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Sample records for focal articular defects

  1. Responsiveness of the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form in comparison to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and Short Form 36 in patients with focal articular cartilage defects.

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    Greco, Nicholas J; Anderson, Allen F; Mann, Barton J; Cole, Brian J; Farr, Jack; Nissen, Carl W; Irrgang, James J

    2010-05-01

    The International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC SKF) is a patient-reported knee-specific outcome measure that has been shown to be a reliable, valid, and responsive measure for patients with a variety of knee conditions. Further testing is required to compare the reliability and responsiveness of the IKDC SKF to other commonly used patient-reported outcome measures for patients with articular cartilage lesions. The IKDC SKF has equal or better levels of reliability and responsiveness than the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), modified Cincinnati Knee Rating System (CKRS), and the Short Form 36 in patients with articular cartilage lesions. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Reliability was assessed by administering the 4 patient-reported outcome measures to 17 individuals who had undergone articular cartilage surgery 5 years before participation in this study. Responsiveness was determined by administering the 4 patient-reported outcome measures to 51 individuals with diagnosed focal articular cartilage defects who were scheduled to undergo surgical treatment. In both groups, the outcome measures were administered at baseline and at 6 and 12 months' follow-up. Participants also provided a global rating of change in comparison to baseline at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Test-retest reliability coefficients were 0.91 and 0.93 for the IKDC SKF at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups, respectively. The effect sizes and standardized response means were large (>0.80) at 6 months after surgery for the WOMAC pain, physical function, and total scores and 12 months after surgery for the IKDC SKF; WOMAC pain, physical function, and total; and CKRS scores. Six months after surgery, significant differences between those who were improved compared with those who were unchanged or worse were found only for the IKDC SKF. Twelve months after surgery, significant differences between the improved and unchanged

  2. Focal skin defect, limb anomalies and microphthalmia.

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    Jackson, K.E.; Andersson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    We describe two unrelated female patients with congenital single focal skin defects, unilateral microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Growth and psychomotor development were normal and no brain malformation was detected. Although eye and limb anomalies are commonly associated, clinical anophthalmia and

  3. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

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    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  4. Evaluation of the Quality, Accuracy, and Readability of Online Patient Resources for the Management of Articular Cartilage Defects.

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    Wang, Dean; Jayakar, Rohit G; Leong, Natalie L; Leathers, Michael P; Williams, Riley J; Jones, Kristofer J

    2017-04-01

    Objective Patients commonly use the Internet to obtain their health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality, accuracy, and readability of online patient resources for the management of articular cartilage defects. Design Three search terms ("cartilage defect," "cartilage damage," "cartilage injury") were entered into 3 Internet search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo). The first 25 websites from each search were collected and reviewed. The quality and accuracy of online information were independently evaluated by 3 reviewers using predetermined scoring criteria. The readability was evaluated using the Flesch-Kincaid (FK) grade score. Results Fifty-three unique websites were evaluated. Quality ratings were significantly higher in websites with a FK score >11 compared to those with a score of ≤11 ( P = 0.021). Only 10 websites (19%) differentiated between focal cartilage defects and diffuse osteoarthritis. Of these, 7 (70%) were elicited using the search term "cartilage defect" ( P = 0.038). The average accuracy of the websites was high (11.7 out of maximum 12), and the average FK grade level (13.4) was several grades higher than the recommended level for readable patient education material (eighth grade level). Conclusions The quality and readability of online patient resources for articular cartilage defects favor those with a higher level of education. Additionally, the majority of these websites do not distinguish between focal chondral defects and diffuse osteoarthritis, which can fail to provide appropriate patient education and guidance for available treatment. Clinicians should help guide patients toward high-quality, accurate, and readable online patient education material.

  5. Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation addressing focal chondral defect in adolescent knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xue-song; CAI You-zhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation(MACI)is the third generation tissue-engineering technique for the treatment of full-thickness articular cartilage defects.The aim of this study was to describe this new technique and the postoperative findings in adolescent knee with focal chondral defect.Methods The MACI consists of diagnostic arthroscopy and cartilage harvest,chondrocyte culture and seeding in tissue-engineering collagenous membrane,and implantation of the scaffold.Clinical outcome at minimum 1-year follow-up was assessed in seven patients(mean age(16.6±1.5)years;14-19 years)with full-thickness cartilage defects,with International Knee Documentation Committee(IKDC)score,the International Cartilage Repair Society(ICRS)score and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score(KOOS).Besides,MR imaging was performed with T1 and T2-weighted imaging and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled(3D-SPGR)MR imaging.Results Clinical evaluation showed significant improvement and MRI analysis showed that the structure was homogeneous and the implant surface was regular and intact in six patients,but irregular in one.Of all the seven patients,the cartilage defect site was nearly totally covered by the implanted scaffold.Conclusions These results indicated that MACl technique is an option for cartilage defect in adolescent knee joint,especially large defect of over 2 cm2.Long-term assessment is necessary to determine the true value of this technique.

  6. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects - A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

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    Stefan Gysin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962 suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH.

  7. Focal osteoporosis defects play a key role in hip fracture.

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    Poole, Kenneth E S; Skingle, Linda; Gee, Andrew H; Turmezei, Thomas D; Johannesdottir, Fjola; Blesic, Karen; Rose, Collette; Vindlacheruvu, Madhavi; Donell, Simon; Vaculik, Jan; Dungl, Pavel; Horak, Martin; Stepan, Jan J; Reeve, Jonathan; Treece, Graham M

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are mainly caused by accidental falls and trips, which magnify forces in well-defined areas of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, the same areas are at risk of rapid bone loss with ageing, since they are relatively stress-shielded during walking and sitting. Focal osteoporosis in those areas may contribute to fracture, and targeted 3D measurements might enhance hip fracture prediction. In the FEMCO case-control clinical study, Cortical Bone Mapping (CBM) was applied to clinical computed tomography (CT) scans to define 3D cortical and trabecular bone defects in patients with acute hip fracture compared to controls. Direct measurements of trabecular bone volume were then made in biopsies of target regions removed at operation. The sample consisted of CT scans from 313 female and 40 male volunteers (158 with proximal femoral fracture, 145 age-matched controls and 50 fallers without hip fracture). Detailed Cortical Bone Maps (c.5580 measurement points on the unfractured hip) were created before registering each hip to an average femur shape to facilitate statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Areas where cortical and trabecular bone differed from controls were visualised in 3D for location, magnitude and statistical significance. Measures from the novel regions created by the SPM process were then tested for their ability to classify fracture versus control by comparison with traditional CT measures of areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD). In women we used the surgical classification of fracture location ('femoral neck' or 'trochanteric') to discover whether focal osteoporosis was specific to fracture type. To explore whether the focal areas were osteoporotic by histological criteria, we used micro CT to measure trabecular bone parameters in targeted biopsies taken from the femoral heads of 14 cases. Hip fracture patients had distinct patterns of focal osteoporosis that determined fracture type, and CBM measures classified fracture type better than a

  8. Histological and biochemical evaluation of perichondrial transplants in human articular cartilage defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, P; Kuijer, R; Terwindt-Rouwenhorst, E; van der Linden, Ton; Bulstra, K

    1999-01-01

    From 1986 to 1992, 88 patients with articular defects in the knee were treated with a perichondrial arthroplasty. In this study, we report on the results for 22 biopsies of grafted tissue with a mean follow-up of 21 months. Biopsies were obtained at routine arthroscopy after approximately 1 year or

  9. Repair of articular cartilage defects in minipigs by microfracture surgery and BMSCs transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of minimal invasive repair of cartilage defect by arthroscope-aided microfracture surgery and autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: Bone marrow of minipigs was taken out and the bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated and cultured to passage 3. Then 6 minipigs were randomly divided into 2 groups with 6 knees in each group. After the articular cartilage defect was induced in each knee. the left defect received microfracture surgery and was injected with 2. 5 ml BMSCs cells at a concentration of 3×107 cells/ml into the articular cavity; while right knee got single microfracture or served as blank control group. The animals were killed at 8 or 16 weeks, and the repair tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically examined for the presence of type Ⅱ collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at 8 and 16 weeks. Results:Eight weeks after the surgery, the overlying articular surface of the cartilage defect showed normal color and integrated to adjacent cartilage. And 16 weeks after surgery, hyaline cartilage was observed at the repairing tissues and immunostaining indicated the diffuse presence of this type Ⅱ collagen and GAGs throughout the repair cartilage in the treated defects. Single microfracture group had the repairing of fibro-cartilage, while during the treatment, the defects of blank group were covered with fewer fiber tissues, and no blood capillary growth or any immunological rejection was observed. Conclusion:Microfracture technique and BMSCs transplantation to repair cartilage defect is characterized with minimal invasion and easy operation, and it will greatly promote the regeneration repair of articular cartilage defect.

  10. Repairing articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineering cartilage in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-xing; LI Fo-bao; SHEN Hui-liang; LIAO Wei-ming; LIU Miao; WANG Min; CAO Jun-ling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) engineered with allogeneic chondrocytes in repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits.Methods: Chondrocytes were seeded onto three-dimensional cancellous BMG and cultured in vitro for 12 days to prepare BMG-chondrocyte complexes. Under anesthesia with 2.5% pentobarbital sodium (1 ml/kg body weight), articular cartilage defects were made on the right knee joints of 38 healthy New Zealand white rabbits (regardless of sex, aged 4-5 months and weighing 2.5-3 kg) and the defects were then treated with 2.5 % trypsin.Then BMG-chondrocyte complex (Group A, n=18 ),BMG ( Group B, n=10), and nothing ( Group C, n=10)were implanted into the cartilage defects, respectively. The repairing effects were assessed by macroscopic, histologic,transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation,immunohistochemical examination and in situ hybridization detection, respectively, at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after operation.Results: Cancellous BMG was degraded within 8 weeks after operation. In Group A, lymphocyte infiltration was observed around the graft. At 24 weeks after operation, the cartilage defects were repaired by cartilage tissues and the articular cartilage and subchondral bone were soundly healed. Proteoglycan and type Ⅱ collagen were detected in the matrix of the repaired tissues by Safranin-O staining and immunohistochemical staining,respectively. In situ hybridization proved gene expression of type Ⅱ collagen in the cytoplasm of chondrocytes in the repaired tissues. TEM observation showed that chondrocytes and cartilage matrix in repaired tissues were almost same as those in the normal articular cartilage. In Group B, the defects were repaired by cartilage-fibrous tissues. In Group C, the defects were repaired only by fibrous tissues.Conclusions : Cancellous BMG can be regarded as the natural cell scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.Articular cartilage defects can be repaired by

  11. Repair of articular cartilage in rabbit osteochondral defects promoted by extracorporeal shock wave therapy

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    Chu, C.-H.; Yen, Y.-S.; Chen, P.-L.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the stimulative effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on the articular cartilage regeneration in the rabbit osteochondral defect model for the first time. An osteochondral defect, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth, was drilled in the patellar groove at the distal end of each femur in 24 mature New Zealand rabbits. The right patellar defects received 500 impulses of shock waves of (at 14 kV) at 1 week after surgery and were designated as the experimental samples; the left patellar defects served as control. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after ESWT, cartilage repair was evaluated macroscopically and histologically using a semiquantitative grading scale. The total scores of the macroscopic evaluation at 4, 8, and 12 weeks in the experimental group were superior to those in the control group (statistical significance level ). As to the total scores of the histologic evaluation, the experimental group showed a tendency toward a better recovery than the control group at 4 weeks (). At 8 and 12 weeks the differences between the experimental and control groups became mild and had no significance on statistical analysis. These findings suggested that regeneration of articular cartilage defects might be promoted by ESWT, especially at the early stage. The easy and safe ESWT is potentially viable for clinical application.

  12. A prospective comparison between Kapandji and percutaneous extra-focal fixation in extra articular distal radius fractures.

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    Mirhamidi, Seyed Mehdi; Bayat, Farzad Merrikh

    2013-01-01

    there are multiple methods of distal radius fractures treatments. Of these percutaneous wire insertion has yielded popular acceptance. These percutaneous wire insertions can be done through many different ways with their own advantages and disadvantages. One of these methods is Kapandji method and because of its inherent stability in biomechanical examinations we suppose that we can begin the range of motion sooner than other methods with the hope of better outcome. From 2010 to 2012 we studied 45 patients, of these 23 went under extra-focal technique and 22 went under Kapandji technique. After Kapandji we immobilized the limb in splint for 4 weeks and started partial motion thereafter and in the extra-focal group we immobilized them in for 6 weeks in long arm casts. After 3 months and 6 months we assess the Gartland and Warley score and find 39% and 73% excellent and good result in extra-focal and 45% and 86% excellent and good result in Kapandji group after 3 and 6 months, respectively. Although there were about 0.22 mm collapse in both groups, here were no statistically significant differences in functional score or radiologic and anatomic parameters between groups. we have find Kapandji technique a suitable method of distal radius fracture fixation in cases with no articular involvement and we think it is better to immobilize the limb for at least 6 weeks after Kapandji fixation, in order to better control the pain.

  13. Coralline hydroxyapatite is a suitable bone graft substitute in an intra-articular goat defect model.

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    Koëter, S; Tigchelaar, S J; Farla, P; Driessen, L; van Kampen, A; Buma, P

    2009-07-01

    Intra-articular defects can be filled with an autologous bone graft taken from the iliac crest. This can be indicated after trauma or following correcting osteotomy. Patients may encounter donor site morbidity after this procedure. In this in vivo study, we studied if coralline hydroxyapatite (CHA) is a suitable material to replace autologous bone graft to fill a defect in the femoral trochlea of goats. CHA did not evoke any negative reaction in the synovium, and the articular cartilage was comparable to controls. In the bone graft group, we found scattered areas of (enchondral formed) bone. Most bone graft had been resorbed or remodeled, and the scarce remnants were incorporated into new bone. Resorption of CHA was limited or absent and most CHA was surrounded by new bone. In areas with fragmented CHA, close to the joint surface, numerous giant cells were found. The study shows that in this animal model, CHA inserted in a defect that directly communicates with the joint space incorporates into bone. This study did not show any negative effects of CHA in a joint environment.

  14. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A New Path in Articular Cartilage Defect Management?

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    Jan-Philipp Stromps

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 6 million people undergo a variety of medical procedures for the repair of articular cartilage defects in the U.S. each year. Trauma, tumor, and age-related degeneration can cause major defects in articular cartilage, which has a poor intrinsic capacity for healing. Therefore, there is substantial interest in the development of novel cartilage tissue engineering strategies to restore articular cartilage defects to a normal or prediseased state. Special attention has been paid to the expansion of chondrocytes, which produce and maintain the cartilaginous matrix in healthy cartilage. This review summarizes the current efforts to generate chondrocytes from adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and provides an outlook on promising future strategies.

  15. Study on nano-structured hydroxyapatite/zirconia stabilized yttria on healing of articular cartilage defect in rabbit

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    Amir Sotoudeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Articular Cartilage has limited potential for self-repair and tissue engineering approaches attempt to repair articular cartilage by scaffolds. We hypothesized that the combined hydroxyapatite and zirconia stabilized yttria would enhance the quality of cartilage healing. METHODS: In ten New Zealand white rabbits bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defect, 4 mm in diameter and 3 mm depth, was created on the articular cartilage of the patellar groove of the distal femur. In group I the scaffold was implanted into the right stifle and the same defect was created in the left stifle without any transplant (group II. Specimens were harvested at 12 weeks after implantation, examined histologically for morphologic features, and stained immunohistochemically for type-II collagen. RESULTS: In group I the defect was filled with a white translucent cartilage tissue In contrast, the defects in the group II remained almost empty. In the group I, the defects were mostly filled with hyaline-like cartilage evidenced but defects in group II were filled with fibrous tissue with surface irregularities. Positive immunohistochemical staining of type-II collagen was observed in group I and it was absent in the control group. CONCLUSION: The hydroxyapatite/yttria stabilized zirconia scaffold would be an effective scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  16. Transient focal liver scan defects in children receiving chemotherapy (pseudometastases): work in progress

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    Abramson, S.J.; Barash, F.S.; Seldin, D.W.; Berdon, W.E.

    1984-03-01

    Three pediatric patients with tumors (two rhabdomyosarcoma, one Wilms tumor) had significant focal defects on Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans while receiving chemotherapy (all three had received chemotherapy, including actinomycin D, within ten days prior to scanning). In all three, the defects resolved spontaneously; one biopsy showed fibrosis of a mild degree. The finding of defects on liver scans of pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy must not be automatically assumed to be metastatic disease; the changes may relate to hepatic response to recently administered chemotherapy.

  17. Nephrotic syndrome and multiple tubular defects in children: an early sign of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

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    McVicar, M; Exeni, R; Susin, M

    1980-12-01

    The nephrotic syndrome is rarely associated with renal tubular defects, and the combination has been reported only in association with advanced renal insufficiency. We report here five children with nephrotic syndrome and multiple tubular defects which evolved when glomular filtration rate ranged between 56 and 90 ml/minute/1.73 m2. The tubular defects were first noted at 3, 4, 4, 7, and 22 months after the onset of the nephrotic syndrome, and renal glycosuria was the first sign in all five children. Glycosuria was intermittent in three patients, constant in two, and ceased with loss of kidney function. Four patients had hyperaminoaciduria and renal tubular acidosis (two of four tested had distal renal tubular acidosis). Three patients had decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphorus and defective maximum concentrating capacity. All five had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis proven by renal biopsy. Over a follow-up period of seven years, all of the children have developed advanced renal insufficiency, four of the five have required dialysis or transplantation within 21 to 72 months after onset, and one has stabilized renal function at 35 ml/minute/1.73 m2. The one patient receiving a kidney transplant has had recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the transplanted kidney and became nephrotic with three subsequent transplants. Our experience suggests that the nephrotic syndrome associated with tubular defects in children forms a subgroup of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, with rapid progression to renal insufficiency and the potential for recurrence of the lesion in the transplanted kidney.

  18. Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantation for treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee

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    Chun Chung-Woo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron™ implantations have been used for several years without using periosteum or membrane. This study involves evaluations of the clinical results of Chondron™ at many clinical centers at various time points during the postoperative patient follow-up. Methods Data from 98 patients with articular cartilage injury of the knee joint and who underwent Chondron™ implantation at ten Korean hospitals between January 2005 and November 2008, were included and were divided into two groups based on the patient follow-up period, i.e. 13~24-month follow-up and greater than 25-month follow-up. The telephone Knee Society Score obtained during telephone interviews with patients, was used as the evaluation tool. Results On the tKSS-A (telephone Knee Society Score-A, the score improved from 43.52 ± 20.20 to 89.71 ± 13.69 (P Conclusion Gel-type autologous chondrocyte implantation for chondral knee defects appears to be a safe and effective method for both decreasing pain and improving knee function.

  19. Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect involving dental implant: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Natália Galvão; Barros, Francisco Barbara Abreu; Carvalho, Márcia Maria Dalmolin; Oliveira, Denise Tostes

    2015-01-01

    In oral implantology, the most serious complications occur intraoperatively or within a short period. We describe an unusual case of focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect involving dental implant in the posterior mandibular region of the adult woman. Despite the fact that this condition requires no treatment, it could lead to the displacement of the dental implant. Additionally, this case report reinforces that histopathological analysis is mandatory for precise diagnosis of the radiolucency ...

  20. Muscle co-contraction during gait in individuals with articular cartilage defects in the knee.

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    Thoma, Louise M; McNally, Michael P; Chaudhari, Ajit M; Flanigan, David C; Best, Thomas M; Siston, Robert A; Schmitt, Laura C

    2016-07-01

    Increased muscle co-contraction during gait is common in individuals with knee pathology, and worrisome as it is known to amplify tibiofemoral compressive forces. While knees with articular cartilage defects (ACD) are more vulnerable to compressive forces, muscle co-contraction has never been reported in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which individuals with ACDs in the knee demonstrate elevated quadriceps to hamstrings muscle co-contraction on the involved limb during gait compared to the uninvolved limb and to healthy controls. We also explored the impact of participant characteristics and knee impairments on co-contraction. Twenty-nine individuals with full-thickness knee ACDs (ACD group) and 19 healthy adults (control group) participated in this study. Participants performed five gait trials at self-selected speed, during which activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles were collected with surface electromyography. Three-dimensional motion capture was used to define phases of gait. Quadriceps strength and self-reported outcomes were also assessed in the same session. There were no differences in quadriceps: hamstrings co-contraction between the ACD and control groups, or between the involved and uninvolved limb for the ACD group. For both ACD and control groups, co-contraction was highest in early stance and lowest in late stance. Quadriceps strength was consistently the strongest predictor of muscle co-contraction in both the ACD and the control groups, with individuals with lower strength demonstrating greater co-contraction. Further study is needed to understand the effect of increased muscle co-contraction on joint compressive forces in the presence of varied quadriceps strength.

  1. Computed tomography of the liver: evaluating focal defects on radionuclide liver-spleen scans

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    Djang, W.T.; Young, S.W.; Castellino, R.A.; Lantieri, R.

    1984-05-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in increasing the specificity of the abnormal radiocolloid liver-spleen scan. During a 12-month period, 124 patients with focal abnormalities on hepatic scintiscans were identified out of 523 consecutive radionuclide studies. Of these 124 patients, 38 had subsequent CT examination(s) of the liver. Of this group, 11 patients with suspected metastatic disease with focal defects on hepatic scintiscans had normal hepatic CT scans and subsequent negative follow-up for hepatic disease. False-positive radionuclide scan abnormalities, related either to anatomic variation in liver configuration or adjacent extrahepatic structures influencing the radiocolloid scan, are readily recognized and explained on the basis of CT examination.

  2. Progress in Using Free Autogenous Periosteal Grafts to Repair Articular Cartilage Defects%自体游离骨膜移植修复关节软骨缺损的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹克俊

    2009-01-01

    The cambium layer of Periosteum contains undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, which have the duality into cartilage and into bone. The low tension hypoxia of articular cavity is good for the process, that periosteal becoming to cartilage, but free autologous periosteal graft to repairing articular cartilage defects is still in the exploratory stage, this article is a brief overview on the status quo of autogenous free periosteal graft repairing articular cartilage defects.

  3. POROUS POLYMER IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF FULL-THICKNESS DEFECTS OF ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY IN RABBIT AND DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, HWB; VETH, RPH; NIELSEN, HKL; DEGROOT, JH; PENNINGS, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage were repaired by implantation of porous polymer implants in rabbits and dogs. The quality of the repair tissue was determined by collagen typing with antibodies. Implants with varying pore sizes and chemical composition were used. The effect of loading

  4. Cross-linked type I and type II collagenous matrices for the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects--a study in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, P.; Pieper, J.S.; Tienen, Tony van; Susante, J.L.C. van; Kraan, P.M. van der; Veerkamp, J.H.; Berg, W.B. van den; Veth, R.P.H.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van

    2003-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of collagenous matrices may determine the tissue response after insertion into full-thickness articular cartilage defects. In this study, cross-linked type I and type II collagen matrices, with and without attached chondroitin sulfate, were implanted into full-thickne

  5. Intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hyaluronic acid promote regeneration of massive cartilage defects in rabbits

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    Vyacheslav Ogay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intra-articular injection of synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SD MSCs with low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA could promote regeneration of massive cartilage in rabbits. Material and methods: The SD MSCs were harvested from the knees of 10 Flemish giant rabbits, expanded in culture, and characterized. A reproducible 4-mm cylindrical defect was created in the intercondylar groove area using a kit for the mosaic chondroplasty of femoral condyle COR (De Puy, Mitek. The defect was made within the cartilage layer without destruction of subchondral bone. Two weeks after the cartilage defect, SD MSCs (2 × 106 cell/0.15 ml were suspended in 0.5% low molecular weight HA (0.15 ml and injected into the left knee, and HA solution (0.30 ml alone was placed into the right knee. Cartilage regeneration in the experimental and control groups were evaluated by macroscopically and histologically at 10, 30, and 60 days. Results: On day 10, after intra-articular injection of SD MSCs, we observed an early process of cartilage regeneration in the defect area. Histological studies revealed that cartilage defect was covered by a thin layer of spindle-shaped undifferentiated cells and proliferated chodroblasts. In contrast, an injection of HA did not induce reparation of cartilage in the defect area. At 30 days, macroscopic observation showed that the size of cartilage defect after SD MSC injection was significantly smaller than after HA injection. Histological score was also better in the MSC- treated intercondylar defect. At 60 days after MSC treatment, cartilage defect was nearly nonexistent and looked similar to an intact cartilage. Conclusion: Thus, intra-articular injection of SD MSCs can adhere to the defect in the intercondylar area, and promote cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

  6. Biological and functional evaluation of a novel pyrolytic carbon implant for the treatment of focal osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyle: assessment in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkeld, Samantha L; Patron, Laura P; Lien, Joan C; Cook, Stephen D; Jones, Deryk G

    2016-12-01

    Osteochondral defects continue to be a clinical treatment challenge, and when left untreated, may cause pain and functional impairment. Pyrolytic carbon is a unique isotropic biomaterial used in heart valve and small joint replacements due to its excellent wear properties and biocompatibility with bone and articular cartilage. Therefore, a proposed solution is to utilize a focal pyrolytic carbon hemiarthroplasty implant as an alternative resurfacing treatment strategy for isolated cartilage lesions. A canine model (n = 9) was used to evaluate the in vivo histologic response and function of a pyrolytic carbon implant replacing a full-thickness osteochondral defect in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) of the knee. The gross appearance and histologic results were compared to an identical cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy implant placed in a defect in the contralateral MFC and evaluated up to 52 weeks. Extensive bone incorporation to the stem portion was observed for both implant types. The total mean histologic score for the cartilage of the MFC surrounding the pyrolytic carbon implants was significantly improved compared to that of the Co-Cr alloy implants at all evaluation periods (p implants were similar to those of Co-Cr alloy implants at 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, the mean total histologic score for Co-Cr alloy implants was 11.6 ± 0.7 (0-16 range point; 16 = normal appearance), while at 52 weeks, the mean total score for the pyrolytic carbon implants was 11.7 ± 1.3. Mean total histologic score of opposing medial tibia cartilage for the pyrolytic carbon implants was superior to that of the Co-Cr alloy group at all evaluation periods and significantly improved over the Co-Cr alloy implant group at 24 weeks (p = 0.001) and 52 weeks (p implant for reconstruction of a focal cartilage defect demonstrated effective implant fixation and superior in vivo response compared to an identical Co-Cr alloy implant.

  7. Green fluorescent protein as marker in chondrocytes overexpressing human insulin-like growth factor-1 for repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-kun; LIU Yi; SONG Zhi-ming; FU Chang-feng; XU Xin-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To label the primary articular chondrocytes overexpressing human insulin-like growth factor ( hIGF-1 ) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) for repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Methods:GFP cDNA was inserted into pcDNA3.1-hIGF-1 to label the expression vector.The recombinant vector,pcGI,a mammalian expression vector with multiple cloning sites under two respective cytomegalovirus promoters/enhancers,was transfected into the primary articular chondrocytes with the help of lipofectamine.After the positive cell clones were selected by G418,G418-resistant chondrocytes were cultured in medium for 4 weeks.The stable expression of hIGF-1 in the articular chondrocytes was determined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis and the GFP was confirmed under a fluorescence microscope. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and flow cytometer methods were employed to determine the effect of transfection on proliferation of chondrocytes. Gray value was used to analyze quantitatively the expression of type Ⅱ collagen. Results:The expression of hIGF-1 and GFP was confirmed in transfected chondrocytes by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemical analysis and fluorescence microscope observation. Green articular chondrocytes overexpressing hIGF-1 could expand and maintain their chondrogenic phenotypes for more than 4 weeks.After the transfection of IGF-1,the proliferation of chondrocytes was enhanced and the chondrocytes could effectively maintain the expression of type Ⅱ collagen. Conclusions:The hIGF-1 eukaryotic expression vector containing GFP marker gene has been successfully constructed.GFP,which can be visualized in real time and in situ, is stably expressed in articular chondrocytes overexpressing hIGF-1.The labeled articular chondrocytes overexpressing hIGF-1 can be applied in cell-mediated gene therapy as well as for other biomedical purposes of transgenic chondrocytes.

  8. Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes

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    N Kaneshiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

  9. Articular cartilage defect detectability in human knees with MR-arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, A. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Kramer, J. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Stiglbauer, R. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Hajek, P.C. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Imhof, H. [MR-Inst., Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    1993-04-01

    One hundred and thirteen knee joints were examined, of which 48 showed damage of the hyaline cartilage in one or more locations. For the evaluation of the magnetic resonance (MR) arthrographic images we used the macroscopic staging according to Outerbridge, the defect staging according to Bauer, as well as a new MR-arthrographic staging. The results of the evaluation were compared with the surgical findings in 61 knee joints. This revealed a sensitivity of 86 %, a specificity of 100 % and accuracy of 90 %. All lesions that could not be classified on MR-arthrography were of stage-I chondromalacia. (orig.)

  10. Tissue Engineering Based Therapy for Articular Cartilage Defects - A New Approach

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    Abraham S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Articular cartilage, the load-bearing tissue in diarthrodial joints, when damaged due to trauma could lead to osteoarthritis. At present Autologous Cartilage Implantation is an established method in which patients own chondrocytes are isolated and then implanted after in vitro expansion over the affected area with bovine or porcine collagen matrix. This procedure results in more of Collagen Type I during in vitro expansion, which eventually becomes fibrocartilage. Also it requires growth factors. We have in this study tried growing human Chondrocytes without growth factors using synthetic scaffolds to grow more Collagen Type II Materials and Methods: Human cartilage specimens were harvested through arthroscopy from the non-weight bearing area of the knee joint from 13 patients who underwent surgical procedures of the knee joint after getting their informed consent. The tissues were transported in saline taking 1 hour to laboratory and subjected to digestion with Collagenase type II for 16~18 Hrs. The chondrocyte cells obtained after dissociation were divided into two groups for culture. Gr. I were embedded in a Thermogelation polymer (TGP and Gr. II in basal culture media (DMEM + Ascorbic Acid without using any growth factors. The Group II cells were viable only for 4 weeks and then started degenerating. The TGP-Chondrocytes scaffolds were grown for 16 weeks and the specimens were harvested at 4, 8, 12 and 16-week intervals and their morphology and molecular characteristics were studied by H&E staining, S-100 protein analysis and RT-PCR.Results: Human chondrocytes could be cultured in both TGP (group I and Basal culture media (group II. The Gr. I cells were viable upto the 16th week while the Group II chondrocytes started degenerating after the 4 week. Both the groups were proven positive for S-100 protein, a Chondrocyte specific marker protein; Gr. II specimens after 4 weeks, and Gr. I specimens after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks. RT

  11. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of

  12. Induction of spontaneous hyaline cartilage regeneration using a double-network gel: efficacy of a novel therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Nobuto; Yasuda, Kazunori; Ogawa, Munehiro; Arakaki, Kazunobu; Kai, Shuken; Onodera, Shin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2011-06-01

    A double-network (DN) gel, which was composed of poly-(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) and poly-(N,N'-dimetyl acrylamide) (PAMPS/PDMAAm), has the potential to induce chondrogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. To establish the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy for an articular cartilage defect using a DN gel. Controlled laboratory study. A 4.3-mm-diameter osteochondral defect was created in rabbit trochlea. A DN gel plug was implanted into the defect of the right knee so that a defect 2 mm in depth remained after surgery. An untreated defect of the left knee provided control data. The osteochondral defects created were examined by histological and immunohistochemical evaluations, surface assessment using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis at 4 and 12 weeks. Samples were quantitatively evaluated with 2 scoring systems reported by Wayne et al and O'Driscoll et al. The DN gel-implanted defect was filled with a sufficient volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue rich in proteoglycan and type 2 collagen. Quantitative evaluation using the grading scales revealed a significantly higher score in the DN gel-implanted defects compared with the untreated control at each period (P cartilage at 12 weeks (P = .0106), while there was no statistical difference between the DN gel-implanted and normal knees. This study using the mature rabbit femoral trochlea osteochondral defect model demonstrated that DN gel implantation is an effective treatment to induce cartilage regeneration in vivo without any cultured cells or mammalian-derived scaffolds. This study has prompted us to develop a potential innovative strategy to repair cartilage lesions in the field of joint surgery.

  13. Professional ballet dancers have a similar prevalence of articular cartilage defects compared to age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Ballet exposes the hip joint to repetitive loading in extreme ranges of movement and may predispose a dancer to pain and osteoarthritis (OA). The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of cartilage defects in professional ballet dancers and athletes and to determine the relationship of clinical signs and symptoms. Forty-nine male and female, current and retired professional ballet dancers and 49 age- and sex-matched non-dancing athletes completed hip pain questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and underwent hip range of movement (ROM) testing and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging to score cartilage defects (no defect, grade 1: focal partial defect and grade 2: diffuse or full thickness defect). Thirty (61 %) dancers and 27 (55 %) athletes had cartilage defects (p = 0.54). The frequency of grade 1 and 2 cartilage defects did not differ between dancers and athletes (p = 0.83). The frequency of cartilage defects was similar in male and female dancers (p = 0.34), and male and female athletes (p = 0.24). Cartilage defects were not related to history of hip pain (p = 0.34), HAGOS pain (p = 0.14), sports/rec (p = 0.15) scores or hip internal rotation ≤20° (p > 0.01). Cartilage defects were related to age in male dancers (p = 0.002). Ballet dancers do not appear to be at a greater risk of cartilage injury compared to non-dancing athletes. Male dancers develop cartilage defects at an earlier age than athletes and female dancers. Cartilage defects were not related to clinical signs and symptoms; thus, prospective studies are required to determine which cartilage defects progress to symptomatic hip OA.

  14. Cell-Based Treatment for the Management of Articular Cartilage Injuries Where Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossy, William; Strauss, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a specialized tissue that lines the surface of joints. Injuries to articular cartilage pose challenges due to poor healing potential. Focal cartilage defects are typically the result of high impact or repetitive loads to the articular surface. They tend to occur in the younger, active population and have been shown to cause swelling, pain, and joint dysfunction. Although the natural history of these lesions has never been definitively elucidated in the literature, clinical experience suggests that if left untreated, these lesions will demonstrate an inability to heal and may lead to prolonged increased articular peak stresses, which in turn may lead to pain and significant limitations in the future. The purpose of the present review is to provide the most current treatment options for these injuries and review the literature supporting their use.

  15. Deletion of Porcn in mice leads to multiple developmental defects and models human focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. RESULTS: We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures.

  16. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for the treatment of articular cartilage defects in the knee joint. Techniques and results; Autologe Chondrozytentransplantation zur Behandlung von Knorpeldefekten des Kniegelenks. Techniken und Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, S.; Kutscha-Lissberg, F.; Aldrian, S.; Resinger, C.; Singer, P.; Zeller, P.; Vecsei, V. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Unfallchirurgie, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2004-08-01

    Currently the use of autologous chondrocytes as a cartilage-repair procedure for the repair of injured articular cartilage of the knee joint, is recommended. This review presents the technique of autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and their modifications as matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). Beside the surgical procedure the experimental and clinical results are discussed. Furthermore the major complications and the indication guidelines are presented. Articular cartilage in adults has a poor ability to self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts in treating cartilage defects have focused on bringing new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. With ACT good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated posttraumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient with the formation of hyalinelike repair tissue. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. The current limitations include osteoarthritic defects and higher patient age. With the right indication and operative technique ACT is an effective and save option for the treatment of large full thickness cartilage defect of the knee joint. (orig.) [German] Zur Behandlung umschriebener Defekte des artikulaeren Kniegelenkgelenkknorpels wird der Einsatz autologer Knorpelzellen zunehmend als neue biologische Methode empfohlen. Die Technik der autologen Chondrozytentransplantation (ACT) und deren Modifikationen als matrixassoziierte autologe Chondrozytentransplantation (MACT) werden dargestellt. Es erfolgt ein Ueberblick ueber die experimentellen und klinischen Ergebnisse mit der Darstellung der haeufigsten Komplikationen und den derzeit gueltigen Indikationsrichtlinien. Unter Verwendung qualitativ hochwertiger Zellen zeigen besonders posttraumatische Knorpeldefekte bei juengeren Patienten eine hohe Erfolgsquote mit der Ausbildung eines hyalinartigen

  17. Fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes the repair of partial thickness defects of articular cartilage in immature rabbits but not in mature rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Wakitani, Shigeyuki; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Hattori, Takako; Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Saito, Masanobu; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    To investigate cartilage response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) with increasing age in vivo, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on partial thickness defects of immature and mature rabbits. Sixty-nine Japanese white rabbits (34 immature rabbits, 35 mature rabbits) were examined. We made experimental partial thickness defects in articular cartilage of the knees. Then, we injected FGF-2 into the knees eight times, immediately after surgery and every 2 days for 2 weeks. A single dose of FGF-2 was 10 ng/0.1 ml or 100 ng/0.1 ml. In the control group, 0.1 ml saline was injected on the same time schedule. The rabbits were sacrificed at intervals following surgery that ranged from 2 to 48 weeks. The specimens were stained with toluidine blue and examined microscopically. We used a modified semiquantitative scale for evaluating the histological appearance of repair. In immature rabbits, the cartilage repair in the FGF-2 (100 ng)-treated group was significantly better than that of the other groups. The defects were almost completely repaired with chondrocytes that showed a round to polygonal morphology, and large amounts of extracellular matrix with intense metachromatic staining. In mature rabbits, however, there was apparently no effect from FGF-2 in either group. Application of FGF-2 facilitated cartilage repair in partial thickness defects in immature rabbits, but not in mature ones.

  18. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa’s Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chermaine Deepa Antony

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa’s fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p=0.00 between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%. Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory.

  19. Intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid increases the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated in a large osteochondral defect by implantation of a double-network gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Takaaki; Kitamura, Nobuto; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Yokota, Masashi; Kondo, Eiji; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-04-01

    Implantation of PAMPS/PDMAAm double-network (DN) gel can induce hyaline cartilage regeneration in the osteochondral defect. However, it is a problem that the volume of the regenerated cartilage tissue is gradually reduced at 12 weeks. This study investigated whether intra-articular administration of hyaluronic acid (HA) increases the volume of the cartilage regenerated with the DN gel at 12 weeks. A total of 48 rabbits were used in this study. A cylindrical osteochondral defect created in the bilateral femoral trochlea was treated with DN gel (Group DN) or left without any implantation (Group C). In both Groups, we injected 1.0 mL of HA in the left knee, and 1.0 mL of saline solution in the right knee. Quantitative histological evaluations were performed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks, and PCR analysis was performed at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. In Group DN, the proteoglycan-rich area was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 12 weeks (P = 0.0247), and expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and Sox9 mRNAs was significantly greater in the HA-injected knees than in the saline-injected knees at 2 weeks (P = 0.0475, P = 0.0257, P = 0.0222, respectively). The intra-articular administration of HA significantly enhanced these gene expression at 2 weeks and significantly increased the volume of the hyaline cartilage regenerated by implantation of a DN gel at 12 weeks. This information is important to develop an additional method to increase the volume of the hyaline cartilage tissue in a potential cartilage regeneration strategy using the DN gel.

  20. Experimental study on tissue engineering resurfacing of articular cartilage defect%组织工程修复关节软骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡怀建; 雍宜民; 沈惠良

    2001-01-01

    目的用组织工程的方法,将新生关节软骨细胞先在高分子聚乳酸材料上进行体外培养,然后移植于关节软骨缺损处,以达到修复关节软骨缺损的目的。方法取新生新西兰兔关节软骨细胞培养于高分子聚乳酸材料支架上。将16只兔的32个膝关节股骨髁处人工造成一4mm×6mm大小缺损,并随机分为二组。Ⅰ组10只兔,20个关节缺损,用软骨细胞-高分子聚乳酸移植修复。Ⅱ组6只兔,左膝用软骨细胞-高分子聚乳酸移植体修复,表面覆盖单层软骨细胞;右膝仅用高分子聚乳酸材料修复。术后分别于4、8、12、24周取标本进行大体、光镜、组织化学的方法进行结果评估。结果用软骨细胞-高分子聚乳酸移植体能修复关节软骨缺损,且为透明软骨。新生软骨组织胶原定型为Ⅱ型胶原。结论用软骨细胞-高分子聚乳酸移植体移植,关节软骨缺损能获得透明软骨修复。%Objective Tissue engineering by chondrocyte transplantation with biodegradable polylactic acid scaffolds and new cartilage formation after in vitro culture is developed as a new attempt to repair articular cartilage defects.Methods Chondrocytes from newborn New Zealand rabbits were cultured on polylactic acid implants in vitro.4mm×6mm defects were created artificially at 32 knee joints of 16 rabbits and were randomized into 2 groups.20 joint defects of 10 rabbits in Group 1 were repaired by chondrocyte-seeded polylactic acid implants.In group 2,the left knee joint defects were repaired by chondrocyte-seeded polylactic acid implants while the right knee defects were repaired by polylactic acid implants only.Specimens were collected and assessed grossly,by light microscopy and histochemically at the 4,8,12 and 24th week after operation.Results Joint defects were repaired by chondrocyte-seeded polylactic acid implants and the new cartilages were hyalinic.The collagen component in the new

  1. Intra-articular Injected synovial stem cells differentiate into meniscal cells directly and promote meniscal regeneration without mobilization to distant organs in rat massive meniscal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi; Ichinose, Shizuko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Saito, Hirohisa; Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2009-04-01

    Osteoarthritis in the knees, which can be caused by meniscal defect, constitutes an increasingly common medical problem. Repair for massive meniscal defect remains a challenge owing to a lack of cell kinetics for the menisci precursors in knee joint. The synovium plays pivotal roles during the natural course of meniscal healing and contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with high chondrogenic potential. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injected synovium-MSCs enhanced meniscal regeneration in rat massive meniscal defect. To track the injected cells, we developed transgenic rats expressing dual luciferase (Luc) and LacZ. The cells derived from synovium of the rats demonstrated colony-forming ability and multipotentiality, both characteristics of MSCs. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that gene expression of meniscal cells was closer to that of synovium-MSCs than to that of bone marrow-MSCs. Two to 8 weeks after five million Luc/LacZ+ synovium-MSCs were injected into massive meniscectomized knee of wild-type rat, macroscopically, the menisci regenerated much better than it did in the control group. After 12 weeks, the regenerated menisci were LacZ positive, produced type 2 collagen, and showed meniscal features by transmission electron microscopy. In in-vivo luminescence analysis, photons increased in the meniscus-resected knee over a 3-day period, then decreased without detection in all other organs. LacZ gene derived from MSCs could not be detected in other organs except in synovium by real-time PCR. Synovium-MSCs injected into the massive meniscectomized knee adhered to the lesion, differentiated into meniscal cells directly, and promoted meniscal regeneration without mobilization to distant organs.

  2. In vitro targeted magnetic delivery and tracking of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles labeled stem cells for articular cartilage defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Jin, Xuhong; Dai, Gang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Jiarong; Yang, Liu

    2011-04-01

    To assess a novel cell manipulation technique of tissue engineering with respect to its ability to augment superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) labeled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) density at a localized cartilage defect site in an in vitro phantom by applying magnetic force. Meanwhile, non-invasive imaging techniques were use to track SPIO-labeled MSCs by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Human bone marrow MSCs were cultured and labeled with SPIO. Fresh degenerated human osteochondral fragments were obtained during total knee arthroplasty and a cartilage defect was created at the center. Then, the osteochondral fragments were attached to the sidewalls of culture flasks filled with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to mimic the human joint cavity. The SPIO-labeled MSCs were injected into the culture flasks in the presence of a 0.57 Tesla (T) magnetic force. Before and 90 min after cell targeting, the specimens underwent T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (SET2WI) sequence of 3.0 T MRI. MRI results were compared with histological findings. Macroscopic observation showed that SPIO-labeled MSCs were steered to the target region of cartilage defect. MRI revealed significant changes in signal intensity (P<0.01). HE staining exibited that a great number of MSCs formed a three-dimensional (3D) cell "sheet" structure at the chondral defect site. It was concluded that 0.57 T magnetic force permits spatial delivery of magnetically labeled MSCs to the target region in vitro. High-field MRI can serve as an very sensitive non-invasive technique for the visualization of SPIO-labeled MSCs.

  3. PEO-PPO-PEO Carriers for rAAV-Mediated Transduction of Human Articular Chondrocytes in Vitro and in a Human Osteochondral Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Rico, Ana; Frisch, Janina; Venkatesan, Jagadesh Kumar; Schmitt, Gertrud; Rial-Hermida, Isabel; Taboada, Pablo; Concheiro, Angel; Madry, Henning; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2016-08-17

    Gene therapy is an attractive strategy for the durable treatment of human osteoarthritis (OA), a gradual, irreversible joint disease. Gene carriers based on the small human adeno-associated virus (AAV) exhibit major efficacy in modifying damaged human articular cartilage in situ over extended periods of time. Yet, clinical application of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors remains complicated by the presence of neutralizing antibodies against viral capsid elements in a majority of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of delivering rAAV vectors to human OA chondrocytes in vitro and in an experimental model of osteochondral defect via polymeric micelles to protect gene transfer from experimental neutralization. Interaction of rAAV with micelles of linear (poloxamer PF68) or X-shaped (poloxamine T908) poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) copolymers (PEO-PPO-PEO micelles) was characterized by means of isothermal titration calorimetry. Micelle encapsulation allowed an increase in both the stability and bioactivity of rAAV vectors and promoted higher levels of safe transgene (lacZ) expression both in vitro and in experimental osteochondral defects compared with that of free vector treatment without detrimental effects on the biological activity of the cells or their phenotype. Remarkably, protection against antibody neutralization was also afforded when delivering rAAV via PEO-PPO-PEO micelles in all systems evaluated, especially when using T908. Altogether, these findings show the potential of PEO-PPO-PEO micelles as effective tools to improve current gene-based treatments for human OA.

  4. Ⅱ型胶原海绵填充材料修复兔关节软骨缺损%Repair of articular cartilage defect in rabbit with type Ⅱ collagen sponge filling material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺敬义; 龙瑞芳

    2005-01-01

    背景:修复关节软骨缺损一直是骨科医师致力解决的难题,以前采用自体软骨膜、骨膜或异体骨软骨片移植,但存在供体来源有限、固定困难,以及出现软骨内骨化、软骨下骨与修复性软骨的分层现象等.Ⅱ型胶原是软骨基质的主要成分,对关节软骨缺损的修复应有一定的作用.目的:探讨Ⅱ型胶原海绵对修复关节软骨缺损的效果.设计:随机对照的实验研究.地点和材料:实验地点为广州市创伤外科研究所.材料:普通级成年雄性纯种新西兰兔24只48膝,体质量(2.29±0.25)kg,标准饲料分笼喂养.干预:在股骨滑车面钻孔为直径5 mm、深3 mm的全层关节软骨缺损,按随机数分为填充组(左膝关节缺损部位植入Ⅱ型胶原海绵)和对照组(右膝关节缺损部位作为空白对照).主要观察指标:术后12周内,每双数周对缺损修复情况行大体形态和组织学观察.结果:10~12周,对照组:缺损区由白色、质软、按压无阻抗的组织修复,修复组织仍低于周围关节面,边界仍清晰可辨,组织学以类似炎症反应的机制修复缺损,最终以透明变性的纤维组织的增生来填补缺损部位;填充组:缺损区由半透明状、质韧光滑有光泽,按压有阻抗并有弹性的组织修复,修复组织与周围软骨外形上已基本相似,不易区分,组织学未见有炎症反应的过程,内骨组织和软骨组织增生活跃,并可见大量类骨组织和骨小梁形成,新生软骨和周围软骨组织融合,并与周围组织连接.Ⅱ型胶原对关节软骨缺损的修复有明显的促进作用,修复结果接近正常软骨.结论:自行研制的高纯度Ⅱ型胶原海绵,对关节软骨缺损具有良好的促进修复作用,且组织相容性好,无明显的毒副作用.%BACKGROUND: The repair of articular cartilage defect is always a problem that is dedicatedly solved by doctors of orthopaedics. Autologous perichondrium, periosteum or allografting

  5. Microphthalmia and linear skin defects (MLS) and focal dermal hypoplasia of Goltz (FDHG); Clinical cytogenetic, and molecular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnur, R.E.; Wick, P.A.; Louis, A. [Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    MLS and FDHG syndromes have overlapping phenotypes, including linear skin defects or erosions that heal in cribiform patterns of atrophy and pigmentary change and asymmetric ocular defects. It has been postulated that MLS and FDHG phenotypes reflect changes in the same gene(s) as well as variable X-inactivation patterns. In order to explore this, we studied one new MLS and 2 FDHG patients at clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular levels. Phenotype comparison: We observed a greater variety and wider distribution of cutaneous lesions in FDHG. Only the MLS patient had microphthalmia and sclerocornea with other ocular changes. Skeletal lesions were seen in only one FDHG patient who also had additional problems. Cytogenetics: The MLS patient demonstrated a 46,XX,del(X)(p22) karyotype. We excluded a cryptic Y-translocation by FISH using a Y-chromosome paint. Both FDHG patients had 46,XX karyotypes. Molecular studies: For deletion analysis, somatic cell hybrids containing separated X homologues were made from EBV-transformed LBL lines of all 3 patients. Of 20 hybrids obtained from the MLS patient, only one contained the deleted X, but we recognize that a culture artifact may have occurred in LBL cells prior to fusion. There was also a suggestion of partial skewing of X-homologue representation in FDHG hybrids. The breakpoint for the MLS deletion, which arose on the paternally-derived homologue (by RFLPs), was between DXS16 and AMG; DXS70 and DXS85 were also deleted. This is consistent with reported breakpoints in other MLS patients. Neither FDHG patient was deleted at any of these loci. Our study provides a basis for additional testing in FDHG patients via somatic cell hybrids with new markers and candidate genes from the MLS critical region to confirm or negate the proposed mapping of FDHG to Xp22.3.

  6. 自体脂肪源性间充质干细胞修复兔软骨缺损的实验研究%Repair of articular cartilage defects by autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell experiment with rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雨润; 田华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) tranduced by adenovirus-mediated human transforming growth factor 2 (Ad-hTGF-β2) gene in the repair of articular cartilage defects. Methods Rabbit ADSCs were obtained, cultured, and transfected with Ad-hTGF-β2 containing human transforming growth factor (hTGF) - β2. Three days later RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of hTGF- β2 in the ADSCs, and ELISA was used to detect the protein expression of hTGF-β2 in the supernatant, phosphorylation of Smad was examined by Western blotting. Articular cartilage defects at the femoral trochlea were made on 20 rabbits (40 sides) so as to establish animal models. The culture-expanded rabbit ADSCs transfected with Ad-hTGF- 2 were seeded on poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffolds. The cell-adhered PLGA scaffolds were implanted into the articular cartilage defects. Plain PLGA was implanted into the left-side defects of 10 rabbits as control group and the defects of 10 sides remained untreated as blank control group. The rabbits were sacrificed 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the operation respectively. The specimens of defects were examined histologically and stained immunohistochemically for type Ⅱ collagen. Results After transfection the ADSCs expressed mRNA and protein expression of hTGF- β2 and Western blotting showed bands of phosphorylated Smad. The cartilage specimens harvested from the experimental group rabbits demonstrated hyaline cartilage formation mingled closely with the nearby tissues and expression of type Ⅱ collagen. However, only fibroblasts, not cartilage-like cells, were seen in the control groups that lacked the expression of type Ⅱ collagen too. Conclusion Culture-expanded autologous ADSCs adhered with PLGA composites facilitate the formation of hyaline-cartilage.%目的 评价腺病毒介导的人转化生长因子β2(Ad-hTGF-β2)基因转染自体兔脂肪间充质干细胞(ADSCs)

  7. Finite element model of distal tibial articular surface defect:Biomechanical analysis%胫骨远端关节面缺损有限元模型的生物力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华; 李少星; 赵长义; 闫金成

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Finite element analysis has been widely used for the research of bone and joint biomechanics, but the reports about finite element analysis of distal tibial articular surface defect are rare at home and abroad. OBJECTIVE:To establish ankle three-dimensional finite element model, produce distal tibial articular surface defects with different areas, and to simulate the distal tibial articular surface deformation and displacement under the different phases, thus predict the maximum al owable degree of distal tibial articular surface defect and explore the mechanics pathogenesis of ankle traumatic arthritis. METHODS:Continuous tomographic images were obtained by multi-slice spiral CT scan of a normal adult male ankle, and then the images were imported into the Mimics medicine modeling software to generate a entity model;the large general-purpose finite element analysis software ANSYS 13.0 was used for meshing, material property assignment and generating a finite element model. Restricted boundary conditions and simulated ankle distal end axial force, and then the stress distribution and displacement results of distal tibial articular surface in different phases were obtained. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The total number of units of the established finite element model of ankle joint was 157 990, and the total number of nodes was 193 801. On three phases, with the increase of the distal tibial defect area, the contact area was gradual y decreased, especial y in plantar flexion with the defect diameter of 13 mm, the change of the area was most obvious;The contact area of the neutral position was largest;with the increase of the distal tibial defect area in the neutral position and dorsiflexion, the peak stress was increased gradual y, and significantly increased after the diameter changed into 11-13 mm;in the neutral position and 10° of dorsiflexion, the peak stress mainly concentrated in the posteromedial and posterolateral quadrant;in 10° of plantar flexion

  8. Biomechanical characteristics of distal tibial articular surface defect of the ankle joint:three-dimensional finite element analysis%踝关节胫骨远端关节面缺损生物力学特征的三维有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋作成; 闫小龙

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies found that three-dimensional finite element analysis can be used in the study of ankle biomechanics, but research on distal tibial articular surface defect was few. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the biomechanics of distal tibial articular surface defect with three-dimensional finite element, and provide the basis for mechanism of ankle injury related diseases. METHODS:We established ankle three-dimensional finite element model, and set different diameters of distal tibial articular surface defect, observed the peak stress of distal tibial articular surface at load of 1 400 N and the flexor of 14°, at load of 700 N and neutral position, at load 2 100 N and dorsiflexion of 10°, and contact area of tibial astragaloid joint surface at different postures and different defect diameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) At load of 1 400 N and plantar flexion of 14°, the distal tibial articular surface front quadrant stress peak was smal est when the distal tibial articular surface defect diameter was 8 mm, and was maximum when defect diameter was 16 mm;the distal tibial articular surface front inner quadrant stress peak was smal est when the distal tibial articular surface defect diameter was 12 mm, and maximum when defect diameter was 16 mm;the distal tibial articular surface posterior quadrant stress peak was smal est when defect diameter was 12 mm, distal tibial articular surface posterior inner quadrant stress peak was smal est when defect diameter was 0 mm;the distal tibial exterior stress peak was maximum when defect diameter was 16 mm. (2) At load of 700 N and neutral position, exterior front quadrant, front inner quadrant, posterior quadrant and posterior inner quadrant stress peaks increased with the distal tibial articular surface defect increases;the distal tibial articular surface defect stress peak was maximum when defect diameter was 16 mm. (3) At load of 2 100 N and dorsiflexion of 10°, the distal tibial articular surface stress peak was maximum

  9. Imaging articular cartilage defects with 3D fat-suppressed echo planar imaging: comparison with conventional 3D fat-suppressed gradient echo sequence and correlation with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattnig, S; Huber, M; Breitenseher, M J; Trnka, H J; Rand, T; Kaider, A; Helbich, T; Imhof, H; Resnick, D

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to shorten examination time in articular cartilage imaging by use of a recently developed 3D multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with fat suppression (FS). We performed comparisons with 3D FS GE sequence using histology as the standard of reference. Twenty patients with severe gonarthrosis who were scheduled for total knee replacement underwent MRI prior to surgery. Hyaline cartilage was imaged with a 3D FS EPI and a 3D FS GE sequence. Signal intensities of articular structures were measured, and contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios were calculated. Each knee was subdivided into 10 cartilage surfaces. From a total of 188 (3D EPI sequence) and 198 (3D GE sequence) cartilage surfaces, 73 and 79 histologic specimens could be obtained and analyzed. MR grading of cartilage lesions on both sequences was based on a five grade classification scheme and compared with histologic grading. The 3D FS EPI sequence provided a high C/N ratio between cartilage and subchondral bone similar to that of the 3D FS GE sequence. The C/N ratio between cartilage and effusion was significantly lower on the 3D EPI sequence due to higher signal intensity of fluid. MR grading of cartilage abnormalities using 3D FS EPI and 3D GE sequence correlated well with histologic grading. 3D FS EPI sequence agreed within one grade in 69 of 73 (94.5%) histologically proven cartilage lesions and 3D FS GE sequence agreed within one grade in 76 of 79 (96.2%) lesions. The gradings were identical in 38 of 73 (52.1%) and in 46 of 79 (58.3%) cases, respectively. The difference between the sensitivities was statistically not significant. The 3D FS EPI sequence is comparable with the 3D FS GE sequence in the noninvasive evaluation of advanced cartilage abnormalities but reduces scan time by a factor of 4.

  10. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 3: Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, Jason P; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Petrigliano, Frank A; LaPrade, Robert F; Mann, Barton J; Musahl, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Focal chondral defects of the articular surface are a common occurrence in the field of orthopaedics. These isolated cartilage injuries, if not repaired surgically with restoration of articular congruency, may have a high rate of progression to posttraumatic osteoarthritis, resulting in significant morbidity and loss of function in the young, active patient. Both isolated and global joint disease are a difficult entity to treat in the clinical setting given the high amount of stress on weightbearing joints and the limited healing potential of native articular cartilage. Recently, clinical interest has focused on the use of biologically active compounds and surgical techniques to regenerate native cartilage to the articular surface, with the goal of restoring normal joint health and overall function. This article presents a review of the current biologic therapies, as discussed at the 2015 American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Biologics Think Tank, that are used in the treatment of focal cartilage deficiencies. For each of these emerging therapies, the theories for application, the present clinical evidence, and specific areas for future research are explored, with focus on the barriers currently faced by clinicians in advancing the success of these therapies in the clinical setting.

  11. Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Bautista

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal itself and thus focal defects often result in the development of osteoarthritis. Current cartilage tissue engineering strategies seek to regenerate injured tissue by creating scaffolds that aim to mimic the unique structure and composition of native articular cartilage. Decellularization is a novel strategy that aims to preserve the bioactive factors and 3D biophysical environment of the native extracellular matrix while removing potentially immunogenic factors. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure that can enable decellularization and recellularization of intact articular cartilage matrix. Full-thickness porcine articular cartilage plugs were decellularized with a series of freeze-thaw cycles and 0.1% (w/v sodium dodecyl sulfate detergent cycles. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC was applied before the detergent cycles to digest glycosaminoglycans in order to enhance donor chondrocyte removal and seeded cell migration. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the decellularized cartilage scaffolds and cultured for up to 28 days. The optimized decellularization protocol removed 94% of native DNA per sample wet weight, while collagen content and alignment were preserved. Glycosaminoglycan depletion prior to the detergent cycles increased removal of nuclear material. Seeded cells infiltrated up to 100 μm into the cartilage deep zone after 28 days in culture. ChABC treatment enhances decellularization of the relatively dense, impermeable articular cartilage by reducing glycosaminoglycan content. ChABC treatment did not appear to affect cell migration during recellularization under static, in vitro culture, highlighting the need for more dynamic seeding methods.

  12. Imaging of articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawan K Paunipagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tried to review the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in understanding microscopic and morphologic structure of the articular cartilage. The optimal protocols and available spin-echo sequences in present day practice are reviewed in context of common pathologies of articular cartilage. The future trends of articular cartilage imaging have been discussed with their appropriateness. In diarthrodial joints of the body, articular cartilage is functionally very important. It is frequently exposed to trauma, degeneration, and repetitive wear and tear. MRI has played a vital role in evaluation of articular cartilage. With the availability of advanced repair surgeries for cartilage lesions, there has been an increased demand for improved cartilage imaging techniques. Recent advances in imaging strategies for native and postoperative articular cartilage open up an entirely new approach in management of cartilage-related pathologies.

  13. Microperioteum-scaffolded repair of large, full-thickness defect of articular cartilage%微粒骨膜-三维支架修复大面积关节软骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚屏; 赵庆安; 董平; 汤华林; 王爱康; 俞文英; 宋晓萍; 韩成钢; 陈先武

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effectiveness and the feasibility of microperiosteum-scaffol-ded repair of larger defect of articular cartilage. Methods A larger (4.5 ram-in diameter) ,full-thlckness defect of articular cartilage were made in the femoral groove of New Zealand White rabbits. Microperioste-tun was prepared and dispersed in fibering glue, then transplanted into defects by means of tapecasting. The contralateral knee served as a control : only fibering glue was transplanted into defects in the same way. The distal parts of the femur were harvested at the end of 3 h,4 days and 1,2,4,8,12,24 weeks postoperative-ly ,and were examined grossly and histologically. The tissues were stained with HE, Masson (for collagen of articurlar cartilage) and safranin-O (for GAG). Results The microperiosteum- fibering glue could be prepared simply,and could be transplanted freely into defects by the means of tapecasting. This approach could be accomplished easily by no more than one operation. Throughout the defects were repaired as MSCs of the microperiosteum proliferated tremendously and secreted special cartilage matrix; The new cartilage was the same as the surrounding normal cartilage in its thickness, cellular histology, special staining for collage and GAG, and was excellently integrated with surrounding cartilage and subcartilage bone as well.There were significant differences (P <0.01) in histologic scores between control group and microperios-team-scaffolded graft group at the end of 4,8,12,24 weeks postoperatively. Conclusion The approach can construct tissue complex, and microperinsteum- fibering glue can transplanted freely by the means of tapecasting and repair the defects of articurlar cartilage; It may be a useful alternative in the repair of large,full-thickness defect of joint surfaces.%目的 探讨微粒骨膜-三维支架修复大面积关节软骨缺损的有效性和可行性.方法 于兔股骨滑车关节面制作直径4.5 mm深达软骨下骨板的全

  14. Transitory improvement of articular cartilage characteristics after implantation of polylactide:polyglycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds seeded with autologous mesenchymal stromal cells in a sheep model of critical-sized chondral defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminal, M; Moll, X; Codina, D; Rabanal, R M; Morist, A; Barrachina, J; Garcia, F; Pla, A; Vives, J

    2014-10-01

    Clinical translation of emerging technologies aiming at cartilage resurfacing is hindered by neither the appropriate scaffold design nor the optimal cell source having been defined. Here, critical-sized, chondral-only focal defects were created in sheep and treated with clinical-grade, co-polymeric poly-lactide:polyglycolic acid scaffolds either alone or seeded with 3.3 × 10(6) ± 0.4 × 10(6) autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells and studied over 12 month follow-up. An untreated group was included for comparison. Second-look arthroscopy performed at 4 months post-treatment evidenced the generation of neocartilage of better quality in those defects treated with cells. However, macroscopic scores in the cell-treated group declined significantly from 7.5 ± 2.3 at 4 months to 3.1 ± 2.6 (p = 0.0098) at 12 months post-treatment, whereas the other two experimental groups remained unaltered during 4-12 month post-treatment. The effectiveness of the cell-based approach proposed in this study is thus restricted to between months 1 and 4 post-treatment.

  15. Biomaterial composite scaffolds in repair of sports-induced articular cartilage defects%生物材料复合支架与运动性关节软骨缺损的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏亮; 韩东

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨复合支架的组织工程学特性及其修复关节软骨缺损的性能评价.方法:以"关节软骨、生物材料、工程软骨、复合材料、复合支架"为中文关键词,以" tissue enginneering,articular cartilage,scaffold material"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、PubMed数据库(1993-01/2010-11)相关文章.纳入复合支架材料-细胞复合物修复关节软骨损伤相关的文章,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:共入选18篇文章进入结果分析.复合支架是当前软骨组织工程中应用较多的支架,它是将具有互补特征的生物相容性可降解支架,按一定比例和方式组合,设计出结构与性能优化的复合支架.较单一支架材料具有显著优越性,具有更好的生物相容性和一定强度的韧性,较好的孔隙和机械强度.复合支架的制备不仅包括同一类生物材料的复合,还包括不同类别生物材料之间的交叉复合.可分为纯天然支架材料、纯人工支架材料以及天然与人工支架材料的复合等3类.结论:复合支架使生物材料具有互补特性,一定程度上满足了理想生物支架材料应具有的综合特点,但目前很多研究仍处于实验阶段,还有一些问题有待于解决,如不同材料的复合比例、复合工艺等.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the tissue engineering properties of the composite scaffold and its performance evaluation for the repair of articular cartilage defects.METHODS: Using "articular cartilage, biological materials, engineering cartilage, composite materials, composite scaffold" in Chinese and "tissue engineering, articular cartilage, scaffold material" in English as the key words, a computer-based online search of China Academic Journal Full-text database and PubMed database (1993-01/2010-11) was performed. Articles about the composite scaffold-cell compound in the repair of articular cartilage injury, duplicated research or Meta

  16. Repairing articular cartilage defects in rabbits using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)%聚乳酸/聚羟基乙酸共聚物修复髌股关节软骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔玉明; 伍骥; 胡蕴玉

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Traditional methods to repair cartilage damage are prone to induce degeneration. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA) has good biocompatibility, its degradation rate can be adjusted according to the requirements, has a potential application prospect in the repair of cartilage damage.OBJECTIVE:To study the feasibility of repairing articular cartilage defect in rabbits using PLGA as a carrier.METHODS:Two-month-old New Zealand white rabbits were selected, and the marrow stromal cells were induced into chondroncytes.The third passage of cells and the PLGA were co-cultured for 24 hours, then PLGA-cell composites were prepared ready. Defects were made in femoral condyles of rabbit patellofemoral joint, and the right 36 knees were treated with PLGA-cell composites, the left 18knees was implanted with PLGA only, the other 18 knees were left untreated as control group. At 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 weeks after operation, the animals were killed and the newly formed tissues were observed grossly and graded histologically.RESULRS AND CONCLUSION:After the defects in rabbits were repaired using PLGA-cell composite, the chondrocytes distributed uniformly, the color and the luster of the defects were similar to that of the normal cartilage, and was ill-demarcated from the surrounding normal cartilage. The cells on the surface paralleled to joint surface, and the cells in the deep layer arranged disorderly. The cells clustered together, the matrix was extensively metachromatic. The subchond ral bone formed, the tide mark basically recovered, and the new cartilage integrated with normal cartilage finely. As for only PLGA group and untreated group,chondrocytes proliferated in the border, but on the bottom, there were mainly fibrous tissues. Chondroncytes derived from marrow stromal cell are ideal seed cells for repairing articular cartilage defect. PLGA can be used as a suitable matrix material for the repair of cartilage defect and may have a good prospect for clinical use.%

  17. [Familial articular chondrocalcinosis: study of an Alsatian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, P; Loeuille, D; Jouzeau, J Y; Gillet, P; Peterschmitt, J; Pourel, J; Gaucher, A

    2001-01-01

    Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a chronic articular disease characterized by acute intermittent attacks of arthritis, presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid, cartilage and periarticular soft tissue and by x rays calcium deposition in articular cartilage. A family originating from Alsace, with an autosomal dominant transmission has been studied. As in English and Argentinean families, a linkage to the short arm of chromosome 5p has been found. These results suggest that a defective gene at this location may be related to the chondrocalcinosis in these families.

  18. Comparative study of MR 3D-SPACE,3D-True FISP sequences at measuring defect area in articular cartilage of knee%3D-SPACE、3D-True FISP序列测量膝关节软骨缺损面积的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 孙岩; 秦卫; 胡丹; 郝跃峰; 刘可夫; 庄启湘; 郑志勇

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the accuracy of defect area in articular cartilage of knee by comparing results from the 3D-SPACE sequence and the 3D-True FISP sequence. Methods:A 1.5 T MRI system was used to perform a study of 38 pa-tients,and lesion visualization of articular cartilage of knee joint was compared. Measurement results of defect area in articular cartilage of knee (52 lesions) by 3D-SPACE sequence and 3D-True FISP sequence was compared with the measurement re-sults by arthroscopy. Results:The average size of defective articular cartilage of knee joint in 3D-SPACE sequence was (2.337±0.868)cm2,and in 3D-True FISP sequence was (1.423±0.560)cm2. 3D-SPACE sequence were significantly higher than with the 3D-True FISP sequence (P<0.05) in visualization of articular cartilage of knee joint,also in assessing the accuracy of defect area. Conclusion:For the depiction of articular cartilage of knee,the 3D-SPACE sequence is superior to the 3D-CISS se-quence,also in assessing the accuracy of defect area in articular cartilage of knee.%目的:比较三维可变翻转角快速自旋回波序列(3-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions,3D-SPACE)、三维真稳态进动快速成像序列(3D-true fast imaging with steady-state precession,3D-True FISP)测量膝关节软骨缺损面积的准确性。方法:选取38例膝关节软骨缺损患者,在1.5 T MRI仪上对比3D-SPACE、3D-True FISP序列对膝关节软骨的显示质量,并将2组序列测量的缺损软骨面积(52处)与关节镜测量结果进行比较。结果:3D-SPACE、3D-True FISP序列测量的膝软骨缺损面积平均每膝分别为(2.337±0.868)cm2、(1.423±0.560)cm2。3D-SPACE序列比3D-True FISP序列在对膝关节软骨显示质量上更优(P<0.05),且对软骨缺损面积的显示更准确(P<0.05)。结论:3D-SPACE序列比3D-True FISP序列能更好地显示膝关节软骨,对膝关节

  19. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair – the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Johnstone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach – combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  20. Tissue engineering for articular cartilage repair--the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Brian; Alini, Mauro; Cucchiarini, Magali; Dodge, George R; Eglin, David; Guilak, Farshid; Madry, Henning; Mata, Alvaro; Mauck, Robert L; Semino, Carlos E; Stoddart, Martin J

    2013-05-02

    Articular cartilage exhibits little capacity for intrinsic repair, and thus even minor injuries or lesions may lead to progressive damage and osteoarthritic joint degeneration, resulting in significant pain and disability. While there have been numerous attempts to develop tissue-engineered grafts or patches to repair focal chondral and osteochondral defects, there remain significant challenges in the clinical application of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. This paper reviews the current state of cartilage tissue engineering with respect to different cell sources and their potential genetic modification, biomaterial scaffolds and growth factors, as well as preclinical testing in various animal models. This is not intended as a systematic review, rather an opinion of where the field is moving in light of current literature. While significant advances have been made in recent years, the complexity of this problem suggests that a multidisciplinary approach - combining a clinical perspective with expertise in cell biology, biomechanics, biomaterials science and high-throughput analysis will likely be necessary to address the challenge of developing functional cartilage replacements. With this approach we are more likely to realise the clinical goal of treating both focal defects and even large-scale osteoarthritic degenerative changes in the joint.

  1. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

  2. One intra-articular injection of hyaluronan prevents cell death and improves cell metabolism in a model of injured articular cartilage in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Edwin J. P.; Ernans, Pieter J.; Douw, Conny M.; Guidemond, Nick A.; Van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Kuijer, Roell

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of one intra-articular injection of hyaluronan on chondrocyte death and metabolism in injured cartilage. Twenty-three 6-month-old rabbits received partial-thickness articular cartilage defects created on each medial femoral condyle. In order to e

  3. Condrocalcinose articular familiar Familial articular chondrocalcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittermayer Barreto Santiago

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Condrocalcinose articular familiar é uma condição clínica caracterizada pela deposição de cristais de pirofosfato de cálcio no líquido sinovial e cartilagens articulares levando à artrite. Descrevemos três membros de uma família com condrocalcinose cujo quadro clínico era caracterizado por artrite intermitente em dois e artrite crônica lembrando artrite reumatóide em um. A avaliação radiológica mostrou calcificações em cartilagens de diversas articulações, particularmente de joelhos. A utilização de colchicina foi suficiente para prevenir as crises de artrite em dois pacientes e o paciente com a forma crônica necessitou uso contínuo de antiinflamatórios não-hormonais. Embora aparentemente rara no Brasil, não afastamos a possibilidade desse dado estar subestimado e sugerimos que seja realizada uma avaliação radiológica articular dos familiares de todo paciente com diagnóstico de condrocalcinose esporádica.Familial articular chondrocalcinosis is a disorder characterized by deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal in synovial fluid and articular cartilage that can cause joint pain and arthritis. We have identified three members of the same family with chondrocalcinosis. The clinical features of the disease were intermittent episodes of arthritis in two patients and polyarthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one member. The radiological evaluation showed calcification in several joints, particularly in cartilages of the knees. Therapy with colchicine was enough to prevent arthritic crisis in two patients and continous NSAID use was necessary to control symptoms in the last one. Familial chondrocalcinosis seems to be rare in Brazil, but we do not exclude the possibility that this figure is underestimated and suggest that in cases of sporadic chondrocalcinosis other members of the family should be fully investigated.

  4. The Functions of BMP3 in Rabbit Articular Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs play important roles in skeletal development and repair. Previously, we found fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 induced up-regulation of BMP2, 3, 4 in the process of rabbit articular cartilage repair, which resulted in satisfactory repair effects. As BMP2/4 show a clearly positive effect for cartilage repair, we investigated the functions of BMP3 in rabbit articular cartilage repair. In this paper, we find that BMP3 inhibits the repair of partial-thickness defect of articular cartilage in rabbit by inducing the degradation of extracellular matrix, interfering with the survival of chondrocytes surrounding the defect, and directly inhibiting the expression of BMP2 and BMP4. Meanwhile BMP3 suppress the repair of full-thickness cartilage defect by destroying the subchondral bone through modulating the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, and directly increasing the expression of BMP4. Although BMP3 has different functions in the repair of partial and full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in rabbit, the regulation of BMP expression is involved in both of them. Together with our previous findings, we suggest the regulation of the BMP signaling pathway by BMP3 is essential in articular cartilage repair.

  5. Condensed cellular seeded collagen gel as an improved biomaterial for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Rath, Ralf; Gavénis, Karsten; Andereya, Stefan; Mumme, Torsten; Albrand, Monique; Stoffel, Marcus; Weichert, Dieter; Schneider, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional autologous chondrocyte implantation based on collagen gel as matrix scaffold has become a clinically applied treatment for focal defects of articular cartilage. However, the low biomechanical properties of collagen gel makes intraoperative handling difficult and creates the risk of early damages to the vulnerable implant. The aim of the study was to create a stabilized form of collagen gel and to evaluate its biomechanical and biochemical properties.Collagen type-I gel was seeded with human articular chondrocytes. 20 samples were subject to condensation which was achieved mechanically by compression and filtration. Control samples were left uncondensed. From both types of gels 10 samples were used for initial biomechanical evaluation by means of unconfined compression and 10 samples were cultivated under standard conditions in vitro. Following cultivation the samples were evaluated by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. The proliferation rate was calculated and matrix gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR.The biomechanical tests revealed a higher force carrying capacity of the condensed specimens. Strain rate dependency and relaxation was seen in both types of collagen gel representing viscoelastic material properties. Cells embedded within the condensed collagen gel were able to produce extracellular matrix proteins and showed proliferation.Condensed collagen gel represents a mechanically improved type of biomaterial which is suitable for three-dimensional autologous chondrocyte implantation.

  6. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea treated with osteochondral autograft transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Joshua J; Motamedi, Daria; Wildman-Tobriner, Ben; O’Donnell, Richard J; Link, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of an intra-articular osteoid osteoma at the femoral trochlea. Intra-articular osteoid osteoma can present a diagnostic challenge both clinically and with imaging because it presents differently from the classic cortical osteoid osteoma. Given the lesion’s proximity to overlying cartilage, the patient underwent resection of the lesion with osteochondral autograft transplantation at the surgical defect. A comprehensive literature review and discussion of intra-articular osteoma will be provided. PMID:27761182

  7. 骨形态发生蛋白与碱性成纤维细胞生长因子联合修复软骨缺损的效果评价%Effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein combined with basic fibroblast growth factor on the repair of articular cartilage defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国华; 蔡建平; 郭翠玲; 廖家新; 刘勇; 罗洪涛; 许国华; 胡红涛

    2012-01-01

    背景:多种细胞生长因子在骨软骨代谢过程中的协同作用越来越受到重视,但目前复合细胞生长因子修复软骨缺损报道较少,且修复效果尚无定论.目的:探讨骨形态发生蛋白和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子联合应用修复关节软骨缺损的效果.方法:24 只日本大耳白兔建立骨软骨缺损模型后随机等分为4 组,对照组缺损处仅填塞明胶海绵,其他3 组在对照组基础上,缺损处分别注射骨形态发生蛋白和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子、骨形态发生蛋白、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子.结果与结论:大体观察显示联合应用2 种细胞因子后,软骨缺损面基本修复但稍不平整,单独使用其中1 种细胞因子缺损面未完全修复,对照组无明显修复.联合应用2 种细胞因子缺损部位软骨细胞数多于其他3 组(P < 0.05),且Ⅱ型胶原免疫组化染色深于其他组.提示联合应用骨形态发生蛋白和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子可以促进关节软骨损伤的修复,疗效优于单独应用骨形态发生蛋白或碱性成纤维细胞生长因子.%BACKGROUND: The synergy of various cell growth factors attracts more and more attention in the course of cartilage metabolism.However, there are few reports of repairing cartilage defects with combined cell growth factors, and the effect remains unknown atpresent.OBJECTIVE: To study the repairing effect of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) combined with basicfibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on articular cartilage defects.METHODS: After the model of articular cartilage defects was made, 24 Japan big-eared white rabbits were randomly divided intofour groupsforintervention: rhBMP combined with bFGF (group A), single rhBMP (group B), single bFGF (group C), the fourthgroup was without injection and just filled with gelatin sponge (group D).RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In general observation, articular cartilage defects were basically repaired but slightly

  8. Focal femoral condyle resurfacing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, S A

    2013-03-01

    Focal femoral inlay resurfacing has been developed for the treatment of full-thickness chondral defects of the knee. This technique involves implanting a defect-sized metallic or ceramic cap that is anchored to the subchondral bone through a screw or pin. The use of these experimental caps has been advocated in middle-aged patients who have failed non-operative methods or biological repair techniques and are deemed unsuitable for conventional arthroplasty because of their age. This paper outlines the implant design, surgical technique and biomechanical principles underlying their use. Outcomes following implantation in both animal and human studies are also reviewed. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:301-4.

  9. [Intra-articular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  10. 高纯度猪软骨Ⅱ型胶原修复兔膝关节软骨缺损的实验研究%The experimental study on the repair of articular cartilage defects of the knee in rabbits with type Ⅱ collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斯明; 杨小红; 方力; 叶春婷; 李小华; 梁佩红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of repairing articular cartilage defects with type Ⅱ collagen prepared in our institute.Methods Forty adult male New Zealand white rabbits were used for preparing models of cartilage defects at the knee joint.The rabbits were randomly divided into 2 even groups. In Group A,the cartilage defects at the knee joint of 20 rabbits were filled with type collagen.In Group B, the cartilage defects at the knee joints of the other 20 rabbits were not treatedcontrols.The tissue samples of the kneejoint were collected and examined by H&E,Safranin 0 and Masson staining and type Ⅱ collagen immunostaining at 2,4,8,12 and 24 weeks postoperatively. Results H&E and Masson staining examinations revealed regeneration of cartilage in Group A 2 weeks postoperatively.The newborn ehondrocytes grew into the defect resion along the collagen fiber net.The new cartilage tissue filled up the whole defect region in Group A 12 weeks postoperatively,while only fibrous tissues could be found in the defect region in Group B 24 weeks postoperatively.Type Ⅱ collagen immunohistochemistry examination verified that the regenerated ehondrocytes exhibited a normal phenotype in Group A.The Safranin 0 examination also confirmed that the regenerated chondrocytes had a normal function of secreting cartilage matrix in Group A. Condusions Type Ⅱ collagen can induce regeneration of chondrecytes and promote healing of articular cartilage defects.The regenerated ehondrocytes induced by type Ⅱ collagen exhibit normal phenotype and function. Therefore,it may be a valuable stuffing biomaterial for repairing articular cartilage defects.%目的 研制高纯度猪软骨Ⅱ型胶原海绵,探讨其修复关节软骨缺损的可行性.方法 将40只成年雄性新西兰兔制成膝关节软骨缺损模型,随机分成两组.A组20只兔的缺损区植入Ⅱ型胶原海绵,B组20只兔的缺损区旷置,不植入胶原作为对照.于术后2、4、8、12、24

  11. Chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes depends on their original location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Joris E J; Saris, Daniel B F; Tsuchida, Anika Iris; van Rijen, Mattie H P; Dhert, Wouter J A; Creemers, Laura B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the regenerative capacity of chondrocytes derived from debrided defect cartilage and healthy cartilage from different regions in the joint to determine the best cell source for regenerative cartilage therapies. METHODS: Articular cartilage was obtained from

  12. [Extra-articular manifestations of seronegative spondylarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammelli, Daniele

    2006-05-01

    Seronegative spondylarthritis are frequently characterised by extra-articular manifestations. They are frequently in recurrent uveitis. Between the cutaneous manifestations should be mentioned erythema nodosum, typical of inflammatory bowel diseases, and keratoderma blenorrhagicum, in the Reiter's syndrome. Cardiac complications in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) include aortic valvular regurgitation and arrhythmia and, more rarely, mitral valvulopathy, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis. Pulmonary involvement in AS includes ventilatory restrictive syndrome and fibro-bullous disease of the apex. Vertebral osteoporosis is a very important extra-articular manifestation because of the possibility of spontaneous fractures of the vertebrae. Central neurological manifestations include medullary compression from cervical sub-luxation while the most important peripheral involvements are lumbar stenosis and the cauda equina syndrome. Type AA amyloidosis is a rare late complication of the AS, possible cause of death especially in patients with aggressive disease. Kidney complications can be observed as consequences of prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy, but the most frequent renal complications are amyloidosis and mesangial IgA segmental and focal glomerulonephritis.

  13. REGENERATION OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE UNDER THE IMPLANTATION OF BONE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri M. Iryanov, Nikolay A. Kiryanov, Olga V. Dyuriagina , Tatiana Yu. Karaseva, Evgenii A. Karasev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The damage or loss of articular cartilage is costly medical problem. The purpose of this work – morphological analysis of reparative chondrogenesis when implanted in the area of the knee joint cartilage of granulated mineralized bone matrix. Material and Methods: The characteristic features of the knee cartilage regeneration studied experimentally in pubertal Wistar rats after modeling a marginal perforated defect and implantation of granulated mineralized bone matrix obtained according to original technology without heat and demineralizing processing into the injury zone. Results: This biomaterial established to have pronounced chondro- and osteoinductive properties, and to provide prolonged activation of reparative process, accelerated organotypical remodeling and restoration of the articular cartilage injured. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrate the efficacy of МВМ in clinical practice for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the articular cartilage.

  14. Repair of rabbit articular cartilage and subchondral defects using porous silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite combined with adipose-derived stromal cells%多孔丝素蛋白/羟基磷灰石复合脂肪间充质干细胞修复兔关节软骨及软骨下骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠刚; 徐卫袁; 张亚; 张兴祥; 严飞; 沙卫平

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite (SF/HA) is a good scaffold for three-dimensional culture of cells, and is a common material to repair bone defect with good biocompatibility. Adipose -derived stem cells (ADSCs) which can differentiate into bone and cartilage cells are ideal for repairing cartilage defect.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of the repair of articular cartilage and subchondral defects in rabbit knee joints with transforming growth factor-?1 and insulin like growth factor-1 in combination with SF/HA and ADSCs.METHODS: A total of 56 New Zealand rabbits were selected, and 2 were used for cultures of ADSCs, which were seeded onto SF/HA at a concentration of 3×109/L. The remaining 54 rabbits were used to establish model of articular cartilage and subchondral defects and randomly assigned to composite, simple and blank control groups. The composite and simple groups were respectively implanted with SF/HA/ADSCs scaffold and SF/HA scaffold. The blank control group was not implanted any materials. Repair of defects was observed and compared by gross, imaging and histological observations.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 12 weeks, gross observation, CT, MRI and histological observations demonstrated that the articular cartilage and subchondral defects were repaired entirely in composite group. The color of repaired tissues was similar to surrounding cartilage. There was no evidence of the residue of silk fibroin or the infiltration of leukocytes. Defects were repaired partially and repaired with cartilage fibrosa in simple group. However, defects remained unchanged in blank control group.Results showed that SF/HA with ADSCs composite could successfully repair articular cartilage and subchondral defects of a rabbit knee joints and the effect was superior to SF/HA scaffold alone. The method for repairing the full-thickness hyaline cartilage defects and reconstructing anatomical structure and function of joints using SF/HA with ADSCs is feasible and promising to

  15. 应用生物蛋白胶与胚胎软骨细胞混合移植修复兔膝关节实验性软骨缺损区%Repair of experimental defects of articular cartilage in rabbits with homografts of fibrin sealant and embryonic chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆敏安; 杨渊; 肖增明; 李世德

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Research about the repair of articular cartilage with heterograft chondrocytes is frequently reported, but the method may cause immune rejection. Since the embryonic cells possess lower antigenicity and stronger proliferation capability, it is hoped that they can be used as a novel carrier substitute in tissue engineering research.DESIGN: A randomized grouping observation and comparative experiment.SETTING: Histological Embryonic Laboratory in Guangxi Medical University.MATERIALS: A big white adult New Zealand rabbit pregnant for 4 weeks was adopted; and another 24 big white adult New Zealand rabbits were selected, with no limitationin whether they were female or male and with a body mass of 2 to 2.5 kg.METHODS: This experiment was carried out at the Histological Embryonic Laboratory in Guangxi Medical University between December 2000and June 2002. The models of defects in articular cartilage were made artificially in femur medial malleolus of the mature rabbits. In the experimental group, defects were repaired by the implantation of Fibrin Sealant and embryonic chondrocytes mixture, but for the control group, only Fibrin Sealant was implanted or nothing was done about the defect. The restoration of articular cartilage defect was then observed 4,8 and 12 weeks after the operation, and was scored according to modified Pineda's method. The standard consists of 5 items, I.e., cellular morphology, matrix staining, surfacing smoothness, cartilage thickness and host union. 0 refers to normal and the higher the score is, the more serious the pathological changes are.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①The general observation of rabbit knee joint; ② Histological observation of rabbit knee joints; ③ Histological semi-quantitative score of articular cartilage; ④ Appraisal of the curative effect of articular cartilage defects.RESULTS: Totally 24 rabbits were enrolled in this experiment and all entered the stage of result analysis. ① The general observation of rabbit

  16. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Kamarul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  17. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  18. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  19. Chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implants improve hyaline cartilage repair in ovine microfracture defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoemann, Caroline D; Hurtig, Mark; Rossomacha, Evgeny; Sun, Jun; Chevrier, Anik; Shive, Matthew S; Buschmann, Michael D

    2005-12-01

    Microfracture is a surgical procedure that is used to treat focal articular cartilage defects. Although joint function improves following microfracture, the procedure elicits incomplete repair. As blood clot formation in the microfracture defect is an essential initiating event in microfracture therapy, we hypothesized that the repair would be improved if the microfracture defect were filled with a blood clot that was stabilized by the incorporation of a thrombogenic and adhesive polymer, specifically, chitosan. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) blood clot adhesion in fresh microfracture defects and (2) the quality of the repair, at six months postoperatively, of microfracture defects that had been treated with or without chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot implants, using a sheep model. In eighteen sheep, two 1-cm2 full-thickness chondral defects were created in the distal part of the femur and treated with microfracture; one defect was made in the medial femoral condyle, and the other defect was made in the trochlea. In four sheep, microfracture defects were created bilaterally; the microfracture defects in one knee received no further treatment, and the microfracture defects in the contralateral knee were filled with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/autologous whole blood and the implants were allowed to solidify. Fresh defects in these four sheep were collected at one hour postoperatively to compare the retention of the chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood clot with that of the normal clot and to define the histologic characteristics of these fresh defects. In the other fourteen sheep, microfracture defects were made in only one knee and either were left untreated (control group; six sheep) or were treated with chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implant (treatment group; eight sheep), and the quality of repair was assessed histologically, histomorphometrically, and biochemically at six months postoperatively. In the defects that were examined

  20. 自体骨髓间充质干细胞藻酸钙载体复合物对兔膝关节软骨缺损修复影响的实验研究%The experimental study of repairing effect after embedding compound including auto-bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and calcium-algitate in rabbits articular genu defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于灏; 辛畅泰

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cartilage tissue is mostly located at the important site of bones in human body, and the repair of its defect remains in suspense in clinical. With the development of the tissue engineering, it brings new approach for the repair of the defect of the articular cartilage. The researchs emphases on the ex vivo condition. Accordingly, scholars ignore the effect of improving the local micro-circumstances. Consequ-ently we add the bFGF and VitC in the micro-circumstances when embedding the carrier compound in order to improve the effect of the repair. Methods Bone marrow is obtained from the iliac bone of 20 rabbits respectively. As the seed cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells are purified with the density gradient centrifugation and ampilifid. The cell suspension is prepared with the 3rd generation and bFGF/VitC, then finishing the carrier compound which is coincident with the articular cartilage full-thickness defect (diameter 4mm, depth 4mm) and embedding. The left articular genu defects are embedded with carrier compound as the experimental group (A), and the right embedded without bFGF/VitC as the group (B). The left articular genu defects of another 6 rabbits are given the implantation of calcium alginate exclusively as group (C), and the right defects remain blank as control group (D). Sacrificing the responding rabbits in the different time after operation(30d,60d,90d), and paraffin imbedding with routine methods and preparing the microtome section. Then observing the recovery result with the index of HE, Masson, Saffrine O, EM, Immunity-histchemistry. Results The chondro-defects in group A, B and C are filling with hyaline cartilage-similar tissue and fibre tissue. Hyaline cartilage-similar tissue in group A is much more than group B, and it is the lest in group C. With the time extending, the defects in group A are mostly fell with hyaline cartilage-similar. The boundary between normal circum-articular cartilage and filling tissue becomes illegible and the

  1. First ex vivo study demonstrating that {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 radiotracer binds to human articular cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachin, Florent; Culot, Damien [Jean Perrin Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Boisgard, Stephane [Gabriel Montpied University Hospital, Orthopaedic Surgery, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Vidal, Aurelien; Auzeloux, Philippe; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Filaire, Marc [Universite d' Auvergne, Anatomy Laboratory, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, Serge [Cyclopharma Laboratoire, Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2011-11-15

    Preclinical data pointed to {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 as a good candidate for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of cartilaginous disease. We set out to investigate and quantify {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 ex vivo uptake by human articular cartilage relative to bone {sup 99m}Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) radiotracer. Three osteoarthritic human tibial plateaux and four tibiofemoral joints were incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP for 2 h. Affinity of tracers for cartilage was determined by visual analysis of SPECT/CT acquisitions and measurement of cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios. Cartilage to cortical bone uptake ratios were 3.90 {+-} 2.35 and 0.76 {+-} 0.24, respectively, for {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP radiotracers. Visual analysis of fused SPECT/CT slices showed selective, intense {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 accumulation in articular cartilage, whereas {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP binding was low. Interestingly, a cartilage defect visualized on CT was clearly associated with focal decreased uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. The tracer {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5 is of major interest for human cartilage molecular imaging and could find clinical applications in osteoarthritis staging and monitoring. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of an extracellular matrix-derived acellular biphasic scaffold/cell construct in the repair of a large articular high-load-bearing osteochondral defect in a canine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qiang; MA Xin-long; HU Yong-cheng; XU Bao-shan; PENG Jiang; LU Shi-bi; GUO Quan-yi; ZHAO Bin; ZHANG Li; WANG Ai-yuan; XU Weng-jing; XIA Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background Osteochondral lesion repair is a challenging area of orthopedic surgery.Here we aimed to develop an extraceliular matrix-derived,integrated,biphasic scaffold and to investigate the regeneration potential of the scaffold loaded with chondrogenically-induced bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the repair of a large,high-load-bearing,osteochondral defect in a canine model.Methods The biphasic scaffolds were fabricated by combining a decellularization procedure with a freeze-drying technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).Osteochondral constructs were fabricated in vitro using chondrogenically-induced BMSCs and a biphasic scaffold,then assessed by SEM for cell attachment.Osteochondral defects (4.2 mm (diameter) x 6 mm (depth)) were created in canine femoral condyles and treated with a construct of the biphasic scaffold/chondrogenically-induced BMSCs or with a cell-free scaffold (control group).The repaired defects were evaluated for gross morphology and by histological,biochemical,biomechanical and micro-CT analyses at 3 and 6 months post-implantation.Results The osteochondral defects of the experimental group showed better repair than those of the control group.Statistical analysis demonstrated that the macroscopic and histologic grading scores of the experimental group were always higher than those of the control group,and that the scores for the experimental group at 6 months were significantly higher than those at 3 months.The cartilage stiffness in the experimental group (6 months) was (6.95±0.79)N/mm,70.77% of normal cartilage; osteochondral bone stiffness in the experimental group was (158.16±94.30) N/mm,74.95% of normal tissue; glycosaminoglycan content of tissue-engineered neocartilage was (218±21.6) μg/mg (dry weight),84.82% of native cartilage.Micro-CT analysis of the subchondral bone showed mature trabecular bone regularly formed at 3 and 6 months

  3. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 inhibitor I accelerates the early-stage repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in the knee of rats%膝关节软骨早期缺损修复中的基质金属蛋白酶3抑制剂Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董福; 宋锦旗; 姜楠; 陆春

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The biomechanical properties of naturaly regenerated damaged articular cartilage that belongs to the fibrovascular tissue are far worse than those of the normal cartilage so that they cannot meet the requirements for joint function, leading to traumatic arthritis and loss of joint function. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects of matrix metaloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) inhibitor I with different concentrations on the early-stage repair of ful-thickness articular cartilage defects in the knee of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into control, defect (DEF), and defect combined with low-(D+L) and high-dose inhibitor (D+H) groups (n=6 for each group), respectively. Full-thickness articular cartilage defects followed by intraarticular injection of low- and high-dose MMP-3 inhibitor I for 4 weeks was administered in the later two groups. Serum MMP-3 was detected using ELISA method before and after experiment, respectively. Femoral trochleas were collected to observe characteristics of repaired tissue by gross appearance scoring and O’Driscoll histological scoring with Safranine O-Fast Green staining, and to measure type II colagen by immunohistochemistry after experiment. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Rats in the D+H group had obvious repair similarly to hyaline articular cartilage, while creamy white cartilage tissue and fibrous tissue repair were observed in D+L group and in DEF group. D+H group obtained the best repair results according to gross appearance scoring and O’Driscol histological scoring and the highest content of type II colagen (P  目的:评价不同水平基质金属蛋白酶3抑制剂Ⅰ对大鼠膝关节软骨早期缺损促进修复的作用。  方法:24只SD大鼠随机选取6只作为空白对照组,另18只大鼠制备膝关节软骨缺损模型后随机分为缺损组、缺损+低浓度抑制剂组及缺损+高浓度抑制剂组,后2组大鼠每周分别进行膝关节腔内注射不

  4. 组织工程化软骨细胞和骨髓间充质干细胞用于修复同种异体关节软骨缺损%Tissue engineered chondrocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of articular cartilage defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙皓; 左健

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As the articular cartilage almost has no self-repair capacity, and in clinic, the repair on it mainly depends on the autologous or allogenic cartilage transplantation, perichondrium or periosteal transplantation and the chondrocytes transplantation. The limitation of autologous cartilage source and the chronic immune rejection of allograft cartilage may eventually lead to the poor prognosis. The cartilage repaired by perichondrium or periosteum transplantation is easy to degenerate which may lead to a poor repair result.OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of tissue engineered chondrocytes , bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and the co-culture of them on the repair of allogeneic cartilage defects.METHODS: A computer-based search on the PubMed database and CNKI database from January 1994 to January 2012 was performed for the articles on tissue engineered chondrocytes and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of allograft articular cartilage defects. The English key words were "cartilage defect, allograft, chondrocyte, mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells" and the Chinese keywords were "cartilage defect, allograft, chondrocyte, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells". The repetitive articles and the articles not in English or Chinese were eliminated, and finally, a total of 35 articles were included to review.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the continuous improvement of in vitro cell culture methods, chondrocytes can be isolated from the tough cartilage, and a large number of high-purity chondrocytes and new chondrocytes can be obtained. Due to the low proliferative capacity of the chondrocytes, subculture may easily lead to aging and dedifferentiation; however, the content of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells is low in adult bone marrow, with the increasing of the passages number, the chondrogenic potential is significantly decreased. When the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with chondrocytes, they can

  5. Ruidos articulares en estudiantes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Mafla-Chamorro, Ana Cristina; Zambrano-Muñoz, Diana Carolina; Gómez-Díaz, Yeimy; Dorado-Díaz, Luz Andrea; Bastidas-Eraso, Carlos Eduardo; Chicaiza, Oswaldo Esteban

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: determinar la prevalencia de ruidos articulares en estudiantes universitarios de 20 años de edad en San Juan de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia. Métodos: la muestra consistió de 173 individuos (77 hombres y 96 mujeres), quienes fueron evaluados de acuerdo con los Criterios Diagnósticos para la Investigación de Trastornos Temporomandibulares (RDC/TMD versión española) Eje I. Resultados: 36 individuos (20,8%) tuvieron ruidos articulares; 32 (18,8%) fueron clicking y 4 (2%), crepitación. L...

  6. Repair of articular cartilage defects in rabbits through tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with chitosan hydrogel and chondrocytes%新型壳聚糖水凝胶结合软骨细胞修复兔关节软骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming ZHAO; Zhu CHEN; Kang LIU; Yu-qing WAN; Xu-dong LI; Xu-wei LUO; Yi-guang BAI; Ze-long YANG; Gang FENG

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In our previous work, we prepared a type of chitosan hydrogel with excelent biocompatibility. In this study, tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with this chitosan hydrogel and costal chondrocytes was used to repair the articular cartilage defects. Methods: Chitosan hydrogels were prepared with a crosslinker formed by com-bining 1,6-disocyanatohexane and polyethylene glycol. Chitosan hydrogel scaffold was seeded with rabbit chondro-cytes that had been cultured for one weekin vitro to form the preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage. This preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage was then transplanted into the defective rabbit articular cartilage. There were three treatment groups: the experimental group received preliminary tissue-engineered cartilage; the blank group received pure chitosan hydrogels; and, the control group had received no implantation. The knee joints were harvested at predetermined time. The repaired cartilage was analyzed through gross morphology, histologicaly and immuno-histochemicaly. The repairs were scored according to the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) standard. Results: The gross morphology results suggested that the defects were repaired completely in the experimental group after twelve weeks. The regenerated tissue connected closely with subchondral bone and the boundary with normal tissue was fuzzy. The cartilage lacuna in the regenerated tissue was similar to normal cartilage lacuna. The results of ICRS gross and histological grading showed that there were significant differences among the three groups (P  创新点:利用自主研发的具有良好生物相容性和稳定性的壳聚糖水凝胶与软骨细胞,在体外初步构建组织工程软骨,并尝试利用其修复缺损的关节软骨,从而为关节软骨缺损的修复提供了一种新的治疗方法。  方法:取兔肋软骨体外培养扩增,获得P2代软骨细胞,将其种植到冻干的壳聚糖水凝胶上,体

  7. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a

  8. Postnatal development of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, van M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is the thin layer of tissue that covers the ends of the bones in the synovial joints in mammals. Functional adult AC has depth-dependent mechanical properties that are not yet present at birth. These depth-dependent mechanical properties in adult life are the result of a dep

  9. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  10. Classification of primary articular chondrocalcinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnan, D; Sitaj, S

    1979-01-01

    Based on long-term observations the authors submit a categorization of primary (hereditary and solitary) articular chondrocalcinosis into three different sub-populations. Attention is drawn to the fact that the extent of the qualitative disorder of the articular cartilage, obviously conditioned genetically, is linked with the age factor and determines the quantitative differences of pyrophosphate arthropathy in primary chondrocalcinosis. In young age, as a rule in the third decade, severe polyarticular condrocalcinosis (first sub-population) develops which causes relatively soon invalidity, in middle age (5th and 6th decade) milder condrocalcinosis develops (second sub-population) which combines with extraarticular, tendinous and tissue calcifacations, and finally in advanced age oligoarticular chondrocalcinosis develops (third sub-population) which is usually associated with ankylosing hyperostosis of the spine. Articular chondrocalcinosis (CCA) which we described by this term as a special metabolic arthropathy which occurs in families and solitary and which we defined as a special nosological unit (35, 36,) has become generally known and firmly established in rheumatology. As ensues from numerous publications, primary (idiopathic) CCA which comprises the hereditary and solitary (sporadic) form is characterized by pyrophosphate arthropathy which develops on articular cartilages not damaged by another process (13, 25, 26, 37); on the other hand as secondary CCA we consider pyrophosphate arthropathies which are associated with metabolic, endocrine or other diseases (9, 30). The common sign of both basic forms of CCA is the presence of microcrystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CaPD) in articular cartilages, synovial fluid, or other articular structures (capsules, tendons, ligaments), characterized originally by McCarty et al. (11, 18) and later by other authors (2, 23, 27, 32). In addition to semantic (terminological) problems there were also questions of the

  11. Autophagy modulates articular cartilage vesicle formation in primary articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Ann K; Gohr, Claudia M; Mitton-Fitzgerald, Elizabeth; Grewal, Rupinder; Ninomiya, James; Coyne, Carolyn B; Jackson, William T

    2015-05-22

    Chondrocyte-derived extracellular organelles known as articular cartilage vesicles (ACVs) participate in non-classical protein secretion, intercellular communication, and pathologic calcification. Factors affecting ACV formation and release remain poorly characterized; although in some cell types, the generation of extracellular vesicles is associated with up-regulation of autophagy. We sought to determine the role of autophagy in ACV production by primary articular chondrocytes. Using an innovative dynamic model with a light scatter nanoparticle counting apparatus, we determined the effects of autophagy modulators on ACV number and content in conditioned medium from normal adult porcine and human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Healthy articular chondrocytes release ACVs into conditioned medium and show significant levels of ongoing autophagy. Rapamycin, which promotes autophagy, increased ACV numbers in a dose- and time-dependent manner associated with increased levels of autophagy markers and autophagosome formation. These effects were suppressed by pharmacologic autophagy inhibitors and short interfering RNA for ATG5. Caspase-3 inhibition and a Rho/ROCK inhibitor prevented rapamycin-induced increases in ACV number. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes, which are deficient in autophagy, did not increase ACV number in response to rapamycin. SMER28, which induces autophagy via an mTOR-independent mechanism, also increased ACV number. ACVs induced under all conditions had similar ecto-enzyme specific activities and types of RNA, and all ACVs contained LC3, an autophagosome-resident protein. These findings identify autophagy as a critical participant in ACV formation, and augment our understanding of ACVs in cartilage disease and repair.

  12. A new building block: costo-osteochondral graft for intra-articular incongruity after distal radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chris Yuk Kwan; Fung, Boris; Poon, T L; Fok, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Even with the invention of locking plates, intra-articular fractures of distal radius with extreme comminution remain a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Osteochondral graft is a potential choice to reconstruct the articular defect. We report a patient who had a fracture of distal radius with costo-osteochondral graft for articular reconstruction which has not yet been described in the English literature. At nine-year follow-up, he was pain free and had full range of movement of the wrist. The authors suggest that costo-osteochondral graft could be an option with satisfactory result.

  13. Porous polymers for repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jan

    1992-01-01

    The studies presented here were initiated to answer a variety of questions concerning firstly the repair and replacement of the knee joint meniscus and, secondly, the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. AIMS OF THE STUDIES I To assess the effect of implantation of a porous polym

  14. Chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes depends on their original location in the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.; Saris, D.B.F.; Tsuchida, A.I.; Rijen, van M.H.P.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the regenerative capacity of chondrocytes derived from debrided defect cartilage and healthy cartilage from different regions in the joint in order to determine the best cell source for regenerative cartilage therapies. Methods: Articular cartilage was obta

  15. Chondrogenic differentiation of human articular chondrocytes differs in biodegradable PGA/PLA scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwingmann, Joern; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Südkamp, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is applied clinically to cover and regenerate articular cartilage defects. Two bioresorbable nonwoven scaffolds, polyglycolic acid (PGA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (90/10 copolymer of L-lactide and glycolide), were seeded with human chondrocytes after in...

  16. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  17. Tensorial electrokinetics in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Boris; Quinn, Thomas M

    2006-09-15

    Electrokinetic phenomena contribute to biomechanical functions of articular cartilage and underlie promising methods for early detection of osteoarthritic lesions. Although some transport properties, such as hydraulic permeability, are known to become anisotropic with compression, the direction-dependence of cartilage electrokinetic properties remains unknown. Electroosmosis experiments were therefore performed on adult bovine articular cartilage samples, whereby fluid flows were driven by electric currents in directions parallel and perpendicular to the articular surface of statically compressed explants. Magnitudes of electrokinetic coefficients decreased slightly with compression (from approximately -7.5 microL/As in the range of 0-20% compression to -6.0 microL/As in the 35-50% range) consistent with predictions of microstructure-based models of cartilage material properties. However, no significant dependence on direction of the electrokinetic coupling coefficient was detected, even for conditions where the hydraulic permeability tensor is known to be anisotropic. This contrast may also be interpreted using microstructure-based models, and provides insights into structure-function relationships in cartilage extracellular matrix and physical mediators of cell responses to tissue compression. Findings support the use of relatively simple isotropic modeling approaches for electrokinetic phenomena in cartilage and related materials, and indicate that measurement of electrokinetic properties may provide particularly robust means for clinical evaluation of cartilage matrix integrity.

  18. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  19. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other examples of focal loss of function include: Horner syndrome : small pupil on one side, one-sided ... 403. Read More Alertness - decreased Fine motor control Horner syndrome Hypotonia Movement - uncoordinated Muscle function loss Neurologic ...

  20. Resident mesenchymal progenitors of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Maria Elena; Yasuhara, Rika; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-10-01

    Articular cartilage has poor capacity of self-renewal and repair. Insufficient number and activity of resident mesenchymal (connective tissue) progenitors is likely one of the underlying reasons. Chondroprogenitors reside not only in the superficial zone of articular cartilage but also in other zones of articular cartilage and in the neighboring tissues, including perichondrium (groove of Ranvier), synovium and fat pad. These cells may respond to injury and contribute to articular cartilage healing. In addition, marrow stromal cells can migrate through subchondral bone when articular cartilage is damaged. We should develop drugs and methods that correctly stimulate resident progenitors for improvement of repair and inhibition of degenerative changes in articular cartilage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Immunohistological Localization of BMP-2, BMP-7, and Their Receptors in Knee Joints with Focal Cartilage Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Schmal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although it is well known that BMP-2 and BMP-7 play significant roles in cartilage metabolism, data about intra-articular expression and localization of these proteins and their receptors in humans are rare. Methods. Biopsies of synovia and debrided cartilage were taken in patients undergoing autologous chondrocyte implantation. Expression of BMP-2, BMP-7, and their receptors BMPR-1A, BMPR-1B and BMPR-2 were semiquantitatively evaluated by immunohistological staining. Results. BMP-7 was equally highly expressed in all cartilage and synovial biopsies. Increased levels of BMPR-1A, but not of BMPR-1B, and BMPR-2, were found in all synovial and 47% of all cartilage samples (P=0.002. BMP-2 was positively scored in 47% of all cartilage and 40% of all synovial specimens. Defect size, KOSS, Henderson or Kellgren-Lawrence score did not statistically significant correlate with the expression of the analyzed proteins or Mankin and Pritzker scores. Duration of symptoms and localization of lesions were associated with KOSS (P<0.02, but there was no influence of these parameters on protein expression. Conclusions. BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMPR-1A were expressed in cartilage and synovia of knees with focal cartilage lesions. Although defect localization and duration of symptoms decisively influence KOSS, there was no associated alteration of protein expression observed.

  2. Intra-articular chondroma of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talwalkar, S.C.; Kambhampati, S.B.S.; Lang Stevenson, A.I. [Oldchurch Hospital, Romford, Essex (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R. [Manchester University, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Freemont, A. [University of Manchester, Department of Osteoarticular Pathology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Chondromas are tumours that develop in relation to the periosteum and, although they are common around the knee, most reports deal with soft tissue chondromas in para-articular locations or intracortical tumours in extra-articular regions. We report a rare case of an intra-articular chondroma in a 16-year-old boy of Asian origin developing in the region of the medial femoral condyle of the femur and extending into the femoral sulcus and the patellofemoral joint. (orig.)

  3. Transcriptional profiling differences for articular cartilage and repair tissue in equine joint surface lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromberg Arnold J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Full-thickness articular cartilage lesions that reach to the subchondral bone yet are restricted to the chondral compartment usually fill with a fibrocartilage-like repair tissue which is structurally and biomechanically compromised relative to normal articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptional differences between chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage and repair tissue cells four months post-microfracture. Methods Bilateral one-cm2 full-thickness defects were made in the articular surface of both distal femurs of four adult horses followed by subchondral microfracture. Four months postoperatively, repair tissue from the lesion site and grossly normal articular cartilage from within the same femorotibial joint were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the tissue samples, linearly amplified, and applied to a 9,413-probe set equine-specific cDNA microarray. Eight paired comparisons matched by limb and horse were made with a dye-swap experimental design with validation by histological analyses and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Statistical analyses revealed 3,327 (35.3% differentially expressed probe sets. Expression of biomarkers typically associated with normal articular cartilage and fibrocartilage repair tissue corroborate earlier studies. Other changes in gene expression previously unassociated with cartilage repair were also revealed and validated by RT-qPCR. Conclusion The magnitude of divergence in transcriptional profiles between normal chondrocytes and the cells that populate repair tissue reveal substantial functional differences between these two cell populations. At the four-month postoperative time point, the relative deficiency within repair tissue of gene transcripts which typically define articular cartilage indicate that while cells occupying the lesion might be of mesenchymal origin, they have not recapitulated differentiation to

  4. 骨形态发生蛋白、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子生物材料在关节软骨缺损修复中的生物性能%Biological properties of bone morphogenetic proteins and basic fibroblast growth factor in biological materials for repair of articular cartilage defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董君博

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Articular cartilage regeneration can be regulatedbyautocrineorparacrinesecretionof various cytokines. OBJECTIVE:To analyze biological properties of bone morphogenetic proteins and basic fibroblast growth factor in biological materials for repair of articular cartilage defect. METHODS:Forty New Zealand white rabbits were used and equaly randomized intofourgroups: fibrin, basic fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, and combined treatment (basic fibroblast growth factor combined with bone morphogenetic protein) groups, respectively.Bioactivescaffolds with fibrin, basic fibroblast growth factor,bone morphogenetic protein, and basic fibroblast growth factor combined with bone morphogenetic protein were injected to repair the articular cartilage defect. Therapeutic effect andbiological properties of biological materials were compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) Inthefibrin group,tworabbits appearedto havelimps. Inthebasic fibroblast growth factor group hand functionwaslimited inonerabbit. Inthebone morphogenetic protein group, one had a limpandonewasin a limitation of activity. Inthecombined treatment group,rabbitsrecovered wel andshowedno differencesintheknee joint before and aftersurgery (P  目的:分析骨形态发生蛋白、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子生物材料在关节软骨缺损修复中的生物性能。  方法:选取40只新西兰家兔,随机分为4组,纤维蛋白组、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子组、骨形态发生蛋白组、复合组(骨形态发生蛋白+碱性成纤维细胞生长因子),每组10只。建立兔关节软骨缺损模型,止血彻底后将纤维蛋白、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子、骨形态发生蛋白以及骨形态发生蛋白、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子复合等材料组成的支架分别植入缺损部位。比较不同注射材料在家兔关节软骨缺损中的效果及复合材料的生物性能。  结果与结论:①关节软骨缺损修复情

  5. [Intra-articular injection of cortisone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M; Schwarz, T; Ganser, G

    2015-11-01

    Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids are standard procedures according to therapy guidelines in many rheumatic conditions. There is increasing evidence from clinical trials on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis that more patients will attain the target of remission using a combination of systemic medication and intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids compared to systemic medication alone. Intra-articular injections with glucocorticoids play an important role in the therapeutic management of pediatric rheumatic diseases. In many countries competency in performing intra-articular injections is among the important skills necessary for certification as a specialist in rheumatology.

  6. Acute and chronic response of articular cartilage to Ho:YAG laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauner, Kenneth B.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Flotte, Thomas J.; Patel, Dinesh K.

    1992-06-01

    A Ho:YAG laser system operating at a wavelength of 2.1 microns has recently been introduced for use in arthroscopic surgery. The acceptability of this new tool will be determined not only by its ability to resect tissue, but also by its long term effects on articular surfaces. In order to investigate these issues further, we performed two studies to evaluate the acute and chronic effects of the laser on cartilaginous tissue. We evaluated the acute, in vitro effects of 2.1 micron laser irradiation on articular and fibrocartilage. This included the measurement of ablation efficiency, ablation threshold and thermal damage in both meniscus and articular cartilage. To document the chronic effects on articular cartilage in vivo, we next performed a ten week healing study. Eight sheep weighing 30 - 40 kg underwent bilateral arthrotomy procedures. Multiple full thickness and partial thickness defects were created. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 2, 4, and 10 weeks. The healing study demonstrated: (1) no healing of full or partial thickness defects at 10 weeks with hyaline cartilage; (2) fibrocartilaginous granulation tissue filling full thickness defects at two and four weeks, but no longer evident at ten weeks; (3) chondrocyte necrosis extending to greater than 900 microns distal to ablation craters at four weeks with no evidence of repair at later dates; and (4) chondrocyte hyperplasia at the borders of the damage zone at two weeks but no longer evident at later sacrifice dates.

  7. 一期获取自体脂肪干细胞复合可缓释诱导因子支架修复猪膝关节软骨缺损的初步研究%Defects of porcine articular cartilage of the knee repaired at one stage by autologous adipose-derived stem cells and collagen I scaffolds with slow-release inducing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宪民; 杜明昌; 刘松波; 王琪; 田竞; 陈语; 项良碧; 王洋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of repairing at one stage defects of porcine articular cartilage of the knee with autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and collagen Ⅰ scaffolds with slow-release inducing factors.Methods We first made collagen Ⅰ scaffolds with slow-release inducing factors using freeze drying technology.The concentrations of slow-release inducing factors(transformation growth factor-β2,insulin-like growth factor-l) were evaluated by Elisa.The porcine ADSCs,obtained by density gradient centrifugation,were seeded onto the collagen Ⅰ scaffolds with slow-release inducing factors for in vitro culture for 3 weeks to observe the cellular distribution and secretion of type Ⅱ collagen and aggrecan within the scaffold.Porcine models of full thickness defects of the knee articular cartilage were created,7 ×7mm in size.ADSCs and collagen Ⅰ scaffolds were implanted into the cartilage defects in the experimental group (3 pigs) while micro-fractures were made in the subchondral bone and treated with absorbable membranes in the control group (3 pigs).Gross observation and histological analyses were conducted 2 and 4months after operation to assess defect healing in the 2 groups.Results The inducing factors were slowly released in the scaffolds with slowly reduced concentrations.The ADSCs distributed extensively and expressions of type Ⅱ collagen and aggrecan were observed in the scaffolds after 3-week in vitro culture.In the experimental group,edges of the articular cartilage defects were filled with reparative hyaline cartilage after 2 months,and the whole defects were repaired by the hyaline cartilage 4 months later.HE staining showed typical cartilaginous structure in the repaired area,though its cellular density was higher than in the normal cartilage.In the control group,defects were not repaired but filled with fibrous tissue.Conclusions Enough autologous porcine ADSCs can be obtained at one stage for implantation.ADSCs seeded

  8. 壳聚糖水凝胶复合脂肪间充质干细胞修复兔关节软骨缺损%Chitosan hydrogel composite with adipose-derived stem cells for repair of rabbit articular cartilage defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 陈竹; 袁德超; 刘康; 向小聪; 周玉川; 冯刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective To fabricate a novel tissue-engineered cartilage with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) seeded on the chitosan hydrogel scaffold to repair articular cartilage defect.Methods Adipose tissue and costal cartilage were harvested from New Zealand rabbits,and ADSCs in passage one and chondrocytes were obtained after the samples were digested and cultured in vitro.ADSCs were digested,suspended,seeded onto the sterile chitosan gel,and cultured in vitro for 1 week to fabricate the tissue-engineered cartilage.The defects were respectively filled with the tissue-engineered cartilage (composite group),chondrocyte suspension (cell group),chitosan gel (material group) and nothing at all (control group).At postoperative 12 weeks,cartilage repair was evaluated using the gross examination,histological staining,immunohistochemical staining and international cartilage repair society (ICRS) histological score.Results Effect of cartilage repair in composite group was significantly better compared to other groups.The regenerated tissue in composite group seemed tightly bound in normal tissue,with similar structure and extracellular matrix secretion.ICRS histological score in composite group was (13.89 ± 0.14) points,which differed significantly from (7.06 ± 0.19) points in control group,(7.14 ± 0.22) points in cell group and (7.46 ± 0.26) points in material group (P <0.01).Conclusion The tissue-engineered cartilage with ADSCs seeded onto the chitosan hydrogel is effective for repair of articular cartilage defect.%目的 探讨利用脂肪间充质干细胞(ADSCs)复合壳聚糖水凝胶支架构建的组织工程软骨修复兔关节软骨缺损的效果. 方法 分别取新西兰大白兔皮下脂肪和肋软骨,消化后体外扩增培养分别得到P1代ADSCs和软骨细胞.将ADSCs消化后制成细胞悬液,并种植于灭菌后的壳聚糖水凝胶上,体外培养1周构建组织工程软骨,将构建的组织工程软骨植入到兔的关节软骨缺损处.实

  9. Comparison of intra-articular drilling and diode laser treatment for arthrodesis of the distal tarsal joints in normal horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruton, C; Baxter, G M; Cross, M W; Frisbie, D D

    2005-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that laser-facilitated arthrodesis of the distal tarsal joints improves the prognosis compared with intra-articular drilling but no objective comparisons have been performed. To evaluate intra-articular drilling and laser-facilitated arthrodesis using in situ and in vivo techniques. Fourteen cadaver limbs were evaluated in situ for chondrocyte viability after both surgical techniques. In vivo, one randomly selected limb was subjected to laser-facilitated arthrodesis and the other underwent intra-articular drilling in 6 normal horses. Clinical examinations were performed at 1, 3 and 5 months. Two horses were subjected to euthanasia at 1, 3 and 5 months. Significantly more chondrocyte death was observed with laser-facilitated arthrodesis compared to drilling, but the overall degree suggested only a focal effect. In vivo, both groups demonstrated minimal post operative morbidity. There was more evidence of arthrodesis seen at all time points with intra-articular drilling. This study demonstrated that changes associated with ultimate arthrodesis occur earlier after intra-articular drilling of the distal tarsal joints than laser-facilitated arthrodesis, although clinically affected horses may respond differently. Intra-articular drilling may provide earlier arthrodesis of the distal tarsal joints, but not necessarily a better long-term result.

  10. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  11. SNAP focal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  12. In vivo study on polyurethane/nano-hydroxyapatitie/polyamid66 femoral condyle for reparing articular osteochondral defects for femur in dog%聚氨酯/纳米羟基磷灰石/聚酰胺66股骨髁修复犬骨软骨缺损的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏保; 李吉东; 蒋电明; 李玉宝; 谯波; 李维朝

    2013-01-01

    制备了PU/n-HA/PA66股骨髁,用扫描电镜观察材料表面情况并测定其孔隙率;将PU/n-HA/PA66股骨髁与自体髁植入犬股骨远端,以替代、修复骨软骨缺损,进行大体观察、组织学、免疫组化、CT、血常规和生化检测以及肝、肾、脾组织学检测.结果表明材料孔隙率为80.89%±5.01%,孔径主要分布在300~800μm之间.术后实验动物活动正常,切口愈合良好,两组髁假体均与自体骨结合紧密,PU/n-HA/PA66股骨髁网孔中的骨小梁逐渐增多成熟,材料孔穴中的新生骨Ⅰ型胶原阳性表达.术后动物碱性磷酸酶水平升高[(62.67±24.04) U/L],肝、脾、肾HE染色未见异常.PU/n-HA/PA66股骨髁具有良好的骨修复、软骨替代能力和生物相容性,具有应用前景.%The PU/n-HA/PA66 femoral condyle was prepared. Material surface was observed with scanning e-lectron microscope and the porosity was measured. The PU/n-HA/PA66 femoral condyle and the autologous femoral condyle were implanted into the distal femur and the articular cartilage and subchondral bone defects were repaired with PU/n-HA/PA66 femoral condyle and autologous femoral condyle separately. Gross examination, histological staining, collagen I immunohistochemical staining,CT examination, blood routine and serum biochemical index and histological staining of the liver, kidney and spleen were conducted 24 weeks after operation. The porosity of the composite was 80. 89% ± 5. 01% and main pore size reached from 300μm to 800μm. The activity of dogs was normal and the cut healed well in both groups after operation. CT examination, histological investigation and immunohistochemical staining showed the two kinds of condylar prosthesises were closely combined with autologous bone in all the experiment animals. Trabecular bone in the pores of the biological femoral condyle became more and more and calcified gradually into mature bony tissue. The expression of collagen I of newly formed bone

  13. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.A. van Bergen

    2014-01-01

    An osteochondral defect (OCD) of the talus involves the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It most frequently appears in the second and third decade of life. A traumatic insult, usually ankle sprain, is the most frequent etiologic factor. The typical symptom is persistent or intermittent deep

  14. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration.Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected.Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  15. Estabilidade articular: abordagem biomecânica

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Sandra Oliveira de Cerqueira Soares

    2015-01-01

    A instabilidade articular é responsável pelo desenvolvimento de lesões degenerativas incapacitantes que comprometem o desempenho funcional. Compreender os processos desenvolvidos para estabilização dinâmica articular é um desafio para pesquisadores das mais diversas áreas. O presente estudo propõe o uso da abordagem Biomecânica para reconhecer os mecanismos relacionadas ao processo de estabilização dinâmica articular, por meio de três diferentes condições experimentais. No experimento 1 foi a...

  16. Focal and generalized alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dair, H A; Foster, A P

    1995-07-01

    Focal or generalized alopecia is defined as hair loss affecting the ventral, lateral, perineal, and dorsal aspects of the trunk of the cat, usually in a symmetric pattern. This may be attributable to failure of hair coat production, excess loss of hair due to self trauma, or excess shedding of whole hairs. Self trauma is the most common cause of hair loss and is associated particularly with flea allergy dermatitis. Other causes of hair loss are reviewed.

  17. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD) is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contra...

  18. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  19. Focal cortical dysplasia - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults.Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed - from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized.Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe.Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes.New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life.Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias.THE MOST COMMON FINDINGS ON MRI IMAGING INCLUDE: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types

  20. Imaging of intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.D.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2003-11-01

    Intra-articular osteoid osteoma accounts for approximately 13% of all osteoid osteomas and presents as a monoarthropathy. Radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, and in this event, MRI is likely to be the next imaging investigation. MRI may show a variety of appearances depending upon the age of the lesion. This article illustrates the imaging features of intra-articular osteoid osteoma, with emphasis on MRI. CT remains the investigation of choice for identifying the nidus.

  1. Articular cartilage repair and the evolving role of regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K Bos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pieter K Bos1, Marloes L van Melle1, Gerjo JVM van Osch1,21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsAbstract: Among the growing applications of regenerative medicine, clinical articular cartilage repair has now been used for 2 decades and forms a successful example of translational medicine. Cartilage is characterized by a limited intrinsic repair capacity following injury. Articular cartilage defects cause symptoms, are not spontaneously repaired, and are generally believed to result in early osteoarthritis. Marrow stimulation techniques, osteochondral transplantation, and cell-based therapies, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are used for tissue regeneration, symptom relief, and prevention of further joint degeneration. The exact incidence of cartilage defects and the natural outcome of joints with these lesions are unclear. Currently available cartilage repair techniques are designed for defect treatment in otherwise healthy joints and limbs, mostly in young adults. The natural history studies presented in this review estimated that the prevalence of cartilage lesions in this patient group ranges from 5% to 11%. The background and results from currently available randomized clinical trials of the three mostly used cartilage repair techniques are outlined in this review. Osteochondral transplantation, marrow stimulation, and ACI show improvement of symptoms with an advantage for cell-based techniques, but only a suggestion that risk for joint degeneration can be reduced. MSCs, characterized by their good proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into different mesenchymal lineages, form an attractive alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. Moreover, MSCs provide a regenerative microenvironment by the secretion of bioactive factors. This trophic activity

  2. Articular manifestations in patients with Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Sánchez-Andrade, Amalia; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Díaz, Pablo; Castro-Gago, Manuel

    To determine the percentage of Lyme patients with articular manifestations in NW Spain and to know their evolution and response to treatment. A retrospective study (2006-2013) was performed using medical histories of confirmed cases of Lyme disease showing articular manifestations. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, together with the treatment and evolution of the patients, were analysed. Seventeen out of 108 LD confirmed patients (15.7%) showed articular manifestations. Regarding those 17 patients, 64.7%, 29.4% and 5.9% presented arthritis, arthralgia and bursitis, respectively. The knee was the most affected joint. Articular manifestations were often associated to neurological, dermatological and cardiac pathologies. Otherwise, most patients were in Stage III. The 11.8% of the cases progressed to a recurrent chronic arthritis despite the administration of an appropriate treatment. Lyme disease patients showing articular manifestations should be included in the diagnosis of articular affections in areas of high risk of hard tick bite, in order to establish a suitable and early treatment and to avoid sequels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  3. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  4. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  5. Spectrum of PORCN mutations in Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz syndrome (OMIM 305600), is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems early in development. Features of FDH include skin abnormalities, (hypoplasia, atrophy, linear pigmentation, and herniation of fat through dermal defects); papillomas...

  6. [Arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint and intra-articular injections : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, P; Louvrier, A; Weber, E; Dubreuil, P-A; Chatelain, B; Meyer, C

    2016-09-01

    Arthocentesis of the temporomandibular joint combined with intra-articular washout and, more recently, intra-articular injection of pharmacological agents has been developed from the 1990s and is nowadays extensively in use for the treatment of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs). The goal of our work was to answer 3 questions: 1. Is intra-articular washout effective for the treatment of TMDs ? 2. What kind of pharmacological agents may nowadays be injected in addition to washout and are these injections useful ? 3. What is the place of these treatments in the treatment strategies of TMDs ? A bibliographic research has been carried out in the PubMed database using following keywords arthrocentesis, temporomandibular joint. The 27 articles published between 1991 and 2016, indicating patient's inclusion criterions and objectively evaluating the clinical results (mouth opening, intra-articular noises, pain) were selected. Pharmacological agents were noticed when used. 1. All authors concluded to the efficacy of intra-articular washout. No prognostic factor for arthrocentesis efficacy could be identified. 2. Main pharmacological agents used were steroids, hyaluronic acid, morphine-based drugs and platelet rich plasma. Superiority of ith-injection protocols failed to win unanimous support. All authors who compared with- and without-injection protocols concluded to the superiority of with-injection protocols, whatever the agent. Numerous studies have proven the efficacy of intra-articular washout for the treatment of TMDs resistant to noninvasive treatments. The advantage of any kind of pharmacological agent is not clear. Mechanisms of action are not all elucidated. No pharmacological agent showed any superiority over another. Study methodologies are often defective: imprecise inclusion criterions, short follow-up, confounding variables not taken into account, few comparison between pharmacological agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  7. BMP receptor signaling is required for postnatal maintenance of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B Rountree

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage plays an essential role in health and mobility, but is frequently damaged or lost in millions of people that develop arthritis. The molecular mechanisms that create and maintain this thin layer of cartilage that covers the surface of bones in joint regions are poorly understood, in part because tools to manipulate gene expression specifically in this tissue have not been available. Here we use regulatory information from the mouse Gdf5 gene (a bone morphogenetic protein [BMP] family member to develop new mouse lines that can be used to either activate or inactivate genes specifically in developing joints. Expression of Cre recombinase from Gdf5 bacterial artificial chromosome clones leads to specific activation or inactivation of floxed target genes in developing joints, including early joint interzones, adult articular cartilage, and the joint capsule. We have used this system to test the role of BMP receptor signaling in joint development. Mice with null mutations in Bmpr1a are known to die early in embryogenesis with multiple defects. However, combining a floxed Bmpr1a allele with the Gdf5-Cre driver bypasses this embryonic lethality, and leads to birth and postnatal development of mice missing the Bmpr1a gene in articular regions. Most joints in the body form normally in the absence of Bmpr1a receptor function. However, articular cartilage within the joints gradually wears away in receptor-deficient mice after birth in a process resembling human osteoarthritis. Gdf5-Cre mice provide a general system that can be used to test the role of genes in articular regions. BMP receptor signaling is required not only for early development and creation of multiple tissues, but also for ongoing maintenance of articular cartilage after birth. Genetic variation in the strength of BMP receptor signaling may be an important risk factor in human osteoarthritis, and treatments that mimic or augment BMP receptor signaling should be

  8. Articular Cartilage Changes in Maturing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Ayala; Chu, Constance R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete—from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartilage and synovium. An evaluation of age-related changes for joint homeostasis and risk for osteoarthritis is important to the development of new strategies to rejuvenate aging joints. Objective: This review summarizes the current literature on the biochemical, cellular, and physiologic changes occurring in aging articular cartilage. Data Sources: PubMed (1969-2013) and published books in sports health, cartilage biology, and aging. Study Selection: Keywords included aging, athlete, articular cartilage, epigenetics, and functional performance with age. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Data Extraction: To be included, research questions addressed the effect of age-related changes on performance, articular cartilage biology, molecular mechanism, and morphology. Results: The mature athlete faces challenges in maintaining cartilage health and joint function due to age-related changes to articular cartilage biology, morphology, and physiology. These changes include chondrocyte loss and a decline in metabolic response, alterations to matrix and synovial tissue composition, and dysregulation of reparative responses. Conclusion: Although physical decline has been regarded as a normal part of aging, many individuals maintain overall fitness and enjoy targeted improvement to their athletic capacity throughout life. Healthy articular cartilage and joints are needed to maintain athletic performance and general activities. Genetic and potentially reversible

  9. Articular chondrocyte metabolism and osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leipold, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to determine if depletion of proteoglycans from the cartilage matrix that occurs during osteoarthritis causes a measurable increase of cartilage proteoglycan components in the synovial fluid and sera, (2) to observe what effect intracellular cAMP has on the expression of matrix components by chondrocytes, and (3) to determine if freshly isolated chondrocytes contain detectable levels of mRNA for fibronectin. Canine serum keratan sulfate and hyaluronate were measured to determine if there was an elevation of these serum glycosaminoglycans in a canine model of osteoarthritis. A single intra-articular injection of chymopapain into a shoulder joint increased serum keratan sulfate 10 fold and hyaluronate less than 2 fold in 24 hours. Keratan sulfate concentrations in synovial fluids of dogs about one year old were unrelated to the presence of spontaneous cartilage degeneration in the joints. High keratan sulfate in synovial fluids correlated with higher keratan sulfate in serum. The mean keratan sulfate concentration in sera of older dogs with osteoarthritis was 37% higher than disease-free controls, but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Treatment of chondrocytes with 0.5 millimolar (mM) dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP) caused the cells to adopt a more rounded morphology. There was no difference between the amount of proteins synthesized by cultures treated with DBcAMP and controls. The amount of fibronectin (FN) in the media of DBcAMP treated cultures detected by an ELISA was specifically reduced, and the amount of {sup 35}S-FN purified by gelatin affinity chromatography decreased. Moreover, the percentage of FN containing the extra domain. A sequence was reduced. Concomitant with the decrease in FN there was an increase in the concentration of keratan sulfate.

  10. Equine articular synovial cysts: 16 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourt, Mathieu; MacDonald, Melinda; Rossier, Yves; Laverty, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    To report the clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of equine patients with articular synovial cysts. Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 16) with articular synovial cysts. Horses diagnosed with articular synovial cysts (1988-2009) at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were studied. Signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic methods and treatment were retrieved and telephone follow-up was obtained. Sixteen horses with articular synovial cysts were identified. Lameness was the reason for referral in most (n = 9) horses. Diagnosis was based on a combination of palpation and imaging studies, including radiography, ultrasonography and/or arthrography. Excision of the cyst was performed in 8 horses. Outcome was available for 4 surgically and 2 conservatively treated horses. Lameness resolved in 3 horses treated surgically and the 4th died for unrelated reasons. The 2 conservatively treated horses performed satisfactorily for the rest of their career. Equine articular synovial cysts are rare and can be associated with lameness. The cysts had a synovial lining in all horses where it was assessed. Surgical excision may be successful in resolving the lameness and allowing selected horses to return to work. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Imaging of the cervical articular pillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeomans, E. [Orange Base Hospital, Orange, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-01

    The cervical articular pillar, due to the complex anatomical structure of the cervical spine, is not well demonstrated in routine plain radiographic views. Dedicated views have been devised to demonstrate the pillar, yet their performance has abated considerably since the inception of Computed Tomography (CT) in the 1970`s. It is the consideration that CT does not image the articular pillar with a 10 per cent accuracy that poses the question: Is there still a need for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar? This paper studies the anatomy, plain radiography, and incidence of injury to the cervical articular pillar. It discusses (with reference to current and historic literature) the efficacy of current imaging protocols in depicting this injury. It deals with plain radiography, CT, complex tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine to conclude there may still be a position in current imaging protocols for plain radiography of the cervical articular pillar. Copyright (1998) Australian Institute of Radiography 43 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of articular cartilage in painful knee joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digish Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the role of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with atraumatic knee pain. Background and Objectives: Knee pain is one of the most common problems faced by people from time immemorial. There is a wide range of disease ranging from traumatic to degenerative causing knee pain in which articular cartilage is involved. Over the past 15 years, MRI has become the premier, first-line imaging study that should be performed in the evaluation of the painful knee in particular in tears of menisci, cruciate and collateral ligaments, osteochondral abnormalities (chondromalacia, osteoarthritis and osteochondral defects, synovial cysts and bone bruises. MRI, by virtue of its superior soft-tissue contrast, lack of ionizing radiation and multiplanar capabilities, is superior to more conventional techniques for the evaluation of articular cartilage. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 150 patients in the Department of Radio-diagnosis, Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune over a period of 2 years from June 2011 to May 2013. Patients having fracture or dislocations of the knee joint were also excluded from the study. Detailed clinical history, physical and systemic examination findings of all patients were noted in addition to the laboratory investigations. All patients were subjected to radiograph of knee anterior-posterior and lateral view. MRI was performed with Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto machine. Results: In our study of 150 patients with knee pain, articular cartilage defect was found in 90 patients (60%. Out of 90 patients with articular cartilage defect, 30 patients (20% had full thickness cartilage defects. Subchondral marrow edema was seen beneath 30 patients (20% with articular cartilage defects. 32 patients (21.1% had a complex or macerated meniscal tear. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear was found in seven

  13. Systemic focal epileptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Rats that receive radiation to 0.25 cc of one cerebral hemisphere are clinically and electroencephalographically normal until there is a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at 3 to 6 months postradiation. This BBB lesion can be detected by transient focal seizure activity produced by the BBB-excluded systemic convulsant bicuculline methiodide. In two rats the seizure activity induced by this one injection was self-sustaining. In seven of 15 other rats tested, the subsequent administration of repeated 2 mg/kg injections created a chronic focus that continued to spike with great frequency for 3 weeks or more without further administration of any convulsant. In three of eight other rats, implanted minipumps delivering 180 micrograms/h of bicuculline methiodide produced self-sustaining epileptic activity.

  14. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  15. Proximal Focal Femoral Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Kalia, Vibhuti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proximal focal femoral deficiency (PFFD is a developmental disorder of the proximal segment of thefemur and of acetabulum resulting in shortening of the affected limb and impairment of the function. It isa spectrum of congenital osseous anomalies characterized by a deficiency in the structure of the proximalfemur. The diagnosis is often made by radiological evaluation which includes identification and descriptionof PFFD and evaluation of associated limb anomalies by plain radiographs. Contrast arthrography orMagnetic Resonance Imaging is indicated when radiological features are questionable and to disclose thepresence and location of the femoral head and any cartilagenous anlage. The disorder is more commonlyunilateral and is apparent at birth. However, bilateral involvement is rarely seen. Therapy of the disorder isdirected towards satisfactory ambulation and specific treatment depending on the severity of dysplasia.

  16. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  17. Development of artificial articular cartilage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Bera

    2009-10-01

    The present study describes the development of artificial articular cartilage on the basis of mimicking structural gel properties and mechanical gel properties of natural articular cartilage. It is synthesized from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 20% Tetra ethoxy silane (TEOS) by sol–gel method. Mechanical strength of Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA is improved up to 35 MPa. Manufacturing method is adopted considering colloidal stability of nano silica particle in PVA sol at specific pH = 1. An adhesive is also prepared from PVA/Si nanocomposite containing 40% TEOS for firm attachment of artificial articular cartilage on underlying bone with high bond strength.

  18. Intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimori Makoto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a case of intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee. This case report describes our experience in excising an intra-articular angiolipoma of the knee joint. Complete resection under arthroscopy was performed in a 30-year-old man. Two years after the surgery, no evidence of recurrence was seen. Intra-articular angiolipomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-articular masses in adolescents with recurrent hemarthrosis without trauma.

  19. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  20. FIFTH LUMBAR VERTEBRA ASSOCIATED WITH ABSENCE OF SPINOUS PROCESS, LAMINAE AND INFERIOR ARTICULAR PROCESSES. – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vertebral disorders are the ones which lead to disability and lot of health problems. Since the lumbar part of the vertebral column is the main weight bearing and weight transmitting region, if there is a defective development, the area for muscle attachment and the strong bony structure for the transmission of weight would be missing leading to instability at an early age. In the present case dry and processed fifth lumbar vertebra, of unknown sex which presented the features with absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes on both sides which were obtained for teaching the medical undergraduate students in M.S.Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore. There was absence of spinous process, laminae and the inferior articular processes of fifth lumbar vertebra leading to a wide spina bifida with absence of laminae, inferior articular processes on both sides and spinous process of fifth lumbar vertebra which could be a developmental anomaly.

  1. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

  2. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  3. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site.

  4. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  5. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in repairing injured articular cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-lin; CHEN Wen-zhi; ZHOU Kun; WANG Zhi-biao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound in repairing injured articular cartilage. Methods: Ten adult New Zealand rabbits with bilateral full-thickness osteochondral defects on the cartilage surface of intercondylar fossas were used in this study. The wounds in the left knees were treated with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound as the experimental group. The right knees received no treatment as the control group. All the animals were killed at 8 weeks after injury and the tissues in the wounds were collected for gross appearance grading, histological grading and proteoglycan quantity. Results: The scores of the gross appearance grades, histological grades and the optical density of toluidine blue of the tissues in the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the controls at 8 weeks after injury (P<0.05). Conclusions: Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound can accelerate the repair of injured articular cartilage.

  6. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Michael D.; Collins, Mark S.; Howe, B.M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shotts, Ezekiel E. [NEA Baptist Clinic, Jonesboro, AR (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee. (orig.)

  7. FOCAL MOTOR SEIZURES WITH TYPICAL AUTOMATISMS (FOCAL AUTOMOTOR SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of a group of patients with focal automotor seizures, by taking into consideration their nosological, anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions focal dermal hypoplasia focal dermal hypoplasia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Focal dermal hypoplasia is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the ...

  9. Repair of osteochondral defects with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, R E; Ilten-Kirby, B M; Dunkelman, N S; Symons, K T; Rekettye, L M; Willoughby, J; Ratcliffe, A

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage implants on healing of osteochondral defects. Rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer, then seeded onto biodegradable, three-dimensional polyglycolic acid meshes. Cartilage constructs were cultured hydrodynamically to yield tissue with relatively more (mature) or less (immature) hyalinelike cartilage, as compared with adult rabbit articular cartilage. Osteochondral defects in the patellar grooves of both stifle joints either were left untreated or implanted with allogeneic tissue engineered cartilage. Histologic samples from in and around the defect sites were examined 3, 6, 9, and 12, and 24 months after surgery. By 9 months after surgery, defects sites treated with cartilage implants contained significantly greater amounts of hyalinelike cartilage with high levels of proteoglycan, and had a smooth, nonfibrillated articular surface as compared to untreated defects. In contrast, the repair tissue formed in untreated defects had fibrillated articular surfaces, significant amounts of fibrocartilage, and negligible proteoglycan. These differences between treated and untreated defects persisted through 24 months after surgery. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of osteochondral lesions with allogenic tissue engineered cartilage implants may lead to superior repair tissue than that found in untreated osteochondral lesions.

  10. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  11. Towards one-stage cell-based treatment and non-invasive evaluation of cartilage defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, J.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to improve the clinical outcome of patients with a focal articular cartilage lesion treated with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), by improvement of the surgical technique, the development of specific treatment algorithms and the evaluation and validation o

  12. Articular cartilage collagen: an irreplaceable framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Eyre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult articular cartilage by dry weight is two-thirds collagen. The collagen has a unique molecular phenotype. The nascent type II collagen fibril is a heteropolymer, with collagen IX molecules covalently linked to the surface and collagen XI forming the filamentous template of the fibril as a whole. The functions of collagens IX and XI in the heteropolymer are far from clear but, evidently, they are critically important since mutations in COLIX and COLXI genes can result in chondrodysplasia syndromes. Here we review what is known of the collagen assembly and present new evidence that collagen type III becomes covalently added to the polymeric fabric of adult human articular cartilage, perhaps as part of a matrix repair or remodelling process.

  13. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  14. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment on focal and systemic bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Munno, O; Delle Sedie, A

    2008-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by an extensive dysregulation in skeletal homeostasis recognized as 1) focal articular bone erosions, 2) iuxta-articular osteopenia, 3) systemic osteoporosis (OP) and fractures, as is well documented in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. The disease activity, as a consequence of new insights into the complex interaction between bone cells and a variety of cells of the immune system, has emerged as the main responsible for both focal and systemic bone loss. Given this background, the therapeutic approach to RA has become more aggressive, and a more widespread use of low-dose glucocorticoids (GC), recently categorized as disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) because of their additional joint sparing effect on the long-term, has also been recommended from the early stages. Addressing the effects of GC on systemic bone loss in RA, GC are considered, in addition to inflammation and inactivity, the major risk factors for OP and fractures. As a consequence, among the most recent recommendations (i.e. dosing, timing, and tapering strategies) for patients receiving GC for more than 3 months, prevention and treatment of GC-induced OP (i.e. calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates) are included. However, innovative GC, characterized by a more favorable risk/benefit profile such as selective GC receptor agonists (SEGRA), are currently in the pipeline. This article reviews the major points of evidence so far available, regarding the effects of GC on focal and systemic bone loss.

  15. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  16. Arthroscopic Mechanical Chondroplasty of the Knee Is Beneficial for Treatment of Focal Cartilage Lesions in the Absence of Concurrent Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Devon E.; Rose, Michael B.; Wille, Aaron J.; Wiedrick, Jack; Crawford, Dennis C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage lacks the ability for intrinsic repair after acute injury, and focal articular cartilage lesions cause significant morbidity worldwide. Arthroscopic debridement (chondroplasty) represents the majority of cartilage procedures of the knee; however, limited data exist regarding outcomes after chondroplasty performed in isolation of concurrent procedures or not as a primary treatment for osteoarthritis (OA). Hypothesis: Arthroscopic mechanical chondroplasty is beneficial for patients with a focal cartilage lesion of the knee in the absence of meniscal pathology or OA. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Potential participants were identified by querying billing data from a 3-year period in a single-surgeon practice, and eligible patients were verified to meet inclusion criteria through electronic medical record review. OA was quantified through Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scoring. Subjective patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores, including International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), Tegner, Lysholm, and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12), were collected preoperatively and at follow-up intervals. International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grade and lesion size were determined at arthroscopy. Linear regression was used to determine the effect of baseline score on final follow-up score. Correlated regression equations were used to assess the relationship of covariates and change in PRO scores. Results: Fifty-three of 86 (62%) eligible participants completed postoperative questionnaires at an average of 31.5 months (range, 11.5-57 months). The mean patient age was 37.3 ± 9.7 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.7 ± 5.6 kg/m2; 33 (62%) participants were women. The mean treated lesion size was 3.3 ± 1.9 cm2, of these, 36 (68%) were ICRS grade 2 or 3, and 42 (79%) patients had a KL

  17. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  18. Hyaline Articular Matrix Formed by Dynamic Self-Regenerating Cartilage and Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meppelink, Amanda M; Zhao, Xing; Griffin, Darvin J; Erali, Richard; Gill, Thomas J; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Redmond, Robert W; Randolph, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Injuries to the articular cartilage surface are challenging to repair because cartilage possesses a limited capacity for self-repair. The outcomes of current clinical procedures aimed to address these injuries are inconsistent and unsatisfactory. We have developed a novel method for generating hyaline articular cartilage to improve the outcome of joint surface repair. A suspension of 10(7) swine chondrocytes was cultured under reciprocating motion for 14 days. The resulting dynamic self-regenerating cartilage (dSRC) was placed in a cartilage ring and capped with fibrin and collagen gel. A control group consisted of chondrocytes encapsulated in fibrin gel. Constructs were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and harvested after 6 weeks. Gross, histological, immunohistochemical, biochemical, and biomechanical analyses were performed. In swine patellar groove, dSRC was implanted into osteochondral defects capped with collagen gel and compared to defects filled with osteochondral plugs, collagen gel, or left empty after 6 weeks. In mice, the fibrin- and collagen-capped dSRC constructs showed enhanced contiguous cartilage matrix formation over the control of cells encapsulated in fibrin gel. Biochemically, the fibrin and collagen gel dSRC groups were statistically improved in glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content compared to the control. There was no statistical difference in the biomechanical data between the dSRC groups and the control. The swine model also showed contiguous cartilage matrix in the dSRC group but not in the collagen gel and empty defects. These data demonstrate the survivability and successful matrix formation of dSRC under the mechanical forces experienced by normal hyaline cartilage in the knee joint. The results from this study demonstrate that dSRC capped with hydrogels successfully engineers contiguous articular cartilage matrix in both nonload-bearing and load-bearing environments.

  19. Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) for tissue engineering of articular cartilage--from a developmental model to first results of tissue and scaffold expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochhausen, Christoph; Zehbe, Rolf; Gross, Ulrich; Libera, Jeanette; Schubert, Helmut; Nüsing, Rolf M; Klaus, Günter; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering of articular cartilage remains an ongoing challenge. Since tissue regeneration recapitulates ontogenetic processes the growth plate can be regarded as an innovative model to target suitable signalling molecules and growth factors for the tissue engineering of cartilage. In the present study we analysed the expression of cyclooxygenases (COX) in a short-term chondrocyte culture in gelatin-based scaffolds and in articular cartilage of rats and compared it with that in the growth plate. Our results demonstrate the strong cellular expression of COX-1 but only a focal weak expression of COX-2 in the seeded scaffolds. Articular cartilage of rats expresses homogeneously COX-1 and COX-2 with the exception of the apical cell layer. Our findings indicate a functional role of COX in the metabolism of articular chondrocytes. The expression of COX in articular cartilage and in the seeded scaffolds opens interesting perspectives to improve the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in scaffold materials by addition of specific receptor ligands of the COX system.

  20. Characteristics of secondary arthrofibrosis after intra-articular distal radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabl, M; Arora, R; Klauser, A S; Schmidle, Gernot

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of radiocarpal arthrofibrosis after intra-articular distal radius fractures (DRF). In this study 20 patients who underwent wrist arthroscopy at the time of implant removal after volar plating for intra-articular DRF were included retrospectively. The direction of fibrous tissue formation (FTF) and its rigidity were investigated. The findings were correlated to the course of intraarticular fracture lines seen in the preoperative CT, patient age and AO fracture types. In all patients FTF spanned the radiocarpal joint. Fibrous tissue formations extended from previous fracture gaps to the scapholunate interosseous ligament and/or capsule. Four basic types of FTF (Type 1-4) and two combination types (Type 1a, 2a) were found. Fibrotic fans with dorsal capsular attachment (Type 1, 30 %) and its combination with dorsal capsule obliteration (Type 1a, 40 %) were the most common findings. Mild rigidity was present in 3 (15 %), moderate in 7 (35 %), and severe rigidity in 10 cases (50 %). Fracture lines crossing the radius extensor compartments or interfacet ridge, cartilage defects and C3 fractures showed the highest risk to develop severely rigid fibrous tissue formations. In older patients and in more comminuted fractures the number of rigid fibrous tissue formations was higher. Fracture severity correlates with the development of rigid intra-articular FTF. In case of rigid FTF with restricted wrist motion arthroscopic debridement may be considered at the time of hardware removal.

  1. Effects of intra articular tramadol on articular cartilage and synovium of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Kola; Sennur Uzun; Naciye Dilara Zeybek; Fatma Sarıcaoğlu; Seda Banu Akıncı; Ülkü Aypar; Esin Asan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of intra articular tramadol injection on articular cartilage and synovium in rat knee joint.Methods: After Animal Ethical Committee approval, a total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into 4 groups. Each group was composed of 5 rats. 0.2 ml of tramadol HCl was injected into the right knee joints and left knee joints of all the rats were considered as control. Control side joints received saline injection. Rats were sacrificed with ketamin on...

  2. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  3. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  4. Intra-Articular Osteoid Osteoma Mimicking Juvenile Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidi Yaya Traore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of intra-articular osteoid osteoma, misdiagnosis as juvenile arthritis may occur, delaying adequate treatment. We report cases of intra-articular osteoid osteomas in children that were misdiagnosed and initially inappropriately treated with intra-articular corticoid injection. Diagnosis of osteoid osteoma was finally given by CT-scan and appropriate treatment by radiofrequency ablation or surgical ablation was performed. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of the potentially confusing clinical and imaging findings associated with intra-articular osteoid osteoma.

  5. Metric analysis of loading magnitudes at articular and non-articular weight-bearing surfaces in human calcaneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Niladri Kumar; Murthy, S Sathiya Narayana

    2013-03-01

    The calcaneus is axially loaded at its articular interface with the talus. A large bulk of this load is transmitted to the ground across the non-articular tubercles at the plantar surface of the bone. A small part of the incumbent load sustained by the calcaneus is directed towards the forefoot at the calcaneo-cuboid junction. This study investigates the proportion of load distributed across the articular and non-articular surfaces of the calcaneus. The present study demonstrates strong and significant correlation between some of the load bearing variables and suggests the need for further investigations to understand the effect of angular aspects of axial loading on the calcaneus. Accounting for the relative distribution of weight across the articular and non-articular areas may enable us to appreciate the internal trabecular structure of the calcaneus in light of its clinical importance.

  6. Normalization of glenohumeral articular contact pressures after Latarjet or iliac crest bone-grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodadra, Neil; Gupta, Aman; Romeo, Anthony A; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil; Shewman, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Jordan; Provencher, Matthew T

    2010-06-01

    Multiple bone-grafting procedures have been described for patients with glenoid bone loss and shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in glenohumeral contact pressure associated with the placement and orientation of Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft augmentation and to compare the amount of glenoid bone reconstruction with two coracoid face orientations. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction (30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 60 degrees with 90 degrees of external rotation) with a 440-N compressive load. Glenohumeral contact pressure and area were determined sequentially for (1) the intact glenoid; (2) a glenoid with an anterior bone defect involving 15% or 30% of the glenoid surface area; (3) a 30% glenoid defect treated with a Latarjet or iliac crest bone graft placed 2 mm proud, placed flush, or recessed 2 mm in relation to the level of the glenoid; and (4) a Latarjet bone block placed flush and oriented with either the lateral (Latarjet-LAT) or the inferior (Latarjet-INF) surface of the coracoid as the glenoid face. The amount of glenoid bone reconstructed was compared between the Latarjet-LAT and Latarjet-INF conditions. Bone grafts in the flush position restored the mean peak contact pressure to 116% of normal when the iliac crest bone graft was used (p Latarjet-INF bone block was used (p Latarjet-LAT bone block was used (p Latarjet-LAT bone block resulted in mean peak pressures that were significantly higher than those associated with the iliac crest bone graft (p Latarjet-INF bone block (p Latarjet-LAT bone block led to restoration of the glenoid articular contact surface from the 30% defect state to a 5% defect state. Augmentation of the 30% glenoid defect with the Latarjet-INF bone block resulted in complete restoration to the intact glenoid articular surface area. Glenohumeral contact pressure is optimally restored with a flush iliac crest bone graft or with a

  7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  8. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  9. Focal lesions of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  10. Intra-articular Loose Body with Concomitant Bankart Lesion after a Traumatic Shoulder Dislocation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jason B T; Tan, Andrew H C

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of pathoanatomic lesions encountered in anterior shoulder dislocation is broad. There could be a presence of loose bodies, chondral and osteochondral, in the shoulder joint and also concomitant rotator cuff partial tears resulting from acute and chronic shoulder instability. We present one case report of a 46-year-old male Chinese with an uncommon case of Bankart lesion, with a full thickness chondral defect over the superior glenoid articular surface manifesting as a large intra-articular loose cartilaginous body. The patient presented with persistent shoulder pain with signs of shoulder instability. He underwent arthroscopic repair of his Bankart lesion with the removal of intra-articular loose body. We aim to discuss the diagnosis, radiological imaging, as well as, arthroscopic treatment of loose body in the glenohumeral joint due to anterior shoulder dislocation in our report. In our case report, we highlight the importance to identify other associated injuries from the history and examination after an episode of traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Arthroscopic treatment is a useful minimally invasive option to remove the large fragment of intra-articular loose body and also repair the Bankart lesion in the same setting. Both of these lesions must be treated as they are crucial for pain relief, as well as stabilizing the shoulder, to prevent further episodes of dislocation.

  11. Direct gene transfer into rat articular cartilage by in vivo electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossin, Laurent; Cournil-Henrionnet, Christel; Mir, Lluis M; Liagre, Bertrand; Dumas, Dominique; Etienne, Stéphanie; Guingamp, Corinne; Netter, Patrick; Gillet, Pierre

    2003-05-01

    To establish a system for efficient direct in vivo gene targeting into rat joint, we have evaluated a strategy of gene transfer by means of the delivery of external electric pulses (EP) to the knee after intra-articular injection of a reporter gene (GFP). Rats were killed at various times after the electro gene-therapy to analyze GFP gene expression by immunohistochemistry. GFP staining was detected in the superficial, middle, and deep zones of the patellar cartilage at days 2 and 9, and thereafter only in the deep zone (months 1 and 2). The average percentage of GFP-positive cells was estimated at 30% both one and 2 months after the gene transfer. Moreover, no pathologic change caused by the EP was detected in the cartilage. The level and stability of the long-term GFP expression found in this study demonstrate the feasibility of a treatment of joint disorders (inflammatory or degenerative, focal or diffuse) using electric gene transfer.

  12. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  13. Canine articular cartilage regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells seeded on platelet rich fibrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Asenjan, K.; Dehdilani, N.; Parsa, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, and thus have emerged as promising alternatives to chondrocytes in cell-based cartilage repair methods. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells combined with platelet rich fibrin on osteochondral defect repair and articular cartilage regeneration in a canine model. Methods Osteochondral defects were created on the medial femoral condyles of 12 adult male mixed breed dogs. They were either treated with stem cells seeded on platelet rich fibrin or left empty. Macroscopic and histological evaluation of the repair tissue was conducted after four, 16 and 24 weeks using the International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and the O’Driscoll histological grading systems. Results were reported as mean and standard deviation (sd) and compared at different time points between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney U test, with a value regeneration. It is postulated that platelet rich fibrin creates a suitable environment for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells by releasing endogenous growth factors resulting in creation of a hyaline-like reparative tissue. Cite this article: D. Kazemi, K. Shams Asenjan, N. Dehdilani, H. Parsa. Canine articular cartilage regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells seeded on platelet rich fibrin: Macroscopic and histological assessments. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:98–107. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0188.R1. PMID:28235767

  14. Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A; Henak, Corinne R; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-18

    The mechanics of contacting cartilage layers is fundamentally important to understanding the development, homeostasis and pathology of diarthrodial joints. Because of the highly nonlinear nature of both the materials and the contact problem itself, numerical methods such as the finite element method are typically incorporated to obtain solutions. Over the course of five decades, we have moved from an initial qualitative understanding of articular cartilage material behavior to the ability to perform complex, three-dimensional contact analysis, including multiphasic material representations. This history includes the development of analytical and computational contact analysis methods that now provide the ability to perform highly nonlinear analyses. Numerical implementations of contact analysis based on the finite element method are rapidly advancing and will soon enable patient-specific analysis of joint contact mechanics using models based on medical image data. In addition to contact stress on the articular surfaces, these techniques can predict variations in strain and strain through the cartilage layers, providing the basis to predict damage and failure. This opens up exciting areas for future research and application to patient-specific diagnosis and treatment planning applied to a variety of pathologies that affect joint function and cartilage homeostasis.

  15. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  16. [Asterixis in focal brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F; Gomez, J C; Zarranz, J J; Lambarri, I; Ugalde, J

    2004-05-01

    Asterixis is a motor control disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal movements of the lower limbs in the vertical plane during posture maintenance. Asterixis is usually bilateral and associated with toxic-metabolic metabolic encephalopathies. Unilateral asterixis is less frequent and it normally indicates focal brain damage. We report the cases of four patients (two males/two females), aged 57 to 83 years, suffering from uni or bilateral asterixis associated with focal brain damage. All patients underwent CT brain scan and a neurophysiological study (parietal EMG and/or PES). In addition, any toxic-metabolic cause that could be produced by this clinical phenomenon was ruled out with the appropriate testing. Unilateral asterixis is a clinical symptom that may indicate the presence of focal brain damage. Often, it is ignored or overlooked during routine neurological examinations. On the other hand, the presence of a bilateral asterixis is not always indicative of a toxic-metabolic encephalopathy.Rarely, such as in one of the cases herein presented, bilateral asterixis can also appear associated with structural brain lesions. Although asterixis diagnosis is fundamentally clinical, the neurophysiological study contributes to verify the diagnosis.

  17. Paravaginal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenholt, Louise T S; Pedersen, Bodil Ginnerup; Glavind, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    , arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP), pubocervical fascia, and uterosacral/cardinal ligaments. Studies conclude that physical examination is inconsistent in detecting paravaginal defects. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used to describe patterns in the appearance...

  18. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also

  19. The Application of Polysaccharide Biocomposites to Repair Cartilage Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to own nature of articular cartilage, it almost has no self-healing ability once damaged. Despite lots of restore technologies having been raised in the past decades, no repair technology has smoothly substituted for damaged cartilage using regenerated cartilage tissue. The approach of tissue engineering opens a door to successfully repairing articular cartilage defects. For instance, grafting of isolated chondrocytes has huge clinical potential for restoration of cartilage tissue and cure of chondral injury. In this paper, SD rats are used as subjects in the experiments, and they are classified into three groups: natural repair (group A, hyaluronic acid repair (group B, and polysaccharide biocomposites repair (hyaluronic acid hydrogel containing chondrocytes, group C. Through the observation of effects of repairing articular cartilage defects, we concluded that cartilage repair effect of polysaccharide biocomposites was the best at every time point, and then the second best was hyaluronic acid repair; both of them were better than natural repair. Polysaccharide biocomposites have good biodegradability and high histocompatibility and promote chondrocytes survival, reproduction, and spliting. Moreover, polysaccharide biocomposites could not only provide the porous network structure but also carry chondrocytes. Consequently hyaluronic acid-based polysaccharide biocomposites are considered to be an ideal biological material for repairing articular cartilage.

  20. MRI findings in injured articular cartilage of the knee correlated with surgical findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-ming; PENG Wen-jia; WU Hua; Kacher Daniel; XIA Li-ming; AI Fei; LI Feng; XIONG Wei

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a strong need for quick noninvasive diagnostic technique that can give a valid estimate of the status of the cartilage reliably,discriminating intact cartilage from various grades of impaired cartilage.The goal of this study was to assess the incidence of knee cartilage injuries and compare the accuracy of two-dimension spin echo(2D SE)and fast spin echo(FSE)(conventional MRI),three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo(3D SPGR),three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady state acquisition(3D FIESTA)MR imaging sequences with surgical examination of the articular cartilage.Methods One hundred and thirty-eight knees with history of knee trauma received conventional MRI,3D SPGR and 3D FIESTA MRI examination before surgery,and surgical examination of articular cartilage was used as reference standard.A modified version of the Noyes classification system was applied for the evaluation of the lateral femoral condyle(LFC),medial femoral condyle(MFC),lateral tibial plateau(LTP),medial tibial plateau(MTP),trochlea and patella.The incidence and distributions of different injured grades at different articular surfaces of knee were assessed.A series of assessment indeces of 3D SPGR,3D FIESTA,and the combination of the conventional MRI and 3D SPGR imaging were calculated.Results The incidence of cartilage defects(grade 2 to 4)was 22%(183/828),according to surgical examination.Grade 3 and 4 lesions were absent at the medial tibial plateau.The rates of exact match between the grading results of different MRI procedures and surgical examination were 49% of 3D SPGR,61% of 3D FIESTA,and 82% of the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MRI.Also,the combination of 3D SPGR and conventional MR imaging provided the highest sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,positive and negative predictive values,at 71%,97%,90%,90% and 90%,respectively.Conclusions For all the articular surfaces of the traumatic knees,about one fifth(22%)were cartilage defects.Both 3D SPGR and 3D

  1. Effects of intra articular tramadol on articular cartilage and synovium of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Kola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of intra articular tramadol injection on articular cartilage and synovium in rat knee joint. Methods: After Animal Ethical Committee approval, a total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into 4 groups. Each group was composed of 5 rats. 0.2 ml of tramadol HCl was injected into the right knee joints and left knee joints of all the rats were considered as control. Control side joints received saline injection. Rats were sacrificed with ketamin on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st days and knee joints were removed. Obtained tissue samples were decalcified and were dyed with Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson’s trichrome stain and examined by light microscopy for the presence of inflammation in periarticular area and synovia. Results: Congestion of synovial veins and perivascular cell infiltration were observed in tramadol group on days 1 and 7 (P < 0.05. The inflammation process was replaced by fibrosis on day 14 and fibrosis was significantly decreased on day 21. Conclusion: Intra articular tramadol should be used cautiously, keeping in mind that it may cause synovial inflammation in early phases and fibrosis in late phases. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 337-342

  2. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  3. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling in focal adhesions decreases cell motility and proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates focal adhesion formation through tyrosine phosphorylation during cell adhesion. We investigated the role of FAK in focal adhesion structure and function. Loading cells with a glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein (GST-Cterm) containing the FAK focal adhesion targeting sequence, but not the kinase domain, decreased the association of endogenous FAK with focal adhesions. This displacement of endogenous FAK in both BALB/c 3T3 ...

  4. Bigenic heterozygosity and the development of steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowik, M.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Westra, D.; Groenen, P.; Steenbergen, E.; Weening, J.; Lilien, M.; Monnens, L.; Heuvel, L. van den

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in childhood with a central role for the podocytes in the pathogenesis. Mutated proteins expressed in podocytes cause proteinuria. The role of combined gene defects in the development of FS

  5. Implante de condrócitos homólogos em defeitos osteocondrais de cães: padronização da técnica e avaliação histopatológica Homologous articular chondrocytes implantation in osteochondral defects of dogs: technique and histopathological evaluation standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Iamaguti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Padronizou-se a metodologia para cultura de condrócitos em cães e avaliou-se seu implante em lesões osteocondrais, utilizando-se a membrana biossintética de celulose (MBC como revestimento. Dez cães, adultos e clinicamente sadios, foram submetidos à artrotomia das articulações fêmoro-tíbio-patelares. Defeitos de 4mm de diâmetro e profundidade foram induzidos no sulco troclear de ambos os membros. MBC foi aplicada na base e na superfície das lesões. Os defeitos do membro direito foram preenchidos com condrócitos homólogos cultivados formando o grupo-tratado (GT; os do membro esquerdo, sem implante celular, foram designados grupo-controle (GC. A evolução pós-operatória foi analisada com especial interesse nos processos de reparação da lesão, por meio de histomorfometria e imuno-histoquímica para colágeno tipo II e sulfato de condroitina. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos apresentou alta densidade e taxa de viabilidade. Observou-se integridade do tecido neoformado com a cartilagem adjacente na avaliação histológica, em ambos os grupos. Na imuno-histoquímica, verificou-se predomínio de colágeno tipo II no GT. Morfometricamente, não houve diferença significativa entre o tecido fibroso e o fibrocartilaginoso entre os grupos. A cultura de condrócitos homólogos de cães foi exequível. O tecido neoformado apresentou qualidade discretamente superior associado ao implante homólogo de condrócitos, contudo não promoveu reparação por cartilagem hialina.The aim of the study is to standardize the methodology to achieve canine chondrocytes culture, and evaluate its implant on osteochondral defects made in the femoral trochlear sulcus of dogs, using the cellulose biosynthetic membrane (CBM as coating. Ten healthy adult dogs without locomotor disorders were used. All animals were submitted to arthrotomy of stifle joints and defects of four millimeters in diameter x four millimeters deep were done in the femoral trochlear

  6. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Gheliani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with benign papillomatous lesions on dorsal surface of tongue for 15 years

  8. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  9. Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Articular Disorders Among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population and prevalence rate of articular disorders among. HIV patients in Kenya of 17%. ..... globally, available reports are on the rate of positivity to HIV antibodies among .... dysregulation and the wear and tear that goes with aging may.

  10. [Structure of the articular cartilage in the middle aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop'eva, T N; Mul'diiarov, P Ia; Bel'skaia, O B; Pastel', V B

    1983-10-01

    In persons 17-83 years of age having no articular disorders 39 samples of the patellar articular cartilage, the articulated surface and the femoral head have been studied histochemically, histometrically and electron microscopically. Age involution of the articular cartilage is revealed after 40 years of age as a progressive decrease in chondrocytes density in the superficial and (to a less degree) in the intermediate zones. This is accompanied with a decreasing number of 3- and 4-cellular lacunae and with an increasing number of unicellular and hollow lacunae. In some chondrocytes certain distrophic and necrotic changes are revealed. In the articular matrix the zone with the minimal content of glycosaminoglycans becomes thicker and keratansulfate content in the territorial matrix of the cartilage deep zone grows large.

  11. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography provides detailed information on articular cartilage lesions in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Moller, N C R; Brommer, H; Liukkonen, J; Virén, T; Timonen, M; Puhakka, P H; Jurvelin, J S; van Weeren, P R; Töyräs, J

    2013-09-01

    Arthroscopy enables direct inspection of the articular surface, but provides no information on deeper cartilage layers. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on measurement of reflection and backscattering of light, is a diagnostic technique used in cardiovascular surgery and ophthalmology. It provides cross-sectional images at resolutions comparable to that of low-power microscopy. The aim of this study was to determine if OCT is feasible for advanced clinical assessment of lesions in equine articular cartilage during diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic arthroscopy of 36 metacarpophalangeal joints was carried out ex vivo. Of these, 18 joints with varying degrees of cartilage damage were selected, wherein OCT arthroscopy was conducted using an OCT catheter (diameter 0.9 mm) inserted through standard instrument portals. Five sites of interest, occasionally supplemented with other locations where defects were encountered, were arthroscopically graded according to the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) classification system. The same sites were evaluated qualitatively (ICRS classification and morphological description of the lesions) and quantitatively (measurement of cartilage thickness) on OCT images. OCT provided high resolution images of cartilage enabling determination of cartilage thickness. Comparing ICRS grades determined by both arthroscopy and OCT revealed poor agreement. Furthermore, OCT visualised a spectrum of lesions, including cavitation, fibrillation, superficial and deep clefts, erosion, ulceration and fragmentation. In addition, with OCT the arthroscopically inaccessible area between the dorsal MC3 and P1 was reachable in some cases. Arthroscopically-guided OCT provided more detailed and quantitative information on the morphology of articular cartilage lesions than conventional arthroscopy. OCT could therefore improve the diagnostic value of arthroscopy in equine orthopaedic surgery.

  12. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Jin Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice.

  13. Multi-focal multiphoton lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschdorff, Eric T; Nielson, Rex; Shear, Jason B

    2012-03-01

    Multiphoton lithography (MPL) provides unparalleled capabilities for creating high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) materials from a broad spectrum of building blocks and with few limitations on geometry, qualities that have been key to the design of chemically, mechanically, and biologically functional microforms. Unfortunately, the reliance of MPL on laser scanning limits the speed at which fabrication can be performed, making it impractical in many instances to produce large-scale, high-resolution objects such as complex micromachines, 3D microfluidics, etc. Previously, others have demonstrated the possibility of using multiple laser foci to simultaneously perform MPL at numerous sites in parallel, but use of a stage-scanning system to specify fabrication coordinates resulted in the production of identical features at each focal position. As a more general solution to the bottleneck problem, we demonstrate here the feasibility for performing multi-focal MPL using a dynamic mask to differentially modulate foci, an approach that enables each fabrication site to create independent (uncorrelated) features within a larger, integrated microform. In this proof-of-concept study, two simultaneously scanned foci produced the expected two-fold decrease in fabrication time, and this approach could be readily extended to many scanning foci by using a more powerful laser. Finally, we show that use of multiple foci in MPL can be exploited to assign heterogeneous properties (such as differential swelling) to micromaterials at distinct positions within a fabrication zone.

  14. The Frictional Coefficient of Bovine Knee Articular Cartilage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Shan-hua; Ge Shi-rong; Wang Qing-liang

    2006-01-01

    The normal displacement of articular cartilage was measured under load and in sliding, and the coefficient of friction during sliding was measured using a UMT-2 Multi-Specimen Test System. The maximum normal displacement under load and the start-up frictional coefficient have similar tendency of variation with loading time. The sliding speed does not significantly influence the frictional coefficient of articular cartilage.

  15. Blends and Nanocomposite Biomaterials for Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulabi, Azadehsadat Hashemi; Mequanint, Kibret; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive assessment on polymer blends and nanocomposite systems for articular cartilage tissue engineering applications. Classification of various types of blends including natural/natural, synthetic/synthetic systems, their combination and nanocomposite biomaterials are studied. Additionally, an inclusive study on their characteristics, cell responses ability to mimic tissue and regenerate damaged articular cartilage with respect to have functionality and composition needed for native tissue, are also provided. PMID:28788131

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the femoral trochlea: evaluation of anatomical landmarks and grading articular cartilage in cadaveric knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, Claus [Marienhospital Vechta, Department of Radiology, Vechta (Germany); Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Mo Ahn, Joong [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings before and after contrast medium opacification of the knee joint in cadaveric specimens to demonstrate anatomical landmarks of the trochlear surface in relation to the neighboring structures, and to evaluate different MRI sequences in the detection of cartilage defects of the trochlear and patellar surface of the knee. The morphology and relationship of the proximal trochlear surface to the prefemoral fat of the distal femur were investigated by use of different MR sequences before and after intra-articular gadolinium administration into the knee joint in ten cadaveric knees. Anatomic sections were subsequently obtained. In addition, evaluation of the articular surface of the trochlea was performed by two independent observers. The cartilage surfaces were graded using a 2-point system, and results were compared with macroscopic findings. Of 40 cartilage surfaces evaluated, histopathologic findings showed 9 normal surfaces, 20 containing partial-thickness defects, and 11 containing full-thickness defects. Compared with macroscopic data, sensitivity of MR sequences for the two reviewers was between 17 and 90%; specificity, 75 and 100%; positive predictive value, 75 and 100%; negative predictive value, 20 and 100%, depending on patellar or trochlea lesions. Interobserver variability for the presence of disease, which was measured using the kappa statistic, was dependent on the MR sequence used between 0.243 and 0.851. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences can be used to evaluate the cartilage of the trochlear surface with less accuracy when compared with the results of grading the articular cartilage of the patella. (orig.)

  17. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  18. Periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrova Е.А.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to investigate the mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of periodontitis in patients with focal tuberculosis. Patients with periodontitis and focal tuberculosis are proved to develop local inflammatory reaction with increased infection and activation of proinflammatory cytokines in parodontal pockets fluid. The main risk factor of frequent and durable recurrence of parodontal pathology in case of focal tuberculosis was the development of pathologic process as a cause of disbalance of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system, endotoxicosis syndrome

  19. Chondrocytes, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and Their Combination in Articular Cartilage Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazempour, A; Van Wie, B J

    2016-05-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) is a highly organized connective tissue lining, covering the ends of bones within articulating joints. Its highly ordered structure is essential for stable motion and provides a frictionless surface easing load transfer. AC is vulnerable to lesions and, because it is aneural and avascular, it has limited self-repair potential which often leads to osteoarthritis. To date, no fully successful treatment for osteoarthritis has been reported. Thus, the development of innovative therapeutic approaches is desperately needed. Autologous chondrocyte implantation, the only cell-based surgical intervention approved in the United States for treating cartilage defects, has limitations because of de-differentiation of articular chondrocytes (AChs) upon in vitro expansion. De-differentiation can be abated if initial populations of AChs are co-cultured with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which not only undergo chondrogenesis themselves but also support chondrocyte vitality. In this review we summarize studies utilizing AChs, non-AChs, and MSCs and compare associated outcomes. Moreover, a comprehensive set of recent human studies using chondrocytes to direct MSC differentiation, MSCs to support chondrocyte re-differentiation and proliferation in co-culture environments, and exploratory animal intra- and inter-species studies are systematically reviewed and discussed in an innovative manner allowing side-by-side comparisons of protocols and outcomes. Finally, a comprehensive set of recommendations are made for future studies.

  20. Focal properties of geodesic waveguide lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.

    1976-01-01

    The focal properties of uncorrected geodesic lenses in ion-exchanged glass waveguides are reported. A 13.8-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of 27.6 mrad, while a 28-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of only 3.3 mrad. Intensity profiles of the focal region of the former lens revealed a 40-micron spot size when the input aperture was 5 mm, and a spot size of 7.7 microns when the aperture was reduced to 1 mm. This value is close to the diffraction-limited spot size of 5.7 microns.

  1. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  2. Arthoscopy La artroscopia y las lesiones articulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Naranjo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A general view is presented on arthroscopy; its history, indications and limitations are described and analyzed; its advantages in comparison with open surgery are emphasized.

    La artroscopia es un procedimiento que permite, mediante un instrumento óptico, evaluar el Interior de las cavidades articulares. Comenzó a desarrollarse como un procedimiento diagnóstico y pronto sus grandes ventajas frente a las exploraciones abiertas aceleraron el desarrollo de las técnicas y del instrumental. La minimización del trauma a los tejidos y la menor morbilidad posoperatoria permiten que la deambulación y la recuperación funcional sean precoces lo cual, sumado a un mejor resultado estético, ha colocado a la artroscopia como procedimiento de elección para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de múltiples estados patológicos intraarticulares.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  4. Focal fatty infiltra- tion and focal fatty sparing of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is caused by focal ... has also been described in children.1. The most common cause is alcohol abuse, although diabetes, obesity, cer- tain drugs, toxins ... infiltration was not initially consid- ered are reported.

  5. RESEARCH PROGRESS OF ARTICULAR CARTILAGE SCAFFOLD FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING%关节软骨组织工程支架的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清宇; 王富友; 杨柳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the research progress of articular cartilage scaffold materials and look into the future development prospects. Methods Recent literature about articular cartilage scaffold for tissue engineering was reviewed, and the results from experiments and clinical application about natural and synthetic scaffold materials were analyzed. Results The design of articular cartilage scaffold for tissue engineering is vital to articular cartilage defects repair. The ideal scaffold can promote the progress of the cartilage repair, but the scaffold materials still have their limitations. Conclusion It is necessary to pay more attention to the research of the articular cartilage scaffold, which is significant to the repair of cartilage defects in the future.%目的 对软骨组织工程支架材料的研究现状进行综述,并对其发展前景进行展望.方法 广泛查阅近年来关节软骨组织工程支架的相关文献,并对多种天然生物支架材料和人工合成支架材料的相关实验及临床应用效果进行分析总结.结果 软骨组织工程支架的设计对软骨组织损伤修复成功与否至关重要,理想的软骨支架可以引导并促进新生软骨组织的形成.目前所应用的支架材料均有其局限性.结论 进一步深入研究软骨组织工程支架,对未来临床软骨损伤的修复具有重要意义.

  6. POSSIBILITIES OF CURRENT CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARTICULAR CARTILAGE REPAIR (ANALYTICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Bozhokin

    2016-01-01

    to form a good hyaline cartilage resistant to high physical load in long term period.Thus, development of methods for articular cartilage repair has long ago went beyond the interests of clinical physicians, and only the close interdisciplinary cooperation of clinicians and specialists for cytology, molecular genetics and, probably, virology would enable replacement of a defect with a rigorous hyaline cartilage.

  7. Clinical benefits of intra-articular anakinra for arthrofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Toth, Alison P; Magnussen, Bob

    2010-12-01

    Postoperative inflammation and stiffness, as well as the struggle to achieve full range of motion (ROM), following knee surgery is a significant clinical challenge. Interleukin-1 is a crucial mediator of the inflammatory response and development of pathological conditions leading to chronic inflammation. We hypothesized that intra-articular injection of intra-articular anakinra, an IL-1 antagonist, would result in sustained improvements of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis of the knee joint. We retrospectively reviewed 8 patients who underwent injection of intra-articular anakinra, 200 mg. Four patients (3 women, 1 man) had intra-articular anakinra for treatment of chronic refractory arthrofibrosis, and 4 patients (4 women) had intra-articular anakinra for limited arthrofibrosis. All 4 of the refractory arthrofibrosis patients had failed conservative treatment with intensive physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, and anti-inflammatory medication. Three of the 4 patients had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. All 4 reported improvement in ROM (10°-45°) and swelling, with 75% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients returned to prior activity level. All 4 of the limited arthrofibrosis also failed similar attempts at conservative treatment, and 2 of the 4 had failed a prior manipulation under anesthesia with lysis of adhesions. After intra-articular anakinra, all 4 reported improvement in ROM (20°-45°) and swelling, with 80% reporting improvement in pain. Seventy-five percent of these patients were able to return to prior activity level. We found intra-articular anakinra to be effective in this small cohort of patients with refractory arthrofibrosis and limited arthrofibrosis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Focal increase of cerebral blood flow during stereognostic testing in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, E; Larsen, B

    1976-01-01

    An attempt was made to study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern during stereognostic discrimination in man. The rCBF was measured in 18 subjects who had no major neurological defects. The clearance from the hemisphere of xenon 133 injected (133Xe) into the carotid artery was measured...... with a 254-channel dynamic gamma camera. During stereognostic discrimination with hand, mouth, or foot, the rCBF increased focally in the corresponding contralateral sensory-motor region and increased focally in the premotor part of the frontal lobe. The increase in the sensory region was attributed...

  9. Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on proteoglycan metabolism in repaired articular cartilage in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炜; 金大地; 王吉兴; 秦立赟; 刘晓霞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, S-methyl thiocarbamate (SMT), on proteoglycan metabolism in repaired articular cartilage in rabbits. Methods: Twenty-four male New Zealand white rabbits, aged 8 months and weighing 2.5 kg±0.2 kg, were used in this study. Cartilage defects in full thickness were created on the intercondylar articular surface of bilateral femurs of all the rabbits. Then the rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 in each group). The defects in one group were filled with fibrin glue impregnated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2, BMP group), in one group with fibrin glue impregnated with rhBMP-2 and hypodermic injection with SMT (SMT group) and in the other group with nothing (control group). All the animals were killed at one year postoperatively. The tissue sections were stained with safranine O-fast green and analyzed by Quantiment 500 system to determine the content of glycosaminoglycan through measuring the percentage of safranine O-stained area, the thickness of cartilages and the mean gray scale (average stain intensity). Radiolabelled sodium sulphate (Na235SO4) was used to assess the proteoglycan synthesis. Results: At one year postoperatively, the percentage of safranine O-stained area, the mean gray scale and the cartilage thickness of the repaired tissues in SMT group were significantly higher than those of BMP group (P<0.01) and the control group (P<0.05). Result of incorporation of Na235SO4 showed that the proteoglycan synthesis in SMT group was higher than those of BMP group and the control group (P<0.01). Conclusions: SMT, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, can significantly increase the content of glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan synthesis, and computer-based image analysis is a reliable method for evaluating proteoglycan metabolism.

  10. Repairing cartilage defects using chondrocyte and osteoblast composites developed using a bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shui; REN Qiang; WANG Dong; ZHANG Lei; WU Shuai; SUN Xi-tao

    2011-01-01

    Background Articular cartilage injury is a common disease, and the incidence of articular wear, degeneration, trauma and sports injury is increasing, which often lead to disability and reduced quality of life. Unfortunately repair of articular cartilage defects do not always provide satisfactory outcomes.Methods Chondrocyte and osteoblast composites were co-cultured using a bioreactor. The cartilage defects were treated with cell-β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites implanted into osteochondral defects in dogs, in vivo, using mosaicplasty, by placing chondrocyte-β-TCP scaffold composites on top of the defect and osteoblast-β-TCP scaffold composites below the defect.Results Electron microscopy revealed that the induced chondrocytes and osteoblast showed fine adhesive progression and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold. The repaired tissues in the experimental group maintained their thickness to the full depth of the original defects, as compared with the negative control group (q=12.3370, P <0.01; q=31.5393, P <0.01).Conclusions Perfusion culture provided sustained nutrient supply and gas exchange into the center of the large scaffold. This perfusion bioreactor enables the chondrocytes and osteoblasts to survive and proliferate in a three-dimensional scaffold.

  11. Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) Versus Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) For Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee: A Comparative Evaluation in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

    2015-10-01

    Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. The efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. Eighteen adult Iranian mixed breed male dogs were used to conduct this experimental study. Full thickness articular cartilage defects (diameter 6 mm, depth 5 mm) were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in all dogs (n = 72). Twelve dogs were randomly selected to receive treatment and their right and left hind limb defects were treated by L-PRP and L-PRF implantation respectively, while no treatment was undertaken in six other dogs as controls. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16 and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. At each sampling time, 4 treated dogs and 2 control dogs were euthanized, therefore 8 defects per group were evaluated. Mean macroscopic scores of the treated defects were higher than the controls at all sampling times with significant differences (P PRF treated and control defects (10.13 vs. 8.37) and L-PRP treated and control defects (10 vs. 8.5) at 4 and 16 weeks, respectively. A similar trend in mean total microscopic scores was observed with a significant difference (P PRF could be used to effectively promote the healing of articular cartilage defects of the knee.

  12. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.; Kenworthy, M.; Otten, G.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high-spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast &

  13. Focal-plane sensor-processor chips

    CERN Document Server

    Zarándy, Ákos

    2011-01-01

    Focal-Plane Sensor-Processor Chips explores both the implementation and application of state-of-the-art vision chips. Presenting an overview of focal plane chip technology, the text discusses smart imagers and cellular wave computers, along with numerous examples of current vision chips.

  14. Research progress of the effects of compression stimulation on the metabolism of articular chondrocytes and ;mechanical properties%压缩刺激影响关节软骨细胞代谢和力学特性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑伟; 段王平; 卫小春

    2013-01-01

    Articular cartilages endure a variety of dynamic stresses in a complex physiological environment. As the main force of normal human articular movement, the pressure can change the biological and mechanical properties of chondrocytes, including changes in the stress and strain of articular cartilage tissues, hydrostatic pressure, interstitial fluid flow, flow energy, osmotic pressure, changes of transferring between tissues and cell deformations and so on. Because of the specificity of the mechanical environment, the changes of the mechanical properties of chondrocytes will have an effect on the physiological functions of articular cartilages. It is difficult for articular cartilage injuries caused by many factors to repair themselves, which has brought great difficulties to the clinical treatment. There are many traditional methods of repairing cartilage defects clinically, while some shortcomings exist. Thanks to the development of tissue engineering technology, there is a new idea and method for the regeneration and repair of articular cartilage defects. Scaffold materials are mainly utilized to provide a space structure for the proliferation and matrix secretion of chondrocytes, and a kind of structure is formed similar to normal cartilage tissues to transplant and repair articular cartilage defects. Many factors get involved in the construction of tissue-engineered cartilages with good functions, such as seed cells, scaffold materials, culture conditions and so on, among which mechanical stimulation has a particularly important effect on the metabolism of articular cartilage matrixes and their mechanical properties. Therefore, an intensive study of the mechanical properties of chondrocytes will further clarify a series of processes needed to maintain normal physiological functions, such as the stress conditions and responses. There will be positive signiifcance for the understanding of the biological properties of chondrocytes, the effects of compression

  15. Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Neurophysiological basis for neurogenic-mediated articular cartilage anabolism alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouze-Decaris, E; Philippe, L; Minn, A; Haouzi, P; Gillet, P; Netter, P; Terlain, B

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pathways involved in neurogenic-mediated articular cartilage damage triggered by a nonsystemic distant subcutaneous or intra-articular inflammation. The cartilage damage was assessed 24 h after subcutaneous or intra-articular complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection measuring patellar proteoglycan (PG) synthesis (ex vivo [Na(2)(35)SO(4)] incorporation) in 96 Wistar rats. Unilateral subcutaneous or intra-articular injection of CFA induced significant decrease (25-29%) in PG synthesis in both patellae. Chronic administration of capsaicin (50 mg. kg(-1). day(-1) during 4 days), which blunted the normal response of C fiber stimulation, prevented the bilateral significant decrease in cartilage synthesis. Similarly, intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol/day during 5 days), which blocked the glutamatergic synaptic transmission at the dorsal horn of signal originating in primary afferent C fibers, eliminated the CFA-induced PG synthesis decrease in both patellae. Chemical sympathectomy, induced by guanethidine (12.5 mg. kg(-1). day(-1) during 6 wk), also prevented PG synthesis alteration. Finally, compression of the spinal cord at the T3-T5 level had a similar protective effect on the reduction of [Na(2)(35)SO(4)] incorporation. It is concluded that the signal that triggers articular cartilage synthesis damage induced by a distant local inflammation 1) is transmitted through the afferent C fibers, 2) makes glutamatergic synaptic connections with the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system, and 3) involves spinal and supraspinal pathways.

  17. Extra-articular Mimickers of Lateral Meniscal Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joseph U.; Strauss, Eric J.; Lodha, Sameer; Bach, Bernard R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Lateral meniscus tears are a common entity seen in sports medicine. Although lateral-side knee pain is often the result of a meniscus injury, several extra-articular pathologies share signs and symptoms with a meniscus tear. It is critical for the clinician to be able to identify and understand extra-articular pathologies that can present similar to a lateral meniscus tear. Evidence Acquisition: Data were collected through a thorough review of the literature conducted through a MEDLINE search for all relevant articles between 1980 and February 2010. Study Type: Clinical review. Results: Common extra-articular pathologies that can mimic lateral meniscal tears include iliotibial band syndrome, proximal tibiofibular joint instability, snapping biceps femoris or popliteus tendons, and peroneal nerve compression syndrome or neuritis. The patient history, physical examination features, and radiographic findings can be used to separate these entities from the more common intra-articular knee pathologies. Conclusions: In treating patients who present with lateral-sided knee pain, clinicians should be able to recognize and treat extra-articular pathologies that can present in a similar fashion as lateral meniscus tears. PMID:23015995

  18. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  19. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  20. Early vision and focal attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  1. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah; A; Algarni; Abdullah; H; Alshuhri; Majed; M; Alonazi; Moustafa; Mabrouk; Mourad; Simon; R; Bramhal

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a commonfinding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service.They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis,colorectal cancer,incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting.Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis;hepatitis,alcohol consumption,substance exposure or use of oral con-traceptive pills and metabolic syndromes.Full blood count,liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease.Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound.If available,contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible,safe,cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis.Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next.It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation.Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity.If doubt still remains,the options are biopsy or surgical excision.

  2. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of hip articular cartilage between non-traumatic necrosis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Liu, Yang; Hao, Jingcan; Zheng, Shuyu; Wen, Yan; Xiao, Xiao; He, Awen; Fan, Qianrui; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Ruiyu

    2016-10-10

    Hip cartilage destruction is consistently observed in the non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (NOFH) and accelerates its bone necrosis. The molecular mechanism underlying the cartilage damage of NOFH remains elusive. In this study, we conducted a systematically comparative study of gene expression profiles between NOFH and osteoarthritis (OA). Hip articular cartilage specimens were collected from 12 NOFH patients and 12 controls with traumatic femoral neck fracture for microarray (n=4) and quantitative real-time PCR validation experiments (n=8). Gene expression profiling of articular cartilage was performed using Agilent Human 4×44K Microarray chip. The accuracy of microarray experiment was further validated by qRT-PCR. Gene expression results of OA hip cartilage were derived from previously published study. Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) software was applied for identifying differently expressed genes. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and DAVID tool, respectively. Totally, 27 differently expressed genes were identified for NOFH. Comparing the gene expression profiles of NOFH cartilage and OA cartilage detected 8 common differently expressed genes, including COL5A1, OGN, ANGPTL4, CRIP1, NFIL3, METRNL, ID2 and STEAP1. GO comparative analysis identified 10 common significant GO terms, mainly implicated in apoptosis and development process. Pathway comparative analysis observed that ECM-receptor interaction pathway and focal adhesion pathway were enriched in the differently expressed genes of both NOFH and hip OA. In conclusion, we identified a set of differently expressed genes, GO and pathways for NOFH articular destruction, some of which were also involved in the hip OA. Our study results may help to reveal the pathogenetic similarities and differences of cartilage damage of NOFH and hip OA.

  3. A prospective comparison between Kapandji and percutaneous extra-focal fixation in extra articular distal radius fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirhamidi, Seyed Mehdi; Bayat, Farzad Merrikh

    2013-01-01

    .... One of these methods is Kapandji method and because of its inherent stability in biomechanical examinations we suppose that we can begin the range of motion sooner than other methods with the hope of better outcome...

  4. A prospective comparison between Kapandji and percutaneous extra-focal fixation in extra articular distal radius fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Mirhamidi, Seyed Mehdi; Bayat, Farzad Merrikh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: there are multiple methods of distal radius fractures treatments. Of these percutaneous wire insertion has yielded popular acceptance. These percutaneous wire insertions can be done through many different ways with their own advantages and disadvantages. One of these methods is Kapandji method and because of its inherent stability in biomechanical examinations we suppose that we can begin the range of motion sooner than other methods with the hope of better outcome. Patients and...

  5. Intra-Articular Osteotomy for Distal Humerus Malunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René K. Marti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-articular osteotomy is considered in the rare case of malunion after a fracture of the distal humerus to restore humeral alignment and gain a functional arc of elbow motion. Traumatic and iatrogenic disruption of the limited blood flow to the distal end of the humerus resulting in avascular necrosis of capitellum or trochlea is a major pitfall of the this technically challenging procedure. Two cases are presented which illustrate the potential problems of intra-articular osteotomy for malunion of the distal humerus.

  6. bFGF influences human articular chondrocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Zwingmann, J; Fehrenbach, M

    2007-01-01

    FGF concentrations in supernatants of primary human articular chondrocytes peaked immediately after isolation and then declined. In a dose-dependent manner, bFGF enhanced cell amplification and viability. BFGF induced a decrease in the apoptotic cell population, while the number of proliferating cells remained......BACKGROUND: The possible functional role of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in regulating the mitotic and metabolic activity of primary human articular chondrocytes was investigated. METHODS: [EF1]Chondrocytes were enzymatically isolated from femoral head cartilage, and were cultured in vitro...

  7. Experimental articular cartilage repair in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Borsøe; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Olesen, Morten Lykke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A gold standard treatment for articular cartilage injuries is yet to be found, and a cost-effective and predictable large animal model is needed to bridge the gap between in vitro studies and clinical studies. Ideally, the animal model should allow for testing of clinically relevant...... treatments and the biological response should be reproducible and comparable to humans. This allows for a reliable translation of results to clinical studies.This study aimed at verifying the Göttingen minipig as a pre-clinical model for articular cartilage repair by testing existing clinical cartilage...

  8. El concepto de contacto articular alternativo de la rodilla

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    La observación radioscópica de la interlínea articular de rodillas de cadáveres sin anomalías anatómicas durante movimientos de abducción y adducción, realizada en estudios previos del autor, permitió apreciar la aparición de pérdida de contacto entre las superficies articulares mediales o laterales respectivamente. El presente artículo tuvo como objetivo rememorar dichos estudios y documentar las apreciaciones visuales mediante el análisis de neumoartrografías seriada...

  9. Articular Contact Mechanics From an Asymptotic Modeling Perspective: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Argatov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we review the current state-of-the-art in asymptotic modeling of articular contact. Particular attention has been given to the knee joint contact mechanics with a special emphasis on implications drawn from the asymptotic models, including average characteristics for articular cartilage layer. By listing a number of complicating effects such as transverse anisotropy, nonhomogeneity, variable thickness, nonlinear deformations, shear loading, and bone deformation, which may be accounted for by asymptotic modeling, some unsolved problems and directions for future research are also discussed.

  10. Reemplazo articular temporomandibular debido a queratoquiste odontogénico

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Angel Peñón Vivas; Humberto Sarracent Pérez; Patricia Moreira Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Existen disímiles condiciones que hacen necesario el reemplazo articular temporomandibular; dentro de las más frecuentes se encuentran la anquilosis, la osteoatrosis, estadíos avanzados del Síndrome de disfunción temporomandibular, daño articular postrauma y procesos neoplásicos o tumorales. Los queratoquistes odontógenos que se agrupan para su estudio dentro de los quistes odontogénicos del desarrollo, representan cerca del 7 al 10 por ciento de todos los quistes maxilo-mandibulares. Se dice...

  11. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B J

    2001-06-01

    To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.

  12. Evaluation of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee using T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To determine the accuracy of T2*-weighted three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging in the identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee.Design and patients. A retrospective evaluation of 80 patients who underwent both arthroscopic and MRI evaluation was performed. The 3D images were interpreted by one observer without knowledge of the surgical results. The medial and lateral femoral condyles, the medial and lateral tibial plateau, the patellar cartilage and trochlear groove were evaluated. MR cartilage images were considered positive if focal reduction of cartilage thickness was present (grade 3 chondromalacia) or if complete loss of cartilage was present (grade 4 chondromalacia). Comparison of the 3D MR results with the arthroscopic findings was performed.Results. Eighty patients were included in the study group. A total of 480 articular cartilage sites were evaluated with MRI and arthroscopy. Results of MR identification of grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia, all sites combined, were: sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, false negative rate 17%, false positive rate 3%, positive predictive value 87%, negative predictive value 95%, overall accuracy 93%.Conclusion. The results demonstrate that T2*-weighted 3D gradient-echo articular cartilage imaging can identify grades 3 and 4 chondromalacia of the knee. (orig.)

  13. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  14. Spina bifida and unilateral focal destruction of the distal femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Graviss, E.R.

    1981-03-01

    Focal destruction of the postero-lateral distal femoral epiphysis was present on radiographs in two children with spina bifida and objective lower limb sensory loss. Each patient presented with painless swelling of the knee. In one patient the epiphysis showed sclerosis and fragmentation associated with a defect. In the second patient the destructive change was the dominant radiographic abnormality and simulated bone tumor. Computed tomography in this patient showed a bone fragment occupying the defect suggesting epiphyseal fracture. The lesions in each patient were believed to be traumatic in origin and to represent a stage in the development toward neuropathic arthropathy.

  15. Snake beam: a paraxial arbitrary focal line

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Joseph; Yariv, Amnon

    1995-01-01

    The creation of paraxial arbitrary focal lines by a Fourier computer-generated hologram is demonstrated. The desired focal line is represented by a series of connected straight line segments, each of which is implemented by a radial harmonic function located on a different radial portion of the entire hologram. Each subhologram is multiplied by appropriate linear and quadratic phase functions and is shifted by some distance from the center. The two phase factors determine the location of each...

  16. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  17. A TRP Channel in the Lysosome Regulates Large Particle Phagocytosis via Focal Exocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Phagocytosis of large extracellular particles such as apoptotic bodies requires delivery of the intracellular endosomal and lysosomal membranes to form plasmalemmal pseudopods. Here we identified Mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1) as the key lysosomal Ca2+ channel regulating focal exocytosis and phagosome biogenesis. Both particle ingestion and lysosomal exocytosis are inhibited by synthetic TRPML1 blockers, and are defective in macrophages isolated from TRPML1 knockout mice. Furthermore, TRPML...

  18. Computational aspects in mechanical modeling of the articular cartilage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hadi; Mequanint, Kibret; Herzog, Walter

    2013-04-01

    This review focuses on the modeling of articular cartilage (at the tissue level), chondrocyte mechanobiology (at the cell level) and a combination of both in a multiscale computation scheme. The primary objective is to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of conventional models implemented to study the mechanics of the articular cartilage tissue and chondrocytes. From monophasic material models as the simplest form to more complicated multiscale theories, these approaches have been frequently used to model articular cartilage and have contributed significantly to modeling joint mechanics, addressing and resolving numerous issues regarding cartilage mechanics and function. It should be noted that attentiveness is important when using different modeling approaches, as the choice of the model limits the applications available. In this review, we discuss the conventional models applicable to some of the mechanical aspects of articular cartilage such as lubrication, swelling pressure and chondrocyte mechanics and address some of the issues associated with the current modeling approaches. We then suggest future pathways for a more realistic modeling strategy as applied for the simulation of the mechanics of the cartilage tissue using multiscale and parallelized finite element method.

  19. Intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wambeek, N.; Munk, P.L.; Lee, M.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver General Hospital, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Meek, R.N. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver (Canada)

    2000-02-01

    We report a case of lntra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee in a 53-year-old man. The case demonstrates an unusual pattern of migration of the marrow edema within the knee joint. This phenomenon has received scant attention in the radiological literature. (orig.)

  20. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E;

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovemen...

  1. Vitamin D and Its Effects on Articular Cartilage and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Rachel J; Dilisio, Matthew F; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) currently affects 10% of the American population. There has been a recent push to determine exactly what causes OA and how it can be treated most effectively. Serum vitamin D levels have been associated with OA and may have an effect on articular cartilage remodeling. To critically review the published research on the effect of vitamin D on articular cartilage and the development of OA as well as on the mechanism behind cartilage regeneration and degeneration. Review. A systematic search of PubMed and the Web of Science was performed for relevant studies published in the English language through April 30, 2016, using the terms vitamin D, articular cartilage, and osteoarthritis. On a molecular level, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the activated form of vitamin D, plays a role in articular cartilage degeneration. Vitamin D binds to vitamin D receptors, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to chondrocyte hypertrophy. In clinical trials, vitamin D deficiency poses a risk factor for OA, and those with decreased cartilage thickness are more likely to be vitamin D-insufficient. The role of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment or prevention of OA remains uncertain. More research is needed to reconcile these conflicting findings.

  2. The epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolwijk, Carmen; Essers, Ivette; van Tubergen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and risks of common extra-articular manifestations (EAMs), that is, acute anterior uveitis (AAU), psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) compared with population-based controls. METHODS: All incident patients...

  3. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão

    OpenAIRE

    França,S.A.; Serakides,R.; Silva,A.E.; Rachid,M.A.; J.R.C. Moraes; Lavalle,G.E.; Ocarino,N.M.

    2004-01-01

    One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  4. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited outc

  5. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase,

  6. Percutaneous treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); I.B. Schipper (Inger); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P. Patka (Peter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The outcome after displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures is influenced by the condition of the surrounding soft tissues. To avoid secondary soft tissue complications after surgical treatment, several less-invasive procedures for reduction and fixation have been

  7. Clinical Outcome Scoring of Intra-articular Calcaneal Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); M.J. Heetveld (Martin); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); P. Patka (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOutcome reporting of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is inconsistent. This study aimed to identify the most cited outcome scores in the literature and to analyze their reliability and validity. A systematic literature search identified 34 different outcome scores. The most cited

  8. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); B.C.T. Kieboom (Brenda); J.H.J.M. Bessems (Gert); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther); P. Patka (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDepending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients

  9. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M A; Dijkstra, P U; Reintsema, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Werker, P M N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  10. Surgery for extra-articular trismus : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M. A.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Reintsema, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Werkera, P. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify operations that are used to improve mouth opening in patients with extra-articular trismus (caused by cancer and its treatment, oral submucous fibrosis, or noma) and to find out if they work. We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cinah

  11. Evidence for a negative Pasteur effect in articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R B; Urban, J P

    1997-01-01

    Uptake of external glucose and production of lactate were measured in freshly-excised bovine articular cartilage under O2 concentrations ranging from 21% (air) to zero (N2-bubbled). Anoxia (O2 concentration Pasteur effect in bovine articular cartilage. Anoxia also suppressed glycolysis in articular cartilage from horse, pig and sheep. Inhibitors acting on the glycolytic pathway (2-deoxy-D-glucose, iodoacetamide or fluoride) strongly decreased aerobic lactate production and ATP concentration, consistent with the belief that articular cartilage obtains its principal supply of ATP from substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. Azide or cyanide lowered the ATP concentration in aerobic cartilage to approximately the same extent as did anoxia but, because glycolysis (lactate production) was also inhibited by these treatments, the importance of any mitochondrial ATP production could not be assessed. A negative Pasteur effect would make chondrocytes particularly liable to suffer a shortage of energy under anoxic conditions. Incorporation of [35S]sulphate into proteoglycan was severely curtailed by treatments, such as anoxia, which decreased the intracellular concentration of ATP.

  12. Doxycycline inhibits collagen synthesis by differentiated articular chondrocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TeKoppele, J.M.; Beekman, B.; Verzijl, N.; Koopman, J.L.; Groot, J. de; Bank, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Doxycycline (DOX) profoundly inhibited collagen synthesis by differentiated articular chondrocytes. At 25 microM, the rate of collagen synthesis was suppressed by more than 50% without affecting cell proliferation (DNA levels) and general protein synthesis (35S-Met and 35S-Cys incorporation). Steady

  13. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  14. Allogenic bone grafts in post-traumatic juxta-articular defects: Need for allogenic bone banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anil Kumar; Vikas, Rohit; Agrawal, H S

    2017-07-01

    Allogenic bone banking provide both structural and granular bone grafts for various orthopaedic, spinal, oncological and dental surgeries. However allogenic bones, presently, are not readily available. This article discusses the clinical applications of the allogenic grafts, the screening criteria and procedure for maintenance of such a bone banking facility. This article demonstrates the effective role of allogenic bone in a case of post-traumatic bone loss situation and discusses the growing need and present situation of bone banking in our country.

  15. The Effectiveness of Ultrasound-Guided Steroid Injection for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison between the Extra-Articular and Intra-Articular Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Lee, Joon Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    To assess the effectiveness of pain control using ultrasound-guided steroid injection by the extra-articular and intra-articular approaches to femoroacetabular impingement patients. From September through December 2010, 18 patients with clinical suspicion of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome underwent ultrasound-guided steroid and local anesthetics injection: a total of 20 cases, including 16 cases of ipsilateral and 2 cases of bilateral injection. Extra-articular or intra-articular approach was selected for each patient, randomly and alternately. Nine cases were performed by extra-articular approach and 11 cases were performed by intra-articular approach. Every patient was observed in the outpatient clinic and visual analogue scale (VAS) was taken and compared before and after the procedure in all patients. Pre-injection average VAS value of extra-articular approached cases was 5.22 {+-} 1.99 and post-injection average VAS value was 4.11 {+-} 1.96, which is statistically insignificant (p < 0.156). The average VAS value of intra-articular approached cases was decreased from 5.72 {+-} 2.15 to 2.91 {+-} 2.30 after injection, which is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Ultrasound guided intra-articular approached steroid and local anesthetics injection could be effective in controlling pain for patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.

  16. Healing results in meniscus and articular cartilage photochemically welded with 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Jackson, Robert W.; Nosir, Hany R.; Matthews, James Lester; Loyd, John D.; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1997-05-01

    Meniscal tears and partial thickness defects in articular cartilage do not heal spontaneously. In this paper results are described of studies of a procedure for evoking the healing response in such lesions by a non-thermal tissue sparing photochemical weld using 1,8-naphthalimide dyes. Fifteen essentially mature Barbados sheep 40 - 60 pounds in weight received a 2 - 3 mm flap tear by incision in the red white zone of the medial meniscus oriented parallel to the table of the tibia. The animals were divided into four groups; Group I, no treatment; Group II, treatment by laser activated photoactive dyes; Group III, treatment by suturing; Group IV, treatment by laser irradiation only; Group V, treatment by photoactive dyes only. In another group of 12 sheep partial thickness flap tear was created by incision in the articular cartilage of the femoral condyle. These were divided into four groups as for the meniscus study, omitting the sutured control. Welds were made using the dimeric dye MBM Gold BW 012-012-012 at 12 mM in PBS, 457.9 nm argon ion laser radiation at 800 mW/cm2, 7.5 minutes (360 J/cm2) with approximately 2 kg/cm2 externally applied pressure. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hr, 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Gross appearance of menisci and cartilage in all welded knees was normal and all welds resisted deformation or loosening under forceful probing. Histology of studies of both tissues out to 6 moths disclosed close bonding of welded area, continuing healing response in the form of cellular recruitment and protein deposition and the absence of inflammatory response. Tissue erosion and arthritic changes were evident in all unwelded controls.

  17. Pneumatized Articular Eminence and Assessment of Its Prevalence and Features on Panoramic Radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khojastepour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pneumatized articular eminence or tubercle (PAT is an air cell cavity in the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. Pneumatization of articular eminence may be seen incidentally on panoramic radiographs (PR as a unilocular or multilocular, radiolucent defect. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the pattern of PAT on PR in an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: A total of 3,098 PRs belonging to 1,735 females and 1,363 males were retrospectively investigated for the presence and radiographic features of PAT. All PRs were taken for routine dental examination. Chi-square test, univariate odds ratio (OR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI and binary lo- gistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results: PAT was found in 2.1 % of cases including 41 females and 23 males   (with a mean age of 33.23±12.43 and 35.64±13.24 years, respectively, range 19-69 years. There were 40 unilateral and 24 bilateral cases (total: 88 PAT in this study including 49 unilocular and 39 multilocular cases. There was no significant difference in PATbetween males and females or different age groups. (P>0.05 and all 95% CI included1. Binary logistic regression indicated that there was no relationship between the pres- ence of PAT and age or sex.Conclusion: Knowledge about this anatomical variation is helpful for clinicians who are planning to perform temporomandibular joint surgery. They should asses the radio- graphic imaging thoroughly before the surgery. It can also provide valuable information to understand the differential diagnosis of pathological entities in this region.

  18. Sarcoma sinovial extra-articular em cão Extra-articular synovial sarcoma in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. França

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available One four-year-old, female, Collie, dog presented subcutaneous enlarged mass at the lateral aspect of the left hindlimb, close to the knee joint. Based on the anatomopathological and immunohistochemical findings it was confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular bifasic synovial sarcoma - grade II.

  19. "Focal thyroid inferno" on color Doppler ultrasonography: a specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using "focal thyroid inferno" as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. The vascularity type of "focal thyroid inferno" is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transparent meta-analysis: does aging spare prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (ProM is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE. The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? METHODS AND FINDINGS: A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with Craik's (1983 proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging.

  1. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in ... wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other ...

  2. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  3. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  4. I Focalize, You Focalize, We All Focalize Together: Audience Participation in Persepolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie Nixon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: This article combines theories of cognition and empathy with focalization theory to examine how and why different forms of audience engagement in fictional worlds are cued. The article argues that critics should examine the differences between engagement that encourages audiences to apply their own frames to the world presented and type engagement cued by means of point-of-view shots and close-ups of facial expressions.

    Abstract (F: Cet article combine les théories de la cognition et de l’empathie avec la théorie de la focalisation afin d’analyser comment et pourquoi certaines œuvres construisent la manière dont le public est invité à s’investir dans des mondes fictionnels. Il défend l

  5. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  6. Focal Cryoablation of Prostate: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke K. Bahn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for men with early localized prostate cancer are either some form of radical therapy or active surveillance. Radical therapy is usually associated with significant adverse effects that might jeopardize a man's quality of life. Some observers believe that PSA screening has resulted in the over diagnosis and over treatment of prostate cancer. Many men are being diagnosed with an early stage, small volume, unifocal or unilateral prostate cancer but are reluctant to accept watchful waiting or active surveillance. Focal cryoablation is the less than complete ablation of the gland with ice. Based on review of the limited amount of material available in the current literature, focal cryoablation can provide acceptable cancer control while preserving sexual potency and urinary continence. Focal cryoablation may fill a void in the therapeutic options available to patients with unifocal or unilateral prostate cancer who have a strong desire to maintain their quality of life.

  7. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  8. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  9. Three-dimensional scaffold-free fusion culture: the way to enhance chondrogenesis of in vitro propagated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage regeneration based on isolated and culture-expanded chondrocytes has been studied in various in vitro models, but the quality varies with respect to the morphology and the physiology of the synthesized tissues. The aim of our study was to promote in vitro chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes using a novel three-dimensional (3-D cultivation system in combination with the chondrogenic differentiation factors transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-b2 and L-ascorbic acid. Articular chondrocytes isolated from six elderly patients were expanded in monolayer culture. A single-cell suspension of the dedifferentiated chondrocytes was then added to agar-coated dishes without using any scaffold material, in the presence, or absence of TGF-b2 and/or L-ascorbic acid. Three-dimensional cartilage-like constructs, called single spheroids, and microtissues consisting of several spheroids fused together, named as fusions, were formed. Generated tissues were mainly characterized using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. The morphology of the in vitro tissues shared some similarities to native hyaline cartilage in regard to differentiated S100-positive chondrocytes within a cartilaginous matrix, with strong collagen type II expression and increased synthesis of proteoglycans. Finally, our innovative scaffold-free fusion culture technique supported enhanced chondrogenesis of human articular chondrocytes in vitro. These 3-D hyaline cartilage-like microtissues will be useful for in vitro studies of cartilage differentiation and regeneration, enabling optimization of functional tissue engineering and possibly contributing to the development of new approaches to treat traumatic cartilage defects or osteoarthritis.

  10. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  11. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  12. Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as focal cortical dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. O'Rourke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasmussen's encephalitis is a rare syndrome characterized by intractable seizures, often associated with epilepsia partialis continua and symptoms of progressive hemispheric dysfunction. Seizures are usually the hallmark of presentation, but antiepileptic drug treatment fails in most patients and is ineffective against epilepsia partialis continua, which often requires surgical intervention. Co-occurrence of focal cortical dysplasia has only rarely been described and may have implications regarding pathophysiology and management. We describe a rare case of dual pathology of Rasmussen's encephalitis presenting as a focal cortical dysplasia (FCD and discuss the literature on this topic.

  13. Ambroxol-induced focal epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Morano, Alessandra; Fattouch, Jinane; Casciato, Sara; Fanella, Martina; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that in epileptic patients some compounds and different drugs used for the treatment of comorbidities can facilitate or provoke seizures, this evidence regarding a wide spectrum of pharmacological categories. The potential facilitating factors usually include direct toxic effects or pharmacological interactions of either active ingredients or excipients. We report the case of a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced focal epileptic seizures, easily and constantly reproducible, after each administration of a cough syrup. This is, to our knowledge, the first electroencephalogram-documented case of focal epileptic seizures induced by cough syrup containing ambroxol as active ingredient.

  14. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and his...

  15. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  16. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  17. A simple method for focal length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  18. Tibia Vara due to Focal Fibrocartilaginous Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tavakoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of unilateral tibia vara associated with an area of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia in the medial aspect of the right proximal tibia. Such a case has not been described previously. The affected child was 8 months old. Deformity resolved without aggressive treatment. The pathogenesis of the focal lesion remains controversial. The most likely explanation is that the mesenchymal anlage of the tibial metaphysis has for unknown reasons, developed abnormality at the insertion of the pes anserinus. Keywords: Tibia Vara, Pes Anserinus

  19. Epidemiology of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, C; Jacobsson, L T H

    2004-01-01

    Extra-articular RA (ExRA) includes a wide variety of disease manifestations. Although rheumatologists in general are aware that such events are clinically important, the heterogeneity of available data, including discrepancies in case definitions, has complicated constructive discussions on this aspect of the RA disease phenotype. In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of co-morbidity in patients with RA. ExRA manifestations are not uncommon, explain excess mortality in RA and are predicted by smoking and autoantibodies. Further studies of the mechanisms underlying these associations are likely to be important in improving our understanding of the systemic nature of RA. This article discusses the methodological issues involved in the study of ExRA manifestations, presents suggested criteria that have been used in clinical studies, and reviews important surveys of the epidemiology of extra-articular RA.

  20. Spontaneous Redifferentiation of Dedifferentiated Human Articular Chondrocytes on Hydrogel Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Chondrocytes rapidly dedifferentiate into a more fibroblastic phenotype on a two-dimensional polystyrene substratum. This impedes fundamental research on these cells as well as their clinical application. This study investigated the redifferentiation behavior of dedifferentiated chondrocytes on a hydrogel substratum. Dedifferentiated normal human articular chondrocyte–knee (NHAC-kn) cells were released from the sixth-passage monolayer cultured on a polystyrene surface. These cells were then s...

  1. Sonographic evaluation of femoral articular cartilage in the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hwan [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong Keun Young; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Young Ho; Song, Yeong Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of sonography for the evaluation of osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Ten asymptomatic volunteers and 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee underwent sonographic evaluation. For this, the knee was maintained of full flexion in order to expose the deep portion of femoral condylar cartilage. Both transverse and longitudinal scans were obtained in standardized planes. Sonographic images of the articular cartilages were analyzed in terms of surface sharpness, echogenicity and thickness, along with associated bone changes. Normal cartilages showed a clearly-defined surface, homogeneously low echogenicity and regular thickness. Among 20 patients, the findings for medial and lateral condyles, respectively, were as follows: poorly defined cartilage surface, 16 (80%) and ten (50%); increased echogenicity of cartilage, 17 (85%) and 16 (80%); cartilage thinning, 16 (80%) and 14 (70%) (two medial condyles demonstrated obvious cartilage thickening); the presence of thick subchondral hyperechoic bands, five (25%) and four (20%); the presence of osteophytes, 13 (65%) and 12 (60%). Sonography is a convenient and accurate modality for the evaluation of femoral articular cartilage. In particular, it can be useful for detecting early degenerative cartilaginous change and for studying such change during clinical follow-up. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic quantitation of superficial degradation of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarakkala, Simo; Töyräs, Juha; Hirvonen, Jani; Laasanen, Mikko S; Lappalainen, Reijo; Jurvelin, Jukka S

    2004-06-01

    Ultrasound (US) has been suggested as a means for the quantitative detection of early osteoarthrotic changes in articular cartilage. In this study, the ability of quantitative US 2-D imaging (20 MHz) to reveal superficial changes in bovine articular cartilage after mechanical or enzymatic degradation was investigated in vitro. Mechanical degradation was induced by grinding samples against an emery paper with the grain size of 250 microm, 106 microm, 45 microm or 23 microm. For enzymatic degradation, samples were digested with collagenase, trypsin or chondroitinase ABC. Variations of the US reflection coefficient induced by the degradation were investigated. Furthermore, two novel parameters, the US roughness index (URI) and the spatial variation of the US reflection coefficient (SVR), were established to quantitate the integrity of the cartilage surface. Statistically significant decreases (p < 0.05) in US reflection coefficient were observed after mechanical degradations or enzymatic digestion with collagenase. Increases (p < 0.05) in URI were also revealed after these treatments. We conclude that quantitative US imaging may be used to detect collagen disruption and increased roughness in the articular surface. These structural damages are typical of early osteoarthrosis.

  3. The biochemical content of articular cartilage: an original MRI approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeuille, Damien; Olivier, Pierre; Watrin, Astrid; Grossin, Laurent; Gonord, Patrick; Guillot, Geneviève; Etienne, Stéphanie; Blum, Alain; Netter, Patrick; Gillet, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The MR aspect of articular cartilage, that reflects the interactions between protons and macromolecular constituents, is affected by the intrinsic tissue structure (water content, the content of matrix constituents, collagen network organization), imager characteristics, and acquisition parameters. On the T1-weighted sequences, the bovine articular cartilage appears as an homogeneous tissue in high signal intensity, whatever the age of animals considered, whereas on the T2-weighted sequences, the articular bovine cartilage presents variations of its imaging pattern (laminar appearance) well correlated to the variations of its histological and biochemical structure. The T2 relaxation time measurement (T2 mapping), which reflects quantitatively the signal intensity variations observed on T2 weighted sequences, is a way to evaluate more precisely the modifications of cartilage structure during the aging and maturation processes (rat's study). This technique so far confined to experimental micro-imagers is now developed on clinical imagers. Consequently, it may permit to depict the early stages of osteoarthritic disease (OA) or to evaluate the chondroprotective effect of drugs.

  4. Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.

  5. Flavonoid Compound Icariin Activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α in Chondrocytes and Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Wang

    marker genes including Mmp2, Mmp9, Mmp13, Adamts4 and Adamts5 was downregulated following Icariin treatment for 14 days. In a differentiation assay using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs carrying HIF-1α floxed allele, the promotive effect of Icariin on chondrogenic differentiation is largely decreased following Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of HIF-1α in MSCs as indicated by Alcian blue staining for proteoglycan synthesis. In an alginate hydrogel 3D culture system, Icariin increases Safranin O positive (SO+ cartilage area. This phenotype is accompanied by upregulation of HIF-1α, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive (PCNA+ cell numbers, SOX9+ chondrogenic cell numbers, and Col2 expression in the newly formed cartilage. Coincide with the micromass culture, Icariin treatment upregulates mRNA levels of Sox9, Col2α1, aggrecan and Col10α1 in the 3D cultures. We then generated alginate hydrogel 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin. The 3D complexes were transplanted in a mouse osteochondral defect model. ICRS II histological scoring at 6 and 12 weeks post-transplantation shows that 3D complexes incorporated with Icariin significantly enhance articular cartilage repair with higher scores particularly in selected parameters including SO+ cartilage area, subchondral bone and overall assessment than that of the controls. The results suggest that Icariin may inhibit PHD activity likely through competition for cellular iron ions and therefore it may serve as an HIF-1α activator to promote articular cartilage repair through regulating chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and integration with subchondral bone formation.

  6. Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

    2010-01-01

    overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence...

  7. Focal adhesions and cell-matrix interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    Focal adhesions are areas of cell surfaces where specializations of cytoskeletal, membrane and extracellular components combine to produce stable cell-matrix interactions. The morphology of these adhesions and the components identified in them are discussed together with possible mechanisms of th...

  8. Focal dermal hypoplasia: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana M Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome is a rare genetic multisystem disorder primarily involving the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. We report the case of an eight-month-old female child who presented with multiple hypopigmented atrophic macules along the lines of blaschko, skeletal anomalies, umbilical hernia, developmental delay, hypoplastic nails, syndactyly, and lobster claw deformity characteristic of Goltz syndrome.

  9. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  10. Ketogenic Diet for Epilepsy and Focal Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and long-term treatment outcome of a classic ketogenic diet (KD addon treatment (4:1 lipid/nonlipid ratio, without initial fasting and fluid restriction were evaluated retrospectively in 47 children with intractable epilepsy and focal malformation of cortical development, in a study at Severance Children’s and Sanggye Park Hospitals, Seoul, Korea.

  11. Focal adhesions and assessment of cytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, TG; Klein, CL; Wagner, M; Kirkpatrick, CJ

    1999-01-01

    Focal adhesions are highly ordered assemblies of transmembrane receptors, extracellular matrix proteins, and a large number of cytoplasmic proteins, including structural proteins, as well as tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, and their substrates. They are now accepted as a prime component of signal tr

  12. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  13. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

  14. Atypical focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Rizwan Khan; Taimur Saleem; Tanveer Ul Haq; Kanwal Aftab

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Focal nodular hyperplasia, a benign hepatic tumor, is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely the entity can cause symptoms, mandating intervention. METHOD: We present a case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver, which caused a considerable diagnostic dilemma due to its atypical presentation. RESULTS: A 29-year-old woman presented with a 15-year history of a progressively increasing mass in the right upper quadrant which was associated with pain and emesis. Examination showed a firm, mobile mass palpable below the right subcostal margin. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed an exophytic mass arising from hepatic segments III and IVb. Trucut biopsy of the hepatic mass was equivocal. Angiography showed a vascular tumor that was supplied by a tortuous branch of the proper hepatic artery. Surgical intervention for removal of the mass was undertaken. Intra-operatively, two large discrete tumors were found and completely resected. Histopathological examination showed features consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This description of an unusual case of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver highlights the point that the diagnosis of otherwise benign hepatic tumors may be difficult despite extensive work-up in some cases.

  15. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  16. Laser Dazzling of Focal Plane Array Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Dimmeler, A.; Eberle, B; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Mieremet, A.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Mellier, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser countermeasures against infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full camera image. In this paper we will discuss the results of dazzling experiments performed with MWIR lasers. In the “low energy” pulse regime we observe an increasing saturated area with increasing power. The si

  17. En bloc joystick reduction of a comminuted intra-articular distal radius fracture: a technical trick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegall, Evan; Ziran, Bruce

    2014-08-01

    A patient with a 1-month-old intra-articular distal radius fracture (treated closed in a splint) presented with an unacceptable degree of pain and stiffness caused by shortening and dorsal angulation of the distal radius. The fracture was comminuted with 4 or 5 distinct fragments, several involving the articular surface. Surgical correction was attempted. During the procedure, it was noted that, though the distal radius was shortened and angulated, there was actually acceptable congruity of the articular surface itself, despite the intra-articular nature of the fracture. Bone quality was poor and healing incomplete. Thus, we were concerned the currently congruous articular surface would fall apart with manipulation. Given this situation, we used a unique scaffolding technique with Kirschner wires placed in perpendicular fashion to both hold the articular surface intact and manipulate it en bloc. This technique is a simple way to turn a complex fracture into an easily reduced 2-part fracture.

  18. Nanopolymers Delivery of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 Plasmid to Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Articular Cartilage Repair In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical application of viral vectors for gene therapy is limited for biosafety consideration. In this study, to promote articular cartilage repair, poly (lactic-co glycolic acid (PLGA nanopolymers were used as non-viral vectors to transfect rabbit mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with the pDC316-BMP4-EGFP plasmid. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency in vitro were acceptable measuring by CCK-8 and flow cytometry. After transfection, Chondrogenic markers (mRNA of Col2a1, Sox9, Bmp4, and Agg of experimental cells (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers were increased more than those of control cells (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid alone. In vivo study, twelve rabbits (24 knees with large full thickness articular cartilage defects were randomly divided into the experimental group (MSCs being transfected with BMP-4 plasmid by PLGA nanopolymers and the control group (MSCs being transfected with naked BMP-4 plasmid. The experimental group showed better regeneration than the control group 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Hyaline-like cartilage formed at week 12 in the experimental group, indicating the local delivery of BMP-4 plasmid to MSCs by PLGA nanopolymers improved articular cartilage repair significantly. PLGA nanopolymers could be a promising and effective non-viral vector for gene therapy in cartilage repair.

  19. Pain perception in knees with circumscribed cartilage lesions is associated with intra-articular IGF-1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Niemeyer, Philipp; Südkamp, Norbert P;

    2011-01-01

    (IKDC) score. Synovial concentrations of aggrecan, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-1β, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and BMP-7 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Pain strength showed a highly significant......BACKGROUND: Circumscribed cartilage defects are considered as prearthritic lesions and lead to differential intra-articular cytokine expression. Mechanisms of associated pain development and influence of smoking behavior are not yet fully understood in humans. PURPOSE: This study aimed to reveal......, IGF-1, and bFGF was significantly diminished compared to nonsmokers (P growth factor-I is present in knees with circumscribed cartilage lesions in a size-dependent manner. IGF-1 levels correlated with indicators of pain perception; smoking negatively influenced...

  20. Articular cartilage generation applying PEG-LA-DM/PEGDM copolymer hydrogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Xing; Papadopoulos, Anestis; Ibusuki, Shinichi; Bichara, David A; Saris, Daniel B; Malda, Jos; Anseth, Kristi S; Gill, Thomas J; Randolph, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    ...) production for neocartilage formation. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of neocartilage regeneration using swine articular chondrocytes photoencapsualted into poly (ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDM...

  1. Effects of Articular Cartilage Constituents on Phosphotungstic Acid Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhula, Sakari S.; Finnilä, Mikko A.; Lammi, Mikko J.; Ylärinne, Janne H.; Kauppinen, Sami; Rieppo, Lassi; Pritzker, Kenneth P. H.; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography (CEμCT) with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) has shown potential for detecting collagen distribution of articular cartilage. However, the selectivity of the PTA staining to articular cartilage constituents remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the dependence of PTA for the collagen content in bovine articular cartilage. Adjacent bovine articular cartilage samples were treated with chondroitinase ABC and collagenase to degrade the proteoglycan and the collagen constituents in articular cartilage, respectively. Enzymatically degraded samples were compared to the untreated samples using CEμCT and reference methods, such as Fourier-transform infrared imaging. Decrease in the X-ray attenuation of PTA in articular cartilage and collagen content was observed in cartilage depth of 0–13% and deeper in tissue after collagen degradation. Increase in the X-ray attenuation of PTA was observed in the cartilage depth of 13–39% after proteoglycan degradation. The X-ray attenuation of PTA-labelled articular cartilage in CEμCT is associated mainly with collagen content but the proteoglycans have a minor effect on the X-ray attenuation of the PTA-labelled articular cartilage. In conclusion, the PTA labeling provides a feasible CEμCT method for 3D characterization of articular cartilage. PMID:28135331

  2. Genu valgum secondary to focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia of the distal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchelsman, David E; Madan, Sanjeev S; Feldman, David S

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of unilateral genu valgum secondary to focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia (FFCD) isolated in the posterolateral cortex of the distal femur. This case is the first incidence of a discrete fibrous band occurring in conjunction with a FFCD lesion in the distal posterolateral femur treated with excision of the tether and the overlying periosteum with curettage of the cortical focal fibrocartilaginous defect. Treatment was considered successful with gradual resolution of the 30 degrees valgus deformity over 24 months, and we avoided the necessity of corrective osteotomy and its associated risks. To our knowledge, resolution of genu valgum secondary to FFCD in the distal posterolateral femur after curettage has not been previously described in the literature. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

  3. Biologic injections for osteoarthritis and articular cartilage damage: can we modify disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weilong J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Lendner, Mayan; Freedman, Kevin B

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to conduct a systematic review of the literature to review the clinical results of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cell treatments (MSC) (biologics) for articular cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis of the knee. A search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies involving biologic therapy for osteoarthritis or osteochondral defects. Only Level I-III clinical trials with at least 3-month follow-up were included. Outcome data was gathered on any patient-completed surveys, 2nd look arthroscopy, follow-up imaging, biopsy/histology results, and any adverse effects of treatment. Thirty-three articles met our inclusion criteria. There was a total of 21 PRP studies in the study. All PRP studies showed clinical improvement with PRP therapies in outcomes surveys measuring patient satisfaction, pain, and function. Two studies reported no significant difference in improvement compared to hyaluronic acid (HA). Similarly, the 7/9 MSC studies showed improvement. One study found BM-MSC implantation was not significantly superior to matrix assisted chondrocyte implantation (MACI), while one reported peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) did not significantly improve outcomes over HA. Of the three studies looking at a combination of MSC/PRP, two found MSC/PRP combination did not improve outcomes compared to MSC or PRP therapy alone. The one PRP study that had a 2nd look arthroscopy reported increases cartilage regeneration with PRP. All 8 MSC studies with follow-up MRI and all 7 MSC studies with 2nd look arthroscopy showed improvement in cartilage regeneration in terms of coverage, fill of the defect, and/or firmness of the new cartilage. Current data suggests that, of the two treatments, MSC provides more significant disease modifying effect; however, further research needs to be done to compare these two treatments and determine if there is a synergetic effect when combined.

  4. Hemorrhagc focal nodular hyperplasia in young men: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyun; Kwon, Hee Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Oh, Jong Yeong; Nam, Kyung Jin; Roh, Young Hoon; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In general, focal nodular hyperplasia is a hepatic lesion that most frequently affects the healthy women of reproductive age. Focal nodular hyperplasia lesions have a benign natural course; the majority of the cases remain asymptomatic and complications are rare. Spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia is a rare disease, and the hemorrhage in young men is even more uncommon. We report a rare case of spontaneous hemorrhage of focal nodular hyperplasia in a 19-year-old man.

  5. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Daniela E.; Bae, Chilman; Peter J Butler

    2011-01-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surfa...

  6. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad-hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. In this work we apply a conventional likelihood method to measure a skill of forecast. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can in principle be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random. For double-couple source orientation the random probability distribution function is not uniform, which complicates the calculation of the likelihood value. To better understand the resulting complexities we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two rota...

  7. Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinghua Ding

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disor-ders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar for-mation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke.

  8. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  9. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  10. Focal epileptic seizures mimicking sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Ossola, Maria; Colnaghi, Silvia; Arbasino, Carla

    2009-03-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common parasomnia. The diagnostic criteria for SP, as reported in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are essentially clinical, as electroencephalography (EEG)-polysomnography (PSG) is not mandatory. We describe a subject whose sleep-related events fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SP, even though her visual hallucinations were elementary, repetitive and stereotyped, thus differing from those usually reported by patients with SP. Video/EEG-PSG documented the focal epileptic nature of the SP-like episodes.

  11. Syndecan-4 and focal adhesion function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Two groups have now reported the viability of mice that lack syndecan-4. These mice have wound healing/angiogenesis problems, and fibroblasts from these animals differ in adhesion and migration from normal. This is consistent with recent in vitro data indicating a need for signaling via syndecan-4...... for focal adhesion formation, and reports that overexpression of proteins that bind syndecan-4 can modify cell adhesion and migration....

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Mechanosensitivity in Focal Adhesions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Physical environment guides tissue regeneration and morphology in both health and disease. In the past three decades, several experiments illustrated that mechanical cues are captured and transduced to biochemical signals in the cellular level (mechanotransduction) mediated by cell adhesion. Cells adhere to their microenvironment through large protein assemblies known as focal adhesions that directly couple intra- and extra-cellular matrices and play a critical role in many vital cell functio...

  13. Staring Focal Plane Array System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    mod- eling. This chapter presents background material needed to understand basic Focal Plane Array technology, the linear systems theory commonly... Linear systems theory is commonly used to assess the performance of imaging systems by describing the system’s response to different spatial frequencies...account for the nonlinearities (edge enhancement, adaptive spatial filtering) intro- duced by the eye/brain is not clear. How far can linear systems theory and

  14. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, CESTA/DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-06-15

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3{omega} high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3{omega} (a 3{omega} laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 {+-} 45) {mu}m.

  15. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia) (FEH) is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 1...

  16. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  17. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  18. Relation between shape of the articular eminence and disc displacement in the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heung Ki; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyung Hee Univ. College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-15

    To investigate the hypothesis that the morphology of the articular eminence of the temporomandibular joint is a predisposing factor for disc displacement. MR images of 126 temporomandibular joints in 94 patients were analyzed to assess for morphology of the articular eminence and disc displacement. The displaced disc was further categorized as disc displacement with reduction (DDWR) and disc displacement without reduction (DDWOR). The morphology of the articular eminence was classified into four types; box, sigmoid, flattened, and deformed. The relationship between the four types of shape of the articular eminence and the two types of disc position was assessed. In the DDWR and DDWOR groups, the morphology of articular eminence were a box type in 40.5%, a sigmoid type in 30.2%, a flattened type in 24.6%, and a deformed type in 4.7%. The box type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 42.9% in the DDWOR group. The sigmoid type of the articular eminence were 34.3% in the DDWR group and 28.6% in the DDWOR group. The flattened type of the articular eminence were 28.6% in the DDWR group and 23.1% in the DDWOR group. The deformed type of the articular eminence were 2.9% in the DDWR group and 5.5% in the DDWOR group. Disc displacement in more likely to be found in the temporomandibular joints with a box-shaped articular eminence. It can be considered that shape of the articular eminence is related to the development of disc displacement.

  19. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... storage pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that ... function, even though there are normal platelet numbers. Most ...

  20. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects, premature birth and infant mortality. Solving premature birth Featured articles Accomplishments and lessons learned since the ... and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce your ...

  1. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lippiello

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avocado/soy unsaponifiable (ASU components are reported to have a chondroprotective effect by virtue of anti-inflammatory and proanabolic effects on articular chondrocytes. The identity of the active component(s remains unknown. In general, sterols, the major component of unsaponifiable plant material have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in vitro and in animal models. These studies were designed to clarify whether the sterol content of ASU preparations were the primary contributors to biological activity in articular chondrocytes. ASU samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and GC mass spectrometry. The sterol content was normalized between diverse samples prior to in vitro testing on bovine chondrocytes. Anabolic activity was monitored by uptake of 35-sulfate into proteoglycans and quantitation of labeled hydroxyproline and proline content after incubation with labeled proline. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by measuring reduction of interleukin-1 (IL-1-induced synthesis of PGE2 and metalloproteases and release of label from tissue prelabeled with S-35.All ASU samples exerted a similar time-dependent up-regulation of 35-sulfate uptake in bovine cells reaching a maximum of greater than 100% after 72 h at sterol doses of 1–10 μg/ml. Non-collagenous protein (NCP and collagen synthesis were similarly up-regulated. All ASU were equally effective in dose dependently inhibiting IL-1-induced MMP-3 activity (23–37%, labeled sulfate release (15–23% and PGE2 synthesis (45–58%. Up-regulation of glycosaminoglycan and collagen synthesis and reduction of IL-1 effects in cartilage are consistent with chondroprotective activity. The similarity of activity of ASU from diverse sources when tested at equal sterol levels suggests sterols are important for biologic effects in articular chondrocytes.

  2. Progression of articular cartilage degeneration after application of muscle stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Carolina Náglio Kalil; Renner, Adriana Frias; dos Santos, Anderson Amaro; Vasilceac, Fernando Augusto; Mattiello, Stela Márcia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the progression of the ankle articular cartilage alterations after a post-immobilization muscle stretching. Twenty-nine Wistar rats were separated into five groups: C--control, S--stretched, SR--stretch recovery, IS--immobilized and stretched, and ISR--immobilized stretched recovery. The immobilization was maintained for 4 weeks and the left ankle was then stretched manually through a full dorsal flexion for 10 times for 60 s with a 30 s interval between each 60 s period, 7 days/week for 3 weeks. The recovery period was of 7 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the left ankles were removed, processed in paraffin, and stained in hematoxylin-eosin and safranin O. Two blinded observers evaluated the articular cartilage using the Mankin grading system (cellularity, chondrocyte cloning, and proteoglycan content) through light microscopy, and performed the morphometry (cellularity, total thickness, non-calcified thickness, and calcified thickness measures). Both the Mankin grading system and the morphometric analysis showed that the ISR group presented the most increased cellularity among the groups. The IS and SR groups showed the highest proteoglycan loss, and the ISR group showed the same content of proteoglycan observed in the C group. No significant differences were found in the chondrocyte cloning, the total cartilage thickness, the non-calcified cartilage thickness, and the calcified cartilage thickness among the groups. The results suggest that the cartilage can recover the proteoglycan loss caused by immobilization and stretching, probably because of the increased chondrocyte density. Therefore, the ankle articular cartilage responded as to repair the metabolic deficits.

  3. Biochemical composition of the superficial layer of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, R; Grubelnik, A; Roos, S; Dora, C; Born, W; Troxler, H

    2007-09-15

    To gain more information on the mechanism of lubrication in articular joints, the superficial layer of bovine articular cartilage was mechanically removed in a sheet of ice that formed on freezing the cartilage. Freeze-dried samples contained low concentrations of chondroitin sulphate and protein. Analysis of the protein by SDS PAGE showed that the composition of the sample was comparable to that of synovial fluid (SF). Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy of the dried residue indicated that the sample contained mostly hyaluronan. Moreover, ATR-IR spectroscopy of the upper layer of the superficial layer, adsorbed onto silicon, showed the presence of phospholipids. A gel could be formed by mixing hyaluronan and phosphatidylcholine in water with mechanical properties similar to those of the superficial layer on cartilage. Much like the superficial layer of natural cartilage, the surface of this gel became hydrophobic on drying out. Thus, it is proposed that the superficial layer forms from hyaluronan and phospholipids, which associate by hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl chains of the phospholipids and the hydrophobic faces of the disaccharide units in hyaluronan. This layer is permeable to material from the SF and the cartilage, as shown by the presence of SF proteins and chondroitin sulphate. As the cartilage dries out after removal from the joint, the phospholipids migrate towards the surface of the superficial layer to reduce the surface tension. It is also proposed that the highly efficient lubrication in articular joints can, at least in part, be attributed to the ability of the superficial layer to adsorb and hold water on the cartilage surface, thus creating a highly viscous boundary protection.

  4. Metabolic Effects of Avocado/Soy Unsaponifiables on Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Joseph V.; Harlan, Robert; Chiou, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Avocado/soy unsaponifiable (ASU) components are reported to have a chondroprotective effect by virtue of anti-inflammatory and proanabolic effects on articular chondrocytes. The identity of the active component(s) remains unknown. In general, sterols, the major component of unsaponifiable plant material have been demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in vitro and in animal models. These studies were designed to clarify whether the sterol content of ASU preparations were the primary contributors to biological activity in articular chondrocytes. ASU samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC mass spectrometry. The sterol content was normalized between diverse samples prior to in vitro testing on bovine chondrocytes. Anabolic activity was monitored by uptake of 35-sulfate into proteoglycans and quantitation of labeled hydroxyproline and proline content after incubation with labeled proline. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by measuring reduction of interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced synthesis of PGE2 and metalloproteases and release of label from tissue prelabeled with S-35.All ASU samples exerted a similar time-dependent up-regulation of 35-sulfate uptake in bovine cells reaching a maximum of greater than 100% after 72 h at sterol doses of 1–10 μg/ml. Non-collagenous protein (NCP) and collagen synthesis were similarly up-regulated. All ASU were equally effective in dose dependently inhibiting IL-1-induced MMP-3 activity (23–37%), labeled sulfate release (15–23%) and PGE2 synthesis (45–58%). Up-regulation of glycosaminoglycan and collagen synthesis and reduction of IL-1 effects in cartilage are consistent with chondroprotective activity. The similarity of activity of ASU from diverse sources when tested at equal sterol levels suggests sterols are important for biologic effects in articular chondrocytes. PMID:18604259

  5. Reemplazo articular temporomandibular debido a queratoquiste odontogénico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Angel Peñón Vivas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Existen disímiles condiciones que hacen necesario el reemplazo articular temporomandibular; dentro de las más frecuentes se encuentran la anquilosis, la osteoatrosis, estadíos avanzados del Síndrome de disfunción temporomandibular, daño articular postrauma y procesos neoplásicos o tumorales. Los queratoquistes odontógenos que se agrupan para su estudio dentro de los quistes odontogénicos del desarrollo, representan cerca del 7 al 10 por ciento de todos los quistes maxilo-mandibulares. Se dice que tienen dos picos de incidencia entre la segunda y tercera década de vida y entre los 50 y 60 años de edad, con una ligera predilección por el sexo masculino. Aparece más frecuentemente en la región del tercer molar de la mandíbula con extensión a la rama ascendente El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo mostrar el caso de un paciente masculino de 57 años de edad en el que fue necesario el reemplazo articular temporomandibular debido a un queratoquiste odontogénico que involucraba la totalidad de la rama mandibular derecha, incluyendo el proceso condíleo y coronoideo, así como el ángulo hasta el tercio posterior del cuerpo mandibular. Tras un año de realizada la intervención quirúrgica la evolución del paciente fue satisfactoria.

  6. ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Emi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan); Kanazawa, Tomoko; Tamura, Masanori; Ozaki, Toshifumi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Science of Functional Recovery and Reconstruction, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor stimulates chondrogenic gene expression of articular chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor enhances the redifferentiation of cultured chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor is useful for preparation of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROCK inhibitor may be a useful reagent for chondrocyte-based regeneration therapy. -- Abstract: Chondrocytes lose their chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro. The Rho family GTPase ROCK, involved in organizing the actin cytoskeleton, modulates the differentiation status of chondrocytic cells. However, the optimum method to prepare a large number of un-dedifferentiated chondrocytes is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ROCK inhibitor (ROCKi) on the chondrogenic property of monolayer-cultured articular chondrocytes. Human articular chondrocytes were subcultured in the presence or absence of ROCKi (Y-27632). The expression of chondrocytic marker genes such as SOX9 and COL2A1 was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Cellular morphology and viability were evaluated. Chondrogenic redifferentiation potential was examined by a pellet culture procedure. The expression level of SOX9 and COL2A1 was higher in ROCKi-treated chondrocytes than in untreated cells. Chondrocyte morphology varied from a spreading form to a round shape in a ROCKi-dependent manner. In addition, ROCKi treatment stimulated the proliferation of chondrocytes. The deposition of safranin O-stained proteoglycans and type II collagen was highly detected in chondrogenic pellets derived from ROCKi-pretreated chondrocytes. Our results suggest that ROCKi prevents the dedifferentiation of monolayer-cultured chondrocytes, and may be a useful reagent to maintain chondrocytic phenotypes in vitro for chondrocyte

  7. Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanters, Eva A H; Allessie, Maurits A; DE Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

  8. Sonographic features of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-shui; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Jin-rui

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic values of gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (FHT). The gray-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound data of 120 patients with histopathologically confirmed FHT were retrospectively studied. The background of thyroid parenchyma was subjectively evaluated as absence or presence of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The vascular types of thyroid nodules were determined as follows: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow, and focal thyroid inferno. Among all 120 nodules, 71 (59.2%) were located in normal thyroid parenchyma, 49 (40.8%) in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In the normal thyroid background, hypoechoic nodules accounted for 85.9% (61/71), and only 14.1% (10/71)nodules were isoechoic or hyperechoic. However, in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 40.8% were hypoechoic and 59.2% were isoechoic or hyperechoic. The difference was statistically significant (Pinferno accounted for 45 %, 25.9%, 20.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. The "focal inferno" is a relative specific color Doppler feature of FHT.

  9. Focal Conic Flower Textures at Curved Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Beller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.

  10. Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

    2004-07-01

    Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

  11. Osteochondritis dissecans of the subtalar articular facet: an unusual diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madi, Faouzi; Vialle, Raphael; Mary, Pierre; Damsin, Jean-Paul; Filipe, Georges [Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Paris Cedex 12 (France); Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Armand Trousseau Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2005-08-01

    Osteochondritis dissecans of the talus is classically characterized by an abnormality of the articular cartilage of the talar dome. We report a rare case of a lesion of the subtalar facet in a 10-year-old boy. The lesion was responsible for a painful ankle with secondary instability. The diagnosis was made using plain radiographs and CT, which showed a well-circumscribed osteochondral fragment demarcated from the adjacent bone by a radiolucent line. The clinical outcome was favourable after a 6-week period with a non-weight-bearing short-leg cast. (orig.)

  12. Extra-articular Synovial Chondromatosis Eroding and Penetrating the Acromion

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rassi, George; Matta, Jihad; Hijjawi, Ayman; Khair, Ousama Abou; Fahs, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis of the shoulder is an uncommon disorder. It usually affects the glenohumeral joint and is characterized by metaplasia of the synovium leading to the formation of osteochondral loose bodies. Few cases of extra-articular subacromial synovial chondromatosis involving the rotator cuff tendon have been reported in the literature. The treatment of previously reported cases consisted of open bursectomy and removal of loose bodies. We report a case of subacromial synovial chondromatosis without rotator cuff involvement but with severe erosion and fracture of the acromion. Treatment consisted of shoulder arthroscopy to remove all loose bodies, total bursectomy, and debridement of the acromion. Potential benefits of arthroscopy were also evaluated. PMID:26697302

  13. Focal partial tears of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon at the entrance to the bicipital groove: MR imaging findings, surgical correlation, and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Choudhri, Asim [UVA Health System, Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Diduch, David R. [UVA Health System, Department of Orthopedics, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps brachii tendon, occurring at the entrance to the bicipital groove, which can be difficult to detect with MRI. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively reviewed imaging and medical records in 16 consecutive patients (12 men, 4 women; mean age, 57 years) who had prospective MRI diagnoses of tendinopathy and/or partial tearing of the intra-articular segment of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) at the entrance to the bicipital groove (restricted to within 1 cm of the groove entrance) and who also had surgical correlation within 4 months of imaging. Focal intrasubstance signal abnormality was noted in the tendons of 16 out of 16 (100%) patients. Focal tendon enlargement was noted in 8 out of 16 patients (50%). Fifteen out of 16 biceps partial tears (94%) were treated surgically. Shoulder pathology was restricted to the groove entrance in 4 out of 16 patients (25%). We depict a subset of focal partial tears of the biceps tendon, which can be difficult to detect on MRI because of their anatomical location at the entrance to the bicipital groove. Although they may coexist with other causes of shoulder pain, these lesions can also occur in isolation. In either case, they are potential causes of pain that can be addressed surgically. (orig.)

  14. Atrioventricular Canal Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor See your doctor if you or your child develops signs or symptoms of atrioventricular canal defect. Atrioventricular canal defect occurs before birth when a baby's heart is developing. Some factors, such as Down syndrome, might increase the risk of atrioventricular canal defect. ...

  15. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa septic arthritis of knee after intra-articular ozone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyman, Derya; Ozen, Nevgun Sepin; Inan, Dilara; Ongut, Gozde; Ogunc, Dilara

    2012-07-01

    We describe a case of septic arthritis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an immunocompetent patient following intra-articular ozone injection into the knee. To the best of our knowledge, and after considering the current literature,we believe this case is unique as no other reports of septic arthritis caused by P. aeruginosa following intra-articular ozone injection has been made.

  17. [Systematization of the articular surfaces of the carpometacarpal joints (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Bacha, A; Maillot, C

    1977-01-01

    A study, done on 100 hands, of the systematization of the articular surfaces of the carpometacarpal joints, clearly delineates the variability of circumference, dimesions, and relief of the articular facets. An attempt to draw general conclusions from this morphological study, in terms of arthrokinetics, leads to an understanding of the nature of the joints and the movements that are performed at this site.

  18. The subchondral bone in articular cartilage repair: current problems in the surgical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomoll, A.H.; Madry, H.; Knutsen, G.; van Dijk, N.; Seil, R.; Brittberg, M.; Kon, E.

    2010-01-01

    As the understanding of interactions between articular cartilage and subchondral bone continues to evolve, increased attention is being directed at treatment options for the entire osteochondral unit, rather than focusing on the articular surface only. It is becoming apparent that without support

  19. Articular contact in a three-dimensional model of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankevoort, L.; Kuiper, J.H.; Huiskes, R.; Grootenboer, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This study is aimed at the analysis of articular contact in a three-dimensional mathematical model of the human knee-joint. In particular the effect of articular contact on the passive motion characteristics is assessed in relation to experimentally obtained joint kinematics. Two basically different

  20. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, A.C.; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N.; Groot, J. de; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solutio

  1. Detailed Analysis of the Articular Domain in Patients with Primary Sjögren Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Suzanne; Meiners, Petra M; Moerman, Rada V; Vissink, Arjan; Spijkervet, Frederik K L; Kroese, Frans G M; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Bootsma, Hendrika

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We used the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) articular domain to assess the effect of rituximab (RTX) and abatacept (ABA) on articular involvement in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS). METHOD

  2. Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato ...

  3. Defect production in ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinoshita, C. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A review is given of several important defect production and accumulation parameters for irradiated ceramics. Materials covered in this review include alumina, magnesia, spinel silicon carbide, silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and diamond. Whereas threshold displacement energies for many ceramics are known within a reasonable level of uncertainty (with notable exceptions being AIN and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), relatively little information exists on the equally important parameters of surviving defect fraction (defect production efficiency) and point defect migration energies for most ceramics. Very little fundamental displacement damage information is available for nitride ceramics. The role of subthreshold irradiation on defect migration and microstructural evolution is also briefly discussed.

  4. Internal Defect Measurement of Scattering Media by Optical Coherence Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yong-kai; ZHAO Hong; WANG Zhao; WANG Jun-li

    2005-01-01

    Optical coherence microscopy is applied to measure scattering media's internal defect, which based on low coherence interferometry and confocal microscopy. Optical coherence microscopy is more effective in the rejection of out of focus and multiple scattered photons originating further away of the focal plane. With the three-dimension scanning, the internal defect is detected by measuring the thickness of different points on the sample. The axial resolution is 6 μm and lateral resolution is 1.2 μm. This method is possessed of the advantages over the other measurement method of scattering media, such as non-destruction and highresolution.

  5. Rare hereditary COL4A3/COL4A4 variants may be mistaken for familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, Andrew F.; Phelan, Paul J.; Hall, Gentzon; Cetincelik, Umran; Homstad, Alison; Alonso, Andrea; Jiang, Ruiji; Lindsey, Thomas; Wu, Guanghong; Sparks, Matthew A.; Smith, Stephen R.; Webb, Nicholas J. A.; Kalra, Philip; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a histological lesion with many causes including inherited genetic defects with significant proteinuria being the predominant clinical finding at presentation. Mutations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 are known to cause Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane nephropathy, and to result in pathognomonic glomerular basement membrane findings. Secondary FSGS is known to develop in classic Alport Syndrome at later stages of the disease. Here, we present seven fa...

  6. Topographic matching of distal radius and proximal fibula articular surface for distal radius osteoarticular reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Chen, S; Wang, Z; Guo, Y; Liu, B; Tong, D

    2016-07-01

    During osteoarticular reconstruction of the distal radius with the proximal fibula, congruity between the two articular surfaces is an important factor in determining the quality of the outcome. In this study, a three-dimensional model and a coordinate transformation algorithm were developed on computed tomography scanning. Articular surface matching was performed and parameters for the optimal position were determined quantitatively. The mean radii of best-fit spheres of the articular surfaces of the distal radius and proximal fibula were compared quantitatively. The radial inclination and volar tilt following reconstruction by an ipsilateral fibula graft, rather than the contralateral, best resembles the values of the native distal radius. Additionally, the ipsilateral fibula graft reconstructed a larger proportion of the distal radius articular surface than did the contralateral. The ipsilateral proximal fibula graft provides a better match for the reconstruction of the distal radius articular surface than the contralateral, and the optimal position for graft placement is quantitatively determined.

  7. Extra-articular hip impingement: a narrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing subgroup of patients with poor outcomes after hip arthroscopy for intra-articular pathology suggesting unrecognized cause(s) of impingement may exist. Extra-articular hip impingement (EHI) is an emerging group of conditions that have been associated with intra-articular causes of impingement and may be an unrecognized source of pain. EHI is caused by abnormal contact between the extra-articular regions of the proximal femur and pelvis. This review discusses the most common forms for EHI including: central iliopsoas impingement, subspine impingement, ischiofemoral impingement, and greater trochanteric-pelvic impingement. The clinical presentation of each pathology will be discussed since EHI conditions share similar clinical features as the intra-articular pathology but also contain some unique characteristics. PMID:27069266

  8. Intra-articular Implantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeutler, Matthew J.; Mitchell, Justin J.; Chahla, Jorge; McCarty, Eric C.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) after partial or total meniscectomy is a prevalent issue that patients must face. Various methods of replacing meniscal tissue have been studied to avoid this progression, including meniscal allograft transplantation, meniscal scaffolds, and synthetic meniscus replacement. Studies have shown that meniscal scaffolds may improve symptoms but have not been shown to prevent progression of OA. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a possible biological therapy for meniscal regeneration. Several animal studies and 1 human study have evaluated the effect of transplanting MSCs into the knee joint after partial meniscectomy. The purpose of this review was to assess the outcomes of intra-articular transplantation of MSCs on meniscal regeneration in animals and humans after partial meniscectomy. Limited results from animal studies suggest that there is some potential for intra-articular injection of MSCs for the regeneration of meniscal tissue. However, further studies are necessary to determine the quality of regenerated meniscal tissue through histological and biomechanical testing. PMID:28203596

  9. Subtalar versus triple arthrodesis after intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Kieboom, Brenda C T; Bessems, Gert H J M; Vogels, Lucas M M; van Lieshout, Esther M M; Patka, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Depending upon initial treatment, between 2 and 30% of patients with a displaced intra-articular calcaneal fracture require a secondary arthrodesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subtalar versus triple arthrodesis on functional outcome. A total of 33 patients with 37 secondary arthrodeses (17 subtalar and 20 triple) with a median follow-up of 116 months were asked to complete questionnaires regarding disease-specific functional outcome (Maryland Foot Score, MFS), quality of life (SF-36) and overall satisfaction with the treatment (Visual Analogue Scale, VAS). Patient groups were comparable considering median age at fracture, initial treatment (conservative or operative), time to arthrodesis, median follow-up, and post-arthrodesis radiographic angles. The MFS score was similar after subtalar versus triple arthrodesis (59 vs. 56 points; P = 0.79). No statistically significant difference was found for the SF-36 (84 vs. 83 points; P = 0.67) and the VAS (5 vs. 6; P = 0.21). Smoking was statistically significantly associated with a non-union (χ(2) = 6.60, P = 0.017). The current study suggests that there is no significant difference in functional outcome between an in situ subtalar or triple arthrodesis as a salvage technique for symptomatic arthrosis after an intra-articular calcaneal fracture. Smoking is a risk factor for non-union.

  10. Non-linear model for compression tests on articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Alfio; Guaily, Amr; Giverso, Chiara; Federico, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Hydrated soft tissues, such as articular cartilage, are often modeled as biphasic systems with individually incompressible solid and fluid phases, and biphasic models are employed to fit experimental data in order to determine the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the tissues. Two of the most common experimental setups are confined and unconfined compression. Analytical solutions exist for the unconfined case with the linear, isotropic, homogeneous model of articular cartilage, and for the confined case with the non-linear, isotropic, homogeneous model. The aim of this contribution is to provide an easily implementable numerical tool to determine a solution to the governing differential equations of (homogeneous and isotropic) unconfined and (inhomogeneous and isotropic) confined compression under large deformations. The large-deformation governing equations are reduced to equivalent diffusive equations, which are then solved by means of finite difference (FD) methods. The solution strategy proposed here could be used to generate benchmark tests for validating complex user-defined material models within finite element (FE) implementations, and for determining the tissue's mechanical and hydraulic properties from experimental data.

  11. Changes in articular cartilage in experimentally induced patellar subluxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Patellar subluxation was experimentally induced in young rabbits and the resulting cartilaginous changes were observed over a prolonged period of time to determine histological changes in the subluxated patellar cartilage.
METHODS—The tibial tuberosity in 12 week old rabbits was laterally displaced and fixed to the tibia with wire to induce lateral patellar subluxation. Pathological changes in patellar cartilage were examined for 120 weeks after surgery using computed tomography and stereoscopic microscopy.
RESULTS—Eight weeks after surgery, changes in articular cartilage consisting of horizontal splitting of the matrix were observed in the intermediate zone and were presumed to have been caused by shearing stress applied to the patellar cartilage. The cartilaginous changes caused by patellar subluxation progressed very little over the 120 weeks. Very few rabbits presented with osteoarthritic changes in the patellofemoral joint, most probably because the stress resulting from the malalignment of the patellofemoral joint was mild enough to permit recovery.
CONCLUSION—The mild, non-progressive pathological changes, in particular, basal degeneration, induced in this experiment in patellar cartilage were quite similar to the changes in articular cartilage seen in human chondromalacia patellae.

 PMID:9462171

  12. Conditional Deletion of Fgfr3 in Chondrocytes leads to Osteoarthritis-like Defects in Temporomandibular Joint of Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siru; Xie, Yangli; Li, Wei; Huang, Junlan; Wang, Zuqiang; Tang, Junzhou; Xu, Wei; Sun, Xianding; Tan, Qiaoyan; Huang, Shuo; Luo, Fengtao; Xu, Meng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Liang; Chen, Hangang; Su, Nan; Du, Xiaolan; Shen, Yue; Chen, Lin

    2016-04-04

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a common degenerative disease in adult, which is characterized by progressive destruction of the articular cartilage. To investigate the role of FGFR3 in the homeostasis of TMJ cartilage during adult stage, we generated Fgfr3(f/f); Col2a1-CreER(T2) (Fgfr3 cKO) mice, in which Fgfr3 was deleted in chondrocytes at 2 months of age. OA-like defects were observed in Fgfr3 cKO TMJ cartilage. Immunohistochemical staining and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed a significant increase in expressions of COL10, MMP13 and AMAMTS5. In addition, there was a sharp increase in chondrocyte apoptosis at the Fgfr3 cKO articular surface, which was accompanied by a down-regulation of lubricin expression. Importantly, the expressions of RUNX2 and Indian hedgehog (IHH) were up-regulated in Fgfr3 cKO TMJ. Primary Fgfr3 cKO chondrocytes were treated with IHH signaling inhibitor, which significantly reduced expressions of Runx2, Col10, Mmp13 and Adamts5. Furthermore, the IHH signaling inhibitor partially alleviated OA-like defects in the TMJ of Fgfr3 cKO mice, including restoration of lubricin expression and improvement of the integrity of the articular surface. In conclusion, our study proposes that FGFR3/IHH signaling pathway plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostasis of TMJ articular cartilage during adult stage.

  13. The promotion of osteochondral repair by combined intra-articular injection of parathyroid hormone-related protein and implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jialin; Tao, Jiadong; Hu, Changchang; Chen, Longkun; Zhao, Hongshi; Xu, Guowei; Heng, Boon C; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2013-08-01

    The repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with scaffolds but is often accompanied with undesirable terminal differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been shown to inhibit aberrant differentiation, but administration at inappropriate time points would have adverse effects on chondrogenesis. This study aims to develop an effective tissue engineering strategy by combining PTHrP and collagen-silk scaffold for osteochondral defect repair. The underlying mechanisms of the synergistic effect of combining PTHrP administration with collagen-silk scaffold implantation for rabbit knee joint osteochondral defect repair were investigated. In vitro studies showed that PTHrP treatment significantly reduced Alizarin Red staining and expression of terminal differentiation-related markers. This is achieved in part through blocking activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. For the in vivo repair study, intra-articular injection of PTHrP was carried out at three different time windows (4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 weeks) together with implantation of a bi-layer collagen-silk scaffold. Defects treated with PTHrP at the 4-6 weeks time window exhibited better regeneration (reconstitution of cartilage and subchondral bone) with minimal terminal differentiation (hypertrophy, ossification and matrix degradation), as well as enhanced chondrogenesis (cell shape, Col2 and GAG accumulation) compared with treatment at other time windows. Furthermore, the timing of PTHrP administration also influenced PTHrP receptor expression, thus affecting the treatment outcome. Our results demonstrated that intra-articular injection of PTHrP at 4-6 weeks post-injury together with collagen-silk scaffold implantation is an effective strategy for inhibiting terminal differentiation and enhancing chondrogenesis, thus improving cartilage repair and regeneration in a rabbit model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Gene expression profile of the cartilage tissue spontaneously regenerated in vivo by using a novel double-network gel: Comparisons with the normal articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurokawa Takayuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently found a phenomenon that spontaneous regeneration of a hyaline cartilage-like tissue can be induced in a large osteochondral defect by implanting a double-network (DN hydrogel plug, which was composed of poly-(2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and poly-(N, N'-Dimetyl acrylamide, at the bottom of the defect. The purpose of this study was to clarify gene expression profile of the regenerated tissue in comparison with that of the normal articular cartilage. Methods We created a cylindrical osteochondral defect in the rabbit femoral grooves. Then, we implanted the DN gel plug at the bottom of the defect. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the regenerated tissue was analyzed using DNA microarray and immunohistochemical examinations. Results The gene expression profiles of the regenerated tissues were macroscopically similar to the normal cartilage, but showed some minor differences. The expression degree of COL2A1, COL1A2, COL10A1, DCN, FMOD, SPARC, FLOD2, CHAD, CTGF, and COMP genes was greater in the regenerated tissue than in the normal cartilage. The top 30 genes that expressed 5 times or more in the regenerated tissue as compared with the normal cartilage included type-2 collagen, type-10 collagen, FN, vimentin, COMP, EF1alpha, TFCP2, and GAPDH genes. Conclusions The tissue regenerated by using the DN gel was genetically similar but not completely identical to articular cartilage. The genetic data shown in this study are useful for future studies to identify specific genes involved in spontaneous cartilage regeneration.

  15. Secondary knee instability caused by fracture of the stabilizing insert in a dual-articular total knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten P; Jensen, Tim Toftgaard; Husted, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A case of a fractured polyethylene stabilizing insert causing secondary knee instability in a Dual-articular total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is presented. A 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery with a Dual-articular TKA 4 years earlier had a well-functioning prosthesis until a fall, after which......-articular knee....

  16. Focal dermal hypoplasia: report of a case with myelomeningocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus with a review of neurologic manifestations of Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tess; Perrier, Renee; Haber, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man [OMIM] 305600) is a rare X-linked dominant congenital disorder involving defects of mesodermal- and ectodermal-derived structures. It is associated with mutations in the PORCN gene, a regulator of Wnt signaling proteins. The phenotype is highly variable, although all describe characteristic skin findings as a primary diagnostic feature. To date there are few case reports of focal dermal hypoplasia associated with central nervous system abnormalities. We report the second case of focal dermal hypoplasia associated with myelomenigocele, Arnold-Chiari malformation and hydrocephalus and the first in a male. Genetic testing identified a novel mosaic three base pair deletion within the PORCN gene (c.853_855delACG). This case highlights the importance of neurological evaluation in focal dermal hypoplasia and consideration of other syndromes more commonly associated with central nervous system abnormalities. In this report we summarize the literature on neurological manifestations in Goltz syndrome.

  17. Research Progress in Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage%组织工程化关节软骨研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来灿钢; 张泽宇; 李青; 俞燕飞; 厉驹

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a non-vascular tissue ,the inflammation of articular cartilage is induced by cartilage cels, synovial tissue secretion of cytokines.The way to repair of cartilage defects is always a great chalenge in clinical practice,because of the limited regenerative capacity.Therefore,preferable repair of articular cartilage has been the focus of reconstructive surgery.This article reviews the advancements of the tissue engineered articular cartilage. Construction of tissue-engineered articular cartilage refers to three key factors,including seed cels,scaffolds and cytokines,al of them must be coordinated development and mutual beneift.Research of tissue engineered articular cartilage has made great progress,the tissue engineered articular cartilage has been successfuly applied to clinical, obvious effects have been achieved.Recent development of research on materials,the new material of tissue engineered articular cartilage wil be beter meet the biological characteristics and make breakthrough on damaged cartilage repair.%关节软骨属于无血管的组织,炎症的反应是由软骨细胞、滑膜组织分泌的细胞因子所介导。关节软骨损伤后自身修复能力有限,损伤后的修复成为临床急需解决的问题。因此,关节软骨损伤修复成为研究者和临床工作者的研究热点,本文就目前关节软骨组织工程研究进展作一综述。种子细胞、支架和细胞因子是关节软骨组织工程的三大要素,三者必须协调发展和互利。现阶段组织工程方法修复关节软骨损伤的研究已取得很大进展,组织工程修复关节软骨损伤这项技术已成功应用于临床,取得了明显的效果。随着新材料的不断研发,新的组织工程软骨修复材料将兼顾材料学和生物学的需要,使其更接近机体自身组织生物学特性,使关节软骨损伤修复取得突破性进展。

  18. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment.

  19. Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

  20. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  1. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  2. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  3. Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Ali; Doroushi, Behzad; Taheri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Gheliani; Atefe Tavangar; Nakissa Torabinia; Laleh Maleki; Tahereh Nosratzehi

    2013-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck) is a rare lesion caused by human papilloma virus subtype 13 or 32 and presents as multiple small white or pink papules on the mucosal surface of lips, buccal mucosa and tongue usually seen in children and adolescent of American Indian and Eskimo background. This disease has a genetic basis. The site of new lesions and recurrence are unpredictable. Continued follow up of the patient is often necessary. In this report, a 50-year-old woman is described with be...

  5. FOCAL EPITHELIAL HYPERPLASIA: HECK’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński Piotr

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Heck's disease (focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH is clinically characterized by multiple circumscribed, soft elevated nodules of the oral mucosa. Papules and plaques are usually the color of normal mucosa, but may be pale or, rarely, white. Disease may persist for years, producing a significant reduction in quality of life. Lessions may be located in the area of mucous membranes of the lips, cheeks and tongue. It is believed that the two virus types are responsible for the FEH, are: HPV 13 and HPV 32. Different therapeutic procedures have been reported: surgical excision, laser ablation, cryotherapy, electrocauterization, interferon, retinoic acid, 5% immiquimod.

  6. Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: reports of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dae Hee; Jeong, Young Ki; Kim, Seung Hyup [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic inflammatory condition which in most cases involves either an entire non-duplicated kidney or a moiety of a duplicated kidney. These cases present with quite characteristic radiologic findings including an enlarged nonfunctioning kidney and renal stones. However, when the condition involves only a part of a non-duplicated kidney and especially where there is an absence of the specific findings described above, differentiation from cystic neoplasm may be difficult. We report the radiologic findings of two such cases of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.

  7. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam in rats: assessment of the local effects on the articular cartilage and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyuvaci, H; Bilgic, B; Ozyuvaci, E; Altan, A; Altug, T; Karaca, C

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible local adverse effects of intra-articular administration of tenoxicam in the rat knee joint. A total of 50 rats were given 0.25 ml of a standard preparation of tenoxicam by injection into the right knee joint and 0.25 ml of 0.9% saline solution by injection into the left knee joint as a control. Groups of 10 rats were killed 24 h, 48 h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after tenoxicam administration. Two rats were sham operated; one was killed on the first day and the other on the second day after this procedure. All the joints were prepared and sectioned for histological examination. Tissue loss and oedema were observed in the specimens obtained 24 h and 48 h after treatment with tenoxicam. No pathological changes were observed in the 7-day, 14-day and 21-day specimens, or in the control joints. Caution should be exercised when using intra-articular tenoxicam for post-operative analgesia.

  8. Focal liver lesions: Practical magnetic resonance imagingapproach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread of cross-sectional imaging, a growthof incidentally detected focal liver lesions (FLL) hasbeen observed. A reliable detection and characterizationof FLL is critical for optimal patient management.Maximizing accuracy of imaging in the context ofFLL is paramount in avoiding unnecessary biopsies,which may result in post-procedural complications. Atremendous development of new imaging techniqueshas taken place during these last years. Nowadays,Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key rolein management of liver lesions, using a radiation-freetechnique and a safe contrast agent profile. MRI playsa key role in the non-invasive correct characterizationof FLL. MRI is capable of providing comprehensiveand highly accurate diagnostic information, withthe additional advantage of lack of harmful ionizingradiation. These properties make MRI the mainstay forthe noninvasive evaluation of focal liver lesions. In thispaper we review the state-of-the-art MRI liver protocol,briefly discussing different sequence types, the uniquecharacteristics of imaging non-cooperative patients anddiscuss the role of hepatocyte-specific contrast agents.A review of the imaging features of the most commonbenign and malignant FLL is presented, supplementedby a schematic representation of a simplistic practicalapproach on MRI.

  9. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eVaughan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in humans. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  10. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  11. Musical anhedonia after focal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfi, Amy M; Evans, Erin; Heskje, Jonah; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia. Participants completed the Musical anhedonia Questionnaire and the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (Mas-Herrero et al., 2013) to assess changes in musical enjoyment and reward following brain injury. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. No clear or consistent neuroanatomical correlates of musical anhedonia were identified. One patient with damage to the right-hemisphere putamen and internal capsule displayed specific and severe acquired musical anhedonia. These findings indicate that acquired musical anhedonia is very uncommon, a result which is consistent with the fact that only a small number of such cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity could have positive implications for the therapeutic potentialities of music in patients with severe neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  13. Clinical and Morphological Features of Focal Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya B. Kurashvili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenomyosis is a very real problem encountered in modern gynecology due to the increase in the incidence, severity of the disease, and absence of effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and morphological features of the focal and diffuse forms of adenomyosis. Methods and Results: The study involved 70 women who applied to the Center with the diagnosis of ‘adenomyosis’. Examination included transvaginal sonography (TVS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and morphological study of the adenomyotic foci. With a probability of 99%, one can argue that focal adenomyosis (FA in its clinical features is different from diffuse adenomyosis (DA in all its major manifestations. Conclusion: FA has unique morphological characteristics and clinical features. The diagnosis of FA should be based on a complex of clinical and instrumental data in conjunction with morphological process verification. Besides, there are difficulties in the diagnosis of FA, which is a major reason for the incorrect determination of the treatment tactic for patients. However, the application of MRS allows the preoperative identification of the biochemical structure of the focus and determination of its borders, and in the postoperative period, selection of optimal treatment tactics based on the identified morphological features of the removed adenomyotic foci.

  14. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  15. Influence of Cervical Spine Mobility on the Focal and Postural Components of the Sit-to-Stand Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of cervical spine mobility on the focal and postural components of the sit-to-stand transition, which represent the preparatory and execution phases of the task, respectively. Sixteen asymptomatic female participants (22 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0,06 cm, 57,5 ± 5 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the sit-to-stand task at maximum speed, in four experimental conditions varying the mobility of the cervical spine by means of three different splints. A six-channel force plate, which collected the reaction forces and moments applied at its top surface, was used to calculate the center of pressure displacements along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes. The local accelerations of the head, spine, and pelvis, were assessed by three pairs of accelerometers, oriented along the vertical and anterior-posterior axes. Restriction of cervical spine mobility resulted in an increased duration of the focal movement, associated with longer and larger postural adjustments. These results suggest that restricted cervical spine mobility impairs the posturo-kinetic capacity during the sit-to-stand task, leading to a lower motor performance and a reorganization of the anticipatory postural adjustments. In a clinical context, it might be assumed that preserving the articular free play of the cervical spine might be useful to favor STS performance and autonomy.

  16. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  17. Imaging defects and dopants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Philipp Ebert

    2003-06-01

    With the invention of the transistor, a revolution in the development of semiconductor-based electronic devices began. However, even in the very early stages, the importance of defects and dopant atoms became obvious. In fact, if one incorporates the right defects and dopant atoms into semiconductor materials, one can tune their electrical properties such that optimal device characteristics are achieved. Unfortunately, counteractive defects are often also formed unintentionally during semiconductor processing, leading to unfavorable electronic properties. Considerable research efforts have, therefore, focused on understanding the nanoscale physics that governs the formation of point defects, the incorporation behavior of impurities, and their respective electronic properties.

  18. Novel aspects to the structure of rabbit articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ap Gwynn I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying cryo and modified chemical preparation techniques, mainly for scanning electron microscopy, revealed entirely new aspects to the structure of the radial zone of rabbit tibial plateau articular cartilage. The aggrecan component of the extracellular matrix was contained radially in columns, each with a diameter of 1-3mm, by a tightly packed matrix of collagen fibrils. The collagen fibrils were arranged radially, some straight and others in an opposed spiral arrangement, with regularly repeating patterns. This organization existed in the regions surrounding the columns of chondrocytes, known as chondrons. The load bearing property of the tissue was explained by the directed flow and containment of the interstitial fluid, modulated by the protein-carbohydrate complexes, along these collagen bounded tubular structures. The reason why such a structure has not been described previously may be that it is not retained by aldehyde fixation followed by dehydration, the method commonly used for tissue preparation for electron microscopy.

  19. Effects of Cryoprotective Agents on the Bovine Articular Chondrocyte Viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Cryopreservation is the process of choice for long term preservation of cells and tissues. In this study, the effects of cryoprotective agents, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO), glycerol and 1,2-propanediol on the bovine articular chondrocyte viability were examined experimentally. The CPA was added at the concentrations of 0. 6. 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 mol/I and at 4℃ and 37℃ and removed at 37℃ in one-step. CPA stepwise addition and removal at 0. 6 and 1. 2 mol/L and at 37℃ was also tested as an alternative protocol. Cell volume excursion during DMSO addition and removal was estimated and correlated well with cell survival rates. Solution makeup affects cell survival rate and a stepwise protocol can improve the cell survival rates significantly.

  20. Immortalization of human articular chondrocytes and induction of their phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何清义; 李起鸿; 杨柳; 许建中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To immortalize human articular chondrocytes (HACs) using gene transfection and to maintain stable phenotype of transformed HACs after induction.Methods HACs were transfected with the retroviral vector pLXSN encoding human papillomavirus 16E7 (HPV16E7), and the transformed clones were sorted and proliferated. Karyotype analysis, clone forming tests and nude mice tumor forming tests were applied to check the characteristics of the transformation. Type Ⅱ collagen of transformed chondrocytes was inducted with free serum medium (FSM) supplemented with nutridoma-sp and ascorbate. Results Immortalized HACs were isolated with fifty passages achieved. The HPV16E7 transformed cells were confirmed to be benign. Induction of FSM with nutridoma-sp and ascorbate promoted type Ⅱ collagen of transformed chondrocytes to the high levels of normal chondrocytes. Conclusion HACs transformed with HPV16E7 survive for long periods in vitro, and type Ⅱ collagen can maintain stability after induction.

  1. [Gait analysis after intra-articular calcaneus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmeth, A; Petje, G; Mittlmeier, T; Vécsei, V

    1996-01-01

    We retrospectively compared 20 patients with displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures by clinical assessment and dynamic pedography. Eleven were treated operatively, 9 conservatively. The purpose was to identify differences in post-traumatic gait performance and to correlate the pedographic data to a clinical score to show its reliability. Twenty individuals without a history of foot injuries were used as a control group. Both groups had restricted motion in the subtalar joint, increased hindfoot and midfoot loading and decreased forefoot loading. Furthermore, they showed prolonged contact phases and an impaired ability to speed up gait during the toe-off phase. Load transfer from the hindfoot to the forefoot showed typical distribution patterns. The operatively treated group showed better functional results with fewer subjective complaints.

  2. Contact mechanics of articular cartilage layers asymptotic models

    CERN Document Server

    Argatov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and unifying approach to articular contact mechanics with an emphasis on frictionless contact interaction of thin cartilage layers. The first part of the book (Chapters 1–4) reviews the results of asymptotic analysis of the deformational behavior of thin elastic and viscoelastic layers. A comprehensive review of the literature is combined with the authors’ original contributions. The compressible and incompressible cases are treated separately with a focus on exact solutions for asymptotic models of frictionless contact for thin transversely isotropic layers bonded to rigid substrates shaped like elliptic paraboloids. The second part (Chapters 5, 6, and 7) deals with the non-axisymmetric contact of thin transversely isotropic biphasic layers and presents the asymptotic modelling methodology for tibio-femoral contact. The third part of the book consists of Chapter 8, which covers contact problems for thin bonded inhomogeneous transversely isotropic elastic layers, and Cha...

  3. Epiphyseal abnormalities, trabecular bone loss and articular chondrocyte hypertrophy develop in the long bones of postnatal Ext1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgariglia, Federica; Candela, Maria Elena; Huegel, Julianne; Jacenko, Olena; Koyama, Eiki; Yamaguchi, Yu; Pacifici, Maurizio; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2013-11-01

    Long bones are integral components of the limb skeleton. Recent studies have indicated that embryonic long bone development is altered by mutations in Ext genes and consequent heparan sulfate (HS) deficiency, possibly due to changes in activity and distribution of HS-binding/growth plate-associated signaling proteins. Here we asked whether Ext function is continuously required after birth to sustain growth plate function and long bone growth and organization. Compound transgenic Ext1(f/f);Col2CreERT mice were injected with tamoxifen at postnatal day 5 (P5) to ablate Ext1 in cartilage and monitored over time. The Ext1-deficient mice exhibited growth retardation already by 2weeks post-injection, as did their long bones. Mutant growth plates displayed a severe disorganization of chondrocyte columnar organization, a shortened hypertrophic zone with low expression of collagen X and MMP-13, and reduced primary spongiosa accompanied, however, by increased numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous border. The mutant epiphyses were abnormal as well. Formation of a secondary ossification center was significantly delayed but interestingly, hypertrophic-like chondrocytes emerged within articular cartilage, similar to those often seen in osteoarthritic joints. Indeed, the cells displayed a large size and round shape, expressed collagen X and MMP-13 and were surrounded by an abundant Perlecan-rich pericellular matrix not seen in control articular chondrocytes. In addition, ectopic cartilaginous outgrowths developed on the lateral side of mutant growth plates over time that resembled exostotic characteristic of children with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses, a syndrome caused by Ext mutations and HS deficiency. In sum, the data do show that Ext1 is continuously required for postnatal growth and organization of long bones as well as their adjacent joints. Ext1 deficiency elicits defects that can occur in human skeletal conditions including trabecular bone loss

  4. Articular cartilage tissue engineering with plasma-rich in growth factors and stem cells with nano scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Laila M.; Abbassy, Hadeer A.; Fawzy, Sherin M.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to repair, regenerate, and/or improve injured or diseased cartilage functionality, has evoked intense interest and holds great potential for improving cartilage therapy. Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. There is a great promise to advance current cartilage therapies toward achieving a consistently successful approach for addressing cartilage afflictions. Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. In this paper, current and emergent approach in the field of cartilage tissue engineering is presented for specific application. In the next years, the development of new strategies using stem cells, in scaffolds, with supplementation of culture medium could improve the quality of new formed cartilage.

  5. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huegli, Rolf W. E-mail: rhuegli@uhbs.ch; Moelleken, Sonja M.C.; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K.; Tirman, Phillip F.J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. Materials and methods: We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. Results: In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

  6. Partial rotator cuff injury in athletes: bursal or articular?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Diniz Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA painful shoulder is a very common complaint among athletes, especially in the case of those in sports involving throwing. Partial lesions of the rotator cuff may be very painful and cause significant functional limitation to athletes' sports practice. The incidence of partial lesions of the cuff is variable (13-37%. It is difficult to make the clinical and radiological diagnosis, and this condition should be borne in mind in the cases of all athletes who present symptoms of rotator cuff syndrome, including in patients who are diagnosed only with tendinopathy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the epidemiological behavior of partial lesions of the rotator cuff in both amateur and professional athletes in different types of sports. METHODS: We evaluated 720 medical files on athletes attended at the shoulder service of the Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Sports Traumatology Center, Federal University of São Paulo. The majority of them were men (65%. Among all the patients, 83 of them were diagnosed with partial lesions of the rotator cuff, by means of ultrasonography or magnetic resonance, or in some cases using both. We applied the binomial test to compare the proportions found. RESULT: It was observed that intra-articular lesions predominated (67.6% and that these occurred more frequently in athletes in sports involving throwing (66%. Bursal lesions occurred in 32.4% of the athletes, predominantly in those who did muscle building (75%. CONCLUSION: Intra-articular lesions are more frequent than bursal lesions and they occur predominantly in athletes in sports involving throwing, while bursal lesions were more prevalent in athletes who did muscle building.

  7. Tratamiento farmacológico invasivo articular en la artrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Benítez Pareja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La degeneración de las articulaciones axiales y periféricas va unida al propio envejecimiento del ser humano. Es responsable del dolor e impotencia funcional, y su fisiopatología es compleja y no del todo conocida. El denominador común en la artrosis es la degeneración del cartílago articular, junto a otras alteraciones secundarias. Su abordaje y manejo del dolor supone todo un reto para las Unidades del Dolor. Históricamente, el tratamiento intervencionista se llevó a cabo mediante infiltraciones a ciegas de diferentes sustancias que alivian el dolor. En la actualidad, la fluoroscopia, y más recientemente los ultrasonidos, son los métodos de elección para la guía de nuestros procedimientos. En cuanto a los fármacos utilizados más comúnmente en nuestras técnicas invasivas articulares destacaremos el ácido hialurónico (AH y el plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP. Los esteroides siguen siendo, en prácticamente todos los estudios, el estándar de oro o fármaco de referencia y sobre los que se comparan el resto de familias de fármacos. Una exploración exhaustiva del paciente, y un algoritmo de decisiones en cuanto a la decisión de realización de estas técnicas, se antoja necesario, adecuándose a cada lugar de trabajo.

  8. Multiphysical modelling of fluid transport through osteo-articular media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Lemaire

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a multiphysical description of fluid transport through osteo-articular porous media is presented. Adapted from the model of Moyne and Murad, which is intended to describe clayey materials behaviour, this multiscale modelling allows for the derivation of the macroscopic response of the tissue from microscopical information. First the model is described. At the pore scale, electrohydrodynamics equations governing the electrolyte movement are coupled with local electrostatics (Gauss-Poisson equation, and ionic transport equations. Using a change of variables and an asymptotic expansion method, the macroscopic description is carried out. Results of this model are used to show the importance of couplings effects on the mechanotransduction of compact bone remodelling.Neste estudo uma descrição multifísica do transporte de fluidos em meios porosos osteo articulares é apresentada. Adaptado a partir do modelo de Moyne e Murad proposto para descrever o comportamento de materiais argilosos a modelagem multiescala permite a derivação da resposta macroscópica do tecido a partir da informação microscópica. Na primeira parte o modelo é apresentado. Na escala do poro as equações da eletro-hidrodinâmica governantes do movimento dos eletrolitos são acopladas com a eletrostática local (equação de Gauss-Poisson e as equações de transporte iônico. Usando uma mudança de variáveis e o método de expansão assintótica a derivação macroscópica é conduzida. Resultados do modelo proposto são usados para salientar a importância dos efeitos de acoplamento sobre a transdução mecânica da remodelagem de ossos compactados.

  9. Extra-Articular Manifestations of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Vela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease, characterised by polyarthritis and extra-articular organ disease, including rheumatoid nodules, ophthalmologic manifestations, cardiopulmonary disease, vasculitis, neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, Felty’s syndrome, and amyloidosis. Extra-articular manifestations of RA (ExRA occur in 17.8–40.9% of RA patients, 1.5–21.5% of them presenting as severe forms and usually associated with increased morbidity and mortality. They can develop at any time during the course of the disease, even in the early stages, and are associated with certain predisposing factors, such as the presence of rheumatoid factor, smoking, and long-standing severe disease. Rheumatoid nodules, the most common ExRA, have been found to be associated with the development of severe features, such as vasculitis, rheumatoid lung disease, pericarditis, and pleuritis, especially in those patients who develop them within 2 years from RA diagnosis. There is no uniformity in the definition of the term ExRA, which limits comparability between different studies. Several recent surveys suggest a lower frequency, probably due to a better control of disease activity. Diagnosis of ExRA is a challenge for clinicians, given its variable and complex presentation, and the lack of specific diagnostic tests; it must be based on clinical recognition and exclusion of other causes of the signs and symptoms. Furthermore, management continues to be difficult with a bad prognosis in many conditions. This article reviews the clinical aspects of major ExRA, focusing on incidence, clinical features, and therapeutic approaches, and how modern immunosuppressive therapy can change the outcome.

  10. MRI-guided focal therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Melvy Sarah; Oto, Aytekin

    2017-03-01

    With the advent of focal therapy as a recognized treatment option for men with prostate cancer, there are a host of emerging interventions that take advantage of MRI for image guidance. Focal therapy affords a middleground option for patients with low- to intermediate-grade prostate cancer by providing a means of keeping their cancer at bay while avoiding the negative consequences of radical therapies. However, the practice of focal treatment is far from straightforward, with some believing focal treatment errs on the side of overtreatment among patients with low-grade cancer; others worry it is undertreatment in potentially significant multifocal disease. Further research is necessary, both relating to focal therapy in general and to the utility of each MRI-guided focal treatment discussed.

  11. Intra-articular analgesia and steroid reduce pain sensitivity in knee OA patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tanja Schjødt; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Ellegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effects of intra-articular therapy on pain sensitivity in the knee and surrounding tissues in knee OA patients. Methods. Twenty-five knee OA patients with symptomatic knee OA were included in this interventional cohort study. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded...... before, immediately after, and two weeks after ultrasound guided intra-articular injection of lidocaine combined with glucocorticosteroid. Computer-controlled and manual pressure algometers were used to assess PPT on the knee, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, and the extensor carpi radialis longus...... muscles (control site). Results. Significantly increased PPTs were found following intra-articular injection, at both the knee (P 

  12. Improving Joint Function Using Photochemical Hydrogels for Articular Surface Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    vasculature, cartilage exhibits a low rate of regeneration; hence, focal lesions caused by trauma or joint disorders can lead to debilitating...the dye reagent (Biocolor, Carrickfergus, United Kingdom) containing 1,9-dimethyl-methylene blue, the dissociation reagent (Biocolor) containing the...sodium salt of an anionic surfactant was added to dissociate the sGAG- dye complex and enhance the spectrophotometric absorption profile. The

  13. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  14. Functional Characterization of TRPV4 As an Osmotically Sensitive Ion Channel in Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mimi N.; Leddy, Holly A.; Votta, Bartholomew J.; Kumar, Sanjay; Levy, Dana S.; Lipshutz, David B.; Lee, Sukhee; Liedtke, Wolfgang; Guilak, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    Objective Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca2+ permeable channel that can be gated by tonicity (osmolarity) and mechanical stimuli. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, respond to their osmotic and mechanical environments; however, the molecular basis of this signal transduction is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the presence and functionality of TRPV4 in chondrocytes. Methods TRPV4 protein expression was measured by immunolabeling and Western blotting. In response to TRPV4 agonist/antagonists, osmotic stress, and interleukin-1 (IL-1), changes in Ca2+ signaling, cell volume, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were measured in porcine chondrocytes using fluorescence microscopy, light microscopy, or immunoassay, respectively. Results TRPV4 was expressed abundantly at the RNA and protein level. Exposure to 4αPDD, a TRPV4 activator, caused Ca2+ signaling in chondrocytes, which was blocked by the selective TRPV4 antagonist, GSK205. Blocking TRPV4 diminished the chondrocytes' response to hypo-osmotic stress, reducing the fraction of Ca2+ responsive cells, regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and PGE2 production. Ca2+ signaling was inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ or depletion of intracellular stores. Specific activation of TRPV4 restored defective RVD caused by IL-1. Chemical disruption of the primary cilium eliminated Ca2+ signaling in response to either 4αPDD or hypo-osmotic stress. Conclusion TRPV4 is present in articular chondrocytes, and chondrocyte response to hypo-osmotic stress is mediated by this channel, which involves both an extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular Ca2+ release. TRPV4 may also be involved in modulating the production or influence of pro-inflammatory molecules in response to osmotic stress. PMID:19790068

  15. Nanosized fibers' effect on adult human articular chondrocytes behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhamre, Hanna [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Thorvaldsson, Anna, E-mail: anna.thorvaldsson@swerea.se [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Enochson, Lars [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Walkenström, Pernilla [Swerea IVF, Mölndal (Sweden); Lindahl, Anders [Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Brittberg, Mats [Cartilage Research Unit, University of Gothenburg, Department Orthopaedics, Kungsbacka Hospital, Kungsbacka (Sweden); Gatenholm, Paul [Biopolymer Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-04-01

    Tissue engineering with chondrogenic cell based therapies is an expanding field with the intention of treating cartilage defects. It has been suggested that scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering influence cellular behavior and thus the long-term clinical outcome. The objective of this study was to assess whether chondrocyte attachment, proliferation and post-expansion re-differentiation could be influenced by the size of the fibers presented to the cells in a scaffold. Polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds with different fiber morphologies were produced, i.e. microfiber (MS) scaffolds as well as nanofiber-coated microfiber scaffold (NMS). Adult human articular chondrocytes were cultured in the scaffolds in vitro up to 28 days, and the resulting constructs were assessed histologically, immunohistochemically, and biochemically. Attachment of cells and serum proteins to the scaffolds was affected by the architecture. The results point toward nano-patterning onto the microfibers influencing proliferation of the chondrocytes, and the overall 3D environment having a greater influence on the re-differentiation. In the efforts of finding the optimal scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering, studies as the current contribute to the knowledge of how to affect and control chondrocytes behavior. - Highlights: ► Chondrocyte behavior in nanofiber-coated microfiber versus microfiber scaffolds ► High porosity (> 90%) and large pore sizes (a few hundred μm) of nanofibrous scaffolds ► Proliferation enhanced by presence of nanofibers ► Differentiation not significantly affected ► Cell attachment improved in presence of both nanofibers and serum.

  16. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  17. Prevalence and Clinical Features of Focal Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ken; Kitahara, Hideki; Fujimoto, Yoshihide; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Ishibashi, Iwao; Himi, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2016-07-25

    Because it is difficult to distinguish between focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and aborted myocardial infarction, there is little information about the prevalence and clinical features of focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Our cardiac catheterization databases were queried to identify patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We defined focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy as hypo-, a- or dyskinesis in both anterolateral and septal segments without obstructive coronary artery disease explaining the wall motion abnormality. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy. The control group comprised patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy with apical, mid-ventricular, or basal ballooning. Clinical features and in-hospital outcomes were compared between patients with focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy and those with other types of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Among the 144 patients with takotsubo cardiomyopathy, the apical, mid-ventricular, basal, and focal types occurred in 85 (59.0%), 49 (34.0%), 0 (0%), and 10 patients (6.9%), respectively. The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly higher in the focal group compared with the apical and mid-ventricular group (56±13 vs. 45±13 vs. 46±12%, P=0.03). In-hospital outcome was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy is not rare. Biplane left ventriculography is useful for its diagnosis. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1824-1829).

  18. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  19. Botulinum Toxin Physiology in Focal Hand and Cranial Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Illowsky Karp

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  20. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  1. Defects in Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄靓

    2008-01-01

    By tracing the defects of society back to the defects of human nature, humanity's essence is proved to be inherent evil. Man's natural tendency to do evil remain harnessed through the controls and conventions imposed by civilization, however, when rules or civilization are weakened, man' s dark side is unleashed.

  2. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  3. Limited integrative repair capacity of native cartilage autografts within cartilage defects in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, Kolja; Riedel, Dominic; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Trattnig, Siegfried; Welsch, Götz H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate integration and cellular outgrowth of native cartilage autografts transplanted into articular cartilage defects. Native cartilage autografts were applied into chondral defects in the femoral condyle of adult sheep. Within the defects, the calcified cartilage layer was either left intact or perforated to induce bone marrow stimulation. Empty defects served as controls. The joints were analyzed after 6 and 26 weeks by macroscopic and histological analysis using the ICRS II Score and Modified O'Driscoll Scores. Non-treated defects did not show any endogenous regenerative response and bone marrow stimulation induced fibrous repair tissue. Transplanted native cartilage grafts only insufficiently integrated with the defect borders. Cell death and loss of proteoglycans were present at the margins of the grafts at 6 weeks, which was only partially restored at 26 weeks. Significant cellular outgrowth from the grafts or defect borders could not be observed. Bonding of the grafts could be improved by additional bone marrow stimulation providing ingrowing cells that formed a fibrous interface predominantly composed of type I collagen. Transplanted native cartilage grafts remain as inert structures within cartilage defects and fail to induce integrative cartilage repair which rather demands additional cells provided by additional bone marrow stimulation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  5. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pila Pérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia, also known as Heck's disease, is relatively rare, occurring mostly in children and adolescents. A case of a 20 year-old female patient treated at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech University Hospital in Camagüey due to papular lesions, which had evolved for ten months, is presented. Other viral diseases were ruled out; however based on histological studies, it was concluded that she suffered from Heck disease, which is frequently treated by dentists, but little known among pediatricians, internists and dermatologists. Because of its etiology, many cases are related to human papilloma virus infection. When the disease evolves, treatment can involve excision, laser surgery or cryotherapy. The latter method was used in this patient with satisfactory results, as she is completely asymptomatic.

  6. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia of mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Erdem, Mehmet Ali; Olgac, Vakur; Firat, Deniz Refia

    2012-09-03

    Fibro-osseous lesions are disturbances in bone metabolism in which normal bone is replaced by a connective tissue matrix that then gradually develops into cemento-osseous tissue. Typically, the lesion is asymptomatic and is detected on routine radiographic examination. Radiologically, this lesion has three stages of maturation: pure radiolucent, radiopaque/mixed radiolucent, and radiopaque appearance. During these stages the lesion can be misdiagnosed. In this case report a 69-year- old patient with a a complaint of painless swelling of the left mandibular molar and premolar area is presented along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  7. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living...... and deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five......, were included in the calculations of inheritance. results: Out of 199 family members, 66 dogs suffered from epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy in the family was 33%. Fifty-five dogs experienced focal seizures with or without secondary generalisation, while four dogs experienced primary generalised...

  8. Tunable focalizers: axicons, lenses, and axilenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Castañeda, Jorge; Gómez-Sarabia, Cristina M.; Ledesma, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    We propose the use of a pair of phase masks, which have both radial and angular variations, for implementing several varifocal devices. One mask of the proposed pair has a complex amplitude transmittance that is the complex conjugate of the other member of the pair. We show that the overall complex amplitude transmittance has only a radial variation after introducing an in-plane rotation, say by an angle β, between the members of the pair. However, we note that the optical power is proportional to the rotation angle β. As examples of the proposed method, we show that the refractive pair is useful for implementing varifocal lenses, tunable axicons, controllable axilenses, as well as annularly distributed focalizers.

  9. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  10. Focal cerebral lesions and painting abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchi, Anna; Sinforiani, Elena; Boller, François

    2013-01-01

    Focal lesions such as strokes significantly affect painting production in the vast majority of artists. In particular, painters, when they resume painting, show changes in their painting style. In exceptional cases, there may be an apparent improvement in style, but in most cases, the changes represent nothing short of deterioration. This, however, varies according to the hemisphere affected. Painters with left-hemisphere lesions tend to show an inability to deal adequately with perspective and also tend to use simplified colors with fewer nuances. One often witnesses an evolution toward simpler, often "naïve" techniques, and at times rigid geometric repetitive features. Painters with right-hemisphere lesions also become unable to represent tridimensionality. In addition, their figures are often drawn in very summary fashion, with lack of coordination between volumes and space and a chromatic impoverishment; their main problem, however, is visuospatial, leading to neglect of the left side of the canvas.

  11. Luxación intra-articular de rótula Intra-articular dislocation of patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. García-Mata

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 73 años de edad que, tras una caída accidental en las escaleras, sufrió una luxación intra-articular aguda de rótula de la rodilla izquierda. Esta luxación excepcional presentaba incarceración del polo proximal rotuliano en el surco intercondíleo femoral. Se realizó reducción bajo anestesia general debido al dolor y contractura muscular en los intentos de reducción sin anestesia. Realizamos revision quirúrgica que descartó lesiones asociadas del aparato extensor, partes blandas, estructuras articulares y osteofitos. Presentaba artrosis avanzada, sobre todo fémoro-patelar. Tras dos semanas de inmovilización reinició movilidad. No ha presentado recidiva u otro tipo de complicaciones.The case of a patient aged 73 years who, following an accidental fall on a staircase, suffered an acute intraarticular dislocation in the left knee-cap is presented. This exceptional dislocation presented incarceration of the proximal kneecap pole in the femoral intercondylar groove. A reduction was carried out under general anaesthetic due to pain and muscular contraction in the attempts at reduction without anaesthetic. We made a surgical check that ruled out associated lesions to the extensor apparatus, soft parts, joint structures and osteophytes. The patient presented advanced arthrosis, above all femoral-patellar. Following two weeks of immobilisation, the patient restarted mobility. There has been no relapse or other type of complication.

  12. Focal cerebral hyperemia in postconcussive amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, T; Suzuki, R; Ohta, Y; Ohno, K; Hirakawa, K

    2001-12-01

    Transient amnesia caused by minor head injury is commonly encountered in daily neurosurgical practice, but the mechanism of such amnesia has not been extensively studied. We measured the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of patients with postconcussive amnesia with Xe/CT CBF to examine whether a focal disturbance of CBF exists. The Xe/CT CBF study was performed in eight patients with closed head injury without organic cerebral lesion while they were suffering from posttraumatic amnesia (concussion group). The time interval between accident and CBF measurement was less than 2 h in three patients, 5-6 h in two, 8-9 h in two, and 18 in one. The results were compared with those of nine normal volunteers and eight other age-matched patients who recovered without any neurological deficit despite the presence of hemorrhagic regions (mild hemorrhage group). The rCBF of the concussion group was significantly elevated in the bilateral mesial temporal cortex in comparison to the normal group. The rCBF in the mild hemorrhage group was lower than that of normal controls in all regions. The analysis of right-left difference in CBF indicated that there was significant asymmetry (right > left) in the frontal and temporal cortex in the concussion group, but not in the normal and mild hemorrhage group. This Xe/CT CBF study in acute stages of cerebral concussion, in which patients were amnestic, detected focal cerebral hyperemia. Such hyperemia in regions closely related to human memory function may be the result of vasoparalysis or the compensatory activation of memory circuits after denervation injury.

  13. Pneumatic release of focal vitreomacular traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, M G; Feron, E; Veckeneer, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of expansile gas as a valuable alternative to current treatment options (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) in patients with symptomatic, focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).Patients and methodsThis study comprises a retrospective, interventional case series of patients. Twenty eyes in seventeen patients with symptomatic and persisting focal VMT were treated in an outpatient setting with an intravitreal gas injection of 0.2 ml. In 19 eyes, 100% hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was used. One eye received sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). To all but three patients posturing advice was given. Patients were reviewed with a full-eye examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) after 14 days and later. The primary outcome measure was the release of VMT on OCT.ResultsIn 17 of the 20 (85.0%) treated eyes, a release of VMT was achieved as documented on OCT. The release of VMT was diagnosed during the first month after injection in 11 eyes of 11 patients and within 3 months in 16 eyes of 15 patients. In all but five of our patients, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable or improved. In four patients, the progression or development of cataract was the probable cause of the decrease in BCVA. One patient developed a stage II macular hole after injection and needed vitrectomy. None of the treated patients developed retinal breaks.ConclusionIntravitreal expansile gas injection could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting VMT. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required.

  14. FOCAL EPILEPTIC MYOCLONUS: DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Kvaskova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG, and neuroimaging features of focal epileptic myoclonus (FEM and the results of therapy in patients with this type of seizure. The latter was identified in 2.5 % of the cases of epilepsy with onset beyond the age of 18 years (n = 1261. The age of onset of FЕМ was from 5 months to 23 years (mean 8.1 ± 1.6 years. The addition of secondary generalized seizures was stated in 90.3% of cases; that of focal motor seizures, epileptic aura, and negative FЕМ was seen in 64.5, 25.8, and 12.8 %, respectively. FЕМ was most commonly located in the flexor muscles of the upper extremities (22.6 % and facial and upper limb muscles (25.6 %. The regional epileptoformactivity maximally located in the frontocentroparietal leads is a typical EEG pattern of FЕМ in all the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging most frequently revealed diffuse cortical and subcortical atrophy (29 % and total cortical hemiatrophy (32 %. There was no case of complete remission of FЕМ. Monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs resulted in reduction of FЕМ in only 6.4 % of cases. During duo therapy, there was more than a 50 % reduction in FЕМ in 67.7 %. Our investigation has indicated that active FЕМ is a seizure type resistant to AEDs. This fact necessitates the detection of FЕМ at its early stages in order to predict the course of the disease and search for new therapies for epileptic syndromes associated with this type of seizures.

  15. [Treatment of acute full-thickness chondral defects with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid; an experimental model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Espinosa, M; Calvo, R; Scheu, M; Valderrama, J J; Gallegos, M; Conget, P

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 2 different protocols of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA, hylan G-F20) to articular cartilage regeneration in acute full-thickness chondral defects. Full-thickness chondral defects of 3 x 6 mm were performed into the lateral femoral condyles of New Zealand rabbits, treated with a single or three doses of HA. The animals were sacrified at 12 weeks and the regenerated tissue was evaluated by direct observation and histology with the ICRS scale. Macroscopically, in both groups treated with HA the defects were filled with irregular tissue with areas similar to hyaline cartilage and others in which depressed areas with exposed subchondral bone were observed. Histological analysis showed in both groups treated with HA a hyaline-like cartilage compared to control group. However, the score of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) scale did not show differences between the groups treated with HA. The use of single dose or 3 doses of AH in acute chondral lesions has a limited and similar benefit in articular cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  17. Cosmic defects and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Magueijo, Joao; Brandenberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    We provide a pedagogical overview of defect models of structure formation. We first introduce the concept of topological defect, and describe how to classify them. We then show how defects might be produced in phase transitions in the Early Universe and approach non-pathological scaling solutions. A very heuristic account of structure formation with defects is then provided, following which we introduce the tool box required for high precision calculations of CMB and LSS power spectra in these theories. The decomposition into scalar vector and tensor modes is reviewed, and then we introduce the concept of unequal-time correlator. We use isotropy and causality to constrain the form of these correlators. We finally show how these correlators may be decomposed into eigenmodes, thereby reducing a defect problem to a series of ``inflation'' problems. We conclude with a short description of results in these theories and how they fare against observations. We finally describe yet another application of topological d...

  18. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  19. Intra-articular Nodular Fasciitis: An Unexpected Diagnosis for a Joint Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MF Michelle Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lesions in and around a joint can arise from underlying dermis, subcutis, deep muscle, bone or synovium. Clinical presentation can include joint pain, joint swelling, palpable masses and mechanical restriction. Whilst giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis, lipoma arborescens, juxta articular myxomas and inflammatory arthritis are the better-known conditions of the joint. Intra-articular nodular fasciitis, on the other hand, is less well recognized both clinically and radiologically. It is rarely seen in routine practice and is only described in case reports in the literature. Due to the non-specific clinical and radiological findings as well as the unfamiliarity with the entity, the diagnosis of intra-articular nodular fasciitis is usually clinched only after histological examination. We present a case of intra-articular nodular fasciitis arising in the knee joint which was not suspected clinically or radiologically.

  20. Effects of immobilization on thickness of superficial zone of articular cartilage of patella in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Each segment of superficial zone behaves differentially on immobilization and remobilization. Perhaps a much longer duration of remobilization is required to reverse changes of immobilization in articular cartilage and plays a significant role in knee joint movements.

  1. Measurements of surface layer of the articular cartilage using microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryniewicz, A. M; Ryniewicz, W. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, University of Mining and Metallurgy, A. Mickiewicz Av. 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Ryniewicz, A.; Gaska, A., E-mail: anna@ryniewicz.p, E-mail: andrzej@ryniewicz.p [Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cracow University of Technology, Jana Pawla II Av. 37, 31-864 Cracow (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The articular cartilage is the structure that directly cooperates tribologically in biobearing. It belongs to the connective tissues and in the joints it assumes two basic forms: hyaline cartilage that builds joint surfaces and fibrocartilage which may create joint surfaces. From this fibrocartilage are built semilunar cartilage and joint disc are built as well. The research of articular cartilage have been done in macro, micro and nano scale. In all these measurement areas characteristic features occur which can identify biobearing tribology. The aim of the research was the identification of surface layer of articular cartilage by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM) and the analysis of topography of these layers. The material used in the research of surface layer was the animal articular cartilage: hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage.

  2. Acute changes in hamstrings musculo-articular dissipative properties induced by cyclic and static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordez, A; McNair, P; Casari, P; Cornu, C

    2008-05-01

    This study was designed to measure changes in musculo-articular dissipative properties related to viscosity that were induced by passive cyclic and static stretching. Musculo-articular dissipative properties were assessed by calculating a dissipation coefficient using potential elastic energies stored and restituted during cyclic stretching. Eight subjects performed five passive knee extensions/flexions cycles on a Biodex dynamometer at 5 degrees . s (-1) to 80 % of their maximal range of motion before and after a static stretching protocol. Electromyographic activity from the hamstring muscles was monitored and remained constant during cyclic stretching and after static stretching (p > 0.05). The dissipation coefficient decreased during cyclic stretching (- 28.8 +/- 6.0 %, p musculo-articular dissipative properties were primarily affected by a single cycle of motion, and were not influenced by static stretching procedures. The decrease in dissipation coefficient following cyclic motion indicates that the musculo-articular system displays thixotropic behavior.

  3. PGE2 signal through EP2 promotes the growth of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Tomoki; Liang, Bojian; Okamoto, Takeshi; Matsusaki, Takashi; Nishijo, Koichi; Ishibe, Tatsuya; Yasura, Ko; Nagayama, Satoshi; Nakayama, Tomitaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Toguchida, Junya

    2005-03-01

    EP2 was identified as the major PGE2 receptor expressed in articular cartilage. An EP2 agonist increased intracellular cAMP in articular chondrocytes, stimulating DNA synthesis in both monolayer and 3D cultures. Hence, the EP2 agonist may be a potent therapeutic agent for degenerative cartilage diseases. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exhibits pleiotropic effects in various types of tissue through four types of receptors, EP1-4. We examined the expression of EPs and effects of agonists for each EP on articular chondrocytes. The expression of each EP in articular chondrocytes was examined by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. A chondrocyte cell line, MMA2, was established from articular cartilage of p53(-/-) mice and used to analyze the effects of agonists for each EP. A search for molecules downstream of the PGE2 signal through the EP2 agonist was made by cDNA microarray analysis. The growth-promoting effect of the EP2 agonist on chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage matrix was examined in an organ culture of rat femora. EP2 was identified as the major EP expressed in articular cartilage. Treatment of MMA2 cells with specific agonists for each EP showed that only the EP2 agonist significantly increased intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression profiling of MMA2 revealed a set of genes upregulated by the EP2 agonist, including several growth-promoting and apoptosis-protecting genes such as the cyclin D1, fibronectin, integrin alpha5, AP2alpha, and 14-3-3gamma genes. The upregulation of these genes by the EP2 agonist was confirmed in human articular chondrocytes by quantitative mRNA analysis. On treatment with the EP2 agonist, human articular chondrocytes showed an increase in the incorporation of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuracil (BrdU), and the organ culture of rat femora showed an increase of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining in articular chondrocytes surrounded by cartilage matrix, suggesting growth-promoting effects of the PGE2 signal

  4. Partial-thickness articular surface rotator cuff tears in patients over the age of 35: Etiology and intra-articular associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan S Modi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears have a multifactorial etiology and are associated with degeneration of the tendon. They are often described as an injury of the young athlete, although they are also found in the older population. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and associations of partial-thickness articular-sided tears in patients over the age of 35 years. Design: Retrospective Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of all arthroscopic procedures for rotator cuff pathology in patients over the age of 35 years over a 2-year period by a single surgeon was performed. The included patients were divided into two groups based on the arthroscopic findings: those with a partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tear and those with pure tendinopathy. The groups were then compared to identify the associated pathology with the rotator cuff lesions. 2×2 contingency table analysis and unpaired Student′s t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred patients were included in the study of whom 62 had a partial articular-sided tear. Those with a partial articular-sided tear were older (P=0.0001, were more commonly associated with a documented injury (P=0.03, and more commonly had biceps degeneration (P=0.001 and synovitis (P=0.02 within the joint. Conclusion: Partial-thickness articular-sided tears are a common occurrence in patients requiring arthroscopic surgery for rotator cuff pathology over the age of 35 years. This probably reflects an injury in an already degenerate cuff. This would support the theory of intrinsic degeneration of the tendon in this age group and probably represent a different etiology to those seen in the young athletes. Level of Evidence: Level 3

  5. Intra-Articular Blockade of P2X7 Receptor Reduces the Articular Hyperalgesia and Inflammation in the Knee Joint Synovitis Especially in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana Maia; Dias, Elayne Vieira; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Tambeli, Cláudia Herrera

    2017-02-01

    Synovitis is a key factor in joint disease pathophysiology, which affects a greater proportion of women than men. P2X7 receptor activation contributes to arthritis, but whether it plays a role in articular inflammatory pain in a sex-dependent manner is unknown. We investigated whether the P2X7 receptor blockade in the knee joint of male and female rats reduces the articular hyperalgesia and inflammation induced by a carrageenan knee joint synovitis model. Articular hyperalgesia was quantified using the rat knee joint incapacitation test and the knee joint inflammation, characterized by the concentration of cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and by neutrophil migration, was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by myeloperoxidase enzyme activity measurement, respectively. P2X7 receptor blockade by the articular coadministration of selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A740003 with carrageenan significantly reduced articular hyperalgesia, pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations, and myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan injection into the knee joint of male and estrus female rats. However, a lower dose of P2X7 receptor antagonist was sufficient to significantly induce the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in estrus female but not in male rats. These results suggest that P2X7 receptor activation by endogenous adenosine 5'-triphosphate is essential to articular hyperalgesia and inflammation development in the knee joint of male and female rats. However, female rats are more responsive than male rats to the antihyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects induced by P2X7 receptor blockade.

  6. Patellar Articular Overlap on MRI Is a Simple Alternative to Conventional Measurements of Patellar Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Jacqueline L.; Sullivan, Jaron P.; Nguyen, Joseph T.; Mintz, Douglas; Green, Daniel W.; Shubin Stein, Beth E.; Strickland, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patella alta describes an abnormally high-riding patella in relationship to the femur and has been shown to correlate with patellofemoral pain, instability, chondromalacia, and arthrosis. Conventional measurements of patella alta involve multiple measurements and are often not defined on cross-sectional imaging as related to radiographs. Hypothesis: Patellar articular overlap on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will correlate well with conventional measurements of patella alta as measured by a standardized technique defined by our group. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: MRIs of 239 knees were reviewed by 3 attending surgeons with practices focusing on patellofemoral disease, as well as 2 sports medicine fellows and 1 musculoskeletal radiologist. Measurements included articular overlap, percentage of articular coverage, Caton-Deschamps index, Blackburne-Peel index, and modified Insall-Salvati index. Results: Interrater reliability was high for Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, and modified Insall-Salvati indices (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.877, 0.828, and 0.787, respectively). Articular overlap and percentage articular coverage correlated well with each other (ICC, 0.961; P < .001) and with the Caton-Deschamps (overlap r = –0.271, P < .001; coverage r = –0.131, P = .037) and Blackburne-Peel (overlap r = 0.343, P < .001; coverage r = –0.238, P < .001) indices. Articular overlap and percentage coverage failed to correlate with the modified Insall-Salvati index (overlap r = –0.117, P = .091; coverage r = 0.007, P = .918). Conclusion: Patellar articular overlap and percentage of patellar articular coverage show promise as a simpler alternative to conventional, ratio-based measurements of patellar height. Future studies are needed to evaluate the range of normal and the relationship to our traditionally used measurements. PMID:27482530

  7. Analgesic efficacy of intracapsular and intra-articular local anaesthesia for knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L Ø; Husted, H; Kristensen, B B

    2010-01-01

    -articular catheters with 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% given at 6 h and again at 24 h, postoperatively. Analgesic efficacy was assessed for 3 h after each injection, using a visual analogue score, where 0 = no pain and 100 = worst pain. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. Maximum pain relief...... anaesthetic has similar analgesic efficacy to intra-articular after total knee arthroplasty....

  8. Induction of advanced glycation end products and alterations of the tensile properties of articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, A C; Temple, M.M.; Ng, D.M.; Verzijl, N; de Groot, J.; TeKoppele, J.M.; Sah, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether increasing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in bovine articular cartilage to levels present in aged human cartilage modulates the tensile biomechanical properties of the tissue. Methods. Adult bovine articular cartilage samples were incubated in a buffer solution with ribose to induce the formation of AGEs or in a control solution. Portions of cartilage samples were assayed for biochemical indices of AGEs and tested to assess their tensile biomechanical p...

  9. Functional anatomy of the equine temporomandibular joint: Collagen fiber texture of the articular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, K; Schulz-Kornas, E; Arzi, B; Failing, K; Vogelsberg, J; Staszyk, C

    2016-11-01

    In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions. Therefore, the collagen fiber alignment was visualized using the split-line technique in 16 adult warmblood horses without any history of TMJ disorders. Within the central two-thirds of the articular surfaces of the articular tubercle, the articular disc and the mandibular head, split-lines ran in a correspondent rostrocaudal direction. In the lateral and medial aspects of these articular surfaces, the split-line pattern varied, displaying curved arrangements in the articular disc and punctual split-lines in the bony components. Mediolateral orientated split-lines were found in the rostral and caudal border of the articular disc and in the mandibular fossa. The complex movements during the equine chewing cycle are likely assigned to different areas of the TMJ. The split-line pattern of the equine TMJ is indicative of a relative movement of the joint components in a preferential rostrocaudal direction which is consigned to the central aspects of the TMJ. The lateral and medial aspects of the articular surfaces provide split-line patterns that indicate movements particularly around a dorsoventral axis.

  10. Diagnosis and management of an intra-articular foreign body in the foot.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulhall, K J

    2002-10-01

    We describe a case of a small intra-articular foreign body in the foot presenting 48 hours following injury, which at operation showed early evidence of septic arthritis. It is essential to accurately localise periarticular foreign bodies in the foot and proceed to arthrotomy and debridement in all cases where there is radiological or clinical evidence to suggest intra-articular retention of a foreign body.

  11. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  12. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  13. Focal sampling of cow lying behaviour for automated welfare assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattachini, G.; Riva, E.; Bisaglia, C.; Pompe, J.C.A.M.; Provolo, G.

    2013-01-01

    the objective of the current study was to determine the number of focal animals required to represent the daily lying behaviour of a herd of lactating dairy cows. the study was carried out at 3 commercial dairy farms. the lying time (h/d) and number of lying bouts (n/d) of 15 ± 3 focal dairy cows,

  14. Focal epithelial hyperplasia caused by human papillomavirus 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Natasha R; Scolnik, Dennis; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Koelink, Eric; Craw, Lindsey; Roth, Sherryn; Aronson, Leya; Perusini, Stephen; Silverman, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, papulo-nodular disease of the oral cavity. It is rare, affecting primarily Native American populations during childhood. It is closely associated with human papillomavirus 13 and 32. This report describes the diagnosis of 2 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in children from southern Guyana. The diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing.

  15. Focal decompositions for linear differential equations of the second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Birbrair

    2003-01-01

    two-points problems to itself such that the image of the focal decomposition associated to the first equation is a focal decomposition associated to the second one. In this paper, we present a complete classification for linear second-order equations with respect to this equivalence relation.

  16. Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells Engraft into Rabbit Articular Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to have the potential for articular cartilage regeneration, and are suggested for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA. Here, we investigated whether intra-articular injection of xenogeneic human adipose-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (haMPCs promoted articular cartilage repair in rabbit OA model and engrafted into rabbit articular cartilage. The haMPCs were cultured in vitro, and phenotypes and differentiation characteristics of cells were evaluated. OA was induced surgically by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT and medical meniscectomy of knee joints. At six weeks following surgery, hyaluronic acid (HA or haMPCs was injected into the knee joints, the contralateral knee served as normal control. All animals were sacrificed at the 16th week post-surgery. Assessments were carried out by macroscopic examination, hematoxylin/eosin (HE and Safranin-O/Fast green stainings and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that haMPC treatment promoted cartilage repair. Signals of human mitochondrial can be directly detected in haMPC treated cartilage. The haMPCs expressed human leukocyte antigen I (HLA-I but not HLA-II-DR in vivo. These results suggest that intra-articular injection of haMPCs promotes regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbit OA model, and support the notion that MPCs are transplantable between HLA-incompatible individuals.

  17. Determination of piroxicam from rat articular tissue and plasma based on LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Sol; Cho, Ha Ra; Ho, Myoung Jin; Kang, Myung Joo; Choi, Yong Seok

    2016-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. To manage OA, in general, oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used. Recently, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of piroxicam (PX), a long-acting NSAID, by intra-articular (IA) administration in OA was reported, and the possibility that PX is distributed in articular tissues at a certain concentration was raised. Thus, herein, novel LC-MS/MS methods to detect PX in rat articular tissue and plasma are presented. For articular tissue, solvent extraction with acetonitrile for 12 h was employed and a protein precipitation method was used for the preparation of a plasma sample. The developed methods were validated by following the FDA guidelines, and the validated methods were successfully applied to a PK study of IA PX. The present study presents, to our knowledge, the first method of determining a drug in articular tissue. Additionally, the level of PX in articular tissue after IA PX administration was experimentally confirmed for the first time using the present methods. Therefore, the present methods provide a new direction for in vivo evaluation for IA PX formulations and contribute to the development of alternative IA PX formulations with better effects for the treatment of OA.

  18. Evolutional patterns of articular cartilage following growth plate injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Villamandos, M B; Sánchez-Hernández, J J; Delgado-Martos, M J; Delgado-Baeza, E

    2009-09-01

    No study to date has analyzed the damage of the articular cartilage and its relation to growth plate injury. The purpose of this study was to test whether primary injury to the growth plate contributes to secondary damage to the articular cartilage in rats. A total of 109 two-week-old male Wistar rats were allocated to four lesional groups. In group I (controls) no surgery took place. In the remaining animals, an injury was caused in the proximal physis of the left tibia: group II, perichondrial ring injury; group III, direct injury to the growth plate; group IV, traumatic separation of the epiphysis where a Salter-Harris II-type injury was created. The results were assessed at 1 week, 6 weeks, and 6 months. A growth plate score was used. The stereological and histological changes in the articular cartilage were analyzed, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Histological studies showed discrete degenerative changes in the articular cartilage in the injured growth plate. Changes in the cell density, mean cell volume, and articular cartilage occurred in the injured growth plate. The changes appeared to be transient in groups II and III. Primary injury to the growth plate contributes to secondary damage to the articular cartilage in young rats. Our data -- extrapolated to the clinical view -- suggests that a Salter-Harris type II injury does not seem to have impunity to subsequent joint degeneration.

  19. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles; Hughes, Timothy; Mosher, Timothy J; Mueller, Christoph; Trattnig, Siegfried; Boesch, Chris; Welsch, Goetz Hannes

    2012-03-01

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface.

  20. T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamisch, Tallal Charles [University Bern, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland); University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Hughes, Timothy [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany); Mosher, Timothy J. [Penn State University College of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Imaging and MRI, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Mueller, Christoph [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Trattnig, Siegfried [Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Boesch, Chris [University Bern, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Methodology, Department of Clinical Research, Bern (Switzerland); Welsch, Goetz Hannes [University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Center - High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    T2 mapping techniques use the relaxation constant as an indirect marker of cartilage structure, and the relaxation constant has also been shown to be a sensitive parameter for cartilage evaluation. As a possible additional robust biomarker, T2* relaxation time is a potential, clinically feasible parameter for the biochemical evaluation of articular cartilage. The knees of 15 healthy volunteers and 15 patients after microfracture therapy (MFX) were evaluated with a multi-echo spin-echo T2 mapping technique and a multi-echo gradient-echo T2* mapping sequence at 3.0 Tesla MRI. Inline maps, using a log-linear least squares fitting method, were assessed with respect to the zonal dependency of T2 and T2* relaxation for the deep and superficial regions of healthy articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. There was a statistically significant correlation between T2 and T2* values. Both parameters demonstrated similar spatial dependency, with longer values measured toward the articular surface for healthy articular cartilage. No spatial variation was observed for cartilage repair tissue after MFX. Within this feasibility study, both T2 and T2* relaxation parameters demonstrated a similar response in the assessment of articular cartilage and cartilage repair tissue. The potential advantages of T2*-mapping of cartilage include faster imaging times and the opportunity for 3D acquisitions, thereby providing greater spatial resolution and complete coverage of the articular surface. (orig.)

  1. Anticuerpo anticitrulina y manifestaciones extra articulares en artritis reumatoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jezabel Haye Salinas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Los pacientes con artritis reumatidea (AR pueden desarrollar manifestaciones extra articulares (MExA, relacionadas a su morbi-mortalidad. Los anticuerpos anti-péptidos citrulinados cíclicos (ACCP son específicos para la AR y estan relacionados con el daño articular; y podrían tener rol patogénico en las MExA. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la relación entre los anticuerpos ACCP y MExA en pacientes con AR. Se incluyeron 74 pacientes con diagnóstico de AR (ACR 1987 mayores de 18 años, de más de 6 meses de evolución, con MExA, y un control apareado por sexo y edad sin MExA por cada paciente. Las variables demográficas, clínicas y de laboratorio se compararon con test t, chi cuadrado o Mann-Whitney. Se realizó análisis multivariado; p ≤ 0.05. Los pacientes con MExA presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP (116 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y de factor reumatoideo (FR (108 vs. 34.5, p < 0.01. En el análisis multivariado hubo asociación entre la presencia de MExA y tabaquismo activo (p = 0.02, OR: 3.78, IC 95%: 1.17-12.2, FR positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC95%: 1.04-11.8 y anticuerpo ACCP positivo (p = 0.04, OR: 3.23, IC 95%: 1.04-10. Presentaron mayor título de anticuerpo ACCP que los controles los pacientes con xerostomía (109 vs. 34, p = 0.04, xeroftalmia (150 vs. 34, p < 0.01, nódulos sub-cutáneos (NSC (141 vs. 34, p < 0.01 y fibrosis pulmonar (158 vs. 34, p = 0.04. En conclusión, el anticuerpo ACCP positivo, el FR positivo y el tabaquismo activo fueron factores de riesgo independientes para el desarrollo de MExA.

  2. What Are Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Neural Tube Defects (NTDs): Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What are neural tube defects? Neural (pronounced NOOR-uhl ) tube defects are ...

  3. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Congenital Heart Defects? Congenital (kon-JEN-ih-tal) heart defects are problems ... carry blood to the heart or the body Congenital heart defects change the normal flow of blood through the ...

  4. Laser differential confocal ultra-long focal length measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiqian; Sun, Ruoduan; Qiu, Lirong; Sha, Dingguo

    2009-10-26

    A new laser differential confocal focal-length measurement method is proposed for the measurement of an ultra-long focal-length. The approach proposed uses the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal focusing system (DCFS) to measure the variation in position of DCFS focus with and without a measured ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL), uses the distance between the two focuses to obtain the UFL focal-length, and thereby achieving the precise measurement of ultra-long focal-length. The method has a high focusing precision, a strong anti-interference capability and a short measurement light-path. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the relative measurement error is about 0.01% when the method is used for the measurement of back-focus-distance (BFD).

  5. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin

    2004-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  6. Multiple focused EMAT designs for improved surface breaking defect characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thring, C. B.; Fan, Y.; Edwards, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Rayleigh waves can be employed for the detection of surface breaking defects such as rolling contact fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are well suited to this technique as they can directly generate Rayleigh waves within the sample without the requirement for wedges, and they are robust and inexpensive compared to laser ultrasonics. Three different EMAT coil types have been developed, and these are compared to assess their ability to detect and characterize small (down to 0.5 mm depth, 1 mm diameter) surface breaking defects in aluminium. These designs are: a pair of linear meander coils used in a pseudo-pulse-echo mode, a pair of focused meander coils also used in pseudo-pulse-echo mode, and a pair of focused racetrack coils used in pitch-catch mode. The linear meander coils are able to detect most of the defects tested, but have a much lower signal to noise ratio and give limited sizing information. The focused meander coils and the focused racetrack coils can detect all defects tested, but have the advantage that they can also characterize the defect sizes on the sample surface, and have a stronger sensitivity at their focal point. Measurements using all three EMAT designs are presented and compared for high resolution imaging of surface-breaking defects.

  7. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  9. Defect Prevention Based on 5 Dimensions of Defect Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthi Kumaresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available “Discovering the unexpected is more important than confirming the known [7]. In software development,the “unexpected” one relates to defects. These defects when unattended would cause failure to the productand risk to the users. The increasing dependency of society on software and the crucial consequences that afailure can cause requires the need to find out the defects at the origin itself. Based on the lessons learntfrom the earlier set of projects, a defect framework highlighting the 5 Dimensions (Ds of defect origin isproposed in this work. The defect framework is based on analyzing the defects that had emerged fromvarious stages of software development like Requirements, Design, Coding, Testing and Timeline (defectsdue to lack of time during development. This study is not limited to just identifying the origin of defects atvarious phases of software development but also finds out the reasons for such defects, and defectpreventive (DP measures are proposed for each type of defect. This work can help practitioners chooseeffective defect avoidance measures.In addition to arriving at defect framework, this work also proposes a defect injection metric based onseverity of the defect rather than just defect count, which gives the number of adjusted defects produced bya project at various phases. The defect injection metric value, once calculated, serves as a yardstick tomake a comparison in the improvements made in the software process development between similar set ofprojects

  10. Repair of osteochondral defects with in vitro engineered cartilage based on autologous bone marrow stromal cells in a swine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Aijuan; Liu, Lina; Luo, Xusong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Yi; Liu, Fangjun; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhou, Guangdong

    2017-01-01

    Functional reconstruction of large osteochondral defects is always a major challenge in articular surgery. Some studies have reported the feasibility of repairing articular osteochondral defects using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and biodegradable scaffolds. However, no significant breakthroughs have been achieved in clinical translation due to the instability of in vivo cartilage regeneration based on direct cell-scaffold construct implantation. To overcome the disadvantages of direct cell-scaffold construct implantation, the current study proposed an in vitro cartilage regeneration strategy, providing relatively mature cartilage-like tissue with superior mechanical properties. Our strategy involved in vitro cartilage engineering, repair of osteochondral defects, and evaluation of in vivo repair efficacy. The results demonstrated that BMSC engineered cartilage in vitro (BEC-vitro) presented a time-depended maturation process. The implantation of BEC-vitro alone could successfully realize tissue-specific repair of osteochondral defects with both cartilage and subchondral bone. Furthermore, the maturity level of BEC-vitro had significant influence on the repaired results. These results indicated that in vitro cartilage regeneration using BMSCs is a promising strategy for functional reconstruction of osteochondral defect, thus promoting the clinical translation of cartilage regeneration techniques incorporating BMSCs. PMID:28084417

  11. Focal Points on Constructing News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Yuryevna Ilyinova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues stated in the article line with the current interest to pragmatic value of news releases in modern media. The news is thought to be a verbalized focal reflection of some event that was chosen by media professionals for setting the current information agenda. Having generated the opinions on the newsworthiness the authors present a set of values that may be used for measurement of relevance and clarity of an event reflection in the news content with frequency, clarity, predictability, unexpectedness, amplitude, cultural proximity, elite nations, elite people, personification, negativity among them. The novelty of the research is that the newsworthiness is checked with the focus to lexical (thematic representation of the news in a diachronic approach: the empirical base of the research was taken from the archives of UK national and local media sources (18–20th cent. and implied comparison of lexical means that reflected an event itself and some values of human interest potential in the news stories written in defined periods. The article states the trend for dynamics in the way the event is reflected in the news stories – the information core of the story is merged with detailed reporting parts, and their content is conditioned by social and moral values.

  12. Focal adhesion kinase - the reversible molecular mechanosensor

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Sensors are the first element of the pathways that control the response of cells to their environment. After chemical, the next most important cue is mechanical, and protein complexes that produce or enable a chemical signal in response to a mechanical stimulus are called mechanosensors. There is a sharp distinction between sensing an external force or pressure/tension applied to the cell, and sensing the mechanical stiffness of the environment. We call the first mechanosensitivity of the 1st kind, and the latter mechanosensitivity of the 2nd kind. There are two variants of protein complexes that act as mechanosensors of the 2nd kind: producing the one-off or a reversible action. The latent complex of TGF-beta is an example of the one-off action: on the release of active TGF-beta signal, the complex is discarded and needs to be replaced. In contrast, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in a complex with integrin is a reversible mechanosensor, which initiates the chemical signal in its active phosphorylated confor...

  13. Visual agnosia and focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, O

    Visual agnosia encompasses all disorders of visual recognition within a selective visual modality not due to an impairment of elementary visual processing or other cognitive deficit. Based on a sequential dichotomy between the perceptual and memory systems, two different categories of visual object agnosia are usually considered: 'apperceptive agnosia' and 'associative agnosia'. Impaired visual recognition within a single category of stimuli is also reported in: (i) visual object agnosia of the ventral pathway, such as prosopagnosia (for faces), pure alexia (for words), or topographagnosia (for landmarks); (ii) visual spatial agnosia of the dorsal pathway, such as cerebral akinetopsia (for movement), or orientation agnosia (for the placement of objects in space). Focal brain injuries provide a unique opportunity to better understand regional brain function, particularly with the use of effective statistical approaches such as voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM). The aim of the present work was twofold: (i) to review the various agnosia categories according to the traditional visual dual-pathway model; and (ii) to better assess the anatomical network underlying visual recognition through lesion-mapping studies correlating neuroanatomical and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  15. Medical image of the week: focal myopericaditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshisundaram C

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 44-year-old man with no significant past medical history was admitted with a history of two episodes of substernal chest pain unrelated to exertion which had resolved spontaneously. Admission vital signs were within normal limits and physical examination was unremarkable. Basic lab tests were normal and urine toxicology was negative. Electrocardiogram was unremarkable with no ST/T changes. Troponin I was elevated at 4.19 which trended up to 6.57. An urgent cardiac angiogram was done which revealed normal patent coronaries. His transthoracic echocardiogram was also reported to be normal. He continued to have intermittent episodes of chest pain that was partially relieved by morphine. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were elevated. Work up for autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, myocarditis panel were insignificant. Later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with gadolinium enhanced contrast (Figure 1 was obtained which showed abnormal epicardial/subepicardial myocardial enhancement within the inferolateral wall and cardiac apex consistent with focal ...

  16. Novel PORCN mutations in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyen, G; Govaerts, K; Van Esch, H; Verbeeck, J; Tuomi, M-L; Heikkilä, H; Torniainen, S; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J-P; Marynen, P; Järvelä, I; Ala-Mello, S

    2009-12-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), Goltz or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an X-linked dominant multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system and eyes. We screened for mutations in the PORCN gene in eight patients of Belgian and Finnish origin with firm clinical suspicion of FDH. First, we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to define the copy number at this locus. Next, we sequenced the coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of the PORCN gene. Three de novo mutations were identified in our patients with FDH: a 150-kb deletion removing six genes including PORCN, as defined by qPCR and X-array-CGH, and two heterozygous missense mutations; c.992T>G (p.L331R) in exon 11 and c.1094G>A (p.R365Q) in exon 13 of the gene. Both point mutations changed highly conserved amino acids and were not found in 300 control X chromosomes. The three patients in whom mutations were identified all present with characteristic dermal findings together with limb manifestations, which were not seen in our mutation-negative patients. The clinical characteristics of our patients with PORCN mutations were compared with the previously reported mutation-positive cases. In this report, we summarize the literature on PORCN mutations and associated phenotypes.

  17. Pathogenetic mechanisms of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Guerrini, Renzo; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2014-07-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) constitute a prevalent cause of intractable epilepsy in children, and is one of the leading conditions requiring epilepsy surgery. Despite recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of these conditions, the pathogenetic mechanisms of FCDs remain largely unknown. The purpose if this work is to review the molecular underpinnings of FCDs and to highlight potential therapeutic targets. A systematic review of the literature regarding the histologic, molecular, and electrophysiologic aspects of FCDs was conducted. Disruption of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling comprises a common pathway underlying the structural and electrical disturbances of some FCDs. Other mechanisms such as viral infections, prematurity, head trauma, and brain tumors are also posited. mTOR inhibitors (i.e., rapamycin) have shown positive results on seizure management in animal models and in a small cohort of patients with FCD. Encouraging progress has been achieved on the molecular and electrophysiologic basis of constitutive cells in the dysplastic tissue. Despite the promising results of mTOR inhibitors, large-scale randomized trials are in need to evaluate their efficacy and side effects, along with additional mechanistic studies for the development of novel, molecular-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Early Intra-Articular Complement Activation in Ankle Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Schmal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokine regulation possibly influences long term outcome following ankle fractures, but little is known about synovial fracture biochemistry. Eight patients with an ankle dislocation fracture were included in a prospective case series and matched with patients suffering from grade 2 osteochondritis dissecans (OCD of the ankle. All fractures needed external fixation during which joint effusions were collected. Fluid analysis was done by ELISA measuring aggrecan, bFGF, IL-1β, IGF-1, and the complement components C3a, C5a, and C5b-9. The time periods between occurrence of fracture and collection of effusion were only significantly associated with synovial aggrecan and C5b-9 levels (P<0.001. Furthermore, synovial expressions of both proteins correlated with each other (P<0.001. Although IL-1β expression was relatively low, intra-articular levels correlated with C5a (P<0.01 and serological C-reactive protein concentrations 2 days after surgery (P<0.05. Joint effusions were initially dominated by neutrophils, but the portion of monocytes constantly increased reaching 50% at day 6 after fracture (P<0.02. Whereas aggrecan and IL-1β concentrations were not different in fracture and OCD patients, bFGF, IGF-1, and all complement components were significantly higher concentrated in ankle joints with fractures (P<0.01. Complement activation and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the joint biology following acute ankle fractures.

  19. Hydrogels as a Replacement Material for Damaged Articular Hyaline Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte M. Beddoes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyaline cartilage is a strong durable material that lubricates joint movement. Due to its avascular structure, cartilage has a poor self-healing ability, thus, a challenge in joint recovery. When severely damaged, cartilage may need to be replaced. However, currently we are unable to replicate the hyaline cartilage, and as such, alternative materials with considerably different properties are used. This results in undesirable side effects, including inadequate lubrication, wear debris, wear of the opposing articular cartilage, and weakening of the surrounding tissue. With the number of surgeries for cartilage repair increasing, a need for materials that can better mimic cartilage, and support the surrounding material in its typical function, is becoming evident. Here, we present a brief overview of the structure and properties of the hyaline cartilage and the current methods for cartilage repair. We then highlight some of the alternative materials under development as potential methods of repair; this is followed by an overview of the development of tough hydrogels. In particular, double network (DN hydrogels are a promising replacement material, with continually improving physical properties. These hydrogels are coming closer to replicating the strength and toughness of the hyaline cartilage, while offering excellent lubrication. We conclude by highlighting several different methods of integrating replacement materials with the native joint to ensure stability and optimal behaviour.

  20. Bilateral Intra-Articular Radiofrequency Ablation for Cervicogenic Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Teresa; Taftian, David; Chhatre, Akhil

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Cervicogenic headache is characterized by unilateral neck or face pain referred from various structures such as the cervical joints and intervertebral disks. A recent study of patients with cervical pain showed significant pain relief after cervical medial branch neurotomy but excluded patients with C1-2 joint pain. It remains unclear whether targeting this joint has potential for symptomatic relief. To address this issue, we present a case report of C1-2 joint ablation with positive outcomes. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old female presented with worsening cervicogenic headache. Her pain was 9/10 by visual analog scale (VAS) and described as cramping and aching. Pain was localized suboccipitally with radiation to her jaw and posterior neck, worse on the right. Associated symptoms included clicking of her temporomandibular joint, neck stiffness, bilateral headaches with periorbital pain, numbness, and tingling. History, physical exam, and diagnostic studies indicated localization to the C1-2 joint with 80% decrease in pain after C1-2 diagnostic blocks. She underwent bilateral intra-articular radiofrequency ablation of the C1-C2 joint. Follow-up at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks showed improved function and pain relief with peak results at 12 weeks. Conclusion. Clinicians may consider C1-C2 joint ablation as a viable long-term treatment option for cervicogenic headaches. PMID:28149652

  1. Spectrocolorimetric evaluation of repaired articular cartilage after a microfracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohi Yoshihiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical practice, surgeons differentiate color changes in repaired cartilage compared with surrounding intact cartilage, but cannot quantify these color changes. Objective assessments are required. A spectrocolorimeter was used to evaluate whether intact and repaired cartilage can be quantified. Findings We investigated the use of a spectrocolorimeter and the application of two color models (L* a* b* colorimetric system and spectral reflectance distribution to describe and quantify articular cartilage. In this study, we measured the colors of intact and repaired cartilage after a microfracture. Histologically, the repaired cartilage was a mixture of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. In the L* a* b* colorimetric system, the L* and a* values recovered to close to the values of intact cartilage, whereas the b* value decreased over time after the operation. Regarding the spectral reflectance distribution at 12 weeks after the operation, the repaired cartilage had a higher spectral reflectance ratio than intact cartilage between wavelengths of 400 to 470 nm. Conclusion This study reports the first results regarding the relationship between spectrocolorimetric evaluation and the histological findings of repair cartilage after a microfracture. Our findings demonstrate the ability of spectrocolorimetric measurement to judge the repair cartilage after treatment on the basis of objective data such as the L*, a* and b* values and the SRP as a coincidence index of the spectral reflectance curve.

  2. Study of cryopreservation of articular chondrocytes using the Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Wu, Wei Te; Hou, Chien Chih; Hsieh, Wen-Hsin

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluates the effect of control factors on cryopreservation of articular cartilage chondrocytes using the Taguchi method. Freeze-thaw experiments based on the L(8)(2(7)) two-level orthogonal array of the Taguchi method are conducted, and ANOVA (analysis of variables) is adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the viability of the cell. Results show that the type of cryoprotectant, freezing rate, thawing rate, and concentration of cryoprotectant (listed in the order of influence) are the statistically significant control factors that affect the post-thaw viability. The end temperature and durations of the first and second stages of freezing do not affect the post-thaw viability. Within the ranges of the control factors studied in this work, the optimal test condition is found to be a freezing rate of 0.61+/-0.03 degrees C/min, a thawing rate of 126.84+/-5.57 degrees C/min, Me(2)SO cryoprotectant, and a cryoprotectant concentration of 10% (v/v) for maximum cell viability. In addition, this study also explores the effect of cryopreservation on the expression of type II collagen using immunocytochemical staining and digital image processing. The results show that the ability of cryopreserved chondrocytes to express type II collagen is reduced within the first five days of monolayer culture.

  3. Physiotherapy for the prevention of articular contraction in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, B M

    1999-03-01

    The idea of prevention and preventative care is not new. History and culture have given us many examples of the importance of physical well-being and the prvention of illness and disease. The ancient societies of China focused on the balance of Yin and Yang in promoting health; Greece and Rome valued the importance of health and physical culture; the earliest Hebrew societies documented the importance of diet and dietary restrictions as a means towards good health. Through this century health professionals have advocated the importance of preventive care as an integral element of the quality of health. Haemophilia is a life-long condition with a high potential towards disability, handicap and impairment if not adequately treated. It is therefore essential that those with haemophilia are taught the importance of physical fitness at an early age as a means of preventing articular contractures. Physiotherapy is of great importance in this field, especially in third-world countries where the supply of replacement products are scarce or non-existent.

  4. Intracortical chondroblastoma mimicking intra-articular osteoid osteoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Mukai, Kiyoshi [First Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku 6-1-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8402 (Japan); Goto, Takahiro [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Motoi, Noriko [Department of Pathology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We report a case of intra-articular intracortical chondroblastoma of the femoral condyle which radiologically appeared to be osteoid osteoma. A 19-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of gradually increasing pain in the right knee and had been on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief. Laboratory data were within normal limits. Radiographs showed a well-demarcated lucent lesion in the medial condyle of the right femur. A nidus-like lesion with calcifications and a sclerotic rim located in the cortex was imaged by computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bone marrow edema and soft tissue swelling around the lesion, with low signal intensity of the nidus-like lesion on both T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was excised en bloc and the histological diagnosis of chondroblastoma was made. A mild inflammatory reaction was observed in the bone marrow and synovium around the tumor. The chondroblastoma cells were shown to express cyclooxygenase-2 with immunohistochemistry. (orig.)

  5. Tribology approach to the engineering and study of articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Markus A; Grad, Sibylle; Kaup, Thomas; Hänni, Markus; Schneider, Erich; Gogolewski, Sylwester; Alini, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    This study has been based on the assumption that articular motion is an important aspect of mechanotransduction in synovial joints. For this reason a new bioreactor concept, able to reproduce joint kinematics more closely, has been designed. The prototype consists of a rotating scaffold and/or cartilage pin, which is pressed onto an orthogonally rotating ball. By oscillating pin and ball in phase difference, elliptical displacement trajectories are generated that are similar to the motion paths occurring in vivo. Simultaneously, dynamic compression may be applied with a linear actuator, while two-step-motors generate the rotation of pin and ball. The whole apparatus is placed in an incubator. The control station is located outside. Preliminary investigations at the gene expression level demonstrated promising results. Compared with free-swelling control and/or simply compression-loaded samples, chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds as well as nasal cartilage explants exposed to interface motion both showed elevated levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein mRNA. The final design of the bioreactor will include four individual stations in line, which will facilitate the investigation of motion-initiated effects at the contacting surfaces in more detail.

  6. A study of crystalline biomaterials for articular cartilage bioengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross-Aviv, Talia [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: taliag@bgu.ac.il; DiCarlo, Bryan B. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: bdicarlo@rice.edu; French, Margaret M. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: mmfrench@rice.edu; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A. [Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77003 (United States)], E-mail: athanasiou@rice.edu; Vago, Razi [Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: rvago@bgu.ac.il

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the suitability of marine origin coral species, Porites lutea (POR) and the hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MIL), for use as novel three dimensional growth matrices in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes were grown on the skeletal material obtained from each of these two organisms to investigate their potential use as three dimensional scaffolding for cartilage tissue growth. Chondrogenic induction of MSCs was achieved by addition of transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I). Cell adherence, proliferation, differentiation and tissue development were investigated through six weeks of culture. Cartilage tissue growth and chondrocytic phenotype maintenance of each cell type were examined by cell morphology, histochemical analyses, expression of collagen type II and quantitative measures of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content. The MSCs and the chondrocytes were shown good adherence to the scaffolds and maintenance of the chondrocytic phenotype in the initial stages of culture. However after two weeks of culture on MIL and three weeks on POR these cultures began to exhibit signs of further differentiation and phenotypic loss. The shown results indicated that POR was a better substrate for chondrocytes phenotype maintenance than MIL. We believe that surface modification of POR combined with mechanical stimuli will provide a suitable environment for chondrogenic phenotype maintenance. Further investigation of POR and other novel coralline biomatrices is indicated and warranted in the field of cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  7. Defect-Assisted Hard-X-Ray Microscopy with Capillary Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecki, Paweł; Sowa, Katarzyna M; Jany, Benedykt R; Krok, Franciszek

    2016-06-10

    Polycapillary x-ray focusing devices are built from hundreds of thousands of bent microcapillaries that are stacked into hexagonal arrays. We show that intrinsic point defects of the optics (e.g., missing or larger capillaries) lead to the formation of multiple x-ray images of an object positioned in the focal plane. These images can be recorded in parallel, and can provide spatial resolution that is limited by the defect size and not by the focal spot size. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate submicron resolution, which has not yet been achieved with polycapillary focusing optics. Tailored optics with a controlled distribution of "defects" could be used for multimodal nanoscale x-ray imaging with laboratory setups.

  8. The Detection of Defects in Optical Fibers Using a Hybrid Opto-electronic Correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yange; LIU Wei; ZHANG Yimo; ZHOU Ge

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid opto-electronic correlator for detecting defects in optical fibers is proposed. After the light from a He-Ne laser being expanded and filtered it is not collimated but directly passes a Fourier transform lens and illuminates a reference fiber and a test fiber at the same input plane. The Fourier transform spectrum of the two fibers is therefore obtained at the rear focal plane of the lens, where it is sampled via a CCD array connected with a computer through a frame grabber. The computer performs filter, inverse Fourier transform and setting threshold operation on classification. The system is an equivalent of joint transform correlator with a Fourier lens of long focal length. The experiment results for optical fibers having incoordinate defects are presented. The results indicate that the system can be used for fiber defect detection, and has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration, easy adjustment and flexible manipulation.

  9. ACTIVITY OF CANONICAL WNT SIGNAL SYSTEM IN HYALINE CARTILAGE ARTICULAR CHONDROCYTES IN PROCESS OF SYNOVIAL JOINT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Molotkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Canonical and non-canonical Wnt systems are essential regulators of chondrogenesis and bone development. However, the roles of these systems in synovial joint development are not well studied. To determine if canonical Wnt system is active in developing articular chondrocytes we used immunohistochemistry for в-galactosidase and doublecortin (cell-type specific marker for articular chondrocytes to double label sections through joint regions of E14.5, E18.5, P10 and adult mice. Here the following results are presented. Canonical Wnt signal system does not work in developing articular chondrocytes at early embryonic stages (E14.5; it is active in the articular chondrocytes at late embryonic stages (E16.5-E18.5 and during postnatal development (P7-P10, but is turned off again in the adult articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling is being regulated during articular chondrocytes differentiation and joint formation.

  10. Focal Adhesion Induction at the Tip of a Functionalized Nanoelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Daniela E; Bae, Chilman; Butler, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Cells dynamically interact with their physical micro-environment through the assembly of nascent focal contacts and focal adhesions. The dynamics and mechanics of these contact points are controlled by transmembrane integrins and an array of intracellular adaptor proteins. In order to study the mechanics and dynamics of focal adhesion assembly, we have developed a technique for the timed induction of a nascent focal adhesion. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were approached at the apical surface by a nanoelectrode whose position was controlled with a resolution of 10s of nanometers using changes in electrode current to monitor distance from the cell surface. Since this probe was functionalized with fibronectin, a focal contact formed at the contact location. Nascent focal adhesion assembly was confirmed using time-lapse confocal fluorescent images of red fluorescent protein (RFP) - tagged talin, an adapter protein that binds to activated integrins. Binding to the cell was verified by noting a lack of change of electrode current upon retraction of the electrode. This study demonstrates that functionalized nanoelectrodes can enable precisely-timed induction and 3-D mechanical manipulation of focal adhesions and the assay of the detailed molecular kinetics of their assembly.

  11. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Avaliação microbiológica e molecular de líquidos articulares e peri-articulares de suínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina S. Faria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo coletaram-se 115 amostras de líquido articular e peri-articular de suínos com suspeita clínica de doença articular oriundos de maternidade (30,43%, creche (44,35% e crescimento/terminação (25,22% de Sistemas Intensivos de Produção de Suínos (SIPs para avaliação microbiológica e molecular. Observaram-se 57 (49,5% amostras positivas em pelo menos uma das técnicas. No isolamento microbiano, 39,13% das amostras foram positivas, sendo Streptococcus spp. (19,72%, Arcabobacterium pyogenes (18,13% e Escherichia coli (12,68% os mais frequentes, havendo também a presença de Candida sp. (2,6%. Na técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, em 20% das amostras foram detectados microrganismos com uma maior ocorrência de Mycoplasma hyosinoviae (34,09%, Erysipelotrix tonsilarum (20,45% e Haemophilus parasuis (15,90%. Os microrganismos mais frequentemente isolados em animais com artrite, apresentaram distribuição em todas as faixas etárias, entretanto a fase de crescimento/terminação apresentou maior percentual (69% de amostras positivas. Streptococcus spp. ocorreu em todas as fases sendo o microrganismo mais detectado. M. hyosinoviae foi observado principalmente em animais de creche. Na fase de crescimento/terminação as bactérias predominantes foram A. pyogenes, H. parasuis e E. tonsilarum. Aproximadamente metade dos casos foi negativo o que indica a provável ocorrência de processos degenerativos como a osteocondrose, embora a participação de infecções articulares e peri-articulares possam representar grandes perdas com menor ou maior impacto dependendo da fase de criação. Problemas articulares e/ou peri-articulares de origem infecciosas foram encontrados em todas as propriedades estudadas. O principal agente foi M. hyosynoviae, principalmente na creche, porém não se pode descartar o envolvimento de problemas degenerativos em associação.

  13. Effects of freezing rates and cryoprotectant on thermal expansion of articular cartilage during freezing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Sun, H J; Lv, Y; Zou, J C; Lin, B L; Hua, T C

    2013-01-01

    The intact articular cartilage has not yet been successfully preserved at low temperature most likely due to the volume expansion from water to ice during freezing. The objective of this current study focuses on examining thermal expansion behavior of articular cartilage (AC) during freezing from 0 degree C to -100 degree C. Thermo Mechanical Analysis (TMA) was used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (0%, 10%, 30% and 60% v/v) and different freezing rates (1 C/min, 3 C/min and 5 C/min). The results showed that: (1) the inhomogeneous thermal expansion (or contraction) presents due to inhomogeneous water distributions in articular cartilage during freezing, which also may be the most likely reason that the matrix has been damaged in cryopreserved intact articular cartilage; (2) at the phase transition temperature range, the maximum thermal strain change value for 5C/min is approximately 1.45 times than that for 1 C/min, but the maximum thermal expansion coefficient of the later is about six times than that of the former; (3) the thermal expansion coefficient decreases with increasing cooling rate at the unfrozen temperature region, but some opposite results are obtained at the frozen temperature region; (4) the higher the DMSO concentration is, at the phase change temperature region, the smaller the thermal strain change as well as the maximum thermal expansion coefficient are, but DMSO concentration exhibits little effect on the thermal expansion coefficient at both unfrozen and frozen region. Once the DMSO concentration increasing enough, e.g. 60% v/v, the thermal strain decreases linearly and smoothly without any abrupt change due to little or no ice crystal forms (i.e. vitrification) in frozen articular cartilage. This study may improve our understanding of the thermal expansion (or contraction) behavior of cryopreserved articular cartilage and it may be useful for the future study on cryopreservation of intact

  14. Usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection of the knee

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    Myung, Jae Sung; Lee, Joon Woo [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Yeon [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    To determine the accuracy of the intra-articular location of hyaluronic acid injection using a blind approach and to establish the usefulness of fluoroscopy-guided intra-articular injection. A fluoroscopy unit was used for 368 intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid to 93 knees in 65 patients. Initially, blind needle positioning was conducted on the fluoroscopy table. The failure rate of the blind approach among the 368 injections was evaluated, and a relationship between the Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade) and the incidence of repeated failures using the blind approach was determined for injections to 52 knees in 37 patients who received a complete cycle of injections (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections). Using a blind approach, 298 of 368 trials (81.2%) resulted in a needle tip being placed in an intra-articular location, while 70 of 368 trials resulted in an extra-articular placement of the needle tip. Among 52 knees to which a complete cycle of injection (five consecutive injections with a one-week interval between injections) was administered, repeated failure of intra-articular placement using the blind approach was seen for 18 knees (34.6%); a more severe K-L grade assigned was associated with a higher rate of repeated failure. However, the trend was not statistically significant based on the Chi-squared test ({rho} value = 0.14). Fluoroscopy-guided needle placement may be helpful to ensure therapeutic intra-articular injection of the knee.

  15. Articular cartilage changes in maturing athletes: new targets for joint rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Ayala; Chu, Constance R

    2014-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete-from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartilage and synovium. An evaluation of age-related changes for joint homeostasis and risk for osteoarthritis is important to the development of new strategies to rejuvenate aging joints. This review summarizes the current literature on the biochemical, cellular, and physiologic changes occurring in aging articular cartilage. PubMed (1969-2013) and published books in sports health, cartilage biology, and aging. Keywords included aging, athlete, articular cartilage, epigenetics, and functional performance with age. Systematic review. Level 3. To be included, research questions addressed the effect of age-related changes on performance, articular cartilage biology, molecular mechanism, and morphology. The mature athlete faces challenges in maintaining cartilage health and joint function due to age-related changes to articular cartilage biology, morphology, and physiology. These changes include chondrocyte loss and a decline in metabolic response, alterations to matrix and synovial tissue composition, and dysregulation of reparative responses. Although physical decline has been regarded as a normal part of aging, many individuals maintain overall fitness and enjoy targeted improvement to their athletic capacity throughout life. Healthy articular cartilage and joints are needed to maintain athletic performance and general activities. Genetic and potentially reversible epigenetic factors influence cartilage physiology and its response to mechanical and injurious stimuli. Improved understandings of

  16. OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF INTRA-ARTICULAR DISTAL HUMERAL FRACTURES WITH LOCKING PLATES

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    Abhilekh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-articular distal humeral fractures are common, but complex elbow injuries. To obtain good results, anatomical reduction with rigid fixation and early range of mobilization is required. Treatment of these fractures with conventional plates is associated with many complications such as non-anatomic reduction of articular surfaces, malunion, non-union, loosening of implant, residual stiffness of the elbow and post-traumatic osteoarthrosis. In this situation the application of locking plates having a fixed angle plate screw construct can minimise most of the above complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate radiological and functional outcome of locking plate application for the management of intra-articular distal humeral fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014. We operated 20 patients of AO type-C intra-articular distal humeral fractures. Fracture was exposed using modified Campbell’s posterior approach in less comminuted fractures and a V-shaped Olecranon osteotomy was done to get better exposure of the articular surface in cases with severe articular comminution. The fracture was stabilized using an intercondylar screw, pre-contoured locking compression plates and/or locking reconstruction plates as per preoperative planning. Patients were reviewed at monthly interval for clinical-radiological evaluation. Final outcome measures included radiological assessment, range of motion and Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS. RESULTS: All the fractures were united at an average 12 weeks. Two patients developed numbness in the distribution of ulnar nerve and one patient developed superficial infection in immediate postoperative period. None of the patients had malunion and loosening of implant. The average arc of flexion-extension was 105`, although no patient had loss of supination/pronation. Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in 15 (75%, good in 3 (15%, fair in 1 (5

  17. Changes in Joint Contact Mechanics in a Large Quadrupedal Animal Model After Partial Meniscectomy and a Focal Cartilage Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckelsmiller, David J; James Rudert, M; Baer, Thomas E; Pedersen, Douglas R; Fredericks, Douglas C; Goetz, Jessica E

    2017-05-01

    Acute mechanical damage and the resulting joint contact abnormalities are central to the initiation and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Study of PTOA is typically performed in vivo with replicate animals using artificially induced injury features. The goal of this work was to measure changes in a joint contact stress in the knee of a large quadruped after creation of a clinically realistic overload injury and a focal cartilage defect. Whole-joint overload was achieved by excising a 5-mm wedge of the anterior medial meniscus. Focal cartilage defects were created using a custom pneumatic impact gun specifically developed and mechanically characterized for this work. To evaluate the effect of these injuries on joint contact mechanics, Tekscan (Tekscan, Inc., South Boston, MA) measurements were obtained pre-operatively, postmeniscectomy, and postimpact (1.2-J) in a nonrandomized group of axially loaded cadaveric sheep knees. Postmeniscectomy, peak contact stress in the medial compartment is increased by 71% (p = 0.03) and contact area is decreased by 35% (p = 0.001); the center of pressure (CoP) shifted toward the cruciate ligaments in both the medial (p = 0.004) and lateral (p = 0.03) compartments. The creation of a cartilage defect did not significantly change any aspect of contact mechanics measured in the meniscectomized knee. This work characterizes the mechanical environment present in a quadrupedal animal knee joint after two methods to reproducibly induce joint injury features that lead to PTOA.

  18. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  19. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  20. Differences between diffuse and focal autoimmune pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taku Tabata; Terumi Kamisawa; Kensuke Takuma; Seiichi Hara; Sawako Kuruma; Yoshihiko Inaba

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate differences in clinical features between diffuse-and focal-type autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP).METHODS:Based on radiological findings by computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging,we divided 67 AIP patients into diffuse type (D type)and focal type (F type).We further divided F type into head type (H type) and body and/or tail type (B/T type)according to the location of enlargement.Finally,we classified the 67 AIP patients into three groups:D type,H type and B/F type.We compared the three types of AIP in terms of clinical,laboratory,radiological,functional and histological findings and clinical course.RESULTS:There were 34 patients with D-type,19 with H-type and 14 with B/T-type AIP.Although obstructive jaundice was frequently detected in D-type patients (88%) and H-type patients (68%),no B/T-type patients showed jaundice as an initial symptom (P < 0.001).There were no differences in frequency of abdominal pain,but acute pancreatitis was associated more frequently in B/T-type patients (36%) than in D-type patients (3%) (P =0.017).Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG)4 levels were significantly higher in D-type patients (median 309 mg/dL) than in B/T-type patients (133.5 mg/dL) (P =0.042).Serum amylase levels in B/T-type patients (median:114 IU/L) were significantly greater than in H-type patients (72 IU/L) (P =0.049).Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP) was histologically confirmed in 6 D-type,7 H-type and 4 B/T-type patients; idiopathic duct-centric pancreatitis was observed in no patients.Marked fibrosis and abundant infiltration of CD20-positive B lymphocytes with few IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in 2 B/T-type patients.Steroid therapy was effective in all 50 patients (31 D type,13 H type and 6 B/T type).Although AIP relapsed during tapering or after stopping steroids in 3 D-type and 3 H-type patients,no patients relapsed in B/T type.During follow-up,radiological features of 6 B/T-type patients were not changed

  1. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

  2. Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia: review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Y M Y; Osman, Y I; Norval, E J G

    2010-10-01

    Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous condition that can be seen in dentate and edentulous patients. It is an asymptomatic lesion and needs no treatment; however follow-up is essential due to the possibility that focal cemento-osseous dysplasia can progress to a condition called florid osseous dysplasia that involves multiple sites. A case report is presented here, along with a review of the differential diagnoses considered in order to reach a final diagnosis of focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

  3. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant from MRL/MpJ Super-Healer Mice Does Not Improve Articular Cartilage Repair in the C57Bl/6 Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Leonard

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has been the focus of multiple strategies to improve its regenerative/ repair capacity. The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mouse demonstrates an unusual enhanced regenerative capacity in many tissues and provides an opportunity to further study endogenous cartilage repair. The objective of this study was to test whether the super-healer phenotype could be transferred from MRL/MpJ to non-healer C57Bl/6 mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplant.The healing of 2mm ear punches and full thickness cartilage defects was measured 4 and 8 weeks after injury in control C57Bl/6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mice, and in radiation chimeras reconstituted with bone marrow from the other mouse strain. Healing was assessed using ear hole diameter measurement, a 14 point histological scoring scale for the cartilage defect and an adapted version of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scale for assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse knee joints.Normal and chimeric MRL mice showed significantly better healing of articular cartilage and ear wounds along with less severe signs of osteoarthritis after cartilage injury than the control strain. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, bone marrow transplant from MRL mice did not confer improved healing on the C57Bl/6 chimeras, either in regards to ear wound healing or cartilage repair.The elusive cellular basis for the MRL regenerative phenotype still requires additional study and may possibly be dependent on additional cell types external to the bone marrow.

  4. Focal adhesion kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases are involved in chondrocyte activation by the 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemba, Takefumi; Valbracht, Jean; Alsalameh, Saifeddin; Lotz, Martin

    2002-01-11

    The 29-kDa amino-terminal fibronectin fragment (FN-f) has a potent chondrolytic effect and is thought to be involved in cartilage degradation in arthritis. However, little is known about signal transduction pathways that are activated by FN-f. Here we demonstrated that FN-f induced nitric oxide (NO) production from human articular chondrocytes. Expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and NO production were observed at 6 and 48 h after FN-f treatment, respectively. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mRNA up-regulation was stimulated by FN-f in human chondrocytes. To address the possibility that FN-f-induced NO release is mediated by IL-1beta production, the effect of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was determined. IL-1ra partially inhibited FN-f-induced NO release although it almost completely inhibited IL-1beta-induced NO release. Tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was induced transiently by FN-f treatment. Blocking antibodies to alpha(5) or beta(1) integrin and Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptides did not inhibit FN-f-induced NO production. PP2, a Src family kinase inhibitor, or cytochalasin D, which selectively disrupts the network of actin filaments, inhibited both FAK phosphorylation and NO production induced by FN-f, but the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin had no effect. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) showed activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. High concentrations of SB203580, which inhibit both JNK and p38 MAPK, and PD98059 a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 that blocks ERK activation, inhibited FN-f induced NO production. These data suggest that focal adhesion kinase and MAPK mediate FN-f induced activation of human articular chondrocytes.

  5. Norwegian Pitched Roof Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gullbrekken

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The building constructions investigated in this work are pitched wooden roofs with exterior vertical drainpipes and wooden load-bearing system. The aim of this research is to further investigate the building defects of pitched wooden roofs and obtain an overview of typical roof defects. The work involves an analysis of the building defect archive from the research institute SINTEF Building and Infrastructure. The findings from the SINTEF archive show that moisture is a dominant exposure factor, especially in roof constructions. In pitched wooden roofs, more than half of the defects are caused by deficiencies in design, materials, or workmanship, where these deficiencies allow moisture from precipitation or indoor moisture into the structure. Hence, it is important to increase the focus on robust and durable solutions to avoid defects both from exterior and interior moisture sources in pitched wooden roofs. Proper design of interior ventilation and vapour retarders seem to be the main ways to control entry from interior moisture sources into attic and roof spaces.

  6. Effect of gradual weight-bearing on regenerated articular cartilage after joint distraction and motion in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomofumi; Ishii, Tomoo; Chang, Fei; Yanai, Takaji; Watanabe, Arata; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mishima, Hajime; Nakai, Kenjiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of gradual weight bearing (GWB) on regenerating cartilage. We developed a novel external fixation device (EFD) with a controllable weight-bearing system and continuous passive motion (CPM). A full-thickness defect was created by resection of the entire articular surface of the tibial plateau after the EFD was fixed in the rabbit's left knee. In the GWB group (n=6), GWB was started 6 weeks after surgery. In the CPM group (n=6), CPM with EFD was applied in the same manner without GWB. The control group (n=5) received only joint distraction. All rabbits were sacrificed 9 weeks after surgery. The central one-third of the regenerated tissue was assessed and scored blindly using a grading scale modified from the International Cartilage Repair Society visual histological assessment scale. The areas stained by Safranin-O and type II collagen antibody were measured, and the percentage of each area was calculated. There was no significant difference in the histological assessment scale among the groups. The percentage of the type II collagen-positive area was significantly larger in the GWB group than in the CPM group. The present study suggests that optimal mechanical stress, such as GWB, may affect regeneration of cartilage, in vivo.

  7. In vitro and in vivo characterization of nonbiomedical- and biomedical-grade alginates for articular chondrocyte transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligenstein, Susanne; Cucchiarini, Magali; Laschke, Matthias W; Bohle, Rainer M; Kohn, Dieter; Menger, Michael D; Madry, Henning

    2011-08-01

    Alginate is a key hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering. Here, we systematically evaluated four biomedical- and two nonbiomedical-grade alginates for their capacity to support the in vitro culture and in vivo transplantation of articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes in all ultrapure alginates maintained high cell viability. Spheres composed of biomedical-grade, low-viscosity, high-mannuronic acid content alginate showed the lowest decrease in size over time. Biomedical-grade, low-viscosity, high-guluronic acid content alginate allowed for optimal cell proliferation. Biomedical-grade, medium-viscosity, high-mannuronic acid content alginate promoted the highest production of proteoglycans. When transplanted into osteochondral defects in the knee joint of sheep in vivo, empty spheres were progressively surrounded by a granulation tissue. In marked contrast with these observations, all alginate spheres carrying allogeneic chondrocytes were gradually invaded by a granulation tissue containing multinucleated giant cells, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts, regardless whether they were based on biomedical- or nonbiomedical-grade alginates. After 21 days in vivo, transplanted chondrocytes were either viable or underwent necrosis, and apoptosis played a minor role in their early fate. The individual characteristics of these alginates may be valuable to tailor specific experimental and clinical strategies for cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Adrian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously. Discussion Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.

  9. Arthroscopic laser in intra-articular knee cartilage disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosir, Hany R.; Siebert, Werner E.

    1996-12-01

    Different assemblies have endeavored to develop arthroscopic laser surgery. Various lasers have been tried in the treatment of orthopaedic problems, and the most useful has turned out to be the Hol-YAG laser 2.1 nm which is a near- contact laser. By using the laser as a powerful tool, and cutting back on the power level, one is able to better achieve the desired treatment effect. Clinical studies to evaluating the role of the laser in different arthroscopic knee procedures, comparing to conventional techniques, showed that the overall outcome attains a momentous confidence level which is shifted to the side of the laser versus the conventional for all maneuvers, barring meniscectomy where there is not perceiving disparity between laser versus the conventional. Meniscectomy continues to be one of the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Laser provides a single tool which can ablate and debride meniscal rims with efficiency and safety. Chondroplasty can also be accomplished with ease using defocused laser energy. Both lateral release and soft tissue cermilization benefit from the cutting effect of laser along with its hemostatic effect. Synovial reduction with a defocused laser is also easily accomplished. By one gadget, one can cut, ablate, smooth, coagulate, congeal and with authentic tissue depth control The future of laser arthroscopic surgery lies in its ability to weld or repair tissues. Our research study has shown that laser activated photoactive dyes can produce a molecular bonding of collagen fibers, and therefore a repair 'weld' can be achieved with both meniscal tissues and with articular cartilage lesions.

  10. Lubrication mode analysis of articular cartilage using Stribeck surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleghorn, Jason P; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2008-01-01

    Lubrication of articular cartilage occurs in distinct modes with various structural and biomolecular mechanisms contributing to the low-friction properties of natural joints. In order to elucidate relative contributions of these factors in normal and diseased tissues, determination and control of lubrication mode must occur. The objectives of these studies were (1) to develop an in vitro cartilage on glass test system to measure friction coefficient, mu; (2) to implement and extend a framework for the determination of cartilage lubrication modes; and (3) to determine the effects of synovial fluid on mu and lubrication mode transitions. Patellofemoral groove cartilage was linearly oscillated against glass under varying magnitudes of compressive strain utilizing phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and equine and bovine synovial fluid as lubricants. The time-dependent frictional properties were measured to determine the lubricant type and strain magnitude dependence for the initial friction coefficient (mu(0)=mu(t-->0)) and equilibrium friction coefficient (mu(eq)=mu(t-->infinity)). Parameters including tissue-glass co-planarity, normal strain, and surface speed were altered to determine the effect of the parameters on lubrication mode via a 'Stribeck surface'. Using this testing apparatus, cartilage exhibited biphasic lubrication with significant influence of strain magnitude on mu(0) and minimal influence on mu(eq), consistent with hydrostatic pressurization as reported by others. Lubrication analysis using 'Stribeck surfaces' demonstrated clear regions of boundary and mixed modes, but hydrodynamic or full film lubrication was not observed even at the highest speed (50mm/s) and lowest strain (5%).

  11. Adaptive mechanically controlled lubrication mechanism found in articular joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George W; Banquy, Xavier; Lee, Dong Woog; Lowrey, Daniel D; Yu, Jing; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2011-03-29

    Articular cartilage is a highly efficacious water-based tribological system that is optimized to provide low friction and wear protection at both low and high loads (pressures) and sliding velocities that must last over a lifetime. Although many different lubrication mechanisms have been proposed, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the tribological performance of cartilage cannot be attributed to a single mechanism acting alone but on the synergistic action of multiple "modes" of lubrication that are adapted to provide optimum lubrication as the normal loads, shear stresses, and rates change. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is abundant in cartilage and synovial fluid and widely thought to play a principal role in joint lubrication although this role remains unclear. HA is also known to complex readily with the glycoprotein lubricin (LUB) to form a cross-linked network that has also been shown to be critical to the wear prevention mechanism of joints. Friction experiments on porcine cartilage using the surface forces apparatus, and enzymatic digestion, reveal an "adaptive" role for an HA-LUB complex whereby, under compression, nominally free HA diffusing out of the cartilage becomes mechanically, i.e., physically, trapped at the interface by the increasingly constricted collagen pore network. The mechanically trapped HA-LUB complex now acts as an effective (chemically bound) "boundary lubricant"--reducing the friction force slightly but, more importantly, eliminating wear damage to the rubbing/shearing surfaces. This paper focuses on the contribution of HA in cartilage lubrication; however, the system as a whole requires both HA and LUB to function optimally under all conditions.

  12. Binding and lubrication of biomimetic boundary lubricants on articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaroo, Kirk J; Tan, Mingchee; Putnam, David; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-03-01

    The glycoprotein, lubricin, is the primary boundary lubricant of articular cartilage and has been shown to prevent cartilage damage after joint injury. In this study, a library of eight bottle-brush copolymers were synthesized to mimic the structure and function of lubricin. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafted onto a polyacrylic acid (pAA) core mimicked the hydrophilic mucin-like domain of lubricin, and a thiol terminus anchored the polymers to cartilage surfaces much like lubricin's C-terminus. These copolymers, abbreviated as pAA-g-PEG, rapidly bound to cartilage surfaces with binding time constants ranging from 20 to 39 min, and affected lubrication under boundary mode conditions with coefficients of friction ranging from 0.140 ± 0.024 to 0.248 ± 0.030. Binding and lubrication were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.89-0.99), showing that boundary lubrication in this case strongly depends on the binding of the lubricant to the surface. Along with time-dependent and dose-dependent behavior, lubrication and binding of the lubricin-mimetics also depended on copolymer structural parameters including pAA backbone length, PEG side chain length, and PEG:AA brush density. Polymers with larger backbone sizes, brush sizes, or brush densities took longer to bind (p lubricate and protect cartilage in vivo. In copolymers with shorter pAA backbones, increasing hydrodynamic size inhibited lubrication (p lubricating efficacy as recombinant lubricins and as such have potential for in vivo treatment of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:548-557, 2017.

  13. Sources of variability in musculo-articular stiffness measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Watsford, Mark; Murphy, Aron; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) with the free-oscillation technique is a popular method with a variety of applications. This study examined the sources of variability (load applied and frequency of oscillation) when MAS is assessed. Over two testing occasions, 14 healthy men (27.7±5.2 yr, 1.82±0.04 m, 79.5±8.4 kg) were measured for isometric maximum voluntary contraction and MAS of the knee flexors using submaximal loads relative to the individual's maximum voluntary contraction (MAS%MVC) and a single absolute load (MASABS). As assessment load increased, MAS%MVC (coefficient of variation (CV)  =  8.1-12.1%; standard error of measurement (SEM)  =  51.6-98.8 Nm⁻¹) and frequency (CV  =  4.8-7.0%; SEM  =  0.060-0.075 s⁻¹) variability increased consequently. Further, similar levels of variability arising from load (CV  =  6.7%) and frequency (CV  =  4.8-7.0%) contributed to the overall MAS%MVC variability. The single absolute load condition yielded better reliability scores for MASABS (CV  =  6.5%; SEM  =  40.2 Nm⁻¹) and frequency (CV  =  3.3%; SEM  =  0.039 s⁻¹). Low and constant loads for MAS assessment, which are particularly relevant in the clinical setting, exhibited superior reliability compared to higher loads expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, which are more suitable for sporting situations. Appropriate sample size and minimum detectable change can therefore be determined when prospective studies are carried out.

  14. Serum-free media for articular chondrocytes in vitro expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xin-xin; Neil A.Duncan; LIN Lin; FU Xin; ZHANG Ji-ying; YU Chang-long

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro chondrocyte expansion is a major challenge in cell-based therapy for human articular cartilage repair.Classical culture conditions usually use animal serum as a medium supplement,which raises a number of undesirable questions.In the present study,two kinds of defined,serum-free media were developed to expand chondrocytes in monolayer culture for the purpose of cartilage tissue engineering.Methods Bovine chondrocytes were expanded in serum-free media supplemented with fibroblast growth factor-2 and platelet-derived growth factor or fibroblast growth factor-2 and insulin-like growth factor.Expansion culture in a conventional 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) medium served as control.Fibronectin coating was used to help cell adhesion in serum-free medium.Next,in vitro three-dimensional pellet culture was used to evaluate the chondrocyte capacity.Cell pellets were expanded in different media to re-express the differentiated phenotype (re-differentiation) and to form cartilaginous tissue.The pellets were assessed by glycosaminoglycans contents,collagen II,collagen I and collagen X immunohistological staining.Results Chondrocytes cultured in serum-free media showed no proliferation difference than cells grown with 10% FBS medium.In addition,chondrocytes expanded in both serum-free media expressed more differentiated phenotypes at the end of monolayer culture,as indicated by higher gene expression ratios of collagen type Ⅱ to collagen type Ⅰ.Pellets derived from chondrocytes cultured in both serum-free media displayed comparable chondrogenic capacities to pellets from cells expanded in 10% FBS medium.Conclusion These findings provide alternative culture approaches for chondrocytes in vitro expansion,which may benefit the clinical use of autologous chondrocytes implantation.

  15. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissi, Mikko J; Salo, Elli-Noora; Tiitu, Virpi; Liimatainen, Timo; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia; Ellermann, Jutta; Nieminen, Miika T

    2016-07-01

    Several laboratory and rotating frame quantitative MRI parameters were evaluated and compared for detection of changes in articular cartilage following selective enzymatic digestion. Bovine osteochondral specimens were subjected to 44 h incubation in control medium or in collagenase or chondroitinase ABC to induce superficial collagen or proteoglycan (glycosaminoglycan) alterations. The samples were scanned at 9.4 T for T1 , T1 Gd (dGEMRIC), T2 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , TRAFF2 , and T1 sat relaxation times and for magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). For reference, glycosaminoglycan content, collagen fibril orientation and biomechanical properties were determined. Changes primarily in the superficial cartilage were noted after enzymatic degradation. Most of the studied parameters were sensitive to the destruction of collagen network, whereas glycosaminoglycan depletion was detected only by native T1 and T1 Gd relaxation time constants throughout the tissue and by MTR superficially. T1 , adiabatic T1 ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat correlated significantly with the biomechanical properties while T1 Gd correlated with glycosaminoglycan staining. The findings indicated that most of the studied MRI parameters were sensitive to both glycosaminoglycan content and collagen network integrity, with changes due to enzymatic treatment detected primarily in the superficial tissue. Strong correlation of T1 , adiabatic T1ρ , adiabatic T2 ρ , continuous-wave T1 ρ , and T1 sat with the altered biomechanical properties, reflects that these parameters were sensitive to critical functional properties of cartilage. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1111-1120, 2016.

  16. Cartilage tissue engineering using pre-aggregated human articular chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we first aimed at determining whether human articular chondrocytes (HAC proliferate in aggregates in the presence of strong chondrocyte mitogens. We then investigated if the aggregated cells have an enhanced chondrogenic capacity as compared to cells cultured in monolayer. HAC from four donors were cultured in tissue culture dishes either untreated or coated with 1% agarose in the presence of TGFb-1, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Proliferation and stage of differentiation were assessed by measuring respectively DNA contents and type II collagen mRNA. Expanded cells were induced to differentiate in pellets or in Hyaff®-11 meshes and the formed tissues were analysed biochemically for glycosaminoglycans (GAG and DNA, and histologically by Safranin O staining. The amount of DNA in aggregate cultures increased significantly from day 2 to day 6 (by 3.2-fold, but did not further increase with additional culture time. Expression of type II collagen mRNA was about two orders of magnitude higher in aggregated HAC as compared to monolayer expanded cells. Pellets generated by aggregated HAC were generally more intensely stained for GAG than those generated by monolayer-expanded cells. Scaffolds seeded with aggregates accumulated more GAG (1.3-fold than scaffolds seeded with monolayer expanded HAC. In conclusion, this study showed that HAC culture in aggregates does not support a relevant degree of expansion. However, aggregation of expanded HAC prior to loading into a porous scaffold enhances the quality of the resulting tissues and could thus be introduced as an intermediate culture phase in the manufacture of engineered cartilage grafts.

  17. Internal plate fixation versus plaster in displaced complete articular distal radius fractures, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Marjolein A M; Walenkamp, Monique M J; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L

    2016-02-09

    Of all distal radius fractures, 25 % are complete articular fractures (AO/OTA type C fractures). Two thirds of those fractures are displaced and require reduction. According to several International Guidelines, adequately reduced intra-articular distal radius fractures are best treated non-operatively with plaster immobilisation, while surgical fixation is suggested only when the articular step exceeds 2 mm after reduction. However, these recommendations are based on studies that did not differentiate between intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures. Thus, no clear consensus about the best treatment for patients with displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures can be reached. Despite the lack of evidence, an increase in internal fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures has been observed over the last decade. The aim of this study is to determine the difference in functional outcome following open reduction and plate fixation compared with non-operative treatment with closed reduction and plaster immobilisation in patients with a displaced intra articular distal radius fracture. This multicentre randomised controlled trial will randomise between open reduction and internal plate fixation (intervention group) and closed reduction and plaster immobilisation (control group). All consecutive adult patients from 18 to 65 years with a displaced intra-articular distal radius fracture (AO/OTA type C), which has been adequately reduced at the Emergency Department according to the Dutch National Guidelines, are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is function and pain of the wrist assessed with the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score (PRWE). Secondary outcomes are the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), pain, quality of life (SF-36), range of motion, grip strength, radiological parameters, complications, crossovers and cost-effectiveness of both treatments. A total of 90 patients will be included in this

  18. Ultrastructure of focal cerebral cortex tissue from rats with focal cortical dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Developing a model of focal cortical dysplasia in microgyrus and observing the ultrastructure of focal tissue is of important significance for analyzing the pathology of cortical developmental disorder and the factors of structural changes. OBJECTIVE:This study was to observe the pathological characteristics of focal tissue around the microgyrus of rats with cortical developmental disorder using an electron microscope,so as to analyze the causes associated with cerebral cortical developmental disorder. DESIGN:A randomized controlled animal experiment. SETTING:The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. MATERIALS:This study was carried out in the Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology,Room for Electron Microscope of Chongqing Medical University,and Laboratory Animal Center,Research Institute of Surgery,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA between January 2004 and August 2006.Eighteen healthy newborn male Wistar rats,weighing 3.0 - 6.0 g,provided by the Laboratory Animal Center,Daping Hospital,Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA,were involved in this study.The protocol was carried out in accordance with animal ethics guidelines for the use and care of animals.Probes (Chongqing Wire & Cable Factory,China) were made of copper core wire with diameter of 1 mm.METHODS:The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 6 in each:normal control group,liquid nitrogen injured group and sham-operation group.①In the liquid nitrogen injured group,a blunt probe frozen by liquid nitrogen was placed on fronto-parietal crinial bone of rats for 8 s.A 3 - 5 cm of microgyrus was induced in the unilateral cerebral sensory cortical area.In the sham-operation group,probe was placed at the room temperature.In the normal control group,rats were untouched.② The conscious state and electrical activity of brain of rats in each group were observed.③ 2-3 mm thickness of hippocampal tissue with coronary section was taken

  19. Discrete torsion defects

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Ilka; Plencner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Orbifolding two-dimensional quantum field theories by a symmetry group can involve a choice of discrete torsion. We apply the general formalism of `orbifolding defects' to study and elucidate discrete torsion for topological field theories. In the case of Landau-Ginzburg models only the bulk sector had been studied previously, and we re-derive all known results. We also introduce the notion of `projective matrix factorisations', show how they naturally describe boundary and defect sectors, and we further illustrate the efficiency of the defect-based approach by explicitly computing RR charges. Roughly half of our results are not restricted to Landau-Ginzburg models but hold more generally, for any topological field theory. In particular we prove that for a pivotal bicategory, any two objects of its orbifold completion that have the same base are orbifold equivalent. Equivalently, from any orbifold theory (including those based on nonabelian groups) the original unorbifolded theory can be be obtained by orbifo...

  20. Mask Blank Defect Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A; Sommargren, G E

    2000-02-04

    Mask blanks are the substrates that hold the master patterns for integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductor devices, such as microprocessors (mPs), dynamic random access memory (DRAMs), and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that are central to the computer, communication, and electronics industries. These devices are fabricated using a set of master patterns that are sequentially imaged onto light-sensitive coated silicon wafers and processed to form thin layers of insulating and conductive materials on top of the wafer. These materials form electrical paths and transistors that control the flow of electricity through the device. For the past forty years the semiconductor industry has made phenomenal improvements in device functionality, compactness, speed, power, and cost. This progress is principally due to the exponential decrease in the minimum feature size of integrated circuits, which has been reduced by a factor of {radical}2 every three years. Since 1992 the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) has coordinated the efforts of producing a technology roadmap for semiconductors. In the latest document, ''The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors: 1999'', future technology nodes (minimum feature sizes) and targeted dates were specified and are summarized in Table 1. Lithography is the imaging technology for producing a de-magnified image of the mask on the wafer. A typical de-magnification factor is 4. Mask blank defects as small as one-eighth the equivalent minimum feature size are printable and may cause device failure. Defects might be the result of the surface preparation, such as polishing, or contamination due to handling or the environment. Table 2 shows the maximum tolerable defect sizes on the mask blank for each technology node. This downward trend puts a tremendous burden on mask fabrication, particularly in the area of defect detection and reduction. A new infrastructure for mask