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Sample records for flyback planar transformer

  1. Comparison Of Planar And Wound Transformers For Flyback Forward And Half-Bridge Space Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Thomas; Andreasen, John; Brosen, Finn; Matthiesen, Erik; Poulsen, Ole

    2011-10-01

    Planar technology has now entered the space domain. The big advantages of planar technology are; - Low profile - Excellent repeatability - Economical assembly - Mechanical integrity - Superior thermal characteristics This is why the general power industries increasingly are using planar magnetics in more and more applications, and therefore also why we see a rising demand for the usability of the planar technology among space application developers. The differences between wound and planar transformers have been mapped with a detailed look on the various parasitic component values, such as DC- and AC- resistance, Leakage Inductance and stray capacitance, and revealed the magnitude of the advantages of planar technology. This technical solution is proven in prototypes that have been built in different combination of PCB's and copper foil, with more or less interleaving of windings. Furthermore the transformers have been designed with several outputs stacked together with a fairly high number of primary turns, in order to have planar transformers similar to the wound types that are generally used for space applications.

  2. Design and Modeling of an Integrated Micro-Transformer in a Flyback Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Derkaoui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and modeling of a square micro-transformer for its integration in a flyback converter. From the specifications of the switching power supply, we determined the geometric parameters of this micro-transformer. The π-electrical model of this micro-transformer highlights all parasitic effects generated by stacking of different material layers and permits to calculate the technological parameters by using the S-parameters. A good dimensioning of the geometrical parameters reduces efficiently the energy losses in the micro-transformer and permits to reach the desirable value of the converter output voltage. We have also simulated the electromagnetic effects with the help of the software FEMLAB3.1 in two cases. The first case, without ferromagnetic core, the second case with ferromagnetic core, in order to choose the micro-transformer that has better electromagnetic compatibility with the vicinity components. To validate dimensioning of the geometrical and technological parameters, we have simulated with the help of the software PSIM6.0, the equivalent electrical circuit of the converter containing the electrical circuit of the dimensioned planar micro-transformer.

  3. Efficiency Optimization by Considering the High Voltage Flyback Transformer Parasitics using an Automatic Winding Layout Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    .The energy efficiency is optimized using a proposed new automatic winding layout (AWL) technique and a comprehensive loss model.The AWL technique generates a large number of transformer winding layouts.The transformer parasitics such as dc resistance, leakage inductance and self-capacitance are calculated...... for each winding layout.An optimization technique is formulated to minimize the sum of energy losses during charge and discharge operations.The efficiency and energy loss distribution results from the optimization routine provide a deep insight into the high voltage transformer designand its impact...

  4. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  5. A high-switching-frequency flyback converter in resonant mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianting; van Horck, Frank B.M.; Daniel, Bobby J.; Bergveld, Henk Jan

    2017-01-01

    The demand of miniaturization of power systems has accelerated the research on high-switching-frequency power converters. A flyback converter in resonant mode that features low switching losses, less transformer losses, and low switching noise at high switching frequency is investigated in this

  6. Leakage Inductance Calculation for Planar Transformers with a Magnetic Shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Ouyang, Ziwei; Duffy, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic shunt is generally inserted in a planar transformer to increase the leakage inductance which can be utilized as the series inductor in resonant circuits such as the LLC resonant converter. This paper presents a calculation methodology for the leakage inductance of the transformer...

  7. PT-symmetric planar devices for field transformation and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valagiannopoulos, C A; Monticone, F; Alù, A

    2016-01-01

    The powerful tools of transformation optics (TO) allow an effective distortion of a region of space by carefully engineering the material inhomogeneity and anisotropy, and have been successfully applied in recent years to control electromagnetic fields in many different scenarios, e.g., to realize invisibility cloaks and planar lenses. For various field transformations, it is not necessary to use volumetric inhomogeneous materials, and suitably designed ultrathin metasurfaces with tailored spatial or spectral responses may be able to realize similar functionalities within smaller footprints and more robust mechanisms. Here, inspired by the concept of metamaterial TO lenses, we discuss field transformations enabled by parity-time (PT) symmetric metasurfaces, which can emulate negative refraction. We first analyze a simple realization based on homogeneous and local metasurfaces to achieve negative refraction and imaging, and we then extend our results to arbitrary PT-symmetric two-port networks to realize aberration-free planar imaging. (paper)

  8. Analysis of Energy Transmission Modes of Flyback Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Shu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of significance to investigate energy transmission modes of a flyback converter for its optimum design. In this paper, the ETMs of a flyback converter are divided into three modes, which are continuous conduction mode-complete inductor supply mode, continuous conduction mode- incomplete inductor supply mode and discontinuous conduction mode-incomplete inductor supply mode, respectively. A deep analysis of the operation is made, a reduction of the boundary condition between the modes is conducted and a comparison of current stress, transformer AP and output ripple voltage between the modes is performed. A 30W prototype is developed and its experiment is done. The experiment results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis quite well.

  9. Bidirectional Flyback Converter with Multiple Series Connected Outputs for High Voltage Capacitive Charge and Discharge Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    is limited by the parasitics of the high voltage active components, which also prevent full utilization of valley switching during discharge process. A second implementation is therefore proposed, where the secondary of flyback transformer winding is split into multiple windings which are connected in series...

  10. Hyponormal quantization of planar domains exponential transform in dimension two

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    This book exploits the classification of a class of linear bounded operators with rank-one self-commutators in terms of their spectral parameter, known as the principal function. The resulting dictionary between two dimensional planar shapes with a degree of shade and Hilbert space operators turns out to be illuminating and beneficial for both sides. An exponential transform, essentially a Riesz potential at critical exponent, is at the heart of this novel framework; its best rational approximants unveil a new class of complex orthogonal polynomials whose asymptotic distribution of zeros is thoroughly studied in the text. Connections with areas of potential theory, approximation theory in the complex domain and fluid mechanics are established. The text is addressed, with specific aims, at experts and beginners in a wide range of areas of current interest: potential theory, numerical linear algebra, operator theory, inverse problems, image and signal processing, approximation theory, mathematical physics.

  11. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  12. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.

    1998-01-01

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  13. Optimal Design and Tradeoff Analysis of Planar Transformer in High-Power DC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The trend toward high power density, high operating frequency, and low profile in power converters has exposed a number of limitations in the use of conventional wire-wound magnetic component structures. A planar magnetic is a low-profile transformer or inductor utilizing planar windings, instead...... of the traditional windings made of Cu wires. In this paper, the most important factors for planar transformer (PT) design including winding loss, core loss, leakage inductance, and stray capacitance have individually been investigated. The tradeoffs among these factors have to be analyzed in order to achieve...

  14. Application of interleaved flyback micro inverter in a grid connected system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, R.; Ananthichristy, A.; Poornima, P. U.; Madhana, M.; Ashok Rathish, S.; Ragavi, Selvam

    2018-04-01

    The two control strategies CCM and DCM have various effects on the loss distribution and efficiency and thus were studied for the interleaved flyback micro inverter concentrating on the loss analysis under different load conditions. The dominant losses with heavy load include the conduction loss and the transformer loss in case of the interleaved flyback micro inverter; whereas driving of gate loss, the turn-off loss in the transformer core loss and in the powermosfets are included in the dominant losses with light load. A new hybrid control strategy which has the one-phase DCM and two-phase DCM control reduces the dominant losses in order to improving the efficiency based on the load in wide load range is proposed here.

  15. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  16. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better efficiency, higher level of integration and lower component count.

  17. Leakage Inductance Calculation for Planar Transformers with a Magnetic Shunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jun; Ouyang, Ziwei; Duffy, Maeve C.

    2014-01-01

    with a magnetic shunt by means of the stored magnetic energy in the primary and secondary sides of the transformer using the magnetomotive force (MMF) variation method, as well as the stored energy in the shunt based on the reluctance model. The detailed calculation method is described. Both the FEA simulation...

  18. High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac-resistance a......This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac......-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side...... with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window...

  19. Transformation of the corner: A shield cloak and a planar retro-reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, R.; Lei, Z. Y.; Fan, J.; Gao, D. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Xie, Y. J.

    2013-10-01

    A metallic sheet, coated with a few blocks of all-dielectric isotropic materials, is presented for creating an illusion or an image of a corner based on quasi-conformal transformation optics. On the one hand, our design is able to generate cloaking effects to conceal objects hiding inside a corner. On the other hand, we propose to use such a planar transformation device to represent a corner reflector that reflects light directly back to its source. The full wave simulation shows our device is capable of operating considerably well in a broad frequency range, and presents only the appearance of a bare corner functioning as a shield cloak or a planar retro-reflector.

  20. An interleaved structure for a high-voltage planar transformer for a Travelling-wave Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Gang; Hurley, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Fully interleaved structure can significantly reduce leakage inductance in transformers, However, it is hard to apply them into high-voltage applications due to the electric insulation. In this paper, a partially interleaved structure that is suitable for high-voltage high frequency applications...... is proposed to reduce leakage inductance and the insulation’s thickness is adjusted to optimize the electric isolation. In addition, the resistance and parasitic capacitance are investigated. With this method, a planar transformer used for a Travelling-Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA) is designed. Calculations...

  1. High Frequency LLC Resonant Converter with Magnetic Shunt Integrated Planar Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingxiao; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2018-01-01

    High Frequency LLC requires a smaller resonant inductance which is usually implemented by transformer leakage inductance. However, this small resonant inductance is difficult to deal with a wide input voltage range. This paper proposes a new method to implement a larger resonant inductance by using...... a magnetic shunt integrated into planar transformer. The switching frequency can be greatly narrowed by designing a smaller inductance ratio of magnetizing inductance to resonant inductance. Since this method can well deal with a wide input voltage range without adding extra inductor and increasing the size...... of the transformer, the power density can be improved. The precise leakage inductance calculation method for this transformer and detailed LLC converter design procedure are presented. A 280-380V and 48V-100W half bridge LLC resonant converter with 1 MHz resonant frequency is built to verify the design methodology....

  2. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant yback converter for use in direct audio power amplication. When compared to the standard Class-D switching-mode audio power amplier with separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple and compact solution with high efciency, higher level of integration, lower component count, less board space and eventually lower cost. Both peak and average current-mode control for use with 4Q flyback power converters are described and compared. Integrated magnetics is presented which simplies the construction of the auxiliary power supplies for control biasing and isolated gate drives. The feasibility of the approach is proven on audio power amplier prototype for subwoofer applications. (au)

  3. Suppression on allotropic transformation of Sn planar anode with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Junhua; Cao, Guoqin; Zhang, Shilin; Zhang, Peng; Liang, Changhao; Wang, Zhuo; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-03-01

    Different configurations of Sn and C films were deposited and used as a planar anode for Li ion battery. The interplay of carbon layer with Sn as supporting and buffering, respectively, was revealed. The suppression on the allotropic transformation to α phase by a carbon layer results in a significantly improved capacity retention rate, which also avoids the crack of Sn film. As expected, a conductive carbon layer improves rating performance. However, a supporting carbon layer (SC) just contributes to the charge transfer process. A DFT approach was used to assess the allotropic transformation process. An additional barrier (∼0.86 eV) exits on the α-β diagram, which is responsible for the irreversibility of α phase back to β phase. An enhanced persistence of β phase in Sn/C anode contributes to cycling performance. A Li rich condition contributes to the stabilization of β-Sn, which is thermodynamically favored. A nano buffering carbon (BC) layer can evidently alleviate the side reaction on Sn surface, which in turn promotes the diffusion of Li ions in electrode and generates a Li rich condition. The direct contact of Sn with electrolyte leads to serious accumulation of α-Sn during cycling and results in a poor cycling performance. By the synergistic effect of BC and SC, a sandwich C/Sn/C structure demonstrates an enchantment in electrochemical behavior.

  4. Novel zero voltage transition pulse width modulation flyback converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Ehsan; Farzanehfard, Hosein

    2010-09-01

    In this article, a new zero voltage (ZV) transition flyback converter is introduced which uses a simple auxiliary circuit. In this converter, ZV switching condition is achieved for the converter switch while zero current switching condition is attained for the auxiliary switch. There is no additional voltage and current stress on the main switch. Main diode, auxiliary circuit voltage and current ratings are low. The proposed converter is analysed and design procedure is discussed. The presented experimental results of a prototype converter justify the theoretical analysis.

  5. Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillaume, N.; Puyoo, E., E-mail: etienne.puyoo@insa-lyon.fr; Le Berre, M.; Albertini, D.; Baboux, N.; Chevalier, C.; Ayadi, K.; Grégoire, J.; Gautier, B.; Calmon, F. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Université de Lyon, INL UMR 5270, CNRS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69621 (France)

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the properties and characteristics of planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions, which consist of transverse TiO{sub x} lines drawn on Ti test patterns. Junctions are elaborated by means of local anodic oxidation using atomic force microscopy. An irreversible morphological transformation occurring in a reproducible manner is observed when these planar junctions are electrically stressed under ambient atmosphere. Structural and chemical analyses based on transmission electron microscopy techniques reveal the extension of the initial amorphous TiO{sub x} into a crystalline rutile phase. This irreversible transformation is proven to vanish completely if the electrical stress occurs under vacuum atmosphere. Finally, we carry out temperature dependent electrical measurements in order to elucidate their conduction mechanism: Schottky emission above an ultra-low potential barrier is assumed to dominate under vacuum atmosphere whereas ionic conduction seems to prevail in air.

  6. Study of planar defects associated to martensite transformation in copper alloys by transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condo, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this work the planar faults in non-compact planes (non-basal faults) in the 2H and 18R martensitic phases in Cu-Zn-Al alloys are analyzed. The study was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combining the two-beam condition technique, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and computer simulated images. The displacement vectors of the faults were determined. It was found that these vectors were different from those of the basal faults, even though the faults are connected. One single class of non-basal faults, named F 1 , was observed in the 2H phase, whereas two different classes were found in the 18R phase, named F o and F x . In the latter phase non-basal faults made up of different segments of F o and F x faults were observed (composed faults). The Burgers vectors of the partial dislocations at the edges of the non-basal faults were determined in both phases. Additionally, the Burgers vectors of the intermediate dislocations found between the different segments of the composed faults in the 18R phase were determined. It was verified that there exist two types of dislocations with Burgers vectors that differ in approximately 1/3 [100]. It was found that the presence of a particular dislocation type depends on the arrangement between the non-basal fault and the basal fault that originates the dislocation. The internal structure of the non-basal faults in the 18R phase was studied with HRTEM. It was observed that the shift of the crystal planes due to the presence of the faults occurs in a region of a finite extension of about 1.5 nm. It was also observed that in this region the crystal planes appear rotated and lose the characteristic corrugation they have in the 18R structure. As a consequence of this, new translation vectors appear in the defect; this fact could be reflected in new plastic deformation systems. The rotation of the crystal planes in the non-basal faulted area of the 18R phase was compared with the rotation

  7. The Analysis and Comparison of Leakage Inductance in Different Winding Arrangements for Planar Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    The coupling of the windings can be easily increased by using multiply stacked planar windings connection. Interleaving is a well-known technique used to reduce leakage inductance and minimize high-frequency winding losses. The paper aims to analyze leakage inductance based on magneto motive force...

  8. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  9. Noise Reduction planar bone imaging nuclear medicine with the use of wavelet transform: an assessment of its quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas Cardoso, Maria del Carmen; Perez Diaz, Marlen; Casas Cardoso, Gladis; Lorenzo Ginori, Juan; Paz Viera, Juan Enrique; Roque Diaz, Reinaldo; Cardenas Barreras, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging of Nuclear Medicine (MN), is highly used in Oncology, as it constitutes a noninvasive technique that allows early detection of tumors and assessment of therapeutic response of patients under treatment. However, particularly planar scintigraphy images, can be prone to problems of detectability of small lesions, because they are contaminated with noise, a phenomenon which is accentuated by the inability to increase the dose of the radiopharmaceutical or time acquisition of images of the patient over 'certain levels'. The aim of this work is to improve the detectability of tumors of bone. We describe an algorithm for random noise reduction using the wavelet transform (TW). The quality of the resulting images are evaluated through quantitative metrics such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), the Mean Square Error (NMSEA) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM). It also includes a subjective assessment of image quality by expert criteria, using a variant of the methodology FROC (Free-Response ROC). It was found that some of the filters designed in the wavelet domain, significantly improve the quality of planar bone imaging in terms of increased signal to noise ratio without implying notable structural distortions, which facilitates clinical diagnosis. (author)

  10. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The quest for higher power density has led to research of very high frequency (30-300 MHz) power converters. Magnetic components based on ferrite cores have limited application within this frequency range due to increased core loss. Air-core magnetics is a viable alternative as they do not exhibit...... core loss. The drawback of most air-core magnetics is that the magnetic field is not contained within a closed shape, and it is thus prone to cause electro magnetic interference. A toroidal air-core inductor configuration can be used to contain the magnetic field. This work presents a novel air......-core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...

  11. A high efficient integrated planar transformer for primary-parallel isolated boost converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2010-01-01

    for a fuel cell fed battery charger application with 50–110 V input and 65–105 V output. Input inductors are coupled for current sharing, eliminating the use of current sharing transformers. An efficiency of 94% is achieved during nominal operating condition where the input is 70-V and the output is 84-V....

  12. Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers based on synthesized planar Bragg grating fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Chaotan; Gates, J C; Holmes, C; Mennea, P L; Zervas, M N; Smith, P G R

    2013-09-01

    Terahertz bandwidth photonic Hilbert transformers are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The integrated device is fabricated via a direct UV grating writing technique in a silica-on-silicon platform. The photonic Hilbert transformer operates at bandwidths of up to 2 THz (~16 nm) in the telecom band, a 10-fold greater bandwidth than any previously reported experimental approaches. Achieving this performance requires detailed knowledge of the system transfer function of the direct UV grating writing technique; this allows improved linearity and yields terahertz bandwidth Bragg gratings with improved spectral quality. By incorporating a flat-top reflector and Hilbert grating with a waveguide coupler, an ultrawideband all-optical single-sideband filter is demonstrated.

  13. Launching and controlling Gaussian beams from point sources via planar transformation media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Hayrettin; Sainath, Kamalesh; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2018-02-01

    Based on operations prescribed under the paradigm of complex transformation optics (CTO) [F. Teixeira and W. Chew, J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 13, 665 (1999), 10.1163/156939399X01104; F. L. Teixeira and W. C. Chew, Int. J. Numer. Model. 13, 441 (2000), 10.1002/1099-1204(200009/10)13:5%3C441::AID-JNM376%3E3.0.CO;2-J; H. Odabasi, F. L. Teixeira, and W. C. Chew, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28, 1317 (2011), 10.1364/JOSAB.28.001317; B.-I. Popa and S. A. Cummer, Phys. Rev. A 84, 063837 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.063837], it was recently shown in [G. Castaldi, S. Savoia, V. Galdi, A. Alù, and N. Engheta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173901 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.173901] that a complex source point (CSP) can be mimicked by parity-time (PT ) transformation media. Such coordinate transformation has a mirror symmetry for the imaginary part, and results in a balanced loss/gain metamaterial slab. A CSP produces a Gaussian beam and, consequently, a point source placed at the center of such a metamaterial slab produces a Gaussian beam propagating away from the slab. Here, we extend the CTO analysis to nonsymmetric complex coordinate transformations as put forth in [S. Savoia, G. Castaldi, and V. Galdi, J. Opt. 18, 044027 (2016), 10.1088/2040-8978/18/4/044027] and verify that, by using simply a (homogeneous) doubly anisotropic gain-media metamaterial slab, one can still mimic a CSP and produce Gaussian beam. In addition, we show that a Gaussian-like beams can be produced by point sources placed outside the slab as well. By making use of the extra degrees of freedom (the real and imaginary parts of the coordinate transformation) provided by CTO, the near-zero requirement on the real part of the resulting constitutive parameters can be relaxed to facilitate potential realization of Gaussian-like beams. We illustrate how beam properties such as peak amplitude and waist location can be controlled by a proper choice of (complex-valued) CTO Jacobian elements. In particular, the beam waist

  14. Optimization of Bi-Directional Flyback Converter for a High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Zhang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization technique for a flyback converter with a bidirectional energy transfer. The main goal is to optimize the converter for driving an incremental dielectric electro active polymer actuator, which must be charged and discharged from 0 V to 2500 V DC, supplied from...

  15. Battery powered high output voltage bidirectional flyback converter for cylindrical DEAP actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lina; Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    operating principle for both energy transfer process and energy recovery process is analyzed in detail. In order to verify the analysis, critical simulation results are provided. So far, a unidirectional flyback converter, which can realize the energy transfer process, has been implemented in the lab...

  16. Flyback CCM inverter for AC module applications: iterative learning control and convergence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Minsung

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an iterative learning controller (ILC) for an interleaved flyback inverter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). The flyback CCM inverter features small output ripple current, high efficiency, and low cost, and hence it is well suited for photovoltaic power applications. However, it exhibits the non-minimum phase behaviour, because its transfer function from control duty to output current has the right-half-plane (RHP) zero. Moreover, the flyback CCM inverter suffers from the time-varying grid voltage disturbance. Thus, conventional control scheme results in inaccurate output tracking. To overcome these problems, the ILC is first developed and applied to the flyback inverter operating in CCM. The ILC makes use of both predictive and current learning terms which help the system output to converge to the reference trajectory. We take into account the nonlinear averaged model and use it to construct the proposed controller. It is proven that the system output globally converges to the reference trajectory in the absence of state disturbances, output noises, or initial state errors. Numerical simulations are performed to validate the proposed control scheme, and experiments using 400-W AC module prototype are carried out to demonstrate its practical feasibility.

  17. Analysis of Fixed Duty Cycle Hysteretic Flyback Converter for Firing Set Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Thomas Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes several performance aspects of the fixed-duty-cycle, hysteretic flyback converter topology typically used in firing sets. Topologies with and without active pulse-by-pulse current limiting are considered, and closed-form expressions in terms of basic operating parameters are derived.

  18. AC-DC PFC Converter Using Combination of Flyback Converter and Full-bridge DC-DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Zaenal Efendi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a combination of power factor correction converter using Flyback converter and Full-bridge dc-dc converter in series connection. Flyback converter is operated in discontinuous conduction mode so that it can serve as a power factor correction converter and meanwhile Full-bridge dc-dc converter is used for dc regulator. This converter system is designed to produce a 86 Volt of output voltage and 2 A of output current. Both simulation and experiment results show that the power factor of this converter achieves up to 0.99 and meets harmonic standard of IEC61000-3-2. Keywords: Flyback Converter, Full-bridge DC-DC Converter, Power Factor Correction.

  19. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...... in a number of applications. In this paper, the discharging energy efficiency definition is introduced. The proposed converter has been experimentally tested with the film capacitive load and the DEAP actuator, and the experimental results are shown together with the efficiency measurements....

  20. Calculation and Verification of a Planar Pencil Beam Kernel Through the Hankel Transform of Measured OARs for a Radiosurgery System with Cones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Verdesoto, Milton X.; Alvarez Romero, Jose T.

    2010-01-01

    A planar multienergetic pencil beam kernel with rotational symmetry is calculated for a stereotactic radiosurgery system, SRS, BrainLAB with cones, employing the deconvolution method of the off axis ratio profile, OAR, corresponding to the cone of 35 mm in diameter for a 6 MV photon beam produced by a linear accelerator Varian 2100 C/D. Before the deconvolution, the experimental OAR is corrected for beam divergence and variations of the spectral fluence Φ, using a boundary function BF. The function BF and the fluence Φ are transformed to the conjugate space with the zero order Hankel function, which is the appropriate transform due to the radial symmetry of the circular beams generated by the cones. The kernel in the conjugate space is obtained as the ratio of the transform of BF to the transform of Φ, therefore the kernel in the real space is calculated as the inverse transform of the kernel in the conjugate space. To validate the kernel in the real space, it is convolved with the fluence of the cones of 7.5, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 30 and 35 mm in diameter. The comparison of the OARs calculated and measured shows a maximum difference of 4.5% in the zones of high gradient of dose, and a difference less than 2% in the regions of low gradient of dose. Finally, the expanded uncertainty of the kernel is estimated and reported.

  1. A high efficiency photovoltaic module integrated converter with the asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeje; Kim, Jongrak; Shin, Dongsul [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); Kim, Hosung; Lee, Kyungjun [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Jangjeon, Geumjeong, Busan 609-735 (Korea); New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea); Kim, Jonghyun; Yoo, Dongwook [New and Renewable Energy System Research Center, Korea Electro-technology Research Institute, 28-1, Sungju-dong Changwon-si, Kyungsannam-do, 641-120 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    A module integrated converter (MIC) for a photovoltaic (PV) cell is important part of power conditioning system (PCS). It performs maximum power point tracking of a PV cell to generate the power as much as possible from solar energy. There are several methods for connection between the PV modules and the MICs. In order to avoid partial shading effects, converter-per-module approach was proposed. The MIC that performs maximum power point tracking (MPPT), if it is low efficiency, is no use. The MIC whose output is connected to the output of PV module was proposed for high efficiency. However, there are some problems. In this study, an asymmetrical half-bridge flyback converter is proposed instead of the original flyback converter with same method to solve the problems. The proposed MIC was built to verify the performance. The new topology using soft switching technique showed good performance for the efficiency. At the higher power, the efficiency of the proposed converter is higher than existing converter. (author)

  2. Dimensional Control and Morphological Transformations of Supramolecular Polymeric Nanofibers Based on Cofacially-Stacked Planar Amphiphilic Platinum(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew E; Nazemi, Ali; Lunn, David J; Hayward, Dominic W; Boott, Charlotte E; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Harniman, Robert L; Davis, Sean A; Whittell, George R; Richardson, Robert M; De Cola, Luisa; Manners, Ian

    2017-09-26

    Square-planar platinum(II) complexes often stack cofacially to yield supramolecular fiber-like structures with interesting photophysical properties. However, control over fiber dimensions and the resulting colloidal stability is limited. We report the self-assembly of amphiphilic Pt(II) complexes with solubilizing ancillary ligands based on polyethylene glycol [PEG n , where n = 16, 12, 7]. The complex with the longest solubilizing PEG ligand, Pt-PEG 16 , self-assembled to form polydisperse one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers (diameters fibers of length up to ca. 400 nm. The fiber lengths were dependent on the Pt-PEG 16 complex to seed mass ratio in a manner analogous to a living covalent polymerization of molecular monomers. Moreover, the fiber lengths were unchanged in solution after 1 week and were therefore "static" with respect to interfiber exchange processes on this time scale. In contrast, similarly formed near-uniform fibers of Pt-PEG 12 exhibited dynamic behavior that led to broadening of the length distribution within 48 h. After aging for 4 weeks in solution, Pt-PEG 12 fibers partially evolved into 2D platelets. Furthermore, self-assembly of Pt-PEG 7 yielded only transient fibers which rapidly evolved into 2D platelets. On addition of further fiber-forming Pt complex (Pt-PEG 16 ), the platelets formed assemblies via the growth of fibers selectively from their short edges. Our studies demonstrate that when interfiber dynamic exchange is suppressed, dimensional control and hierarchical structure formation are possible for supramolecular polymers through the use of kinetically controlled seeded growth methods.

  3. Design and performance study of a DC-DC flyback converter based on wide bandgap power devices for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Salah S.; Alharbi, Saleh S.; Al-bayati, Ali M. S.; Matin, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a high-performance dc-dc flyback converter design based on wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices for photovoltaic (PV) applications. Two different power devices, a gallium nitride (GaN)-transistor and a silicon (Si)-MOSFET, are implemented individually in the flyback converter to examine their impact on converter performance. The total power loss of the converter with different power devices is analyzed for various switching frequencies. Converter efficiency is evaluated at different switching frequencies, input voltages, and output power levels. The results reveal that the converter with the GaN-transistor has lower total power loss and better efficiency compared to the converter with the conventional Si-MOSFET.

  4. Planar metasurface retroreflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Metasurfaces are two-dimensional arrangements of subwavelength scatterers that control the propagation of optical waves. Here, we show that cascaded metasurfaces, each performing a predefined mathematical transformation, provide a new optical design framework that enables new functionalities not yet demonstrated with single metasurfaces. Specifically, we demonstrate that retroreflection can be achieved with two vertically stacked planar metasurfaces, the first performing a spatial Fourier transform and its inverse, and the second imparting a spatially varying momentum to the Fourier transform of the incident light. Using this concept, we fabricate and test a planar monolithic near-infrared retroreflector composed of two layers of silicon nanoposts, which reflects light along its incident direction with a normal incidence efficiency of 78% and a large half-power field of view of 60°. The metasurface retroreflector demonstrates the potential of cascaded metasurfaces for implementing novel high-performance components, and enables low-power and low-weight passive optical transmitters.

  5. Variations on the planar Landau problem: canonical transformations, a purely linear potential and the half-plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govaerts, Jan; Hounkonnou, M Norbert; Mweene, Habatwa V

    2009-01-01

    The ordinary Landau problem of a charged particle in a plane subjected to a perpendicular homogeneous and static magnetic field is reconsidered from different points of view. The role of phase space canonical transformations and their relation to a choice of gauge in the solution of the problem is addressed. The Landau problem is then extended to different contexts, in particular the singular situation of a purely linear potential term being added as an interaction, for which a complete purely algebraic solution is presented. This solution is then exploited to solve this same singular Landau problem in the half-plane, with as motivation the potential relevance of such a geometry for quantum Hall measurements in the presence of an electric field or a gravitational quantum well.

  6. Restoring in-phase emissions from non-planar radiating elements using a transformation optics based lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Lustrac, André de; Piau, Gérard-Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The broadband directive in-phase emission from an array of sources conformed cylindrically is numerically and experimentally reported. Such manipulation is achieved through the use of a lens designed by transformation optics concept. The all-dielectric lens prototype is realized through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing and presents a graded refractive index. A microstrip antenna array fabricated using standard lithography techniques and conformed on a cylindrical surface is used as TE-polarized wave launcher for the lens. To experimentally demonstrate the broadband focusing properties and in-phase directive emissions, both the far-field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions have been measured. Experimental measurements agreeing qualitatively with numerical simulations validate the proposed lens and open the way to inexpensive all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation

  7. Restoring in-phase emissions from non-planar radiating elements using a transformation optics based lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jianjia [IEF, CNRS, UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Burokur, Shah Nawaz, E-mail: shah-nawaz.burokur@u-psud.fr; Lustrac, André de [IEF, CNRS, UMR 8622, Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Université Paris-Ouest, 92410 Ville d' Avray (France); Piau, Gérard-Pascal [AIRBUS Group Innovations, 92150 Suresnes (France)

    2015-07-13

    The broadband directive in-phase emission from an array of sources conformed cylindrically is numerically and experimentally reported. Such manipulation is achieved through the use of a lens designed by transformation optics concept. The all-dielectric lens prototype is realized through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing and presents a graded refractive index. A microstrip antenna array fabricated using standard lithography techniques and conformed on a cylindrical surface is used as TE-polarized wave launcher for the lens. To experimentally demonstrate the broadband focusing properties and in-phase directive emissions, both the far-field radiation patterns and the near-field distributions have been measured. Experimental measurements agreeing qualitatively with numerical simulations validate the proposed lens and open the way to inexpensive all-dielectric microwave lenses for beam forming and collimation.

  8. Variations on the planar Landau problem: canonical transformations, a purely linear potential and the half-plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, Jan [Center for Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite catholique de Louvain (UCL), 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium); Hounkonnou, M Norbert [International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), University of Abomey-Calavi, 072 BP 50, Cotonou (Benin); Mweene, Habatwa V [Physics Department, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka (Zambia)], E-mail: Jan.Govaerts@uclouvain.be, E-mail: hounkonnou@yahoo.fr, E-mail: norbert.hounkonnou@cipma.uac.bj, E-mail: habatwamweene@yahoo.com, E-mail: hmweene@unza.zm

    2009-12-04

    The ordinary Landau problem of a charged particle in a plane subjected to a perpendicular homogeneous and static magnetic field is reconsidered from different points of view. The role of phase space canonical transformations and their relation to a choice of gauge in the solution of the problem is addressed. The Landau problem is then extended to different contexts, in particular the singular situation of a purely linear potential term being added as an interaction, for which a complete purely algebraic solution is presented. This solution is then exploited to solve this same singular Landau problem in the half-plane, with as motivation the potential relevance of such a geometry for quantum Hall measurements in the presence of an electric field or a gravitational quantum well.

  9. Booster Main Engine Selection Criteria for the Liquid Fly-Back Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Rothschild, William J.; Christensen, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Fly-Back Booster (LFBB) Program seeks to enhance the Space Shuttle system safety performance and economy of operations through the use of an advanced, liquid propellant Booster Main Engine (BME). There are several viable BME candidates that could be suitable for this application. The objective of this study was to identify the key criteria to be applied in selecting among these BME candidates. This study involved an assessment of influences on the overall LFBB utility due to variations in the candidate rocket engines' characteristics. This includes BME impacts on vehicle system weight, perfortnance,design approaches, abort modes, margins of safety, engine-out operations, and maintenance and support concepts. Systems engineering analyses and trade studies were performed to identify the LFBB system level sensitivities to a wide variety of BME related parameters. This presentation summarizes these trade studies and the resulting findings of the LFBB design teams regarding the BME characteristics that most significantly affect the LFBB system. The resulting BME choice should offer the best combination of reliability, performance, reusability, robustness, cost, and risk for the LFBB program.

  10. Digital Control of a High Voltage (2.5 kV) Bidirectional Flyback DC-DC Converter for Driving a Capacitive Incremental Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Maksimovic, Dragan; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a digital control technique to achieve valley switching in a bidirectional flyback converter used to drive a dielectric electro-active polymer based capacitive incremental actuator. The paper also provides the design of a low input voltage (24 V) and variable high output voltage...... on the output high-voltage (HV) side. Experimental results verifying the bidirectional operation of a high voltage flyback converter are presented, using a 3 kV polypropylene film capacitor as the load. The energy loss distributions of the converter when 4 kV and 4.5 kV HV MOSFETs are used on HV side...

  11. Project of Ariane 5 LV family advancement by use of reusable fly-back boosters (named “Bargouzine”)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, Yu.; Bonnal, Ch.; Kostromin, S.; Panichkin, N.

    2007-12-01

    The paper concerns possible concept variants of a partially reusable Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle derived from the advanced basic launcher (Ariane-2010) by means of substitution of the EAP Solid Rocket Boosters for a Reusable Starting Stage consisting two Liquid-propellant Reusable Fly-Back Boosters called "Bargouzin". This paper describes the status of the presently studied RFBB concepts during its three phases. The first project phase was dedicated to feasibility expertise of liquid-rocket reusable fly-back boosters ("Baikal" type) utilization for heavy-lift space launch vehicle. The design features and main conclusions are presented. The second phase has been performed with the purpose of selection of preferable concept among the alternative ones for the future Ariane LV modernization by using RFBB instead of EAP Boosters. The main requirements, logic of work, possible configuration and conclusion are presented. Initial aerodynamic, ballistic, thermoloading, dynamic loading, trade-off and comparison analysis have been performed on these concepts. The third phase consists in performing a more detailed expertise of the chosen LV concept. This part summarizes some of the more detailed results related to flight performance, system mass, thermoprotection system, aspects of technologies, ground complex modification, comparison analyses and conclusion.

  12. Effects of switching frequency and leakage inductance on slow-scale stability in a voltage controlled flyback converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fa-Qiang; Ma Xi-Kui

    2013-01-01

    The effects of both the switching frequency and the leakage inductance on the slow-scale stability in a voltage controlled flyback converter are investigated in this paper. Firstly, the system description and its mathematical model are presented. Then, the improved averaged model, which covers both the switching frequency and the leakage inductance, is established, and the effects of these two parameters on the slow-scale stability in the system are analyzed. It is found that the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation in the system is the main reason for losing its slow-scale stability and both the switching frequency and the leakage inductance have an important effect on this slow-scale stability. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved averaged model and that of the corresponding theoretical analysis are confirmed by the simulation results and the experimental results. (general)

  13. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  14. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  15. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  16. Sewer Networks Optimization by Particle Swarm Optimization with Abilities of Fly-Back Mechanism and Harmony Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محسن نفیسی

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of an efficient sewer network in urban areas threatens public health and may give rise to contagious diseases. Various optimization methods have been developed for use in designing sewers networks in response to a number of requirements such as the high costs of constructing sewer networks, financial limitations, the presence of both discrete and continuous decision variables, and the nonlinear time complexity of such design problems. In this study, the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO with the capability of “fly-back” mechanism equipped with the harmony search (HPSO is used for the optimization of sewers network designs. The objective function consists of minimizing the excavation and embedding costs of commercial pipes. The fly-back mechanism and the harmony memory method are used to prevent leaving out variables from the feasible space of the problem in an attempt to enhance model efficiency. Model constraints are satisfied at two levels, which leads to the desirable convergence of the PSO algorithm as compared to the conventional penalty methods in alternative evolutionary algorithms. In order to determine the admissible decision variables, the Manning equation is used as a hydraulic model. The performance of the proposed algorithm is shown by presenting two examples of sewer networks. Compared to the PSO algorithm used in sewer network optimization models, the proposed model exhibits a tangible improvement in cost reduction and a higher computational stability.

  17. A kinetic theory for nonanalog Monte Carlo particle transport algorithms: Exponential transform with angular biasing in planar-geometry anisotropically scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, T.; Larsen, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors show that Monte Carlo simulations of neutral particle transport in planargeometry anisotropically scattering media, using the exponential transform with angular biasing as a variance reduction device, are governed by a new Boltzman Monte Carlo (BMC) equation, which includes particle weight as an extra independent variable. The weight moments of the solution of the BMC equation determine the moments of the score and the mean number of collisions per history in the nonanalog Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, the solution of the BMC equation predicts the variance of the score and the figure of merit in the simulation. Also, by (1) using an angular biasing function that is closely related to the ''asymptotic'' solution of the linear Boltzman equation and (2) requiring isotropic weight changes as collisions, they derive a new angular biasing scheme. Using the BMC equation, they propose a universal ''safe'' upper limit of the transform parameter, valid for any type of exponential transform. In numerical calculations, they demonstrate that the behavior of the Monte Carlo simulations and the performance predicted by deterministically solving the BMC equation agree well, and that the new angular biasing scheme is always advantageous

  18. Estimation of Transformer Parameters and Loss Analysis for High Voltage Capacitor Charging Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Schneider, Henrik; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    In a bi-directional DC-DC converter for capacitive charging application, the losses associated with the transformer makes it a critical component. In order to calculate the transformer losses, its parameters such as AC resistance, leakage inductance and self capacitance of the high voltage (HV......) winding has to be estimated accurately. This paper analyzes the following losses of bi-directional flyback converter namely switching loss, conduction loss, gate drive loss, transformer core loss, and snubber loss, etc. Iterative analysis of transformer parameters viz., AC resistance, leakage inductance...

  19. Morphing Planar Graph Drawings with a Polynomial Number of Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamdari, Soroush; Angelini, Patrizio; Chan, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1944, Cairns proved the following theorem: given any two straight-line planar drawings of a triangulation with the same outer face, there exists a morph (i.e., a continuous transformation) between the two drawings so that the drawing remains straight-line planar at all times. Cairns’s original...

  20. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits

  1. Helical-axis stellarators with noninterlocking planar coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, A.; Boozer, A.

    1983-08-01

    The properties of helical axis stellarator fields generated by unlinked, planar coils are described. It is shown that such fields can have a magnetic well and large rotational transform, implying large equilibrium and stability beta limits.

  2. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  3. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  4. Şebekeye Bağlı Fotovoltaik Sistemler İçin Flyback Mikro-evirici Tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Zengin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kesikli iletim kipinde çalışan flyback mikro-eviriciler açık çevrim kontrol edilebilmeleri ve akım algılayıcısı olmadan çalışabilmeleri nedeniyle oldukça ilgi görmektedirler. Bu makalede flyback dönüştürücü tabanlı şebekeye bağlı bir fotovoltaik mikro-eviricinin çalışma karakteristikleri incelenmiş ve tasarım detayları verilmiştir. Maksimum güç noktası izleme için “değiştir ve gözle” algoritması kullanılmıştır. 80 Wp gücünde bir prototip mikro-eviricinin tasarımı yapılmış ve üretilmiştir. Maksimum güç noktası izleme, adalama koruması, seri haberleşme, güç kontrolü gibi eviricinin bütün kontrolleri PIC24FJ64GA002 mikrodenetleyicisi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Mikro-eviriciden alınan ölçümlerin tasarım değerleriyle uyumlu olduğu görülmüştür. Tasarlanan eviricinin maksimum verimi %80 olarak ölçülmüş ve oluşan kayıpların nedenleri irdelenmiştir.

  5. Analysis of Planar E+I and ER+I Transformers for Low-Voltage High-Current DC/DC Converters with Focus on Winding Losses and Leakage Inductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2012-01-01

    on winding resistance and leakage inductances which represent the main concerns related to low-voltage high-current applications. The PCB winding design has a one to one turn ratio with no interleaving between primary and secondary windings. The main goal was to determine if ER planar core could provide...... a significant advantage in terms of winding losses compared to planar E cores. Results from finite element analysis highlight that low frequency winding resistance is lower for the ER core since it is dominated by the lower mean turn length however, as the AC-resistance becomes dominating the winding eddy...... more realistic results when computing the winding AC-resistance....

  6. Planar graphical models which are easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chernyak, Vladimir [WAYNE STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a rich family of binary variables statistical mechanics models on planar graphs which are equivalent to Gaussian Grassmann Graphical models (free fermions). Calculation of partition function (weighted counting) in the models is easy (of polynomial complexity) as reduced to evaluation of determinants of matrixes linear in the number of variables. In particular, this family of models covers Holographic Algorithms of Valiant and extends on the Gauge Transformations discussed in our previous works.

  7. Beyond level planarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelini, P.; Da Lozzo, G.; Di Battista, G.; Frati, F.; Patrignani, M.; Rutter, I.; Hu, Y.; Nöllenburg, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we settle the computational complexity of two open problems related to the extension of the notion of level planarity to surfaces different from the plane. Namely, we show that the problems of testing the existence of a level embedding of a level graph on the surface of the rolling

  8. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  9. How to draw a planarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläsius, T.; Radermacher, M.; Rutter, I.; Steffen, B.; Baier, C.; van den Brand, M.; Eder, J.; Hinchey, M.; Margaria, T.

    2017-01-01

    We study the problem of computing straight-line drawings of non-planar graphs with few crossings. We assume that a crossing-minimization algorithm is applied first, yielding a planarization, i.e., a planar graph with a dummy vertex for each crossing, that fixes the topology of the resulting drawing.

  10. Routed planar networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Aldous

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.

  11. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  12. Planar Dirac diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)

  13. Simplifying massive planar subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Truelsen, Jakob; Yang, Jungwoo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first I/O- and practically-efficient algorithm for simplifying a planar subdivision, such that no point is moved more than a given distance εxy and such that neighbor relations between faces (homotopy) are preserved. Under some practically realistic assumptions, our algorithm uses ....... For example, for the contour map simplification problem it is significantly faster than the previous algorithm, while obtaining approximately the same simplification factor. Read More: http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/1.9781611973198.3...

  14. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d......In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  15. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R

    2003-09-30

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  16. Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.

    2003-01-01

    The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)

  17. Design of special planar linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei

    2013-01-01

    Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach

  18. Planar elliptic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.

  19. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko

    We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....

  20. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  1. Contracting a planar graph efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar...

  2. Belief propagation and loop series on planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, Michael; Teodorescu, Razvan; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a generic model of Bayesian inference with binary variables defined on edges of a planar graph. The Loop Calculus approach of Chertkov and Chernyak (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 065102(R) [cond-mat/0601487]; 2006 J. Stat. Mech. P06009 [cond-mat/0603189]) is used to evaluate the resulting series expansion for the partition function. We show that, for planar graphs, truncating the series at single-connected loops reduces, via a map reminiscent of the Fisher transformation (Fisher 1961 Phys. Rev. 124 1664), to evaluating the partition function of the dimer-matching model on an auxiliary planar graph. Thus, the truncated series can be easily re-summed, using the Pfaffian formula of Kasteleyn (1961 Physics 27 1209). This allows us to identify a big class of computationally tractable planar models reducible to a dimer model via the Belief Propagation (gauge) transformation. The Pfaffian representation can also be extended to the full Loop Series, in which case the expansion becomes a sum of Pfaffian contributions, each associated with dimer matchings on an extension to a subgraph of the original graph. Algorithmic consequences of the Pfaffian representation, as well as relations to quantum and non-planar models, are discussed

  3. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  4. Planar graphs theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizeki, T

    1988-01-01

    Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.

  5. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Application of holographic elements in displays and planar illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putilin, Andrew; Gustomiasov, Igor

    2007-05-01

    Holographic Optical Elements (HOE's) on planar waveguides can be used to design the planar optics for backlit units, color selectors or filters, lenses for virtual reality displays. The several schemes for HOE recording are proposed to obtain planar stereo backlit unit and private eye displays light source. It is shown in the paper that the specific light transformation grating permits to construct efficient backlit units for display holograms and LCD. Several schemes of reflection/transmission backlit units and scattering films based on holographic optical elements are also proposed. The performance of the waveguide HOE can be optimized using the parameters of recording scheme and etching parameters. The schemes of HOE application are discussed and some experimental results are shown.

  7. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  8. The planar cubic Cayley graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulos, Agelos

    2018-01-01

    The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.

  9. Development of a Planar Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyhim, Alex; Johnson, Eric; Kulesza, Joe; Lyndaker, Aaron; Waterman, Dave; Eisert, Dave; Green, Michael A.; Rogers, Greg; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar

    2007-01-01

    The design of a planar pure permanent magnet undulator is presented. The design requirements and mechanical difficulties for holding, positioning, and driving the magnetic arrays are explored. The structural, thermal, and electrical considerations that influenced the design are then analyzed. And finally detailed magnetic measurements are presented

  10. Casimir stress inside planar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griniasty, Itay; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2017-09-01

    The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies is well understood, but not the Casimir force inside bodies. Guided by a physically intuitive picture, we develop the macroscopic theory of the renormalized Casimir stress inside planar materials (where the electromagnetic properties vary in one direction). Our theory may be applied in predicting how inhomogeneous fluids respond to Casimir forces.

  11. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  12. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo

    1999-01-01

    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  13. Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.

  14. Planar-Processed Polymer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sun, Huabin; Shin, Eul-Yong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-10-01

    Planar-processed polymer transistors are proposed where the effective charge injection and the split unipolar charge transport are all on the top surface of the polymer film, showing ideal device characteristics with unparalleled performance. This technique provides a great solution to the problem of fabrication limitations, the ambiguous operating principle, and the performance improvements in practical applications of conjugated-polymer transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Automated curved planar reformation of 3D spine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques for visualizing anatomical structures are based on planar cross-sections from volume images, such as images obtained by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, planar cross-sections taken in the coordinate system of the 3D image often do not provide sufficient or qualitative enough diagnostic information, because planar cross-sections cannot follow curved anatomical structures (e.g. arteries, colon, spine, etc). Therefore, not all of the important details can be shown simultaneously in any planar cross-section. To overcome this problem, reformatted images in the coordinate system of the inspected structure must be created. This operation is usually referred to as curved planar reformation (CPR). In this paper we propose an automated method for CPR of 3D spine images, which is based on the image transformation from the standard image-based to a novel spine-based coordinate system. The axes of the proposed spine-based coordinate system are determined on the curve that represents the vertebral column, and the rotation of the vertebrae around the spine curve, both of which are described by polynomial models. The optimal polynomial parameters are obtained in an image analysis based optimization framework. The proposed method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on five CT spine images. The method performed well on both normal and pathological cases and was consistent with manually obtained ground truth data. The proposed spine-based CPR benefits from reduced structural complexity in favour of improved feature perception of the spine. The reformatted images are diagnostically valuable and enable easier navigation, manipulation and orientation in 3D space. Moreover, reformatted images may prove useful for segmentation and other image analysis tasks

  16. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  17. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  18. Non-planar ABJ theory and parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this Letter we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance. For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account.

  19. Modeling the planar configuration of extraordinary magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ahmar, S; Pozniak, A A

    2015-01-01

    Recently the planar version of the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) magnetic field sensor has been constructed and verified in practice. Planar configuration of the EMR device gives many technological advantages, it is simpler than the classic and allows one to build the sensor using electric materials of the new type (such as graphene or topological insulators) much easier. In this work the planar configuration of the EMR sensor is investigated by performing computational simulations using the finite element method (FEM). The computational comparison of the planar and classic configurations of EMR is presented using three-dimensional models. Various variants of the geometry of EMR sensor components are pondered and compared in the planar and classic version. Size of the metal overlap is considered for sensor optimization as well as various semiconductor-metal contact resistance dependences of the EMR signal. Based on computational simulations, a method for optimal placement of electric terminals in a planar EMR device is proposed. (paper)

  20. Non-planar ABJ Theory and Parity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance......While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this letter....... For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account....

  1. Direct closed-form covariance matrix and finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Sajid

    2016-11-24

    Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.

  2. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  3. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  4. Attractive planar panelization using dynamic relaxation principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauss, Florian; Teuffel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In the presented paper a new method is proposed to approximate a given NURBS surface with a PQ (Planar Quad) mesh. The desired mesh layout will be generated in then attracted to the target surface. The process iteratively pulls the mesh vertices towards the target surface and then planarizes the

  5. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  6. Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant of R ⋊ H ⊂ R ⋊ G in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor R G ⊂ R H and the -invariant planar subalgebra ...

  7. Piecewise planar Möbius bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median...

  8. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  9. Enzymatic studies on planar supported membranes using a widefield fluorescence LAURDAN Generalized Polarization imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Jonathan R.; Thoke, Henrik Seir; Stock, Robeto

    2017-01-01

    studied structural and dynamical transformations induced by Sphingomyelinase D (SM-D) on planar supported membranes composed of N-lauroyl sphingomyelin (C12SM). GP data show the evolution of an initially compositionally homogeneous symmetric bilayer existing in a single liquid disordered phase...

  10. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power.

  11. Variability in DMSA reporting following urinary tract infection in children: pinhole, planar, and pinhole with planar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossleigh, M.A.; Christian, C.L.; Craig, J.C.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Grunewald, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the provision of DMSA images obtained by pinhole collimation reduces inter-observer variability of reporting compared with planar DMSA images alone. Methods: One hundred consecutive DMSA images were independently interpreted three times (pinhole alone, planar alone, pinhole and planar) by four participating nuclear medicine specialists from different departments and in random order. The presence or absence of renal parenchymal abnormality was classified using the modified four level grading system of Goldraich with mean values for the 6 comparisons reported. Results: The proportion of DMSA images interpreted as abnormal was 31% for planar, 34% for pinhole and 33% for planar with pinhole. Agreement was 89% for planar alone, 89% for pinhole alone and 90% for planar with pinhole, with kappa values 0.74, 0.75 and 0.80 respectively for the normal-abnormal scan classification of individual children. These results did not vary appreciably whether interpretation of patients, kidneys or kidney zones was compared. Reasons for disagreement in reporting included different interpretations of 'abnormalities' as normal anatomical variations (splenic impression, fetal lobulation, duplex collecting systems, column of Bertin) or true parenchymal abnormalities, different adjustments in thresholds for reporting abnormality when images were technically suboptimal, different weighting given to pinhole and planar images when both were provided, and error. Conclusion: Four experienced nuclear medicine physicians showed substantial agreement in the interpretation of planar alone, pinhole alone and planar with pinhole DMSA images, but the provision of both sets of images, planar and pinhole, did not reduce variability. (authors)

  12. Planar impact experiments for EOS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furnish, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The community concerned with the numerical modeling of groundshock produced by underground nuclear tests must have access to materials data to benchmark models of rock behavior. Historically the primary source of these data has been planar impact experiments. These experiments have involved gun, explosive and electrical launchers. Other methods of introducing planar shocks include shock driving by in-contact explosives or laser bursts. This paper briefly describes gun launcher-based planar impact methods used to characterize geological materials at Sandia National Laboratories

  13. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  14. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  15. Modified planar functions and their components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl

    2017-01-01

    functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...

  16. Metasurface transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mencagli, M jr; Martini, E; González-Ovejero, D; Maci, S

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics has been recently proposed as a powerful method to manipulate electromagnetic fields by using anisotropic inhomogeneous volumetric media. This method can be extended to design anisotropic modulated metasurfaces (MTSs) able to control the propagation path of surface waves. In this paper, this extension is formalized by defining a systematic procedure that can be applied to design a large number of planar devices, with a significant technological simplification with respect to the realization based on volumetric media. Practical MTS designs are also presented. (paper)

  17. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  18. Generators for finite depth subfactor planar algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main result of Kodiyalam and Tupurani [3] shows that a subfactor planar algebra of finite depth is singly generated with a finite presentation. If P is a subfactor planar algebra of depth k, it is shown there that a single 2k-box generates P. It is natural to ask what the smallest s is such that a single s-box generates P. While ...

  19. Planar half-cell shaped precursor body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a half-cell shaped precursor body of either anode type or cathode type, the half-cell shaped precursor body being prepared to be free sintered to form a sintered or pre-sintered half-cell being adapted to be stacked in a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The obtained half......-cell has an improved planar shape, which remains planar also after a sintering process and during temperature fluctuations....

  20. Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.

  1. The simple method to co-register planar image with photograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung June; Kim, Seok Ki; Kang, Keon Wook

    2005-01-01

    Generally scintigraphic image presents the highly specific functional information. Sometimes, there can be limited information of patients anatomical landmark required to identify the lesion in planar nuclear medicine image. In this study, we applied the simple fusion method of planar scintigraphy and plain photography and validated the techniques with our own software. We used three fiducial marks which were comprised with Tc-99m. We obtained planar image with single head gamma camera (ARGUS ADAC laboratory, USA) and photograph using a general digital camera (CANON JAPAN). The coordinates of three marks were obtained in photograph and planar scintigraphy image. Based on these points, we took affine transformation and then fused these two images. To evaluate the precision, we compared with different depth. To find out the depth of lesion, the images were acquired in different angles and we compared the real depth and the geometrically calculated depth. At the same depth with mark, the each discordance was less than 1 mm. When the photograph were taken at the distance with 1 m and 2 m, the point 30 cm off the center were discordant in 5 mm and 2 mm each. We used this method in the localization of the remnant thyroid tissue on I-131 whole body scan with photo image. The simple method to co-register planar image with photography was reliable and easy to use. By this method, we could localize the lesion on the planar scintigraphy more accurately with other planar images (i.e. photograph) and predict the depth of the lesion without tomographic image

  2. Characterization of printed planar electromagnetic coils using digital extrusion and roll-to-roll flexographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Scott

    Electromagnets are a crucial component in a wide range of more complex electrical devices due to their ability to turn electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. The trend for electronics becoming smaller and lighter has led to increased interest in using flat, planar electromagnetic coils, which have been shown to perform better at scaled down sizes. The two-dimensional geometry of a planar electromagnetic coil yields itself to be produced by a roll-to-roll additive manufacturing process. The emergence of the printed electronics field, which uses traditional printing processes to pattern functional inks, has led to new methods of mass-producing basic electrical components. The ability to print a planar electromagnetic coil using printed electronics could rival the traditional subtractive and semi-subtractive PCB process of manufacturing. The ability to print lightweight planar electromagnetic coils on flexible substrates could lead to their inclusion into intelligent packaging applications and could have specific use in actuating devices, transformers, and electromagnetic induction applications such as energy harvesting or wireless charging. In attempts to better understand the limitations of printing planar electromagnetic coils, the effect that the design parameters of the planar coils have on the achievable magnetic field strength were researched. A comparison between prototyping methods of digital extrusion and manufacturing scale flexographic printing are presented, discussing consistency in the printed coils and their performance in generating magnetic fields. A method to predict the performance of these planar coils is introduced to allow for design within required needs of an application. Results from the research include a demonstration of a printed coil being used in a flat speaker design, working off of actuating principles.

  3. Evanescent field refractometry in planar optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christopher; Jantzen, Alexander; Gray, Alan C; Gow, Paul C; Carpenter, Lewis G; Bannerman, Rex H S; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R

    2018-02-15

    This Letter demonstrates a refractometer in integrated optical fiber, a new optical platform that planarizes fiber using flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD). The unique advantage of the technology is survivability in harsh environments. The platform is mechanically robust, and can survive elevated temperatures approaching 1000°C and exposure to common solvents, including acetone, gasoline, and methanol. For the demonstrated refractometer, fabrication was achieved through wet etching an SMF-28 fiber to a diameter of 8 μm before FHD planarization. An external refractive index was monitored using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), written into the core of the planarized fiber. A direct comparison to alternative FBG refractometers is made, for which the developed platform is shown to have comparable sensitivity, with the added advantage of survivability in harsh environments.

  4. Technical errors in planar bone scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

    2004-09-01

    Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors.

  5. Planar quantum squeezing and atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    We obtain a lower bound on the sum of two orthogonal spin component variances in a plane. This gives a planar uncertainty relation which holds even when the Heisenberg relation is not useful. We investigate the asymptotic, large-J limit and derive the properties of the planar quantum squeezed states that saturate this uncertainty relation. These states extend the concept of spin squeezing to any two conjugate spin directions. We show that planar quantum squeezing can be achieved experimentally as the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate in two coupled potential wells with a critical attractive interaction. These states reduce interferometric phase noise at all phase angles simultaneously. This is useful for one-shot interferometric phase measurements where the measured phase is completely unknown. Our results can also be used to derive entanglement criteria for multiple spins J at separated sites, with applications in quantum information.

  6. Integrated Lloyd's mirror on planar waveguide facet as a spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Alain; Benech, Pierre; Gri, Martine

    2017-12-10

    A low-cost and simple Fourier transform spectrometer based on the Lloyd's mirror configuration is proposed in order to have a very stable interferogram. A planar waveguide coupled to a fiber injection is used to spatially disperse the optical beam. A second beam superposed to the previous one is obtained by a total reflection of the incident beam on a vertical glass face integrated in the chip by dicing with a specific circular precision saw. The interferogram at the waveguide output is imaged on a near-infrared camera with an objective lens. The contrast and the fringe period are thus dependent on the type and the fiber position and can be optimized to the pixel size and the length of the camera. Spectral resolution close to λ/Δλ=80 is reached with a camera with 320 pixels of 25 μm width in a wavelength range from O to L bands.

  7. Large linear magnetoresistivity in strongly inhomogeneous planar and layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgadaev, S.A.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2005-01-01

    Explicit expressions for magnetoresistance R of planar and layered strongly inhomogeneous two-phase systems are obtained, using exact dual transformation, connecting effective conductivities of in-plane isotropic two-phase systems with and without magnetic field. These expressions allow to describe the magnetoresistance of various inhomogeneous media at arbitrary concentrations x and magnetic fields H. All expressions show large linear magnetoresistance effect with different dependencies on the phase concentrations. The corresponding plots of the x- and H-dependencies of R(x,H) are represented for various values, respectively, of magnetic field and concentrations at some values of inhomogeneity parameter. The obtained results show a remarkable similarity with the existing experimental data on linear magnetoresistance in silver chalcogenides Ag 2+δ Se. A possible physical explanation of this similarity is proposed. It is shown that the random, stripe type, structures of inhomogeneities are the most suitable for a fabrication of magnetic sensors and a storage of information at room temperatures

  8. Low Complexity Beampattern Design in MIMO Radars Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-01-07

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative and expensive algorithms. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  9. Inkjet-based adaptive planarization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Shrawan; Grigas, Michelle M.; Khusnatdinov, Niyaz; Sreenivasan, Srinivasan V.

    2017-03-01

    Planarization is a critical unit step in the lithography process because it enables patterning of surfaces with versatile pattern density without compromising on the stringent planarity and depth-of-focus requirements. In addition to nanoscale pattern density variation, parasitics such as pre-existing wafer topography, can corrupt the desired process output after planarization. The topography of any surface can be classified in three broad categories, depending upon the amplitude and spatial wavelength of the same [1], [2]: (i) nominal shape, (ii) nanotopography and (iii) roughness. The nominal shape is given by the largest spatial wavelengths, typically back is one technique used for micron scale device manufacturing [3]. As the name implies, a glass dielectric is spin-coated on the substrate followed by etching in a chemistry that ensures equal etching rates for both the sacrificial glass and the underlying film or substrate material. Photoresists may also be used instead of glass. However, the global planarity that can be achieved by this technique is limited. Also, planarization over a large isolated topographical feature has been studied for the reverse-tone Jet-and-Flash Imprint Lithography process, also known as JFIL-R [4]. This relies on surface tension and capillary effects to smoothen a spin-coated Si containing film that can be etched to obtain a smooth profile. To meet the stringent requirement of planarity in submicron device technologies Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is the most widely used planarization technology [5], [6]. It uses a combination of abrasive laden chemical slurry and a mechanical pad for achieving planar profiles. The biggest concern with CMP is the dependence of material removal rate on the pattern density of material, leading to the formation of a step between the high density and low-density. The step shows up as a long-range thickness variation in the planarized film, similar in scale to pre-existing substrate topography

  10. Planar dynamical systems selected classical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yirong; Huang, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents in an elementary way the recent significant developments in the qualitative theory of planar dynamical systems. The subjects are covered as follows: the studies of center and isochronous center problems, multiple Hopf bifurcations and local and global bifurcations of the equivariant planar vector fields which concern with Hilbert's 16th problem. This book is intended for graduate students, post-doctors and researchers in the area of theories and applications of dynamical systems. For all engineers who are interested the theory of dynamical systems, it is also a reasona

  11. Reduction of truncation errors in planar near-field aperture antenna measurements using the method of alternating orthogonal projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martini, Enrica; Breinbjerg, Olav; Maci, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    A simple and effective procedure for the reduction of truncation error in planar near-field to far-field transformations is presented. The starting point is the consideration that the actual scan plane truncation implies a reliability of the reconstructed plane wave spectrum of the field radiated...

  12. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  13. Fundamental losses in planar Bragg waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinogradov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, A. N.; Popov, A. V.; Fedin, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a planar Bragg waveguide. The guided modes and their dissipation due to the fundamental absorption are described. In the interacting-wave approximation, an analytical relation between the characteristics of the modes and parameters of the Bragg-waveguide geometry was

  14. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  15. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  16. Planar quark diagrams and binary spin processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions of planar diagrams to the binary scattering processes are analyzed. The analysis is based on the predictions of quark-gluon picture of strong interactions for the coupling of reggeons with quarks as well as on the SU(6)-classification of hadrons. The dependence of contributions of nonplanar corrections on spins and quark composition of interacting particles is discussed

  17. Image Alignment by Piecewise Planar Region Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Robust image registration is a challenging problem, especially when dealing with severe changes in illumination and viewpoint. Previous methods assume a global geometric model (e.g., homography) and, hence, are only able to align images under predefined constraints (e.g., planar scenes and

  18. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  19. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances in polyn...

  20. A planar calculus for infinite index subfactors

    OpenAIRE

    Penneys, David

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II_1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  1. A Planar Calculus for Infinite Index Subfactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penneys, David

    2013-05-01

    We develop an analog of Jones' planar calculus for II 1-factor bimodules with arbitrary left and right von Neumann dimension. We generalize to bimodules Burns' results on rotations and extremality for infinite index subfactors. These results are obtained without Jones' basic construction and the resulting Jones projections.

  2. Connected feedback vertex set in planar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, Alexander; Sitters, René

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of finding a minimum tree spanning the faces of a given planar graph. We show that a constant factor approximation follows from the unconnected version if the minimum degree is 3. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme for both the connected and unconnected

  3. Are ghosts necessary in planar gauges?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummer, W.

    1988-01-01

    The introduction of Faddeev-Popov ghosts in axial gauges and especially in the ones of the planar type is not a technical necessity for the general proof of renormalization and gauge independence. It is shown that all necessary identities for Green's functions and for one-particle-irreducible vertices arise in a completely ghost-free formulation as well

  4. Searching for planar signatures in WMAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramo, L. Raul; Bernui, Armando; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2009-01-01

    We search for planar deviations of statistical isotropy in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data by applying a recently introduced angular-planar statistics both to full-sky and to masked temperature maps, including in our analysis the effect of the residual foreground contamination and systematics in the foreground removing process as sources of error. We confirm earlier findings that full-sky maps exhibit anomalies at the planar (l) and angular (l) scales (l,l) = (2,5),(4,7), and (6,8), which seem to be due to unremoved foregrounds since this features are present in the full-sky map but not in the masked maps. On the other hand, our test detects slightly anomalous results at the scales (l,l) = (10,8) and (2,9) in the masked maps but not in the full-sky one, indicating that the foreground cleaning procedure (used to generate the full-sky map) could not only be creating false anomalies but also hiding existing ones. We also find a significant trace of an anomaly in the full-sky map at the scale (l,l) = (10,5), which is still present when we consider galactic cuts of 18.3% and 28.4%. As regards the quadrupole (l = 2), we find a coherent over-modulation over the whole celestial sphere, for all full-sky and cut-sky maps. Overall, our results seem to indicate that current CMB maps derived from WMAP data do not show significant signs of anisotropies, as measured by our angular-planar estimator. However, we have detected a curious coherence of planar modulations at angular scales of the order of the galaxy's plane, which may be an indication of residual contaminations in the full- and cut-sky maps

  5. Reconstruction strategy for echo planar spectroscopy and its application to partially undersampled imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, L G; Schaumburg, K; Paulson, O B

    2000-01-01

    The most commonly encountered form of echo planar spectroscopy involves oscillating gradients in one spatial dimension during readout. Data are consequently not sampled on a Cartesian grid. A fast gridding algorithm applicable to this particular situation is presented. The method is optimal, i.......e., it performs as well as the full discrete Fourier transform for band limited signals while allowing for use of the fast Fourier transform. The method is demonstrated for reconstruction of data that are partially undersampled in the time domain. The advantages of undersampling are lower hardware requirements...

  6. ytterbium- & erbium-doped silica for planar waveguide lasers & amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate ytterbium doped planar components and investigate the possibilities of making erbium/ytterbium codoped planar waveguides in germano-silica glass. Furthermore, tools for modelling lasers and erbium/ytterbium doped amplifiers. The planar waveguides were...

  7. Proposal of limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masataka; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π found in wall thinned straight pipes was proposed. → An idea to rationally classify planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes was proposed. → The equation based on the experimental observation focused on the fracture mode. - Abstract: In this paper, a limit bending moment equation applicable to all types of planar and non-planar flaws in wall-thinned straight pipes under bending was proposed. A system to rationally classify the planar/non-planar flaws in wall-thinned pipes was suggested based on experimental observations focused on the fracture mode. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between axial and circumferential long flaws in wall-thinned pipes.

  8. Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmont, P; Keppens, R

    2010-01-01

    We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.

  9. Planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We think of R α G as the II1-factor (R ∪{ug: g ∈ G}) ⊂ L(L2(R)), where ug(ˆx) ..... define a global trace on P, where for 0± the trace for P0± ∼= C is the obvious identity .... function for strings is either a local maximum or a local minimum. ..... In order to understand how the inclusion tangles act on the subgroup-subfactor planar.

  10. Wavelet Radiosity on Arbitrary Planar Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Holzschuch , Nicolas; Cuny , François; Alonso , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    Colloque avec actes et comité de lecture. internationale.; International audience; Wavelet radiosity is, by its nature, restricted to parallelograms or triangles. This paper presents an innovative technique enabling wavelet radiosity computations on planar surfaces of arbitrary shape, including concave contours or contours with holes. This technique replaces the need for triangulating such complicated shapes, greatly reducing the complexity of the wavelet radiosity algorithm and the computati...

  11. Determinantal spanning forests on planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the uniform spanning tree to construct a family of determinantal measures on essential spanning forests on periodic planar graphs in which every component tree is bi-infinite. Like the uniform spanning tree, these measures arise naturally from the laplacian on the graph. More generally these results hold for the "massive" laplacian determinant which counts rooted spanning forests with weight $M$ per finite component. These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, ...

  12. Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceña, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,Mendoza (Argentina); Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique,UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allé d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mann, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2014-01-28

    We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function.

  13. Planar Quantum Mechanics: an Intriguing Supersymmetric Example

    CERN Document Server

    Veneziano, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    After setting up a Hamiltonian formulation of planar (matrix) quantum mechanics, we illustrate its effectiveness in a non-trivial supersymmetric example. The numerical and analytical study of two sectors of the model, as a function of 't Hooft's coupling $\\lambda$, reveals both a phase transition at $\\lambda=1$ (disappearence of the mass gap and discontinuous jump in Witten's index) and a new form of strong-weak duality for $\\lambda \\to 1/\\lambda$.

  14. Miniaturized Air-Driven Planar Magnetic Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of two miniaturized air-driven planar magnetic generators. In order to reduce the magnetic resistance torque, Generator 1 establishes a static magnetic field by consisting a multilayer planar coil as the stator and two multi-pole permanent-magnet (PM rotors on both sides of the coil. To further decrease the starting torque and save more space, Generator 2 adopts the multilayer planar coil as the rotor and the multi-pole PMs as the stator, eliminating the casing without compromising the magnetic structure or output performance. The prototypes were tested gathering energy from wind which can work at a low wind speed of 1~2 m/s. Prototype of Generator 1 is with a volume of 2.61 cm3 and its normalized voltage reaches 485 mV/krpm. Prototype of Generator 2 has a volume of 0.92 cm3 and a normalized voltage as high as 538 mV/krpm. Additionally, output voltage can be estimated at better than 96% accuracy by the theoretical model developed in this paper. The two micro generators are capable of producing substantial electricity with little volume to serve as compact power conversion devices.

  15. Modeling and optimization of planar microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzavi, Ali; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic actuation has emerged as a useful tool for manipulating particles, droplets and biological samples in microfluidics. A planar coil is one of the suitable candidates for magnetic actuation and has the potential to be integrated in digital microfluidic devices. A simple model of microcoils is needed to optimize their use in actuation applications. This paper first develops an analytical model for calculating the magnetic field of a planar microcoil. The model was validated by experimental data from microcoils fabricated on printed circuit boards (PCB). The model was used for calculating the field strength and the force acting on a magnetic object. Finally, the effect of different coil parameters such as the magnitude of the electric current, the gap between the wires and the number of wire segments is discussed. Both analytical and experimental results show that a smaller gap size between wire segments, more wire segments and a higher electric current can increase both the magnitude and the gradient of the magnetic field, and consequently cause a higher actuating force. The planar coil analyzed in the paper is suitable for applications in magnetic droplet-based microfluidics

  16. Solution of linear transport equation using Chebyshev polynomials and Laplace transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, A.V.; Vilhena, M.T.M.B. de

    1994-01-01

    The Chebyshev polynomials and the Laplace transform are combined to solve, analytically, the linear transport equation in planar geometry, considering isotropic scattering and the one-group model. Numerical simulation is presented. (author)

  17. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  18. Planar Poincare chart - A planar graphic representation of the state of light polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Ocheltree, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The planar Poincare chart, which represents the complete planar equivalence of the Poincare sphere, is proposed. The four sets of basic lines are drawn on two separate charts for the generalization and convenience of reading the scale. The chart indicates the rotation of the principal axes of linear birefringent material. The relationships between parameters of the two charts are given as 2xi-2phi (orientation angle of the major axis-ellipticity angle) pair and 2alpha-delta (angle of amplitude ratio-phase difference angle) pair. The results are useful for designing and analyzing polarization properties of optical components with birefringent properties.

  19. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  20. High-power planar dielectric waveguide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, D.P.; Hettrick, S.J.; Li, C.; Mackenzie, J.I.; Beach, R.J.; Mitchell, S.C.; Meissner, H.E.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages and potential hazards of using a planar waveguide as the host in a high-power diode-pumped laser system are described. The techniques discussed include the use of proximity-coupled diodes, double-clad waveguides, unstable resonators, tapers, and integrated passive Q switches. Laser devices are described based on Yb 3+ -, Nd 3+ -, and Tm 3+ -doped YAG, and monolithic and highly compact waveguide lasers with outputs greater than 10 W are demonstrated. The prospects for scaling to the 100 W level and for further integration of devices for added functionality in a monolithic laser system are discussed. (author)

  1. Planar permanent magnet multipoles: Measurements and configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-05-01

    Biplanar arrays of N rectangular permanent magnet (PM) blocks can be used to generate high quality N-pole fields in close proximity to the array axis. In applications featuring small-diameter charged particle beams, N-poles of adequate quality can be realized at relatively low cost using small volumes of PM material. In this paper we report on recent measurements performed on planar PM multipoles, and discuss techniques for improving the field quality of such devices at distances appreciably far away from the axis. Applications to hybrid/PM insertion device designs for linac-driven Free Electron Laser (FEL) operation in the x-ray range are described

  2. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  3. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  4. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  5. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong; Majumdar, Apala; Erban, Radek

    2012-01-01

    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  6. Multistability in planar liquid crystal wells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Chong

    2012-06-08

    A planar bistable liquid crystal device, reported in Tsakonas, is modeled within the Landau-de Gennes theory for nematic liquid crystals. This planar device consists of an array of square micrometer-sized wells. We obtain six different classes of equilibrium profiles and these profiles are classified as diagonal or rotated solutions. In the strong anchoring case, we propose a Dirichlet boundary condition that mimics the experimentally imposed tangent boundary conditions. In the weak anchoring case, we present a suitable surface energy and study the multiplicity of solutions as a function of the anchoring strength. We find that diagonal solutions exist for all values of the anchoring strength W≥0, while rotated solutions only exist for W≥W c>0, where W c is a critical anchoring strength that has been computed numerically. We propose a dynamic model for the switching mechanisms based on only dielectric effects. For sufficiently strong external electric fields, we numerically demonstrate diagonal-to-rotated and rotated-to-diagonal switching by allowing for variable anchoring strength across the domain boundary. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  7. Motion video analysis using planar parallax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Harpreet S.

    1994-04-01

    Motion and structure analysis in video sequences can lead to efficient descriptions of objects and their motions. Interesting events in videos can be detected using such an analysis--for instance independent object motion when the camera itself is moving, figure-ground segregation based on the saliency of a structure compared to its surroundings. In this paper we present a method for 3D motion and structure analysis that uses a planar surface in the environment as a reference coordinate system to describe a video sequence. The motion in the video sequence is described as the motion of the reference plane, and the parallax motion of all the non-planar components of the scene. It is shown how this method simplifies the otherwise hard general 3D motion analysis problem. In addition, a natural coordinate system in the environment is used to describe the scene which can simplify motion based segmentation. This work is a part of an ongoing effort in our group towards video annotation and analysis for indexing and retrieval. Results from a demonstration system being developed are presented.

  8. Planar patch clamp: advances in electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Andrea; Farre, Cecilia; Haarmann, Claudia; Haythornthwaite, Ali; Kreir, Mohamed; Stoelzle, Sonja; George, Michael; Fertig, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Ion channels have gained increased interest as therapeutic targets over recent years, since a growing number of human and animal diseases have been attributed to defects in ion channel function. Potassium channels are the largest and most diverse family of ion channels. Pharmaceutical agents such as Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of K(ATP) channel activity which promotes insulin release, have been successfully sold on the market for many years. So far, only a small group of the known ion channels have been addressed as potential drug targets. The functional testing of drugs on these ion channels has always been the bottleneck in the development of these types of pharmaceutical compounds.New generations of automated patch clamp screening platforms allow a higher throughput for drug testing and widen this bottleneck. Due to their planar chip design not only is a higher throughput achieved, but new applications have also become possible. One of the advantages of planar patch clamp is the possibility of perfusing the intracellular side of the membrane during a patch clamp experiment in the whole-cell configuration. Furthermore, the extracellular membrane remains accessible for compound application during the experiment.Internal perfusion can be used not only for patch clamp experiments with cell membranes, but also for those with artificial lipid bilayers. In this chapter we describe how internal perfusion can be applied to potassium channels expressed in Jurkat cells, and to Gramicidin channels reconstituted in a lipid bilayer.

  9. Optical magnetism in planar metamaterial heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgia T; Fleischman, Dagny; Davoyan, Artur; Yeh, Pochi; Atwater, Harry A

    2018-01-18

    Harnessing artificial optical magnetism has previously required complex two- and three-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticle arrays and split-ring metamaterials. By contrast, planar structures, and in particular dielectric/metal multilayer metamaterials, have been generally considered non-magnetic. Although the hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of these systems have been extensively investigated, their assumed non-magnetic response limits their performance to transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. We propose and experimentally validate a mechanism for artificial magnetism in planar multilayer metamaterials. We also demonstrate that the magnetic properties of high-index dielectric/metal hyperbolic metamaterials can be anisotropic, leading to magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in certain frequency regimes. We show that such systems can support transverse electric polarized interface-bound waves, analogous to their TM counterparts, surface plasmon polaritons. Our results open a route for tailoring optical artificial magnetism in lithography-free layered systems and enable us to generalize the plasmonic and hyperbolic properties to encompass both linear polarizations.

  10. Overview of Planar Magnetic Technology — Fundamental Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The momentum towards high efficiency, high frequency, and high power density in power supplies limits wide use of conventional wire-wound magnetic components. This article gives an overview of planar magnetic technologies with respect to the development of modern power electronics. The major...... advantages and disadvantages in the use of planar magnetics for high frequency power converters are covered, and publications on planar magnetics are reviewed. A detailed survey of winding conduction loss, leakage inductance and winding capacitance for planar magnetics is presented so power electronics...

  11. Global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, global regularization method for planar restricted three-body problem is purposed by using the transformation z = x+iy = ν cos n(u+iv, where i = √−1, 0 < ν ≤ 1 and n is a positive integer. The method is developed analytically and computationally. For the analytical developments, analytical solutions in power series of the pseudotime τ are obtained for positions and velocities (u, v, u', v' and (x, y, x˙, y˙ in both regularized and physical planes respectively, the physical time t is also obtained as power series in τ. Moreover, relations between the coefficients of the power series are obtained for two consequent values of n. Also, we developed analytical solutions in power series form for the inverse problem of finding τ in terms of t. As typical examples, three symbolic expressions for the coefficients of the power series were developed in terms of initial values. As to the computational developments, the global regularized equations of motion are developed together with their initial values in forms suitable for digital computations using any differential equations solver. On the other hand, for numerical evolutions of power series, an efficient method depending on the continued fraction theory is provided.

  12. Guidelines for optimization of planar HDR implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicker, R.D.; Schmidt-Ullrich, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional low dose rate (LDR) planar Ir-192 implants are typically carried out using at most a few different source strengths. Remote afterloading offers a much higher degree of flexibility with individually programmable dwell times. Dedicated software is available to generate individual dwell times producing isodose surfaces which contour as closely as possible the target volume. The success of these algorithms in enclosing the target volume while sparing normal tissues is dependent on the positioning of the source guides which constrain the dwell points. In this work we provide source placement guidelines for optimal coverage and dose uniformity in planar high dose rate (HDR) implants. The resulting distributions are compared with LDR treatments in terms of dose uniformity and early and late tissue effects. Materials and methods: Computer studies were undertaken to determine source positions and dwell times for optimal dose uniformity in planar HDR implants, and the results were compared to those obtained using corresponding LDR implant geometries. The improvements in the dose distributions achieved with the remote after loader are expected to help offset the increased late tissue effects which can occur when LDR irradiation is replaced with a few large HDR fractions. Equivalent differential volume-dose (DVD) curves for early and late effects were calculated for different numbers of HDR fractions using a linear-quadratic model and compared to the corresponding curves for the LDR regime. Results: Tables of source placement parameters were generated as guidelines for achieving highly homogeneous planar HDR dose distributions. Differential volume-dose data generated inside the target volume provide a quantitative measure of the improvement in real dose homogeneity obtained with remote afterloading. The net result is a shift of the peak in the DVD curve toward lower doses relative to the LDR implant. The equivalent DVD curves for late effects obtained

  13. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  14. Shape equivalence under perspective and projective transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, Johan; Lamote, C; Van Gool, Luc

    1997-01-01

    When a planar shape is viewed obliquely, it is deformed by a perspective deformation. If the visual system were to pick up geometrical invariants from such projections, these would necessarily be invariant under the wider class of projective transformations. To what extent can the visual system tell the difference between perspective and nonperspective but still projective deformations of shapes? To investigate this, observers were asked to indicate which of two test patterns most resembled a...

  15. Very fast, high peak-power, planar triode amplifiers for driving optical gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howland, M.M.; Davis, S.J.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent extensions of the peak power capabilities of planar triodes have made possible the latter's use as very fast pulse amplifiers, to drive optical gates within high-power Nd:glass laser chains. These pulse amplifiers switch voltages in the 20 kV range with rise times of a few nanoseconds, into crystal optical gates that are essentially capacitive loads. This paper describes a simplified procedure for designing these pulse amplifiers. It further outlines the use of bridged-T constant resistance networks to transform load capacitance into pure resistance, independent of frequency

  16. MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Dawson, Douglas; Gaier, Todd

    2007-01-01

    A polarimetric radiometer that operates at a frequency of 40 GHz has been designed and built as a prototype of multiple identical units that could be arranged in a planar array for scientific measurements. Such an array is planned for use in studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB). All of the subsystems and components of this polarimetric radiometer are integrated into a single multi-chip module (MCM) of substantially planar geometry. In comparison with traditional designs of polarimetric radiometers, the MCM design is expected to greatly reduce the cost per unit in an array of many such units. The design of the unit is dictated partly by a requirement, in the planned CMB application, to measure the Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the CMB radiation with high sensitivity. (A complete definition of the Stokes parameters would exceed the scope of this article. In necessarily oversimplified terms, I is a measure of total intensity of radiation, while Q and U are measures of the relationships between the horizontally and vertically polarized components of radiation.) Because the sensitivity of a single polarimeter cannot be increased significantly, the only way to satisfy the high-sensitivity requirement is to make a large array of polarimeters that operate in parallel. The MCM includes contact pins that can be plugged into receptacles on a standard printed-circuit board (PCB). All of the required microwave functionality is implemented within the MCM; any required supporting non-microwave ("back-end") electronic functionality, including the provision of DC bias and control signals, can be implemented by standard PCB techniques. On the way from a microwave antenna to the MCM, the incoming microwave signal passes through an orthomode transducer (OMT), which splits the radiation into an h + i(nu) beam and an h - i(nu) beam (where, using complex-number notation, h denotes the horizontal component, nu denotes the vertical component, and +/-i denotes a +/-90deg phase

  17. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  18. Organic hybrid planar-nanocrystalline bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI; Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ

    2011-03-01

    A photosensitive optoelectronic device having an improved hybrid planar bulk heterojunction includes a plurality of photoconductive materials disposed between the anode and the cathode. The photoconductive materials include a first continuous layer of donor material and a second continuous layer of acceptor material. A first network of donor material or materials extends from the first continuous layer toward the second continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of holes to the first continuous layer. A second network of acceptor material or materials extends from the second continuous layer toward the first continuous layer, providing continuous pathways for conduction of electrons to the second continuous layer. The first network and the second network are interlaced with each other. At least one other photoconductive material is interspersed between the interlaced networks. This other photoconductive material or materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor and acceptor materials.

  19. Planar Hall Effect Sensors for Biodetection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni

    . In the second geometry (dPHEB) half of the sensor is used as a local negative reference to subtract the background signal from magnetic beads in suspension. In all applications below, the magnetic beads are magnetised using the magnetic field due to the bias current passed through the sensor, i.e., no external...... as labels and planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) magnetic field sensor as readout for the beads. The choice of magnetic beads as label is motivated by the lack of virtually any magnetic background from biological samples. Moreover, magnetic beads can be manipulated via an external magnetic field...... hybridisation in real-time, in a background of suspended magnetic beads. This characteristic is employed in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, where the denaturation of DNA is monitored in real-time upon washing with a stringency buffer. The sensor setup includes temperature control and a fluidic...

  20. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  1. Renormalization of QED with planar binary trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouder, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Dyson relations between renormalized and bare photon and electron propagators Z 3 anti D(q)=D(q) and Z 2 anti S(q)=S(q) are expanded over planar binary trees. This yields explicit recursive relations for the terms of the expansions. When all the trees corresponding to a given power of the electron charge are summed, recursive relations are obtained for the finite coefficients of the renormalized photon and electron propagators. These relations significantly decrease the number of integrals to carry out, as compared to the standard Feynman diagram technique. In the case of massless quantum electrodynamics (QED), the relation between renormalized and bare coefficients of the perturbative expansion is given in terms of a Hopf algebra structure. (orig.)

  2. Anions, quantum particles in planar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monerat, Germano Amaral

    2000-03-01

    Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)

  3. Dielectric response of planar relativistic quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, D.C.; Frankel, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    The dielectric response of planar relativistic charged particle-antiparticle plasmas is investigated, treating Fermi and Bose plasmas. The conductivity tensor in each case is derived in the self-consistent Random Phase Approximation. The tensors are then evaluated at zero temperature for the case of no external fields, leading to explicit dispersion relations for the electrodynamic modes of the plasma. The longitudinal and transverse modes are in general coupled for plasma layers. This coupling vanishes, however, in the zero field case, allowing 'effective' longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions to be defined in terms of components of the conductivity tensor. Solutions to the longitudinal mode equations (i.e. plasmon modes) are exhibited, while purely transverse modes are found not to exist. In the case of the Bose plasma the screening of a test charge is investigated in detail. 41 refs., 1 fig

  4. Planar Silicon Optical Waveguide Light Modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistiko, Otto; Bak, H.

    1994-01-01

    that values in the nanosecond region should be possible, however, the measured values are high, 20 microseconds, due to the large area of the injector junctions, 1× 10¿2 cm2, and the limitations imposed by the detection circuit. The modulating properties of these devices are impressive, measurements......The results of an experimental investigation of a new type of optical waveguide based on planar technology in which the liglht guiding and modulation are achieved by exploiting free carrier effects in silicon are presented. Light is guided between the n+ substrate and two p+ regions, which also...... serve as carrier injectors for controling absorption. Light confinement of single mode devices is good, giving spot sizes of 9 ¿m FWHM. Insertion loss measurements indicate that the absorption losses for these waveguides are extremely low, less 1 dB/cm. Estimates of the switching speed indicate...

  5. Discrete approach to complex planar geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupini, E.; De Matteis, A.

    1974-01-01

    Planar regions in Monte Carlo transport problems have been represented by a finite set of points with a corresponding region index for each. The simulation of particle free-flight reduces then to the simple operations necessary for scanning appropriate grid points to determine whether a region other than the starting one is encountered. When the complexity of the geometry is restricted to only some regions of the assembly examined, a mixed discrete-continuous philosophy may be adopted. By this approach, the lattice of a thermal reactor has been treated, discretizing only the central regions of the cell containing the fuel rods. Excellent agreement with experimental results has been obtained in the computation of cell parameters in the energy range from fission to thermalization through the 238 U resonance region. (U.S.)

  6. Two solvable problems of planar geometrical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghero, Francesco; Bozis, George

    2006-12-01

    In the framework of geometrical optics we consider a two-dimensional transparent inhomogeneous isotropic medium (dispersive or not). We show that (i) for any family belonging to a certain class of planar monoparametric families of monochromatic light rays given in the form f(x,y)=c of any definite color and satisfying a differential condition, all the refractive index profiles n=n(x,y) allowing for the creation of the given family can be found analytically (inverse problem) and that (ii) for any member of a class of two-dimensional refractive index profiles n=n(x,y) satisfying a differential condition, all the compatible families of light rays can be found analytically (direct problem). We present appropriate examples.

  7. Coupling Planar Cell Polarity Signaling to Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Axelrod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical–basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP. The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  8. Design and measurements of the double layer planar motor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, J.M.M.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Moving-magnet magnetically levitated planar motors are considered for use as a wafer stage in the semiconductor lithographic industry. This puts high requirements on the accuracy and the dissipated power and cooling performance of such motors. A novel planar motor topology is developed, which

  9. The peeling process of infinite Boltzmann planar maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George

    2016-01-01

    criterion has a very simple interpretation. The finite random planar maps under consideration were recently proved to possess a well-defined local limit known as the infinite Boltzmann planar map (IBPM). Inspired by recent work of Curien and Le Gall, we show that the peeling process on the IBPM can...

  10. Column Planarity and Partially-Simultaneous Geometric Embedding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barba, L.; Evans, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Kusters, V.; Saumell, Maria; Speckmann, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2017), s. 983-1002 ISSN 1526-1719 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1506; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : column planarity * unlabeled level planarity * simultaneous geometric embedding Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  11. The Sheath-less Planar Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Langmuir probe is one of the oldest plasma diagnostics, provided the plasma density and species temperature from analysis of a current-voltage curve as the voltage is swept over a practically chosen range. The analysis depends on a knowledge or theory of the many factors that influence the current-voltage curve including, probe shape, size, nearby perturbations, and the voltage reference. For applications in Low Earth Orbit, the Planar Langmuir Probe, PLP, is an attractive geometry because the ram ion current is very constant over many Volts of a sweep, allowing the ion density and electron temperature to be determined independently with the same instrument, at different points on the sweep. However, when the physical voltage reference is itself small and electrically floating as with a small spacecraft, the spacecraft and probe system become a double probe where the current collection theory depends on the interaction of the spacecraft with the plasma which is generally not as simple as the probe itself. The Sheath-less PLP, SPLP, interlaces on a single ram facing surface, two variably biased probe elements, broken into many small and intertwined segments on a scale smaller than the plasma Debye length. The SPLP is electrically isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. For relative bias potentials of a few volts, the ion current to all segments of each element will be constant, while the electron currents will vary as a function of the element potential and the electron temperature. Because the segments are small, intertwined, and floating, the assembly will always present the same floating potential to the plasma, with minimal growth as a function of voltage, thus sheath-less and still planar. This concept has been modelled with Nascap, and tested with a physical model inserted into a Low Earth Orbit-like chamber plasma. Results will be presented.

  12. Yangian-type symmetries of non-planar leading singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassek, Rouven [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Meidinger, David [Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-18

    We take up the study of integrable structures behind non-planar contributions to scattering amplitudes in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Focusing on leading singularities, we derive the action of the Yangian generators on color-ordered subsets of the external states. Each subset corresponds to a single boundary of the non-planar on-shell diagram. While Yangian invariance is broken, we find that higher-level Yangian generators still annihilate the non-planar on-shell diagram. For a given diagram, the number of these generators is governed by the degree of non-planarity. Furthermore, we present additional identities involving integrable transfer matrices. In particular, for diagrams on a cylinder we obtain a conservation rule similar to the Yangian invariance condition of planar on-shell diagrams. To exemplify our results, we consider a five-point MHV on-shell function on a cylinder.

  13. On Longest Cycles in Essentially 4-Connected Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrici Igor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A planar 3-connected graph G is essentially 4-connected if, for any 3-separator S of G, one component of the graph obtained from G by removing S is a single vertex. Jackson and Wormald proved that an essentially 4-connected planar graph on n vertices contains a cycle C such that . For a cubic essentially 4-connected planar graph G, Grünbaum with Malkevitch, and Zhang showed that G has a cycle on at least ¾ n vertices. In the present paper the result of Jackson and Wormald is improved. Moreover, new lower bounds on the length of a longest cycle of G are presented if G is an essentially 4-connected planar graph of maximum degree 4 or G is an essentially 4-connected maximal planar graph.

  14. Ambient mass spectrometry: From the planar to the non-planar surface analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejšek, Jan; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 31 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /17./. 30.05.2017-01.06.2017, Milovy] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ambient mass spectrometry * thin layer chromatography * non-planar surface analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. [DNA complexes, formed on aqueous phase surfaces: new planar polymeric and composite nanostructures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipina, M N; Gaĭnutdinov, R V; Rakhnianskaia, A A; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A N; Tolstikhina, A L; Iurova, T V; Kislov, V V; Khomutov, G B

    2003-01-01

    The formation of DNA complexes with Langmuir monolayers of the cationic lipid octadecylamine (ODA) and the new amphiphilic polycation poly-4-vinylpyridine with 16% of cetylpyridinium groups (PVP-16) on the surface of an aqueous solution of native DNA of low ionic strength was studied. Topographic images of Langmuir-Blodgett films of DNA/ODA and DNA/PVP-16 complexes applied to micaceous substrates were investigated by the method of atomic force microscopy. It was found that films of the amphiphilic polycation have an ordered planar polycrystalline structure. The morphology of planar DNA complexes with the amphiphilic cation substantially depended on the incubation time and the phase state of the monolayer on the surface of the aqueous DNA solution. Complex structures and individual DNA molecules were observed on the surface of the amphiphilic monolayer. Along with quasi-linear individual bound DNA molecules, characteristic extended net-like structures and quasi-circular toroidal condensed conformations of planar DNA complexes were detected. Mono- and multilayer films of DNA/PVP-16 complexes were used as templates and nanoreactors for the synthesis of inorganic nanostructures via the binding of metal cations from the solution and subsequent generation of the inorganic phase. As a result, ultrathin polymeric composite films with integrated DNA building blocks and quasi-linear arrays of inorganic semiconductor (CdS) and iron oxide nanoparticles and nanowires were obtained. The nanostructures obtained were characterized by scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The methods developed are promising for investigating the mechanisms of structural organization and transformation in DNA and polyelectrolyte complexes at the gas-liquid interface and for the design of new extremely thin highly ordered planar polymeric and composite materials, films, and coatings with controlled ultrastructure for applications in nanoelectronics and

  16. Planar microlens with front-face angle: design, fabrication, and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-07-08

    This paper studies the effect of microlens front-face angle on the performance of an optical system consisting of a planar-graded refractive index (GRIN) lens pair facing each other separated by a free-space region. The planar silica microlens pairs are designed to facilitate low-loss optical signal propagation in the free-space region between the opposing optical waveguides. The planar lens is fabricated from a 38-μm-thick fluorine-doped silica layer on a silicon substrate. It has a parabolic refractive index profile in the vertical direction, which is achieved by controlled fluorine incorporation in the silica film to collimate the optical beam in the vertical direction. Horizontal beam collimation is achieved by incorporating a horizontal curvature at the front face of the lens defined by deep oxide etch. A generalized 3×3ABCDGH transformation matrix method has been derived to compute the coupling efficiency of such microlens pairs to take front-face angles that may be present due to fabrication variations or limitations and possible input/output optical fiber offset/tilt into considerations. Pairs of such planar GRIN lens with various free-space propagation distances between them ranging from 75 to 2500  μm and with front-face angles of 1.5 deg, 2 deg, and 4 deg have been fabricated and characterized. Beam propagation method simulations have been carried out to substantiate the theoretical and experimental results. The results indicate that the optical loss is reasonably low up to 1.5 deg of front-face angles and increases significantly with further increase in the front-face angle. Analysis shows that for a given system with specific microlens front-face angle, the optical loss can be significantly reduced by properly compensating the vertical position of the input and output fibers.

  17. Planar microlens with front-face angle: design, fabrication, and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hafiz, Md. Abdullah; Michael, Aron; Kwok, Chee-Yee

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the effect of microlens front-face angle on the performance of an optical system consisting of a planar-graded refractive index (GRIN) lens pair facing each other separated by a free-space region. The planar silica microlens pairs are designed to facilitate low-loss optical signal propagation in the free-space region between the opposing optical waveguides. The planar lens is fabricated from a 38-μm-thick fluorine-doped silica layer on a silicon substrate. It has a parabolic refractive index profile in the vertical direction, which is achieved by controlled fluorine incorporation in the silica film to collimate the optical beam in the vertical direction. Horizontal beam collimation is achieved by incorporating a horizontal curvature at the front face of the lens defined by deep oxide etch. A generalized 3×3 ABCDGH transformation matrix method has been derived to compute the coupling efficiency of such microlens pairs to take front-face angles that may be present due to fabrication variations or limitations and possible input/output optical fiber offset/tilt into considerations. Pairs of such planar GRIN lens with various free-space propagation distances between them ranging from 75 to 2500 μm and with front-face angles of 1.5 deg, 2 deg, and 4 deg have been fabricated and characterized. Beam propagation method simulations have been carried out to substantiate the theoretical and experimental results. The results indicate that the optical loss is reasonably low up to 1.5 deg of front-face angles and increases significantly with further increase in the front-face angle. Analysis shows that for a given system with specific microlens front-face angle, the optical loss can be significantly reduced by properly compensating the vertical position of the input and output fibers.

  18. Planar microlens with front-face angle: design, fabrication, and characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Michael, Aron; Kwok, Chee-Yee

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of microlens front-face angle on the performance of an optical system consisting of a planar-graded refractive index (GRIN) lens pair facing each other separated by a free-space region. The planar silica microlens pairs are designed to facilitate low-loss optical signal propagation in the free-space region between the opposing optical waveguides. The planar lens is fabricated from a 38-μm-thick fluorine-doped silica layer on a silicon substrate. It has a parabolic refractive index profile in the vertical direction, which is achieved by controlled fluorine incorporation in the silica film to collimate the optical beam in the vertical direction. Horizontal beam collimation is achieved by incorporating a horizontal curvature at the front face of the lens defined by deep oxide etch. A generalized 3×3ABCDGH transformation matrix method has been derived to compute the coupling efficiency of such microlens pairs to take front-face angles that may be present due to fabrication variations or limitations and possible input/output optical fiber offset/tilt into considerations. Pairs of such planar GRIN lens with various free-space propagation distances between them ranging from 75 to 2500  μm and with front-face angles of 1.5 deg, 2 deg, and 4 deg have been fabricated and characterized. Beam propagation method simulations have been carried out to substantiate the theoretical and experimental results. The results indicate that the optical loss is reasonably low up to 1.5 deg of front-face angles and increases significantly with further increase in the front-face angle. Analysis shows that for a given system with specific microlens front-face angle, the optical loss can be significantly reduced by properly compensating the vertical position of the input and output fibers.

  19. Chaotic non-planar vibrations of the thin elastica. Part I: Experimental observation of planar instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, J. P.; Moon, F. C.

    1995-01-01

    In this two-part paper, the results of an investigation into the non-linear dynamics of a flexible cantilevered rod (the elastica) with a thin rectangular cross-section are presented. An experimental examination of the dynamics of the elastica over a broad parameter range forms the core of Part I. In Part II, the experimental work is related to a theoretical study of the mechanics of the elastica, and the study of a two-degree-of-freedom model obtained by modal projection. The experimental system used in this investigation is a rod with clamped-free boundary conditions, forced by sinusoidally displacing the clamped end. Planar periodic motions of the driven elastica are shown to lose stability at distinct resonant wedges, and the resulting motions are shown in general to be non-planar, chaotic, bending-torsion oscillations. Non-planar motions in all resonances exhibit energy cascading and dynamic two-well phenomena, and a family of asymmetric, bending-torsion non-linear modes is discovered. Correlation dimension calculations are used to estimate the number of active degrees of freedom in the system.

  20. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  1. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  2. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  3. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  4. Determination of criticality parameters in heterogeneous planar slabs by LTSN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Volnei

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this work consists in the used the LTS N method in criticality problems. This method consists basically in the application of the Laplace Transform in the system of ordinary differential equations generated by the S N approach, resulting in a system of symbolic algebraic equations dependents on the complex parameters. This system is solved and, then the solution is reconstructed by the inverse of the transformed of Laplace using the Schurr and diagonalization methods and the technique of expansion of Heaviside. This methodology is used in determination of K eff , critical thickness and the atomic density for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads to the solution of eigenvalue problem to the solution of a transcendental equation. Numerical results are reported. (author)

  5. Computational Study on a PTAS for Planar Dominating Set Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Ping Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominating set problem is a core NP-hard problem in combinatorial optimization and graph theory, and has many important applications. Baker [JACM 41,1994] introduces a k-outer planar graph decomposition-based framework for designing polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS for a class of NP-hard problems in planar graphs. It is mentioned that the framework can be applied to obtain an O(2ckn time, c is a constant, (1+1/k-approximation algorithm for the planar dominating set problem. We show that the approximation ratio achieved by the mentioned application of the framework is not bounded by any constant for the planar dominating set problem. We modify the application of the framework to give a PTAS for the planar dominating set problem. With k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS has an approximation ratio (1 + 2/k. Using 2k-outer planar graph decompositions, the modified PTAS achieves the approximation ratio (1+1/k in O(22ckn time. We report a computational study on the modified PTAS. Our results show that the modified PTAS is practical.

  6. Pulsed laser planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckerman, D.B.; Schmitt, R.L.

    1985-05-01

    Multilevel interconnect schemes for integrated circuits generally require one or more planarization steps, in order to maintain an acceptably flat topography for lithography and thin-film step coverage on the higher levels. Traditional approaches have involved planarization of the interlevel insulation (dielectric) layers, either by spin-on application (e.g., polyimide), or by reflow (e.g., phosphosilicate glass). We have pursued an alternative approach, in which each metal level is melted (hence planarized) using a pulsed laser prior to patterning. Short (approx.1 μs) pulses are used to preclude undesirable metallurgical reactions between the film, adhesion or barrier layer, and dielectric layer. Laser planarization of metals is particularly well suited to multilevel systems which include ground or power planes. Results are presented for planarization of gold films on SiO 2 dielectric layers using a flashlamp-pumped dye laser. The pulse duration is approx.1 μs, which allows the heat pulse to uniformly penetrate the gold while not penetrating substantially through the underlying SiO 2 (hence not perturbing the lower levels of metal). Excellent planarization of the gold films is achieved (less than 0.1 μm surface roughness, even starting with extreme topographic variations), as well as improved conductivity. To demonstrate the process, numerous planarized two-layer structures (transmission lines under a ground plane) were fabricated and characterized. 9 refs., 2 figs

  7. Recent Studies on the Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity of Planar Cyclooctatetraene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Iyoda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooctatetraene (COT, the first 4nπ-electron system to be studied, adopts an inherently nonplanar tub-shaped geometry of D2d symmetry with alternating single and double bonds, and hence behaves as a nonaromatic polyene rather than an antiaromatic compound. Recently, however, considerable 8π-antiaromatic paratropicity has been shown to be generated in planar COT rings even with the bond alternated D4h structure. In this review, we highlight recent theoretical and experimental studies on the antiaromaticity of hypothetical and actual planar COT. In addition, theoretically predicted triplet aromaticity and stacked aromaticity of planar COT are also briefly described.

  8. Optimal External-Memory Planar Point Enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Samoladas, Vasilis; Yi, Ke

    2007-01-01

    .g. spatial and temporal databases, and is dual to the important and well-studied orthogonal range searching problem. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the problem can be solved optimally in internal memory with linear space and O(log N+K) query time, we show that one cannot construct a linear sized......In this paper we study the external memory planar point enclosure problem: Given N axis-parallel rectangles in the plane, construct a data structure on disk (an index) such that all K rectangles containing a query point can be reported I/O-efficiently. This problem has important applications in e...... external memory point enclosure data structure that can be used to answer a query in O(log  B N+K/B) I/Os, where B is the disk block size. To obtain this bound, Ω(N/B 1−ε ) disk blocks are needed for some constant ε>0. With linear space, the best obtainable query bound is O(log 2 N+K/B) if a linear output...

  9. Development of cofired type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Zhou, Hua-Bing [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed fabrication process for planar SOFC fabricated with cofired anode/electrolyte/cathode multilayers and interconnects. By cofiring technique for the multilayers, we expect to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte layers, resulting in decrease of innerimpedance, and achieve low production cost. On the other hand, the cofiring technique requires that the sintering temperature, the shrinkage profiles and the thermal expansion characteristics of all component materials should be compatible with the other. It is, therefore, difficult to cofire the multilayers with large area. Using the multilayers with surface area of 150cm{sup 2}, we fabricated the multiple cell stacks. The maximum power of 5x4 multiple cell stack (5 planes of cells in series, 4 cells in parallel in each planes 484cm{sup 2} effective electrode area of each cell planes) was 601W (0.25Wcm{sup -2}, Uf=40%). However, the terminal voltage of the multiple cell stack decreased by the cause of cell cracking, gas leakage and degradation of cofired multilayers. This paper presents the improvements of cofired multilayers, and the performance of multiple cell stacks with the improved multilayers.

  10. Transfer matrix representation for periodic planar media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, A.; Ghiringhelli, G. L.

    2016-06-01

    Sound transmission through infinite planar media characterized by in-plane periodicity is faced by exploiting the free wave propagation on the related unit cells. An appropriate through-thickness transfer matrix, relating a proper set of variables describing the acoustic field at the two external surfaces of the medium, is derived by manipulating the dynamic stiffness matrix related to a finite element model of the unit cell. The adoption of finite element models avoids analytical modeling or the simplification on geometry or materials. The obtained matrix is then used in a transfer matrix method context, making it possible to combine the periodic medium with layers of different nature and to treat both hard-wall and semi-infinite fluid termination conditions. A finite sequence of identical sub-layers through the thickness of the medium can be handled within the transfer matrix method, significantly decreasing the computational burden. Transfer matrices obtained by means of the proposed method are compared with analytical or equivalent models, in terms of sound transmission through barriers of different nature.

  11. Micromachined Planar Supercapacitor with Interdigital Buckypaper Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ting Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a flexible micro-supercapacitor with interdigital planar buckypaper electrodes is presented. A simple fabrication process involving vacuum filtration method and SU-8 molding techniques is proposed to fabricate in-plane interdigital buckypaper electrodes on a membrane filter substrate. The proposed process exhibits excellent flexibility for future integration of the micro-supercapacitors (micro-SC with other electronic components. The device’s maximum specific capacitance measured using cyclic voltammetry was 107.27 mF/cm2 at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. The electrochemical stability was investigated by measuring the performance of charge-discharge at different discharge rates. Devices with different buckypaper electrode thicknesses were also fabricated and measured. The specific capacitance of the proposed device increased linearly with the buckypaper electrode thickness. The measured leakage current was approximately 9.95 µA after 3600 s. The device exhibited high cycle stability, with 96.59% specific capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. A Nyquist plot of the micro-SC was also obtained by measuring the impedances with frequencies from 1 Hz to 50 kHz; it indicated that the equivalent series resistance value was approximately 18 Ω.

  12. Planar screening by charge polydisperse counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, M.; Trizac, E.; Šamaj, L.

    2018-01-01

    We study how a neutralising cloud of counterions screens the electric field of a uniformly charged planar membrane (plate), when the counterions are characterised by a distribution of charges (or valence), n(q) . We work out analytically the one-plate and two-plate cases, at the level of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. The (essentially asymptotic) predictions are successfully compared to numerical solutions of the full Poisson-Boltzmann theory, but also to Monte Carlo simulations. The counterions with smallest valence control the long-distance features of interactions, and may qualitatively change the results pertaining to the classic monodisperse case where all counterions have the same charge. Emphasis is put on continuous distributions n(q) , for which new power-laws can be evidenced, be it for the ionic density or the pressure, in the one- and two-plates situations respectively. We show that for discrete distributions, more relevant for experiments, these scaling laws persist in an intermediate but yet observable range. Furthermore, it appears that from a practical point of view, hallmarks of the continuous n(q) behaviour are already featured by discrete mixtures with a relatively small number of constituents.

  13. Planar optical waveguide sensor of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Boykin, Courtney; Diggs, Darnell E.; Grote, James G.; Hopkins, Frank K.

    2004-12-01

    We describe a novel sensor of ammonia based on a planar optical waveguide made of a thin film of polymer polyimide doped with indicator dye bromocresol purple. The film of dye-doped polyimide demonstrated reversible increase of absorption with a peak near 600 nm in response to presence of ammonia in ambient air. Coupling of input and output optic fibers with the waveguide was done by means of coupling prisms or coupling grooves. The latter configuration has the advantage of low cost, less sensitivity to temperature variation, and the possibility of coupling from both sides of the waveguide. Special experimental setup was built to test the sensor. It included test gas chamber with sealed optic fiber feed-throughs, gas filling line, laser source, photodetector, and signal processing hardware and software. The sensor was capable of detecting 100 ppm of ammonia in air within 8 seconds. Further increase of sensitivity can be achieved by adding more dye dopant to the polymer, increase of the length of the waveguide, and suppression of noise. Overexposure of the sensor to more than 5000 ppm of ammonia led to the saturation of the polymer film and, as a result, significant decrease of sensitivity and increase of the response time. The sensor can be used as low cost component of a distributed optical network of chemical sensors for monitoring presence of hazardous industrial pollutants in air.

  14. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  15. Stress transmission in planar disordered solid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    Stress transmission in planar open-cell cellular solids is analysed using a recent theory developed for marginally rigid granular assemblies. This is made possible by constructing a one-to-one mapping between the two systems. General trivalent networks are mapped onto assemblies of rough grains, while networks where Plateau rules are observed, are mapped onto assemblies of smooth grains. The constitutive part of the stress transmission equations couples the stress directly to the local rotational disorder of the cellular structure via a new fabric tensor. An intriguing consequence of the analysis is that the stress field can be determined in terms of the microstructure alone independent of stress-strain information. This redefines the problem of structure-property relationship in these materials and poses questions on the relations between this formalism and elasticity theory. The deviation of the stress transmission equations from those of conventional solids has been interpreted in the context of granular assemblies as a new state of solid matter and the relevance of this interpretation to the state of matter of cellular solids is discussed

  16. Stress measurements of planar dielectric elastomer actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, Bekim; Aeby, Elise A.; Müller, Bert [Biomaterials Science Center, University of Basel, Gewerbestrasse 14, 4123 Allschwil (Switzerland)

    2016-05-15

    Dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) micro- and nano-structures are referred to artificial muscles because of their specific continuous power and adequate time response. The bending measurement of an asymmetric, planar DEA is described. The asymmetric cantilevers consist of 1 or 5 μm-thin DEAs deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates 16, 25, 38, or 50 μm thick. The application of a voltage to the DEA electrodes generates an electrostatic pressure in the sandwiched silicone elastomer layer, which causes the underlying PEN substrate to bend. Optical beam deflection enables the detection of the bending angle vs. applied voltage. Bending radii as large as 850 m were reproducibly detected. DEA tests with electric fields of up to 80 V/μm showed limitations in electrode’s conductivity and structure failures. The actuation measurement is essential for the quantitative characterization of nanometer-thin, low-voltage, single- and multi-layer DEAs, as foreseen for artificial sphincters to efficiently treat severe urinary and fecal incontinence.

  17. Double shell planar experiments on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Wilson, D. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Batha, S. H.; Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Amendt, P. A.

    2017-10-01

    The double shell project is aimed at fielding neutron-producing capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in which an outer low-Z ablator collides with an inner high-Z shell to compress the fuel. However, understanding these targets experimentally can be challenging when compared with conventional single shell targets. Halfraum-driven planar targets at OMEGA are being used to study physics issues important to double shell implosions outside of a convergent geometry. Both VISAR and radiography through a tube have advantages over imaging through the hohlraum and double-shell capsule at NIF. A number physics issues are being studied with this platform that include 1-d and higher dimensional effects such as defect-driven hydrodynamic instabilities from engineering features. Additionally, the use of novel materials with controlled density gradients require study in easily diagnosed 1-d systems. This work ultimately feeds back into the NIF capsule platform through manufacturing tolerances set using data from OMEGA. Supported under the US DOE by the LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-17-25386.

  18. Bimodular high temperature planar oxygen gas sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng eSun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A bimodular planar O2 sensor was fabricated using NiO nanoparticles (NPs thin film coated yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ substrate. The thin film was prepared by radio frequency (r.f. magnetron sputtering of NiO on YSZ substrate, followed by high temperature sintering. The surface morphology of NiO nanoparticles film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of NiO NPs thin film before and after high temperature O2 sensing demonstrated that the sensing material possesses a good chemical and structure stability. The oxygen detection experiments were performed at 500 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C using the as-prepared bimodular O2 sensor under both potentiometric and resistance modules. For the potentiometric module, a linear relationship between electromotive force (EMF output of the sensor and the logarithm of O2 concentration was observed at each operating temperature, following the Nernst law. For the resistance module, the logarithm of electrical conductivity was proportional to the logarithm of oxygen concentration at each operating temperature, in good agreement with literature report. In addition, this bimodular sensor shows sensitive, reproducible and reversible response to oxygen under both sensing modules. Integration of two sensing modules into one sensor could greatly enrich the information output and would open a new venue in the development of high temperature gas sensors.

  19. January: IBM 7094 programme for the resolution of cell problems in planar, spherical and cylindrical geometry using the double Pn approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amouyal, A.; Tariel, H.

    1966-01-01

    Code name: January 1 st SCEA 011S. 2) Computer: IBM 7094; Programme system: Fortran II, 2 nd version. 3) Nature of the problem: resolution of cell problems with one space variable (planar, spherical and cylindrical geometries) and with one energy group, with isotropic sources in the double P n approximation (DP 1 and DP 3 approximation in planar and spherical geometries, DP 1 and DP 2 in cylindrical geometry). 4) Method used: the differential equations with limiting conditions are transformed into differential system with initial conditions which are integrated by a separate-step method. 5) Restrictions: number of physical media [fr

  20. Massive planar and non-planar double box integrals for light N f contributions to

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Manteuffel, Andreas; Studerus, Cedric

    2013-10-01

    We present the master integrals needed for the light fermionic two-loop corrections to top quark pair production in the gluon fusion channel. Via the method of differential equations we compute the results in terms of multiple polylogarithms in a Laurent series about d = 4, where d is the space-time dimension. The most involved topology is a non-planar double box with one internal mass. We employ the coproduct-augmented symbol calculus and show that significant simplifications are possible for selected results using an optimised set of multiple polylogarithms.

  1. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  2. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  3. Stereo matching using epipolar distance transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiong; Ahuja, Narendra

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple but effective image transform, called the epipolar distance transform, for matching low-texture regions. It converts image intensity values to a relative location inside a planar segment along the epipolar line, such that pixels in the low-texture regions become distinguishable. We theoretically prove that the transform is affine invariant, thus the transformed images can be directly used for stereo matching. Any existing stereo algorithms can be directly used with the transformed images to improve reconstruction accuracy for low-texture regions. Results on real indoor and outdoor images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed transform for matching low-texture regions, keypoint detection, and description for low-texture scenes. Our experimental results on Middlebury images also demonstrate the robustness of our transform for highly textured scenes. The proposed transform has a great advantage, its low computational complexity. It was tested on a MacBook Air laptop computer with a 1.8 GHz Core i7 processor, with a speed of about 9 frames per second for a video graphics array-sized image.

  4. Non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Gine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents sufficient conditions for the non-existence of limit cycles for planar vector fields. Classical methods for the nonexistence of limit cycles are connected with the theory developed here.

  5. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar

  6. Principles of planar near-field antenna measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gregson, Stuart; Parini, Clive

    2007-01-01

    This single volume provides a comprehensive introduction and explanation of both the theory and practice of 'Planar Near-Field Antenna Measurement' from its basic postulates and assumptions, to the intricacies of its deployment in complex and demanding measurement scenarios.

  7. Nonlinear Saturation Amplitude in Classical Planar Richtmyer–Meshkov Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan-Hai; Jiang Hong-Bin; Ma Wen-Fang; Wang Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The classical planar Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at a fluid interface supported by a constant pressure is investigated by a formal perturbation expansion up to the third order, and then according to definition of nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) in Rayleigh–Taylor instability (RTI), the NSA in planar RMI is obtained explicitly. It is found that the NSA in planar RMI is affected by the initial perturbation wavelength and the initial amplitude of the interface, while the effect of the initial amplitude of the interface on the NSA is less than that of the initial perturbation wavelength. Without marginal influence of the initial amplitude, the NSA increases linearly with wavelength. The NSA normalized by the wavelength in planar RMI is about 0.11, larger than that corresponding to RTI. (paper)

  8. Numerical Analysis Of Buckling Of Von Mises Planar Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm of a discrete model of von Mises planar steel truss is presented. The structure deformation is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The critical force invented by mathematical solution was compared with solution by computer algorithm. Symmetric and asymmetric effects of initial shape of geometric imperfection of axis of struts are used in model. The shapes of buckling of von Mises planar truss of selected vertical displacement of top joint are shown.

  9. Flat panel planar optic display. Revision 4/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic glass sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. On the maximum number of cycles in a planar graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldred, R.E.L.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Let G be a graph on p vertices with q edges and let r = q - p + 1. We show that G has at most 15/162(r) cycles. We also show that if G is planar, then G has at most 2(r-1) + o(2(r-1)) cycles. The planar result is best possible in the sense that any prism, that is, the Cartesian product of a cycle...... and a path with one edge, has more than 2(r-1) cycles....

  11. Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics: a model forcurved wood design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle......Surfaces foliated by planar geodesics are a natural model for surfaces made from wood strips. We outline how to construct all solutions, and produce non-trivial examples, such as a wood-strip Klein bottle...

  12. $1$-string $B_2$-VPG representation of planar graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Biedl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that every planar graph has a 1-string $B_2$-VPG representation—a string representation using paths in a rectangular grid that contain at most two bends. Furthermore, two paths representing vertices $u,v$ intersect precisely once whenever there is an edge between $u$ and $v$. We also show that only a subset of the possible curve shapes is necessary to represent $4$-connected planar graphs.

  13. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille, E-mail: nancille@yahoo.fr; Todjihoundé, Leonard, E-mail: leonardt@imsp.uac.org [Institut de Mathématiques et des Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim, E-mail: kimpaye@kie.ac.rw [Kigali Institute of Education (KIE), Kigali (Rwanda)

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  14. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille; Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given

  15. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  16. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  17. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  18. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  19. The value of filtered planar images in pediatric DMSA scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.M.; Naddaf, S.Y.; Elgazzar, A.H.; Al-Abdul Salam, A.A.; Omar, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to demonstrate the value of filtered planar images in paediatric DMSA scanning. One hundred and seventy three patients ranged in age from 15 days to 12 years (mean: 4.3 years) with urinary tract infection (UTI) and clinical and/or laboratory suspicion of acute pyelonephritis (APN) were retrospectively studied. Planar images were filtered using Butterworth filter. The scan findings were reported as positive, negative or equivocal for cortical defects. Each scan was read in a double-blind fashion by two nuclear medicine physicians to evaluate inter-observer variations. Each kidney was divided into three zones, upper, middle and lower, and each zone was graded as positive, negative or equivocal for the presence of renal defects. Renal cortical defects were found in 66 patients (91 kidneys and 186 zones) with filtered images, 58 patients (81 kidneys and 175 zones) with planar images, and 69 patients (87 kidneys and 180 zones) with SPECT images. McNemar's test revealed statistically significant difference between filtered and planar images (p=0.038 for patients, 0.021 for kidneys and 0.034 for number of zones). Inter-observer agreement was 0.877 for filtered images, 0.915 for planar images and 0.915 for SPECT images. It was concluded that filtered planar images of renal cortex are comparable to SPECT images and can be used effectively in place of SPECT, when required, to shorten imaging time and eliminate motion artifacts, especially in the paediatric population. (author)

  20. Quality control on planar n-in-n pixel sensors — Recent progress of ATLAS planar pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingenberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5–10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) R and D Project was established. Main areas of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors at highest fluences, the exploration of possibilities for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large areas, the achievement of slim or active edges to provide low geometric inefficiencies without the need for shingling of modules and the investigation of the operation of highly irradiated sensors at low thresholds to increase the efficiency. The Insertable b-layer (IBL) is the first upgrade project within the ATLAS experiment and will employ a new detector layer consisting of silicon pixel sensors, which were improved and prototyped in the framework of the planar pixel sensor R and D project. A special focus of this paper is the status of the development and testing of planar n-in-n pixel sensors including the quality control of the on-going series production and postprocessing of sensor wafers. A high yield of produced planar sensor wafers and FE-I4 double chip sensors after first steps of post-processing including under bump metallization and dicing is observed. -- Highlights: ► Prototypes of irradiated planar n-in-n sensors have been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. ► A quality assurance programme on the series production of planar sensors for the IBL has started. ► A high yield of double chip sensors during the series production is observed which are compatible to the specifications to this detector component.

  1. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Vogt, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Gooden, Matthew [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length {lambda} of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As {lambda} varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in

  2. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus; Gooden, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length λ of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As λ varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in the

  3. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  4. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  5. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  6. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  7. Anions, quantum particles in planar systems; Anions, particulas quanticas em sistemas planares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monerat, Germano Amaral [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: monerat@if.uff.br

    2000-03-01

    Our purpose here is to present a general review of the non-relativistic quantum-mechanical description of excitations that do not obey neither the Fermi-Dirac nor the Bose-Einstein statistics; they rather fulfill an intermediate statistics, the we called 'any-statistics'. As we shall see, this is a peculiarity of (1+1) and (1+2) dimensions, due to the fact that, in two space dimensions, the spin is not quantised, once the rotation group is Abelian. The relevance of studying theories in (1+2) dimensions is justified by the evidence that, in condensed matter physics, there are examples of planar systems, for which everything goes as if the third spatial dimension is frozen. (author)

  8. Relation of planar Hall and planar Nernst effects in thin film permalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesenberg, D.; Hojem, A.; Bennet, R. K.; Zink, B. L.

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements of the planar Nernst effect (PNE) and the planar Hall effect (PHE) of nickel-iron (Ni–Fe) alloy thin films. We suspend the thin-film samples, measurement leads, and lithographically-defined heaters and thermometers on silicon-nitride membranes to greatly simplify control and measurement of thermal gradients essential to quantitative determination of magnetothermoelectric effects. Since these thermal isolation structures allow measurements of longitudinal thermopower, or the Seebeck coefficient, and four-wire electrical resistivity of the same thin film, we can quantitatively demonstrate the link between the longitudinal and transverse effects as a function of applied in-plane field and angle. Finite element thermal analysis of this essentially 2D structure allows more confident determination of the thermal gradient, which is reduced from the simplest assumptions due to the particular geometry of the membranes, which are more than 350 μm wide in order to maximize sensitivity to transverse thermoelectric effects. The resulting maximum values of the PNE and PHE coefficients for the Ni–Fe film with 80% Ni we study here are and , respectively. All signals are exclusively symmetry with applied field, ruling out long-distance spin transport effects. We also consider a Mott-like relation between the PNE and PHE, and use both this and the standard Mott relation to determine the energy-derivative of the resistivity at the Fermi energy to be , which is very similar to values for films we previously measured using similar thermal platforms. Finally, using an estimated value for the lead contribution to the longitudinal thermopower, we show that the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) ratio in this Ni–Fe film is two times larger than the magnetothermopower ratio, which is the first evidence of a deviation from strict adherence to the Mott relation between Seebeck coefficient and resistivity.

  9. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Flatland Photonics: Circumventing Diffraction with Planar Plasmonic Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Jennifer Anne

    On subwavelength scales, photon-matter interactions are limited by diffraction. The diffraction limit restricts the size of optical devices and the resolution of conventional microscopes to wavelength-scale dimensions, severely hampering our ability to control and probe subwavelength-scale optical phenomena. Circumventing diffraction is now a principle focus of integrated nanophotonics. Surface plasmons provide a particularly promising approach to sub-diffraction-limited photonics. Surface plasmons are hybrid electron-photon modes confined to the interface between conductors and transparent materials. Combining the high localization of electronic waves with the propagation properties of optical waves, plasmons can achieve extremely small mode wavelengths and large local electromagnetic field intensities. Through their unique dispersion, surface plasmons provide access to an enormous phase space of refractive indices and propagation constants that can be readily tuned with material or geometry. In this thesis, we explore both the theory and applications of dispersion in planar plasmonic architectures. Particular attention is given to the modes of metallic core and plasmon slot waveguides, which can span positive, near-zero, and even negative indices. We demonstrate how such basic plasmonic geometries can be used to develop a suite of passive and active plasmonic components, including subwavelength waveguides, color filters, negative index metamaterials, and optical MOS field effect modulators. Positive index modes are probed by near- and far-field techniques, revealing plasmon wavelengths as small as one-tenth of the excitation wavelength. Negative index modes are characterized through direct visualization of negative refraction. By fabricating prisms comprised of gold, silicon nitride, and silver multilayers, we achieve the first experimental demonstration of a negative index material at visible frequencies, with potential applications for sub

  11. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; Valdés, Mayra Granda; Glahn-Martínez, Bettina; Moreno-Bondi, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  12. Fluorescence based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito-Peña, Elena [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Valdés, Mayra Granda [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Glahn-Martínez, Bettina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, Maria C., E-mail: mcmbondi@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-11-02

    The application of optical biosensors, specifically those that use optical fibers and planar waveguides, has escalated throughout the years in many fields, including environmental analysis, food safety and clinical diagnosis. Fluorescence is, without doubt, the most popular transducer signal used in these devices because of its higher selectivity and sensitivity, but most of all due to its wide versatility. This paper focuses on the working principles and configurations of fluorescence-based fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors and will review biological recognition elements, sensing schemes, as well as some major and recent applications, published in the last ten years. The main goal is to provide the reader a general overview of a field that requires the joint collaboration of researchers of many different areas, including chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and material science. - Highlights: • Principles, configurations and fluorescence techniques using fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are discussed. • The biorecognition elements and sensing schemes used in fiber optic and planar waveguide platforms are reviewed. • Some major and recent applications of fiber optic and planar waveguide biosensors are introduced.

  13. Modeling and analysis of a novel planar eddy current damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Kou, Baoquan; Jin, Yinxi; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Hailin; Li, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel 2-DOF permanent magnet planar eddy current damper is proposed, of which the stator is made of a copper plate and the mover is composed of two orthogonal 1-D permanent magnet arrays with a double sided structure. The main objective of the planar eddy current damper is to provide two orthogonal damping forces for dynamic systems like the 2-DOF high precision positioning system. Firstly, the basic structure and the operating principle of the planar damper are introduced. Secondly, the analytical model of the planar damper is established where the magnetic flux density distribution of the permanent magnet arrays is obtained by using the equivalent magnetic charge method and the image method. Then, the analytical expressions of the damping force and damping coefficient are derived. Lastly, to verify the analytical model, the finite element method (FEM) is adopted for calculating the flux density and a planar damper prototype is manufactured and thoroughly tested. The results from FEM and experiments are in good agreement with the ones from the analytical expressions indicating that the analytical model is reasonable and correct.

  14. Frescoed Vaults: Accuracy Controlled Simplified Methodology for Planar Development of Three-Dimensional Textured Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.

  15. VHDL-AMS modelling and simulation of a planar electrostatic micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endemaño, A.; Fourniols, J. Y.; Camon, H.; Marchese, A.; Muratet, S.; Bony, F.; Dunnigan, M.; Desmulliez, M. P. Y.; Overton, G.

    2003-09-01

    System level simulation results of a planar electrostatic micromotor, based on analytical models of the static and dynamic torque behaviours, are presented. A planar variable capacitance (VC) electrostatic micromotor designed, fabricated and tested at LAAS (Toulouse) in 1995 is simulated using the high level language VHDL-AMS (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language-analog mixed signal). The analytical torque model is obtained by first calculating the overlaps and capacitances between different electrodes based on a conformal mapping transformation. Capacitance values in the order of 10-16 F and torque values in the order of 10-11 N m have been calculated in agreement with previous measurements and simulations from this type of motor. A dynamic model has been developed for the motor by calculating the inertia coefficient and estimating the friction-coefficient-based values calculated previously for other similar devices. Starting voltage results obtained from experimental measurement are in good agreement with our proposed simulation model. Simulation results of starting voltage values, step response, switching response and continuous operation of the micromotor, based on the dynamic model of the torque, are also presented. Four VHDL-AMS blocks were created, validated and simulated for power supply, excitation control, micromotor torque creation and micromotor dynamics. These blocks can be considered as the initial phase towards the creation of intellectual property (IP) blocks for microsystems in general and electrostatic micromotors in particular.

  16. Spectroscopic Measurements of Planar Foil Plasmas Driven by a MA LTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Steiner, Adam; Jordan, Nick; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Planar foil ablation experiments are being conducted on the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. The experiment consists of a 400 nm-thick, Al planar foil and a current return post. An optical fiber is placed perpendicular to the magnetic field and linear polarizers are used to isolate the pi and sigma lines. The LTD is charged to +/-70 kV with approximately 400-500 kA passing through the foil. Laser shadowgraphy has previously imaged the plasma and measured anisotropy in the Magneto Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. Localized magnetic field measurements using Zeeman splitting during the current rise is expected to yield some insight into this anisotropy. Initial experiments use Na D lines of Al foils seeded with sodium to measure Zeeman splitting. Several ion lines are also currently being studied, such as Al III and C IV, to probe the higher temperature core plasma. In planned experiments, several lens-coupled optical fibers will be placed across the foil, and local magnetic field measurements will be taken to measure current division within the plasma. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager supported by NSF fellowship Grant DGE 1256260.

  17. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  18. The lattice correspondence and diffusional-displacive phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J.F.; Muddle, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    When a coherent interface is maintained between parent and product phases in a solid state phase transformation, then it is always possible to define a lattice correspondence across this interface and describe the structural change by a homogeneous lattice deformation, S T . For certain transformations, this strain is an invariant plane strain, with the invariant plane defining the planar, coherent interface between parent and product. This group includes the familiar martensitic face-centred cubic to close-packed hexagonal transformation in, for example, cobalt-based alloys, but it is demonstrated here that it also contains transformations giving rise to a broad range of plate-shaped, diffusional precipitation products. For many such transformation products, the transformation strain has a significant shear component and the accommodation of shear strain energy is potentially an important, and often overlooked, factor in both the nucleation and growth of such products. More commonly S T is not an invariant plane strain and, if a planar interface is to be preserved between parent and product, it is necessary to combine S T with a lattice invariant strain to allow a partially-coherent interface that is macroscopically invariant. It is demonstrated that there are diffusional transformation products which also have the geometric and crystallographic features of both of the common forms of partially-coherent martensitic products

  19. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  20. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  1. Optimal Design and Tradeoffs Analysis for Planar Transformer in High Power DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    with optimal behaviors is proposed, which constructs the top layer paralleling with the bottom layer and then in series with the other turns of the primary so that a lower magneto motive force (MMF) ratio m can be obtained as well as minimized AC resistance, leakage inductance and even stray capacitance. A 1...

  2. Conservation of Planar Polarity Pathway Function Across the Animal Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Rosalind; Strutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Planar polarity is a well-studied phenomenon resulting in the directional coordination of cells in the plane of a tissue. In invertebrates and vertebrates, planar polarity is established and maintained by the largely independent core and Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Ft-Ds-Fj) pathways. Loss of function of these pathways can result in a wide range of developmental or cellular defects, including failure of gastrulation and problems with placement and function of cilia. This review discusses the conservation of these pathways across the animal kingdom. The lack of vital core pathway components in basal metazoans suggests that the core planar polarity pathway evolved shortly after, but not necessarily alongside, the emergence of multicellularity.

  3. A constant gradient planar accelerating structure for linac use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Matthews, P.J.; Kustom, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Planar accelerating millimeter-wave structures have been studied during the last few years at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with Technical University of Berlin. The cavity structures are intended to be manufactured by using x-ray lithography microfabrication technology. A complete structure consists of two identical planar half structures put together face-to-face. Since microfabrication technology can make a since-depth indentation on a planar substrate, realizing the constant impedance structure was possible but a constant gradient structure was difficult; changing the group velocity along the structure while maintaining the gap and the depth of the indentation constant was difficult. A constant gradient structure has been devised by introducing a cut between the adjacent cavity cells along the beam axis of each half structure. The width of the cut is varied along the longitudinal axis of the structure to have proper coupling between the cells. The result of the computer simulation on such structures is shown

  4. Quasi-planar elemental clusters in pair interactions approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chkhartishvili Levan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair-interactions approximation, when applied to describe elemental clusters, only takes into account bonding between neighboring atoms. According to this approach, isomers of wrapped forms of 2D clusters – nanotubular and fullerene-like structures – and truly 3D clusters, are generally expected to be more stable than their quasi-planar counterparts. This is because quasi-planar clusters contain more peripheral atoms with dangling bonds and, correspondingly, fewer atoms with saturated bonds. However, the differences in coordination numbers between central and peripheral atoms lead to the polarization of bonds. The related corrections to the molar binding energy can make small, quasi-planar clusters more stable than their 2D wrapped allotropes and 3D isomers. The present work provides a general theoretical frame for studying the relative stability of small elemental clusters within the pair interactions approximation.

  5. Feasibility of Parylene Coating for Planar Electroporation Copper Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalij NOVICKIJ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the feasibility study of parylene as a biocompatible coating for planar electroporation microelectrodes. The planar parallel and the circular interdigitated electrodes are applied in the analysis. The electrodes feature 100 μm width with a 300 μm gap between anode and cathode. The parylene coating thickness was varied in the 250 nm – 2 μm range. The resultant electric field distribution evaluation has been performed using the finite element method. The electrodes have been applied in electroporation experiments with Saprolegnia parasitica. For reference the additional experiments using conventional electroporation cuvette (1 mm gap have been performed. It has been determined that the parylene coating with hydrophobic properties has limited applicability for the passivation of the planar electroporation electrodes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.14953

  6. Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology Design, Simulation, and Fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, Siegfried; Tanev, Stoyan

    2005-01-01

    This book is the result of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology, which took place in Ottawa, Canada from September 21-25, 2004. Many of the world’s leading experts in integrated photonic design, theory and experiment were invited to give lectures in their fields of expertise, and participate in discussions on current research and applications, as well as the new directions planar lightwave circuit technology is evolving towards. The sum of their contributions to this book constitutes an excellent record of many key issues and scientific problems in planar lightwave circuit research at the time of writing. In this volume the reader will find detailed overviews of experimental and theoretical work in high index contrast waveguide systems, micro-optical resonators, nonlinear optics, and advanced optical simulation methods, as well as articles describing emerging applications of integrated optics for medical and biological applications.

  7. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index of the films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  8. Planar waveguide amplifiers and laser in erbium doped silica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    with UV-light and that permanent Bragg-gratings can be induced. Planar waveguide lasers with integrated Bragg-gratings are manufactured and characterised. It is shown that linewidths below 125 kHz and output powers around 0.5 mW can be obtained, and that the manufactured lasers are resistant to mechanical...... lightwave circuits, as well as provide the gain medium for integrated planar waveguide lasers. The work and the obtained results are presented in this thesis: The manufacturing of silica thin films is described and it is shown that the refractive index o fthe films can be controlled by germanium co...... as well as thermal influence. A simple method for producing an array of planar waveguide lasers is presented and it is shown that the difference in output wavelength of the individual lasers can be controlled with great accuracy....

  9. Field-induced quantum criticality of a spin-1/2 planar ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercaldo, M T; Rabuffo, I; Cesare, L De; D'Auria, A Caramico

    2009-01-01

    The low-temperature critical properties and crossovers of a spin- 1/2 planar ferromagnet in a longitudinal magnetic field are explored in terms of an anisotropic bosonic action, suitable to describe the spin model in the low-temperature regime. This is performed adopting a procedure which combines an averaging over dynamic degrees of freedom and the classical Wilson renormalization group transformation. Within this framework we get the phase boundary, ending in a quantum critical point, and general expressions for the correlation length and susceptibility as functions of the temperature and the applied magnetic field within the disordered phase. In particular, two crossovers occur decreasing the temperature with the magnetic field fixed at its quantum critical point value, which might be actually observable in complex magnetic compounds, as suggested by recent experiments.

  10. Progress on a Vlasov Treatment of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from Arbitrary Planar Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bassi, Gabriele; Warnock, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates (shielding). The time evolution of the phase space distribution is determined by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This provides lower numerical noise than the macroparticle method, and allows the study of emittance degradation and microbunching in bunch compressors. We calculate the fields excited by the bunch in the lab frame using a formula simpler than that based on retarded potentials.* We have developed an algorithm for solving the Vlasov equation in the beam frame using arc length as the independent variable and our method of local characteristics (discretized Perron-Frobenius operator).We integrate in the interaction picture in the hope that we can adopt a fixed grid. The distribution function will be represented by B-splines, in a scheme preserving positivity and normalization of the distribution. The transformation between l...

  11. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  12. Closed-form Solution to Directly Design FACE Waveforms for Beampatterns Using Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-04-19

    In multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest. To do this, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization, therefore, use iterative algorithms. The main challenges encountered in the existing approaches are the computational complexity and the design of waveforms to use in practice. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design covariance matrix for the given beampattern using the planar array, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope (FACE) waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional fast-Fourier-transform. The performance of our proposed algorithm is compared with existing methods that are based on semi-definite quadratic programming with the advantage of a considerably reduced complexity.

  13. Planar Submillimeter-Wave Mixer Technology with Integrated Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Gautam; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John J.; Lee, Choonsup; lombart, Muria L.; Thomas, Betrand

    2010-01-01

    High-performance mixers at terahertz frequencies require good matching between the coupling circuits such as antennas and local oscillators and the diode embedding impedance. With the availability of amplifiers at submillimeter wavelengths and the need to have multi-pixel imagers and cameras, planar mixer architecture is required to have an integrated system. An integrated mixer with planar antenna provides a compact and optimized design at terahertz frequencies. Moreover, it leads to a planar architecture that enables efficient interconnect with submillimeter-wave amplifiers. In this architecture, a planar slot antenna is designed on a thin gallium arsenide (GaAs) membrane in such a way that the beam on either side of the membrane is symmetric and has good beam profile with high coupling efficiency. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupled Schottky diode mixer is designed and integrated with the antenna. In this architecture, the local oscillator (LO) is coupled through one side of the antenna and the RF from the other side, without requiring any beam sp litters or diplexers. The intermediate frequency (IF) comes out on a 50-ohm CPW line at the edge of the mixer chip, which can be wire-bonded to external circuits. This unique terahertz mixer has an integrated single planar antenna for coupling both the radio frequency (RF) input and LO injection without any diplexer or beamsplitters. The design utilizes novel planar slot antenna architecture on a 3- mthick GaAs membrane. This work is required to enable future multi-pixel terahertz receivers for astrophysics missions, and lightweight and compact receivers for planetary missions to the outer planets in our solar system. Also, this technology can be used in tera hertz radar imaging applications as well as for testing of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs).

  14. Non-Gaussian Stochastic Radiation Transfer in Finite Planar Media with Quadratic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallah, M.

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic radiation transfer is considered in a participating planar finite continuously fluctuating medium characterized by non-Gaussian variability. The problem is considered for diffuse-reflecting boundaries with quadratic Rayleigh scattering. Random variable transformation (RVT) technique is used to get the complete average for the solution functions that are represented by the probability-density function (PDF) of the solution process. RVT algorithm applies a simple integral transformation to the input stochastic process (the extinction function of the medium). This linear transformation enables us to rewrite the stochastic transport equations in terms of the optical random variable (x) and the optical random thickness (L). Then the radiation transfer equation is solved deterministically to get a closed form for the solution as a function of x and L. So, the solution is used to obtain the PDF of the solution functions applying the RVT technique among the input random variable (L) and the output process (the solution functions). The obtained averages of the solution functions are used to get the complete analytical averages for some interesting physical quantities, namely, reflectivity, transmissivity and partial heat fluxes at the medium boundaries. Numerical results are represented graphically for different non-Gaussian probability distribution functions that compared with the corresponding Gaussian PDF.

  15. Planar Near-Field Measurements of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    Planar near-field measurements are formulated for a general ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. A total plane-wave scattering matrix is defined for the system consisting of the GPR antenna and the planar air-soil interface. The transmitting spectrum of the GPR antenna is expressed in terms...... of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical example in which the scan plane is finite validates the expressions for the spectrum of the GPR antenna....

  16. Geometrically induced surface polaritons in planar nanostructured metallic cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, P. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Intravia, F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We examine the modal structure and dispersion of periodically nanostructured planar metallic cavities within the scattering matrix formulation. By nanostructuring a metallic grating in a planar cavity, artificial surface excitations or spoof plasmon modes are induced with dispersion determined by the periodicity and geometric characteristics of the grating. These spoof surface plasmon modes are shown to give rise to new cavity polaritonic modes at short mirror separations that modify the density of modes in nanostructured cavities. The increased modal density of states form cavity polarirons have a large impact on the fluctuation induced electromagnetic forces and enhanced hear transfer at short separations.

  17. Tests of planar permanent magnet multipole focusing elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.; Tatchyn, R.

    1993-08-01

    In recent work, planar configurations of permanent magnets were proposed as substitutes for conventional current-driven iron quadrupoles in applications limited by small aperture sizes and featuring small beam occupation diameters. Important examples include the configuring of focusing lattices in small-gap insertion devices, and the implementation of compact mini-beta sections on linear or circular machines. In subsequent analysis, this approach was extended to sextupoles and higher-order multipoles. In this paper we report on initial measurements conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center on recently fabricated planar permanent magnet quadrupoles and sextupoles configured out of SmCo and NdFe/B

  18. Two characteristics of planar intertwined basins of attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Changming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new mathematical definition of intertwined basins of attraction is proposed. ► Basins are intertwined iff a limit set of stable manifold contains at least two points. ► Basins are intertwined iff the closure of stable manifold is not arc-connected. ► The intertwining property is preserved by topologically equivalent dynamical systems. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the intertwined basins of attraction for planar dynamical systems. We prove that the intertwining property is preserved by topologically equivalent systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for a planar system having intertwined basins are given.

  19. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...

  20. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Symmetric Planar Metamaterial at THz Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwaheb Ourir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation and the evidence of the analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT in a symmetric planar metamaterial. This effect has been obtained in the THz range thanks to a destructive Fano-interference between the two first modes of an array of multi-gap split ring resonators deposited on a silicon substrate. This structure is a planar thin film material with four-fold symmetry. Thanks to this property, a polarization-independent transmission has been achieved. The proposed metamaterial is well adapted to variety of slow-light applications in the infrared and optical range.

  1. Planar waveguide laser in Er/Al-doped germanosilicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas; Hübner, Jörg; Kristensen, Martin

    1999-01-01

    A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations.......A singlemode DBR laser is demonstrated in an Er/Al-doped germanosilicate planar waveguide. 0.4 mW of output power has been obtained at 1.553 mu m using internal Bragg reflectors produced by UV-induced index modulations....

  2. Evaluated Rayleigh integrals for pulsed planar expanding ring sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warshaw, S.I.

    1985-01-01

    Time-domain analytic and semianalytic pressure fields acoustically radiated from expanding pulsed ring sources imbedded in a planar rigid baffle have been calculated. The source functions are radially symmetric delta-function distributions whose amplitude and argument have simple functional dependencies on radius and time. Certain cases yield closed analytic results, while others result in elliptic integrals, which are evaluated to high accuracy by Gauss-Chebyshev and modified Gauss-Legendre quadrature. These results are of value for calibrating computer simulations and convolution procedures, and estimating fields from more complex planar radiators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  3. Propagation of partially coherent fields through planar dielectric boundaries using angle-impact Wigner functions I. Two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Jonathan C; Alonso, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    We examine the angle-impact Wigner function (AIW) as a computational tool for the propagation of nonparaxial quasi-monochromatic light of any degree of coherence past a planar boundary between two homogeneous media. The AIWs of the reflected and transmitted fields in two dimensions are shown to be given by a simple ray-optical transformation of the incident AIW plus a series of corrections in the form of differential operators. The radiometric and leading six correction terms are studied for Gaussian Schell-model fields of varying transverse width, transverse coherence, and angle of incidence.

  4. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  5. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  6. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  7. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dielectric properties of transformer paper impregnated by mineral oil based magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timko, M; Marton, K; Tomco, L; Kopcansky, P; Koneracka, M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of combined magnetic and electric field on permittivity of transformer paper used in power transformers was observed. Transformer paper was impregnated by pure transformer oil ITO 100 and magnetic fluids based on transformer oil ITO 100 with different concentrations of magnetite nanoparticles. The measurements were carried out with help of high precision capacitance bridge. The electric intensity between circular planar electrodes was in the region of weak electric field (E > 10 6 V/m). The increase of electric permittivity of transformer paper impregnated by magnetic fluid opposite pure transformer paper was observed. The experiments showed that permittivity of insulator system consisting of pure transformer paper and impregnated transformer paper naturally depends on number of paper layers. The magnetodielectric effect was found to be dependent on magnetite nanoparticles concentration in magnetic fluids.

  9. Modeling of ironless permanent magnet planar motor structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, de J.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an analytical model that includes end effects for ironless synchronous permanent-magnet planar actuators. Because of its flexibility, the model can be used to predict the performance of various permanent-magnet array and coil array topologies and commutation schemes. Moreover,

  10. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  11. Planar passive electromagnetic deflector for millimeter-wave frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelijn, M.C.T.; Akkermans, J.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A novel passive planar structure is proposed that is able to deflect an incoming electromagnetic (EM) wave into a desired direction. The direction of the outgoing EM wave is determined by the design of this deflector. The deflector can be used to extend coverage of a steerable source with limited

  12. Geometry of infinite planar maps with high degrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George; Curien, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometry of infinite random Boltzmann planar maps with vertices of high degree. These correspond to the duals of the Boltzmann maps associated to a critical weight sequence (qk)k≥0 for the faces with polynomial decay k-ɑ with ɑ ∈ (3/2,5/2)which have been studied by Le Gall & Miermont...

  13. Level shift and charm mass: a test of asymptotic planarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, W.F.; Pinsky, S.S.; Shi, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    Level shifts and mixings away from exact exchange degeneracy are examined with respect to the ''asymptotic planarity'' predictions of Chew and Rosenzweig. It is found that the data in the J/sup P/ = 0 - , 1 - , and 2 + multiplets support neither the general shape nor the special relation proposed by Chew and Rosenzweig for the tensor and vector ''cylinder'' corrections

  14. Magnetic microbead detection using the planar Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejsing, Louise; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Menon, Aric K.; Ferreira, Hugo A.; Graham, Daniel L.; Freitas, Paulo P.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic sensors based on the planar Hall effect of exchanged-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. It is demonstrated that the sensors are feasible for detecting just a few commercial 2.0 μm magnetic beads commonly used for bioseparation (Micromer-M, Micromod, Germany) and that the sensor sense current is sufficient to generate a signal from the beads

  15. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hu, Yonghong [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry and Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Hu, Ziyu, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-13

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  16. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices

  17. Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo

    2015-07-01

    Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.

  18. Planar concentrators at the étendue limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2005-08-01

    Recently proposed aplanatic imaging designs are integrally combined with nonimaging flux boosters to produce an ultra-compact planar dielectric-filled concentrator that performs near the étendue limit. Such optical devices are attractive for high-efficiency multi-junction photovoltaics at high flux, with realistic power generation of 1 W from a 1 mm2 cell.

  19. Graphene Q-switched Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Jun Wan; Choi, Sun Young; Aravazhi, S.; Pollnau, Markus; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Bae, Sukang; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian

    A diode-pumped Yb:KYW planar waveguide laser, single-mode Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene, is demonstrated for the first time. Few-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is transferred onto the top of a guiding layer, which initiates stable Q-switched operation in

  20. GE NANOCLUSTERS IN PLANAR GLASS WAVEGUIDES DEPOSITED BY PECVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou; Olsen, Johnny H.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    Germanium (Ge) has been widely used as the dopant in the core layer of planar glass waveguides to increase the refractive index because it gives a small propagation loss. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and flame hydrolysis deposition (FHD) are two main material deposition meth...

  1. A QQ→QQ planar double box in canonical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Bianchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a planar double box with four massive external momenta and two massive internal propagators. We derive the system of differential equations for the relevant master integrals, cast it in canonical form, write it as a dlog form and solve it in terms of iterated integrals up to depth four.

  2. Characterization of a planar microcoil for implantable microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neagu, Cristina; Rusu, C.R.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Smith, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    This paper discusses the modelling, design and characterization of planar microcoils to be used in telemetry systems that supply energy to miniaturized implants. Parasitic electrical effects that may become important at a.c. frequencies of several megahertz are evaluated. The fabrication process and

  3. A nitrate sensitive planar optode; performance and interferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed nitrate sensitive planar optode. It exhibits a linear response to nitrate from 1 to 50 mM at pH 8.0, a fast response time below 10 s and a good lifetime, allowing for fast two dimensional nitrate measurements over long periods of time. Interference from nitrite...

  4. Characteristics and optimisation of vertical and planar tunnelling-FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, M; Wang, P-F; Nirschl, T; Fabel, B; Bhuwalka, K K; Schulze, J; Eisele, I; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D; Hansch, W

    2005-01-01

    Scaling MOSFETs becomes more and more difficult. The tunnelling-FET is a possible successor of today's MOSFET with better scaling possibilities. Two different device structures, a vertical and a planar version of a tunnelling-FET are presented and evaluated

  5. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James

    2011-12-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies.

  6. Slices: A shape-proxy based on planar sections

    KAUST Repository

    McCrae, James; Singh, Karan S.; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2011-01-01

    of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects

  7. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  8. A planar microfluidic mixer based on logarithmic spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, Thomas; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Quitadamo, Christian; Tesvich, Preston; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Hayes, Daniel; Monroe, W Todd; Tiersch, Terrence; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A passive, planar micromixer design based on logarithmic spirals is presented. The device was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques, and mixing performance was characterized via numerical simulation and fluorescent microscopy. Mixing efficiency initially declined as the Reynolds number increased, and this trend continued until a Reynolds number of 15 where a minimum was reached at 53%. Mixing efficiency then began to increase reaching a maximum mixing efficiency of 86% at Re = 67. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of fluid mixing in this design were compared to other planar geometries such as the Archimedes spiral and Meandering-S mixers. The implementation of logarithmic curvature offers several unique advantages that enhance mixing, namely a variable cross-sectional area and a logarithmically varying radius of curvature that creates 3D Dean vortices. These flow phenomena were observed in simulations with multilayered fluid folding and validated with confocal microscopy. This design provides improved mixing performance over a broader range of Reynolds numbers than other reported planar mixers, all while avoiding external force fields, more complicated fabrication processes and the introduction of flow obstructions or cavities that may unintentionally affect sensitive or particulate-containing samples. Due to the planar design requiring only single-step lithographic features, this compact geometry could be easily implemented into existing micro-total analysis systems requiring effective rapid mixing. (paper)

  9. External Memory Planar Point Location with Logarithmic Updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Satti, Srinivasa Rao

    2008-01-01

    Point location is an extremely well-studied problem both in internal memory models and recently also in the external memory model. In this paper, we present an I/O-efficient dynamic data structure for point location in general planar subdivisions. Our structure uses linear space to store...

  10. Constrained Quantum Mechanics: Chaos in Non-Planar Billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, R.; Tellez, G.

    2012-01-01

    We illustrate some of the techniques to identify chaos signatures at the quantum level using as guiding examples some systems where a particle is constrained to move on a radial symmetric, but non-planar, surface. In particular, two systems are studied: the case of a cone with an arbitrary contour or "dunce hat billiard" and the rectangular…

  11. Sacrificial wafer bonding for planarization after very deep etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, V.L.; Spiering, Vincent L.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A new technique is presented that provides planarization after a very deep etching step in silicon. This offers the possibility for as well resist spinning and layer patterning as realization of bridges or cantilevers across deep holes or grooves. The sacrificial wafer bonding technique contains a

  12. ON THE VOLUME FROM PLANAR SECTIONS THROUGH A CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximo Gual-Arnau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We derive a formula to obtain the volume of a compact domain from planar sections through a curve. From this formula we propose a stereological estimator for the volume which generalizes some known unbiased estimators which use a systematic sampling scheme. Moreover we formulate a Cavalieri's principle for compact domains is spaces of constant curvature λ.

  13. Rhombic embeddings of planar graphs with faces of degree 4

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard; Schlenker, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite or infinite planar graph all of whose faces have degree 4, we study embeddings in the plane in which all edges have length 1, that is, in which every face is a rhombus. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such an embedding, as well as a description of the set of all such embeddings.

  14. Stimulated Raman gain scattering in thin planar dielectric waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Otto, Cornelis; Greve, Jan

    1995-01-01

    The stimulated Raman gain effect in planar dielectric waveguides is analyzed for the study of thin layers. Calculations show high gain factors and predict the possibility of detecting monolayers. Compared with those for methods based on ref lection, the gain can be 4 orders of magnitude higher for a

  15. Planar defects and dislocations in transition-metal disilicides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Čák, M.; Šob, Mojmír; Inui, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, Mar (2015), s. 43-49 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:68081723 Keywords : intermetallics * dislocation structure * planar fault s * ab-initio calculation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.541, year: 2015

  16. Cut cancellation in the planar integral equation for the Reggeon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.; Veneziano, G.

    1975-01-01

    Planar unitarity for the Reggeon, analyticity and the multi-Regge assumption with cluster production lead to integral equations of the Chew-Goldberger-Low type with separable self-consistent kernel. Contrary to common prejudice, the authors show the existence of solutions exhibiting moving poles and exact, non-perturbative cancellation of the cut. Previously studied consistency conditions are rederived. (Auth.)

  17. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beimforde, M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the R and D project on Planar Pixel Sensor Technology for the ATLAS inner detector upgrade, the use of planar pixel sensors for highest fluences as well as large area silicon detectors is investigated. The main research goals are optimizing the signal size after irradiations, reducing the inactive sensor edges, adjusting the readout electronics to the radiation induced decrease of the signal sizes, and reducing the production costs. Planar n-in-p sensors have been irradiated with neutrons and protons up to fluences of 2x10 16 n eq /cm 2 and 1x10 16 n eq /cm 2 , respectively, to study the collected charge as a function of the irradiation dose received. Furthermore comparisons of irradiated standard 300μm and thin 140μm sensors will be presented showing an increase of signal sizes after irradiation in thin sensors. Tuning studies of the present ATLAS front end electronics show possibilities to decrease the discriminator threshold of the present FE-I3 read out chips to less than 1500 electrons. In the present pixel detector upgrade scenarios a flat stave design for the innermost layers requires reduced inactive areas at the sensor edges to ensure low geometric inefficiencies. Investigations towards achieving slim edges presented here show possibilities to reduce the width of the inactive area to less than 500μm. Furthermore, a brief overview of present simulation activities within the Planar Pixel R and D project is given.

  18. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a kn...

  19. Analysis and design of efficient planar leaky-wave antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettore, M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effective design of planar leaky-wave antennas. The work describes a methodology based on the polar expansion of Green's function representations to address very different geometrical configurations which might appear to have little in common. In fact leaky waves with

  20. Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Menon, Aric Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 muV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 ...

  1. Instantaneous planar pressure determination from PIV in turbulent flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kat, R.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the determination of instantaneous planar pressure fields from velocity data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in turbulent flow. The operating principles of pressure determination using a Eulerian or a Lagrangian approach are described together with theoretical

  2. Panel and planar experimental shear behavior of wood panels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...

  3. Optically active Babinet planar metamaterial film for terahertz polarization manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Kremers, C.

    2013-01-01

    A planar Babinet-inverted dimer metamaterial possessing strong optical activity is proposed and characterized. An original fabrication method to produce large area (up to several cm2) freely suspended flexible metallic membranes is implemented to fabricate the metamaterial. Its optical properties...

  4. In vitro quantification of the performance of model-based mono-planar and bi-planar fluoroscopy for 3D joint kinematics estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tersi, Luca; Barré, Arnaud; Fantozzi, Silvia; Stagni, Rita

    2013-03-01

    Model-based mono-planar and bi-planar 3D fluoroscopy methods can quantify intact joints kinematics with performance/cost trade-off. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of mono- and bi-planar setups to a marker-based gold-standard, during dynamic phantom knee acquisitions. Absolute pose errors for in-plane parameters were lower than 0.6 mm or 0.6° for both mono- and bi-planar setups. Mono-planar setups resulted critical in quantifying the out-of-plane translation (error bi-planar in quantifying the rotation along bone longitudinal axis (error bi-planar (error comparable to bi-planar, but with halved computational costs, halved segmentation time and halved ionizing radiation dose. Bi-planar analysis better compensated for the out-of-plane uncertainty that is differently propagated to relative kinematics depending on the setup. To take its full benefits, the motion task to be investigated should be designed to maintain the joint inside the visible volume introducing constraints with respect to mono-planar analysis.

  5. Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne

    Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.

  6. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  7. The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least ...

  8. Conformal, planarizing and bridging AZ5214-E layers deposited by a 'draping' technique on non-planar III V substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliás, P.; Strichovanec, P.; Kostic, I.; Novák, J.

    2006-12-01

    A draping technique was tested for the deposition of positive-tone AZ5214-E photo-resist layers on non-planar (1 0 0)-oriented III-V substrates, which had a variety of three-dimensional (3D) topographies micromachined in them that consisted, e.g., of mesa ridges confined to side facets with variable tilt, inverted pyramidal holes and stubs confined to perpendicular side facets. All objects were sharp-edged. In each draping experiment, an AZ5214-E sheet was (1) formed floating on the water surface, (2) lowered onto a non-planar substrate and (3) draped over it during drying to form either self-sustained, or conformal, or planarizing layers over the non-planar substrates. The draping process is based on the depression of the glass transition temperature Tg of AZ5214-E material induced by penetrant water molecules that interact with AZ5214-E. During the process, the molecules are initially trapped under an AZ5214-E sheet and then transported out through the sheet via permeation. The water-AZ5214-E interaction modifies the stiffness κ of the sheet. The magnitude of the effect depends on temperature T and on partial water vapour pressure difference p(T, P, κ): the net effect is that Tg = f(C(T, P), p(T, P, κ)) is lowered as the concentration C of water increases with T and p, where P is the permeability of the sheet. The interaction depressed the Tg of the sheets as low as or lower than 53 °C for 6 µm thick sheets. At room temperature T Tg, the sheet becomes rubbery and mouldable by adhesion and capillary forces. As a result, it can either contour or planarize the topography depending on its geometry and thickness of the sheet.

  9. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  10. Creation and perturbation of planar networks of chemical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Nathan; Cambria, Matthew Carl; Wang, Adam L.; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Methods for creating custom planar networks of diffusively coupled chemical oscillators and perturbing individual oscillators within the network are presented. The oscillators consist of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction contained in an emulsion. Networks of drops of the BZ reaction are created with either Dirichlet (constant-concentration) or Neumann (no-flux) boundary conditions in a custom planar configuration using programmable illumination for the perturbations. The differences between the observed network dynamics for each boundary condition are described. Using light, we demonstrate the ability to control the initial conditions of the network and to cause individual oscillators within the network to undergo sustained period elongation or a one-time phase delay. PMID:26117136

  11. Planar Bragg Grating Sensors—Fabrication and Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. G. Sparrow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the background and technology of planar Bragg grating sensors, reviewing their development and describing the latest developments. The physical operating principles are discussed, relating device operation to user requirements. Recent performance of such devices includes a planar Bragg grating sensor design which allows refractive index resolution of 1.9×10−6 RIU and temperature resolution of 0.03∘C. This sensor design is incorporated into industrialised applications allowing the sensor to be used for real time sensing in intrinsically safe, high-pressure pipelines, or for insertion probe applications such as fermentation. Initial data demonstrating the ability to identify solvents and monitor long term industrial processes is presented. A brief review of the technology used to fabricate the sensors is given along with examples of the flexibility afforded by the technique.

  12. Planar-integrated single-crystalline perovskite photodetectors

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2015-11-09

    Hybrid perovskites are promising semiconductors for optoelectronic applications. However, they suffer from morphological disorder that limits their optoelectronic properties and, ultimately, device performance. Recently, perovskite single crystals have been shown to overcome this problem and exhibit impressive improvements: low trap density, low intrinsic carrier concentration, high mobility, and long diffusion length that outperform perovskite-based thin films. These characteristics make the material ideal for realizing photodetection that is simultaneously fast and sensitive; unfortunately, these macroscopic single crystals cannot be grown on a planar substrate, curtailing their potential for optoelectronic integration. Here we produce large-area planar-integrated films made up of large perovskite single crystals. These crystalline films exhibit mobility and diffusion length comparable with those of single crystals. Using this technique, we produced a high-performance light detector showing high gain (above 104 electrons per photon) and high gain-bandwidth product (above 108 Hz) relative to other perovskite-based optical sensors.

  13. Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    structural properties that can be exploited. For instance, a road network or a wire layout on a microchip is typically (near-)planar and distances in the network are often defined w.r.t. the Euclidean or the rectilinear metric. Specialized algorithms that take advantage of such properties are often orders...... of magnitude faster than the corresponding algorithms for general graphs. The first and main part of this thesis focuses on the development of efficient planar graph algorithms. The most important contributions include a faster single-source shortest path algorithm, a distance oracle with subquadratic...... for geometric graphs and graphs embedded in metric spaces. Roughly speaking, the stretch factor is a real value expressing how well a (geo-)metric graph approximates the underlying complete graph w.r.t. distances. We give improved algorithms for computing the stretch factor of a given graph and for augmenting...

  14. Development of electrothermal actuation based planar variable optical attenuators (VOAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chengkuo; Yeh, J Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Several sorts of MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) based have been demonstrated by using electrostatic actuation scheme up to date. The comb drive and parallel plate are the two most common electrostatic actuators that have been well studied in variable optical attenuator (VOA) applications. In addition to the known retro-reflection type of optical attenuation being realized by our new devices driven by electrothermal actuators in present study, a novel planar tilted mirror with rotational and translation moving capability is proposed by using electrothermal actuators as well. Using electrothermal actuators to provide said planar tilted mirror with rotational and translational displacement has granted us a more efficient way to perform the light attenuation for in-plane structure. The static and transient characteristics of devices operated at ambient room temperature environment show good repeatability and stability

  15. Performance of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under light concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaesha Alnuaimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present 2D simulation of planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells under high concentration using physics-based TCAD. The performance of planar perovskite heterojunction solar cells is examined up to 1000 suns. We analyze the effect of HTM mobility and band structure, surface recombination velocities at interfaces and the effect of series resistance under concentrated light. The simulation results revealed that the low mobility of HTM material limits the improvement in power conversation efficiency of perovskite solar cells under concentration. In addition, large band offset at perovskite/HTM interface contributes to the high series resistance. Moreover, losses due to high surface recombination at interfaces and the high series resistance deteriorate significantly the performance of perovskite solar cells under concentration.

  16. Development of planar SOE/SOFC reversible cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, A.; Matsubara, H.; Kikuoka, Y.; Yanagi, C.; Kugimiya, K.; Yoshino, M.; Tokura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Ueda, S.; Sumi, M.; Miyamoto, H.; Tokunaga, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new energy storage system using SOE/SOFC (solid oxide electrolysis-solid oxide fuel cells) reversible cells is presented, where a unit cell works as a fuel cell during a period of high electric power demand and alternately works as an electrolysis cell during a period of low power demand. A planar cell configuration is used which allows for a compact and low cost energy storage and load leveling system for power stations. Tests were performed to verify the reversibility of the planar cell, at 1000 deg C, with YSZ (Yttria stabilized zirconia) as the solid electrolyte, to improve the cell performance by reducing the overvoltage in electrolysis, and to obtain fundamental characteristics of a reversible cell. 3 figs

  17. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes.

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jixian

    2015-05-08

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3(-) antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  18. Perovskite-fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-05-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite-PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3- antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour.

  19. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  20. Resonance transparency with low-loss in toroidal planar metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tianyu; Lei, Tao; Hu, Sen; Chen, Jiao; Huang, Xiaojun; Yang, Helin

    2018-03-01

    A compact planar construction composed of asymmetric split ring resonators was designed with a low-loss, high Q-factor resonance transparency at microwave frequency. The singularity property of the proposed metamaterial owing to the enhanced toroidal dipole T is demonstrated via numerical and experimental methods. The transmission peak can reach up to 0.91 and the loss is perfectly repressed, which can be testified by radiated power, H-field distributions, and the imaginary parts of effective permittivity and permeability. The designed planar metamaterial may have numerous potential applications at microwave, terahertz, and optical frequency, e.g., for ultrasensitive sensing, slow-light devices, lasing spacers, even invisible information transfer.

  1. A fabrication guide for planar silicon quantum dot heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijtenburg, Paul C.; Amitonov, Sergey V.; van der Wiel, Wilfred G.; Zwanenburg, Floris A.

    2018-04-01

    We describe important considerations to create top-down fabricated planar quantum dots in silicon, often not discussed in detail in literature. The subtle interplay between intrinsic material properties, interfaces and fabrication processes plays a crucial role in the formation of electrostatically defined quantum dots. Processes such as oxidation, physical vapor deposition and atomic-layer deposition must be tailored in order to prevent unwanted side effects such as defects, disorder and dewetting. In two directly related manuscripts written in parallel we use techniques described in this work to create depletion-mode quantum dots in intrinsic silicon, and low-disorder silicon quantum dots defined with palladium gates. While we discuss three different planar gate structures, the general principles also apply to 0D and 1D systems, such as self-assembled islands and nanowires.

  2. Stability of Brillouin flow in planar, conventional, and inverted magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, D. H.; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, G.; Wong, P.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Hoff, B. W.

    2015-01-01

    The Brillouin flow is the prevalent flow in crossed-field devices. We systematically study its stability in the conventional, planar, and inverted magnetron geometry. To investigate the intrinsic negative mass effect in Brillouin flow, we consider electrostatic modes in a nonrelativistic, smooth bore magnetron. We found that the Brillouin flow in the inverted magnetron is more unstable than that in a planar magnetron, which in turn is more unstable than that in the conventional magnetron. Thus, oscillations in the inverted magnetron may startup faster than the conventional magnetron. This result is consistent with simulations, and with the negative mass property in the inverted magnetron configuration. Inclusion of relativistic effects and electromagnetic effects does not qualitatively change these conclusions

  3. Planar edgeless silicon detectors for the TOTEM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, G; Noschis, E

    2007-01-01

    Recently the first prototype of microstrip edgeless silicon detector for the TOTEM experiment has been successfully produced and tested. This detector is fabricated with standard planar technology, reach sensitivity 50 μm from the cut edge and can operate with high bias at room temperature. These almost edgeless detectors employ a newly conceived terminating structure, which, although being reduced with respect to the conventional ones, still controls the electric field at the device periphery and prevents leakage current breakdown for high bias. Detectors with the new terminating structure are being produced now and will be installed at LHC in the Roman Pots, a special beam insertion, to allow the TOTEM experiment to detect leading protons at 10 σ from the beam. This paper will describe this new terminating structure for planar silicon detectors, how it applies to big size devices and the experimental tests proving their functionality.

  4. Planar-channeling spatial density under statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    The phase-space density for planar channeled particles has been derived for the continuum model under statistical equilibrium. This is used to obtain the particle spatial probability density as a function of incident angle. The spatial density is shown to depend on only two parameters, a normalized incident angle and a normalized planar spacing. This normalization is used to obtain, by numerical calculation, a set of universal curves for the spatial density and also for the channeled-particle wavelength as a function of amplitude. Using these universal curves, the statistical-equilibrium spatial density and the channeled-particle wavelength can be easily obtained for any case for which the continuum model can be applied. Also, a new one-parameter analytic approximation to the spatial density is developed. This parabolic approximation is shown to give excellent agreement with the exact calculations

  5. Planar solid oxide fuel cells: the Australian experience and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Bruce; Föger, Karl; Gillespie, Rohan; Bolden, Roger; Badwal, S. P. S.

    Since 1992, Ceramic Fuel Cells (CFCL) has grown to what is now the largest focussed program globally for development of planar ceramic (solid oxide) fuel cell, SOFC, technology. A significant intellectual property position in know-how and patents has been developed, with over 80 people involved in the venture. Over $A60 million in funding for the activities of the company has been raised from private companies, government-owned corporations and government business-support programs, including from energy — particularly electricity — industry shareholders that can facilitate access to local markets for our products. CFCL has established state-of-the-art facilities for planar SOFC R&D, with their expansion and scaling-up to pilot manufacturing capability underway. We expect to achieve commercial introduction of our market-entry products in 2002, with prototype systems expected to be available from early 2001.

  6. Universal hydrodynamic flow in holographic planar shock collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesler, Paul M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Kilbertus, Niki [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, MIT,Cambridge MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We study the collision of planar shock waves in AdS{sub 5} as a function of shock profile. In the dual field theory the shock waves describe planar sheets of energy whose collision results in the formation of a plasma which behaves hydrodynamically at late times. We find that the post-collision stress tensor near the light cone exhibits transient non-universal behavior which depends on both the shock width and the precise functional form of the shock profile. However, over a large range of shock widths, including those which yield qualitative different behavior near the future light cone, and for different shock profiles, we find universal behavior in the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution. Additionally, we compute the rapidity distribution of produced particles and find it to be well described by a Gaussian.

  7. 3D NAND Flash Based on Planar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silvagni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the transition from 2D NAND to 3D NAND is first addressed, and the various 3D NAND architectures are compared. The article carries out a comparison of 3D NAND architectures that are based on a “punch-and-plug” process—with gate-all-around (GAA cell devices—against architectures that are based on planar cell devices. The differences and similarities between the two classes of architectures are highlighted. The differences between architectures using floating-gate (FG and charge-trap (CT devices are also considered. Although the current production of 3D NAND is based on GAA cell devices, it is suggested that architectures with planar cell devices could also be viable for mass production.

  8. Planar waveguides and other confined geometries theory, technology, production, and novel applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical concepts and experimental applications of planar waveguides and other confined geometries, such as optical fibres. Covering a broad array of advanced topics, it begins with a sophisticated discussion of planar waveguide theory, and covers subjects including efficient production of planar waveguides, materials selection, nonlinear effects, and applications including species analytics down to single-molecule identification, and thermo-optical switching using planar waveguides. Written by specialists in the techniques and applications covered, this book will be a useful resource for advanced graduate students and researchers studying planar waveguides and optical fibers.

  9. Additive to regulate the perovskite crystal film growth in planar heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Xin; Sun, Po; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Wang, Weiwei; Ma, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    We reported a planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell fabricated from MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite precursor solution containing 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) additive. The MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite films have been characterized by UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and steady-state photoluminescence (PL). UV-vis absorption spectra measurement shows that the absorbance of the film with CN additive is significantly higher than the pristine film and the absorption peak is red shift by 30 nm, indicating the perovskite film with additive possessing better crystal structures. In-situ XRD study of the perovskite films with additive demonstrated intense diffraction peaks from MAPbI 3−x Cl x perovskite crystal planes of (110), (220), and (330). SEM images of the films with additive indicated the films were more smooth and homogenous with fewer pin-holes and voids and better surface coverage than the pristine films. These results implied that the additive CN is beneficial to regulate the crystallization transformation kinetics of perovskite to form high quality crystal films. The steady-state PL measurement suggested that the films with additive contained less charge traps and defects. The planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells fabricated from perovskite precursor solution containing CN additive demonstrated 30% enhancement in performance compared to the devices with pristine films. The improvement in device efficiency is mainly attributed to the good crystal structures, more homogenous film morphology, and also fewer trap centers and defects in the films with the additive

  10. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  11. Nonlinear control methods for planar carangiform robot fish locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Morgansen, Kristi A.; Duindam, Vincent; Mason, Richard J.; Burdick, Joel W.; Murray, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Considers the design of motion control algorithms for robot fish. We present modeling, control design, and experimental trajectory tracking results for an experimental planar robotic fish system that is propelled using carangiform-like locomotion. Our model for the fish's propulsion is based on quasi-steady fluid flow. Using this model, we propose gaits for forward and turning trajectories and analyze system response under such control strategies. Our models and predictions are verified by ex...

  12. Symmetry and Topology: The 11 Uninodal Planar Nets Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guillaume Eon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the 11 well-known uninodal planar nets is given by Cayley color graphs or alternative Cayley color graphs of plane groups. By applying methods from topological graph theory, the nets are derived from the bouquet B n with rotations mostly as voltages. It thus appears that translation, as a symmetry operation in these nets, is no more fundamental than rotations.

  13. Planar concentrators near the étendue limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2005-10-01

    Recently proposed aplanatic imaging designs are integrally combined with nonimaging flux boosters to produce an ultracompact planar glass-filled concentrator that performs near the étendue limit. Such optical devices are attractive for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaics at high flux, with realistic power generation of 1 W from a 1 mm2 cell. When deployed in reverse, our designs provide collimation even for high-numerical-aperture light sources.

  14. A Planar Quasi-Static Constraint Mode Tire Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    strikes a balance between simple tire models that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions and computationally intensive models that...strikes a balance between heuristic tire models (such as a linear point-follower) that lack the fidelity to make accurate chassis load predictions...UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Cleared for public release A PLANAR QUASI-STATIC CONSTRAINT MODE TIRE MODEL Rui Maa John B. Ferris

  15. Fixed point structure of quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, S.T.

    1986-07-01

    Gauge theories exhibiting a hierarchy of fermion mass scales may contain a pseudo-Nambu-Boldstone boson of spontaneously broken scale invariance. The relation between scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied analytically in quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions. The model possesses a novel nonperturbative ultraviolet fixed point governing its strong coupling phase which requires the mixing of four fermion operators. 12 refs

  16. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  17. PLANAR MECHANISMS USED FOR GENERATING CURVE LINE TRANSLATION MOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu ANTONESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The curve line translation motion can be generated in the particular form of the circular translation, through mono-mobile mechanisms with articulated links of simple parallelogram type (with a fixed side or through transmission with toothed belt with a fixed wheel. Also, the circular translation can be generated through planar mechanisms with two cylindrical gears with a fixed central wheel. It is mentioned that the two cylindrical gearings of the Fergusson mechanisms are both exterior and interior.

  18. Planar concentrators near the étendue limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2005-10-01

    Recently proposed aplanatic imaging designs are integrally combined with nonimaging flux boosters to produce an ultracompact planar glass-filled concentrator that performs near the étendue limit. Such optical devices are attractive for high-efficiency multijunction photovoltaics at high flux, with realistic power generation of 1 W from a 1 mm² cell. When deployed in reverse, our designs provide collimation even for high-numerical-aperture light sources.

  19. Adaptive silicone-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schneider, F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Engineering, Georges-Koehler-Allee 102, Freiburg 79110, Germany florian.schneider@imtek.uni-freiburg.de ABSTRACT We compare the performance and optical quality of two types of adaptive fluidic silicone-membrane lenses. The membranes feature either a...-membrane lenses: planar vs. shaped membrane Florian Schneider1,2, Philipp Waibel2 and Ulrike Wallrabe2 1 CSIR, Materials Science and Manufacturing, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 University of Freiburg – IMTEK, Department of Microsystems...

  20. The clinical value of planar thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical value of planar thalium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was examined, using visual and quantitative analysis, for the detection of presence, localization and extent of coronary disease, using coronary arteriography as gold standard. The indremental diagnostic yield of different noninvasive tests for the diagnosis and the severity of coronary artery disease was quantified by using multivariate discriminant analysis. (author). 284 refs.; 14 figs.; 37 tabs

  1. Optical sensor in planar configuration based on multimode interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahut, Marek

    2017-08-01

    In the paper a numerical analysis of optical sensors based on multimode interference in planar one-dimensional step-index configuration is presented. The structure consists in single-mode input and output waveguides and multimode waveguide which guide only few modes. Material parameters discussed refer to a SU8 polymer waveguide on SiO2 substrate. The optical system described will be designed to the analysis of biological substances.

  2. Isometric deformations of planar quadrilaterals with constant index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaputryaeva, E S

    2014-01-01

    We consider isometric deformations (motions) of polygons (so-called carpenter's rule problem) in the case of self-intersecting polygons with the additional condition that the index of the polygon is preserved by the motion. We provide general information about isometric deformations of planar polygons and give a complete solution of the carpenter's problem for quadrilaterals. Bibliography: 17 titles

  3. Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented

  4. α-spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, V.K.; Verbitskaya, E.M.; Strokan, N.B.; Sukhanov, V.L.; Malyarenko, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is α-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm 2 are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented

  5. cap alpha. -spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, V K; Verbitskaya, E M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L; Malyarenko, A M

    1986-10-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is ..cap alpha..-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm/sup 2/ are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented.

  6. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  7. Dynamic balancing of planar mechanisms using toric geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Brian; Schicho, Josef; Gosselin, Clement M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a new method to determine the complete set of dynamically balanced planar four-bar mechanims is presented. Using complex variables to model the kinematics of the mechanism, the dynamic balancing constraints are written as algebraic equations over complex variables and joint angular velocities. After elimination of the joint angular velocity variables, the problem is formulated as a problem of factorization of Laurent polynomials. Using toric polynomial division, necessary and s...

  8. Asymmetric Shaped-Pattern Synthesis for Planar Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Bruintjes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to synthesize asymmetrically shaped beam patterns is developed for planar antenna arrays. As it is based on the quasi-analytical method of collapsed distributions, the main advantage of this procedure is the ability to realize a shaped (null-free region with very low ripple. Smooth and asymmetrically shaped regions can be used for Direction-of-Arrival estimation and subsequently for efficient tracking with a single output (fully analog beamformer.

  9. Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency beyond 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Chu, Zema; Wang, Pengyang; Yang, Xiaolei; Liu, Heng; Wang, Ye; Yin, Zhigang; Wu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xingwang; You, Jingbi

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature solution processed planar-structure perovskite solar cells gain great attention recently, while their power conversions are still lower than that of high temperature mesoporous counterpart. Previous reports are mainly focused on perovskite morphology control and interface engineering to improve performance. Here, this study systematically investigates the effect of precise stoichiometry, especially the PbI 2 contents on device performance including efficiency, hysteresis and stability. This study finds that a moderate residual of PbI 2 can deliver stable and high efficiency of solar cells without hysteresis, while too much residual PbI 2 will lead to serious hysteresis and poor transit stability. Solar cells with the efficiencies of 21.6% in small size (0.0737 cm 2 ) and 20.1% in large size (1 cm 2 ) with moderate residual PbI 2 in perovskite layer are obtained. The certificated efficiency for small size shows the efficiency of 20.9%, which is the highest efficiency ever recorded in planar-structure perovskite solar cells, showing the planar-structure perovskite solar cells are very promising. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Strong oriented chromatic number of planar graphs without short cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Montassier

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Let M be an additive abelian group. A strong oriented coloringof an oriented graph G is a mapping φ from V(G to M such that (1 φ(u ≠ φ(v whenever uv is an arc in G and (2 φ(v - φ(u ≠ -(φ(t - φ(z whenever uv and zt are two arcs in G. We say that G has a M-strong-oriented coloring. The strong oriented chromatic number of an oriented graph, denoted by χ s (G, is the minimal order of a group M, such that G has M-strong-oriented coloring. This notion was introduced by Nešetřil and Raspaud. In this paper, we pose the following problem: Let i ≥ 4 be an integer. Let G be an oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to i. Which is the strong oriented chromatic number of G ? Our aim is to determine the impact of triangles on the strong oriented coloring. We give some hints of answers to this problem by proving that: (1 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of lengths 4 to 12 is at most 7, and (2 the strong oriented chromatic number of any oriented planar graph without cycles of length 4 or 6 is at most 19.

  11. Diameter Dependence of Planar Defects in InP Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyun; Wang, Chao; Wang, Yiqian; Zhang, Minghuan; Han, Zhenlian; Yip, SenPo; Shen, Lifan; Han, Ning; Pun, Edwin Y B; Ho, Johnny C

    2016-09-12

    In this work, extensive characterization and complementary theoretical analysis have been carried out on Au-catalyzed InP nanowires in order to understand the planar defect formation as a function of nanowire diameter. From the detailed transmission electron microscopic measurements, the density of stacking faults and twin defects are found to monotonically decrease as the nanowire diameter is decreased to 10 nm, and the chemical analysis clearly indicates the drastic impact of In catalytic supersaturation in Au nanoparticles on the minimized planar defect formation in miniaturized nanowires. Specifically, during the chemical vapor deposition of InP nanowires, a significant amount of planar defects is created when the catalyst seed sizes are increased with the lower degree of In supersaturation as dictated by the Gibbs-Thomson effect, and an insufficient In diffusion (or Au-rich enhancement) would lead to a reduced and non-uniform In precipitation at the NW growing interface. The results presented here provide an insight into the fabrication of "bottom-up" InP NWs with minimized defect concentration which are suitable for various device applications.

  12. On the tautomerism, planarity, and vibrations of phospholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oziminski, Wojciech P.; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz.

    2005-01-01

    The PH and CH tautomers of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentaphospholes were calculated at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Except for 1,2,3-triphosphole and pentaphosphole, the most stable phosphole form is one of the CH tautomers. For 1,2-diphosphole, 1,3-diphosphole, and 1,2,4-triphosphole, the energy difference between the tautomers is large and only one tautomer may be observed. For other phospholes, especially tetraphosphole, two tautomers may coexist. Non-planarity of the five membered ring is present only in the σ 3 λ 3 -P atom containing molecules, i.e., PH type of tautomers, while in the CH type of tautomers the ring is planar. As earlier reported by Nyulaszi, the PH tautomers flatten, and the energy difference between PH phosphole and the planar transition state structure decreases, as the number of P atoms in the phosphole molecule is increased. Bond length changes were discussed in terms of configuration of the atoms attached to the bond, and the molecular frequency variations were examined according to the different surroundings of the appropriate vibrators

  13. Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).

  14. Geometrical aspects of a hollow-cathode planar magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Cohen, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    A hollow-cathode planar magnetron (HCPM), built by surrounding a planar sputtering-magnetron cathode with a hollow-cathode structure (HCS) [Z. Wang and S. A. Cohen, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 77 (1999)], is operable at substantially lower pressures than its planar-magnetron counterpart. HCPM operational parameters depend on the inner diameter D and length L of its cylindrical HCS. Only when L is greater than L 0 , a critical length, is the HCPM operable in the new low-pressure regime. The critical length varies with HCS inner diameter D. Explanations of the lower operational pressure regime, critical length, and plasma shape are proposed and compared with a one-dimension diffusion model for energetic electron transport. At pressures above 1 mTorr, Bohm diffusion (temperature congruent primary electron energy), with an ambipolar constraint, can explain the ion - electron pair creation required to sustain the discharge. At the lowest pressure, ∼0.3 mTorr, collision-limited diffusion creates fewer ion - electron pairs than required for steady state and therefore cannot explain the experimental data. The critical length L 0 is consistent with the magnetization length of the primary electrons. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. The Prohibitive Link between Position-based Routing and Planarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cairns

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Position-based routing is touted as an ideal routing strategy for resource-constrained wireless networks. One persistent barrier to adoption is due to its recovery phase, where messages are forwarded according to leftor right-hand rule (LHR. This is often referred to as face-routing. In this paper we investigate the limits of LHR with respect to planarity.We show that the gap between non-planarity and successful delivery is a single link within a single configuration. Our work begins with an analysis to enumerate all node configurations that cause intersections in the unit-disc graph. We find that left-hand rule is able to recover from all but a single case, the ‘umbrella’ configuration so named for its appearance. We use this information to propose the Prohibitive Link Detection Protocol (PLDP that can guarantee delivery over non-planar graphs using standard face-routing techniques. As the name implies, the protocol detects and circumvents the ‘bad’ links that hamper LHR. The goal of this work is to maintain routing guarantees while disturbing the network graph as little as possible. In doing so, a new starting point emerges from which to build rich distributed protocols in the spirit of CLDP and GDSTR.

  16. Load estimation from planar PIV measurement in vortex dominated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy

    2017-11-01

    Control volume-based loading estimates are employed on experimental and synthetic numerical planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data of a stationary cylinder and a cylinder undergoing one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV). The results reveal the necessity of including out of plane terms, identified from a general formulation of the control volume momentum balance, when evaluating loads from planar measurements in three-dimensional flows. Reynolds stresses from out of plane fluctuations are shown to be significant for both instantaneous and mean force estimates when the control volume encompasses vortex dominated regions. For planar measurement, invoking a divergence-free assumption allows accurate estimation of half the identified terms. Towards evaluating the fidelity of PIV-based loading estimates for obtaining the forcing function unobtrusively in VIV experiments, the accuracy of the control volume-based loading methodology is evaluated using the numerical data with synthetically generated experimental PIV error, and a comparison is made between experimental PIV-based estimates and simultaneous force balance measurements.

  17. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  18. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  19. Planar shock focusing through perfect gas lens: First experimental demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biamino, Laurent; Mariani, Christian; Jourdan, Georges; Houas, Lazhar; Vandenboomgaerde, Marc; Souffland, Denis

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave crosses an interface between two materials, this interface becomes unstable and the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability develops. Such instability has been extensively studied in the planar case, and numerous results were presented during the previous workshops. But the Richtmyer-Meshkov (Richtmyer, 1960, 'Taylor Instability in Shock Acceleration of Compressible Fluids,' Commun. Pure Appl. Math., 13(2), pp. 297-319; Meshkov, 1969, 'Interface of Two Gases Accelerated by a Shock Wave,' Fluid Dyn., 4(5), pp. 101-104) instability also occurs in a spherical case where the convergence effects must be taken into account. As far as we know, no conventional (straight section) shock tube facility has been used to experimentally study the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical geometry. The idea originally proposed by Dimotakis and Samtaney (2006, 'Planar Shock Cylindrical Focusing by a Perfect-Gas Lens,' Phys. Fluid., 18(3), pp. 031705-031708) and later generalized by Vandenboomgaerde and Aymard (2011, 'Analytical Theory for Planar Shock Focusing Through Perfect Gas Lens and Shock Tube Experiment Designs,' Phys. Fluid., 23(1), pp. 016101-016113) was to retain the flexibility of a conventional shock tube to convert a planar shock wave into a cylindrical one through a perfect gas lens. This can be done when a planar shock wave passes through a shaped interface between two gases. By coupling the shape with the impedance mismatch at the interface, it is possible to generate a circular transmitted shock wave. In order to experimentally check the feasibility of this approach, we have implemented the gas lens technique on a conventional shock tube with the help of a convergent test section, an elliptic stereo lithographed grid, and a nitrocellulose membrane. First experimental sequences of Schlieren images have been obtained for an incident shock wave Mach number equal to 1.15 and an air/SF_6-shaped interface. Experimental results indicate that the shock that moves

  20. Improvements of the two-dimensional FDTD method for the simulation of normal- and superconducting planar waveguides using time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofschen, S.; Wolff, I.

    1996-01-01

    Time-domain simulation results of two-dimensional (2-D) planar waveguide finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis are normally analyzed using Fourier transform. The introduced method of time series analysis to extract propagation and attenuation constants reduces the desired computation time drastically. Additionally, a nonequidistant discretization together with an adequate excitation technique is used to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to simulate normal- and superconducting planar waveguide structures with very thin conductors and small dimensions, as they are used in MMIC technology. The simulation results are compared with measurements and show good agreement

  1. Improvements of the two-dimensional FDTD method for the simulation of normal- and superconducting planar waveguides using time series analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofschen, S.; Wolff, I. [Gerhard Mercator Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-08-01

    Time-domain simulation results of two-dimensional (2-D) planar waveguide finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis are normally analyzed using Fourier transform. The introduced method of time series analysis to extract propagation and attenuation constants reduces the desired computation time drastically. Additionally, a nonequidistant discretization together with an adequate excitation technique is used to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to simulate normal- and superconducting planar waveguide structures with very thin conductors and small dimensions, as they are used in MMIC technology. The simulation results are compared with measurements and show good agreement.

  2. Experimental demonstration of conformal phased array antenna via transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Juan; Yang, Juxing; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhiya; Fu, Guang; Hao, Yang

    2018-02-28

    Transformation Optics has been proven a versatile technique for designing novel electromagnetic devices and it has much wider applicability in many subject areas related to general wave equations. Among them, quasi-conformal transformation optics (QCTO) can be applied to minimize anisotropy of transformed media and has opened up the possibility to the design of broadband antennas with arbitrary geometries. In this work, a wide-angle scanning conformal phased array based on all-dielectric QCTO lens is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Excited by the same current distribution as such in a conventional planar array, the conformal system in presence of QCTO lens can preserve the same radiation characteristics of a planar array with wide-angle beam-scanning and low side lobe level (SLL). Laplace's equation subject to Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions is adopted to construct the mapping between the virtual and physical spaces. The isotropic lens with graded refractive index is realized by all-dielectric holey structure after an effective parameter approximation. The measurements of the fabricated system agree well with the simulated results, which demonstrate its excellent wide-angle beam scanning performance. Such demonstration paves the way to a robust but efficient array synthesis, as well as multi-beam and beam forming realization of conformal arrays via transformation optics.

  3. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  4. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  6. Discretisation Schemes for Level Sets of Planar Gaussian Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliaev, D.; Muirhead, S.

    2018-01-01

    Smooth random Gaussian functions play an important role in mathematical physics, a main example being the random plane wave model conjectured by Berry to give a universal description of high-energy eigenfunctions of the Laplacian on generic compact manifolds. Our work is motivated by questions about the geometry of such random functions, in particular relating to the structure of their nodal and level sets. We study four discretisation schemes that extract information about level sets of planar Gaussian fields. Each scheme recovers information up to a different level of precision, and each requires a maximum mesh-size in order to be valid with high probability. The first two schemes are generalisations and enhancements of similar schemes that have appeared in the literature (Beffara and Gayet in Publ Math IHES, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10240-017-0093-0; Mischaikow and Wanner in Ann Appl Probab 17:980-1018, 2007); these give complete topological information about the level sets on either a local or global scale. As an application, we improve the results in Beffara and Gayet (2017) on Russo-Seymour-Welsh estimates for the nodal set of positively-correlated planar Gaussian fields. The third and fourth schemes are, to the best of our knowledge, completely new. The third scheme is specific to the nodal set of the random plane wave, and provides global topological information about the nodal set up to `visible ambiguities'. The fourth scheme gives a way to approximate the mean number of excursion domains of planar Gaussian fields.

  7. Study on durability for thermal cycle of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Motoo; Nakata, Kei-ichi; Wakayama, Sin-ichi [Tonen Corp., Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    TONEN CORPORATION has developed planar type SOFC since 1986. We demonstrated the output of 1.3 kW in 1991 and 5.1 kW in 1995. Simultaneously we have studied how to raise electric efficiency and reliability utilizing hydrogen and propane as fuel. Durability for thermal cycle is one of the most important problems of planar SOFC to make it more practical. The planar type SOFC is made up of separator, zirconia electrolyte and glass sealant. The thermal expansion of these components are expected to be the same value, however, they still possess small differences. In this situation, a thermal cycle causes a thermal stress due to the difference of the cell components and is often followed by a rupture in cell components, therefore, the analysis of the thermal stress should give us much useful information. The thermal cycle process consists of a heating up and cooling down procedure. Zirconia electrolyte is not bonded to the separator under the condition of the initial heating up procedure, and glass sealant becomes soft or melts and glass seals spaces between the zirconia and separator. The glass sealant becomes harder with the cooling down procedure. Moreover, zirconia is tightly bonded with separator below a temperature which is defined as a constraint temperature and thermal stress also occurs. This indicates that the heating up process relaxes the thermal stress and the cooling down increases it. In this paper, we simulated dependence of the stress on the sealing configuration, thermal expansion of sealant and constraint temperature of sealant glass. Furthermore, we presented SOFC electrical properties after a thermal cycle.

  8. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  9. Microphotonic devices for compact planar lightwave circuits and sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Gonzalez, Jaime

    2005-07-01

    Higher levels of integration in planar lightwave circuits and sensor systems can reduce fabrication costs and broaden viable applications for optical network and sensor systems. For example, increased integration and functionality can lead to sensor systems that are compact enough for easy transport, rugged enough for field applications, and sensitive enough even for laboratory applications. On the other hand, more functional and compact planar lightwave circuits can make optical networks components less expensive for the metro and access markets in urban areas and allow penetration of fiber to the home. Thus, there is an important area of opportunity for increased integration to provide low cost, compact solutions in both network components and sensor systems. In this dissertation, a novel splitting structure for microcantilever deflection detection is introduced. The splitting structure is designed so that its splitting ratio is dependent on the vertical position of the microcantilever. With this structure, microcantilevers sensitized to detect different analytes or biological agents can be integrated into an array on a single chip. Additionally, the integration of a depolarizer into the optoelectronic integrated circuit in an interferometric fiber optic gyroscope is presented as a means for cost reduction. The savings come in avoiding labor intensive fiber pigtailing steps by permitting batch fabrication of these components. In particular, this dissertation focuses on the design of the waveguides and polarization rotator, and the impact of imperfect components on the performance of the depolarizer. In the area of planar lightwave circuits, this dissertation presents the development of a fabrication process for single air interface bends (SAIBs). SAIBs can increase integration by reducing the area necessary to make a waveguide bend. Fabrication and measurement of a 45° SAIB with a bend efficiency of 93.4% for TM polarization and 92.7% for TE polarization are

  10. Tuner and radiation shield for planar electron paramagnetic resonance microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkowicz, Ryszard; Suter, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Planar microresonators provide a large boost of sensitivity for small samples. They can be manufactured lithographically to a wide range of target parameters. The coupler between the resonator and the microwave feedline can be integrated into this design. To optimize the coupling and to compensate manufacturing tolerances, it is sometimes desirable to have a tuning element available that can be adjusted when the resonator is connected to the spectrometer. This paper presents a simple design that allows one to bring undercoupled resonators into the condition for critical coupling. In addition, it also reduces radiation losses and thereby increases the quality factor and the sensitivity of the resonator

  11. Nanoscale displacement sensing using microfabricated variable-inductance planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, M. Bulut; Thotahewa, Kasun; Ying, York-Sing; Yuce, Mehmet; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    2013-09-01

    Microfabricated spiral inductors were employed for nanoscale displacement detection, suitable for use in implantable pressure sensor applications. We developed a variable inductor sensor consisting of two coaxially positioned planar coils connected in series to a measurement circuit. The devices were characterized by varying the air gap between the coils hence changing the inductance, while a Colpitts oscillator readout was used to obtain corresponding frequencies. Our approach shows significant advantages over existing methodologies combining a displacement resolution of 17 nm and low hysteresis (0.15%) in a 1 × 1 mm2 device. We show that resolution could be further improved by shrinking the device's lateral dimensions.

  12. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  13. Avalanche effect in the planar array of superheated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meagher, G.; Pond, J.; Kotlicki, A.; Turrell, B.G.; Eska, G.; Drukier, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    An avalanche effect has been observed in a cryogenic detector based on the planar array of superheated superconductors (PASS). The indium PASS, fabricated by photolithography on a mylar substrate, consisted of 40 well-separated lines each containing about 175 spheres of diameter 18 μm and separation 20 μm with those at the end being shielded by superconducting wire. The magnetic field was applied in the PASS plane parallel to the lines. Avalanche events in which several granules changed their state from superconducting to normal were triggered by the nucleation of the transition in a single grain by an alpha particle. (author)

  14. The effective compliance of spatially evolving planar wing-cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyagari, R. S.; Daphalapurkar, N. P.; Ramesh, K. T.

    2018-02-01

    We present an analytic closed form solution for anisotropic change in compliance due to the spatial evolution of planar wing-cracks in a material subjected to largely compressive loading. A fully three-dimensional anisotropic compliance tensor is defined and evaluated considering the wing-crack mechanism, using a mixed-approach based on kinematic and energetic arguments to derive the coefficients in incremental compliance. Material, kinematic and kinetic parametric influences on the increments in compliance are studied in order to understand their physical implications on material failure. Model verification is carried out through comparisons to experimental uniaxial compression results to showcase the predictive capabilities of the current study.

  15. Investigation for connecting waveguide in off-planar integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhifang

    2017-09-01

    The transmission properties of a vertical waveguide connected by different devices in off-planar integrated circuits are designed, investigated, and analyzed in detail by the finite-difference time-domain method. The results show that both guide bandwidth and transmission efficiency can be adjusted effectively by shifting the vertical waveguide continuously. Surprisingly, the wide guide band (0.385[c/a]∼0.407[c/a]) and well transmission (-6  dB) are observed simultaneously in several directions when the vertical waveguide is located at a specific location. The results are very important for all-optical integrated circuits, especially in compact integration.

  16. The algebraic curve of 1-loop planar N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Nameki, S.

    2004-12-01

    The algebraic curve for the psu(2,2 vertical stroke 4) quantum spin chain is determined from the thermodynamic limit of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. The Hamiltonian of this spin chain has been identified with the planar 1-loop dilatation operator of N=4 SYM. In the dual AdS 5 x S 5 string theory, various properties of the data defining the curve for the gauge theory are compared to the ones obtained from semiclassical spinning-string configurations, in particular for the case of strings on AdS 5 x S 1 and the su(2,2) spin chain agreement of the curves is shown. (orig.)

  17. Linearizability conditions for Lotka-Volterra planar complex cubic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gine, Jaume; Romanovski, Valery G

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the linearizability problem for the two-dimensional planar complex system x-dot=x(1-a 10 x-a 01 y-a 20 x 2 -a 11 xy-a 02 y 2 ), y-dot=(1-b 10 x-b 01 y-b 20 x 2 -b 11 xy-b 02 y 2 ). The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linearizability of this system are found. From them the conditions for isochronicity of the corresponding real system can be derived

  18. Simple Planar Truss (Linear, Nonlinear and Stochastic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydrýšek Karel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a simple planar and statically determinate pin-connected truss. It demonstrates the processes and methods of derivations and solutions according to 1st and 2nd order theories. The article applies linear and nonlinear approaches and their simplifications via a Maclaurin series. Programming connected with the stochastic Simulation-Based Reliability Method (i.e. the direct Monte Carlo approach is used to conduct a probabilistic reliability assessment (i.e. a calculation of the probability that plastic deformation will occur in members of the truss.

  19. On the timing performance of thin planar silicon sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, N.; Ciriolo, V.; Currás, E.; Damgov, J.; Fernández, M.; Gallrapp, C.; Gray, L.; Junkes, A.; Mannelli, M.; Martin Kwok, K. H.; Meridiani, P.; Moll, M.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Pigazzini, S.; Scharf, C.; Silva, P.; Steinbrueck, G.; de Fatis, T. Tabarelli; Vila, I.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the signal timing capabilities of thin silicon sensors when traversed by multiple simultaneous minimum ionizing particles (MIP). Three different planar sensors, with depletion thicknesses 133, 211, and 285 μm, have been exposed to high energy muons and electrons at CERN. We describe signal shape and timing resolution measurements as well as the response of these devices as a function of the multiplicity of MIPs. We compare these measurements to simulations where possible. We achieve better than 20 ps timing resolution for signals larger than a few tens of MIPs.

  20. Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzman, J M; Kychakoff, G; Hanson, R K

    1985-09-01

    A single-pulse, laser-induced-fluorescence diagnostic for the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields in combustion flows is described. The method uses sheet illumination from a tunable laser to excite planar laserinduced fluorescence in a stable tracer molecule, seeded at constant mole fraction into the flow field. The temporal resolution of this technique is determined by the laser pulse length. Experimental results are presented for a rodstabilized, premixed methane-air flame, using the Q(1) (22) line of the nitric oxide A(2) Sigma(+) (v = 0) ? X(2)II((1/2))(v = 0) transition (lambda approximately 225.6 nm).

  1. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  2. Exact relativistic solution of disordered radiation with planar symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, A.F. Da F.; Wolk, I.; Som, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    An exact solution of the Einstein equations corresponding to and equilibrium distribution of disordered electromagnetic radiation with planar symmetry is obtained. This equilibrium is due solely to the gravitational and pressure effects inherent to the radiation. The distribution of radiation is found to be maximum and finite at the plane of symmetry, and to decrease monotonically in directions normal to this plane. The solution tends asymptotically to the static plane symmetric vacuum solution obtained by Levi-Civita (Atti. Accad. Naz. Lincei Rc.; 27:240 (1918)). Time-like and null geodesics are discussed. (author)

  3. Planar optical waveguides for civil and military applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, C R

    2009-01-01

    There is significant military and civil interest in being able to detect chemical species adsorbed from air or present in aqueous solutions. Planar optical waveguide transmission properties are sensitive to changes in parameters such as refractive index or absorption and to light-emitting processes such as fluorescence. These changes modulate light travelling in optical waveguides, and so may be used as sensors for detecting biological and chemical agents, non-ionizing and ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Several waveguide systems have been studied theoretically and experimentally, and their responses to basic influences such as alcohol and UV radiation, and gamma rays determined.

  4. Application of Planar Broadband Slow-Wave Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvardas Metlevskis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of planar broadband slow-wave systems are used for designing microwave devices. The papers published by Lithuanian scientists analyze and investigate the models of helical and meander slow-wave systems. The article carefully examines the applications of meander slow-wave systems and presents the areas where similar systems, e.g. mobile devices, RFID, wireless technologies are used and reviewed nowadays. The paper also focuses on the examples of the papers discussing antennas, filters and couplers that contain designed and fabricated meander slow-wave systems.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Progress in the planar CPn SOFC system design verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.; Hartvigsen, J.; Khandkar, A. [SOFCo, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01

    SOFCo is developing a high efficiency, modular and scaleable planar SOFC module termed the CPn design. This design has been verified in a 1.4 kW module test operated directly on pipeline natural gas. The design features multistage oxidation of fuel wherein the fuel is consumed incrementally over several stages. High efficiency is achieved by uniform current density distribution per stage, which lowers the stack resistance. Additional benefits include thermal regulation and compactness. Test results from stack modules operating in pipeline natural gas are presented.

  6. Modal Analysis of MARS Solar Panel and Planar Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Andranik; Williams, R. Brett

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the modal analysis of MARS solar panels and the planar vibrations. Included are views of the solar panels mock-up assembly, a view of the test seup,a view of the plot from the test, with the raw numbers of the frequencies in Hz values with the mode number, the spatial acceleration plots of Center sub panel at resonant frequencies, predictions from the Finite element models, an explanation of the two test that were done on the plate and the results from both tests,

  7. A study of coFeB magnetic yoke based on planar electromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L.; Li, Q.; Yuan, Yong J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper studies the fabrication of a novel planar electromagnet consisting of a planar copper coil and a magnetic yoke. CoFeB was used as the magnetic yoke material instead of the traditional permanent magnets. The planar electromagnet was fabricated and optimized to maximize the electromagnetic force, especially with varying CoFeB thickness. The micro-planar electromagnet was fabricated successfully by the traditional micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) techniques and XRD, VSM were used to characterize the performance of the electromagnet. The planar electromagnet exhibits superior perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and 0.006 emu of MS was achieved following 2 min deposition of CoFeB thin film. By integrating with other micro apparatuses, it is anticipated that the planar electromagnet will have potential applications in areas such as biosensors, biological medicine, drug delivery, chemical analysis and environmental monitoring.

  8. Design and application of multilayer monolithic microwave integrated circuit transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economides, S.B

    1999-07-01

    The design and performance of planar spiral transformers, using multilayer GaAs and silicon MMIC technology, are presented. This multilayer technology gives new opportunities for improving the performance of planar transformers, couplers and baluns. Planar transformers have high parasitic resistance and capacitance and low levels of coupling. Using multilayer technology these problems are overcome by applying a multilayer structure of three metal layers separated by two polyimide dielectric layers. The improvements gained by placing the conductors on different metal layers, and using conductors raised on polyimide layers for low capacitance, have been investigated. The circuits were fabricated using a novel experimental fabrication process, which uses entirely standard materials and techniques and is compatible with BJT's and silicon-germanium HBT's. The transformers were all characterised up to 20 GHz using RF-on-wafer measurements. They demonstrated good performance, considering the experimental nature of in-house multilayer technology and the difficulties in simulating these three-dimensional new geometries. With high resistivity substrates, the silicon components achieved virtually the same performance as their gallium arsenide counterparts. The transformers were then used in simulations of transformer-coupled HBT amplifier circuits, to demonstrate their capabilities. It was shown that these circuits present good performance compared to standard off-the shelf component circuits and are very promising for use in most multilayer MMIC applications. The structures were further used in coupling configurations, and applied in balun circuits and pushpull amplifiers. The spiral transformer coupler can operate at low frequencies without using up much chip area. In a balun configuration, the balun can compensate for coupling and phase imbalance and operates over 5 to 15 GHz. The spiral coupler does not always need multilayer processing, so the balun may be

  9. Numerical simulation of heterogeneous phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combeau, H.; Lacaze, J.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model is presented for the simulation of diffusion controlled phase transformations in multicomponent alloys. A closed system is considered, with simple geometric shape, either planar, cylindrical or spherical. The temperature inside this microscopic volume is homogeneous, but can vary according to any specified monoteneous law. Particular care has been given to the description of the solute profiles where the concentration gradients are the steepest, i.e. near the interface between the parent and the resultant phases. Solute redistribution at the interface is described by means of an original method which ensures that the overall solute balance is satisfied. A non linear system is obtained which includes the diffusion equations in both phases and the boundary conditions. The solution of this system makes use of a special algorithm which has been devised for a quick convergence. An example is presented which deals with microsegregation build-up during solidification of a multi-component nickel base alloy. (orig.)

  10. Adaptable Diffraction Gratings With Wavefront Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength. Traditional diffraction gratings have static planar, concave, or convex surfaces. However, if they could be made so that they can change the surface curvature at will, then they would be able to focus on particular segments, self-calibrate, or perform fine adjustments. This innovation creates a diffraction grating on a deformable surface. This surface could be bent at will, resulting in a dynamic wavefront transformation. This allows for self-calibration, compensation for aberrations, enhancing image resolution in a particular area, or performing multiple scans using different wavelengths. A dynamic grating gives scientists a new ability to explore wavefronts from a variety of viewpoints.

  11. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  12. Probabilistic Prognosis of Non-Planar Fatigue Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Patrick E.; Newman, John A.; Warner, James E.; Leser, William P.; Hochhalter, Jacob D.; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the uncertainty in model parameters for the purpose of damage prognosis can be accomplished utilizing Bayesian inference and damage diagnosis data from sources such as non-destructive evaluation or structural health monitoring. The number of samples required to solve the Bayesian inverse problem through common sampling techniques (e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo) renders high-fidelity finite element-based damage growth models unusable due to prohibitive computation times. However, these types of models are often the only option when attempting to model complex damage growth in real-world structures. Here, a recently developed high-fidelity crack growth model is used which, when compared to finite element-based modeling, has demonstrated reductions in computation times of three orders of magnitude through the use of surrogate models and machine learning. The model is flexible in that only the expensive computation of the crack driving forces is replaced by the surrogate models, leaving the remaining parameters accessible for uncertainty quantification. A probabilistic prognosis framework incorporating this model is developed and demonstrated for non-planar crack growth in a modified, edge-notched, aluminum tensile specimen. Predictions of remaining useful life are made over time for five updates of the damage diagnosis data, and prognostic metrics are utilized to evaluate the performance of the prognostic framework. Challenges specific to the probabilistic prognosis of non-planar fatigue crack growth are highlighted and discussed in the context of the experimental results.

  13. Hybrid planar lightwave circuits for defense and aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Bidnyk, Serge; Yang, Shiquan; Balakrishnan, Ashok; Pearson, Matt; O'Keefe, Sean

    2010-04-01

    We present innovations in Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) that make them ideally suited for use in advanced defense and aerospace applications. We discuss PLCs that contain no micro-optic components, no moving parts, pose no spark or fire hazard, are extremely small and lightweight, and are capable of transporting and processing a range of optical signals with exceptionally high performance. This PLC platform is designed for on-chip integration of active components such as lasers and detectors, along with transimpedance amplifiers and other electronics. These active components are hybridly integrated with our silica-on-silicon PLCs using fully-automated robotics and image recognition technology. This PLC approach has been successfully applied to the design and fabrication of multi-channel transceivers for aerospace applications. The chips contain hybrid DFB lasers and high-efficiency detectors, each capable of running over 10 Gb/s, with mixed digital and analog traffic multiplexed to a single optical fiber. This highlyintegrated functionality is combined onto a silicon chip smaller than 4 x 10 mm, weighing failures after extreme temperature cycling through a range of > 125 degC, and more than 2,000 hours operating at 95 degC ambient air temperature. We believe that these recent advancements in planar lightwave circuits are poised to revolutionize optical communications and interconnects in the aerospace and defense industries.

  14. Realisation of an anode supported planar SOFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkremer, H.P.; Stoever, D. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe der Energietechnik, Juelich (Germany); Diekmann, U. [Zentralabteilung Technologie, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Lowering the operating temperature of S0FCs to below 800{degrees}C potentially lowers production costs of a SOFC system because of a less expensive periphery and is able to guarantee sufficient life time of the stack. One way of achieving lower operating temperatures is the development of new high conductive electrolyte materials. The other way, still based on state-of-the-art material, i.e. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, is the development of a thin film electrolyte concept. In the Forschungszentrum Julich a program was started to produce a supported planar SOFC with an YSZ electrolyte thickness between 10 to 20 put. One of the electrodes, i.e. the anode, was used as support, in order not to increase the number of components in the SOFC. The high electronic conductivity of the anode-cermet allows the use of relatively thick layers without increasing the cell resistance. An additional advantage of the supported planar concept is the possibility to produce single cells larger than 10 x 10 cm x cm, that is with an effective electrode cross area of several hundred cm{sup 2}.

  15. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanoue, Kei [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yahiro, Masayuki [Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies, 2-1-22, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0001 (Japan); Fukai, Jun, E-mail: jfukai@chem-eng.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  16. Planar compaction of ceramic powders with mining explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuivinga, M.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Shock compaction experiments of B 4 C powders have been performed using a planar configuration. The powders were contained between metal plates. On top of the upper plate, having a thickness of about 10 mm, was a layer of mining explosives. For this configuration, computer simulations have been performed with use of the hydrocode Autodyn. In comparison with the cylindrical compaction process the planar compaction process appears to be quite different. The reason is the very low detonation velocity of the used mining explosives (2-4 km/s), which is much lower than the sound and shock speeds of the steel plate, in combination with the relatively large thickness of the metal layer. As a result, the nature of the compaction process of the powder initially more resembles a quasi-static compaction process than a shock compaction process. Due to the quasi-static nature of the compaction, the pressure release in the powder after compression is very gradual. Therefore, no strong rarefaction waves leading to high tensile stresses in the compact arise. Flat plates (10x10 cm, 0.6-0.8 cm thick) of Al (20-30 vol %) infiltrated B 4 C have been fabricated using this configuration

  17. An in-situ measuring method for planar straightness error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Tongyu; Sun, Changku; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Changjie

    2018-01-01

    According to some current problems in the course of measuring the plane shape error of workpiece, an in-situ measuring method based on laser triangulation is presented in this paper. The method avoids the inefficiency of traditional methods like knife straightedge as well as the time and cost requirements of coordinate measuring machine(CMM). A laser-based measuring head is designed and installed on the spindle of a numerical control(NC) machine. The measuring head moves in the path planning to measure measuring points. The spatial coordinates of the measuring points are obtained by the combination of the laser triangulation displacement sensor and the coordinate system of the NC machine, which could make the indicators of measurement come true. The method to evaluate planar straightness error adopts particle swarm optimization(PSO). To verify the feasibility and accuracy of the measuring method, simulation experiments were implemented with a CMM. Comparing the measurement results of measuring head with the corresponding measured values obtained by composite measuring machine, it is verified that the method can realize high-precise and automatic measurement of the planar straightness error of the workpiece.

  18. Perovskite–fullerene hybrid materials suppress hysteresis in planar diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jixian; Buin, Andrei; Ip, Alexander H.; Li, Wei; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Yuan, Mingjian; Jeon, Seokmin; Ning, Zhijun; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Sun, Jon-Paul; Lan, Xinzheng; Quan, Li Na; Kim, Dong Ha; Hill, Ian G.; Maksymovych, Peter; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Solution-processed planar perovskite devices are highly desirable in a wide variety of optoelectronic applications; however, they are prone to hysteresis and current instabilities. Here we report the first perovskite–PCBM hybrid solid with significantly reduced hysteresis and recombination loss achieved in a single step. This new material displays an efficient electrically coupled microstructure: PCBM is homogeneously distributed throughout the film at perovskite grain boundaries. The PCBM passivates the key PbI3− antisite defects during the perovskite self-assembly, as revealed by theory and experiment. Photoluminescence transient spectroscopy proves that the PCBM phase promotes electron extraction. We showcase this mixed material in planar solar cells that feature low hysteresis and enhanced photovoltage. Using conductive AFM studies, we reveal the memristive properties of perovskite films. We close by positing that PCBM, by tying up both halide-rich antisites and unincorporated halides, reduces electric field-induced anion migration that may give rise to hysteresis and unstable diode behaviour. PMID:25953105

  19. Interactive object modelling based on piecewise planar surface patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prankl, Johann; Zillich, Michael; Vincze, Markus

    2013-06-01

    Detecting elements such as planes in 3D is essential to describe objects for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. While plane estimation is well studied, table-top scenes exhibit a large number of planes and methods often lock onto a dominant plane or do not estimate 3D object structure but only homographies of individual planes. In this paper we introduce MDL to the problem of incrementally detecting multiple planar patches in a scene using tracked interest points in image sequences. Planar patches are reconstructed and stored in a keyframe-based graph structure. In case different motions occur, separate object hypotheses are modelled from currently visible patches and patches seen in previous frames. We evaluate our approach on a standard data set published by the Visual Geometry Group at the University of Oxford [24] and on our own data set containing table-top scenes. Results indicate that our approach significantly improves over the state-of-the-art algorithms.

  20. Interactive object modelling based on piecewise planar surface patches☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prankl, Johann; Zillich, Michael; Vincze, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Detecting elements such as planes in 3D is essential to describe objects for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. While plane estimation is well studied, table-top scenes exhibit a large number of planes and methods often lock onto a dominant plane or do not estimate 3D object structure but only homographies of individual planes. In this paper we introduce MDL to the problem of incrementally detecting multiple planar patches in a scene using tracked interest points in image sequences. Planar patches are reconstructed and stored in a keyframe-based graph structure. In case different motions occur, separate object hypotheses are modelled from currently visible patches and patches seen in previous frames. We evaluate our approach on a standard data set published by the Visual Geometry Group at the University of Oxford [24] and on our own data set containing table-top scenes. Results indicate that our approach significantly improves over the state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:24511219

  1. Surface planarization effect of siloxane derivatives in organic semiconductor layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Kei; Harada, Hironobu; Ando, Kento; Yahiro, Masayuki; Fukai, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The ability of siloxane surface control additives (SCAs) to planarize organic semiconductor films with a thickness of tens of nanometers printed on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with stripe-patterned bank structures using a liquid-phase method is demonstrated. Three types of SCAs with different molecular structures are examined in organic solutions of toluene, anisole and tetralin containing N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine as a solute and typical organic semiconductor. While there is an optimum SCA and concentration for each solution, one type of SCA is comprehensively effective for all solutions. This SCA increased contact angle, which is contrary to the typical behavior of SCAs. Scanning electron microscope images of the thin films near the banks reveal that this SCA did not change the contact area between the film and substrate surface, which is related to the effectiveness of the SCA. SCAs did not affect the current–voltage characteristics of green organic light-emitting diodes, but did increase external quantum efficiencies, suggesting that SCAs can be used to improve the quality of solution-deposited films for use in optical devices. - Highlights: • Surface control additives planarize organic semiconductor films coated on surfaces. • The most effective additive increases the contact angle of solutions during drying. • The effect of additives is deduced from solutal Marangoni forces. • Additives have little effect on organic light-emitting diode performance.

  2. Planar channeling and quasichanneling oscillations in a bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytov, A.I.; Guidi, V.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Mazzolari, A.; Tikhomirov, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Particles passing through a crystal under planar channeling are captured by a continuous potential and experience transverse oscillations in their motion. As channeled particles approach the atomic planes, they are likely to be dechanneled. This effect is being used in ion-beam analysis with MeV energy. We study this effect in a bent crystal for positive and negative particles within a wide range of energies in sight of application of such crystals at accelerators. We look for the conditions for the observation or not of channeling oscillations in the deflection angle distribution in experiments where the beam passes through the bent crystal. Indeed a new kind of oscillations in the deflection angle distribution, strictly related to the motion of over-barrier particles, i.e. quasichanneled particles, is predicted. Such oscillations, named planar quasichanneling oscillations, possess a different nature than channeling oscillations. Through computer simulation, we study this effect and provided a theoretical interpretation for them. We show that channeling oscillations can be observed only for positive particles while quasichanneling oscillations can exist for particles with either sign. The conditions for experimental observation of channeling and quasichanneling oscillations at existing accelerators with available crystal are found and optimized. (orig.)

  3. Planar channeling and quasichanneling oscillations in a bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytov, A.I. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Mazzolari, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, V.V. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); INFN, Ferrara (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Particles passing through a crystal under planar channeling are captured by a continuous potential and experience transverse oscillations in their motion. As channeled particles approach the atomic planes, they are likely to be dechanneled. This effect is being used in ion-beam analysis with MeV energy. We study this effect in a bent crystal for positive and negative particles within a wide range of energies in sight of application of such crystals at accelerators. We look for the conditions for the observation or not of channeling oscillations in the deflection angle distribution in experiments where the beam passes through the bent crystal. Indeed a new kind of oscillations in the deflection angle distribution, strictly related to the motion of over-barrier particles, i.e. quasichanneled particles, is predicted. Such oscillations, named planar quasichanneling oscillations, possess a different nature than channeling oscillations. Through computer simulation, we study this effect and provided a theoretical interpretation for them. We show that channeling oscillations can be observed only for positive particles while quasichanneling oscillations can exist for particles with either sign. The conditions for experimental observation of channeling and quasichanneling oscillations at existing accelerators with available crystal are found and optimized. (orig.)

  4. Microtubules Enable the Planar Cell Polarity of Airway Cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Bayly, Roy D.; Sangoram, Ashvin; Scott, Matthew P.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Airway cilia must be physically oriented along the longitudinal tissue axis for concerted, directional motility that is essential for proper mucociliary clearance. Results We show that Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling specifies directionality and orients respiratory cilia. Within all airway epithelial cells a conserved set of PCP proteins shows interdependent, asymmetric junctional localization; non-autonomous signaling coordinates polarization between cells; and a polarized microtubule (MT) network is likely required for asymmetric PCP protein localization. We find that basal bodies dock after polarity of PCP proteins is established, are polarized nearly simultaneously, and refinement of basal body/cilium orientation continues during airway epithelial development. Unique to mature multiciliated cells, we identify PCP-regulated, planar polarized MTs that originate from basal bodies and interact, via their plus ends, with membrane domains associated with the PCP proteins Frizzled and Dishevelled. Disruption of MTs leads to misoriented cilia. Conclusions A conserved PCP pathway orients airway cilia by communicating polarity information from asymmetric membrane domains at the apical junctions, through MTs, to orient the MT and actin based network of ciliary basal bodies below the apical surface. PMID:23122850

  5. Integration of lateral porous silicon membranes into planar microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leïchlé, Thierry; Bourrier, David

    2015-02-07

    In this work, we present a novel fabrication process that enables the monolithic integration of lateral porous silicon membranes into single-layer planar microchannels. This fabrication technique relies on the patterning of local electrodes to guide pore formation horizontally within the membrane and on the use of silicon-on-insulator substrates to spatially localize porous silicon within the channel depth. The feasibility of our approach is studied by current flow analysis using the finite element method and supported by creating 10 μm long mesoporous membranes within 20 μm deep microchannels. The fabricated membranes are demonstrated to be potentially useful for dead-end microfiltration by adequately retaining 300 nm diameter beads while macromolecules such as single-stranded DNA and immunoglobulin G permeate the membrane. The experimentally determined fluidic resistance is in accordance with the theoretical value expected from the estimated pore size and porosity. The work presented here is expected to greatly simplify the integration of membranes capable of size exclusion based separation into fluidic devices and opens doors to the use of porous silicon in planar lab on a chip devices.

  6. Cache-Oblivious Planar Orthogonal Range Searching and Counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    present the first cache-oblivious data structure for planar orthogonal range counting, and improve on previous results for cache-oblivious planar orthogonal range searching. Our range counting structure uses O(Nlog2 N) space and answers queries using O(logB N) memory transfers, where B is the block...... size of any memory level in a multilevel memory hierarchy. Using bit manipulation techniques, the space can be further reduced to O(N). The structure can also be modified to support more general semigroup range sum queries in O(logB N) memory transfers, using O(Nlog2 N) space for three-sided queries...... and O(Nlog22 N/log2log2 N) space for four-sided queries. Based on the O(Nlog N) space range counting structure, we develop a data structure that uses O(Nlog2 N) space and answers three-sided range queries in O(logB N+T/B) memory transfers, where T is the number of reported points. Based...

  7. Direct magnetic field estimation based on echo planar raw data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, Frederik; Splitthoff, Daniel Nicolas; Speck, Oliver; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2010-07-01

    Gradient recalled echo echo planar imaging is widely used in functional magnetic resonance imaging. The fast data acquisition is, however, very sensitive to field inhomogeneities which manifest themselves as artifacts in the images. Typically used correction methods have the common deficit that the data for the correction are acquired only once at the beginning of the experiment, assuming the field inhomogeneity distribution B(0) does not change over the course of the experiment. In this paper, methods to extract the magnetic field distribution from the acquired k-space data or from the reconstructed phase image of a gradient echo planar sequence are compared and extended. A common derivation for the presented approaches provides a solid theoretical basis, enables a fair comparison and demonstrates the equivalence of the k-space and the image phase based approaches. The image phase analysis is extended here to calculate the local gradient in the readout direction and improvements are introduced to the echo shift analysis, referred to here as "k-space filtering analysis." The described methods are compared to experimentally acquired B(0) maps in phantoms and in vivo. The k-space filtering analysis presented in this work demonstrated to be the most sensitive method to detect field inhomogeneities.

  8. Current in heavy-current planar diode with discrete emission surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belomyttsev, S.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Pegel', I.V

    1999-01-01

    Dependence of current in a high-current planar diode on the size of emission centres was studied. Essential effect of emission surface microstructure on the current value in the planar diode was demonstrated. It was determined that if the distance between the emitter essentially exceeded their size then current dependence on the ratio of size to the value of the diode gap was an exponential function with 3/2 index. Current dependence on voltage obeyed the exponential law with 3/2 index up to higher voltage values in the planar diode with discrete emission surface in contrast to the case of a planar diode with homogeneous emission surface [ru

  9. Substrate and coating defect planarization strategies for high-laser-fluence multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Wolfe, Justin E.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Folta, James A.; Adams, John J.; Menor, Marlon G.; Teslich, Nick E.; Soufli, Regina; Menoni, Carmen S.; Patel, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Planarizing or smoothing over nodular defects in multilayer mirrors can be accomplished by a discrete deposit-and-etch process that exploits the angle-dependent etching rate of optical materials. Typically, nodular defects limit the fluence on mirrors irradiated at 1064 nm with 10 ns pulse lengths due to geometrically- and interference-induced light intensification. Planarized hafina/silica multilayer mirrors have demonstrated > 125 J/cm 2 laser resistance for single-shot testing and 50 J/cm 2 for multi-shot testing for nodular defects originating on the substrate surface. Two planarization methods were explored: thick planarization layers on the substrate surface and planarized silica layers throughout the multilayer in which only the silica layers that are below one half of the incoming electric field value are etched. This paper also describes the impact of planarized defects that are buried within the multilayer structure compared to planarized substrate particulate defects. - Highlights: • Defect planarization significantly improves multilayer mirror laser resistance • Substrate and coating defects have both been effectively planarized • Single and multishot laser resistance improvement was demonstrated

  10. Determination of crystallographic and macroscopic orientation of planar structures in TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    With the aid of a double-tilt holder in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), simple methods are described for determination of the crystallographic orientation of a planar structure and for calculation of the macroscopic orientation of the planar structure. The correlation between a planar...... structure and a crystallographic plane can be found by comparing the differences in their trace directions on the projection plane and inclination angles with respect to that plane. The angles between the traces of planar structures and the sample axis measured from the TEM micrographs, which have been...

  11. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  12. Near real-time bi-planar fluoroscopic tracking system for the video tumor fighter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, M.A.; Wika, K.G.; Gillies, G.T.; Ritter, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed software capable of the three-dimensional tracking of objects in the brain volume, and the subsequent overlaying of an image of the object onto previously obtained MR or CT scans. This software has been developed for use with the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), also called the Video Tumor Fighter (VTF). The software was written for s Sun 4/110 SPARC workstation with an ANDROX ICS-400 image processing card installed to manage this task. At present, the system uses input from two orthogonally- oriented, visible-light cameras and simulated scene to determine the three-dimensional position of the object of interest. The coordinates are then transformed into MR or CT coordinates and an image of the object is displayed in the appropriate intersecting MR slice on a computer screen. This paper describes the tracking algorithm and discusses how it was implemented in software. The system's hardware is also described. The limitations of the present system are discussed and plans for incorporating bi-planar, x-ray fluoroscopy are presented

  13. Low- and high-index sol-gel films for planar and channel-doped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canva, Michael; Chaput, Frederic; Lahlil, Khalid; Rachet, Vincent; Goudket, Helene; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Yves

    2001-11-01

    In view of realizing integrated optic components based on effects such as electro-optic, chi(2):chi(2) cascading, stimulated emission,... one has to first synthesize materials with the proper functionality; this may be achieved by doping solid state matrices by the appropriate organic chromophores. Second, and as important, these materials have to be properly structured into the final optical guiding structures. We shall report on issues related to the realization of chromophore-doped planar waveguides as well as channel waveguides. These structures were realized by either photo-transformation such as photo- chromism and photo-bleaching or reactive ion etching technique, starting with chromophore doped sol-gel materials at high loading contents for which optical index may be controlled via the local dopant concentration. With these materials and techniques, waveguides and components characterized by propagation losses of the order of a cm-1, measured off the edge of the absorption band of the doping species, were fabricated. In order to be also able to study and use waveguide functionalized with low concentration of chromophore species, we developed new sol-gel materials of high optical index, yet low temperature processed. These new films are under study to evaluate their potential as host for organic doped waveguides devices.

  14. Surface-modified polymeric pads for enhanced performance during chemical mechanical planarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.; Dakshinamurthy, S.; Kuiry, S.C.; Vaidyanathan, R.; Obeng, Y.S.; Seal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process occurs at an atomic level at the slurry/wafer interface and hence slurries and polishing pads play a critical role in their successful implementation. Polyurethane is a commonly used polymer in the manufacturing of CMP pads. These pads are incompatible with some chemicals present in the CMP slurries, such as hydrogen peroxide. To overcome these problems, Psiloquest has developed new Application Specific Pads (ASP). Surface of such pads has been modified by depositing a thin film of tetraethyl orthosilicate using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. In the present study, mechanical properties of such coated pads have been investigated using nanoindentation. The surface morphology and the chemistry of the ASP were studied using scanning electron microcopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. It was observed that mechanical and chemical properties of the pad top surface are a function of the PECVD coating time. Such PECVD-treated pads are found to be hydrophilic and do not require storage in aqueous media during the not-in-use period. The metal removal rate using such surface-modified polishing pads was found to increase linearly with the PECVD coating time

  15. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.

  16. Hydrogen Induced Crack and Phase Transformation in Hydrogen Pressured Tensile Test of 316L Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Un Bong; Nam, Sung Hoon [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Byung Hak; Shim, Jong Hun [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Uk [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Keyyong [Korea Research Institute of Ship and Ocean Engineering, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    The aim of this investigation is to prove the mechanism of hydrogen induced crack (HIC) of 316L stainless steels in hydrogen pressured tensile test. Microstructures like twin, planar slip, and abnormal phase transformation around the HIC were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Deformation twin accompanied by planar slip could be related to the main cause of HIC in the hydrogen pressured tensile condition, because intragranular HICs were mainly observed along the boundaries of twins and planar slip lines. An abnormal forbidden diffraction was also accompanied by HIC in the hydrogen attacked area. Examination of the HIC mechanism in austenitic stainless steel can be applied to the fitness of use for alloys with the possibility of various susceptible cracks in a hydrogen and stress atmosphere.

  17. Direct Closed-Form Design of Finite Alphabet Constant Envelope Waveforms for Planar Array Beampatterns

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar systems has attracted lately a lot of attention thanks to its advantage over the classical phased array radar systems. We site among these advantages the improvement of parametric identifiability, achievement of higher spatial resolution and design of complex beampatterns. In colocated multiple-input multiple-output radar systems, it is usually desirable to steer transmitted power in the region-of-interest in order to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and reduce any undesired signal and thus improve the detection process. This problem is also known as transmit beampattern design. To achieve this goal, conventional methods optimize the waveform covariance matrix, R, for the desired beampattern, which is then used to generate the actual transmitted waveforms. Both steps require constrained optimization. Most of the existing methods use iterative algorithms to solve these problems, therefore their computational complexity is very high which makes them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used to derive a novel closed-form algorithm to directly design the finite-alphabet constant-envelope waveforms. The proposed algorithm exploits the two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform which is implemented using fast Fourier transform algorithm. Consequently, the computational complexity of the proposed beampattern solution is very low allowing it to be used for large arrays to change the beampattern in real time. We also show that the number of required snapshots in each waveform depends on the beampattern and that it is less than the total number of transmit antennas. In addition, we show that the proposed waveform design method can be used with non symmetric beampatterns. The performance of our proposed algorithm compares

  18. Displacive transformations in near-equiatomic niobium--ruthenium alloys. I. Morphology and crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Lieberman, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    Displacive phase transformations in near-equiatomic Nb--Ru alloys were studied using electrical resistivity measurements, optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. Alloys containing between 41 and 45 at. percent Ru undergo a CsCl (β) to tetragonal (β') transformation on cooling from 1500 0 C to room temperature. Alloys containing more than 46 at. percent Ru exhibit a two step CsCl (β) to tetragonal (β') to orthorhombic (β'') transformation on cooling to room temperature. Although the product of each successive transformation consists of stacks of twins (in β' → β'', twins within twins), the transformations do not proceed by the advance of sharp planar interfaces as in many of the first order martensitic transformations resulting in morphologically similar products. Rather, the interphase region consists of a small volume of the crystal over which the parent phase is gradually distorted into the product phase. (U.S.)

  19. Planar and non-planar nucleus-acoustic shock structures in self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, D. M. S.; Amina, M.; Dip, P. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The basic properties of planar and non-planar (spherical and cylindrical) nucleus-acoustic (NA) shock structures (SSs) in a strongly coupled self-gravitating degenerate quantum plasma system (containing strongly coupled non-relativistically degenerate heavy nuclear species, weakly coupled non-relativistically degenerate light nuclear species, and inertialess non-/ultra-relativistically degenerate electrons) have been investigated. The generalized quantum hydrodynamic model and the reductive perturbation method have been used to derive the modified Burgers equation. It is shown that the strong correlation among heavy nuclear species acts as the source of dissipation and is responsible for the formation of the NA SSs with positive (negative) electrostatic (self-gravitational) potential. It is also observed that the effects of non-/ultra-relativistically degenerate electron pressure, dynamics of non-relativistically degenerate light nuclear species, spherical geometry, etc., significantly modify the basic features of the NA SSs. The applications of our results in astrophysical compact objects like white dwarfs and neutron stars are briefly discussed.

  20. An improved partially interleaved transformer structure for high-voltage high-frequency multiple-output applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bin; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    . The proposed structure features lower leakage inductance, smaller AC capacitance and lower rate of AC-DC resistance, which is suitable for high-frequency high-efficiency applications. A planar transformer with the proposed structure was built and tested in an LCLC resonant converter, where the input voltage...

  1. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  2. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  3. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  4. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  5. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  6. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  7. Electrostatic shielding of transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, Francisco

    2017-11-28

    Toroidal transformers are currently used only in low-voltage applications. There is no published experience for toroidal transformer design at distribution-level voltages. Toroidal transformers are provided with electrostatic shielding to make possible high voltage applications and withstand the impulse test.

  8. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  9. Transforming the Force and Logistics Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Katherine M

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Army transformation strategy addresses the imperative to change the Army from a Cold War-oriented design to one that is more responsive, agile, and adaptable to present and emerging threats across...

  10. Modal analysis of spontaneous emission in a planar microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigneault, H.; Monneret, S.

    1996-01-01

    A complete set of cavity modes in planar dielectric microcavities is presented which naturally includes guided modes. We show that most of these orthonormal fields can be derived from a coherent superposition of plane waves incoming on the stack from the air and from the substrate. Spontaneous emission of a dipole located inside the microcavity is analyzed, in terms of cavity modes. Derivation of the radiation pattern in the air and in the substrate is presented. The power emitted into the guided modes is also determined. Finally, a numerical analysis of the radiative properties of an erbium atom located in a Fabry-Pacute erot multilayer dielectric microcavity is investigated. We show that a large amount of light is emitted into the guided modes of the structure, in spite of the Fabry-Pacute erot resonance, which increases the spontaneous emission rate in a normal direction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Entropy Error Model of Planar Geometry Features in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dajun; GUAN Yunlan; GONG Jianya; DU Daosheng

    2003-01-01

    Positional error of line segments is usually described by using "g-band", however, its band width is in relation to the confidence level choice. In fact, given different confidence levels, a series of concentric bands can be obtained. To overcome the effect of confidence level on the error indicator, by introducing the union entropy theory, we propose an entropy error ellipse index of point, then extend it to line segment and polygon,and establish an entropy error band of line segment and an entropy error donut of polygon. The research shows that the entropy error index can be determined uniquely and is not influenced by confidence level, and that they are suitable for positional uncertainty of planar geometry features.

  12. Direct drive acceleration of planar liquid deuterium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.; Colombant, D.G.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Gardner, J.H.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Nike laser (∼2 - 3 kJ, ∼10 14 W/cm 2 ) has been used to ablatively accelerate planar liquid deuterium targets. These experiments are designed to test some aspects of a high gain direct drive target design. The target consists of a low-density foam that is filled with liquid deuterium and covered with a thin polyimide membrane. The measured target trajectory agrees well with one-dimensional (1D) simulations. The growth of the areal mass modulations were measured with a new, 1.26 keV x-ray backlighter. The modulations appear later and grow to a smaller amplitude when the foot of the laser pulse is made spatially smoother. A thin layer of gold on the front of the target reduces the modulations. The results are compared with 2D modeling

  13. Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caviglia, G.

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only

  14. Dual-Polarized Planar Phased Array Analysis for Meteorological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for the accuracy requirements of the planar polarimetric phased array radar (PPPAR in meteorological applications. Among many factors that contribute to the polarimetric biases, four factors are considered and analyzed in this study, namely, the polarization distortion due to the intrinsic limitation of a dual-polarized antenna element, the antenna pattern measurement error, the entire array patterns, and the imperfect horizontal and vertical channels. Two operation modes, the alternately transmitting and simultaneously receiving (ATSR mode and the simultaneously transmitting and simultaneously receiving (STSR mode, are discussed. For each mode, the polarimetric biases are formulated. As the STSR mode with orthogonal waveforms is similar to the ATSR mode, the analysis is mainly focused on the ATSR mode and the impacts of the bias sources on the measurement of polarimetric variables are investigated through Monte Carlo simulations. Some insights of the accuracy requirements are obtained and summarized.

  15. Planar C-Band Antenna with Electronically Controllable Switched Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Barba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, manufacturing, and measurements of a switchable-beam antenna at 3.5 GHz for WLL or Wimax base station antennas in planar technology are presented. This antenna performs a discrete beam scan of a 60∘ sector in azimuth and can be easily upgraded to 5 or more steps. The switching capabilities have been implemented by the inclusion of phase shifters based on PIN diodes in the feed network following a strategy that allows the reduction of the number of switches compared to a classic design. The measurements show that the design objectives have been achieved and encourage the application of the acquired experience in antennas for space applications, such as X-band SAR and Ku-band DBS.

  16. Shock-ignition relevant experiments with planar targets on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Fratanduono, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CELIA, Université Bordeaux 1-CEA-CNRS, Talence (France)

    2014-02-15

    We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of ∼70 keV at intensities of 1.4 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} with multiple overlapping beams driving the two-plasmon decay instability. When extrapolated to SI-relevant intensities of ∼10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the hot electron temperature will likely exceed 100 keV, suggesting that tightly focused beams without overlap are better suited for launching the ignitor shock.

  17. Design of a novel 6-DOF planar maglev system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Yen, J.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel single-deck and six degree-of-freedom (DOF) planar maglev positioning system design. The proposed design uses an array of solenoids to levitate and to hold a permanent magnet carrier in place. The solenoids are excited separately to generate restoring forces when the permanent magnet carrier is displaced from its equilibrium position. The research uses the ANSOFT finite element analysis simulation to analyze the solenoid restoring forces and to motivate a suitable permanent magnets arrangement. Active control on the solenoid currents is then used to maintain the carrier position. The system identification is carried out by perturbing the experimental set-up from its equilibrium position. The simulation results based on the identification models show that simple control is effective for maintaining the carrier position. Initial implementation has also showed that the concept is feasible

  18. High-quality planar high-Tc Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeal, N.; Grison, X.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Reproducible high-T c Josephson junctions have been made in a rather simple two-step process using ion irradiation. A microbridge (1 to 5 μm wide) is firstly designed by ion irradiating a c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film through a gold mask such as the nonprotected part becomes insulating. A lower T c part is then defined within the bridge by irradiating with a much lower fluence through a narrow slit (20 nm) opened in a standard electronic photoresist. These planar junctions, whose settings can be finely tuned, exhibit reproducible and nearly ideal Josephson characteristics. This process can be used to produce complex Josephson circuits

  19. Kac's question, planar isospectral pairs and involutions in projective space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thas, Koen

    2006-01-01

    In a paper published in Am. Math. Mon. (1966 73 1-23), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?'. Gordon et al answered this question negatively by constructing planar isospectral pairs in their paper published in Invent. Math. (1992 110 1-22). Only a finite number of pairs have been constructed till now. Further in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (2005 38 L477-83), Giraud showed that most of the known examples can be generated from solutions of a certain equation which involves certain involutions of an n-dimensional projective space over some finite field. He then generated all possible solutions when n = 2. In this letter we handle all dimensions, and show that no other examples arise. (letter to the editor)

  20. Effective diffusion in time-periodic linear planar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indeikina, A.; Chang, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that when a point source of solute is inserted into a time-periodic, unbounded linear planar flow, the large-time, time-average transport of the solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion with constant effective diffusion tensors. For a given vorticity and forcing period, elongational flow is shown to be the most dispersive followed by simple shear and rotational flow. Large-time diffusivity along the major axis of the time-average concentration ellipse, whose alignment is predicted from the theory, is shown to increase with vorticity for all flows and decrease with increasing forcing frequency for elongational flow and simple shear. For the interesting case of rotational flow, there exist discrete resonant frequencies where the time-average major diffusivity reaches local maxima equal to the time-average steady flow case with zero forcing frequency

  1. External Data Structures for Shortest Path Queries on Planar Digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Toma, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present space-query trade-offs for external memory data structures that answer shortest path queries on planar directed graphs. For any S = Ω(N 1 + ε) and S = O(N2/B), our main result is a family of structures that use S space and answer queries in O(N2/ S B) I/Os, thus obtaining...... optimal space-query product O(N2/B). An S space structure can be constructed in O(√S · sort(N)) I/Os, where sort(N) is the number of I/Os needed to sort N elements, B is the disk block size, and N is the size of the graph....

  2. GRIN planar waveguide concentrator used with a single axis tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2014-03-10

    It is generally accepted that small to medium level concentrators could be used as cost-competitive replacements for tracked solar panels. The objective is to design a system that can reach a good level of sun concentration with only one sun-tracking axis and is cheap to fabricate. As the most critical parameter for all concentrator designs, optical efficiency needed improvement to reduce the cost of power produced by our system. By using a graded-index planar waveguide with an index profile similar to SELFOC fiber, the ray's path can be controlled. Also, the concentrator can be fabricated in a single block, which reduces Fresnel reflections. Overall, the optical efficiency can be improved by as much as 33% compared to the same system made with a homogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, the ability to cost-effectively fabricate the concentrator by molding can be preserved, making it possible to reduce the cost of the solar power produced.

  3. Giant magnetic modulation of a planar, hybrid metamolecule resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Simon A; Stenning, Gavin B G; Bowden, Graham J; De Groot, Peter A J; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2014-01-01

    Coupling magnetic elements to metamaterial structures creates hybrid metamolecules with new opportunities. Here we report on the magnetic control of a metamolecule resonance, by utilizing the interaction between a single split ring resonator (SRR) and a magnetic thin film of permalloy. To suppress eddy current shielding, the permalloy films are patterned into arrays of 30–500 μm diameter discs. Strong hybridized resonances were observed at the anticrossing between the split ring resonance and the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of the permalloy. In particular, it is possible to achieve 40 dB modulation of the electric (symmetric) mode of the SRR on sweeping the applied magnetic field through the SRR/FMR anticrossing. The results open the way to the design of planar metamaterials, with potential applications in nonlinear metamaterials, tunable metamaterials and spintronics. (papers)

  4. Relativistic electron planar channeling and diffraction in thin monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, S.A.; Nurmagambetov, S.B.; Kaplin, V.V.; Rozum, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of relativistic electrons with thin monocrystals was investigated in approximation of continuous potential of crystal plane system. Numerical technique for solution of one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential was developed. Numerical solutions conducted according to the technique were used to determine the forms of ngular distributions of electrons located in various zones of lteral motion. Calculation results were applied for analyzing experimentally obtained data on agular distribution of 5.1 MeV electrons projected at small angles onto the (110) planar system of a Si monocrystal. The conducted complex experimental and theoretical: investigations demonstrated the possibility of prevalen occupation of certain states of lateral motion and enabled to determine angular reg in directions of the electron beam projection on a crystal where either channeling effects or those of electron diffraction are important

  5. Planar transistors and impatt diodes with ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorendorf, H.; Glawischnig, H.; Grasser, L.; Hammerschmitt, J.

    1975-03-01

    Low frequency planar npn and pnp transistors have been developed in which the base and emitter have been fabricated using ion implantation of boron and phosphorus by a drive-in diffusion. Electrical parameters of the transistors are comparable with conventionally produced transistors; the noise figure was improved and production tolerances were significantly reduced. Silicon-impatt diodes for the microwave range were also fabricated with implanted pn junctions and tested for their high frequency characteristics. These diodes, made in an improved upside down technology, delivered output power up to 40 mW (burn out power) at 30 GHz. Reverse leakage current and current carrying capability of these diodes were comparable to diffused structures. (orig.) 891 ORU 892 MB [de

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of field emission from a planar nanodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torfason, Kristinn; Valfells, Agust; Manolescu, Andrei [School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, IS-101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2015-03-15

    High resolution molecular dynamics simulations with full Coulomb interactions of electrons are used to investigate field emission in planar nanodiodes. The effects of space-charge and emitter radius are examined and compared to previous results concerning transition from Fowler-Nordheim to Child-Langmuir current [Y. Y. Lau, Y. Liu, and R. K. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 1, 2082 (1994) and Y. Feng and J. P. Verboncoeur, Phys. Plasmas 13, 073105 (2006)]. The Fowler-Nordheim law is used to determine the current density injected into the system and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to find a favourable point of emission on the emitter surface. A simple fluid like model is also developed and its results are in qualitative agreement with the simulations.

  7. Planar dynamics of large-deformation rods under moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. W.; van der Heijden, G. H. M.

    2018-01-01

    We formulate the problem of a slender structure (a rod) undergoing large deformation under the action of a moving mass or load motivated by inspection robots crawling along bridge cables or high-voltage power lines. The rod is described by means of geometrically exact Cosserat theory which allows for arbitrary planar flexural, extensional and shear deformations. The equations of motion are discretised using the generalised-α method. The formulation is shown to handle the discontinuities of the problem well. Application of the method to a cable and an arch problem reveals interesting nonlinear phenomena. For the cable problem we find that large deformations have a resonance detuning effect on cable dynamics. The problem also offers a compelling illustration of the Timoshenko paradox. For the arch problem we find a stabilising (delay) effect on the in-plane collapse of the arch, with failure suppressed entirely at sufficiently high speed.

  8. OLED Fabrication by Using a Novel Planar Evaporation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Ching Tung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic light-emitting diode fabrication is suffering from extremely high material wasting during deposition especially using a typical point or even line source. Moreover, the need of depositing a high number of emitters and host(s with a precise composition control in a single layer makes traditional vapor codeposition systems nearly impossible, unless otherwise with a very low yield. To improve, we have developed a novel thin-film deposition system with a planar source loadable with any premetered solvent-mixed organic compounds, plausibly with no component number limitation. We hence demonstrate experimentally, along with a Monte Carlo simulation, in the report the feasibility of using the technique to deposit on a large area-size substrate various organic materials with a relatively high material utilization rate coupling with high film uniformity. Specifically, nonuniformity of less than ±5% and material utilization rate of greater than 70% have been obtained for the studied films.

  9. Localization in an anisotropic planar aggregate of spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragione Luigi La

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a micro-mechanical model that is able to predict localization in a sheared planar aggregate of spheres. We assume a non-linear contact law between interacting particles that deform differently from an affine deformation. Equilibrium determines this deviation. The aggregate is isotropically compressed and then sheared so anisotropy develops because of contacts deletion and a non-linear contact law. Because of anisotropy and fluctuations in particles deformation, the resulting macroscopic stiffness tensor, which relates increments in the average stress with increments in the average strain, is characterized by a lack of major symmetry, Aijkl ≠ Aklij. At given shear strain and coordination number it is possible to detemine a plane over which discontinuity in strain occurs; this is identified as localization.

  10. Planar reorientation maneuvers of space multibody systems using internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a reorientation maneuvering strategy for an interconnection of planar rigid bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques, and torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero in this paper. The maneuver strategy uses the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. We demonstrate that large-angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is briefly summarized. Specifications and computer simulations of a specific reorientation maneuver, and the corresponding control strategies, are described.

  11. On wakefields with two-dimensional planar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In order to reach higher acceleration gradients in linear accelerators, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerating RF frequency, which in turn requires smaller accelerating structures. As the structure size becomes smaller, rectangular structures become increasingly interesting because they are easier to construct than cylindrically symmetric ones. One drawback of small structures, however, is that the wakefields generated by the beam in such structures tend to be strong. Recently, it has been suggested that one way of ameliorating this problem is to use rectangular structures that are very flat and to use flat beams. In the limiting case of a very flat planar geometry, the problem resembles a purely two-dimensional (2-D) problem, the wakefields of which have been studied

  12. All-zigzag graphene nanoribbons for planar interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-An; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Chou

    2017-07-01

    A feasible "lightning-shaped" zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) structure for planar interconnects is proposed. Based on the density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function, the electron transport properties are evaluated. The lightning-shaped structure increases significantly the conductance of the graphene interconnect with an odd number of zigzag chains. This proposed technique can effectively utilize the linear I-V characteristic of asymmetric ZGNRs for interconnect application. Variability study accounting for width/length variation and the edge effect is also included. The transmission spectra, transmission eigenstates, and transmission pathways are analyzed to gain the physical insights. This lightning-shaped ZGNR enables all 2D material-based devices and circuits on flexible and transparent substrates.

  13. Bifurcation theory for finitely smooth planar autonomous differential systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Maoan; Sheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we establish bifurcation theory of limit cycles for planar Ck smooth autonomous differential systems, with k ∈ N. The key point is to study the smoothness of bifurcation functions which are basic and important tool on the study of Hopf bifurcation at a fine focus or a center, and of Poincaré bifurcation in a period annulus. We especially study the smoothness of the first order Melnikov function in degenerate Hopf bifurcation at an elementary center. As we know, the smoothness problem was solved for analytic and C∞ differential systems, but it was not tackled for finitely smooth differential systems. Here, we present their optimal regularity of these bifurcation functions and their asymptotic expressions in the finite smooth case.

  14. Vlasov treatment of coherent synchrotron radiation from arbitrary planar orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnock, R.; Bassi, G.; Ellison, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We study the influence of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on particle bunches traveling on arbitrary planar orbits between parallel conducting plates which represent the vacuum chamber. Our goal is to follow the time evolution of the phase space distribution by solving the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the time domain. This should provide simulations with lower numerical noise than the macro-particle method, and allow one to study such issues as emittance degradation and microbunching due to CSR in bunch compressors. The fields excited by the bunch are computed in the laboratory frame from a new formula that leads to much simpler computations than usual methods. The nonlinear Vlasov equation, formulated in the interaction picture, is integrated in the beam frame by approximating the Perron-Frobenius operator. For application to a chicane bunch compressor we take steps to deal with energy chirp

  15. Planar Ultrawideband Antenna with Photonically Controlled Notched Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasko Draskovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of a planar microstrip-fed ultrawideband (UWB printed circular monopole antenna with optically controlled notched bands is presented. The proposed antenna is composed of a circular ultrawideband patch, with an etched T-shaped slot controlled by an integrated silicon switch. The slot modifies the frequency response of the antenna suppressing 3.5–5 GHz band when the switch is in open state. The optical switch is controlled by a low-power near-infrared (808 nm laser diode, which causes the change in the frequency response of the antenna generating a frequency notch. This solution could be expanded to include several notches in the antenna frequency response achieving a fully reconfigurable UWB antenna. The antenna could be remotely controlled at large distances using optical fiber. The prototype antenna has been fully characterized to verify these design concepts.

  16. Ultrarelativistic electron and positron radiation in planar channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, N.P.; Olchack, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The coherent electromagnetic radiation from channeling electrons and positrons is given by similar expression. However for the channeling positrons the close collisions are suppressed due to the fact that the positron wave function is exponentially small near the atoms of the crystal lattice. It follows that the coherent bremsstrahlung decreases for the channeling positrons. We have investigated the ultrarelativistic channeling electron and positron radiations, connected with the electromagnetic transitions from the continuum spectrum states to the quasi-bound spectrum states and between the different quasi-bound spectrum states. The radiation probabilities are calculated by using the model continuum planar potential. It is shown that the radiation from the channeling electrons is several orders of magnitude larger than the positron radiation, while the electron and positron radiation have similar characteristics such as frequency limitation and angular distribution of the radiation. (orig.)

  17. Planar Hall effect sensor with magnetostatic compensation layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    Demagnetization effects in cross-shaped planar Hall effect sensors cause inhomogeneous film magnetization and a hysteretic sensor response. Furthermore, when using sensors for detection of magnetic beads, the magnetostatic field from the sensor edges attracts and holds magnetic beads near...... the sensor edges causing inhomogeneous and non-specific binding of the beads. We show theoretically that adding a compensation magnetic stack beneath the sensor stack and exchange-biasing it antiparallel to the sensor stack, the magnetostatic field is minimized. We show experimentally that the compensation...... stack removes nonlinear effects from the sensor response, it strongly reduces hysteresis, and it increases the homogeneity of the bead distribution. Finally, it reduces the non-specific binding due to magnetostatic fields allowing us to completely remove beads from the compensated sensor using a water...

  18. Planar UV excilamp excited by a surface barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guivan, N N [Department of Quantum Electronics, Uzhgorod National University, Pidgirna 46, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine); Janca, J [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Brablec, A [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Stahel, P [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); SlavIcek, P [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, Brno 61137 (Czech Republic); Shimon, L L [Department of Quantum Electronics, Uzhgorod National University, Pidgirna 46, Uzhgorod 88000 (Ukraine)

    2005-09-07

    In this paper, the typical characteristics of a planar excilamp based on KrCl* and XeCl* exciplex molecules are presented. The excitation of the working mixture Kr/Xe/Cl{sub 2} is realized by means of the surface barrier discharge at pressures of 0.1-1 bar. The following properties are measured and discussed: spectra emitted by the plasma in the UV/VIS/NIR spectral range, intensity of emitted light versus total pressure in the discharge, the composition of the working mixture and the power of emitted light. The radiation power versus input electric power, and space distribution of the emitted light including basic electrical parameters of the discharge were also measured. It was shown that the characteristic power of UV radiation emitted in the spectral range 200-400 nm is about 6 mW cm{sup -2} while the efficiency could be about 8%.

  19. Electron inertia effects on the planar plasma sheath problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, V. N.; Clemente, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    The steady one-dimensional planar plasma sheath problem, originally considered by Tonks and Langmuir, is revisited. Assuming continuously generated free-falling ions and isothermal electrons and taking into account electron inertia, it is possible to describe the problem in terms of three coupled integro-differential equations that can be numerically integrated. The inclusion of electron inertia in the model allows us to obtain the value of the plasma floating potential as resulting from an electron density discontinuity at the walls, where the electrons attain sound velocity and the electric potential is continuous. Results from numerical computation are presented in terms of plots for densities, electric potential, and particles velocities. Comparison with results from literature, corresponding to electron Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (neglecting electron inertia), is also shown.

  20. Experimental evidence of planar channeling in a periodically bent crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Bellucci, V.; Camattari, R.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [Univ. di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica, Ferrara (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Berra, A.; Lietti, D.; Prest, M. [Univ. dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); De Salvador, D. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Univ. di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padua (Italy); Lanzoni, L. [San Marino Univ. (San Marino). Dept. of Engineering; Tikhomirov, V.V. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Vallazza, E. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    The usage of a crystalline undulator (CU) has been identified as a promising solution for generating powerful and monochromatic γ-rays. A CU was fabricated at Sensors and Semiconductors Lab (SSL) through the grooving method, i.e., by the manufacturing of a series of periodical grooves on the major surfaces of a crystal. The CU was extensively characterized both morphologically via optical interferometry at SSL and structurally via X-ray diffraction at ESRF. Then, it was finally tested for channeling with a 400 GeV/c proton beam at CERN. The experimental results were compared to Monte Carlo simulations. Evidence of planar channeling in the CU was firmly observed. Finally, the emission spectrum of the positron beam interacting with the CU was simulated for possible usage in currently existing facilities. (orig.)

  1. Temperature and flow distribution in planar SOFC stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Østenstad

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack requires the solution of the mass balances of the chemical species, the energy balances, the charge balance and the channel flow equations in order to compute the species concentrations, the temperature distributions, the current density and the channel flows. The unit cell geometry can be taken into account by combining detailed modeling of a unit cell with a homogenized model of a whole stack. In this study the effect of the asymmetric temperature distribution on the channel flows in a conventional cross-flow design has been investigated. The bidirectional cross-flow design is introduced, for which we can show more directional temperature and flow distributions.

  2. Comparison of evaluation method for planar flaw in pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Nam; Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Won Gul

    2009-01-01

    CSA N285.4-94 requires the periodic inservice inspection and surveillance of pressure tubes in operating CANDU nuclear power reactors. If the inspection results reveal a flaw exceeding the acceptance criteria of the Code, the flaw must be evaluated to determine if the pressure is acceptable for continued service. Currently, the flaw evaluation methodology and acceptance criteria specified in CSA N285.8-05, 'Technical requirements for in-service evaluation of zirconium alloy pressure tubes in CANDU reactors'. The Code is applicable to zirconium alloy pressure tubes. The evaluation methodology for a crack-like flaw is similar to that of FFSG(Fitness For Service Guideline for Zirconium alloy pressure in operation CANDU) used now. The object of this paper is to address the fracture initiation and plastic collapse evaluation for the planar flaw as it applies to the pressure tube on Wolsong NPP.

  3. A Twin Spiral Planar Antenna for UWB Medical Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe A. Zito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A planar-spiral antenna to be used in an ultrawideband (UWB radar system for heart activity monitoring is presented. The antenna, named “twin,” is constituted by two spiral dipoles in a compact structure. The reflection coefficient at the feed point of the dipoles is lower than −8 dB over the 3–12 GHz band, while the two-dipoles coupling is about −20 dB. The radiated beam is perpendicular to the plane of the spiral, so the antenna is wearable and it may be an optimal radiator for a medical UWB radar for heart rate detection. The designed antenna has been also used to check some hypotheses about the UWB radar heart activity detection mechanism. The radiation impedance variation, caused by the thorax vibrations associated with heart activity, seems to be the most likely explanation of the UWB radar operation.

  4. Fatigue Behaviors of Materials Processed by Planar Twist Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud

    2017-12-01

    Since the last decade, the fabrication of ultrafine grain and nanostructure metals and alloys has attracted much attention in the field of materials engineering. The present study aimed at experimentally investigating the fatigue properties that are of great importance in dynamic structures before and after the planar twist extrusion process for both commercially pure copper and 6061 aluminum alloy. The results indicated that the yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, and fatigue endurance of copper increased by about 398, 122, 198, and 183 pct, respectively, while they improved by about 429, 212, 227, and 148 pct, respectively, in aluminum alloy as compared to the initial conditions. The stress-strain curves displayed sizable reduction of strain hardening. Furthermore, grain-size correction factors based on the empirical results were introduced to include the effect of the grain-size effect on both low and high-cycle fatigue strengths of the material.

  5. Design of planar chiral metamaterials for near-infrared regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sabri; Turkmen, Mustafa; Topaktas, Omer

    2017-01-01

    Planar chiral metamaterials (PCMs) comprising double-layer dielectric-metal-dielectric resonant structures in the shape of a windmill are presented for near-infrared regime. The circular dichroism is retrieved from transmission spectra. Effects of used materials on circular dichroism characteristics of PCM arrays are investigated for the first time. The dependence of spectral characteristics on the geometrical parameters of the PCMs is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. The observations indicated that the circular dichroism characteristics of the proposed PCM arrays are strongly dependent on the type of metal and dielectric materials. Due to the enhanced chiroptical near-field response and tunable spectral behavior, proposed PCM arrays may have potential for biosensing applications of chiral biomolecules.

  6. Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E.; Mohr, J.; Saile, V.; Vincze, L.; Vekemans, B.; Bohic, S.; Somogyi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The principles of design and manufacturing of the polymer planar x-ray lenses focusing in one and two directions, as well as the peculiarities of optical behaviors and the results of the lens test are reported in this paper. The methods of electron and deep x-ray lithography used in lens manufacturing allow the manufacture of ten or more x-ray lenses on one substrate; the lenses show focal lengths down to several centimeters for photon energies between 5 and 40 keV. The measured focus size was 105 nm for a linear lens with an intensity gain of about 407, and 300 × 770 nm for a crossed lens with an intensity gain of 6470.

  7. Planarized nanophotonic sensor for real-time fluid sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhao Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A planarized on-chip nanophotonic sensor based on a photonic crystal cavity is realized in this work. The sensor was embedded in a solid protecting material (flowable oxide with perfect filled holes: this eliminates problems of fouling in practical applications. The functional area of the sensor is created by carefully removing the protecting material only on the top surface of the cavity. A wavelength shift of 7.5 nm was observed in experiment which is very close to a simulation result of 9.0 nm for sensing water (n=1.33 and crude oil (n=1.45 samples. Swift and accurate sensing was verified by a real-time dynamic measurement with rapidly alternating analytes in a microfluid channel.

  8. Ultra-high-speed inversion recovery echo planar MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, M.K.; Ordidge, R.J.; Coxon, R.; Chapman, B.; Houseman, A.M.; Guifoyle, D.; Blamire, A.; Gibbs, P.; Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fast two-dimensional FT MR imaging techniques such as fast low-angle shot do not allow inversion recovery (IR). Rapid repetition of low-angle pulses is incompatible with a 180 0 inversion pulse. Echo planar imaging (EPI) can be applied in conjunction with IR, because after preparation of the spin system, a complete image is acquired. Data acquisition in less than 100 msec and real-time display allows interactive optimization of inversion time (4.0-9,000 msec) with little time penalty. The authors have applied IR EPI to the study of the brain, liver, and kidneys in normal volunteers and patients. Technical details are presented, and the applications of this first ultra-high-speed IR technique will be shown

  9. Diverse transformations of liquid metals between different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Jing

    2014-09-10

    Transformation from a film into a sphere, rapid merging of separate objects, controlled self-rotation, and planar locomotion are the very unusual phenomena observed in liquid metals under application of an electric field to a liquid metal immersed in or sprayed with water. A mechanism for these effects is suggested and potential applications - for example the recovery of liquid metal previously injected into the body for therapeutic purposes - are outlined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...

  11. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  12. Simple and Multi-collision of an Ellipsoid with Planar Surfaces. Part I: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of simultaneous collisions between an ellipsoid and some planar surfaces. The approach is one based on the theory of screws and uses the notion of inertance. The authors consider that the coefficients of restitution are different for each planar surface and they obtain the velocities after the collision. An example concludes the theory.

  13. Planar Circularly Symmetric Electromagnetic Band-Gap Antennas for Low Cost High Performance Integrated Antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; LLombart, N.; Gerini, G.; Maagt, P.J. de

    2009-01-01

    The use of Planar Circularly Symmetric (PCS) Electromagnetic Band-Gap (EBG) structures for optimizing the performances of single antenna elements and arrays is been discussed. The key advantage of using this sort of super structures is that they are planar and thus very cheap to manufacture with

  14. Planar circularly symmetric Electromagnetic Band-Gap antennas for low cost high performance integrated antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Gerini, G.; de Maagt, P.J.I.

    2009-01-01

    The use of planar circularly symmetric (PCS) electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures for optimizing the performances of single antenna elements and arrays is been discussed. The key advantage of using this sort of super structures is that they are planar and thus very cheap to manufacture with

  15. A nonlinear model for surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoying; Spencer, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Surface segregation and solute trapping during planar film growth is one of the important issues in molecular beam epitaxy, yet the study on surface composition has been largely restricted to experimental work. This paper introduces some mathematical models of surface composition during planar film growth. Analytical solutions are obtained for the surface composition during growth

  16. An O(n²) maximal planarization algorithm based on PQ-trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the problem how to delete a number of edges from a nonplanar graph G such that the resulting graph G’ is maximal planar, i.e., such that we cannot add an edge e E G – G’ to G’ without destroying planarity. Actually, our algorithm is a corrected and more generalized

  17. L(2, 1-Labelings of Some Families of Oriented Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sagnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine, or give lower and upper bounds on, the 2-dipath and oriented L(2, 1-span of the family of planar graphs, planar graphs with girth 5, 11, 16, partial k-trees, outerplanar graphs and cacti.

  18. Adapting the mode profile of planar waveguides to single-mode fibers : a novel method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Vreede, De A.H.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for coupling single-mode fibers to planar optical circuits with small waveguide dimensions is proposed. The method eliminates the need to apply microoptics or to adapt the waveguide dimensions within the planar circuit to the fiber dimensions. Alignment tolerances are comparable to

  19. Decomposing a planar graph of girth 5 into an independent set and a forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Thomassen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We use a list-color technique to extend the result of Borodin and Glebov that the vertex set of every planar graph of girth at least 5 can be partitioned into an independent set and a set which induces a forest. We apply this extension to also extend Grötzsch's theorem that every planar triangle-...

  20. Mobilities and dislocation energies of planar faults in an ordered A 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Present work describes the stability of possible planar faults of the A3B (D019) phase with an axial ratio less than the ideal. Mobilities and dislocation energies of various planar faults viz. antiphase boundaries (APBs), superlattice intrinsic stacking faults (SISFs) and complex stacking faults (CSFs) have been computed using ...