be coordinated to minimize storage time and disruption of traffic to and from the facility. With a functioning transport system, where several farmers join forces to increase the delivery volume, and ensure the quality, the ability to be a reliable fuel supplier is increased. For a local market of field fuels to arise it requires that the local heating plant initiate by demanding different types of field fuel. Increased use of field fuels is also stimulated by greater integration in the value chain in order to obtain a more optimal allocation of value creation and to meet the demands of volume, quality and security of supply, which is required. The studies and analysis show that the development would be facilitated if: - Farmers integrate horizontally to bring up the volumes and better supply security. This also creates better conditions for rational harvesting and handling of fuels (chipping, storage, drying, mixing, etc.) through for example small fuel terminals and the control and management of the quality of the fuel. - Farmers integrate vertically by operating and/or owning small heating plants (up to a couple of MW) specially adapted for field fuels. - Horizontal integration or interaction between heating plants can be used for fuel purchase and coordination, where field fuels can be mixed with other fuels on the basis of individual requirements and possibilities. - Heating plants are working together on fuel supply, quality, technology and business models. - Heating plants and farmers can work jointly with logistics and quality issues

  18. Possible consequences of climate change on the Swedish energy sector - impacts, vulnerability and adaptation; Taenkbara konsekvenser foer energisektorn av klimatfoeraendringar. Effekter, saarbarhet och anpassning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Axelsson, Johan; Eriksson, Sara; Holmgren, Kristina; Hovsenius, Gunnar; Kjellstroem, Erik; Larsson, Per; Lundstroem, Love; Persson, Gunn

    2007-06-15

    The events of recent years clearly demonstrate the far-reaching consequences of extreme weather situations on the energy system, particularly in the case of severe damage to transmission lines in connection with violent storms. Many climate researchers predict an increase in extreme weather events. Against this background, in 2005 Elforsk initiated this project where the aim has been to examine how climate change can affect plant operation, production conditions and energy usage patterns, how undesirable consequences can be predicted and what long-term measures may be necessary. Another central objective has been to bring about a dialogue between climate researchers, energy consultants/engineers and buyers for the energy industry. The inclusion of both positive and negative consequences has been an important ambition of the project. One key aspect of the project has been to develop climate scenarios for the next 20-25 years that describe possible changes in climate variables with relevance for the energy system. Based on these and literature studies, contact with experts and internal assessments, an analysis has been made of the possible impacts on hydropower, wind power, biofuel supply, natural gas supply, the power transmission network and energy usage. The project findings, which have also been discussed at a workshop with representatives from the energy industry, did not reveal any acute need for adaptation aside from those measures already being taken, for example to make the transmission system less vulnerable to weather conditions. Furthermore, the results indicate increased production potential for both hydropower and wind power. The production potential for hydropower stations from the Dalaelven River northwards would appear to increase by 2-10%. Estimates for the southern watercourses are less certain, but the production potential may decrease. Since around 80% of the country's hydropower is produced in the northern watercourses, this indicates an increase in Sweden's overall production potential. For wind power, the growth potential is 5-20% based on an installed capacity of 4000 MW. It is also a possible that the bioenergy potential will increase in view of the predicted 5-10% growth in production potential for forestry and agriculture. On the other hand, the extent to which this potential will be used for bioenergy production is uncertain since is it strongly dependent on the price of biomass and use of biomass for other purposes. Some of the climate-related problems that exist today may lessen in scope, while others may increase and new problems arise in a future climate. It is difficult to assess future wind conditions, since different climate scenarios produce somewhat different results. Among other things, an increase in heavy winds could have a negative impact on the electricity transmission network, wind power, biofuel supply and natural gas supply. However, the natural gas platforms that supply Sweden have proven highly robust and weather resistant. For the transmission network, a number of measures are being taken to increase its robustness to extreme events. Thunderstorms are another somewhat unpredictable climate variable. The analyses made in the project indicate a possible increase in problems related to lightning overvoltage in the transmission network. An additional area that is complex to assess is how problems with icing of transmission lines and wind power plants can change in a future climate. It is probable that these problems will increase in certain areas, but decrease in others. In certain parts of Sweden, evaporation may exceed precipitation and give rise to a water shortage. This applies particularly to the southeastern part of the country, which could affect the biofuel supply and hydropower generation in these areas. An opposite problem is that of future floods, which may increase especially during the winter season and in central and northern Sweden. Flooding has no direct connection to hydropower other than the ability for regulation to control water levels. However, hydropower is indirectly affected by flooding since public attention is often focused on the industry when high flows occur. A warmer climate will reduce the country's heating requirement by approximately 15 TWh. While electricity usage for heating is estimated to decrease by around 3 TWh as a result of a warmer climate, a probable rise in demand for air conditioning could lead to increased electricity usage during the summer. However, future energy usage for heating and air conditioning will be strongly dependent on factors other than the climate, such as the implementation of energy efficiency measures, changes in behaviour, the use of heat generating appliances, population growth, etc. The project has included a rough assessment of how both climate-related and non climate-related factors may affect energy usage for heating of homes and businesses (not industrial facilities) in a 20- to 25-year perspective. A lower energy requirement for heating would also reduce the production base for CHP. To maintain production it will be necessary to expand district heating to areas that are currently without, convert from other heating systems to district heating and/or utilise new business opportunities such as absorption cooling or energy combines with CHP utilising renewable fuels like biomass or pellets. Changes in production potential and energy usage patterns and the occurrence of climate-related problems will affect the entire energy system. Increased production potential for the northern hydropower stations, particularly in combination with a growing share of power types that are difficult to regulate, may increase the need for power transmission capacity from north to south. This is especially true if the north-to-south shift continues and in the event of rising demand for electricity in the rest of Europe.

  19. Analysis of consequences of different incentives and tax-models for the Swedish energy system; Konsekvensanalyser av olika framtida styrmedels- och skattemodeller foer det svenska energisystemet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    Six different incentives and tax scenarios were used to study the short range (2004) and long range (2010) effects on the Swedish energy system. The competitive effects for Biofuels, Natural gas, District heating and Electric space heating analyzed. Four of the six models come from governmental enquiries that have not yet been published, the other two are the actual situation year 2002 and year 2003. A defined set of suppositions of the fuel prices were used for all scenarios: Wood chips: 145 SEK/MWh, Biofuel pellets: 225 SEK/MWh, Natural gas: 160 SEK/MWh, Light/heavy fuel oil: 170/145 SEK/MWh, Electricity: 230 SEK/MWh (1 USD {approx} 8 SEK). In a sensitivity analysis, variations on the prices were analyzed, together with variations in the price of electricity certificates and CO2 emissions. For all scenarios, biofuels are dominating the district heating and cogeneration sectors. It is uncertain if, under the scenarios studied, any of the three branches prepared for expansion: Biofuels, Natural gas and District heating will have a dramatic growth. However, there seem to be room for a moderate growth of all three sectors.

  20. Simple, clear and informative price models for district heating to detached houses; Enkla, tydliga och informativa prismodeller foer fjaerrvaerme till smaahus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiren, Christer [Consevo AB, Vaesterlanda (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    This report deals with pricing and price models of district heating for single-family houses. The purpose of this study is to give proposals for price models which meet with customer demands for freedom of choice regarding charges for connection and heating consumption of single-family houses. Equally these price models should consider the needs of district heating companies for sound economy of this business in the long term. The scope of the project has covered both the customer and the company side of the market for district heating to single-family houses. Customers consider distant heating to be advantageous both with regard to costs and to comfort. Therefore it is important for companies to facilitate for customers to finance the installation of district heating and to offer alternatives of different heating consumption fees. A distinctive feature of district heating is that the companies have control of the total value chain from the installation of the boiler to the actual supply of the heating with options also to offer various service support. This means that district heating companies have the possibility to price either the district heating boiler and the district heating separately or in various forms of combinations. This is a distinct advantage that the report recommends companies to exploit to the maximum in order to benefit from the market potential. The report recommends five different price models, which should give the companies sound finances and the customers an optimal freedom of choice regarding the balance between the connection fees and the heating consumption fees.

  1. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R; Holmbom, B [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  2. Analysis of algorithms for detection of resonance frequencies in vibration measurements on super heater tubes; Analys av algoritmer foer detektering av resonansfrekvenser i vibrationsmaetningar paa oeverhettartuber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Combustion of fuel in thermal power plants emits particles which creates coatings on the super heater tubes. The coatings isolate the tubes and impairs the efficiency of the heat transfer. Cleaning the tubes occurs while the power plant is running but without any knowledge of the actual coating. A change in frequency corresponds to a change in mass of the coatings. This thesis has been focusing in estimating resonance frequencies in vibration measurements made by strain gauges on the tubes. To improve the estimations a target tracking algorithm had been added. The results indicates that it is possible to estimate the resonance frequencies but the algorithms need to be verified on more signals.

  3. Flow Cytometry for rapid characterization of colloidal particles of various types in process waters; Floedescytometri foer snabb karaktaerisering av kolloidala partiklar av olika typ i bakvatten - MPKT 05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerth, R.; Holmbom, B. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Since more than ten years Flow Cytometry (FCM) has been used for characterization of blood cells and bacteria and has become indispensable for medical and biological use. FCM is able to count thousands of particles per second and simultaneously determine their the type and size ending up in a statistically significant report within less than a minute. The principle of FCM is based on a light excitation of a `lined up` particle stream and a multi-channel determination of scatter and fluorescence. This rapid technology has so far not been used in a greater extent within process industry, except for counting bacteria in milk and beer. BASF of Germany has developed and patented a single-channel fluorescence counter for determination of resin droplets in the process waters of paper making. The FCM, however, is a far more effective and reliable method, being able not only to detect resin droplets but also bacteria, live or dead, as well as other occurring particles. We know we are able to determine bacteria, we have seen resin and we aim to show that FCM is able to give a comprehensive view of the colloidal contents of process waters in paper mills by exploring means to selectively stain the different types of particles. (orig.) 3 refs. CACTUS Research Programme

  4. Biodiversity on mire ecosystems and drained peatlands - a basis for environmental peat harvesting; Biologisk maangfald paa myrar och dikad torvmark - underlag foer ett miljoemaessigt torvbruk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stedingk, Henrik von (Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The interest of peat harvesting has increased, due to the political ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to increase the use of local energy sources. Peatlands drained for forestry, a common resource in Sweden, can be a good energy source in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, under certain conditions. The question is what consequences increased peat harvesting would have on biodiversity in the forest landscape. To answer this question this literature study was performed to summarize what is known about the life of a natural and drained mire, and to discuss what conservation values could be found on a drained peatland. The definition of mire is a wetland with active peat accumulation, even if mires also are distinguished based on specific plant communities. A mire often contains several mire types. Some mire taxa are specialized for living on mires, other organisms have other main habitats but utilize the mire for fulfilling their life cycle. The level of knowledge varies for different organisms. The best known groups are vascular plants and bryophytes. They are also used for classifying mires since their abundance is related to gradients of pH, fertility and water level. Arthropods is a diverse group on mires favored by open moist forests and water pools. Poor mires with restricted flora may be good insect habitats. Birds are found in habitats rich in insects. Large mires are richer in wader species thanks to higher heterogeneity and a variety of insect habitats. The microscopic life in peat is rich and the species composition differs from the forest soil, even if the level of knowledge is limited. Drainage leads to species turn over for many groups of organisms and drainage often leads to a decrease in diversity. However, drained peatlands is a collective concept including different peatland types in different succession phases and different intensity of drainage. Therefore in general, drained peatlands cannot be treated as less important for biodiversity than not drained peatlands. The plant succession following drainage leads to denser vegetation and dominance of forest plants. Often drainage is followed by forestry, leading to even lower nature conservation values. Conservation values on drained peatlands are rarely studied. Potential environments for nature conservation in drained peatlands are: 1) Areas with little drainage influence and preserved mire function. 2) Late forest successions after drainage with deciduous trees and dead wood. 3) Open pine forest or swamp forest that act as refugia for old growth lichens and wood fungi. 4) Pools and stream like older ditches with running water. An inventory focused on conservation values on drained peatlands is recommended. Peat harvesting causes ecosystem shift and species living on the mire disappear. An estimation of biodiversity effects from peat harvesting must include the lost mire, time of exploitation, as well as the after-treatment. A longer time perspective is therefore required when evaluating consequences of peat harvesting. The development of a broader spectra of after-treatment involving biodiversity is essential, as well as a system that guarantees a long term perspective in after-treatment for biodiversity. Methods for evaluating effects on the landscape level from increased peat harvesting are required. Increased peat harvesting on drained peatlands could be in convergence with the Swedish environmental goals, if choice of site and after-treatment is based on landscape analysis focusing on biodiversity

  5. Variations in the wood raw material for pellets manufacture and its influence on the quality of wood pellets; Variationer inom traeraavaran foer pelletstillverkning och deras paaverkan paa pelletskvaliteten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida; Vinterbaeck, Johan; Engberg, Jessica [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Bioenergy; Oehman, Marcus [ETC Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2002-05-01

    The aim of this project was to study the variations in properties of raw material and its effect on pellets quality. The project included three parts which together would help describe the relationship between material properties, process parameters and fuel quality. The first part dealt with a small-scale production of pellets using a well defined raw material. The objectives of this part were to study the effect of tree species, stem diameter and storage of raw material on pellets quality. In the second part of the project data concerning characteristics of raw material and product quality were collected from two pellet factories: SAABI AB, where spruce is the major raw material, and Bioenergi i Luleaa AB, which uses mainly sawdust from pine. The objectives of this part of the project were to analyse and evaluate the relationship between raw material properties/process parameters and fuel quality using multivariate data analysis. Part three of this project involved a questionnaire survey in which pellets producers were asked at four occasions during one year of production, to give information about variations in raw material properties during various seasons, characteristics of the material during pressing and to supply data related to process parameters. Data concerning variations in pellet quality during the whole year were also requested. The sawdust used in the first part of the project was originated from small diameter trees (14 cm in average) and large diameter stems (30-36 cm) of Scots pine and Norway spruce. One third of the material was dried at room temperature to a moisture content (MC) around 12 % (fresh weight basis), then frozen until needed. The rest of the material was stored in 32 plastic net bags in a large outdoor pile during the period end of May-January. The average dry matter loss in all assortments after eight months of storage was about 0.5 % per month. An attempt to produce pellets from the fresh and stored material from the various assortments was undertaken using a small Metador press machine. To study the effect of variations in the raw material on pellets quality, the setting of the press equipment was kept unchanged during the pressing of all assortments. Many technical difficulties were encountered during the small-scale manufacturing of the pellets. We only succeeded in pelletizing sawdust from fresh and four-months stored pine but not from 8-months stored pine or spruce assortments. The ash content in sawdust taken from different material was low and varied between 0.2 and 0.35 % of dry weight. The content of ash in the small-scaled produced pellets was close to that of the raw material. The initial average calorific heating values of pine, both thin and large diameter trees, were higher than that of spruce. The concentration of extractives, both those extracted with acetone or with alcohol, were generally higher in pine compared to spruce samples. A marked increase in the concentration of alcohol-soluble extractives was measured during the storing of sawdust from both pine and spruce. The pellets made from this material showed a similar pattern. This increase possibly reflects changes in some chemical components that were affected by the high temperature developed during storage. Attempts to relate the changes occurred in the raw material to the quality of the produced pellets were not totally successful partly due to the large variations within the raw material itself and partly because of the failure to palletise certain assortments. However, general conclusion are still possible to draw. The compact density of individual pellets varied very little between various samples produced by the small-scale pelletizing method. Similar results were obtained in pellets manufactured at the industrial factories. The durability of pellets produced using the small-scale method was generally higher when the raw material was stored before pelletizing. This observation is in agreement with the general opinion of many industrial manufacturers. No clear correlation between the extractives content and pellets durability was observed. Bulk density measurements, reported by the two pellets factories, varied very little between various seasons with possibly a slight increase during the winter. From the results obtained through the first two parts of the project, it was clear that both variables, i.e. raw material properties and process parameters have a considerable effect on pellets quality. Due to various reasons, the results obtained through the survey analyses in the third part of this project, were not sufficient to draw any reliable conclusions concerning the effect of seasonal variations on pellets quality.

  6. Biomass functions for tree fractions from pine, spruce, and birch in Sweden; Biomassafunktioner foer traedfraktioner av tall, gran och bjoerk i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Hans

    1999-07-01

    This report describes new functions for estimation of the biomass of a tree, separated in a number of fractions. The functions will be used to estimate the potential supply of wood fuel from the forests, and to make calculations of bound carbon and indirect nitrogen balance in the forest.

  7. Policies, strategies and systems for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel; Principer, strategier och system foer slutligt omhaendertagande av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    In this report an up-to-date account is made of the status of different principles, strategies and systems for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. As large scale use of nuclear power for the production of electricity began in the 1960s and 1970s, studies of various principles and strategies for the management of the spent nuclear fuel were initialised. In particular in the USA, comprehensive studies were conducted of all strategies described in this report

  8. Characterization of solid heterogeneous waste fuel - the effect of sampling and preparation method; Karaktaerisering av fasta inhomogena avfallsbraenslen - inverkan av metoder foer provtagning och provberedning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstroem-Blomqvist, Evalena; Franke, Jolanta; Johansson, Ingvar

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the project is to evaluate the possibilities to simplify the methods used during sampling and laboratory preparation of heterogeneous waste materials. Existing methods for solid fuel material is summarized and evaluated in the project. As a result of the project two new simplified methods, one for field sampling and one for laboratory preparation work has been suggested. One large challenge regarding waste sampling is to achieve a representative sample due to the considerable heterogeneity of the material. How do you perform a sampling campaign that will give rise to representative results without too large costs? The single largest important source of error is the sampling procedure, equivalent to about 80% of the total error. Meanwhile the sample reduction and laboratory work only represents 15 % and 5 % respectively. Thus, to minimize the total error it is very important that the sampling is well planned in a testing program. In the end a very small analytical sample (1 gram) should reflected a large heterogeneous sample population of 1000 of tons. In this project two sampling campaigns, the fall of 2006 and early winter 2007, were conducted at the waste power plant Renova in Gothenburg, Sweden. The first campaign consisted of three different sample sizes with different number of sub-samples. One reference sample (50 tons and 48 sub-samples), two samples consisting of 16 tons and 8 sub-samples and finally two 4 tons consisting of 2 sub-samples each. During the second sampling campaign, four additional 4 ton samples were taken to repeat and thus evaluate the simplified sampling method. This project concludes that the simplified sampling methods only consisting of two sub-samples and a total sample volume of 4 tons give rise to results with as good quality and precision is the more complicated methods tested. Moreover the results from the two sampling campaigns generated equivalent results. The preparation methods used in the laboratory can as well be simplified, especially by effective sample and particle size reduction through gradually grinding processes. Consequently, the plant owner can reduced their cost for each sampling campaign by using the simplified methods described in this project. A finding that either can be used to lower the cost for waste sampling or to increase the number of samples and sampling frequency which will increase the plant owners knowledge about the waste composition, properties and qualities. Increased quality and an even quality of the waste mixture has an large impact on the life cycle cost of the plant since it's affect the accessibility as well as the cost of maintenance.

  9. Investigation of quality assurance routines of DAP-meters in Swedish hospitals; Kartlaeggning av kvalitetssaekringsrutiner foer DAP-maetare i svensk sjukvaard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Leitz, Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has investigated quality control of dose area product meters (DAP meters) used in x-ray diagnostics. A questionnaire was sent out to medical physics experts who are working with diagnostic radiology in Swedish hospitals. This report presents information about the routines practised and gives examples of measures to improve the quality of these practices.

  10. Load Prediction in District Heating Systems with Regard to Scenarios and Uncertainties in Weather; Lastprognoser foer fjaerrvaerme med haensyn till scenarier och osaekerheter i vaedret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Martin; Koppers, Gijs [Meteopolaris AB, Nacka (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    The report shows, by means of load calculations on ensemble weather forecasts and subsequent production planning, that by a better optimization of the operation of district heating plants the costs of production of heat and electricity can be reduced. During a fifth of the time the saving potential is 5% or more.

  11. Water Activities in Forsmark (Part I). Removal of groundwater from final repository for spent fuel; Vattenverksamhet i Forsmark (del I). Bortledande av grundvatten fraan slutfoervarsanlaeggningen foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Kent [EmpTec (Sweden); Hamren, Ulrika; Collinder, Per [Ekologigruppen AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The construction, operation and decommissioning of the repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark are associated with a number of measures that constitute water operations according to Chapter 11 in the Environmental Code. This report is an appendix to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and describes water operations in the form of groundwater diversion from the repository (the report is also included in the permit application according to the Nuclear Activities Act). The main objective of the report is to describe hydrogeological and hydrological effects and the consequences that may arise in the surroundings of the repository due to the groundwater diversion. Moreover, the report presents prevention measures to reduce the effects of the groundwater diversion and mitigation measures that aim at its consequences

  12. Retrofitting oil fired boilers for pellets based pulverised wood firing at peak load; Konvertering av befintliga oljepannor till pulvereldning foer spetslast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmgren, A.; Tao, L.; Wennstroem, M. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    The types of equipment for grinding of pellets used by commercial heat producers today are discussed. Powder from a representative number of plants has been collected and classified using a traditional vibrating sieve and an aerodynamic method 'Aeroklass'. The results show clearly that the difference in 'fluffyness' between a powder produced from pellets, briquettes or directly from wood can be identified by the aerodynamic method. The shapes of different particles are shown in microscope pictures. The requirements of burners and combustion chambers for good burnout of fuel particles are discussed theoretically. Burnout time for wood particles of different size at different temperatures are calculated and the result is presented in diagrams. It is difficult to calculate the residence time for fuel particles in a flame in a generally useful way with any precision. Some diagrams that can be used to approximate the residence time of an aerodynamically small particle, in different parts of a flame, as a function of fuel load and burner diameter are presented. The results of CFD-simulations (with Fluent) of the trajectories of different sized fuel particles in a 20 and a 10 MW flame are shown in 20 pictures. Colour coding is used to show the particle temperature, residence time and combustion stage along the trajectories. The final discussion is based on the analysis of 3 real installations of burners in the size 9 - 20 MW.

  13. Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content; Metodutveckling foer indirekt bestaemning av PAH-halt utgaaende fraan maett momentan CO-halt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingman, Rolf; Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the project 'Development of methods for determination of PAH based on measured CO-content' is to investigate the possibility to develop a method for continuous optimisation of NO{sub x}-emissions by decreased air ratio, without significant increase of polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as PAH. The general idea has been to find a indirect online method to predict the emissions of heavier hydrocarbons by: - creating a correlation between the content of CO and PAH, - controlling the air ratio by the CO-content, and - integrating the calculated PAH-content from CO-content. Today many boilers are operated with a low air ratio to minimise the NO{sub x} content and the NO{sub x}-fee. A low ratio increases the risk of high CO contents in the flue gas as well as increased contents of VOC and PAH. Other boilers are operated with high air ratios in order to minimise the CO content, which in some cases will result in unnecessary high NO{sub x} emissions. One of the main difficulties in optimising the air ratio to the most environmental friendly level is the lack of a suitable and well proven PAH instrument. There are today no available instruments for instantaneous and continuous measurement of PAH. PAH is normally measured as an average value during a period of at least one hour. It is not possible to detect short peaks. The development of the CO-method has been based on data from a CFB-boiler in Korsta in Sundsvall (Vaermeforskrapport 541). The data shows a clear correlation between THC and CO. The correlation seems to be mostly dependent of moisture content and load. The development presented in the report shows that it is possible to find a method to predict the PAH content from the CO-content in the flue gas. The next phase aims to improve and implement the method, by measurements and adaptation in a plant. The practical use of the method is as a tool to optimise the emission of CO, NO{sub x}, THC and PAH and/or to predict the PAH-emission during continuous operation.

  14. Tools for system validation. Dynamic modelling of the direct condenser at Sandvik II in Vaexjoe; Hjaelpmedel foer systemvalidering. Dynamisk modellering av direktkondensorn paa Sandvik II i Vaexjoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaberg, Martin [Dynasim AB, Lund (Sweden); Tuszynski, Jan [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The project reported here aimed to test the suitability of existing computer tools for modelling of energy processes. The suggested use for the models are at the early tests and validations of new, refurbished or modernised thermal plants. The technique presented in this report should be applicable for clarification of the scope of delivery and testing for both the process and tile control system. The validation process can thus be simplified, allowing risk reduction and predictability of the commissioning. The main delays and economical misfortune often occurs during commissioning. This report should prove the feasibility of the purchase routines where purchaser, vendor and quality inspection will use a common model of the process to validate system requirements and specifications. Later on it is used to validate structure and predefine testing. Thanks to agreement on the common model, early tests can be conducted on complex systems, minimizing the investment risks. The modelling reported here concerns the direct condenser at Sandvik 11, power and heating plant owned by Vaexjoe Energi AB in Sweden. We have chosen the direct condenser because it is an existing, well-documented and well-defined subsystem of high complexity in both structure and operation. Heavy transients made commissioning and test runs of similar condensers throughout Sweden costly and troublesome. The work resulted in an open, general, and physically correct model. The model can easily be re-dimensioned through physical parameters of common use. The control system modelled corresponds to the actual control system at the Sandvik II plant. Any improvement or deep validation of the controllers was not included in this work. The suitability is shown through four simulation cases. Three cases are based on a registered plant operation during a turbine trip. The first test case uses present plant data, the second an old steam valve actuator and the third uses the old actuator and an error in level measurement. The last test case is a ramped load change from stationary operation to a new higher operation point and then back to the original starting point. The size of the object simulated indicates that modelling is applicable to medium and small plants sizes. That was possible only through availability of the basic simulation tools, here Dymola / Modelica, and the well established model library ENERGY. All adapted to the common PCs of today.

  15. Pre-study - mobile briquetting plant for reed canary grass in inland Northern Sweden; Foerstudie - mobil briketteringsanlaeggning foer roerflen i norrlands inland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne; Lundmark, Bo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to summarize existing information and to develop an outline plan for a mobile briquette plant based on the conditions and requirements of reed canary grass production on forestry land. The results of the study show that there is potential to build up small-scale briquette production from reed canary grass in the areas around Arvidsjaur, Lycksele and Malaa. Important conclusions from the study are that there are potential users for reed canary grass briquettes in all three areas studied, but that profitability for mobile briquette plants is dependent on the willingness of the users to pay well for the briquettes. These briquette plants would need a relatively high degree of automation for commercial operation to be profitable. The first plant should therefore be collocated with another business so that staff, machinery (e.g. loader) and storage space can be shared with other operations. One appropriate location would be to build up activities for a mobile reed canary grass briquette plant around Glommers Miljoeenergi's pellet plant in Glommerstraesk. Thus, the plant could be used as a demonstration mobile unit, with a stationary 'home production base'CO{sub 2} Glommerstraesk

  16. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area; Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Preliminaer anlaeggningsbeskrivning - layout D. Oskarshamn, delomraade Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization.

  17. Evaluation and development of methods for determining methane emissions from biogas plants - Literature Study; Vaerdering och utveckling av maetmetoder foer bestaemning av metanemissioner fraan biogasanlaeggningar - Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Willen, Agnes; Rodhe, Lena (JTI, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-11-15

    Previous work in areas such as framework of voluntary commitment shows that there is a need for techniques for measurement of methane and other greenhouse gases from various sources in the handling of organic residuals. There are no established methods for determining for instance emissions of methane from open or partially open tanks and cisterns, typically residue storage and the like. This report gives results from Phase 1 of this project, in which literary studies, market research studies, interviews and site visits have been made to identify a number of methods applied for the determination of emissions from open areas, such as liquid surfaces, but also land. Focus is on methods that can be applied to plants for biological treatment, which also includes the water treatment process at the treatment plants, but also the procedures used in measurements on land, landfills and processing plants are studied. First, the report gives a brief overview of a large number of measurement methods, where more detailed descriptions of four methods are given. The four methods are considered to be the most promising to pursue in the following phases of the project: - chamber technology; - sampling hood; - plume measurement with DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar); - air input in a covered storage.

  18. High-temperature pretreatment of biogas substrate by using district heating to increase the biogas production; Hoegtemperaturfoerbehandling av biogassubstrat med fjaerrvaerme foer oekad biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Ascue, Johnny [JTI, Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, Marcus; Henriksson, Gunilla; Nordman, Roger [SP, Boraas (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    In this study, we have shown that pre-heating sludge from a waste water treatment plant can give a higher biogas production rate. However, pretreatment showed no effect on substrate from a biogas plant at the conditions tested in this study. The study has also shown that there is potential of using district heating in the biogas industry for thermal pretreatment of sludge.

  19. Quality criteria for bottom ashes for civil construction. Part II Technical characteristics of bottom ashes; Kvalitetskriterier foer bottenaskor till vaegoch anlaeggningsbyggnad. Etapp II Bottenaskors tekniska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Bo von; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Ekvall, Annika; Arvidsson, Haakan [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    This report is the presentation of the second of two stages. This stage deals mainly with the testing of three different types of ashes and the evaluation and suitability of the chosen test methods. The project only relates to the technical aspects of ashes. The report is written in such a way that both ash owners (e.g. Energy companies) and those who build roads and constructions will find it meaningful. All test methods that are used for traditional materials (gravel and crushed rock) is not fitting for ashes. New test methods for some properties that will be tested must therefore be presented, tested practically and evaluated. The project encompasses both road and construction building but has a focus on road construction since there the highest and comprising demands are defined. Three bottom ashes of different types have been studied regarding some tenfold mechanical/physical parameters, essential for the functionality of the ash as a construction material. An important conclusion is that ash is from a functionality and characterisation point of view, an undefined concept that encloses materials with widely different properties. Despite that only three ashes have been looked into the range of results are varying large for some properties. This is especially true for the loose bulk density, water absorption and grain size distribution. It is also clear that some of the standard test methods for aggregates need to be exchanged by other methods, which are more adapted to alternative materials. One such example is water absorption, a property that further influences frost resistance, frost heave and such. All the proposed test methods that been used in the project is considered fitting for its purpose. The test methods can be divided into two categories the ones that yield easy assessable results and those that yield results hard to appraise. To the first group belong grain size distribution, loose bulk density, thermal conductivity, permeability and frost heave. To the other group belong organic content, water absorption, frost susceptibility, water suction height, cyclic load triaxial test, modified compressibility and compactability. The difficulty in interpreting the results do not depend on the methods themselves, i.e. that the method would be particularly complex, but rather due to limited data, in particular data that compares field and laboratory testing, so that one can say what a particular test result has in practise. The report forwards a suggestion for a control procedure for bottom ashes in two different cases; a less comprising suggestion for common characterisation and also an extensive suggestion for testing when the ash is to be used as a material for roador construction building. An essential conclusion is that the ashes large variation makes it difficult to generalize results based on testing single ashes. A thoroughly characterisation of ashes, e.g. according to the proposition of this report, would enable a single laboratory or field trial to be incorporated into a wider context and help create general conclusions.

  20. After Chernobyl. Consequences for energy policy, nuclear safety, radiation protection and environment protection. Efter Tjernobyl. Konsekvenser foer energipolitik, kaernsaekerhet, straalskydd och miljoeskydd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The basic problems of the safety of nuclear power have been elucidated. The cause of the Chernobyl accident and its effects are discussed. The impact of this accident on the evaluation of Swedish nuclear safety is dealt with, and recommendations concerning increased safety when nuclear power accidents take place in other countries are presented. The environmental and economic consequences of early decommissioning of the Barsebaeck power plant are discussed as well as the general aspects of nuclear power phaseout in Sweden.

  1. Species-specific guidelines for choosing forest regeneration material for northern Sweden; Beslutsunderlag foer val av skogsodlingsmaterial i norra Sverige med traedslagsvisa guider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosvall, O.; Andersson, Bengt; Ericsson, Tore

    1998-05-01

    To facilitate the selection of suitable seed-orchard and natural-stand regeneration material for sites in northern Sweden, a conceptual model was developed which includes a specification of the sites and genetic material, seed source transfer effects on various tree characters, and delineation of suitable utilization-areas for specific regeneration materials and management objectives. The most important site characteristics are photoperiod, temperature sum and local-climate pattern, specified by latitude, elevation and topography. The regeneration material is characterised by its specific properties, such as breeding value, and potential reaction to changes in the photoperiod (standardised latitudinal origin). A specification of transfer effects was made by the changes in the characteristics of a population when moved along photoperiod (latitudinal) or temperature (elevation) gradients. Optimum latitudinal seed-source transfer distances can be calculated for each temperature climate and management objective based on the economic value of the population characteristics and the species-specific transfer effects. On the basis of what were assessed to be common requirements, we drew up a baseline option whereby suitable utilization areas for seed-orchard and natural-stand progenies were delineated. An analysis was made of the consequences of the baseline option and the background information was reviewed and summarised for Pinus sylvestris, Pinus contorta, Picea abies and Betula pendula 95 refs, 24 figs, 16 tabs

  2. System analyse cellulose ethanol in combines - Combustion characterisation of lignin from cellulose based ethanol production; Systemanalys foer cellulosabaserad etanol i kombinat - Foerbraenningskarakterisering av lignin fraan cellulosabaserad etanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstedt, Jan; Wingren, Anders; Magnusson, Staffan; Wiinikka, Henrik; Westbom, Urban; Lidman, Marcus; Groenberg, Carola

    2012-02-15

    In this work 3 different hydrolysed lignin fractions produced from Sugarcane Bagasse, Spruce and Wheat Straw were burned in a 150 kW horizontal furnace equipped with a powder burner to assess the combustion behaviour of hydrolysed lignin fuels. The combustion experiments showed that the feeding properties of all three lignin fractions were better compared to ordinary wood powder

  3. SKB's program for societal research 2004-2011. An evaluation; SKB:s program foer samhaellsforskning 2004-2011. En utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, Olof [Energi- och miljoestrategi O. Soederberg, Solna (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    This evaluation of the program of societal research that SKB conducted the years 2004-2011 has been performed on behalf of Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The review has focused on answers to a series of questions as follows: General questions - Why was a program started? - What was SKB's purpose with the program? - Does the result mean that the objective has been achieved? - Has the program had effects (positive or negative) that were not anticipated when the purpose was formulated? - Strengths and weaknesses of the program? Questions about the implementation - How did announcement and selection procedures work? - Which forms were used for reporting results from the research projects? Questions about the continued investment in societal research - Are there such needs? - In that case, is it in SKB's interest to contribute financially to such research? - What forms might be appropriate if SKB sees interest to contribute financially to such research?.

  4. Considerations underlying SSIs review of SKBs complement to the Research Program for 1992; Underlagsmaterial till SSIs granskning av SKBs komplettering av forskningsprogrammet foer 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M; Nolin, J; Sundqvist, G

    1995-04-01

    Two documents are presented: (i) SSI`s background review PM for SKB`s complement to the research program for 1992. (ii) An interdisciplinary study of the steering principles in the Swedish waste management. This work is an independent contribution to the debate about waste management in Sweden.

  5. Effects of Non Process Elements in the chemical recovery system of paper mills; Effekter av PFG foer integrerade pappersbruk vid indunstning och foerbraenning av bioslam i sodapannan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlbom, Johan [AaF Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadsborn, Rickard [STFI-Packforsk AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Effluent treatment of pulp and paper mills generates a biological sludge that according to Swedish implementation of EU-directives from 2005 has to be taken care of by incineration or by production of soil for agriculture or ground cover. An alternative way to take care of the sludge is incineration in the recovery boiler. This method is used in two Finish and two Swedish pulp mills with good results. The purpose of this project is to investigate the consequences for integrated pulp and paper mills when the biological sludge is incinerated in the recovery boiler. The biological sludge contents Non Process Elements, NPE, which increase the risks of incrustations in the system and increase the need of make up lime. This study comprises the following NPE: aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chloride, potassium, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper, barium and calcium. The simulation program WinGEMS 5.0 (Pacific Simulation) was used in the study to predict the levels of NPE in the recovery system of the Kraft mills. Three different pulp and paper mills were selected for the study, Billerud Skaerblacka, ASSI Domaen Froevi and SCA Obbola. The mills are different concerning raw materials, process, degree of own produced pulp and paper products. All three the mills have effluent treatment and use the method of activated sludge that generates a surplus of biological sludge. The results of the study proved that for Skaerblacka mill the method is applicable. For Obbola the prerequisites are somewhat more complicated, the effluent treatment generates considerably higher amount of sludge per ton pulp produced due to the treatment technique and use of waste paper (40 %) for the paper machine. The high input of aluminum with the sludge will give troublesome incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate on the heat surfaces in the evaporation plant. To eliminate the aluminum from the system magnesium can be added to the black liquor which will precipitate as the double salt hydrotalcite in the green liquor and be rejected by the green liquor dregs. For Froevi mill the situation is somewhat more favorable compared to Obbola but a smaller amount of magnesium has still to be added to avoid incrustations of sodium-aluminum-silicate in the evaporation plant. The need of make-up lime will increase due to the content of phosphorus in the biological sludge which otherwise will be build up in the lime. The increased need of make up lime was estimated to 2 kg/ADt for Skaerblacka and Froevi while Obbola will need about 2-3 kg/ADt. Experience from mills that employ incineration of biological sludge in the recovery boiler shows that NO{sub x} in the flue gas has not increased. For Skaerblacka and Froevi the increase of nitrogen by the biological sludge will be moderate and will probably not give any increased formation of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. For Obbola the amount of nitrogen by the sludge will be higher which increases the risks of having higher levels of NO{sub x} in the flue gas. The other NPEs as chlorides, potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, cupper, barium and calcium will not give any problems for the recovery system. The study proves that it is possible for an integrated pulp and paper mill to evaporate and incinerate the biological sludge in the recovery boiler. Disadvantages as increased need of make up lime and also the necessity of adding magnesium when using this method should be compared with benefits and drawbacks with other methods that are available. Costs of the methods must be calculated based on the actual pulp and paper mill.

  6. Evaluation of pine bark for treatment of water from biomass fueled plants; Utvaerdering av bark foer rening av vatten vid biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Christina; Hansson, Helen; Hansson, Soeren [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, large amounts of pine bark are produced as a by-product from the pulp and forest industry. This makes pine bark available in large volumes to a relative low price. Pine bark has shown good absorption effect for organics pollutants, such as oil, in water and pine bark is used commercially as an oil absorbent. In a study the pine bark has also shown to have good absorption effects on heavy metals in water, in laboratory conditions. This indicates that pine bark also could be used as a natural absorbent for heavy metals in flue gas condensate and for leachate from biomass fuel storage. For the latter purpose the bark could be used as a combined heavy metal and oil absorber. In this project the pine barks ability to absorb heavy metals from flue gas condensate has been studied. The tests were performed using an untreated flue gas condensate, which was purified by using a basket filter with commercially available pine bark (trademark EcoBark) as absorbent. The bark filter has the same function as a tube reactor, which would imply that the absorption of heavy metals should be better than the laboratory tests. However, the results from the flue gas condensate tests showed much lower absorption of heavy metals than the laboratory tests. The only significant absorption levels were found for iron and mercury, which showed a reduction ratio of about 25 %. Other metals, such as lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, vanadium and zinc had a reduction ratio of about 10 %, which is quite low compared to the 98 % reduction for lead and about 80 % for copper and zinc that was achieved in the former laboratory tests. The most probable reason that the pine bark had a very low absorbent effect in the flue gas condensate is that the concentration of potassium and calcium restrains the ion exchange capacity of the pine bark. It is also likely that iron mainly is absorbed by the bark, while other metals only are separated as particles. Another possible reason for the rather poor absorption results in the flue gas condensate tests could be that iron affects the absorption of other metals. The water temperature could also have some influence on the results while the laboratory tests were performed at a considerably lower water temperature, 22 C. The flue gas condensate tests also included measurements of COD upstream and downstream the bark filter. The analyses shows that the COD concentration in the condensate upstream the filter is very low, 20-25 mg/litre, while the COD concentration downstream the filter is considerably higher, in the range 40 - 220 mg/litre. The COD before the filter probably originates from the small amount of char particles in the flue gas condensate and the increase of COD after the bark filter comes from humus that has been dissolved from the bark. The heavy metal absorption that has been analysed in the test with flue gas condensate should be comparable with heavy metal absorption from leachate from bio fuel storage, even if the water temperature in the latter case is lower.

  7. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  8. The future market for biogas from waste - Sub-Project 3; Framtida marknaden foer biogas fraan avfall - Delprojekt 3 inom projektet Perspektiv paa framtida avfallsbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstroem, David; Bisaillon, Mattias; Eriksson, Ola; Hellstroem, Hanna; Nilsson, Karolina

    2013-09-01

    The overall aim of the project was to study the conditions, opportunities and constraints for the development of the market for biogas from waste in Sweden. Seven areas of importance to the development have been identified in previous projects. The areas are: market and competition, supply and demand for waste, environmental benefits of biogas utilization, technology development, economic value of biogas, political instruments and the handling of digestate. The ambition has been to create a fact and market report for these areas for stake holders such as operators, representatives of authorities and decision makers. The project is a sub-project of 'Perspectives on future waste treatment'. The goal achievement of the project is expected to be good. During the project, there has also been considerable interest in the results, which is already used by a number of operators, both within and outside the project. Thereby, the results have a good spread, even before the project is completed.

  9. Heating in churches. Heat and moisture transfer simulations for design and climate control; Uppvaermning i kyrkor. Fukt- och vaermetekniska beraekningar foer dimensionering och klimatstyrning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostroem, T. [KTH College of Engineering, Visby (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    This thesis aims to describe heat and moisture transfer in churches, i.e. how the outdoor climate and the building fabric influence the indoor climate. The goal is to provide methods for calculating the heat and moisture transfer that can be used to simulate and control the indoor climate. The methods suggested are developed from the basic relations for heat and mass transfer and then verified in relation to measurements made in five medieval churches. When a church is heated intermittently with a constant heat input, the temperature increases proportionally to the square root of time. In the present work it is shown how this relation can be used to: Determine the total thermal inertia of the building; Calculate heating-up load and the heating times. The design outdoor temperature (DOT) depends on the thermal inertia of the building. It is shown that the method commonly used in Sweden to determine DOT can also be used for buildings with extremely high thermal inertia, such as stone churches. Furthermore, it is shown how internal walls and the insulation of external walls may affect the thermal inertia of the building. Churches built in stone have a great capacity for moisture exchange with the indoor air. This enables them to dampen variations in humidity. It is shown here how the humidity in a church can be calculated as a function of the indoor temperature and the outdoor humidity. There is not enough scientific evidence to determine what constitutes a good indoor climate with respect to damage. It is certain, however, that the variations in relative humidity should be minimized. The heating strategy is crucial in this respect. Permanent heating gives great annual variations, whereas intermittent heating will limit the variations. The above-mentioned calculation methods can be used to predict and control the relative humidity, both annually and during intermittent heating. 87 refs, 133 figs, 13 tabs

  10. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Oskarshamns kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Potential ecosystem effects caused by the effluent cooling water from the Simpevarp nuclear power plant, close to Oskarshamn on the Swedish coast of the Baltic Proper, are monitored in yearly surveys using gillnets and fyke nets. Fishing is undertaken at several sites in a coastal gradient starting at the location of the emitted cooling water, and in a reference area 100 km north of the recipient. Soft bottom macro fauna and macro vegetation are monitored both in the gradient and in the reference area. Fish mortality due to entrapment in the cooling water system and commercial landings are monitored to assess the effects on the local fishery. The water used for cooling is normally heated by 10-12 deg C when passing through the power plant. In sheltered parts of the recipient bay of Hamnefjaerden, the surface water was 4-6 deg C warmer in April-November 2011 than in the reference area comparable reference areas and the emitted water occasionally exceeded 30 deg C in the summer. Fish losses in the cooling water rinsing system were dominated by Baltic herring. Effects on abundances at the population level are estimated to be small, but local effects cannot be ruled out. Perch (Perca fluviatilis), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna) dominated the catches in the surveys with gillnets in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the archipelago surrounding the power plant. Perch abundances increased in these areas. Catches of roach decreased close to the power plant, but also in the reference area. Perch in the gillnet catches were younger and grew faster close to the power plant than in the reference area. Abnormal gonads, previously observed at high frequencies in perch and roach in Hamnefjaerden, were rare in the 2011 sampling. The abundance of young of the year perch in the recipient did not change over time. The size of the perch fry however, increased in Hamnefjaerden, as well as in the local reference area. The catch and size structure of yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla) did not change over time in the recipient since the 1980s. The prevalence of swim bladder parasites (Anguillicoloides sp.) has been 50-60% since the parasite was established in Hamnefjaerden in the late 1980's. Gillnet surveys are performed in the spring on the open coast at the power plant to study effects on Baltic herring and other marine species, normally appearing at low water temperatures. Problems due to an increasing population of grey seals forced a change in fishing methodology in 2011, and the pelagic nets were replaced with a series of demersal nets. The abundances of the long term dominants Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), sea scorpions (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and cod (Gadus morhua) have shown large periodic variations since the survey was established in the early 1970's. Cod alone has shown a long term decrease, probably reflecting the general situation in the Baltic Sea. Silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) catches decreased in the local fishery, but increased in the reference area until silver eel fishing stopped in this area in 2001. The long term development is however believed to reflect the general trends of eel in the Baltic region. Abundance and species richness in soft bottom macro fauna increased strongly in shallow sites between 1962-2011, in Simpevarp as well as in the reference area. The number of species increased also on deeper sites, but the total abundance did not change significantly. The abundance of the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria sp. increased rapidly in recent years and is now among the dominants in both areas. The trend is reflective of the general changes in the Baltic Sea. Vegetation on hard bottoms is monitored on three sites in the coastal gradient of cooling water. The algal communities are considered to have good ecological status and the studied sites are among the richest in the region. The Fucus vesiculosus cover decreased however, in recent years due to the wearing of ice. Fucus increased its distribution in deeper parts in two sites south of the power plant. The cover of filamentous green algae increased over the last decade and the cover of red algae in 5-6 m depth decreased in recent years.

  11. Evaluation of electrochemical techniques for measurement of fireside corrosion in thermal power plants; Utvaerdering av elektrokemiska tekniker foer maetning av roekgassidig hoegtemperaturkorrosion i pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjorrnhede, Anders

    2007-12-15

    The possibility to measure the corrosion rate on-line, in situ, is getting more and more interesting due to increased corrosion. The worsening may be a result of lower fuel quality or increased steam data due to raised efficiency demands. Also the use of inhibitors can be improved and the lifetime of important components can be increased. Today, virtually all corrosion measurements of materials used for waterwalls, superheaters, economisers and other heat-transferring surfaces are based on in-situ probe tests of coupons or rings. The aim of the project is to evaluate the practicability of commercial or semicommercial on-line in-situ corrosion probes for use in waste fired boilers. The target groups are owners of boilers, operators, service personnel but also boiler manufacturer and material producers. Since the use of on-line, in situ, corrosion probes is substantial, some of the most promising corrosion probes have been tested in a waste fired boiler in Hamburg, Germany. Tests in waste fired boiler have never before been performed. The MECO CB, a Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR) corrosion probe from Coresto Oy, Finland was tested and from Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltverfahrenstechnik und Anlagentechnik (LUAT) der Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany an Electrochemical Noise (EN) - probe was tested. From Pepperl + Fuchs both EN- and LPR-CorrTran corrosion sensors were tested. The test periods were lasting from 1050h to 3750h. The test materials were the low alloyed steel 15Mo3, the Ni-based super alloys Sanicro 63 and Haynes Hastelloy C-2000. The fluegas temperatures were 635 deg C or 520 deg C. The material temperatures were 440 deg C, 420 deg, 350 deg C and was swept from 400 deg C to 300 deg C. All probes are measuring a signal which has a correlation to the corrosion process, but the quantification procedure is not working well. The results achieved from the corrosion probes must be calibrated against corrosion rates measured by means of conventional corrosion probes in order to determine the exact corrosion rate. However, a correlation between the temperature and the corrosion rate exists. The practical use of the on-line corrosion probes is in use together with conventional corrosion probes. Either should the quality of the measured corrosion rates given from the corrosion probes increase or the post treatment of the data must be standardised in order to avoid different kind of influences on the results

  12. Economic consequences of extra by-passes in district heating networks. Investment-, running- and maintenance costs; Rundgaangars ekonomiska betydelse foer fjaerrvaermenaeten. Investerings-, drift- och underhaallskostnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, P. [AaF-Energikonsult Stockholm AB, (Sweden)

    1995-02-01

    For various reasons, extra by-passes are installed in district heating networks to ensure a high flow temperature when the water circulation is insufficient. By `extra by-pass` we here mean a connection between the distribution pipe and the return pipe. This study mainly deals with extra by-passes to prevent freezing. The estimation of the extra by-pass costs is based on the district heating rates. Our assumption is that an extra by-pass can be regarded as a substation in the district heating network, with regard to the demand for the water flow, heat and power. The reason is the difficulty to obtain available facts to estimate the real costs concerning extra by-passes. Therefore, the method can not claim that the information about the costs is exact but gives an indication of the size of them. The valves in an extra by-pass can be set more or less open. We assume that manual valves in extra by-passes are wide open. Thermostatic valves are, however, assumed to be adjusted in order to cause a very small water flow. 2 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs, 6 appendices

  13. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  14. Report on the Swedish National Energy Administration's program for energy efficiency 1998-2001; Redovisning av Energimyndighetens insatser foer energieffektivisering aaren 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Support for raising energy efficiency is reported for the following five areas during 1998-2001: 1. Fuel-based energy systems with the sub-areas: Sustainable production of biofuels, including ash recycling; Cogeneration; and Large scale heat production. 2. Transport with two sub-areas: Internal combustion engines; and Electric drive-lines. 3. Power production/Power technology with the sub-areas: Hydropower; Wind power; Power transmission and distribution; and Photovoltaic solar cells. 4. Industry with the sub-areas: Processes; and Support systems in industry. 5. Buildings with the sub-areas: Heating, cooling and climatic shields; and Components and support systems. In total, 1,800 M SEK (about 180 M USD) was contributed by the Energy Administration during this period. An overview of the projects is presented in this report.

  15. Comparison between existing recycle processes for composite materials - a study regarding microwave pyrolysis; Jaemfoerelse av befintliga aatervinningsprocesser foer kompositmaterial - en foerstudie gaellande mikrovaagspyrolys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Carina; Andreasson, Sune (Stena Metall AB (Sweden)); Skrifvars, Mikael; Aakesson, Dan (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate the possibilities to use recycled composites as energy recycling based on microwave pyrolysis and also to evaluate the microwave pyrolysis technique for the recycling of combined materials, such as composites. Composites can be recycled by mechanically grinding into a material which can be used as a filler in virgin composites. However, several earlier studies have showed that this will give a material with inferior quality, and there is presently no economical viable use of the recycled material. Composites can be incinerated together with other waste materials but the high content of inorganic material results in a material with low energy content. Composites typically contain 40-50 weight-% glass fibres, and in some cases be as high as 60-75 weight-%. Consequently, composites often end up at landfill sites and processes to recycle composites do not exit. Large volumes of composites are produced in Europe and these products will largely end up on landfill site after end-of-life as systems to recycle these products do not exist. These composites represent a large amount of energy which presently is not utilized. Processes and materials to produce composites are being developed continuously. This in addition to the need for light weight materials in the aerospace, windmills and automotive industry spurs the use of composites. It is therefore of outmost importance to develop processes to recycle of composites. Recycling of composites by the use of microwave pyrolysis has been studied in this project. Microwave pyrolysis is a process where the material is heated by microwave in an inert environment. The project has been focusing on the recycling of glass fibre reinforced composites as this type of composite makes the large volume of composites. Pyrolysis of glass fibre reinforce composites will result in two fractions - one oil fraction and one inorganic fraction. The oil fraction was analyzed with calorimetry and by GC-MS. The oil largely consists of aromatic compounds, such as styrene and toluene. The energy content of the oil is relatively high and is comparable to petroleum based oils. The oil can be used to generate energy or as a starting material to produce synthesis gas. This will imply a new alternative and/or complement in order to use the oil in small refineries. After the pyrolysis, an inorganic fraction will also be formed, consisting of recycled glass fibres. A possible use of these fibres is to use them to produce new composites. Composites were produced by and evaluated thermo mechanically. The mechanical properties of these composites were relatively low. The low mechanical properties are probably caused by a low adhesion between the fibres and the matrix. The surface properties were therefore studied by TGA and scanning electron microscopy. The fibres were coated with particles which were not pyrolysed. This is probably the fibre sizing which was partly degraded after the pyrolysis

  16. Biological effects in limed forests; Biologiska effekter i kalkad skog. Aarsrapport 1998. Effektuppfoeljning av Skogsstyrelsens program foer kalkning och vitaliseringsgoedsling av skogsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Per-Erik; Akselsson, Cecilia; Bengtsson, Roland; Bjelke, Ulf

    1999-10-01

    The Swedish Board of Forestry experimental work with liming and vitalising (nutrient compensation) of forest soil includes an extensive review program of the effects of this work. Results from the experimental work are presented in annual reports. This report gives an account of the review program carried out to indicate the results of the biological effects. The studies are performed within the Swedish Board of Forestry's large-scale experiments with the liming and vitalising fertilisation of forest soil. The report covers the time period, or parts of the period, from 1991 to 1998. The results in short are as follows: (1) Benthic invertebrate: The investigation revealed that a dose of 3 tonnes per hectare was insufficient to have a substantial effect on the fauna in acidified streams during the first seven years after treatment. An increase in the number of species and taxon or larger bio-diversity could not be confirmed. No indications of harmful effects on the fauna, caused by high lime concentrations, were found., (2) Benthic algae: Changes to benthic flora in streams after soil treatment was minimal. The total number of species increased slightly after lime treatment. At the same time the number of acid indicating species diminished. In other words, the decrease in acidity has improved the water quality. No negative effects, as a result of soil treatment were found., (3) Nutritional status in needles: The trees reacted quickly to the treatments. The soil treatment led to an increase in levels of calcium in the needles. Treatment using wood ash and the vitalising agent 'Skogvital' led to an increase in calcium and boron levels. Treatment using a mixture of wood ash and lime resulted in increased magnesium and manganese levels. Samples were taken one and three years respectively after treatment. A longer period of time is required to carry out a detailed evaluation of the nutritional status of the needles., and (4) Tree vitality: It is not possible to identify any variations in needle loss comparing limed areas and untreated reference areas during the six-year study. Similarly in the observation areas set up by the Swedish Board of Forestry, there was no evidence of any reductions in needle loss in spruce forest during the test period.

  17. Survey of development work and problems with different collection techniques of food waste; Kartlaeggning av utvecklingsarbete samt problem vid olika insamlingstekniker foer matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Gunilla

    2010-07-01

    In accordance with Sweden's environmental objectives it has been decided that, by 2010, 35 per cent of all food waste shall be recovered through biological treatment. In order to get there, the problems regarding collection methods needs to be solved. There are several different collection systems to choose between, but at the present time there is no complete list of the methods and techniques available on the market. Lists of advantages and disadvantages with each system, of potential improvements, and of completed or ongoing development projects are also missing, and creating difficulties for municipalities and businesses which are planning on introducing a system. The goal with this study is to provide a survey of technical problems with different systems and to identify previous studies as well as new innovations within collection techniques. The expectation is that this work eventually will lead to improved collection systems. The study will cover existing collection techniques in households, large-scale kitchens, restaurants and grocery stores in Sweden. The study will only cover the so called hard parameters, i.e. primarily technical issues. The target group is on the one hand municipalities planning on starting collection of food waste and on the other hand all actors in the area, such as innovators, producers and suppliers as well as Waste Refinery's organizations. Soft issues such as issues regarding information and quality are not included. The system limits of this project span between the recycling equipment of homes and businesses to the food waste's treatment at the biological treatment plant. The methods that have been used in this project are: questionnaire survey to 133 municipalities that today are recycling food waste, telephone interviews with a number of biological treatment plants and innovators in the business, and Internet searching for relevant reports and studies in the field. The results show that the paper bag and the bioplastic bag both have shortcomings. Many of the shortcomings are related to the supplier/producer. Other problems such as misplaced waste, problems with mould, fly-maggots/flies etc. can be solved with information. Problems as corrosion on the collection vehicles and metallic substance in the plant have also been observed. A common problem when it comes to stores is how to best treat packaged material. Today there are treatment plants that treat certain packaged food waste, but a solution for glass is still missing. An issue which is not directly linked to the producer or the supplier is the issue of standardization of sorting equipment in kitchens. Many kitchens have own sorting equipment under the sink where the bags rarely fit. This leads to the bags being used in the wrong way. An important project would therefore be to gather the waste industry and kitchen suppliers to try to come up with a solution to this. There are a lot of technical problems in the process as arise when the biogas plant will digest the food waste as not are a homogenous material. The plants inquire for more effective technology for pretreatment the food waste and this could be a new research working. All that somehow affects the quality of digestate and compost are of interest to Waste Refinery, since quality issues are and will continue to be main issues within biological treatment

  18. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, all food waste from the Swedish food industry would, according to national environmental goals, be recycled through biological treatment. For food waste from households and food establishments, the corresponding goal is at least 35%. The project aims to explore the potential for reducing costs and energy consumption, as well as decreasing the environmental impact, by decreasing the moisture content of food waste. Dried food waste has a long shelf-life and can be used as a bio fuel substrate together with other material of low dry matter content. It is expected to increase the bio fuel potential by improved possibilities to control the organic load. The storage costs are also reduced, as is the collecting frequency. Additionally, collecting can be done from a larger number of collecting points at the same occasion. Furthermore, the collection vehicle does not need to be equipped with collecting trays for silage effluent from the food waste. Since dried food waste can be stored for a longer period, this results in more optimal use of the energy of the food waste. The dried material requires neither decomposition nor sieving, has a very high purity degree (>99%), and does not result in reject material at treatment. The nutritional content of the dried material was also in principle intact. Composting of food waste from households was performed as a practical reference, in laboratory scale. The results show that rehydrated dried food waste works as good as a conventional compost fraction. However, the material has a tendency to dry out faster than conventional compost. Further rehydration may therefore be needed during the process. In this project, an assessment was made of two possible techniques for drying readily biodegradable organic waste: microwave vacuum drying of waste from food establishments and air-drying of food waste from households. The techniques were compared individually with current systems for handling waste, with respect to quality of the incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste collection, as well as owners of plants for biological treatment of food waste. The results of the project are also of interest to purchasers and contractors throughout the food and waste area.

  19. Residential energy efficiency: changes in household chores for women and men; Energieffektivisering i bostaden. Foeraendringar i hushaallsarbete foer kvinnor och maen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Wulff, Petter [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, Anna-Lisa [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    A substantial amount of energy is used in the residential sector. Many of the measures that residents can apply by themselves to save energy demand a change in behaviour, and thus everyday life is altered. It is common for women and men to take on different responsibilities in the household when they live together. Women spend more time on household chores and take the main responsibility for washing and cooking. In this study, we investigated how behaviour changed when women and men took part in various types of energy-saving campaigns. The data were obtained through 30 interviews in four different locations in Sweden. The results showed substantial adaptation and changes in behaviour. Examples included lowering room temperatures during the night, avoiding the use of tumble-dryers, replacing baths with showers, turning off lights, using energy-saving light bulbs, cooking and washing during hours when electricity is cheap and refitting the house for higher energy efficiency. The changes needed for this adaptation imply that women take on new responsibilities in areas that are their traditional territory, including many tasks carried out on a daily basis such as washing and drying clothes. Men often take on new responsibilities within the sphere of their traditional territory, such as building alterations or installing new equipment. These tasks are typically carried out during short periods and are mainly relevant in owner-occupied residences.

  20. The use of indentor testing in determining the creep properties locally - a review; Nyttjande av indentorteknik foer bestaemning av krypegenskaper lokalt - litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peder [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    A review has been performed with the purpose of examining what has been published regarding the creep indentation technique. In the reference list a selected choice of published papers is presented. Furthermore, the use of the technique is explained, a presentation is made of the parameters that are possible to determine and, finally, the limitations of the technique are discussed. In the investigated publications, the theoretical aspects of the indentation technique are discussed, as well as the possibilities of applying the technique in practice. From the published material, it is obvious that creep indentation testing is a technique suitable when the creep deformation properties of a material are to be determined. It seems though, that the technique so far mostly has been used in academically designed experiments and not in a larger industrial scale. The creep indentation testing technique seems to be a good complement to conventional uniaxial creep testing in determining the creep deformation properties of a material. Especially in testing of the creep deformation properties of weldments and parts of weldments, such as HAZ, the indentation testing technique can prove to be advantageous, as only a small amount of material is needed. In the line of business of plants operating in the high temperature range, where materials experience creep, there should be an interest in seeing a development of a testing standard for the creep indentation technique. This could be performed by doing a more comprehensive analysis of a selected choice of published papers, putting together their differences and similarities after which verifying experiments are pursued. In the end, it should be possible to come up with a draft standard for creep indentation testing.

  1. Ecology and physiology of reed. A literature study for evaluation of reed as an energy source. Vassens Ekologi och Fysiologi. Litteraturstudie foer Bedoerfrung au Vass som Energiraavaren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndahl, G.; Egnens, H.

    1980-01-01

    The potentials of reed as an energy source are evaluated. The following subjects are discussed: The structure and life-cycle of reed; Primary production and photosynthesis; Important environmental factors for the production; Genetic variation; Competition, succession and parasitism; Human influence like cultivation, harvesting, etc. An extensive list of references is given.

  2. Dose conversion factors for radiation doses at normal operation discharges. E. Exposure pathways and radioecological data; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. C. Exponeringsvaegar och radioekologiska data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Sara; Aquilonius, Karin

    2001-10-01

    A study has been performed in order to develop and extend existing models for dose estimations at emissions of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities in Sweden. This report presents a review of all exposure pathways in the project, in order to secure that no important contributions have been omitted. The radioecological data that should be used in calculating conversion factors for air and water emissions are also reviewed. Nuclid-specific conversion factors have been calculated for radiation doses from inhalation and intake for children in different age groups.

  3. The potential of utilizing wood ash and peat ash on organic soils in Sweden; Arealer foer skogsgoedsling med traeaska och torvaska paa organogena jordar i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haanell, Bjoern [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2004-01-01

    Nutrients removed from the forest when branches and treetops are harvested as fuel can be returned to the site by recycling the remaining wood ash after combustion. This compensation measure is presently not carried out to any appreciable extent, partly because there is no economic incentive for the landowner. In sites where this measure has been applied, only on mineral soils (e.g. moraine) until now, greater margins for sustainable maintenance of the long-term site productivity can be expected. The ash contains all elements required for tree growth except for nitrogen (N). Therefore the ash amendment does not result in increased stand growth on these soils because the most important element for a growth response (N) is missing. In contrast, on organic soils N is often abundant whereas the amounts of other mineral nutrients are small. Thus, the elements lacking in the soils of peatland forests are available in the ash. This is especially true for phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). This means that peatland forests provide an opportunity for ash amendment in order to increase forest production. Old fertilization trials using wood ash show that the growth increase can be very large. The aim of this study was to (i) calculate the area of peat covered land that with respect to stand growth responses could be regarded as most suitable for bio-ash (wood ash and peat ash) fertilization, and (ii) assess the amount of bio-ash needed for fertilizing this area. Peat ash, although not as much studied, also has potential to be used to provide nutrients for increasing peatland forest growth. Most of the area calculations were based on data from the National Forest Inventory (NFI) 1997-2001. Sites were selected with guidance from existing knowledge about ash fertilization effects on tree growth and with the aid of registrations made in NFI regarding peat depth, site productivity, drainage, condition of drains, dominating field vegetation, and degree of stand development. Additional calculations were made concerning the area of abandoned peat fields ready for after-use by afforestation. The main part of the site selection was made in five steps. First, the non-productive sites (which produce less than 1 m{sup 3}/ha/yr) were rejected. Also sites with peat cover shallower than 30 cm were excluded. In the next step it was decided to restrict the ash fertilization to areas with drains in good condition, and to sites where the field vegetation was dominated by 'better shrubs' (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis idaea, Equisetum silvaticum, and tall sedges) or 'low sedge' (Eriophorum vaginatum, Scirpus caespitosus, and other low Cyperaceae plants). Finally, open areas, seedling stands, and young forests were rejected in favour of un-thinned and thinned mid-rotation, and mature and old stands. According to these selection criteria the most suitable sites for ash fertilization are drained, productive peatlands characterized by thinning stands or older stands where the field vegetation is dominated by better shrubs or low sedge plants. The selection comprises 190,000 ha. Most of these areas are located in North Sweden (90,000 ha), whereas Central and South Sweden accounted for 30,000 ha and 70,000 ha, respectively. In addition to this, 2,000-3,000 ha of abandoned peat fields ready for afforestation should be added within a period of about 5 years. The requirement for phosphorus when peatland fo