WorldWideScience

Sample records for flux pumps

  1. Magnetic-flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  2. Continuous magnetic flux pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A method and means for altering the intensity of a magnetic field by transposing flux from one location to the location desired fro the magnetic field are examined. The device described includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, is dimensioned to be insertable into one of the cavities and to substantially fill the cavity. Magnetic flux is first trapped in the cavities by establishing a magnetic field while the superconducting material is above the critical temperature at which it goes superconducting. Thereafter, the temperature of the material is reduced below the critical value, and then the exciting magnetic field may be removed. By varying the ratios of the areas of the two cavities, it is possible to produce a field having much greater flux density in the second, smaller cavity, into which the flux transposed.

  3. A finite element calculation of flux pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    A flux pump is not only a fascinating example of the power of Faraday’s concept of flux lines, but also an attractive way of powering superconducting magnets without large electronic power supplies. However it is not possible to do this in HTS by driving a part of the superconductor normal, it must be done by exceeding the local critical density. The picture of a magnet pulling flux lines through the material is attractive, but as there is no direct contact between flux lines in the magnet and vortices, unless the gap between them is comparable to the coherence length, the process must be explicable in terms of classical electromagnetism and a nonlinear V-I characteristic. In this paper a simple 2D model of a flux pump is used to determine the pumping behaviour from first principles and the geometry. It is analysed with finite element software using the A formulation and FlexPDE. A thin magnet is passed across one or more superconductors connected to a load, which is a large rectangular loop. This means that the self and mutual inductances can be calculated explicitly. A wide strip, a narrow strip and two conductors are considered. Also an analytic circuit model is analysed. In all cases the critical state model is used, so the flux flow resistivity and dynamic resistivity are not directly involved, although an effective resistivity appears when J c is exceeded. In most of the cases considered here is a large gap between the theory and the experiments. In particular the maximum flux transferred to the load area is always less than the flux of the magnet. Also once the threshold needed for pumping is exceeded the flux in the load saturates within a few cycles. However the analytic circuit model allows a simple modification to allow for the large reduction in I c when the magnet is over a conductor. This not only changes the direction of the pumped flux but leads to much more effective pumping.

  4. Flux pumping, fluctuations and climbing fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, T A; Hadeler, O; Zhang, M; Matsuda, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the behaviour of bulk superconductors when subjected to a varying magnetic field. A magnetic model is described together with experimental results which explain and describe the behaviour of superconducting bulks when subjected to varying magnetic fields. We demonstrate how the behaviour is dependent on the magnitude and period of the perturbations in the fields. The model which we use has been implemented using the Comsol™ pde solver. It is a fully integrated model which uses a variable heat source to regulate the magnetic circuit and thereby to achieve flux pumping. Comsol™ is used for post solution visualization and the model is presented alongside experimental results which support and confirm the conclusions from the model. (paper)

  5. A thermally actuated superconducting flux pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, Timothy [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.uk; Hong Zhiyong; Zhu Xiaomin [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-01

    The concept of a superconducting flux pump is relatively straightforward. A small magnetic field repeatedly applied will lead to a much larger field being trapped within the superconductor. This field is limited by the volume of the superconductor and by its critical current but not by the excitation field. Here we will describe a new technique which facilitates the creation of high magnetic fields and where the magnitude of the trapped field is limited by the superconductor not the magnetising field. The technique is demonstrated using measurements taken using samples of bulk YBCO as YBCO has a very high irreversibility field and has the potential to trap high magnetic fields. The technique could be applied to other superconductors such as BSCCO or MgB{sub 2} and in other forms such as thin or thick films.

  6. Fast Flux Test Facility replacement of a primary sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.; Thomson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility is a 400 MW Thermal Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. During startup testing in 1979, the sodium level in one of the primary sodium pumps was inadvertently raised above the normal height. This resulted in distortion of the pump shaft. Pump replacement was carried out using special maintenance equipment. Nuclear radiation and contamination were not significant problems since replacement operations were carried out shortly after startup of the Fast Flux Test Facility

  7. Pressurizer pump reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    During a prolonged outage from November 1986 to May 1990, numerous changes were made at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Some of these changes involved the pressurizer pumps. An analysis was performed to calculate the impact of these changes on the pressurizer system availability. The analysis showed that the availability of the pressurizer system dropped from essentially 100% to approximately 96%. The primary reason for the decrease in availability comes because off-site power grid disturbances sometimes result in a reactor trip with the present pressurizer pump configuration. Changes are being made to the present pressurizer pump configuration to regain some of the lost availability

  8. Fast Flux Test Facility sodium pump operating experience - mechanical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonamici, R.

    1987-11-01

    The Heat Transport System (HTS) pumps were designed, fabricated, tested, and installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Plant during the period from September 1970 through July 1977. Since completion of the installation and sodium fill in December 1978, the FFTF Plant pumps have undergone extensive testing and operation with HTS testing and reactor operation. Steady-state hydraulic and mechanical performances have been and are excellent. In all, FFTF primary and secondary pumps have operated in sodium for approximately 75,000 hours and 79,000 hours, respectively, to August 24, 1987

  9. Magnetic flux pumping in 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, I.; Jardin, S. C.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Hoelzl, M.; Strumberger, E.; Ferraro, N.

    2017-10-01

    A self-regulating magnetic flux pumping mechanism in tokamaks that maintains the core safety factor at q ≈1 , thus preventing sawteeth, is analyzed in nonlinear 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the M3D-C1 code. In these simulations, the most important mechanism responsible for the flux pumping is that a saturated (m =1 ,n =1 ) quasi-interchange instability generates an effective negative loop voltage in the plasma center via a dynamo effect. It is shown that sawtoothing is prevented in the simulations if β is sufficiently high to provide the necessary drive for the (m =1 ,n =1 ) instability that generates the dynamo loop voltage. The necessary amount of dynamo loop voltage is determined by the tendency of the current density profile to centrally peak which, in our simulations, is controlled by the peakedness of the applied heat source profile.

  10. Computation of Pump-Leak Flux Balance in Animal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Vereninov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Many vital processes in animal cells depend on monovalent ion transport across the plasma membrane via specific pathways. Their operation is described by a set of nonlinear and transcendental equations that cannot be solved analytically. Previous computations had been optimized for certain cell types and included parameters whose experimental determination can be challenging. Methods: We have developed a simpler and a more universal computational approach by using fewer kinetic parameters derived from the data related to cell balanced state. A file is provided for calculating unidirectional Na+, K+, and Cl- fluxes via all major pathways (i.e. the Na/K pump, Na+, K+, Cl- channels, and NKCC, KC and NC cotransporters under a balanced state and during transient processes. Results: The data on the Na+, K+, and Cl- distribution and the pump flux of K+ (Rb+ are obtained on U937 cells before and after inhibiting the pump with ouabain. There was a good match between the results of calculations and the experimentally measured dynamics of ion redistribution caused by blocking the pump. Conclusion: The presented approach can serve as an effective tool for analyzing monovalent ion transport in the whole cell, determination of the rate coefficients for ion transfer via major pathways and studying their alteration under various conditions.

  11. Measurements of flux pumping activation of trapped field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy; Parks, Drew; Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity, 202 Houston Science Center, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5002 (United States); Davey, Kent [Physics Department, 617 Science and Research Building I, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Large grains of high temperature superconducting (HTS) material can be utilized as trapped field magnets (TFMs). Persistent currents are set up in the HTS when it is cooled in a magnetic field, or exposed to a magnetic field after cooling. TFMs have been improved over the past two decades by the efforts of a large number of worldwide research groups. However, applications using TFMs have lagged, in part due to the problem of high fields needed for activation. We describe herein experiments designed to observe the behaviour of TFM activation using repeated applications of low fields (called 'pumping'). Significant partial activation is obtained using a non-uniform pumping field (e.g., a small permanent magnet) which is higher in the centre of the HTS than at the periphery. Cooling in zero field followed by pumping with such a field results in trapping the full applied field, in comparison to half of the applied field being trapped by cooling in zero field followed by application of a uniform field. We find that for partial activation by cooling in a field and subsequent activation by pumping, the resulting fields are additive. We also conclude that for activation by fluxoid pumping, creep assists the process.

  12. The Pressure and Magnetic Flux Density Analysis of Helical-Type DC Electromagnetic Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geun Hyeong; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2016-01-01

    The developed pressure was made by only electromagnetic force eliminating probability of impurities contact, therefore the high reactivity materials such as alkali were best match to electromagnetic pump. The heavy ion accelerator facility by Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) in Korea is trying to construct accelerator using liquid lithium for high efficiency of acceleration by decreasing charge state. The helical-type DC electromagnetic pump was employed to make a charge stripper that decrease charge state of heavy ion. The specification of electromagnetic pump was developed pressure of 15 bar with flowrate of 6 cc/s in the condition of 200℃. The pressure of DC electromagnetic pump was analyzed in the aspects of current and number of duct turns. The developed pressure was almost proportional to input current because relatively low flowrate made negligible of the electromotive force and hydraulic pressure drop. The pressure and magnetic flux density of helical-type DC electromagnetic pump were analyzed. The pressure was proportion to input current and number of duct turns, and magnetic flux density was higher when ferromagnet was applied at electromagnetic pump. It seems that number of duct turns could be increase and ferromagnet could be applied in order to increase pressure of DC electromagnetic pump with constant input current

  13. Self-pumping effects and radiation linewidth of Josephson flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Flux-flow oscillators (FFO's) are being developed for integration with a SIS mixer for use in submillimeter wave receivers, The present work contains a detailed experimental study of the dc, microwave, and noise properties of Nb-AlOx-Nb FFO's, A model based on the Josephson self-pumping effect...

  14. The replacement of an electromagnetic primary sodium sampling pump in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.; McCargar, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    On November 16, 1984 a leak was discovered in one of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Primary Sodium Sampling System electromagnetic pumps. The leak was discovered in the course of routine cell entry to investigate a shorted trace heat element. The purpose of this paper is to describe the circumstances surrounding the occurrence of the leak, the actions taken to replace the damaged pump and the additional steps which were necessary to return the plant to power. In addition, the processes involved in producing the leak are described briefly. The relative ease of recovery from this incident is indicative of the overall feasibility of the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) operational concept

  15. Feasibility of laser pumping with neutron fluxes from present-day large tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-08-01

    The minimum fusion-neutron flux needed to observe nuclear-pumped lasing with tokamaks can be reduced substantially by optimizing neutron scattering into the laser cell, located between adjacent toroidal-field coils. The laser lines most readily pumped are probably the /sup 3/He-Ne lines at 0.633 ..mu.. and in the infrared, where the /sup 3/He-Ne gas is excited by energetic ions produced in the /sup 3/He(n,p)T reaction. These lines are expected to lase at the levels of D-T neutron flux foreseen for the TFTR in 1989 (>>10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2//s), while amplification should be observable at the existing levels of D-D neutron flux (greater than or equal to 5 x 10/sup 9/ n/cm/sup 2//s). Lasing on the 1.73 ..mu.. and 2.63 ..mu.. transitions of Xe may be observable at the maximum expected levels of D-T neutron flux in TFTR enhanced by scattering.

  16. Feasibility of laser pumping with neutron fluxes from present-day large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1986-08-01

    The minimum fusion-neutron flux needed to observe nuclear-pumped lasing with tokamaks can be reduced substantially by optimizing neutron scattering into the laser cell, located between adjacent toroidal-field coils. The laser lines most readily pumped are probably the 3 He-Ne lines at 0.633 μ and in the infrared, where the 3 He-Ne gas is excited by energetic ions produced in the 3 He(n,p)T reaction. These lines are expected to lase at the levels of D-T neutron flux foreseen for the TFTR in 1989 (>>10 12 n/cm 2 /s), while amplification should be observable at the existing levels of D-D neutron flux (≥ 5 x 10 9 n/cm 2 /s). Lasing on the 1.73 μ and 2.63 μ transitions of Xe may be observable at the maximum expected levels of D-T neutron flux in TFTR enhanced by scattering

  17. Magnetic-Flux Pumping in High-Performance, Stationary Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C. C.; Austin, M. E.; Holcomb, C. T.; Jayakumar, R. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Makowski, M. A.; Politzer, P. A.; Wade, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the change in the magnetic field pitch angles during edge localized mode events in high performance, stationary plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak shows rapid (<1 ms) broadening of the current density profile, but only when a m/n=3/2 tearing mode is present. This observation of poloidal magnetic-flux pumping explains an important feature of this scenario, which is the anomalous broadening of the current density profile that beneficially maintains the safety factor above unity and forestalls the sawtooth instability

  18. Spatially resolved charge exchange flux calculations on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, Y.; Tsitrone, E.; Boerner, P.; Reiter, D.; Beaute, A.; Delchambre, E.; Escarguel, A.; Brezinsek, S.; Genesio, P.; Gunn, J.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Mitteau, R.; Pegourie, B.

    2009-01-01

    A spatially resolved calculation of the charge exchange particle and energy fluxes on the Toroidal Pumped Limiter (TPL) of Tore Supra is presented, as a first step towards a better understanding and modelling of carbon erosion, migration, as well as deuterium codeposition and bulk diffusion of deuterium in Tore Supra. The results are obtained with the EIRENE code run in a 3D geometry. Physical and chemical erosion maps on the TPL are calculated, and the contribution of neutrals to erosion, especially in the self-shadowed area, is calculated.

  19. Macroscopic Magnetic Coupling Effect: The Physical Origination of a High-Temperature Superconducting Flux Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Coombs, Tim

    2018-04-01

    We have uncovered at the macroscopic scale a magnetic coupling phenomenon in a superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 -δ (YBCO) film, which physically explains the mechanism of the high-temperature superconducting flux pump. The coupling occurs between the applied magnetic poles and clusters of vortices induced in the YBCO film, with each cluster containing millions of vortices. The coupling energy is verified to originate from the inhomogeneous field of the magnetic poles, which reshapes the vortex distribution, aggregates millions of vortices into a single cluster, and accordingly moves with the poles. A contrast study is designed to verify that, to provide the effective coupling energy, the applied wavelength must be short while the field amplitude must be strong, i.e., local-field inhomogeneity is the crucial factor. This finding broadens our understanding of the collective vortex behavior in an applied magnetic field with strong local inhomogeneity. Moreover, this phenomenon largely increases the controlled vortex flow rate by several orders of magnitude compared with existing methods, providing motivation for and physical support to a new branch of wireless superconducting dc power sources, i.e., the high-temperature superconducting flux pump.

  20. Hydrogen pumping and release by graphite under high flux plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; LaBombard, B.; Nygren, R.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Inert gas (helium or argon) plasma bombardment has been found to increase the surface gas adsorptivity of isotropic graphite (POCO-graphite), which can then getter residual gases in a high vacuum system. The inert gas plasma bombardment was carried out at a flux ≅ 1 x 10 18 ions s -1 cm -2 to a fluence of the order of 10 21 ions/cm 2 and at temperatures around 800 0 C. The gettering capability of graphite can be easily recovered by repeating inert gas plasma bombardment. The activated graphite surface exhibits a smooth, sponge-like morphology with significantly increased pore openings, which correlates with the observed increase in the surface gas adsorptivity. The activated graphite surface has been observed to pump hydrogen plasma particles as well. From calibrated H-alpha measurements, the dynamic hydrogen retention capacity is evaluated to be as large as 2 x 10 18 H/cm 2 at temperatures below 100 0 C and at a plasma bombarding energy of 300 eV. The graphite temperature was varied between 15 and 480 0 C. Due to the plasma particle pumping capability, hydrogen recycling from the activated graphite surface is significantly reduced, relative to that from a pre-saturated surface. A pre-saturated surface was also observed to reproducibly pump a hydrogen plasma to a concentration of 9.5 x 10 17 H/cm 2 . The hydrogen retention capacity of graphite is found to decrease with increasing temperature. A transient pumping mechanism associated with the sponge-like surface morphology is conjectured to explain the large hydrogen retention capacity. Hydrogen release behavior under helium and argon plasma bombardment was also investigated, and the result indicated the possibility of some in-pore retrapping effect. 43 refs., 11 figs

  1. Effect of Magnetic Flux Density and Applied Current on Temperature, Velocity and Entropy Generation Distributions in MHD Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiyasatfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.

  2. Operation of a direct current transformer used as a 'flux pump'; Fonctionnement du transformateur a courant continu utilise en 'pompe a flux'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschanels, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The author derives the equations governing the operation of a flux pump with a superconducting transformer. He shows that these exists a limiting value of the current in the charge coil and that the limit is independent of this coil. (author) [French] L'auteur etablit les equations de fonctionnement d'une pompe a flux a transformateur supraconducteur, il montre l'existence d'une limite, du courant dans la self de charge et l'independance de cette limite vis-a-vis de cette self. (auteur)

  3. Hydrogen pumping and release by graphite under high flux plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; Labombard, B.; Nygren, R.; Wilson, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Inert gas (helium or argon) plasma bombardment has been found to increase the surface gas adsorptivity of isotropic graphite (POCO-graphite), which can then getter residual gases in a high vacuum system. The inert gas plasma bombardment was carried out at a flux ∼ 1 x 10 18 ions s -1 cm -2 to a fluence of the order of 10 21 ions/cm 2 and at temperatures around 800 degree C. The plasma bombarding energy was varied between 100 and 200 eV. The gettering speed of the activated graphite surface is estimated to be as large as 25 liters s -1 cm -2 at total pressures between 10 -6 and 10 -7 torr. The gettering capacity estimated is 0.025 torr-liter/cm 2 at room temperature. The gettering capability of graphite can be easily recovered by repeating inert gas plasma bombardment. The activated graphite surface exhibits a smooth, sponge-like morphology with significantly increased pore openings, which correlates with the observed increase in the surface gas adsorptivity. The activated graphite surface has been observed to pump hydrogen plasma particles as well. From calibrated H-alpha measurements, the dynamic hydrogen retention capacity is evaluated to be as large as 2 x 10 18 H/cm 2 at temperatures below 100 degree C and at a plasma bombarding energy of 300 eV

  4. Thermally actuated magnetization flux pump in single-grain YBCO bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Yu; Li Quan; Coombs, T A, E-mail: yy300@cam.ac.u, E-mail: ql229@cam.ac.u, E-mail: tac1000@cam.ac.u [EPEC Superconductivity Group, Electrical Engineering Department, Cambridge University, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    Recent progress in material processing has proved that high temperature superconductors (HTS) have a great potential to trap large magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures. For example, HTS are widely used in MRI scanners and in magnetic bearings. However, using traditional ways to magnetize, the YBCO will always need the applied field to be as high as the expected field on the superconductor or much higher than it, leading to a much higher cost than that of using permanent magnets. In this paper, we find a method of YBCO magnetization in liquid nitrogen that only requires the applied field to be at the level of a permanent magnet. Moreover, rather than applying a pulsed high current field on the YBCO, we use a thermally actuated material (gadolinium) as an intermedia and create a travelling magnetic field through it by changing the partial temperature so that the partial permeability is changed to build up the magnetization of the YBCO gradually after multiple pumps. The gadolinium bulk is located between the YBCO and the permanent magnet and is heated and cooled repeatedly from the outer surface to generate a travelling thermal wave inwards. In the subsequent experiment, an obvious accumulation of the flux density is detected on the surface of the YBCO bulk.

  5. Thermally actuated magnetization flux pump in single-grain YBCO bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yu; Li Quan; Coombs, T A

    2009-01-01

    Recent progress in material processing has proved that high temperature superconductors (HTS) have a great potential to trap large magnetic fields at cryogenic temperatures. For example, HTS are widely used in MRI scanners and in magnetic bearings. However, using traditional ways to magnetize, the YBCO will always need the applied field to be as high as the expected field on the superconductor or much higher than it, leading to a much higher cost than that of using permanent magnets. In this paper, we find a method of YBCO magnetization in liquid nitrogen that only requires the applied field to be at the level of a permanent magnet. Moreover, rather than applying a pulsed high current field on the YBCO, we use a thermally actuated material (gadolinium) as an intermedia and create a travelling magnetic field through it by changing the partial temperature so that the partial permeability is changed to build up the magnetization of the YBCO gradually after multiple pumps. The gadolinium bulk is located between the YBCO and the permanent magnet and is heated and cooled repeatedly from the outer surface to generate a travelling thermal wave inwards. In the subsequent experiment, an obvious accumulation of the flux density is detected on the surface of the YBCO bulk.

  6. PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  7. High heat flux testing impact on the Tore Supra toroidal pumped limiter achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Cordier, J.J.; Mitteau, R.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pumped limiter of Tore Supra is made of 576 elementary high heat flux (HHF) cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) and designed to sustain 10 MW/m 2 in steady state. One of the main technical difficulties is to ensure a high quality of the bond between the carbon fiber composite armor tile and the water-cooled heat sink due to the high thermal stresses that develop at the bond during operation. Consequently, a HHF facility able to reproduce in service operation of PFCs is required all along the development and manufacturing route. In Europe, the FE200 facility (electron beam, 200 kW, France) operating since 1991, was extensively used for such a development. A first testing campaign in 1995 was devoted to the qualification of this bond: AMC technology from Plansee GmbH was selected. Afterwards, a second campaign on scale-one elements (1996) allowed an optimization of the element design and series production to be launched. During the mass production, a non-destructive control process - cheaper and faster than HHF testing - based on infrared characterization was routinely operated on 100% of the manufactured elements. Strong variability of the bond quality was observed and a repair process allowing the replacement of deficient tiles was developed. In 2000 and 2001, 2 campaigns of HHF testing were launched to correlate the non-destructive measurements and to optimize and validate the repair process. This was done, in two steps, with success. This yielded moreover interesting information for qualifying both tests across each other and also to analyze the fatigue evolution of the bond. The qualification and the achievement of the Tore Supra limiter has greatly been made possible by such HHF tests, which appears as essential before and during PFC manufacturing. (authors)

  8. Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic pump for circulating liquid -metal coolant through a nuclear reactor wherein opposite walls of a pump duct serve as electrodes to transmit current radially through the liquid-metal in the ducts. A circumferential electric field is supplied to the liquid-metal by a toroidal electromagnet which has core sections interposed between the ducts. The windings of the electromagnet are composed of metal which is superconductive at low temperatures and the electromagnet is maintained at a temperature at which it is superconductive by liquid helium which is fed through the conductors which supply the excitation for the electromagnet. The walls of the ducts joining the electrodes include metal plates insulated from the electrodes backed up by insulators so that they are capable of withstanding the pressure of the liquid-metal. These composite wall structures may also be of thin metal strips of low electrical conductivity backed up by sturdy insulators. (author)

  9. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A large-scale HTS generator module has been suggested to avoid issues such as a huge vacuum vessel and higher reliability. • The challenging heat loss analysis of a large-scale HTS generator has successfully been performed, enabling the design of an optimal support structure having a total heat loss of 43 W/400 kW. • The results prove the potential of a large-scale superconducting wind-power generator to operate efficiently, and support further development of the concept. - Abstract: The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  10. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hae-Jin, E-mail: haejin0216@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jiang, Zhenan [Robinson Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 33436 (New Zealand); Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 20 Changwondaehak-ro, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A large-scale HTS generator module has been suggested to avoid issues such as a huge vacuum vessel and higher reliability. • The challenging heat loss analysis of a large-scale HTS generator has successfully been performed, enabling the design of an optimal support structure having a total heat loss of 43 W/400 kW. • The results prove the potential of a large-scale superconducting wind-power generator to operate efficiently, and support further development of the concept. - Abstract: The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  11. Conceptual design of a high heat flux toroidal pumped limiter for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doceul, L.; Schlosser, J.; Chappuis, Ph.; Chatelier, M.; Cocat, J.P.; Deck, C.; Faisse, F.; Grosman, A.; Mitteau, R.; Tonon, G.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of the Tore-Supra upgrade, where it is planned to inject up to 25 MW during a time up to 1000 s, a complete toroidal pumped limiter covered of CFC (Carbon Fiber Composite) tiles is being designed. The design is based on the important experience gained from the operation on Tore Supra of actively cooled plasma facing components and pumped limiters. This toroidal limiter covers 7.5 m 2 of the bottom part of the inner vessel and is composed of 576 elementary components. Each element is built from dispersion strengthened copper (DSCu) protected by brazed CFC flat tiles and cooled by pressurised water at 150 deg C. This limiter is designed to sustain 15 MW of convective power. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Deep ocean fluxes and their link to surface ocean processes and the biological pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    's role as a reservoir for atmospheric CO sub(2).The results show a pronounced monsoon-driven seasonality with enhanced organic carbon fluxes into the deep-sea during the SW Monsoon and during the early and late NE Monsoon north of 10 degrees N...

  13. Orientation-free and differentially pumped addition of a low-flux reactive gas beam to a surface analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harthcock, Colin; Jahanbekam, Abdolreza; Eskelsen, Jeremy R; Lee, David Y

    2016-11-01

    We describe an example of a piecewise gas chamber that can be customized to incorporate a low flux of gas-phase radicals with an existing surface analysis chamber for in situ and stepwise gas-surface interaction experiments without any constraint in orientation. The piecewise nature of this gas chamber provides complete angular freedom and easy alignment and does not require any modification of the existing surface analysis chamber. In addition, the entire gas-surface system is readily differentially pumped with the surface chamber kept under ultra-high-vacuum during the gas-surface measurements. This new design also allows not only straightforward reconstruction to accommodate the orientation of different surface chambers but also for the addition of other desired features, such as an additional pump to the current configuration. Stepwise interaction between atomic oxygen and a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite surface was chosen to test the effectiveness of this design, and the site-dependent O-atom chemisorption and clustering on the graphite surface were resolved by a scanning tunneling microscope in the nm-scale. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to further confirm the identity of the chemisorbed species on the graphite surface as oxygen.

  14. Balance of unidirectional monovalent ion fluxes in cells undergoing apoptosis: why does Na+/K+ pump suppression not cause cell swelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurinskaya, Valentina E; Rubashkin, Andrey A; Vereninov, Alexey A

    2011-05-01

    Cells dying according to the apoptotic program, unlike cells dying via an unprogrammed mode, are able to avoid swelling and osmotic bursting with membrane disruption.There are indications that apoptosis is accompanied by suppression of the Na+/K+ pump and changes in the K+ and Cl− channels. It remains unclear how ion fluxes through individual ion pathways are integrated so as to induce loss of intracellular ions and concomitant apoptotic volume decrease. A decrease in activity of the sodium pump during apoptosis should cause cell swelling rather than shrinkage. We have made the first systemic analysis of the monovalent ion flux balance in apoptotic cells. Experimental data were obtained for human U937 cells treated with staurosporine for 4–5 h, which is known to induce apoptosis. The data include cellular Cl− content and fluxes, K+, Na+, water content and ouabain-sensitive and -resistant Rb+ fluxes.Unidirectional monovalent ion fluxeswere calculated using these data and a cell model comprising the double Donnan system with the Na+/K+ pump, Cl−, K+, Na+ channels, the Na+–K+–2Cl−cotransporter (NKCC), the Na+–Cl− cotransporter (NC), and the equivalent Cl−/Cl− exchange.Apoptotic cell shrinkage was found to be caused, depending on conditions, either by an increase in the integral channel permeability of membrane for K+ or by suppression of the pump coupledwith a decrease in the integral channel permeability of membrane for Na+. The decrease in the channel permeability of membrane for Na+ plays a crucial role in cell dehydration in apoptosis accompanied by suppression of the pump. Supplemental Table S1 is given for easy calculating flux balance under specified conditions.

  15. Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; LaBombard, B.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion behavior of selected graphite materials have been investigated using the PISCES-A facility. These materials include: Pyro-graphite; 2D-graphite weave; 4D-graphite weave; and POCO-graphite. Deuterium plasma bombardment conditions are: fluxes around 7 /times/ 10 17 ions s/sup /minus/1/cm/sup /minus/2/; exposure time in the range from 10 to 100 s; bombarding energy of 300 eV; and graphite temperatures between 20 and 120/degree/C. To reduce deuterium plasma recycling, several approaches have been investigated. Erosion due to high-fluence helium plasma conditioning significantly increases the surface porosity of POCO-graphite and 4D-graphite weave whereas little change for 2D-graphite weave and Pyro-graphite. The increased pore openings and refreshed in-pore surface sites are found to reduce the deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion rates at transient stages. The steady state recycling rates for these graphite materials can be also correlated to the surface porosity. Surface topographical modification by machined-grooves noticeably reduces the steady state deuterium recycling rate and the impurity emission from the surface. These surface topography effects are attributed to co-deposition of remitted deuterium, chemically sputtered hydrocarbon and physically sputtered carbon under deuterium plasma bombardment. The co-deposited film is found to have a characteristic surface morphology with dendritic microstructures. 18 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    . FLUX betegner en flyden eller strømmen, dvs. dynamik. Forstår man livet som proces og udvikling i stedet for som ting og mekanik, får man et andet billede af det gode liv end det, som den velkendte vestlige mekanicisme lægger op til. Dynamisk forstået indebærer det gode liv den bedst mulige...... kanalisering af den flux eller energi, der strømmer igennem os og giver sig til kende i vore daglige aktiviteter. Skal vores tanker, handlinger, arbejde, samvær og politiske liv organiseres efter stramme og faste regelsæt, uden slinger i valsen? Eller skal de tværtimod forløbe ganske uhindret af regler og bånd...

  17. A PROPOSED PARADIGM FOR SOLAR CYCLE DYNAMICS MEDIATED VIA TURBULENT PUMPING OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN BABCOCK–LEIGHTON-TYPE SOLAR DYNAMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-20

    At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.

  18. A PROPOSED PARADIGM FOR SOLAR CYCLE DYNAMICS MEDIATED VIA TURBULENT PUMPING OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN BABCOCK–LEIGHTON-TYPE SOLAR DYNAMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, Soumitra; Nandy, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    At present, the Babcock–Leighton flux transport solar dynamo models appear to be the most promising models for explaining diverse observational aspects of the sunspot cycle. The success of these flux transport dynamo models is largely dependent upon a single-cell meridional circulation with a deep equatorward component at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. However, recent observations suggest that the meridional flow may in fact be very shallow (confined to the top 10% of the Sun) and more complex than previously thought. Taken together, these observations raise serious concerns on the validity of the flux transport paradigm. By accounting for the turbulent pumping of magnetic flux, as evidenced in magnetohydrodynamic simulations of solar convection, we demonstrate that flux transport dynamo models can generate solar-like magnetic cycles even if the meridional flow is shallow. Solar-like periodic reversals are recovered even when meridional circulation is altogether absent. However, in this case, the solar surface magnetic field dynamics does not extend all the way to the polar regions. Very importantly, our results demonstrate that the Parker–Yoshimura sign rule for dynamo wave propagation can be circumvented in Babcock–Leighton dynamo models by the latitudinal component of turbulent pumping, which can generate equatorward propagating sunspot belts in the absence of a deep, equatorward meridional flow. We also show that variations in turbulent pumping coefficients can modulate the solar cycle amplitude and periodicity. Our results suggest the viability of an alternate magnetic flux transport paradigm—mediated via turbulent pumping—for sustaining solar-stellar dynamo action.

  19. New methodology to investigate potential contaminant mass fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface by combining integral pumping tests and streambed temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalbus, E.; Schmidt, C.; Bayer-Raich, M.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Balcke, G.U.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial pattern and magnitude of mass fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface have important implications for the fate and transport of contaminants in river basins. Integral pumping tests were performed to quantify average concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in an unconfined aquifer partially penetrated by a stream. Four pumping wells were operated simultaneously for a time period of 5 days and sampled for contaminant concentrations. Streambed temperatures were mapped at multiple depths along a 60 m long stream reach to identify the spatial patterns of groundwater discharge and to quantify water fluxes at the stream-aquifer interface. The combined interpretation of the results showed average potential contaminant mass fluxes from the aquifer to the stream of 272 μg m -2 d -1 MCB and 71 μg m -2 d -1 DCB, respectively. This methodology combines a large-scale assessment of aquifer contamination with a high-resolution survey of groundwater discharge zones to estimate contaminant mass fluxes between aquifer and stream. - We provide a new methodology to quantify the potential contaminant mass flux from an aquifer to a stream

  20. Multi-proxy approach (Thorium-234, excess Barium) of export and remineralisation fluxes of carbon and biogenic elements associated with the oceanic biological pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, Nolwenn

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to improve our understanding of the different controls that affect the oceanic biological carbon pump. Particulate export and remineralisation fluxes were investigated using the thorium-234 ( 234 Th) and biogenic barium (Baxs) proxies. In the North Atlantic, the highest particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes were associated to biogenic (biogenic silica or calcium carbonate) and lithogenic minerals, ballasting the particles. Export efficiency was generally low (≤ 10%) and inversely related to primary production, highlighting a phase lag between production and export. The highest transfer efficiencies, i.e. the fraction of POC that reached 400 m, were driven by sinking particles ballasted by calcite or lithogenic minerals. The regional variation of meso-pelagic remineralisation was attributed to changes in bloom intensity, phytoplankton cell size, community structure and physical forcing (down-welling). Carbon remineralisation balanced, or even exceeded, POC export, highlighting the impact of meso-pelagic remineralisation on the biological pump with a near-zero, deep carbon sequestration for spring 2014. Export of trace metals appeared strongly influenced by lithogenic material advected from the margins. However, at open ocean stations not influenced by lithogenic matter, trace metal export rather depended on phytoplankton activity and biomass. A last part of this work focused on export of biogenic silica, particulate nitrogen and iron near the Kerguelen Island. This area is characterized by a natural iron-fertilization that increases export fluxes. Inside the fertilized area, flux variability is related to phytoplankton community composition. (author)

  1. Determining Mass and Persistence of a Reactive Brominated-Solvent DNAPL Source Using Mass Depletion-Mass Flux Reduction Relationships During Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C. D.; Davis, G. B.; Bastow, T.; Annable, M. D.; Trefry, M. G.; Furness, A.; Geste, Y.; Woodbury, R.; Rhodes, S.

    2011-12-01

    Measures of the source mass and depletion characteristics of recalcitrant dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminants are critical elements for assessing performance of remediation efforts. This is in addition to understanding the relationships between source mass depletion and changes to dissolved contaminant concentration and mass flux in groundwater. Here we present results of applying analytical source-depletion concepts to pumping from within the DNAPL source zone of a 10-m thick heterogeneous layered aquifer to estimate the original source mass and characterise the time trajectory of source depletion and mass flux in groundwater. The multi-component, reactive DNAPL source consisted of the brominated solvent tetrabromoethane (TBA) and its transformation products (mostly tribromoethene - TriBE). Coring and multi-level groundwater sampling indicated the DNAPL to be mainly in lower-permeability layers, suggesting the source had already undergone appreciable depletion. Four simplified source dissolution models (exponential, power function, error function and rational mass) were able to describe the concentration history of the total molar concentration of brominated organics in extracted groundwater during 285 days of pumping. Approximately 152 kg of brominated compounds were extracted. The lack of significant kinetic mass transfer limitations in pumped concentrations was notable. This was despite the heterogeneous layering in the aquifer and distribution of DNAPL. There was little to choose between the model fits to pumped concentration time series. The variance of groundwater velocities in the aquifer determined during a partitioning inter-well tracer test (PITT) were used to parameterise the models. However, the models were found to be relatively insensitive to this parameter. All models indicated an initial source mass around 250 kg which compared favourably to an estimate of 220 kg derived from the PITT. The extrapolated concentrations from the

  2. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  3. [Computation of the K+, Na+ and Cl- fluxes through plasma membrane of animal cell with Na+/K+ pump, NKCC, NC cotransporters, and ionic channels with and without non-Goldman rectification in K+ channels. Norma and apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubashkin, A A; Iurinskaia, V E; Vereninov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The balance of K+, Na+ and Cl- fluxes through cell membrane with the Na+/K+ pump, ion channels and NKCC and NC cotransporters is considered. It is shown that all unidirectional K+, Na+ and Cl- fluxes through cell membrane, permeability coefficients of ion channels and membrane potential can be computed for balanced ion distribution between cell and the medium if K+, Na+ and Cl- concentration in cell water and three fluxes are known: total Cl- flux, total K+ influx and ouabain-inhibitable "pump" component of the K+ influx. Changes in the mortovalent ion balance in lymphoid cells U937 induced to apoptosis by 1 microM staurosporine are analyzed as an example. It is found that the apoptotic shift in ion and water balance in studied cells is caused by a decrease in the pump activity which is accompanied by a decrease in the integral permeability of Na+ channels without significant increase in K+ and Cl- channel permeabilities. Computation shows that only a small part of the total fluxes of K+, Na+ and Cl- accounts for the fluxes via NKCC and NC cotransporters. Therefore, cotransport fluxes can not be studied using inhibitors.

  4. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    Molecular water pumps are membrane proteins of the cotransport type in which a flux of water is coupled to substrate fluxes by a mechanism within the protein. Free energy can be exchanged between the fluxes. Accordingly, the flux of water may be relatively independent of the external water chemical...

  5. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps

  6. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  7. Active particle control experiments and critical particle flux discriminating between the wall pumping and fuelling in the compact plasma wall interaction device CPD spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zushi, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Yoshinaga, T.; Higashizono, Y.; Hanada, K.; Yoshida, N.; Tokunaga, K.; Kawasaki, S.; Sato, K. N.; Nakamura, K.; Idei, H.; Hirooka, Y.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Okamoto, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Honma, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Nishino, N.; Kado, S.; Shikama, T.

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches associated with wall recycling have been performed in a small spherical tokamak device CPD (compact plasma wall interaction experimental device), that is, (1) demonstration of active particle recycling control, namely, 'active wall pumping' using a rotating poloidal limiter whose surface is continuously gettered by lithium and (2) a basic study of the key parameters which discriminates between 'wall pumping and fuelling'. For the former, active control of 'wall pumping' has been demonstrated during 50 kW RF current drive discharges whose pulse length is typically ∼300 ms. Although the rotating limiter is located at the outer board, as soon as the rotating drum is gettered with lithium, hydrogen recycling measured with H α spectroscopy decreases by about a factor of 3 not only near the limiter but also in the centre stack region. Also, the oxygen impurity level measured with O II spectroscopy is reduced by about a factor of 3. As a consequence of the reduced recycling and impurity level, RF driven current has nearly doubled at the same vertical magnetic field. For the latter, global plasma wall interaction with plasma facing components in the vessel is studied in a simple torus produced by electron cyclotron waves with I p -4 to ∼0.1 x 10 -4 Torr during the experimental campaign (∼3000 shots). In the wall pumping pressure range the wall pumping fraction is reduced with increasing surface temperature up to 150 deg. C.

  8. Regionally variable chemistry, auto-heterotrophic coupling and vertical carbon flux in the northwestern Indian Ocean: A case study for biochemical pump

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajendran, A; Biddanda, B.

    Large scale regional differences in surface productivity as well as water column chemistry exist in the Arabian Sea environment in north-south direction. The available primary productivity data are incorporated into existing global ocean carbon flux...

  9. Penis Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a ... it doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines ...

  10. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1981-01-01

    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  11. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  13. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  14. Carbon fluxes within the epipelagic zone of the Humboldt Current System off Chile: The significance of euphausiids and diatoms as key functional groups for the biological pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Humberto E.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, José L.; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Menschel, Eduardo; Barría, Claudio; Pantoja, Silvio; Lizárraga, Lorena

    2009-12-01

    The information from 54 drifting sediment traps deployed between 1997 and 2006 along the Humboldt Current System off Chile (from 19.9°S to 42.2°S) was analyzed to contribute to unveiling the recurrent global-ocean issue of the lack of relationship between gross primary production (GPP) and particulate organic carbon (POC) export below 50 m depth. When the proportion of carbon that effectively sinks is relatively low compared to the carbon being fixed through GPP, a significant amount (average of 32%) of the sinking organic matter is composed of diatoms, regardless of GPP rates. Such a fraction seems to be affected by the physiological state of phytoplankton. In contrast, when the fraction of carbon sinking is high relative to GPP, most of sinking organic matter is composed of euphausid faecal strings. Such a situation occurs at relatively low values of GPP and chlorophyll-a. Most of these high sinking rates of pellets and low phytoplankton biomass occur during summer, when physical conditions favour the presence of phytoplankton blooms, and when the GPP/Biomass ratio indicates healthy phytoplankton physiological conditions. All this evidence supports the assessment of the relevance of euphausiids as key species in the Humboldt Current System pointing to (i) the top-down control that euphausiids are capable of exerting over primary producer biomass, and (ii) euphausiids‘ paramount role on total organic carbon flux over the Concepción continental shelf, regarding both POC export to the sediments and possibly the channelling of GPP directly to higher trophic levels.

  15. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  16. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  17. Study of particle pumping characteristics for different pumping geometries in JT-60U and DIII-D divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.; Sakasai, A.; Kubo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Particle pumping characteristics were compared between pumping from the inner side private flux region (IPP) and pumping from both sides of the private flux region (BPP) in the JT-60U W shaped divertor, and between JT-60U IPP and pumping in the DIII-D lower baffled divertor. The pumping flux for BPP is smaller than that for IPP by about a factor of 2 with weak in-out asymmetry of recycling neutral flux and by a factor of 3.5-6.5 with strong in-out asymmetry. The reduction of the pumping flux for BPP is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations, where backflow at the outer pumping slot is observed due to in-out recycling asymmetry. The pumping flux in DIII-D at I p =0.8 MA and B T =1.6 T is comparable to or smaller than that for JT-60U IPP at I p =1.0 MA, B T =3.8 T and I p =1.5 MA, B T =3.5 T in the same density regime. In the DIII-D divertor with pumping from the private flux region, the pumping flux decreases with increasing in-out asymmetry. The pumping flux normalized by the integrated D α emission over the whole plasma exhibits a similar dependence on the distance between the pumping slot and the strike point in JT-60U IPP and the DIII-D lower divertor with pumping through the outer divertor plasma region. (author)

  18. Liquid metals pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Frere, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pumps used to pump liquid metals depend on the liquid metal and on the type of application concerned. One deals more particularly with electromagnetic pumps, the main pumps used with mechanical pumps. To pump sodium in the nuclear field, these two types of pumps are used; the pumps of different circuits of Super Phenix are presented and described [fr

  19. Electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Suetake, Norio; Aizawa, Toshie; Nakasaki, Masayoshi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic pump suitable to a recycling pump for liquid sodium as coolants of an FBR type reactor. Namely, a stator module of the electromagnetic pump of the present invention comprises a plurality of outer laminate iron core units and outer stator modules stacked alternately in the axial direction. With such a constitution, even a long electromagnetic pump having a large number of outer stator coils can be manufactured without damaging electric insulation of the outer stator coils. In addition, the inner circumferential surface of the outer laminate iron cores is urged and brought into contact with the outer circumferential surface of the outer duct by an elastic material. With such a constitution, Joule loss heat generated in the outer stator coils and internal heat generated in the outer laminate iron cores can be released to an electroconductive fluid flowing the inner circumference of the outer duct by way of the outer duct. (I.S.)

  20. Electrokinetic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  1. Experimental study of membrane pump for plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Sagara, Akio; Motojima, Osamu; Livshits, A.; Notkin, M.; Busnyuk, A.; Komatsu, Kazuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Recycling control is a key to improve fusion plasma performance. The membrane pump has potential advantages for hydrogen pumping in fusion devices. However, there are unsolved issues for using membrane pump in LHD (Large Helical Device). The first issue is characteristics of the membrane pump under high incident hydrogen atom flux. The second issue is relationship between the surface condition and the pumping efficiency. Impurities from plasma may change the surface condition of the membrane. In order to solve these issues, a membrane pump system was fabricated and installed in a linear plasma device at NIFS (National Institute for Fusion Science). The membrane pump was successfully operated. (author)

  2. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  3. Pumps and pump facilities. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohl, W.; Bauerfeind, H.; Gutmann, G.; Leuschner, G.; Matthias, H.B.; Mengele, R.; Neumaier, R.; Vetter, G.; Wagner, W.

    1981-01-01

    This book deals with the common fundamental aspects of liquid pumps and gives an exemplary choice of the most important kinds of pumps. The scientific matter is dealt with by means of practical mathematical examples among other ways of presenting the matter. Survey of contents: Division on main operational data of pumps - pipe characteristics - pump characteristics - suction behaviour of the pumps - projecting and operation of rotary pumps - boiler feed pumps - reactor feed pumps - oscillating positive-displacement pumps - eccentric spiral pumps. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Fluidic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestman, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    A fluidic pump has primary and secondary vessels connected by a pipe, a displacement vessel having liquid to be delivered through a pipe via a rectifier provided with a feed tank. A drive unit delivers pressure fluid to a line to raise liquid and compress trapped gas or liquid in the space, including the pipe between the liquids in the two vessels and thus drive liquid out of the displacement vessel. The driving gas is therefore separated by the barrier liquid and the trapped gas or liquid from the liquid to be pumped which liquid could be e.g. radioactive. (author)

  5. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  6. Pump limiter studies in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyser Langmuir probes, a spectrometer and water calorimeters. Initial results in low-density discharges, with the outboard limiter only, showed a modest effect on the plasma density, while large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter, without any external fueling

  7. Solar Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  8. Pumping behavior of sputter ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.S.; McCafferty, D.

    The ultrahigh vacuum requirements of ISABELLE is obtained by distributed pumping stations. Each pumping station consists of 1000 l/s titanium sublimation pump for active gases (N 2 , H 2 , O 2 , CO, etc.), and a 20 l/s sputter ion pump for inert gases (methane, noble gases like He, etc.). The combination of the alarming production rate of methane from titanium sublimation pumps (TSP) and the decreasing pumping speed of sputter ion pumps (SIP) in the ultrahigh vacuum region (UHV) leads us to investigate this problem. In this paper, we first describe the essential physics and chemistry of the SIP in a very clean condition, followed by a discussion of our measuring techniques. Finally measured methane, argon and helium pumping speeds are presented for three different ion pumps in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -11 Torr. The virtues of the best pump are also discussed

  9. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  10. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs

  11. Pumping Characteristics of the DIII-D Cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.S. Bozek; C.B. Baxi; R.W. Callis; M.A. Mahdavi; R.C. O'Neill; E.E. Reis

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, the first of the DIII-D divertor baffles and cryocondensation pumps was installed. This open divertor configuration, located on the outermost floor of the DIII-D vessel, includes a cryopump with a predicted pumping speed of 50,000 ell/s excluding obstructions such as support hardware. Taking the pump structural and support characteristics into consideration, the corrected pumping speed for D 2 is 30,000 ell/s [1]. In 1996, the second divertor baffle and cryopump were installed. This closed divertor structure, located on the outermost ceiling of the DIII-D vessel, has a cryopump with a predicted pumping speed of 32,000 ell/s. In the fall of 1999, the third divertor baffle and cryopump will be installed. This divertor structure will be located on the 45 o angled corner on the innermost ceiling of the DIII-D vessel, known as the private flux region of the plasma configuration. With hardware supports factored into the pumping speed calculation, the private flux cryopump is expected to have a pumping speed of 15,000 ell/s. There was question regarding the effectiveness of the private flux cryopump due to the close proximity of the private flux baffle. This led to a conductance calculation study of the impact of rotating the cryopump aperture by 180 o to allow for greater particle and gas exhaust into the cryopump's helium panel. This study concluded that the cost and schedule impact of changing the private flux cryopump orientation and design did not warrant the possible 20% (3,000 ell/s) increase in pumping ability gained by rotating the cryopump aperture 180 o . The comparison of pumping speed of the first two cryocondensation pumps with the measured results will be presented as well as the calculation of the pumping speed for the private flux cryopump now being installed

  12. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  13. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  14. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  15. Liquid metal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  16. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair

  17. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  18. Exchangers man the pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D

    2008-01-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca2+ transporters encoded by cation/H+ exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca2+ into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca2+ release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H+-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca2+/H+ exchangers and H+ pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca2+ flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca2+/H+ exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca2+ or H+ transport. PMID:19841670

  19. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  20. Results from the DITE pump-limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.C.; Fielding, S.J.; Matthews, G.F.; Pitts, R.; Pritchard, J.; Vayakis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the DITE tokamak with a large poloidal pump limiter of a relatively simple design. A particle exhaust into the pump limiter of 6% of the total particle flux leaving the plasma has been achieved. (orig.)

  1. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na+ and Ca2+ fluxes, Na+/K+ pump activity, and intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Lopez-Rivas, A.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    The amphibian tetradecapeptide, bombesin, and structurally related peptides caused a marked increase in ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake (a measure of Na + /K + pump activity) in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect occurred within seconds after the addition of the peptide and appeared to be mediated by an increase in Na + entry into the cells. The effect of bombesin on Na + entry and Na + /K + pump activity was concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 0.3-0.4 nM. The structurally related peptides litorin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B also stimulated ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake; the relative potencies of these peptides in stimulating the Na + /K + pump were comparable to their potencies in increasing DNA synthesis. Bombesin increased Na + influx, at least in part, through an Na + /H + antiport. The peptide augmented intracellular pH and this effect was abolished in the absence of extracellular Na + . In addition to monovalent ion transport, bombesin and the structurally related peptides rapidly increased the efflux of 45 Ca 2+ from quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This Ca 2+ came from an intracellular pool and the efflux was associated with a 50% decrease in total intracellular Ca 2+ . The peptides also caused a rapid increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phorbol dibutyrate, which causes a loss of protein kinase C activity, greatly decreased the stimulation of 86 Rb + uptake and Na + entry by bombesin implicating this phosphotransferase system in the mediation of part of these responses to bombesin. Since some activation of monovalent ion transport by bombesin was seen in phorbol dibutyrate-pretreated cells, it is likely that the peptide also stimulates monovalent ion transport by a second mechanism

  2. Plugging regime in the pump limiter throat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The plugging regime -with no outstreaming neutral flux- is studied for a closed configuration pump limiter (throat). We derive the plugging length and the neutral density build-up at the neutralizer plate. The analytical expressions are supported by numerical evidence. We find an improved efficiency related to the throat effect mainly due to neutral-sidewall interactions

  3. Solar Pumping : The Basics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2018-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic water pumping (SWP) uses energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels to power an electric water pump. The entire process, from sunlight to stored energy, is elegant and simple. Over last seven years, the technology and price of solar pumping have evolved dramatically and hence the opportunities it presents. Solar pumping is most competitive in regions with high solar inso...

  4. Multiple pump housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  5. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer

    2010-01-01

    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational

  6. Experimental study on performance of pulsed liquid jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weihui; Gao Chuanchang; Qin Haixia

    2010-01-01

    The device performance characteristics of transformer type pulsed liquid pump device were experimentally studied. The effects of the area ratio, work pressure and pulse parameters on the performance of the pulsed liquid jet pump device were performed in the tests. The potency of pulsed jet on improving the performance of the liquid jet pump device was also studied through the comparison with invariable jet pump at the same conditions. The results show that the pulsed jet can significantly improve the performance of transformer type jet pump devices. Area ratio and pulse parameters are the critical factors to the performance of the pulsed liquid jet pump device. The jet pump device performances are significantly improved by reducing the area ratio or by increasing the pulsed frequency. The flux characteristics of the pulsed liquid jet pump device presents the typical negative linear,the potency of pulsed jet in improving the performance of jet pump device with small area ratio can be more significant. The efficiency curve of pulsed liquid jet pump is similar to the parabola. At higher pulsed frequency, the top efficiency point of the pulsed jet pump moves to the higher flow ratio. The high efficiency area of the pulsed jet pump also is widened with the increase of the pulsed frequency. (authors)

  7. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Pumping mechanisms in sputter-ion pumps low pressure operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that significant H 2 pumping occurs in the walls of triode pumps. Also, H 2 is pumped in the anode cells of sputter-ion pumps. This pumping occurs in a manner similar to that by which the inert gases are pumped. That is, H 2 is pumped in the walls of the anode cells by high energy neutral burial. Hydrogen in the pump walls and anodes limits the base pressure of the pump

  9. Adsorption pump for helium pumping out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donde, A.L.; Semenenko, Yu.E.

    1981-01-01

    Adsorption pump with adsorbent cooling by liquid helium is described. Shuttered shield protecting adsorbent against radiation is cooled with evaporating helium passing along the coil positioned on the shield. The pump is also equipped with primed cylindrical shield, cooled with liquid nitrogen. The nitrogen shield has in the lower part the shuttered shield, on the pump casing there is a valve used for pump pre-burning, and valves for connection to recipient as well. Pumping- out rates are presented at different pressures and temperatures of adsorbent. The pumping-out rate according to air at absorbent cooling with liquid nitrogen constituted 5x10 -4 Pa-3000 l/s, at 2x10 -2 Pa-630 l/s. During the absorbent cooling with liquid hydrogen the pumping-out rate according to air was at 4x10 -4 Pa-580 l/s, at 2x10 -3 Pa-680 l/s, according to hydrogen - at 8x10 -5 Pa-2500 l/s, at 5x10 -3 Pa-4200 l/s. During adsorbent cooling with liquid helium the rate of pumping-out according to hydrogen at 3x10 5 Pa-2400% l/s, at 6x10 3 Pa-1200 l/s, and according to helium at 3.5x10 -5 Pa-2800 l/s, at 4x10 -3 Pa-1150 l/s. The limit vacuum is equal to 1x10 -7 Pa. The volume of the vessel with liquid helium is equal to 3.5 l. Helium consumption is 80 cm 3 /h. Consumption of liquid nitrogen from the shield is 400 cm 3 /h. The limit pressure in the pump is obtained after forevacuum pumping-out (adsorbent regeneration) at 300 K temperature. The pump is made of copper. The pump height together with primed tubes is 800 mm diameter-380 mm [ru

  10. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped

  11. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  12. Dynamic and Stagnating Plasma Flow Leading to Magnetic-Flux-Tube Collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S.; Yun, G.S.; Bellan, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated

  13. Scrape-off profiles and effects of limiter pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-11-01

    A one dimensional plasma scrape-off model was used to simulate Tore Supra discharges which are limited by various combinations of the pumped and inner limiters. Scrape-off profiles of the electron density and temperature, ion temperature, and neutral density are given. For each case, various fractions of the ion flux to the neutralizers were assumed to be pumped. Modifications of the scrap-off profiles caused by pumping are predicted. Pumping efficiencies are calculated including the effects of flux amplification caused by recycling. The pumping efficiency is estimated to be 8% for low-power discharges formed on the outer pumped limiter, 7.5% for intermediate-power discharges formed on the seven-module pumped-limiter system, and 5% for full-power discharges formed on both the inner limiter and the pumped-limiter system. The maximum particle removal rate is estimated to be 150 Tl/s

  14. Pumps in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This article looks at the pump industry as a whole, its historical links with the mining industry, their parallel develop ment, and at the individual manufacturers and pumps, services and auxillary products they have to offer.

  15. Photovoltaic pump systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  16. Enhanced wall pumping in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.; Harbour, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The enhanced wall pumping phenomenon in JET is observed for hydrogen or deuterium plasmas which are moved from the outer (larger major radius) limiter position either to the inner wall or to the top/bottom wall of the vacuum vessel. This phenomenon is analysed by employing a particle recycling model which combines plasma particle transport with particle re-emission from and retention within material surfaces. The model calculates the important experimentally observable quantities, such as particle fluxes, global particle confinement time, plasma density and density profile. Good qualitative agreement is found and, within the uncertainties, the agreement is quantitative if the wall pumping is assumed to be caused by two simultaneously occurring effects: (1) Neutral particle screening at the inner wall and the top/bottom wall is larger than that at the outer limiter because of different magnetic topologies at different poloidal positions; and (2) although most of the particles (≥ 90%) impacting on the wall can be promptly re-emitted, a small fraction (≤ 10%) of them must be retained in the wall for a period of time which is similar to or larger than the global plasma particle confinement time. However, the wall particle retention time need not be different from that of the outer limiter, i.e. pumping can occur when there is no difference between the material properties of the limiter and those of the wall. (author). 45 refs, 18 figs

  17. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  18. Vertical pump assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  19. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. These can generally be classified as: Mechanical; Hydraulic; Tribological; Chemical; and Other (including those associated with the pump driver). Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump

  20. Liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid metal pump comprising a shaft support structure which is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft carries an impeller and the support structure carries an impeller cage which is slidably disposed in a diffuser so as to allow complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair. The diffuser is concentrically supported in the pump housing which also takes up all reaction forces generated by the discharge of the liquid metal from the diffuser, with floating seals arranged between impeller cage and the diffuser. The space between the diffuser and the pump housing permits the incoming liquid to essentially surround the diffuser. (author)

  1. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  2. Modular pump limiter systems for large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; McGrath, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Long-pulse (>10-s) operation of large tokamaks with high-power (>10-MW) heating and extensive external fueling will require correspondingly efficient particle exhaust for density control. A pump limiter can provide the needed exhaust capability by removing a small percentage of the particles, which would otherwise be recycled. Single pump limiter modules have been operated successfully on ISX-B, PDX, TEXTOR, and PLT. An axisymmetric pump limiter is now being installed and will be studied in TEXTOR. A third type of pump limiter is a system that consists of several modules and exhibits performance different from that of a single module. To take advantage of the flexibility of a modular pump limiter system in a high-power, long-pulse device, the power load must be distributed among a number of modules. Because each added module changes the performance of all the others, a set of design criteria must be defined for the overall limiter system. The design parameters for the modules are then determined from the system requirements for particle and power removal. Design criteria and parameters are presented, and the impact on module design of the state of the art in engineering technology is discussed. The relationship between modules are considered from the standpoint of flux coverage and shadowing effects. The results are applied to the Tore Supra tokamak. A preliminary conceptual design for the Tore Supra pump limiter system is discussed, and the design parameters of the limiter modules are presented. 21 refs., 12 figs

  3. Particle removal with pump limiters in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.; Emerson, L.C.; Simpkins, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    First pump limiter experiments were performed on ISX-B. Two pump limiter modules were installed in the top and bottom of one toroidal sector of the tokamak. The modules consist of inertia cooled, TiC coated graphite heads and Zr-Al getter pumps each with a pumping speed of 1000 to 2000 l/s. The objective of the initial experiments was the demonstration of plasma particle control with pump limiters. The first set of experiments were performed in ohmic discharges (OH) in which the effect of the pump limiters on the plasma density was clearly demonstrated. In discharges characterized by: I/sub p/ = 110 kA, B/sub T/ = 15 kG, anti n/sub e/ = 1 - 5 x 10 13 cm -3 and t = 0.3 s the pressure rise in the pump limiters was typically 2 mTorr with the pumps off and 0.7 mTorr after activating the pumps. When the pumps were activated, the line-average plasma density decreased by up to a factor 2 at identical gas flow rates. The second set of measurements were performed in neutral beam heated discharges (NBI) with injected powers between 0.6 MW and 1.0 MW. Due to a cooling problem on one of the Zr-Al pumps the NBI experiments were carried out with one limiter only. The maximum pressure observed in NBI-discharges was 5 mTorr without activating the pumps, i.e., approximately twice as high as in OH-discharges. The exhaust efficiency, which is defined as the removed particle flux over the total particle flux in the scrape-off layer is estimated to be 5%

  4. Particles pumping in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnel, P.; Chappuis, P.; Lipa, M.

    1989-01-01

    TORE SUPRA and its peripheral equipments are provided with routine clean high vacuum by turbomolecular pumping. During plasma discharges large quantity of very hot gases activating at plasma edge and plasma density in scrape off layer has to be controlled before they strike violently solid wall provoking increase in impurities content and make density up to disruptive level. A Magnetic Ergodic Divertor made of six winding structures - MED - six Vertical Pumped Limiters - VPL - and one Horizontal Pumped Limiter - HPL - are set in the vacuum chamber in order to cope with plasma-wall interactions and neutral gas recycling. Each apparatus is equipped at front side with thermal shield respectively made of polycristallin and pyrolitic graphite bolted on stainless steel support for MED and HPL whereas for VPL it is made of CFC Aerolor 05 brazed on hardened copper. The total heat removal capacity of these plasma facing components is 12 MW. Design of particles collection openings and ducts conductance allow 10% of capture efficiency, that means for TORE SUPRA a flux of 3 x 10 21 particles/second has to be sorbed by water cooled titanium getter pumps, settled at rear side. All those facilities were put into plasma operation at the beginning of 1989 for a short time. Preliminary observations go along with theoretical predictions, that actions in scrappe-off layer may provoke effects in bulk plasma. Very first results drawn out, show that particle collection and heat removal were effective by MED, VPL and HPL and that plasma behaviour was not disturbed by their presence and actions but instead tendency to improvement was observed

  5. Pumps for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The guide describes how the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls pumps and their motors at nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. The scope of the control is determined by the Safety Class of the pump in question. The various phases of the control are: (1) review of construction plan, (2) control of manufacturing, and construction inspection, (3) commissioning inspection, and (4) control during operation. STUK controls Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 pumps at nuclear facilities as described in this guide. STUK inspects Class EYT (non-nuclear) pumps separately or in connection with the commissioning inspections of the systems. This guide gives the control procedure and related requirements primarily for centrifugal pumps. However, it is also applied to the control of piston pumps and other pump types not mentioned in this guide

  6. Internal pump monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Toshikazu.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a thermometer is disposed at the upper end of an internal pump casing of a coolant recycling system in a BWR type reactor to detect leakage of reactor water thereby ensuring the improvement of reliability of the internal pump. Namely, a thermometer is disposed, which can detect temperature elevation occurred when water in the internal pump leaked from a reactor pressure vessel passes through the gap between a stretch tube and an upper end of the pump casing. Signals from the thermometer are transmitted to a signal processing device by an instrumentation cable. The signal processing device generates an alarm when the temperature signal exceeds a predetermined value and announces that leakage of reactor water occurs in the internal pump. Since the present invention can detect the leakage of the reactor water in the pump casing in an early stage, it can contribute to the improvement of the safety and reliability of the internal pump. (I.S.)

  7. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...

  8. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-12-31

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  9. Pumping behavior of sputtering ion pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, T.S.; Bittner, J.; Schuchman, J.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize the design of a distributed ion pump (DIP) for the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS) the stability of the rotating electron cloud at very high magnetic field beyond transition, must be re-examined. In this work the pumping speed and frequency spectrum of a DIP at various voltages (1 to 10 KV) and various magnetic fields (0.1 to 4 Tesla) are measured. Three cell diameters 10 mm, 5 mm and 2.5 mm, each 8 mm long, and with 3 or 4 mm gaps between anode and cathode are investigated. In this study both the titanium cathodes and the stainless steel anode plates are perforated with holes comparable in size to the anode cell diameters. Only the partially saturated pumping behavior is under investigation. The ultimate pressure and conditioning of the pump will be investigated at a later date when the stability criterion for the electron cloud is better understood.

  10. Laser Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Report N66001-83-C-0071, 17 April 1986, prepared for NOSC. 4.6 W.T. Welford, R. Winston , "The Option of Nonimaging Concentrators ," Academic Press, 1978...by non-imac optics such as reflective or refractive flux concentrators . Simple considerations regarding the optimum pumping configuration, high marks...reduced if the arrays can stand-off from the Nd:YAG laser. As mentioned before, compound parabolic concentrators or refractive optics cat employed to

  11. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented

  12. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  13. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  14. Pumps for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of nuclear industry for the transfer of corrosive, toxic, humidity sensitive or very pure gases, different types of pumps were developped and commercialized. Their main characteristics are to prevent pollution of the transfered fluid by avoiding any contact between this fluid and the lubricated parts of the machine, and to prevent a contamination of the atmosphere or of the fluid by a total tightness. Patellar pumps have been particularly developped because the metallic bellows are quite reliable and resistant in this configuration. Two types are described: patellar pumps without friction and barrel pumps whose pistons are provided with rings sliding in the cylinders without lubrication [fr

  15. Pump safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Francis; Vandervorst, Jean.

    1981-01-01

    Safety device for longitudinally leak proofing the shaft of a pump in the event of the fracture of the dynamic seal separating the pump fluid high pressure chamber from the low pressure chamber. It is designed for fitting to the primary pumps of nuclear reactors. It includes a hollow cyclindrical piston located coaxially around the pump shaft and normally housed in a chamber provided for this purpose in the fixed housing of the dynamic seal, and means for moving this piston coaxially so as to compress a safety O ring between the shaft and the piston in the event of the dynamic seal failing [fr

  16. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad

    2010-01-01

    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  17. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1995-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  18. Champagne Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  19. Effect of operating conditions on the performance of the bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhmidene Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model will be able to predict the operated condition (required tube diameters, heat input and submergence ratio….. That will result in a successful bubble pump design and hence a refrigeration unit. In the present work a one-dimensional two-fluid model of boiling mixing ammonia-water under constant heat flux is developed. The present model is used to predict the outlet liquid and vapor velocities and pumping ratio for different heat flux input to pump. The influence of operated conditions such as: ammonia fraction in inlet solution and tube diameter on the functioning of the bubble pump is presented and discussed. It was found that, the liquid velocity and pumping ratio increase with increasing heat flux, and then it decreases. Optimal heat flux depends namely on tube diameter variations. Vapour velocity increases linearly with increasing heat flux under designed conditions.

  20. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulu

    Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia (*mul_at@yahoo.com). ABSTRACT. A wind ... balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, hence did not consider the effect of pump size. ... Keywords: Wind pump, Windmill, Performance testing, Pump efficiency, Pump discharge, ... Unfortunately, in rural places, where the houses are.

  1. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  2. Detection of pump degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.

    1994-01-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed

  3. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-01-01

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  4. Circulation pump mounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    The suspension is described of nuclear reactor circulating pumps enabling their dilatation with a minimum reverse force consisting of spacing rods supported with one end in the anchor joints and provided with springs and screw joints engaging the circulating pump shoes. The spacing rods are equipped with side vibration dampers anchored in the shaft side wall and on the body of the circulating pump drive body. The negative reverse force F of the spacing rods is given by the relation F=Q/l.y, where Q is the weight of the circulating pump, l is the spatial distance between the shoe joints and anchor joints, and y is the deflection of the circulating pump vertical axis from the mean equilibrium position. The described suspension is advantageous in that that the reverse force for the deflection from the mean equilibrium position is minimal, dynamic behaviour is better, and construction costs are lower compared to suspension design used so far. (J.B.)

  5. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  6. High pressure liquid gas pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  7. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  8. Electromagnetic pump technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors have an important role to play in our nuclear power programme. Liquid metal sodium is used as the coolant for removing fission heat generated in fast reactors and a distinctive physical property of sodium is its high electrical conductivity. This enables application of electromagnetic (EM) pumps, working on same principle as electric motors, for pumping liquid sodium. Due to its lower efficiency as compared to centrifugal pumps, use of EM pumps has been restricted to reactor auxiliary circuits and experimental facilities. As part of our efforts to manufacture fast reactor components indigenously, work on the development of two types of EM pumps namely flat linear induction pump (FLIP) and annular linear induction pump (ALIP) has been undertaken. Design procedures based on an equivalent circuit approach have been established and results from testing a 5.6 x 10E-3 Cum/s (20 Cum/h) FLIP in a sodium loop were used to validate the procedure. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-05-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  10. Edge plasma control: Particle channeling in Tore Supra pump limiter and ergodic divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Samain, A.; Grosman, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Improved pumping efficiency can be achieved on Tore Supra by channeling process for particles, i.e. channeling of neutrals in the throat of pump limiters and channeling of plasma towards neutralizer plates in the ergodic divertor. The plugging length for the pump limiter throat is computed and numerical evidence of plasma flux channeling between the conductor bars of the ergodic divertor is presented. The effect of the Tore Supra ergodic divertor on edge plasma state and edge plasma transport is discussed. (orig.)

  11. A Thermally Actuated Flux Pump for Energizing YBCO Pucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    a Hall sensor with an advertised active area of approximately 1.016 mm diameter supplied by Lakeshore was positioned in the centre of the YBCO as...top and the coldhead (green) along the bottom. The brown colour is the light green of the coldhead and the orange of the dysprosium centre

  12. Particle exhaust studies in Tore Supra with a pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, C.C.; Haste, G.R.; Horton, L.D.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Bonnel, P.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chatelier, M.; Gil, C.; Grisolia, C.; Loarer, T.; Martin, G.; Pegourie, B.; Rodriguez, L.; Watkins, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the Tore Supra pump limiter program is to study particle exhaust with a pump limiter system in long-pulse discharges with continuous pellet fueling and strong auxiliary heating. The pump limiter system consists of six vertical modules, located at the bottom of the machine, and one horizontal module at the outer midplane. The results presented here were obtained with the horizontal module only. This module was equipped with two titanium pumps with a total pumping speed of 100000 L/s. The instrumentation of the limiter included pressure gauges, a residual gas analyzer, Langmuir probes, a spectrometer viewing the neutralizer plate for H α and impurity measurements, and water calorimeters. All diagnostics have been commissioned and are operational. Initial results were obtained in low-density discharges, with no gas puffing during the shot. While only a modest effect on the plasma density was observed, large exhaust fluxes were measured in the pump limiter. The most likely source of this gas was outgassing of the graphite walls. Straightforward particle balance between the plasma efflux and the pump limiter exhaust, as applied in previous pump limiter experiments, did not apply. The core plasma and the edge plasma seemed to be largely decoupled and a multi-layer model is being developed to explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  13. Absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formigoni, C.

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of the difference between a compression and an absorption heat pump is made, and the reasons why absorption systems have spread lately are given. Studies and projects recently started in the field of absorption heat pumps, as well as criteria usually followed in project development are described. An outline (performance targets, basic components) of a project on a water/air absorption heat pump, running on natural gas or LPG, is given. The project was developed by the Robur Group as an evolution of a water absorption refrigerator operating with a water/ammonia solution, which has been on the market for a long time and recently innovated. Finally, a list of the main energy and cost advantages deriving from the use of absorption heat pumps is made [it

  14. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  15. Gas fired heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, M.

    2006-01-01

    The condensing gas boiler is now state of the art and there is no more room for improvement in performance, technically speaking. The next logical step to improve the overall efficiency is to exploit ambient heat in combination with the primary source of energy, natural gas. That means using natural-gas driven heat pumps and gas-fired heat pumps. Based on this, the Swiss Gas Industry decided to set up a practical test programme enjoying a high priority. The aim of the project 'Gas-fired heat pump practical test' is to assess by field tests the characteristics and performance of the foreign serial heat pumps currently on the market and to prepare and promote the introduction on the market place of this sustainable natural-gas technology. (author)

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  18. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air

  19. Mechanical vaccum pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, A D

    2007-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the technology of contemporary primary and secondary mechanical vacuum pumps. For reference a brief history of vacuum and a summary of important and basic vacuum concepts are first presented.

  20. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  1. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  2. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  3. Types of Breast Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a hollow rubber ball attached to a breast-shield. Some ... and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888- ...

  4. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  5. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  6. Resorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, L.L.; Mishkinis, D.A.; Antukh, A.A.; Kulakov, A.G.; Vasiliev, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Resorption processes are based on at least two solid-sorption reactors application. The most favorable situation for the resorption heat pumps is the case, when the presence of a liquid phase is impossible. From simple case--two reactors with two salts to complicated system with two salts + active carbon fiber (fabric) and two branch of the heat pump acting out of phase to produce heat and cold simultaneously, this is the topic of this research program

  7. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  8. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  9. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  10. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  11. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  12. Pump trials for charged liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, J.C.; Niver, A.

    1964-01-01

    The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors) [fr

  13. BIOMATERIALS FOR ROTARY BLOOD PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W

    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  14. Component and system simulation models for High Flux Isotope Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozer, A.

    1989-08-01

    Component models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been developed. The models are HFIR core, heat exchangers, pressurizer pumps, circulation pumps, letdown valves, primary head tank, generic transport delay (pipes), system pressure, loop pressure-flow balance, and decay heat. The models were written in FORTRAN and can be run on different computers, including IBM PCs, as they do not use any specific simulation languages such as ACSL or CSMP. 14 refs., 13 figs

  15. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  16. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  17. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  18. Test report for run-in acceptance testing of Project W-151 300 HP mixing pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglin, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the results of a performance demonstration and operational checkout of three 300 HP mixer pumps in accordance with WHC-SD-WI51-TS-001 ''Mixer Pump Test Specification for Project W-151'' and Statement of Work 8K520-EMN-95-004 ''Mixer Pump Performance Demonstration at MASF'' in the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building. Testing of the pumps was performed by Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Engineering and funded by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project W-151. Testing began with the first pump on 04-01-95 and ended with the third pump on 11-01-96. Prior to testing, the MASF was modified and prepared to meet the pump testing requirements set forth by the Test Specification and the Statement of Work

  19. Heat driven pulse pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  20. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  1. Development of Novel High Temperature Superconducting Detectors Based on Flux Activation and Ultrafast Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Anatoly

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed to study quasiparticle (QP) relaxation dynamics and flux mechanism of HTS using pump/probe femtosecond spectroscopy and nonequilibrium photoresponse in the presence of a magnetic field (and/or bias current...

  2. Wet motor geroter fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiernicki, M.V.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a wet motor gerotor fuel pump for pumping fuel from a fuel source to an internal combustion which consists of: gerotor pump means comprising an inner pump gear, an outer pump gear, and second tang means located on one of the inner and outer pump gears. The second tang means further extends in a second radial direction radially offset from the first radial direction and forms a driving connection with the first tang means such that the fuel pump pumps fuel from the fuel source into the narrow conduit inlet chamber, through the gerotor pump means past the electric motor means into the outlet housing means substantially along the flow axis to the internal combustion engine.

  3. Embryogenic competence acquisition in sugarcane callus is associated with differential H+ pump abundance and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamani, Lucas Z; Bertolazi, Amanda A; Ramos, Alessandro C; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Thelen, Jay J; Silveira, Vanildo

    2018-06-22

    Somatic embryogenesis is an important biological process in several plant species, including sugarcane. Proteomics approaches have shown that H + pumps are differentially regulated during somatic embryogenesis; however, the relationship between H + flux and embryogenic competence is still unclear. This work aimed to elucidate the association between extracellular H + flux and somatic embryo maturation in sugarcane. We performed a microsomal proteomics analysis and analyzed changes in extracellular H + flux and H + pump (P-H + -ATPase, V-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase) activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus. A total of 657 proteins were identified, 16 of which were H + pumps. We observed that P-H + -ATPase and H + -PPase were more abundant in embryogenic callus. Compared with non-embryogenic callus, embryogenic callus showed higher H + influx, especially on maturation day 14, as well as higher H+ pump activity (mainly P-H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activity). H+-PPase appears to be the major H + pump in embryogenic callus during somatic embryo formation, functioning in both vacuole acidification and PPi homeostasis. These results provide evidence for an association between higher H + pump protein abundance and, consequently, higher H + flux and embryogenic competence acquisition in the callus of sugarcane, allowing for optimization of the somatic embryo conversion process by modulating the activities of these H + pumps.

  4. Towards a physics-integrated view on divertor pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Chr.; Gleason-González, C.; Hauer, V.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kalupin, D.; Varoutis, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physics-integrated design approaches are to be preferred over approaches based on simple requirement lists. • A physics-integrated assessment is presented for the divertor vacuum pumping system based on detachment onset conditions for the divertor. • This approach considers density dependent pump albedo to reflect the effects of gas recycling at the divertor and the changes in flow regime with density. • A comparison with DEMO indicates that the divertor pumping system for a pulsed DEMO scales less than linearly with fusion power. - Abstract: One key requirement to design the inner fuel cycle of a divertor tokamak is defined by the torus vessel gas throughput and composition, and the sub-divertor neutral pressure at which the exhaust gas has to be pumped. This paper illustrates how divertor physics aspects can be translated to requirements on the divertor vacuum pumping system. An example workflow is presented that links the realization of detachment conditions with the sub-divertor neutral gas flow patterns in order to determine the appropriate number of torus vacuum pumps. For the example case of a fusion DEMO size machine, it was found that 7 actively pumping cryopumps (ITER-type) are necessary to handle the gas throughput that is needed to manage the heat flux and densities related to detachment onset

  5. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser is described comprising: a toroidal fusion reactor, the reactor generating energetic neutrons; an annular gas cell disposed around the outer periphery of the reactor, the cell including an annular reflecting mirror disposed at the bottom of the cell and an annular output window disposed at the top of the cell; a gas lasing medium disposed within the annular cell for generating output laser radiation; neutron reflector material means disposed around the annular cell for reflecting neutrons incident thereon back into the gas cell; neutron moderator material means disposed between the reactor and the gas cell and between the gas cell and the neutron reflector material for moderating the energy of energetic neutrons from the reactor; converting means for converting energy from the moderated neutrons to energy pumping means for pumping the gas lasing medium; and beam compactor means for receiving output laser radiation from the annular output window and generating a single output laser beam therefrom

  6. Seasonal copepod lipid pump promotes carbon sequestration in the deep North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónasdóttir, Sigrún Huld; Visser, André W; Richardson, Katherine; Heath, Michael R

    2015-09-29

    Estimates of carbon flux to the deep oceans are essential for our understanding of global carbon budgets. Sinking of detrital material ("biological pump") is usually thought to be the main biological component of this flux. Here, we identify an additional biological mechanism, the seasonal "lipid pump," which is highly efficient at sequestering carbon into the deep ocean. It involves the vertical transport and metabolism of carbon rich lipids by overwintering zooplankton. We show that one species, the copepod Calanus finmarchicus overwintering in the North Atlantic, sequesters an amount of carbon equivalent to the sinking flux of detrital material. The efficiency of the lipid pump derives from a near-complete decoupling between nutrient and carbon cycling—a "lipid shunt," and its direct transport of carbon through the mesopelagic zone to below the permanent thermocline with very little attenuation. Inclusion of the lipid pump almost doubles the previous estimates of deep-ocean carbon sequestration by biological processes in the North Atlantic.

  7. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  8. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  9. Geothermal heat pump performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  10. Geothermal Heat Pump Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya L.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal heat pump systems are a promising new energy technology that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to customers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school, and commercial building applications. Information was developed on the status of electric utility marketing programs, barriers to market penetration, incentive programs, and benefits.

  11. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  12. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  13. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  14. Study of Hydrogen Pumping through Condensed Argon in Cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadeja, K A; Bhatt, S B

    2012-01-01

    In ultra high vacuum (UHV) range, hydrogen is a dominant residual gas in vacuum chamber. Hydrogen, being light gas, pumping of hydrogen in this vacuum range is limited with widely used UHV pumps, viz. turbo molecular pump and cryogenic pump. Pre condensed argon layers in cryogenic pump create porous structure on the surface of the pump, which traps hydrogen gas at a temperature less than 20° K. Additional argon gas injection in the cryogenic pump, at lowest temperature, generates multiple layers of condensed argon as a porous frost with 10 to 100 A° diameters pores, which increase the pumping capacity of hydrogen gas. This pumping mechanism of hydrogen is more effective, to pump more hydrogen gas in UHV range applicable in accelerator, space simulation etc. and where hydrogen is used as fuel gas like tokamak. For this experiment, the cryogenic pump with a closed loop refrigerator using helium gas is used to produce the minimum cryogenic temperature as ∼ 14° K. In this paper, effect of cryosorption of hydrogen is presented with different levels of argon gas and hydrogen gas in cryogenic pump chamber.

  15. Solar pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.; Weaver, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pumped laser is described in which the lasant is a gas that will photodissociate and lase when subjected to sunrays. Sunrays are collected and directed onto the gas lasant to cause it to lase. Applications to laser propulsion and laser power transmission are discussed.

  16. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  17. Pump monitoring and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes how to set up a periodic vibration monitoring program implemented with electronic data loggers. Acquired data will be analyzed and evaluated to determine pump condition. Periodic measuring frequency, reporting procedures, and conditions of mechanical components are discussed in detail based on the actual case study

  18. Putzmeister pumps for Tchernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Self-propelling concrete pumps are briefly described in this article, they comprise a 52-meter boom, a radiation protection, remote control, videocameras. Several units were ordered by the Soviet Union. The truck cabin is protected against radiation by a 10 millimeter thick shield in lead. 3 photographs [fr

  19. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  20. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  1. Impulse pumping modelling and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, B; Gudmundsson, J S

    2010-01-01

    Impulse pumping is a new pumping method based on propagation of pressure waves. Of particular interest is the application of impulse pumping to artificial lift situations, where fluid is transported from wellbore to wellhead using pressure waves generated at wellhead. The motor driven element of an impulse pumping apparatus is therefore located at wellhead and can be separated from the flowline. Thus operation and maintenance of an impulse pump are facilitated. The paper describes the different elements of an impulse pumping apparatus, reviews the physical principles and details the modelling of the novel pumping method. Results from numerical simulations of propagation of pressure waves in water-filled pipelines are then presented for illustrating impulse pumping physical principles, and validating the described modelling with experimental data.

  2. Reactor recirculation pump test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1979-01-01

    A test loop for a reactor primary loop recirculation pumps (PLR pumps) has been constructed at Ebara's Haneda Plant in preparation for production of PLR pumps under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Corporation. This loop can simulate operating conditions for test PLR pumps with 130 per cent of the capacity of pumps for a 1100 MWe BWR plant. A main loop, primary cooling system, water demineralizer, secondary cooling system, instrumentation and control equipment and an electric power supply system make up the test loop. This article describes the test loop itself and test results of two PLR pumps for Fukushima No. 2 N.P.S. Unit 1 and one main circulation pump for HAZ Demonstration Test Facility. (author)

  3. Sludge pumping in water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In water treatment processes is frequent to separate residual solids, with sludge shape, and minimize its volume in a later management. the technologies to applicate include pumping across pipelines, even to long distance. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the management of these sludges is very important because their characteristics affect load losses calculation. Pumping sludge can modify its behavior and pumping frequency can concern treatment process. This paper explains advantages and disadvantages of different pumps to realize transportation sludge operations. (Author) 11 refs.

  4. Numerical simulation for nuclear pumped laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasai, Kaoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    To apply nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar gas to detect neutron, the optimum gas mixture was investigated by numerical simulation. When {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar mixture gas are irradiated by neutron, proton and triton with high velocity are produced by {sup 3}He(np)T and two charge particles ionized {sup 3}He, Ne and Ar which reacted each other and attained to 3p`(1/2){sub 0}-3S`(1/2). The calculation method is constructed by defining the rate equations of each ion and exited atom and the electron energy balance equation and by time integrating the simultaneous differential equations of the above two equations and the law of conservation of charge. Penning ionization and energy transport by elastic collision of neutral atom were considered in the transport process of electron energy direct ionization by secondary charge particle. Calculation time was 1 msec. The optimum component was shown 3 atm He, 24 Torr He and 8 Torr Ar by simulation. Laser oscilation was generated under the conditions 3.3 x 10{sup 14} (N/cm{sup 2}/5) thermal neutron flux at 50 cm laser cell length and 99% coefficient of reflection of mirror. After laser oscilation, laser output was proportional to neutron flux. These results showed nuclear pumped laser of {sup 3}He-Ne-Ar was able to detect optically neutron. (S.Y)

  5. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  6. Heat pumps are a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The fact that heat pumps do not achieve what their manufacturers promise in costs efficiency has been realized by the market. In 1981 the sales of heat pumps decreased by 50% of the 1980 market. Public utilities give the reason as economic, since fuel oil is too cheap. The author refutes this argument and presents arguments against heat pumps.

  7. The Performance test of Mechanical Sodium Pump with Water Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chungho; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jong-Bum; Ko, Bock Seong; Park, Sang Jun; Lee, Yoon Sang

    2015-01-01

    As contrasted with PWR(Pressurized light Water Reactor) using water as a coolant, sodium is used as a coolant in SFR because of its low melting temperature, high thermal conductivity, the high boiling temperature allowing the reactors to operate at ambient pressure, and low neutron absorption cross section which is required to achieve a high neutron flux. But, sodium is violently reactive with water or oxygen like the other alkali metal. So Very strict requirements are demanded to design and fabricate of sodium experimental facilities. Furthermore, performance testing in high temperature sodium environments is more expensive and time consuming and need an extra precautions because operating and maintaining of sodium experimental facilities are very difficult. The present paper describes performance test results of mechanical sodium pump with water which has been performed with some design changes using water test facility in SAM JIN Industrial Co. To compare the hydraulic characteristic of model pump with water and sodium, the performance test of model pump were performed using vender's experimental facility for mechanical sodium pump. To accommodate non-uniform thermal expansion and to secure the operability and the safety, the gap size of some parts of original model pump was modified. Performance tests of modified mechanical sodium pump with water were successfully performed. Water is therefore often selected as a surrogate test fluid because it is not only cheap, easily available and easy to handle but also its important hydraulic properties (density and kinematic viscosity) are very similar to that of the sodium. Normal practice to thoroughly test a design or component before applied or installed in reactor is important to ensure the safety and operability in the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). So, in order to estimate the hydraulic behavior of the PHTS pump of DSFR (600 MWe Demonstraion SFR), the performance tests of the model pump such as performance

  8. Pumping characteristics of roots blower pumps for light element gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, Seiji; Abe, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Nakamura, Jun-ichi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    2002-07-01

    The pumping speed and compression ratio of the two-stage roots blower pumping system were measured for light element gases (H 2 , D 2 and He) and for N 2 , in order to assess validity of the ITER torus roughing system as an ITER R and D task (T234). The pumping system of an Edwards EH1200 (nominal pumping speed of 1200 m 3 /s), two EH250s (ibid. 250 m 3 /s) and a backing pump (ibid. 100 m 3 /s) in series connection was tested under PNEUROP standards. The maximum pumping speeds of the two-stage system for D 2 and N 2 were 1200 and 1300 m 3 /h, respectively at 60 Hz, which satisfied the nominal pumping speed. These experimental data support the design validity of the ITER torus roughing system. (author)

  9. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  10. Electroosmotic pumps for microflow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiayan; Wang, Shili; Gendhar, Brina; Cheng, Chang; Byun, Chang Kyu; Li, Guanbin; Zhao, Meiping; Liu, Shaorong

    2009-01-01

    With rapid development in microflow analysis, electroosmotic pumps are receiving increasing attention. Compared to other micropumps, electroosmotic pumps have several unique features. For example, they are bi-directional, can generate constant and pulse-free flows with flow rates well suited to microanalytical systems, and can be readily integrated with lab-on-chip devices. The magnitude and the direction of flow of an electroosmotic pump can be changed instantly. In addition, electroosmotic pumps have no moving parts. In this article, we discuss common features, introduce fabrication technologies and highlight applications of electroosmotic pumps. PMID:20047021

  11. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  12. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analytic scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5-10 torr.L/s throughput with only modest effects on density. A model is developed in which large exhaust fluxes, with little attendant effect on core plasma density, are explained in terms of SOL ionization of recycled and wall-desorbed neutrals. Particle balance with active pumping and constant line density requires that the wall return flux exceed the incident flux by approximately the pump throughput in the absence of external fueling. The radial profile of the H + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of 2 at the outer limiter surfaces and > 3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing SOL

  13. Theory of a peristaltic pump for fermionic quantum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, F.; Citro, R.

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the recent developments in fermionic cold atoms and in nanostructured systems, we propose the model of a peristaltic quantum pump. Differently from the Thouless paradigm, a peristaltic pump is a quantum device that generates a particle flux as the effect of a sliding finite-size microlattice. A one-dimensional tight-binding Hamiltonian model of this quantum machine is formulated and analyzed within a lattice Green's function formalism on the Keldysh contour. The pump observables, as, e.g., the pumped particles per cycle, are studied as a function of the pumping frequency, the width of the pumping potential, the particles mean free path, and system temperature. The proposed analysis applies to arbitrary peristaltic potentials acting on fermionic quantum fluids confined to one dimension. These confinement conditions can be realized in nanostructured systems or, in a more controllable way, in cold atoms experiments. In view of the validation of the theoretical results, we describe the outcomes of the model considering a fermionic cold atoms system as a paradigmatic example.

  14. Heat pumps: heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pielke, R

    1976-01-01

    The author firstly explains in a general manner the functioning of the heat pump. Following a brief look at the future heat demand and the possibilities of covering it, the various methods of obtaining energy (making use of solar energy, ground heat, and others) and the practical applications (office heating, swimming pool heating etc.) are explained. The author still sees considerable difficulties in using the heat pump at present on a large scale. Firstly there is not enough maintenance personnel available, secondly the electricity supply undertakings cannot provide the necessary electricity on a wide basis without considerable investments. Other possibilities to save energy or to use waste energy are at present easier and more economical to realize. Recuperative and regenerative systems are described.

  15. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  16. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  17. FTU pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  18. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  19. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  20. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine installations having fuel pumps to supply fuel to the engine, at least one pump for each engine must be directly...

  1. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  2. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  3. Small size ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyranski, R.; Kiliszek, Cz.R.; Marks, J.; Sobolewski, A.; Magielko, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes some designs of the two versions ion pumps and their range operation for various magnetic fields. The first version is made with different cell size in the anode element and titanium cathode operating in magnetic field from 600 to 650 Gs and the second version with the same anode element but differential Ti/Ta cathode working in magnetic field above 1200 Gs

  4. Towards quantifying the response of the oceans’ biological pump to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wallace Boyd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological pump makes a major global contribution to the sequestration of carbon-rich particles in the oceans’ interior. This pump has many component parts from physics to ecology that together control its efficiency in exporting particles. Hence, the influence of climate change on the functioning and magnitude of the pump is likely to be complex and non-linear. Here, I employ a published 1-D coupled surface-subsurface Particulate Organic Carbon (POC export flux model to systematically explore the potential influence of changing oceanic conditions on each of the pump’s ‘moving parts’, in both surface and subsurface waters. These simulations were run for typical high (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll, HNLC and low (Low Nutrient Low Chlorophyll, LNLC latitude sites. Next, I couple pump components that have common drivers, such as temperature, to investigate more complex scenarios involving concurrent climate-change mediated alteration of multiple ‘moving parts’ of the pump. Model simulations reveal that in the surface ocean, changes to algal community structure (i.e., a shift towards small cells has the greatest individual influence (decreased flux on downward POC flux in the coming decades. In subsurface waters, a shift in zooplankton community structure has the greatest single effect on POC flux (decreased in a future ocean. More complex treatments, in which up to ten individual factors (across both surface and subsurface processes were concurrently altered, ~ halved the POC flux at both high and low latitudes. In general climate-mediated changes to surface ocean processes had a greater effect on the magnitude of POC flux than alteration of subsurface processes, some of which negated one another. This relatively simple 1-D model provides initial insights into the most influential processes that may alter the future performance of this pump, and more importantly reveals many knowledge gaps that require urgent attention before we can

  5. Pumping potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  6. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important

  7. Pumping potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E.Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well, but steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important. (author)

  8. Jet operated heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    A jet pump system is shown that utilizes waste heat to provide heating and/or cooling. Waste heat diverted through a boiler causes a refrigerant to evaporate and expand for supersonic discharge through a nozzle thereby creating a vacuum in an evaporator coil. The vacuum draws the refrigerant in a gaseous state into a condensing section of a jet pump along with refrigerant from a reservoir in a subcooled liquid form. This causes condensation of the gas in a condensation section of the jet pump, while moving at constant velocity. The change in momentum of the fluid overcomes the system high side pressure. Some of the condensate is cooled by a subcooler. Refrigerant in a subcooled liquid state from the subcooler is fed back into the evaporator and the condensing section with an adequate supply being insured by the reservoir. The motive portion of the condensate is returned to the boiler sans subcooling. By proper valving start-up is insured, as well as the ability to switch from heating to cooling

  9. Controlling groundwater pumping online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Slim

    2009-08-01

    Groundwater over-pumping is a major problem in several countries around the globe. Since controlling groundwater pumping through water flow meters is hardly feasible, the surrogate is to control electricity usage. This paper presents a framework to restrict groundwater pumping by implementing an annual individual electricity quota without interfering with the electricity pricing policy. The system could be monitored online through prepaid electricity meters. This provides low transaction costs of individual monitoring of users compared to the prohibitive costs of water flow metering and monitoring. The public groundwater managers' intervention is thus required to determine the water and electricity quota and watch the electricity use online. The proposed framework opens the door to the establishment of formal groundwater markets among users at very low transaction costs. A cost-benefit analysis over a 25-year period is used to evaluate the cost of non-action and compare it to the prepaid electricity quota framework in the Batinah coastal area of Oman. Results show that the damage cost to the community, if no active policy is implemented, amounts to (-$288) million. On the other hand, the implementation of a prepaid electricity quota with an online management system would result in a net present benefit of $199 million.

  10. Liquid sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The pump for use in a nuclear reactor cooling system comprises a booster stage impeller for drawing the liquid through the inlet. A diffuser is affixedly disposed within the pump housing to convert the kinetic pressure imparted to the liquid into increased static pressure. A main stage impeller is rotatively driven by a pump motor at a relatively high speed to impart a relatively high static pressure to the liquid and for discharging the liquid at a relatively high static pressure. A hydraulic coupling is disposed remotely from the liquid path for hydraulically coupling the main stage impeller and the booster stage impeller to rotate the booster stage impeller at a relatively low speed to maintain the low net positive suction pressure applied to the liquid at the inlet greater than the vapor pressure of the liquid and to ensure that the low net positive suction heat, as established by the main stage impeller exceeds the vapor pressure. The coupling comprises a grooved drum which rotates between inner and outer drag coupling members. In a modification the coupling comprises a torque converter. (author)

  11. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  12. Optically pumped terahertz sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Kai; SHI Wei; XU DeGang; LIU PengXiang; WANG YuYe; MEI JiaLin; YAN Chao; FU ShiJie; YAO JianQuan

    2017-01-01

    High-power terahertz (THz) generation in the frequency range of0.1-10 THz has been a fast-developing research area ever since the beginning of the THz boom two decades ago,enabling new technological breakthroughs in spectroscopy,communication,imaging,etc.By using optical (laser) pumping methods with near-or mid-infrared (IR) lasers,flexible and practical THz sources covering the whole THz range can be realized to overcome the shortage of electronic THz sources and now they are playing important roles in THz science and technology.This paper overviews various optically pumped THz sources,including femtosecond laser based ultrafast broadband THz generation,monochromatic widely tunable THz generation,single-mode on-chip THz source from photomixing,and the traditional powerful THz gas lasers.Full descriptions from basic principles to the latest progress are presented and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed as well.It is expected that this review gives a comprehensive reference to researchers in this area and additionally helps newcomers to quickly gain understanding of optically pumped THz sources.

  13. High-frequency pressure variations in the vicinity of a surface CO2 flux chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene S. Takle; James R. Brandle; R. A. Schmidt; Rick Garcia; Irina V. Litvina; William J. Massman; Xinhua Zhou; Geoffrey Doyle; Charles W. Rice

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of 2Hz pressure fluctuations at and below the soil surface in the vicinity of a surface-based CO2 flux chamber. These measurements were part of a field experiment to examine the possible role of pressure pumping due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations on measurements of surface fluxes of CO2. Under the moderate wind speeds, warm temperatures,...

  14. Structures for handling high heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The divertor is recognized as one of the main performance limiting components for ITER. This paper reviews the critical issues for structures that are designed to withstand heat fluxes >5 MW/m 2 . High velocity, sub-cooled water with twisted tape inserts for enhanced heat transfer provides a critical heat flux limit of 40-60 MW/m 2 . Uncertainties in physics and engineering heat flux peaking factors require that the design heat flux not exceed 10 MW/m 2 to maintain an adequate burnout safety margin. Armor tiles and heat sink materials must have a well matched thermal expansion coefficient to minimize stresses. The divertor lifetime from sputtering erosion is highly uncertain. The number of disruptions specified for ITER must be reduced to achieve a credible design. In-situ plasma spray repair with thick metallic coatings may reduce the problems of erosion. Runaway electrons in ITER have the potential to melt actively cooled components in a single event. A water leak is a serious accident because of steam reactions with hot carbon, beryllium, or tungsten that can mobilize large amounts of tritium and radioactive elements. If the plasma does not shutdown immediately, the divertor can melt in 1-10 s after a loss of coolant accident. Very high reliability of carbon tile braze joints will be required to achieve adequate safety and performance goals. Most of these critical issues will be addressed in the near future by operation of the Tore Supra pump limiters and the JET pumped divertor. An accurate understanding of the power flow out of edge of a DT burning plasma is essential to successful design of high heat flux components. (orig.)

  15. Non-preferential fuelling of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Barros, L Felipe

    2014-06-15

    There is abundant evidence that glycolysis and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump are functionally coupled, and it is thought that the nature of the coupling is energetic, with glycolysis providing the ATP that fuels the pump. This notion has been instrumental to current models of brain energy metabolism. However, structural and biophysical considerations suggest that the pump should also have access to mitochondrial ATP, which is much more abundant. In the present study, we have investigated the source of ATP that fuels the Na(+) pump in astrocytes, taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of recently available FRET nanosensors for glucose, lactate and ATP. The activity of the Na(+) pump was assessed in parallel with the Na(+)-sensitive dye SBFI AM (Na(+)-binding benzofuran isophthalate acetoxymethyl ester). OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation) inhibition resulted in bulk ATP depletion and a 5-fold stimulation of glycolytic flux, in spite of which Na(+) pumping was inhibited by 90%. Mathematical modelling of ATP dynamics showed that the observed pump failure is inconsistent with preferential fuelling of the Na(+) pump by glycolytic ATP. We conclude that the nature of the functional coupling between the Na(+) pump and the glycolytic machinery is not energetic and that the pump is mainly fuelled by mitochondrial ATP.

  16. Making effective use of rod pumping systems in coalbed methane applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, A. [eProduction Solutions Inc., Kingwood, TX (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The advantages of optimizing coalbed methane (CBM) operations are increased production, reduced expenses, improved efficiency, and better inventory. The author discussed the CBM production cycle and the possible artificial lift options, including electric submersible pump (ESP), plunger lift, primary coolant pump (PCP), and reciprocating rod lift. The presentation focused on the rod lift, as it represents a low to moderate capital expenditure, has good system efficiency, an excellent fluid volume range, an excellent salvage value, excellent familiarity with equipment, and has readily available parts and service. The major disadvantage of the rod lift is that the fixed operating range does not adapt to changing reservoir characteristics. A comparison between the rod pump controller and the variable speed drive was presented. The well can be operated at or near the pumped off condition with variable speed drives with rod pumping intelligence. The author provided a closer examination of the variable frequency drive and the vector flux drive. The presentation also included a discussion of prime movers, drive and inclinometer, gearbox loading, rod load limiter, and dynamometer cards. Three case studies were presented: CSW1, CSW2, and CSW3. It was concluded that wells must be kept pumping, and that a Flux Vector Drive should be used along with an NEMA B motor and properly sized pumping unit and pump. tabs., figs.

  17. Gated-controlled electron pumping in connected quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.P.A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the electronic transport across connected quantum rings attached to leads and subjected to time-harmonic side-gate voltages. Using the Floquet formalism, we calculate the net pumped current generated and controlled by the side-gate voltage. The control of the current is achieved by varying the phase shift between the two side-gate voltages as well as the Fermi energy. In particular, the maximum current is reached when the side-gate voltages are in quadrature. This new design based on connected quantum rings controlled without magnetic fields can be easily integrated in standard electronic devices. - Highlights: • We introduce and study a minimal setup to pump electrons through connected quantum rings. • Quantum pumping is achieved by time-harmonic side-gate voltages instead of the more conventional time-dependent magnetic fluxes. • Our new design could be easily integrated in standard electronic devices

  18. Designs for a TFTR full-power pumped limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.

    1986-10-01

    A pumped-limiter system which would provide increased particle control and enhance the performance of full-power discharges is being considered for TFTR. The system consists of two toroidal belts located near the Zirconium-Aluminium (ZrAl) getter panels. The limiter blades would be made of carbon/carbon composite in order to have a very thin profile, allowing a large fraction of the scrape-off flux to be pumped. Simulations of the plasma scrape-off and neutral transport indicate that the limiter pumping should reduce the recycling coefficient by 10 to 25%. Simulations of central plasma processes indicate that the lowered recycling could increase Q/sub fusion/ by more than 100%. This paper discusses the designs and the performance predictions for the system

  19. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications

  20. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Ming; Li, Zhengyang

    2013-01-01

    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  1. Replumbing of the Biological Pump caused by Millennial Climate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, E.; Sarmiento, J.

    2008-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that millennial-timescale variability in the biological pump was a critical instigator of glacial-interglacial cycles. However, even in the absence of changes in ecosystem function (e.g. due to iron fertilization), determining the mechanisms by which physical climate variability alters the biological pump is not simple. Changes in upper ocean circulation and deep water formation have previously been shown to alter both the downward flux of organic matter and the mass of respired carbon in the ocean interior, often in non- intuitive ways. For example, a reduced upward flux of nutrients at the global scale will decrease the global rate of export production, but it could either increase or decrease the respired carbon content of the ocean interior, depending on where the reduced upward flux of nutrients occurs. Furthermore, viable candidates for physical climate forcing are numerous, including changes in the westerly winds, changes in the depth of the thermocline, and changes in the formation rate of North Atlantic Deep Water, among others. We use a simple, prognostic, light-and temperature-dependent model of biogeochemical cycling within a state-of-the- art global coupled ocean-atmosphere model to examine the response of the biological pump to changes in the coupled Earth system over multiple centuries. The biogeochemical model explicitly distinguishes respired carbon from preformed and saturation carbon, allowing the activity of the biological pump to be clearly quantified. Changes are forced in the model by altering the background climate state, and by manipulating the flux of freshwater to the North Atlantic region. We show how these changes in the physical state of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system impact the distribution and mass of respired carbon in the ocean interior, and the relationship these changes bear to global patterns of export production via the redistribution of nutrients.

  2. Diode laser pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerlund, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A diode laser is pumped or pulsed by a repeated capacitive discharge. A capacitor is periodically charged from a dc voltage source via a transformer, the capacitor being discharged through the diode laser via a controlled switching means after one or more charging periods. During a first interval of each charging period the transformer, while unloaded, stores a specific amount of energy supplied from the dc voltage source. During a subsequent interval of the charging period said specific amount of energy is transmitted from the transformer to the capacitor. The discharging of the capacitor takes place during a first interval of a charging period. (auth)

  3. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  4. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  5. Improvements relating to electromagnetic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.F.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to electromagnetic pumps suitable for use in pumping molten Na, and particularly to annular linear induction pumps that may for example be used to pump molten Na at temperatures up to 650 0 in situations where it is not possible to provide cooling. Previous designs of such pumps have employed disk-shaped coils around the outside of the annulus, the coils being energised from a three-phase power supply to produce a travelling radial field. The pump system described obviates the necessity for joints between the coils. It also allows the use of all types of high temperature insultation, simplified manufacture, and enables the windings to be located on the inside of the annulus. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  6. Fast breeder reactor electromagnetic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Murakami, Takahiro

    2008-01-01

    Main pumps circulating sodium in the FBR type reactor have been mechanical types, not electromagnetic pumps. Electromagnetic pump of 1-2 m 3 /min has been used as an auxiliary pump. Large sized electromagnetic pumps such as several hundred m 3 /min have not been commercialized due to technical difficulties with electromagnetic instability and pressure pulsations. This article explained electromagnetic and fluid equations and magnetic Reynolds number related with electromagnetic pumps and numerical analysis of instability characteristics and pressure pulsations and then described applications of the results to FBR system. Magnetic Reynolds number must be chosen less than one with appropriate operating frequency and optimum slip of 0.2-0.4. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1994-12-31

    This new concept consists of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25 K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, the pump could deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are reduction of an order of magnitude in size and weight when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. Results obtained at 80 K and 25 K with a Holweck type molecular drag pump of 100 mm diameter and with few stages of a turbomolecular pump running at the same temperatures, are given. This pump would be a solution to allow continuous tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory for the ITER (International Tokamak Experiment Reactor). 5 figs., 2 tabs., 4 refs.

  8. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Manuel, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Centrifugal pumps are usually employed to impulse water to elevate it, dose it or give it pressure or speed. They can be used with clean water or loaded with high solid concentration and don't work properly with air or another gas flow. There are another less used pumps, coming from volumetric or ram pumps to magnetic ones for specific uses. Centrifugal ones are rotokinetic pumps, like peripherical or lateral channel pumps. They work in a different way that non rotational kinetic ones and static ones. The work approaches their pre definition, selection, installation, operation and maintenance. It also review their morphology, hidromechanic principles and the basic elements pumps are made of. (Author)

  9. A novel technology for control of variable speed pumped storage power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohammad Hassan Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Semsar

    2016-01-01

    Variable speed pumped storage machines are used extensively in wind power plant and pumped storage power plant. This paper presents direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of a variable speed pumped storage power plant (VSPSP). By this method both torque and flux have been applied to control the VSPSP. The comparison between VSPSP’s control strategies is studied. At the first, a wind turbine with the capacity 2.2 kW and DTFC control strategies simulated then a 250 MW VSPSP is simulated with all of its parts (including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic and its control system) by MATLAB software. In all of simulations, both converters including two-level voltage source converter (2LVSC) and three-level voltage source converter (3LVSC) are applied. The results of applying 2LVSC and 3LVSC are the rapid dynamic responses with better efficiency, reducing the total harmonic distortion (THD) and ripple of rotor torque and flux.

  10. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  11. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH

    1994-01-01

    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  12. Effect of pump limiter throat on pumping efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghendrih, P.; Grosman, A.; Samain, A.; Capes, H.; Morera, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    The necessary control of plasma edge density has led to the development of pump limiters to achieve this task. On Tore Supra, where a large part of the program is devoted to plasma edge studies, two types of such density control apparatus have been implemented, a set of pump limiters and the pumps associated to the ergodic divertor (magnetically assisted pump limiters). Generally two different kinds of pump limiters can be used, those with a throat which drives the plasma from the open edge plasma (SOL) to the neutralizer plate, and those without or with a very short throat. We are interested here in this aspect of the pump limiter concept, i.e. on the throat effect on neutral density build-up in the vicinity of the pumping plates (and hence on pumping efficieny). The underlying idea of this throat effect can be readily understood; indeed while the neutral capture in pump limiters without throats is only a ballistic effect, on expects the plasma to improve the efficiency of pump-limiters via plasma-neutral-sidewall interactions in the throat. This problem has been studied both numerically and analytically. The paper is divided as follows. In section 2, we describe the basic features of pump-limiters which are modelized by the numerical code Cezanne. Section 3 is devoted to the throat length effect considering in particular the neutral density profile in the throat and the neutral density buil-up as a function of the throat lenght. In section 4, we show that the plugging effect occurs for reasonnable values of throat lengths. An analytical value of the plugging length is discussed and compared to the values obtained numerically

  13. Pump cavitation and inducer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslenfeld, M.W.; Hes, M. de

    2002-01-01

    Details of past work on sodium pump development and cavitation studies executed mainly for SNR 300 were reported earlier. Among the requirements for large sodium pumps are long life (200000 hours up to 300000 hours) and small size of impeller and pump, fully meeting the process and design criteria. These criteria are the required 'Q, H, r characteristics' in combination with a low NPSH value and the avoidance of cavitation damage to the pump. The pump designer has to develop a sound hydraulic combination consisting of suction arrangement, impeller design and diffuser. On the other hand the designer is free to choose an optimal pump speed. The pump speed in its turn influences the rotor dynamic pump design and the pump drive. The introduction of the inducer as an integral part of the pump design is based on following advantages: no tip cavitation; (possible) cavitation bubbles move to the open centre due to centrifugal forces on the fluid; the head of the inducer improves the inlet conditions of the impeller. The aim of an inducer is the increase in the suction specific speed (SA value) of a pump whereby the inducer functions as a pressure source improving the impeller inlet conditions. With inducer-impeller combinations values up to SA=15000 are realistic. With the use of an inducer the overall pump sizes can be reduced with Ca. 30%. Pumps commonly available have SA values up to a maximum of ca. 10000. A development programme was executed for SNR 300 in order to reach an increase of the suction specific speed of the impeller from SA 8200 to SA 11000. Further studies to optimize pumps design for the follow up line introduced the 'inducer acting as a pre-impeller' development. This programme was executed in the period 1979-1981. At the FDO premises a scale 1 2.8 inducer impeller combination with a suction specific speed SA=15000 was developed, constructed and tested at the water test rig. This water test rig is equipped with a perspex pipe allowing also visualisation

  14. Mechanical pumping at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Claudet, G.; Disdier, F.

    1995-01-01

    This novel concept consist of a mechanical pump able to run at low temperature (25K). Since gas density varies inversely with temperature, this pump would deliver much higher mass flow rate than at room temperature for a given size. Advantages of this concept are order of magnitude reduction in size, weight, when compared to a conventional pump scaled to perform the same mass flow rate at room temperature. This pump would be a solution to allow continuously tritium extraction and minimize the mass inventory. (orig.)

  15. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust, but the r......The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust...

  16. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  17. Mono pump equipment evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A mobile pump has been designed, developed, and tested as part of an effort to increase oil spill response time, improve oil/water recovery efficiency and reduce cleanup and reclamation costs. The pump is mounted on an engine powered track carrier, and can be detached from the carrier and skidded into remote spill sites or transported by helicopter. The pump can safely recover highly volatile flammable substances such as condensate and gasoline, as well as heavy crude oil up to 5000 centipoise viscosity. It can pump up to 30 gal/min at zero head, and up to 1000 feet in a vertical direction. 13 figs

  18. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  19. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  20. A three dimensional calculation of neutron streaming through ITER tokamak pumping ducts with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresard, I.; Diop, C.M.; Giancarli, L.; Gervaise, F.

    1991-01-01

    In the frame of the ITER tokamak project, the streaming of neutrons through pumping ducts up to the properly so called pumping system is studied. The gas evacuation device of the ITER plasma consists of a set of vacuum pumps which are located in a room which is outside the main machine building. These pumps receive the exhaust gas through several pumping ducts with a cross section of about four square meters and a length of about ten meters. Although insensitive to the magnetic field, the 14 MeV neutrons from plasma D-T thermonuclear reactions can penetrate in the divertor and reach the room pumping device by propagation through the bent ducts. Different components of this system, such as the bellows, turbomolecular pumps, etc., are irradiated and that raises radiation problems. In this study we determine, by using 3D Monte Carlo transport code TRIPOLI-2, neutron fluxes, dose rates and heatings due to neutrons which have streamed out the plasma through the bent ducts, at several points of the pumping room. Results show the neutron flux attenuation reachs a factor 10 -5 from plasma chamber to the pumping hall; the neutron heatings are estimated to 1.9x10 -3 W/cm 3 in bellow stainless steel at duct entrance, and 8x10 -7 W/cm 3 in the turbopumping stainless steel structure, inside pumping hall. The neutron fluxes obtained will be used to compute gamma source produced by radiative, inelastic process and gamma rays from formed activation products. Then, the knowledge of gamma source will allow to compute gamma dose rate and heating. The dose rates and heatings obtained will contribute to the definition of the ITER pumping system technical options and to establish pumping hall access conditions, also. (orig.)

  1. Survey of pumps for tritium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    This report considers many different types of pumps for their possible use in pumping tritium gas in the low, intermediate and high vacuum ranges. No one type of pump is suitable for use over the wide range of pumping pressure required in a typical pumping system. The favoured components for such a system are: bellows pump (low vacuum); orbiting scroll pump (intermediate vacuum); magnetically suspended turbomolecular pump (high vacuum); cryopump (high vacuum). Other pumps which should be considered for possible future development are: mound modified vane pump; SRTI wobble pump; roots pump with canned motor. It is proposed that a study be made of a future tritium pumping system in a Canadian tritium facility, e.g. a tritium laboratory

  2. LMR [liquid metal reactor] centrifugal pump coastdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.; Malloy, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    A centrifugal pump model which describes the interrelationships of the pump discharge flowrate, pump speed, shaft torque and dynamic head has been implemented based upon existing models. Specifically, the pump model is based upon the dimensionless-homologous pump theory of Wylie and Streeter. Given data from a representative pump, homologous theory allows one to predict the transient characteristics of similarly sized pumps. This homologous pump model has been implemented into both the one-dimensional SASSYS-1 systems analysis code and the three-dimensional COMMIX-1A code. Comparisons have been made both against other pump models (CRBR) and actual pump coastdown data (EBR-II and FFTF). Agreement with this homologous pump model has been excellent. Additionally, these comparisons indicate the validity of applying the medium size pump data of Wylie and Streeter to a range of typical LMR centrifugal pumps

  3. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  4. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  5. Pumps in wearable ultrafiltration devices: pumps in wuf devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armignacco, Paolo; Garzotto, Francesco; Bellini, Corrado; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Sartori, Marco; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The wearable artificial kidney (WAK) is a device that is supposed to operate like a real kidney, which permits prolonged, frequent, and continuous dialysis treatments for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Its functioning is mainly related to its pumping system, as well as to its dialysate-generating and alarm/shutoff ones. A pump is defined as a device that moves fluids by mechanical action. In such a context, blood pumps pull blood from the access side of the dialysis catheter and return the blood at the same rate of flow. The main aim of this paper is to review the current literature on blood pumps, describing the way they have been functioning thus far and how they are being engineered, giving details about the most important parameters that define their quality, thus allowing the production of a radar comparative graph, and listing ideal pumps' features. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  7. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b...

  9. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...

  10. Air-lift pumps characteristics under two-phase flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, Sadek Z.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Warda, Hassan A.; Ahmed, Wael H.

    2009-01-01

    Air-lift pumps are finding increasing use where pump reliability and low maintenance are required, where corrosive, abrasive, or radioactive fluids in nuclear applications must be handled and when a compressed air is readily available as a source of a renewable energy for water pumping applications. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the performance of a pump under predetermined operating conditions and to optimize the related parameters. For this purpose, an air-lift pump was designed and tested. Experiments were performed for nine submergence ratios, and three risers of different lengths with different air injection pressures. Moreover, the pump was tested under different two-phase flow patterns. A theoretical model is proposed in this study taking into account the flow patterns at the best efficiency range where the pump is operated. The present results showed that the pump capacity and efficiency are functions of the air mass flow rate, submergence ratio, and riser pipe length. The best efficiency range of the air-lift pumps operation was found to be in the slug and slug-churn flow regimes. The proposed model has been compared with experimental data and the most cited models available. The proposed model is in good agreement with experimental results and found to predict the liquid volumetric flux for different flow patterns including bubbly, slug and churn flow patterns

  11. Replacement of the Pumps for Fuel Channel Cooling Circuit of the Maria Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzysztoszek, G.; Mieleszczenko, W.; Moldysz, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock–Świerk (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    The high flux Maria research reactor is operated by the National Centre for Nuclear Research in Świerk. It is a pool type reactor with pressurized fuel channels located in the beryllium matrix. According to the Global Threat Reduction Initiative programme our goal is to convert the Maria reactor from HEU to LEU fuel. Hydraulic losses in the new LEU fuel produced by CERCA are about 30% higher than the existing HEU fuel of type MR-6. For the MR-6 fuel were installed four two speed pumps. These pumps performed the function of the main circulations pumps during reactor operation with residual pumping power provided by emergency pumps. In the new system four main pumps will be used for circulating coolant while the reactor is operation with three auxiliary pumps for decay heat removal after reactor shutdown, meaning that the conversion of Maria research reactor will be possible after increasing flow in the primary cooling circuit of the fuel channels. The technical design of replacement of the pumps in the primary fuel channel cooling circuit was finished in April 2011 and accepted by the Safety Committee. After delivery of the new pumps we are planning to upgrade the primary fuel channel cooling circuit during October–November 2012. (author)

  12. Divertor characteristics and control on the W-shaped divertor with pump of JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.

    1999-01-01

    Roles of the inner leg pumping and the private dome, which are special features of the W-shaped divertor of JT-60U, have been investigated. The following observations were made: The inner leg pumping functions well in attached states or partially detached states with weak X-point MARFE where the inner particle recycling is enhanced. A combination of main gas puff and inner leg pump is effective in reduction of intrinsic carbon impurity. Geometrical effects of the private dome on transport of hydrocarbons in the private flux region was confirmed by spectroscopic measurements of CD-band intensity profile and impurity transport simulation code using experimental data. (author)

  13. Neutral transport and helium pumping of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.

    1990-08-01

    A 2-D Monte-Carlo simulation of the neutral atom densities in the divertor, divertor throat and pump duct of ITER was made using the DEGAS code. Plasma conditions in the scrape-off layer and region near the separatrix were modeled using the B2 plasma transport code. Wall reflection coefficients including the effect of realistic surface roughness were determined by using the fractal TRIM code. The DEGAS and B2 coupling was iterated until a consistent recycling was predicted. Results were obtained for a helium and a deuterium/tritium mixture on 7 different ITER divertor throat geometries for both the physics phase reference base case and a technology phase case. The geometry with a larger structure on the midplane-side of the throat opening closing the divertor throat and a divertor plate which maintains a steep slope well into the throat removed helium 1.5 times better than the reference geometry for the physics phase case and 2.2 times better for the technology phase case. At the same time the helium to hydrogen pumping ratio shows a factor of 2.34 ± .41 enhancement over the ratio of helium to hydrogen incident on the divertor plate in the physics phase and an improvement of 1.61 ± .31 in the technology phase. If the helium flux profile on the divertor plate is moved outward by 20 cm with respect to the D/T flux profile for this particular geometry, the enhancement increases to 4.36 ± .90 in the physics phase and 5.10 ± .92 in the technology phase

  14. PUMPING UP THE [N I] NEBULAR LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Porter, R. L.; Henney, W. J.; O'Dell, C. R.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    The optical [N I] doublet near 5200 Å is anomalously strong in a variety of emission-line objects. We compute a detailed photoionization model and use it to show that pumping by far-ultraviolet (FUV) stellar radiation previously posited as a general explanation applies to the Orion Nebula (M42) and its companion M43; but, it is unlikely to explain planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. Our models establish that the observed nearly constant equivalent width of [N I] with respect to the dust-scattered stellar continuum depends primarily on three factors: the FUV to visual-band flux ratio of the stellar population, the optical properties of the dust, and the line broadening where the pumping occurs. In contrast, the intensity ratio [N I]/Hβ depends primarily on the FUV to extreme-ultraviolet ratio, which varies strongly with the spectral type of the exciting star. This is consistent with the observed difference of a factor of five between M42 and M43, which are excited by an O7 and B0.5 star, respectively. We derive a non-thermal broadening of order 5 km s –1 for the [N I] pumping zone and show that the broadening mechanism must be different from the large-scale turbulent motions that have been suggested to explain the line widths in this H II region. A mechanism is required that operates at scales of a few astronomical units, which may be driven by thermal instabilities of neutral gas in the range 1000-3000 K. In an Appendix A, we describe how collisional and radiative processes are treated in the detailed model N I atom now included in the CLOUDY plasma code.

  15. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  16. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  17. Speed control device for coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention intends to increase a margin relative of the oscillations of neutron fluxes when the temperature of feedwater is lowered in a compulsory recycling type BWR reactor. That is, when the operation point represented by a reactor thermal power and a reactor core inlet flow rate is in a state approximate to an oscillation limit of the reactor power, the device of the present invention controls the recycling pump speed in the increasing direction depending on the lowering range of the feedwater temperature from a stationary state. With such a constitution, even if the reactor power is in the operation region near the oscillation limit in the BWR type reactor and a feedwater heating loss is caused, the speed of the coolant recycling pump is increased by 10% at the maximum depending on the extent of the reduction of the feedwater temperature, so that the oscillation of the reactor power can be prevented from lasting for a long period of time even if a reactivity external disturbance should occur in the reactor. (I.S.)

  18. Inadvertent pump start with gas expansion modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.; Harris, R.A.; Heard, F.J.; Dautel, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Previous testing demonstrated the effectiveness of gas expansion modules (GEMs) in mitigating the consequences of a loss-of-flow-without-scram transient in Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF)-sized sodium cooled cores. As a result, GEMs have been included in the advance liquid-metal reactor (PRISM) design project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM design is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability. In the unlikely event that the reactor does not scram during a loss of low, the GEMs quickly insert sufficient negative reactivity to limit fuel and cladding temperatures to acceptable values. This is the positive benefit of the GEMs; however, the reverse situation must be considered. A primary pump could be inadvertently started from near-critical conditions resulting in a positive reactivity insertion and a power transient. One mitigating aspect of this event is that as the reactivity associated with the GEMs is inserted, the increasing flow increases core cooling. A test was conducted in the FFTF to demonstrate that the GEM and feedback reactivity are well predicted following pump start, and the reactivity transient is benign

  19. High temperature thermoacoustic heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. A thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestics and offices energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6% and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  20. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Al-Habahbeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps. In this work, the progress achieved in this field is surveyed and organized according to the type of application. The literature of the past 27 years is searched for the major developments of MHD applications. MHD seawater thrusters are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and velocity. MHD molten metal pump is important replacement to conventional pumps because their moving parts cannot stand the molten metal temperature. MHD molten salt pump is used for nuclear reactor coolants due to its no-moving-parts feature. Nanofluid MHD pumping is a promising technology especially for bioapplications. Advantages of MHD include silence due to no-moving-parts propulsion. Much progress has been made, but with MHD pump still not suitable for wider applications, this remains a fertile area for future research.

  1. Direct solar-pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Shiu, Y. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of direct solar pumping of an iodine photodissociation laser at lambda = 1.315 microns was investigated. Threshold inversion density and effect of elevated temperature (up to 670 K) on the laser output were measured. These results and the concentration of solar radiation required for the solar pumped iodine laser are discussed.

  2. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2011-04-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Arrachea, Liliana; Capaz, Rodrigo B.

    2010-01-01

    We propose using a phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body using a propagating modulation of the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pump can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We compute the lowest temperature that this refrigerator can achieve.

  4. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  5. Reflection of centrifugal pumps maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozos Fernandez, V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove that is not necessary a deep and complex knowledge to manage the centrifugal pumps maintenance. According to the author, only deep but single technical knowledge about causes of breakdowns in the different and simple component parts of the pumps, are required. (Author)

  6. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  7. Experimental investigation of biomimetic self-pumping and self-adaptive transpiration cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Xue; Huang, Gan; Zhu, Yinhai; Xu, Ruina; Liao, Zhiyuan; Lu, Taojie

    2017-09-01

    Transpiration cooling is an effective way to protect high heat flux walls. However, the pumps for the transpiration cooling system make the system more complex and increase the load, which is a huge challenge for practical applications. A biomimetic self-pumping transpiration cooling system was developed inspired by the process of trees transpiration that has no pumps. An experimental investigation showed that the water coolant automatically flowed from the water tank to the hot surface with a height difference of 80 mm without any pumps. A self-adaptive transpiration cooling system was then developed based on this mechanism. The system effectively cooled the hot surface with the surface temperature kept to about 373 K when the heating flame temperature was 1639 K and the heat flux was about 0.42 MW m -2 . The cooling efficiency reached 94.5%. The coolant mass flow rate adaptively increased with increasing flame heat flux from 0.24 MW m -2 to 0.42 MW m -2 while the cooled surface temperature stayed around 373 K. Schlieren pictures showed a protective steam layer on the hot surface which blocked the flame heat flux to the hot surface. The protective steam layer thickness also increased with increasing heat flux.

  8. Self pumping magnetic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, V; Wang, Z; Ray, A; Ramanujan, R V; Sridhar, I

    2017-01-01

    Efficient thermal management and heat recovery devices are of high technological significance for innovative energy conservation solutions. We describe a study of a self-pumping magnetic cooling device, which does not require external energy input, employing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles suspended in water. The device performance depends strongly on magnetic field strength, nanoparticle content in the fluid and heat load temperature. Cooling (Δ T ) by ∼20 °C and ∼28 °C was achieved by the application of 0.3 T magnetic field when the initial temperature of the heat load was 64 °C and 87 °C, respectively. These experiments results were in good agreement with simulations performed with COMSOL Multiphysics. Our system is a self-regulating device; as the heat load increases, the magnetization of the ferrofluid decreases; leading to an increase in the fluid velocity and consequently, faster heat transfer from the heat source to the heat sink. (letter)

  9. Electric Turbo Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  10. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  11. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  12. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  13. High temperature industrial heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. (Louvain Univ., Heverlee (Belgium). Inst. Mechanica)

    1990-01-01

    The present report intends to describe the state of the art of high temperature industrial heat pumps. A description is given of present systems on the market. In addition the research and development efforts on this subject are described. Compression (open as well as closed cycle) systems, as well as absorption heat pumps (including transformers), are considered. This state of the art description is based upon literature studies performed by a team of researchers from the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. The research team also analysed the economics of heat pumps of different types under the present economic conditions. The heat pumps are compared with conventional heating systems. This analysis was performed in order to evaluate the present condition of the heat pump in the European industry.

  14. Pumping characteristics of sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Patel, R.J.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Pandiyar, M.L.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    For achieving hydrocarbon free, clean ultra high vacuum, SIP-TSP combination is one of the ideal choice for pumping. For the SRS facility in Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), we are utilising this combination, enmass. For this purpose, two modules of these combination set-ups are assembled, one with the TSP as an integral part of SIP and the other, with TSP as a separate pump mounted on the top of SIP. The pump bodies were vacuum degassed at 700 degC at 10 -5 mbar for 3 hrs. An ultimate vacuum of 3 x 10 -11 mbar was achieved, after a bake-out at 250 degC for 4 hrs, followed by continuous SIP pumping for 48 hrs, with two TSP flashing at approximately 10 hrs interval. The pump-down patterns as well as the pressure-rise patterns are studied. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  15. Design of liquid lithium pumps for FMIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, a jet of liquid lithium is bombarded by accelerated deuterons to generate high energy neutrons for materials testing. The lithium system will include two electromagnetic pumps, a 750 gpm main pump and a 10 gpm auxiliary pump. The larger pump was designed and built in 1982, following extensive testing of a similar pump in the Experimental Lithium System. Design of the auxiliary pump has been completed, but fabrication has not started. This paper discusses the design considerations leading to selection of the Annular Linear Induction Pump (ALIP) concept for these applications. Design parameters, fabrication procedures, and results of pump testing are also reviewed

  16. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic generator and pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzvalk, Yu.A.; Karasev, B.G.; Lavrentyev, I.V.; Semikov, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The MHD generator-pump system, or MHD coupling, is designed to pump liquid-metal coolant in the primary circuit of a fast reactor. It contains a number of generator and pump channels placed one after another and forming a single electrical circuit, but hydraulically connected parallel to the second and first circuits of the reactor. All the generator and pump channels are located in a magnetic field created by the magnetic system with an excitation winding that is fed by a regulated direct current. In 500 to 2000 MW reactors, the flow rate of the coolant in each loop of the primary circuit is 3 to 6 m 3 /s and the hydraulic power is 2 to 4 MW. This paper examines the primary characteristics of an MHD generator-pump system with various dimensions and number of channels, wall thicknesses, coolant flow rates, and magnetic fields. It is shown that its efficiency may reach 60 to 70%. The operating principle of the MHD generator-pump system is explained in the referenced patent and involves the transfer of hydraulic power from generator channels to pump channels using a magnetic field and electrical circuit common to both channels. Variations of this system may be analyzed using an equivalent circuit. 7 refs., 5 figs

  18. Electrostatic coupling of ion pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Frausto, J; Lüger, P; Apell, H J

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the electrostatic interactions between membrane-embedded ion-pumps and their consequences for the kinetics of pump-mediated transport processes have been examined. We show that the time course of an intrinsically monomolecular transport reaction can become distinctly nonexponential, if the reaction is associated with charge translocation and takes place in an aggregate of pump molecules. First we consider the electrostatic coupling of a single dimer of ion-pumps embedded in the membrane. Then we apply the treatment to the kinetic analysis of light-driven proton transport by bacteriorhodopsin which forms two-dimensional hexagonal lattices. Finally, for the case of nonordered molecules, we also consider a model in which the pumps are randomly distributed over the nodes of a lattice. Here the average distance is equal to that deduced experimentally and the elemental size of the lattice is the effective diameter of one single pump. This latter model is applied to an aggregate of membrane-embedded Na, K- and Ca-pumps. In all these cases the electrostatic potential considered is the exact solution calculated from the method of electrical images for a plane membrane of finite thickness immersed in an infinite aqueous solution environment. The distributions of charges (ions or charged binding sites) are considered homogeneous or discrete in the membrane and/or in the external solution. In the case of discrete distributions we compare the results from a mean field approximation and a stochastic simulation.

  19. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  20. Analysis of mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several mercury diffusion pump stages in the Tritium Purification process at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have been removed from service for scheduled preventive maintenance. These stages have been examined to determine if failure has occurred. Evidence of fatigue around the flange portion of the pump has been seen. In addition, erosion and cavitation inside the throat of the venturi tube and corrosion on the other surface of the venturi tube has been observed. Several measures are being examined in an attempt to improve the performance of these pumps. These measures, as well as the noted observations, are described. 4 refs

  1. TFTR ultrahigh-vacuum pumping system incorporating mercury diffusion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, D.A.; Sniderman, M.

    1976-06-01

    The TFTR vacuum vessel will have a system of four 61 cm diameter mercury diffusion pumps to provide a base pressure in the 10 -8 to 10 -9 Torr range as well as a low impurity level within the vessel. The system, called the Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS), will be employed with the aid of an occasional 250 0 C bakeout in situ as well as periodic applications of aggressive discharge cleaning. The TVPS is an ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) system using no elastomers as well as being a closed system with respect to tritium or any tritiated gases. The backing system employing approximately 75 all-metal isolation valves is designed with the features of redundancy and flexibility employed in a variety of ways to meet the fundamental requirements and functions enumerated for the TVPS. Since the design, is one which is a modification of the conceptual design of the TVPS, those features which have changed are discussed. Calculations are presented for the major performance parameters anticipated for the TVPS and include conductances, effective pumping speeds, base pressures, operating parameters, getter pump parameters, and calculations of time constants associated with leak checking. Modifications in the vacuum pumping system for the guard regions on the twelve bellows sections are presented so that it is compatible with the main TVPS. The bellows pumping system consists of a mechanical pump unit, a zirconium aluminum getter pump unit and a residual gas analyzer. The control and management of the TVPS is described with particular attention given to providing both manual and automatic control at a local station and at the TFTR Central Control. Such operations as testing, maintenance, leak checking, startup, bakeout, and various other operations are considered in some detail. Various aspects related to normal pulsing, discharge cleaning, non-tritium operations and tritium operations are also taken into consideration. A cost estimate is presented

  2. Flux in Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise elektroonilise kunsti sümpoosioni ISEA2004 klubiõhtu "Flux in Tallinn" klubis Bon Bon. Eestit esindasid Ropotator, Ars Intel Inc., Urmas Puhkan, Joel Tammik, Taavi Tulev (pseud. Wochtzchee). Klubiõhtu koordinaator Andres Lõo

  3. Flux shunts for undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    Undulators for high-performance applications in synchrotron-radiation sources and periodic magnetic structures for free-electron lasers have stringent requirements on the curvature of the electron's average trajectory. Undulators using the permanent magnet hybrid configuration often have fields in their central region that produce a curved trajectory caused by local, ambient magnetic fields such as those of the earth. The 4.6 m long Advanced Light Source (ALS) undulators use flux shunts to reduce this effect. These flux shunts are magnetic linkages of very high permeability material connecting the two steel beams that support the magnetic structures. The shunts reduce the scalar potential difference between the supporting beams and carry substantial flux that would normally appear in the undulator gap. Magnetic design, mechanical configuration of the flux shunts and magnetic measurements of their effect on the ALS undulators are described

  4. Test of a cryogenic helium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Walstrom, P.L.; Herz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a cryogenic helium pump for circulating liquid helium in a magnet and the design of a test loop for measuring the pump performance in terms of mass flow vs pump head at various pump speeds are described. A commercial cryogenic helium pump was tested successfully. Despite flaws in the demountable connections, the piston pump itself has performed satisfactorily. A helium pump of this type is suitable for the use of flowing supercritical helium through Internally Cooled Superconductor (ICS) magnets. It has pumped supercritical helium up to 7.5 atm with a pump head up to 2.8 atm. The maximum mass flow rate obtained was about 16 g/s. Performance of the pump was degraded at lower pumping speeds

  5. Fluidic pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidic pumping system comprises two charge vessels which communicate with a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet through a fluidic bridge rectifier. A pressurising and depressurising arrangement for alternately pressurising and depressurising the charge vessels comprises a chamber containing a piston and being in communication with the charge vessels. Drive means not mechanically connected to the piston are provided for causing reciprocatory movement of the piston. Movement of the piston in one direction causes pressurisation of one charge vessel to discharge a liquid therefrom through the liquid outlet. Simultaneously, the other charge vessel is depressurised to draw liquid from the liquid inlet into the depressurised charge vessel. Preferably, the drive means for the piston comprises an external solenoid winding at each end of a horizontally arranged chamber. Alternatively, the chamber may be vertically disposed with an external solenoid winding at the upper end of the chamber to effect upward movement of the piston, the piston then falling under gravity upon de-energisation of the winding. (UK)

  6. Reactor coolant purification system circulation pumps (CUW pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Coolant purification equipments for BWRs have been improved, and the high pressure purifying system has become the main type. The quantity of purifying treatment also changed to 2% of the flow rate of reactor feed water. As for the circulation pumps, canned motor pumps are adopted recently, and the improvements of reliability and safety are attempted. The impurities carried in by reactor feed water and the corrosion products generated in reactors and auxiliary equipments are activated by neutron irradiation or affect heat transfer adversely, adhering to fuel claddings are core structures. Therefore, a part of reactor coolant is led to the purification equipments, and returned to reactors after the impurities are eliminated perfectly. At the time of starting and stopping reactors, excess reactor water and the contaminated water from reactors are transferred to main condenser hot wells or waste treatment systems. Thus the prescribed water quality is maintained. The operational modes of and the requirements for the CUW pumps, the construction and the features of the canned motor type CUW pumps are explained. Recently, a pump operated for 11 months without any maintenance has been disassembled and inspected, but the wear of bearings has not been observed, and the high reliability of the pump has been proved. (Kako, I.)

  7. Pump failure leads to alternative vertical pump condition monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVilliers, Adriaan; Glandon, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Condition monitoring and detecting early signs of potential failure mechanisms present particular problems in vertical pumps. Most often, the majority of the pump assembly is not readily accessible for visual or audible inspection or conventional vibration monitoring techniques using accelerometers and/or proximity sensors. The root cause failure analysis of a 2-stage vertical centrifugal service-water pump at a nuclear power generating facility in the USA is presented, highlighting this long standing challenge in condition monitoring of vertical pumps. This paper will summarize the major findings of the root cause analysis (RCA), highlight the limitations of traditional monitoring techniques, and present an expanded application of motor current monitoring as a means to gain insight into the mechanical performance and condition of a pump. The 'real-world' example of failure, monitoring and correlation of the monitoring technique to a detailed pump disassembly inspection is also presented. This paper will explain some of the reasons behind well known design principles requiring natural frequency separation from known forcing frequencies, as well as explore an unexpected submerged brittle fracture failure mechanism, and how such issues may be avoided. (author)

  8. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  9. Fusion pumped light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  10. Fusion pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Naotaka.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention greatly saves an analog processing section such as an analog filter and an analog processing circuit. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux detection means for detecting neutron fluxed in the reactor, (2) a digital filter means for dividing signals corresponding to the detected neutron fluxes into predetermined frequency band regions, (3) a calculation processing means for applying a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band regions to the neutron flux detection signals divided by the digital filter means. With such a constitution, since the neutron detection signals are processed by the digital filter means, the accuracy is improved and the change for the property of the filter is facilitated. Further, when a neutron flux level is obtained, a calculation processing corresponding to the frequency band region can be conducted without the analog processing circuit. Accordingly, maintenance and accuracy are improved by greatly decreasing the number of parts. Further, since problems inherent to the analog circuit are solved, neutron fluxes are monitored at high reliability. (I.S.)

  12. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro.

    1995-01-01

    In a neutron flux monitoring device, there are disposed a neutron flux measuring means for outputting signals in accordance with the intensity of neutron fluxes, a calculation means for calculating a self power density spectrum at a frequency band suitable to an object to be measured based on the output of the neutron flux measuring means, an alarm set value generation means for outputting an alarm set value as a comparative reference, and an alarm judging means for comparing the alarm set value with the outputted value of the calculation means to judge requirement of generating an alarm and generate an alarm in accordance with the result of the judgement. Namely, the time-series of neutron flux signals is put to fourier transformation for a predetermined period of time by the calculation means, and from each of square sums for real number component and imaginary number component for each of the frequencies, a self power density spectrum in the frequency band suitable to the object to be measured is calculated. Then, when the set reference value is exceeded, an alarm is generated. This can reliably prevent generation of erroneous alarm due to neutron flux noises and can accurately generate an alarm at an appropriate time. (N.H.)

  13. Development for LMR coolant technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Chun Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    The conceptual and detailed designs of an annular linear induction electromagnetic pump of small scale submersible-in-pool type are performed for the purpose of domestic development of the pumps used for the high-temperature natrium coolant transportation in liquid metal reactors. The pump drawings for and input power of 1,100 VA, an input frequency of 17 Hz, a maximum flowrate of 60 l/min and a maximum operation temperature of 600 deg C are obtained from the optimum design analyses by solving MHD and equivalent circuit equations. The characteristics of pump materials in the high temperature and neutron irradiation environment are reflected in designing the pump, and theoretical analyses for improving the pump performance and efficiency are tried through calculations of magnetic flux and temperature distributions inside the pump. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering proto-type electromagnetic pump with higher capacity and the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 44 refs., 4 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  14. Development of LMR Coolant Technology - Development of a submersible-in-pool electromagnetic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hi; Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Sang Don; Seo, Joon Ho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyoungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    A submersible-in-pool type annular linear induction pumps of 60 l/min and 200 l/min, and 600 deg C has been designed with optimum geometrical and operating values found from MHD and circuit analyses reflecting the high-temperature characteristics of pump materials. Through the characteristics analyses inside the narrow flow channel of electromagnetic pump, the distribution of the time-varying flow field is calculated, and magnetic flux and force density are evaluated by end effects of linear induction electromagnetic pump and the instability analyses are carried out introducing one-dimensional linear perturbation. Testing the pump with the flow rate of 60 l/min in the suitably manufactured loop system shows a flow rate of 58 l/min at an input power of 1,377 VA with 60Hz. The design of a scaled-up pump is further taken into account LMR coolant system requiring increased capacity, and a basic analysis is carried out on the pump of 40,000 l/min for KALIMER. The present project contributes to the further design of engineering prototype electromagnetic pumps with higher capacity and to the development of liquid metal reactor with innovative simplicity. 89 refs., 8 tabs., 45 figs. (author)

  15. Development and numerical analysis of low specific speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H F; Huo, Y W; Pan, Z B; Zhou, W C; He, M H

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the city, the market of the mixed flow pump with large flux and high head is prospect. The KSB Shanghai Pump Co., LTD decided to develop low speed specific speed mixed flow pump to meet the market requirements. Based on the centrifugal pump and axial flow pump model, aiming at the characteristics of large flux and high head, a new type of guide vane mixed flow pump was designed. The computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to analyze the internal flow of the new type model and predict its performances. The time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were closed by SST k-ω turbulent model to adapt internal flow of guide vane with larger curvatures. The multi-reference frame(MRF) method was used to deal with the coupling of rotating impeller and static guide vane, and the SIMPLEC method was adopted to achieve the coupling solution of velocity and pressure. The computational results shows that there is great flow impact on the head of vanes at different working conditions, and there is great flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes at different working conditions, and all will affect the performance of pump. Based on the computational results, optimizations were carried out to decrease the impact on the head of vanes and flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes. The optimized model was simulated and its performance was predicted. The computational results show that the impact on the head of vanes and the separation at the tailing of the guide vanes disappeared. The high efficiency of the optimized pump is wide, and it fit the original design destination. The newly designed mixed flow pump is now in modeling and its experimental performance will be getting soon.

  16. Development and numerical analysis of low specific speed mixed-flow pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. F.; Huo, Y. W.; Pan, Z. B.; Zhou, W. C.; He, M. H.

    2012-11-01

    With the development of the city, the market of the mixed flow pump with large flux and high head is prospect. The KSB Shanghai Pump Co., LTD decided to develop low speed specific speed mixed flow pump to meet the market requirements. Based on the centrifugal pump and axial flow pump model, aiming at the characteristics of large flux and high head, a new type of guide vane mixed flow pump was designed. The computational fluid dynamics method was adopted to analyze the internal flow of the new type model and predict its performances. The time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were closed by SST k-ω turbulent model to adapt internal flow of guide vane with larger curvatures. The multi-reference frame(MRF) method was used to deal with the coupling of rotating impeller and static guide vane, and the SIMPLEC method was adopted to achieve the coupling solution of velocity and pressure. The computational results shows that there is great flow impact on the head of vanes at different working conditions, and there is great flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes at different working conditions, and all will affect the performance of pump. Based on the computational results, optimizations were carried out to decrease the impact on the head of vanes and flow separation at the tailing of the guide vanes. The optimized model was simulated and its performance was predicted. The computational results show that the impact on the head of vanes and the separation at the tailing of the guide vanes disappeared. The high efficiency of the optimized pump is wide, and it fit the original design destination. The newly designed mixed flow pump is now in modeling and its experimental performance will be getting soon.

  17. Magnetic heat pump flow director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  18. Heat pumps at the maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    Heat pumps have halved the energy costs of producing finished malt at two of the country's maltsters. The fuel-fired kilning processes described are now performed by heat pumps with considerable energy and production benefits at the maltings of J.P. Simpson and Co. (Alnwick) Ltd, in Tivetshall St Margaret, Norfolk, and of Munton and Fison Plc of Stowmarket, Suffolk. The heat pump system installed at the Station Malting of J.P. Simpson was devised by the Electricity Council Research Centre at Capenhurst near Chester. Energy cost benefits of Pound 6,000 a month are being realised at Simpsons, but there is the added benefit that the system has been designed to provide conditioned air to the germination cycle to ensure that the correct temperature is maintained throughout the year. At the Cedars factory of Munton and Fison, heat pumps were used on a trial basis for plant micropropagation and for a fish farming unit.

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  20. Feed pumps for a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzhebaev, Eh.E.; Zhukov, V.M.; Evtushenko, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Given is a brief description of results of designing and testing the PE850-65 and SPE1650-75 pilot feed pumps for 440 MWe pressurized water reactors and for 1000 MWe boiling water reactors. Described is a bench-mark facility for the SPE1650-75 pump with full-scale parameters. The adjustment results of the preconnected axial wheel of the 1PE1650-75 pump during the service life tests of a pilot pump have been given. Practical results on new methods of the preconnected axial wheel protection have been obtained. The design criteria developed provide for the long life time within the proven range of circular velocities. Confirmed is a possibility of carrying out advanced tests for estimating the cavitation destruction intensity using the vibration due to cavitation

  1. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  2. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... therefor benefit from using geothermal heat pumps. It is the intent of this study to explore the observed benefits of using geothermal heat pumps in Iceland, both financially and energetically. This study further elaborates on incentives provided by the Icelandic government. Real data was gathered from...

  3. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  4. Method for controlling powertrain pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Karl Andrew; Spohn, Brian L; Demirovic, Besim; Martini, Ryan D; Miller, Jean Marie

    2013-10-22

    A method of controlling a pump supplying a fluid to a transmission includes sensing a requested power and an excess power for a powertrain. The requested power substantially meets the needs of the powertrain, while the excess power is not part of the requested power. The method includes sensing a triggering condition in response to the ability to convert the excess power into heat in the transmission, and determining that an operating temperature of the transmission is below a maximum. The method also includes determining a calibrated baseline and a dissipation command for the pump. The calibrated baseline command is configured to supply the fluid based upon the requested power, and the dissipation command is configured to supply additional fluid and consume the excess power with the pump. The method operates the pump at a combined command, which is equal to the calibrated baseline command plus the dissipation command.

  5. Decontamination of main coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1988-01-01

    Last year a number of main coolant pumps in Belgian nuclear power plants were decontaminated. A new method has been developed to reduce the time taken for decontamination and the volume of waste to be treated. The method comprises two phases: Oxidation with permanganate in nitric acid and dissolution in oxalic acid. The decontamination of main coolant pumps can now be achieved in less than one day. The decontamination factors attained range between 15 and 150. (orig.) [de

  6. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  7. Magnon transport through microwave pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Nakata Kouki; Simon Pascal; Loss Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of magnon transport in ferromagnetic insulators (FIs). Using magnon injection through microwave pumping, we propose a way to generate magnon dc currents and show how to enhance their amplitudes in hybrid ferromagnetic insulating junctions. To this end focusing on a single FI, we first revisit microwave pumping at finite (room) temperature from the microscopic viewpoint of magnon injection. Next, we apply it to two kinds of hybrid ferromagnetic insulating juncti...

  8. Pump for extremely dangerous liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 7A (2011), s. 940-956 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : pump * jet pump * coanda effect Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.968, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263876210003631

  9. The Open Flux Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.; Liu, Y.; Derosa, M. L.; Yeates, A.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-10-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  10. The Open Flux Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linker, J. A.; Caplan, R. M.; Downs, C.; Riley, P.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Henney, C. J. [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Arge, C. N. [Science and Exploration Directorate, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Liu, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Derosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Yeates, A. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Owens, M. J., E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com [Space and Atmospheric Electricity Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-10

    The heliospheric magnetic field is of pivotal importance in solar and space physics. The field is rooted in the Sun’s photosphere, where it has been observed for many years. Global maps of the solar magnetic field based on full-disk magnetograms are commonly used as boundary conditions for coronal and solar wind models. Two primary observational constraints on the models are (1) the open field regions in the model should approximately correspond to coronal holes (CHs) observed in emission and (2) the magnitude of the open magnetic flux in the model should match that inferred from in situ spacecraft measurements. In this study, we calculate both magnetohydrodynamic and potential field source surface solutions using 14 different magnetic maps produced from five different types of observatory magnetograms, for the time period surrounding 2010 July. We have found that for all of the model/map combinations, models that have CH areas close to observations underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux, or, conversely, for models to match the interplanetary flux, the modeled open field regions are larger than CHs observed in EUV emission. In an alternative approach, we estimate the open magnetic flux entirely from solar observations by combining automatically detected CHs for Carrington rotation 2098 with observatory synoptic magnetic maps. This approach also underestimates the interplanetary magnetic flux. Our results imply that either typical observatory maps underestimate the Sun’s magnetic flux, or a significant portion of the open magnetic flux is not rooted in regions that are obviously dark in EUV and X-ray emission.

  11. 46 CFR 181.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 181.300 Section 181.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... EQUIPMENT Fire Main System § 181.300 Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be..., the minimum capacity of the fire pump must be 189 liters (50 gallons) per minute at a pressure of not...

  12. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel system...

  13. 46 CFR 118.300 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 118.300 Section 118.300 Shipping COAST GUARD... Fire pumps. (a) A self priming, power driven fire pump must be installed on each vessel. (b) On a..., the fire pump must be capable of delivering a single hose stream from the highest hydrant, through the...

  14. Method for optimising the energy of pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    The method involves determining whether pumps (pu1, pu5) are directly assigned to loads (v1, v3) as pilot pumps (pu2, pu3) and hydraulically connected upstream of the pilot pumps. The upstream pumps are controlled with variable speed for energy optimization. Energy optimization circuits are selected

  15. METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY OF PUMPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of

  16. 46 CFR 105.20-10 - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps. 105.20-10 Section 105.20-10 Shipping COAST GUARD... DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-10 Pumps. (a) Pumps for cargo... discharge side of pump if the pressure under shutoff conditions exceeds 60 pounds. When a relief valve is...

  17. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Highly resistant to salt water, petroleum oil, heat, and vibration. (g) If a fixed hand pump is used to... GPM). (b) A portable hand bilge pump must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily..., including wiring, and size and number of batteries, is designed to allow all bilge pumps to be operated...

  18. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  19. Meromorphic flux compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damian, Cesar [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad de Guanajuato,Carretera Salamanca-Valle de Santiago Km 3.5+1.8 Comunidad de Palo Blanco,Salamanca (Mexico); Loaiza-Brito, Oscar [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guanajuato,Loma del Bosque No. 103 Col. Lomas del Campestre C.P 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2017-04-26

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  20. Meromorphic flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Cesar; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    We present exact solutions of four-dimensional Einstein’s equations related to Minkoswki vacuum constructed from Type IIB string theory with non-trivial fluxes. Following https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)187; https://www.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2015)188 we study a non-trivial flux compactification on a fibered product by a four-dimensional torus and a two-dimensional sphere punctured by 5- and 7-branes. By considering only 3-form fluxes and the dilaton, as functions on the internal sphere coordinates, we show that these solutions correspond to a family of supersymmetric solutions constructed by the use of G-theory. Meromorphicity on functions constructed in terms of fluxes and warping factors guarantees that flux and 5-brane contributions to the scalar curvature vanish while fulfilling stringent constraints as tadpole cancelation and Bianchi identities. Different Einstein’s solutions are shown to be related by U-dualities. We present three supersymmetric non-trivial Minkowski vacuum solutions and compute the corresponding soft terms. We also construct a non-supersymmetric solution and study its stability.

  1. Flux Pinning in Superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    The book covers the flux pinning mechanisms and properties and the electromagnetic phenomena caused by the flux pinning common for metallic, high-Tc and MgB2 superconductors. The condensation energy interaction known for normal precipitates or grain boundaries and the kinetic energy interaction proposed for artificial Nb pins in Nb-Ti, etc., are introduced for the pinning mechanism. Summation theories to derive the critical current density are discussed in detail. Irreversible magnetization and AC loss caused by the flux pinning are also discussed. The loss originally stems from the ohmic dissipation of normal electrons in the normal core driven by the electric field induced by the flux motion. The readers will learn why the resultant loss is of hysteresis type in spite of such mechanism. The influence of the flux pinning on the vortex phase diagram in high Tc superconductors is discussed, and the dependencies of the irreversibility field are also described on other quantities such as anisotropy of supercondu...

  2. Alternating-current MHD conduction pump for ferrous metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhnikov, N.M.; Krauya, V.M.; Yankop, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies pertaining to an ac MHD conduction pump with separate excitation and a C-core magnet structure. Its mathematical model is based on the following assumptions: (1) During complete braking the liquid metal in the channel is stationary; (2) there is no current leakage in the channel beyond the interelectrode region; (3) during operation the longitudinal axis of the pump is in a vertical position; (4) the current density in the electrodes at a distance infinitely far from the active channel segment is uniformly distributed; (5) there are no magnetic leakage fluxes in the model; and (6) the left-hand electrode in the model can be brought out in two different ways, variant I or variant II. 7 references

  3. ALT-I pump limiter results on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The ALT-I pump limiter is used to control hydrogen fluxes from the TEXTOR tokamak. The performance of two different modules, the open fixed geometry (FG) and the closed variable geometry (VG) is discussed. In unpumped scoop limiter operation, the pressure in the ALT-I chamber increases to 3x10 -4 torr(FG) and 2x10 -3 torr(VG). With pumping, the fraction of particles incident on the neutralizer plate that is removed is 25-50%(FG) and 50-80%(VG). These removed particles are estimated to be 2-4(8)%(FG) and 6-13%(VG) of the total plasma outflux (Nsub(e)/tausub(p)). The collection of helium from the plasma using the FG module is approximately half as effective as hydrogen collection. The higher particle removal efficiency for the VG module is attributed to lower neutral backstreaming. (author)

  4. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  5. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  6. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  7. The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, P J; Andrew, P; Campbell, D; Clement, S; Davies, S; Ehrenberg, J; Erents, S K; Gondhalekar, A; Gadeberg, M; Gottardi, N; Von Hellermann, M; Horton, L; Loarte, A; Lowry, C; Maggi, C; McCormick, K; O` Brien, D; Reichle, R; Saibene, G; Simonini, R; Spence, J; Stamp, M; Stork, D; Taroni, A; Vlases, G [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Neutron flux monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasushi; Mitsubori, Minehisa; Ohashi, Kazunori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a neutron flux monitoring device for preventing occurrence of erroneous reactor scram caused by the elevation of the indication of a start region monitor (SRM) due to a factor different from actual increase of neutron fluxes. Namely, judgement based on measured values obtained by a pulse counting method and a judgment based on measured values obtained by a Cambel method are combined. A logic of switching neutron flux measuring method to be used for monitoring, namely, switching to an intermediate region when both of the judgements are valid is adopted. Then, even if the indication value is elevated based on the Cambel method with no increase of the counter rate in a neutron source region, the switching to the intermediate region is not conducted. As a result, erroneous reactor scram such as 'shorter reactor period' can be avoided. (I.S.)

  9. NERATOOM work on pump development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoornweg, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    The prototype pump has been manufactured by Stork Engineerings Works at Hengelo in 1969. The full-scale test on water has been carried out as part of the procedures of acceptance. Tests on sodium have been carried out in the pumptestfacility of Interatom at Bensberg (W. Germany); these tests started in March 1971 and were finished in October 1972. During that period nearly 6000 hours of pump testing were accomplished, of which 150 hours the pump was subjected to cavitation. During 30 hours the pump was subjected to a cavitation intensity of more than 3% loss of delivery head. At some occasions the loss of delivery head was 7%. The measured NPSH with the tests on sodium was 10m, whereas the NPSH obtained with the tests on water was 9m. Attempts have been made to account for this difference of NPSH-setting on the two liquids concerned. At the end of the tests on sodium (that is after the excecution of the cavitation tests) the delivery head of the pump was 2 m.l.c. less than the rated value. After dismantling the pump it appeared that the surface of the impeller vanes was roughened, especially at those parts where the original sand cast surface had not been polished. Based on the testresults and not being contradicted by calculation-results so far, our opinion is that cavitation in sodium of reactor temperature (550 0 C) most probably is of the same order of magnitude as it is in water of roomtemperature under the same conditions of NPSH, provided the same pump operates in systems that are exact replica of one another

  10. Scavenged body heat powered infusion pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Alexander; Ehringer, William D; McNamara, Shamus

    2013-01-01

    An infusion pump powered by body heat is investigated in this paper, with the goal of addressing the needs of dermal wound healing. The infusion pump incorporates a Knudsen gas pump, a type of thermally driven pump, to pneumatic push the pharmaceutical agent from a reservoir. Two designs are considered: an integrated pump and reservoir, and a design with cascaded pump and reservoir. Thermal models are developed for both pumps, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. The integrated pump and reservoir design uses hydrophobic materials to prevent a flow from occurring unless the infusion pump is placed on a human body. Flow rates in the µL min −1 range for the integrated pump and reservoir, and approximately 70 µL min −1 for the cascaded pump were obtained. The dynamic behavior of the cascaded pump is described based on the thermal models. Multiple copies of the cascaded pump are easily made in series or parallel, to increase either the pressure or the flow rate. The flow rate of multiple pumps in series does not change, and the pressure of multiple pumps in parallel does not change. (paper)

  11. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2 0 K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2 0 K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used

  12. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, M.; Kasahara, K.; Hidaka, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    1990-02-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo simulation of neutrino fluxes of atmospheric origin is made taking into account the muon polarization effect on neutrinos from muon decay. We calculate the fluxes with energies above 3 MeV for future experiments. There still remains a significant discrepancy between the calculated (ν e +antiν e )/(ν μ +antiν μ ) ratio and that observed by the Kamiokande group. However, the ratio evaluated at the Frejus site shows a good agreement with the data. (author)

  13. Pump Early, Pump Often: A Continuous Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Diane L; Froh, Elizabeth B; Schwarz, Jessica; Houng, Kathy; Brewster, Isabel; Myers, Carey; Prince, Judy; Olkkola, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates that although many mothers initiate pumping for their critically ill children, few women are successful at maintaining milk supply throughout their infants' entire hospital stay. At the Garbose Family Special Delivery Unit (SDU) at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, we care for mothers who have critically ill infants born with complex cardiac and congenital anomalies. Human milk is viewed as a medical intervention at our institution. Therefore, nurses on the SDU wanted to ensure best practice in terms of pumping initiation. This article describes a continuous quality improvement project that ensured mothers pumped early and often. Childbirth educators can play a key role in preparing mothers who are anticipating an infant who will require hospitalization immediately post-birth.

  14. Effects of ionizing scrape-off layers on local recycling in Tore Supra pump limiter experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, L.W.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Uckan, T.; Chatelier, M.; Loarer, T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of ohmic discharges with active pumping in the Tore Supra outboard pump limiter has been analyzed with the DEGAS neutrals transport code and an analysis scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma model. Pumping speed and plenum pressure measurements indicated 5--10 torr-L/s throughput with only modest effects on density (dN core /dt + source rate from ionization and dissociation of wall-desorbed molecules is seen to peak very near the radial position of the limiter throat. Consequently, a strong recycling vortex is created in the region of the limiter, with the ion flux amplified by factors of ∼2 at the outer limiter surfaces and >3 within the limiter throat. The calculations indicate that less than 30% of the pump throughput is due to first-generation ions from the core efflux, with the balance from local recycling in the strongly ionizing scrape-off layer

  15. Prediction of Hydraulic Performance of a Scaled-Down Model of SMART Reactor Coolant Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sun Guk; Park, Jin Seok; Yu, Je Yong; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    An analysis was conducted to predict the hydraulic performance of a reactor coolant pump (RCP) of SMART at the off-design as well as design points. In order to reduce the analysis time efficiently, a single passage containing an impeller and a diffuser was considered as the computational domain. A stage scheme was used to perform a circumferential averaging of the flux on the impeller-diffuser interface. The pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the pump was determined and was used to compute the head, efficiency, and break horse power (BHP) of a scaled-down model under conditions of steady-state incompressible flow. The predicted curves of the hydraulic performance of an RCP were similar to the typical characteristic curves of a conventional mixed-flow pump. The complex internal fluid flow of a pump, including the internal recirculation loss due to reverse flow, was observed at a low flow rate.

  16. Reactor feedwater pump control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki.

    1990-01-01

    An amount of feedwater necessary for ensuring reactor inventory after scram is ensured automatically based on the reactor output before scram of a BWR type reactor. That is, if scram should occur, a feedwater flow rate just before the scram is stored by reactor output signals. Further, the amount of feedwater required after the scram is determined based on the output of the memory. The reactor power after the scram based on a feedwater flow rate and a main steam flow rate is inputted to an integrator, to calculate and output the amount of the feedwater flow rate (1) injected after the scram for the inventory. A coast down flowrate (2) in a case of pump trip is forecast by the output signals. Automatic trip is outputted to all turbine driving feedwater pumps when the sum of (1) and (2) exceeds a necessary and sufficient amount of feedwater required for ensuring inventory. For motor driving feedwater pumps, only a portion, for example, one of the pumps is automatically started while other pumps are stopped their operation, only in this case, to prevent excess water feeding. (I.S.)

  17. The lunar thermal ice pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorghofer, Norbert [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Aharonson, Oded, E-mail: norbert@hawaii.edu [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  18. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  19. Operating pumps on minimum flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casada, D.A.; Li, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff issued Information Notice (IN) 87-59 to alert all licensees to two miniflow design concerns identified by Westinghouse. The first potential problem discussed in this IN involves parallel pump operation. If the head/capacity curve of one of the parallel pumps is greater than the other, the weaker pump may be dead-headed when the pumps are operating at low-flow conditions. The other problem related to potential pump damage as a result of hydraulic instability during low-flow operation. In NRC Bulletin 88-04, dated May 5, 1988, the staff requested all licensees to investigate and correct, as applicable, the two miniflow design concerns. The staff also developed a Temporary Instruction, Tl 2515/105, dated January 29, 1990 to inspect for the adequacy of licensee response and follow-up actions to NRC Bulletin 88-04. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reviewed utility responses to Bulletin 88-04 under auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, and participated in several NRC inspections. Examples of actions that have been taken, an assessment of the overall industry response, and resultant conclusions and recommendations are presented

  20. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK

    2011-07-19

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  1. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  2. The Biological carbon pump in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Richard; Henson, Stephanie A.; Koski, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Mediated principally by the sinking of organic rich particles from the upper ocean, the Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a significant component of the global carbon cycle. It transfers roughly 11 Gt C yr−1 into the ocean’s interior and maintains atmospheric carbon dioxide at significantly lower......, including both the magnitude of the downward flux and the ecological, chemical and physical processes by which it is sustained and controlled. Our lack of detailed mechanistic understanding has also hindered modelling attempts to quantify and predict changes to the BCP. In this paper, we assess current...

  3. Analysis on the Viscous Pumping in a Magnetic Fluid Seal Under a Rotating Load and the Seal Design

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 大沼, 浩身; 佐藤, 淳

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of viscous pumping in a magnetic fluid seal under a rotating load. The Reynolds equation was presented for the seal based on magnetic fluid mechanics, and the expressions for obtaining pressures in the seal, eccentricities of the rotating shaft due to the viscous pumping and seal pressures were given. Numerical Calculations were carried out for some sample problems, and the effect of magnetic flux densities on the pressure in the seal and the seal pressures were c...

  4. Quantum spin and charge pumping through double quantum dots with ferromagnetic leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hui, E-mail: hpan@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics (Ministry of Education), Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Ziyu; Zhao, Sufen [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Lue, Rong [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-06-06

    The pumping of electrons through double quantum dots (DQDs) attached to ferromagnetic leads have been theoretically investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that an oscillating electric field applied to the quantum dot may give rise to the pumped charge and spin currents. In the case that both leads are ferromagnet, a pure spin current can be generated in the antiparallel magnetization configuration, where no net charge current exists. The possibility of manipulating the pumped spin current is explored by tuning the dot level and the ac field. By making use of various tunings, the magnitude and direction of the pumped spin current can be well controlled. For the case that only one lead is ferromagnetic, both of the charge and spin currents can be pumped and flow in opposite directions on the average. The control of the magnitude and direction of the pumped charge and spin currents is also discussed by means of the magnetic flux threading through the DQD ring. -- Highlights: → We theoretically investigate the pumping of electrons through double quantum dots attached to ferromagnetic leads. → An oscillating electric field applied to the quantum dot may give rise to the pumped charge and spin currents. → When both leads are ferromagnet, a pure spin current can be generated in the antiparallel magnetization configuration. → By making use of various tunings, the magnitude and direction of the pumped spin current can be well controlled. → When only one lead is ferromagnetic, both of the charge and spin currents can be pumped and flow in opposite directions.

  5. How Cells Can Control Their Size by Pumping Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Kay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability of all cells to set and regulate their size is a fundamental aspect of cellular physiology. It has been known for sometime but not widely so, that size stability in animal cells is dependent upon the operation of the sodium pump, through the so-called pump-leak mechanism (Tosteson and Hoffman, 1960. Impermeant molecules in cells establish an unstable osmotic condition, the Donnan effect, which is counteracted by the operation of the sodium pump, creating an asymmetry in the distribution of Na+ and K+ staving off water inundation. In this paper, which is in part a tutorial, I show how to model quantitatively the ion and water fluxes in a cell that determine the cell volume and membrane potential. The movement of water and ions is constrained by both osmotic and charge balance, and is driven by ion and voltage gradients and active ion transport. Transforming these constraints and forces into a set of coupled differential equations allows us to model how the ion distributions, volume and voltage change with time. I introduce an analytical solution to these equations that clarifies the influence of ion conductances, pump rates and water permeability in this multidimensional system. I show that the number of impermeant ions (x and their average charge have a powerful influence on the distribution of ions and voltage in a cell. Moreover, I demonstrate that in a cell where the operation of active ion transport eliminates an osmotic gradient, the size of the cell is directly proportional to x. In addition, I use graphics to reveal how the physico-chemical constraints and chemical forces interact with one another in apportioning ions inside the cell. The form of model used here is applicable to all membrane systems, including mitochondria and bacteria, and I show how pumps other than the sodium pump can be used to stabilize cells. Cell biologists may think of electrophysiology as the exclusive domain of neuroscience, however the electrical

  6. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  7. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  8. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio [CERN, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva, 23 (Switzerland); Marescotti, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, I-10125, Turin (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds.

  9. Flux vacua and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Pietro Antonio; Marescotti, Matteo

    2007-01-01

    As been recently pointed out, physically relevant models derived from string theory require the presence of non-vanishing form fluxes besides the usual geometrical constraints. In the case of NS-NS fluxes, the Generalized Complex Geometry encodes these informations in a beautiful geometrical structure. On the other hand, the R-R fluxes call for supergeometry as the underlying mathematical framework. In this context, we analyze the possibility of constructing interesting supermanifolds recasting the geometrical data and RR fluxes. To characterize these supermanifolds we have been guided by the fact topological strings on supermanifolds require the super-Ricci flatness of the target space. This can be achieved by adding to a given bosonic manifold enough anticommuting coordinates and new constraints on the bosonic sub-manifold. We study these constraints at the linear and non-linear level for a pure geometrical setting and in the presence of p-form field strengths. We find that certain spaces admit several super-extensions and we give a parameterization in a simple case of d bosonic coordinates and two fermionic coordinates. In addition, we comment on the role of the RR field in the construction of the super-metric. We give several examples based on supergroup manifolds and coset supermanifolds

  10. Atmospheric neutrino fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes, which are responsible for the main background in proton decay experiments, have been calculated by two independent methods. There are discrepancies between the two sets of results regarding latitude effects and up-down asymmetries, especially for neutrino energies Esub(ν) < 1 GeV. (author)

  11. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  12. Testing experience with fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; McGough, C.B.; Nolan, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields. Confirmation of component performance during FFTF service was considered essential before actual FFTF startup, to provide increased assurance against FFTF startup delays or operational difficulties and downtime. Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment. The significance and contribution of these tests to the FFTF and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program are summarized. (U.S.)

  13. Cryosorption vacuum pumping under fusion reactor conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments are in progress on cryosorption pumping using a double-chevron pump with a molecular sieve pumping surface. Studies have been made with hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and deuterium-helium at 10 -7 to 3 x 10 -3 torr. Steady pumping speeds were observed for deuterium; above 10 -4 torr the speed increased with pressure until runaway occurred. At less than 10 -6 torr and low panel loading, hydrogen pumping speeds resemble those for deuterium. At higher pressures, the pump can function by condensation or sorption, and unsteady speeds are observed. Helium pumping is always by sorption, but regions of instability have been observed and defined. Deuterium-helium pumping tests showed that deuterium condensation on the panels prevents cryosorption of helium; however, compound pumps with separate panels for helium and hydrogen will be satisfactory

  14. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin-dependent by the a......We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  15. Synchronization modulation increases transepithelial potentials in MDCK monolayers through Na/K pumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Tran

    Full Text Available Transepithelial potential (TEP is the voltage across a polarized epithelium. In epithelia that have active transport functions, the force for transmembrane flux of an ion is dictated by the electrochemical gradient in which TEP plays an essential role. In epithelial injury, disruption of the epithelial barrier collapses the TEP at the wound edge, resulting in the establishment of an endogenous wound electric field (∼100 mV/mm that is directed towards the center of the wound. This endogenous electric field is implicated to enhance wound healing by guiding cell migration. We thus seek techniques to enhance the TEP, which may increase the wound electric fields and enhance wound healing. We report a novel technique, termed synchronization modulation (SM using a train of electric pulses to synchronize the Na/K pump activity, and then modulating the pumping cycles to increase the efficiency of the Na/K pumps. Kidney epithelial monolayers (MDCK cells maintain a stable TEP and transepithelial resistance (TER. SM significantly increased TEP over four fold. Either ouabain or digoxin, which block Na/K pump, abolished SM-induced TEP increases. In addition to the pump activity, basolateral distribution of Na/K pumps is essential for an increase in TEP. Our study for the first time developed an electrical approach to significantly increase the TEP. This technique targeting the Na/K pump may be used to modulate TEP, and may have implication in wound healing and in diseases where TEP needs to be modulated.

  16. Multistage quantum absorption heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that heat pumps, while being all limited by the same basic thermodynamic laws, may find realization on systems as "small" and "quantum" as a three-level maser. In order to quantitatively assess how the performance of these devices scales with their size, we design generalized N-dimensional ideal heat pumps by merging N-2 elementary three-level stages. We set them to operate in the absorption chiller mode between given hot and cold baths and study their maximum achievable cooling power and the corresponding efficiency as a function of N. While the efficiency at maximum power is roughly size-independent, the power itself slightly increases with the dimension, quickly saturating to a constant. Thus, interestingly, scaling up autonomous quantum heat pumps does not render a significant enhancement beyond the optimal double-stage configuration.

  17. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  18. Reactor coolant pump transportation incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noce, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an incident, which occurred on August 27, 1991, in which a Reactor Coolant Pump motor en route from Surry Power Station to Westinghouse repair facilities struck the overpass at the junction of Interstate 64 and Jefferson Avenue in Newport News, Virginia. The transport container that housed the reactor coolant pump motor failed to clear the overpass. The force of the impact dislodged the container and motor from the truck bed, and it landed on the acceleration land and road shoulder. Upon impact, the container broke open and exposed the reactor coolant pump motor. Incidental radioactively contaminated water that remained in the motor coolers drained onto the road, contaminating the aggregate as well as the underlying gravel

  19. Continuous improvement of pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Pump seal reliability continues to be an area needing improvement and ongoing vigilance. Methods have been developed for identifying and assessing factors relating to seal performance, selecting the most relevant ones for a specific station, and then focusing on the most significant aspects and how to improve. Discussion invariably addresses maintenance practices, seal design, monitoring capabilities, operating conditions, transients, and pump and motor design. Success in reliability improvement requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person-rem. This paper describes some of the significant developments in AECL's ongoing program in seal R and D, as well as recent new installations following the most demanding seal qualification programs to date. (author)

  20. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  1. Numerical Analysis of Rotating Pumping Flows in Inter-Coil Rotor Cavities and Short Cooling Grooves of a Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tong

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An important characteristic of wall rotating-driven flows is the tendency of fluid with high angular momentum to be flung radially outward. For a generator, the rotor rotating-driven flow, usually referred to as the rotating pumping flow, plays an important role in rotor winding cooling. In this study, three-dimensional numerical analyzes are presented for turbulent pumping flow in the inter-coil rotor cavity and short cooling grooves of a generator. Calculations of the flow field and the mass flux distribution through the grooves were carried out in a sequence of four related cases Under an isothermal condition: (a pumping flow, which is the self-generated flow resulted from the rotor pumping action; (b mixing flow, which is the combination of the ventilating flow and pumping flow, under a constant density condition; (c mixing flow, with density modeled by the ideal gas law; and (d mixing flow, with different pressure differentials applied on the system. The comparisons of the results from these cases can provide useful information regarding the impacts of the ventilating flow, gas density, and system pressure differential on the mass flux distribution in the short cooling grooves. Results show that the pumping effect is strong enough to generate the cooling flow for rotor winding cooling. Therefore, for small- or mid-size generators ventilation fans may be eliminated. It also suggests that increasing the chimney dimension can improve the distribution uniformity of mass flux through the cooling grooves.

  2. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129 Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131 Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen

  3. Exchangers man the pumps: Functional interplay between proton pumps and proton-coupled Ca exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Hirschi, Kendal D; Pittman, Jon K

    2008-05-01

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca(2+) transporters encoded by cation/H(+)exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca(2+) into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca(2+) release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Recent analysis of Arabidopsis CAX knockout mutants, particularly cax1 and cax3, identified a variety of phenotypes including sensitivity to abiotic stresses, which indicated that these transporters might play a role in mediating the plant's stress response. A common feature of these mutants was the perturbation of H(+)-ATPase activity at both the tonoplast and the plasma membrane, suggesting a tight interplay between the Ca(2+)/H(+) exchangers and H(+) pumps. We speculate that indirect regulation of proton flux by the exchangers may be as important as the direct regulation of Ca(2+) flux. These results suggest cautious interpretation of mutant Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger phenotypes that may be due to either perturbed Ca(2+) or H(+) transport.

  4. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  5. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  6. TFCX pumped limiter and vacuum pumping system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Impurity control system design and performance studies were performed in support of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) pre-conceptual design. Efforts concentrated on pumped limiter and vacuum pumping system design configuration, thermal/mechanical and erosion lifetime performance of the limiter protective surface, and helium ash removal performance. The reference limiter design forms a continuous toroidal belt at the bottom of the device and features a flat surface with a single leading edge. The vacuum pumping system features large vacuum ducts (diameter approximately 1 m) and high-speed, compound cryopumps. Analysis results indicate that the limiter/vacuum pumping system design provides adequate helium ash removal. Erosion, primarily by disruption-induced vaporization and/or melting, limits the protective surface lifetime to about one calendar year or only about 60 full-power hours of operation. In addition to evaluating impurity control system performance for nominal TFCX conditions, these studies attempt to focus on the key plasma physics and engineering design issues that should be addressed in future research and development programs

  7. A longitudinally-pumped laser (specifically, pulse-pumped lasers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtkowiak, J

    1979-10-15

    A laser is proposed that employs travelling-wave pumping, for which no less than four electrodes, interconnected with coaxial transmission lines with a feed network, are placed at specific distances from each other in a discharge channel filled with an active medium. An expression is given for determining the length of the coaxial sections.

  8. Simulations of longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Kiwamu; Takemori, Satoshi

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of a copper laser pumped dye laser amplifier and new designs of the longitudinally pumped dye laser amplifier are presented. The simulations take the consideration of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The new designs utilize a center-hole reflector instead of a dichroic mirror. The simulation results indicate that the poor spatial overlap between the pump beam and the dye beam in the transverse pumping not only reduces the laser output power, but also generates ASE strongly. The results also indicate that the longitudinal pumping is as efficient as the transverse pumping. (author)

  9. Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Flow Through Full Passage and Performance Prediction of Nuclear Reactor Coolant Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Zhou Wenxia; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve the level of self-design and domestic manufacture of the reactor coolant pump (nuclear main pump), the software FLUENT was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow through full passage of one nuclear main pump basing on RNG κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The distribution of pressure and velocity of the flow in the impeller's surface was analyzed in different working conditions. Moreover, the performance of the pump was predicted based on the simulation results. The results show that the distributions of pressure and velocity are reasonable in both the working and back face of the blade in the steady working condition. The pressure of the flow is increased from the inlet to the outlet of the pump, and shows the maximal value in the impeller region. Comparatively satisfactory efficiency and head value were obtained in the condition of the pump design. The shaft power of the nuclear main pump is gradually increased with the increase of the flow flux. These results are helpful in understanding the change of the internal flow field in the nuclear main pump, which is of some importance for the pre-exploration and theoretical research on the domestic manufacture of the nuclear main pump. (authors)

  10. Motor current and leakage flux signature analysis technique for condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.V.; Moorthy, R.I.K.; Mahajan, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Till recently analysis of vibration signals was the only means available to predict the state of health of plant equipment. Motor current and leakage magnetic flux signature analysis is acquiring importance as a technique for detection of incipient damages in the electrical machines and as a supplementary technique for diagnostics of driven equipment such as centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. The state of health of the driven equipment is assessed by analysing time signal, frequency spectrum and trend analysis. For example, the pump vane frequency, piston stroke frequency, gear frequency and bearing frequencies are indicated in the current and flux spectra. By maintaining a periodic record of the amplitudes of various frequency lines in the frequency spectra, it is possible to understand the trend of deterioration of parts and components of the pump. All problems arising out of inappropriate mechanical alignment of vertical pumps are easily identified by a combined analysis of current, flux and vibration signals. It is found that current signature analysis technique is a sufficient method in itself for the analysis of state of health of reciprocating pumps and compressors. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  11. Design of a flux buffer based on the flux shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the design considerations for a flux buffer based on the flux-shuttle concept. Particular attention is given to the issues of flux popping, stability of operation and saturation levels for a large input. Modulation techniques used in order to minimize 1/f noise, in addition to offsets are also analyzed. Advantages over conventional approaches using a SQUID for a flux buffer are discussed. Results of computer simulations are presented

  12. Lobotomy of flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibitetto, Giuseppe [Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, University of Uppsala,Box 803, SE-751 08 Uppsala (Sweden); Guarino, Adolfo [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics,Bern University, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Roest, Diederik [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    We provide the dictionary between four-dimensional gauged supergravity and type II compactifications on T{sup 6} with metric and gauge fluxes in the absence of supersymmetry breaking sources, such as branes and orientifold planes. Secondly, we prove that there is a unique isotropic compactification allowing for critical points. It corresponds to a type IIA background given by a product of two 3-tori with SO(3) twists and results in a unique theory (gauging) with a non-semisimple gauge algebra. Besides the known four AdS solutions surviving the orientifold projection to N=4 induced by O6-planes, this theory contains a novel AdS solution that requires non-trivial orientifold-odd fluxes, hence being a genuine critical point of the N=8 theory.

  13. Heat Radiators for Electromagnetic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes use of carbon/carbon composite radiators in electromagnetic coolant pumps of nuclear reactors on spacecraft. Carbon/carbon composite materials function well at temperatures in excess of 2,200 K. Aluminum has melting temperature of only 880 K.

  14. Improvement to liquid metal pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns the coolant pumps of nuclear reactors. It resolves the problems of structures which have to withstand high temperatures, the difficulties in keeping the multiple bearings of the shaft aligned, the excessive fluid flows, the risks of scoring and seizing-up by self welding, the need for narrow machining tolerances and the difficulties of access for inspection and repairs [fr

  15. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  16. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  17. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  18. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  19. Pumps for German pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dernedde, R.

    1984-01-01

    The article describes the development of a selection of pumps which are used in the primary coolant system and the high-pressure safety injection system and feed water system during the past 2 decades. The modifications were caused by the step-wise increasing power output of the plants from 300 MW up to 1300 MW. Additional important influences were given be the increased requirements for quality assurance and final-documentation. The good operating results of the delivered pumps proved that the reliability is independent of the volume of the software-package. The outlook expects that consolidation will be followed by additional steps for the order processing of components for the convoy pumps. KW: main coolant pump; primary system; boiler feed pump; reactor pump; secondary system; barrel insert pump; pressure water reactor; convoy pump; state of the art.

  20. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each...) If tested under § 183.590, each fuel pump, as installed in the boat, must not leak more than five...

  1. Alignment analysis of a vertical sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, V.K.; Fair, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    With the objective of identifying important alignment features of pumps such as FFTF, HALLAM, EBR II, PNC, PHENIX, and CRBR, alignment of the vertical sodium pump for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is investigated. The CRBRP pump includes a flexibly coupled pump shaft and motor shaft, two oil-film tilting-pad hydrodynamic radial bearings in the motor plus a vertical thrust bearing, and two sodium hydrostatic bearings straddling the double-suction centrifugal impeller in the pump. The assembled CRBRP prototype pump shows smooth predictable vibration behavior experienced during water test. An ealier swing check of the pump shaft about the motor shaft hub demonstrated that the pump is relatively insensitive to manufacturing and assembly tolerances, a consequence of close dimensional control and unique alignment features. (orig./GL)

  2. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  3. CRBRP sodium circulating pump design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrujo, F.; Cook, M.; Manners, L.; Cothran, H.

    1977-12-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) primary sodium pump design concept; (2) pump level control system; (3) resolution of design problems in stress analysis, dynamics analysis, and mechanical design; (4) model testing; (5) planned performance tests; and (6) fabrication status

  4. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  5. Cost Effective, Scalable Optically Pumped Molecular Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    An optically pumped, For laser was demonstrated operating at 4.0 micrometers. This is the first demonstration of an HBr laser by direct optical pumping of the 0 right arrow 3 vibrational overtone band at 1.34 micrometers...

  6. Blocking device especially for circulating pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susil, J.; Vychodil, V.; Lorenc, P.

    1976-01-01

    The claim of the invention is a blocking device which blocks reverse flow occurring after the shutdown of circulating pumps, namely in the operation of nuclear power plants or in pumps with a high delivery head. (F.M.)

  7. High power diode pumped solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.; Comaskey, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although operational for over twenty years, diode pumped solid state lasers have, for most of their existence, been limited to individual diodes pumping a tiny volume of active medium in an end pumped configuration. More recent years have witnessed the appearance of diode bars, packing around 100 diodes in a 1 cm bar which have enabled end and side pumped small solid state lasers at the few Watt level of output. This paper describes the subsequent development of how proper cooling and stacking of bars enables the fabrication of multi kill average power diode pump arrays with irradiances of 1 kw/cm peak and 250 W/cm 2 average pump power. Since typical conversion efficiencies from the diode light to the pumped laser output light are of order 30% or more, kW average power diode pumped solid state lasers now are possible

  8. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  9. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  10. Physics of magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Priest, E. R.; Lee, L. C.

    The present work encompasses papers on the structure, waves, and instabilities of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), photospheric flux tubes (PFTs), the structure and heating of coronal loops, solar prominences, coronal mass ejections and magnetic clouds, flux ropes in planetary ionospheres, the magnetopause, magnetospheric field-aligned currents and flux tubes, and the magnetotail. Attention is given to the equilibrium of MFRs, resistive instability, magnetic reconnection and turbulence in current sheets, dynamical effects and energy transport in intense flux tubes, waves in solar PFTs, twisted flux ropes in the solar corona, an electrodynamical model of solar flares, filament cooling and condensation in a sheared magnetic field, the magnetopause, the generation of twisted MFRs during magnetic reconnection, ionospheric flux ropes above the South Pole, substorms and MFR structures, evidence for flux ropes in the earth magnetotail, and MFRs in 3D MHD simulations.

  11. 46 CFR 169.559 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 169.559 Section 169.559 Shipping COAST GUARD... Firefighting Equipment Firefighting Equipment § 169.559 Fire pumps. (a) Each sailing school vessel must be equipped with fire pumps as required in Table 169.559(a). Table 169.559(a)—Fire Pumps Length Exposed and...

  12. Intermittency and Inflexibility Blister Pump Impress Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Boštjan; Zupančič, Cvetko

    2011-01-01

    Divisional centralized heating and cooling system, cogeneratton system of heat and power and power-gas cogeneration system. In order to further fully and reasonably use the heat in doubleeffect absorption units, double-stage bubble pump must be involved in the adoption o u pump replacing the traditional mechanical solution pump. It was designed a secon generator based on a solar pump-free lithium bromide absorption chiller system. The expenmen adopts the lunate thermosiphon elevation tube, ef...

  13. Study of heat flux deposition in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate measurements of heat loads on internal tokamak components is essential for protection of the device during steady state operation. The optimisation of experimental scenarios also requires an in depth understanding of the physical mechanisms governing the heat flux deposition on the walls. The objective of this study is a detailed characterisation of the heat flux to plasma facing components (PFC) of the Tore Supra tokamak. The power deposited onto Tore Supra PFCs is calculated using an inverse method, which is applied to both the temperature maps measured by infrared thermography and to the enthalpy signals from calorimetry. The derived experimental heat flux maps calculated on the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) are then compared with theoretical heat flux density distributions from a standard SOL-model. They are two experimental observations that are not consistent with the model: significant heat flux outside the theoretical wetted area, and heat load peaking close to the tangency point between the TPL and the last closed field surface (LCFS). An experimental analysis for several discharges with variable security factors q is made. In the area consistent with the theoretical predictions, this parametric study shows a clear dependence between the heat flux length λ q (estimated in the SOL (scrape-off layer) from the IR measurements) and the magnetic configuration. We observe that the spreading of heat fluxes on the component is compensated by a reduction of the power decay length λ q in the SOL when q decreases. On the other hand, in the area where the derived experimental heat loads are not consistent with the theoretical predictions, we observe that the spreading of heat fluxes outside the theoretical boundary increases when q decreases, and is thus not counterbalanced. (author)

  14. Studies on impurity control and hydrogen pumping with chromium gettering in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.; Simpkins, J.E.; Edmonds, P.H.; Isler, R.C.; Lazarus, E.A.; Ma, C.H.; Murakami, M.; Wootton, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Chromium gettering has been proven to be a trouble-free and efficient method of surface pumping in tokamaks. The impurity control capabilities are excellent and comparable to that of titanium. The hydrogen uptake is reduced to monolayer quantities on the surface. The expansion of the operating space is similar to that seen with titanium without the disadvantage of strongly increased hydrogen fluxes. Possible applications of chromium gettering are: impurity control in contemporary tokamaks; surface pumping in short pulse DT-burning devices to minimize tritium inventory, and wall conditioning of future large machines prior to operation

  15. Plasma tubes becoming collimated as a result of magnetohydrodynamic pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Gunsu S.; Bellan, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Collimated magnetized plasma structures are commonly observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. The Caltech plasma gun produces magnetically driven plasma jets bearing a striking resemblance to astrophysical jets and solar coronal loops by imposing boundary conditions analogous to those plasmas. This paper presents experimental observations of gun-produced plasma jets that support a previously proposed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping model [P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1999 (2003)] as a universal collimation mechanism. For any initially flared, magnetized plasma tube with a finite axial current, the model predicts (i) magnetic pumping of plasma particles from a constricted region into a bulged region and (ii) tube collimation if the flow slows down at the bulged region leading to accumulation of mass and thus concentrating the azimuthal magnetic flux frozen in the mass flow (i.e., increasing the pinch force). Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic measurements of gun-produced plasmas have confirmed the highly dynamic nature of the process leading to a collimated state, namely, (i) suprathermal Alfvenic flow (30-50 km/s), (ii) large density amplification from ∼10 17 to ∼10 22 m -3 in an Alfvenic time scale (5-10 μs), and (iii) flow slowing down and mass accumulation at the flow front, the place where the tube collimation occurs according to high-speed camera imaging. These observations are consistent with the predictions of the MHD pumping model, and offer valuable insight into the formation mechanism of laboratory, solar, and astrophysical plasma structures.

  16. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  17. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Feasibility of weight estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Carole R; Pabia, Mica; Sawyer, Michael; Tang, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to infuse a 46-h fluorouracil protocol and patients are asked to visually inspect the pump daily. The pump has a variability of ±10% and there are additional patient variables that can increase this. The feasibility of weighing the pump rather than a visual inspection along with the secondary objective to confirm the pump's variability in real world conditions was undertaken. Methods Empty pumps were weighed using both pharmacy and kitchen scales. Pumps upon completion of the 46-h infusion were also weighed using both pharmacy and kitchen scales. Results The kitchen scale was as accurate as the pharmacy grade scale. Disconnected pumps showed the expected variability from using these infusor pumps along with a few showing greater variability likely due to patient variables. Conclusion Weighing pumps appears to be feasible both at the pharmacy and home level. Next steps would be to weigh pumps during the infusion to validate an alternate method to simple visual inspection for patients to confirm proper infusing of the pump at their home.

  18. Maternal response to two electric breast pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical characteristics of breast pumps have been shown to influence milk extraction and hormone release in laboratory settings. However, few studies evaluate impact of differences in pump design on long-term breastfeeding success. This study evaluated the impact of a novel pump design on milk ex...

  19. 46 CFR 169.654 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 169.654 Section 169.654 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.654 Bilge pumps. (a) Vessels of less than 65 feet in length must have a portable hand bilge pump having a maximum capacity of 5 gpm. (b) In addition to the requirements of...

  20. A novel high efficiency solar photovoltalic pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, J.F.L.; Smulders, P.T.; Vries, de D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The daily average overall efficiency of a solar pump system is not only influenced by the maximum efficiency of the components of the system, but just as much by the correct matching of the components to the local irradiation pattern. Normally centrifugal pumps are used in solar pump systems. The

  1. 76 FR 43218 - Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    .... EERE-2011-BT-STD-0031] RIN 1904-AC54 Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Department of Energy... efficient product designs for commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period closed on July 13, 2011... commercial and industrial pumps. The comment period is extended to September 16, 2011. DATES: The comment...

  2. Pump Propels Liquid And Gas Separately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew; Demler, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Design for pump that handles mixtures of liquid and gas efficiently. Containing only one rotor, pump is combination of centrifuge, pitot pump, and blower. Applications include turbomachinery in powerplants and superchargers in automobile engines. Efficiencies lower than those achieved in separate components. Nevertheless, design is practical and results in low consumption of power.

  3. Pump system characterization and reliability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staunton, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Pump characterization studies were performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review and analyze six years (1990-1995) of data from pump systems at domestic nuclear plants. The studies considered not only pumps and pump motors but also pump-related circuit breakers and turbine drives (i.e., the pump system). One significant finding was that the number of 'significant' failures of the pump circuit breaker exceeds the number of significant failures of the pump itself. The study also shows how regulatory code testing was designed for the pump only and therefore did not lead to the discovery of other significant pump system failures. Potential diagnostic technologies, both experimental and mature, suitable for on-line and off-line pump testing were identified. The study does not select or recommend technologies but proposes diagnostic technologies and monitoring techniques that should be further evaluated/developed for making meaningful and critically-needed improvements in the reliability of the pump system. (author)

  4. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam extinguishing...

  5. A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Andersen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here...

  6. Outcome of Cardiac Rehabilitation Following Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arefizadeh

    2017-05-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Regarding QOL and psychological status, there were no differences in the CR outcome between those who underwent off-pump bypass surgery and those who underwent on-pump surgery; nevertheless, the off-pump technique was superior to the on-pump method on METs improvement following CR.

  7. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Luit; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear.......Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear....

  8. Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will...

  9. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  10. Hydraulic optimization of 'S' characteristics of the pump-turbine for Xianju pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W C; Zheng, J S; Cheng, J; Shi, Q H

    2012-01-01

    The pump-turbine with a rated power capacity of 375MW each at Xianju pumped storage plant is the most powerful one under construction in China. In order to avoid the instability near no-load conditions, the hydraulic design of the pump-turbine has been optimized to improving the 'S' characteristic in the development of the model pump-turbine. This paper presents the cause of 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine by CFD simulation of the internal flow. Based on the CFD analysis, the hydraulic design optimization of the pump-turbine was carried out to eliminate the 'S' characteristics of the machine at Xianju pumped storage plant and a big step for removing the 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine has been obtained. The model test results demonstrate that the pump-turbine designed for Xianju pumped storage plant can smoothly operate near no-load conditions without an addition of misaligned guide vanes.

  11. Advances in heat pump systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pump systems offer economical alternatives of recovering heat from different sources for use in various industrial, commercial and residential applications. As the cost of energy continues to rise, it becomes imperative to save energy and improve overall energy efficiency. In this light, the heat pump becomes a key component in an energy recovery system with great potential for energy saving. Improving heat pump performance, reliability, and its environmental impact has been an ongoing concern. Recent progresses in heat pump systems have centred upon advanced cycle designs for both heat- and work-actuated systems, improved cycle components (including choice of working fluid), and exploiting utilisation in a wider range of applications. For the heat pump to be an economical proposition, continuous efforts need to be devoted to improving its performance and reliability while discovering novel applications. Some recent research efforts have markedly improved the energy efficiency of heat pump. For example, the incorporation of a heat-driven ejector to the heat pump has improved system efficiency by more than 20%. Additionally, the development of better compressor technology has the potential to reduce energy consumption of heat pump systems by as much as 80%. The evolution of new hybrid systems has also enabled the heat pump to perform efficiently with wider applications. For example, incorporating a desiccant to a heat pump cycle allowed better humidity and temperature controls with achievable COP as high as 6. This review paper provides an update on recent developments in heat pump systems, and is intended to be a 'one-stop' archive of known practical heat pump solutions. The paper, broadly divided into three main sections, begins with a review of the various methods of enhancing the performance of heat pumps. This is followed by a review of the major hybrid heat pump systems suitable for application with various heat sources. Lastly, the paper presents novel

  12. Pump Application as Hydraulic Turbine – Pump as Turbine (PaT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rusovs, D

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers pump operation as hydraulic turbine with purpose to produce mechanical power from liquid flow. The Francis hydraulic turbine was selected for comparison with centrifugal pump in reverse operation. Turbine and centrifugal pump velocity triangles were considered with purpose to evaluate PaT efficiency. Shape of impeller blades for turbine and pumps was analysed. Specific speed calculation is carried out with purpose to obtain similarity in pump and turbine description. For ...

  13. Australian methane fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Estimates are provided for the amount of methane emitted annually into the atmosphere in Australia for a variety of sources. The sources considered are coal mining, landfill, motor vehicles, natural gas suply system, rice paddies, bushfires, termites, wetland and animals. This assessment indicates that the major sources of methane are natural or agricultural in nature and therefore offer little scope for reduction. Nevertheless the remainder are not trival and reduction of these fluxes could play a significant part in any Australian action on the greenhouse problem. 19 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Enhance pump reliability through improved inservice testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    EPRI has undertaken a study to assess the effectiveness of existing testing programs to accurately monitor and predict performance changes before either pump performance degrades or an actual failure occurs. Anticipated changes in inservice testing techniques are directed towards enhancing the validity of test data, ensuring its repeatability, and avoiding deterioration of the pump assembly. There is a new-found interest in test programs of all types that has occurred, in part, because of an increase in reported pump degradation and pump failure. Inservice testing of pumps, which has long been a basis for assuring operability, has apparently produced an opposite effect; namely, the appearance of a reduction in reliability

  15. Evaluation of personal air sampling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Novick, V.J.; Alvarez, J.L.; Huntsman, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Personal air samplers are used to more conveniently obtain breathing zone samples from individuals over periods of several hours. Personal air sampling pumps must meet minimum performance levels under all working conditions to be suitable for use in radiation protection programs. In addition, the pumps should be simple to operate and as comfortable to wear as possible. Ten models of personal air sampling pumps were tested to evaluate their mechanical performance and physical characteristics. The pumps varied over a wide range in basic performance and operating features. Some of the pumps were found to have adequate performance for use in health physics air sampling applications. 3 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  16. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.; Buttner, Ulrich; Yi, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  17. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  18. Liquid metal pump for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, H.G.; Maloney, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A pump for use in pumping high temperature liquids at high pressures, particularly liquid metals used to cool nuclear reactors is described. It is of the type in which the rotor is submerged in a sump but is fed by an inlet duct which bypasses the sump. A chamber, kept full of fluid, surrounds the pump casing into which fluid is bled from the pump discharge and from which fluid is fed to the rotor bearings and hence to the sump. This equalizes pressure inside and outside the pump casing and reduces or eliminates the thermal shock to the bearings and sump tank

  19. Next Generation Electromagnetic Pump Analysis Tools (PLM DOC-0005-2188). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stregy, Seth [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Dasilva, Ana [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Yilmaz, Serkan [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Saha, Pradip [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States); Loewen, Eric [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Wilmington, NC (United States)

    2015-10-29

    This report provides the broad historical review of EM Pump development and details of MATRIX development under this project. This report summarizes the efforts made to modernize the legacy performance models used in previous EM Pump designs and the improvements made to the analysis tools. This report provides information on Tasks 1, 3, and 4 of the entire project. The research for Task 4 builds upon Task 1: Update EM Pump Databank and Task 3: Modernize the Existing EM Pump Analysis Model, which are summarized within this report. Where research for Task 2: Insulation Materials Development and Evaluation identified parameters applicable to the analysis model with Task 4, the analysis code was updated, and analyses were made for additional materials. The important design variables for the manufacture and operation of an EM Pump that the model improvement can evaluate are: space constraints; voltage capability of insulation system; maximum flux density through iron; flow rate and outlet pressure; efficiency and manufacturability. The development of the next-generation EM Pump analysis tools during this two-year program provides information in three broad areas: Status of analysis model development; Improvements made to older simulations; and Comparison to experimental data.

  20. The pumping of hydrogen and helium by sputter-ion pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; Pate, D.J.; Todd, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The pumping of hydrogen in diode and triode sputter-ion pumps is discussed. The type of cathode material used in these pumps is shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness with which hydrogen is pumped. Examples of this include data for pumps with aluminum and titanium-alloy cathodes. Diode pumps with aluminum cathodes are shown to be no more effective in the pumping of hydrogen than in the pumping of helium. The use of titanium or titanium alloy anodes is also shown to measurably impact on the speed of these pumps at.very low pressures. This stems from the fact that hydrogen is x10 6 more soluble in titanium than in stainless steel. Hydrogen becomes resident in the anodes because of fast neutral burial. Lastly, quantitative data are given for the He speeds and capacities of both noble and conventional diode and triode pumps. The effectiveness of various pump regeneration procedures, subsequent to the pumping of He, is reported.These included bakeout and N 2 glow discharge cleaning. The comparative desorption of He with the subsequent pumping of N 2 is reported on. The N 2 speed of these pumps was used as the benchmark for defining the size of the pumps vs. their respective He speeds

  1. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  2. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  3. Pumped storage - necessary and sensible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive article takes a look at the long-established technique of using pumped storage schemes to temporarily store electricity. Here, excess power is used to pump water back into high-level reservoirs during low-load periods so that it can be used to generate electricity during peak periods. Ecological and energy-loss aspects are discussed as are the objections raised by environmental agencies. An overview of the present situation and the operation of such installations in Switzerland is provided. Future developments in this area and the role played in the European power system are discussed. Comparisons are made between hydro-electric peak power production and that using gas turbines and other systems. In particular, the efficiencies and the carbon dioxide loading involved are looked at. Also, the situation with power generation using new renewables is examined and the economic prerequisites for the operation of such schemes are looked at

  4. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on recent experiments which have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were satisfactory. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was now known; therefore a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77 K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately one-third way through, and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict the use of charcoal as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high-vacuum pumping applications

  5. 40 CFR 65.116 - Quality improvement program for pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (for example, piston, horizontal or vertical centrifugal, gear, bellows); pump manufacturer; seal type and manufacturer; pump design (for example, external shaft, flanged body); materials of construction... program. (4) Pump or pump seal inspection. The owner or operator shall inspect all pumps or pump seals...

  6. A Linear Electromagnetic Piston Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Paul H.

    Advancements in mobile hydraulics for human-scale applications have increased demand for a compact hydraulic power supply. Conventional designs couple a rotating electric motor to a hydraulic pump, which increases the package volume and requires several energy conversions. This thesis investigates the use of a free piston as the moving element in a linear motor to eliminate multiple energy conversions and decrease the overall package volume. A coupled model used a quasi-static magnetic equivalent circuit to calculate the motor inductance and the electromagnetic force acting on the piston. The force was an input to a time domain model to evaluate the mechanical and pressure dynamics. The magnetic circuit model was validated with finite element analysis and an experimental prototype linear motor. The coupled model was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm to explore the parameter space and maximize power density and efficiency. An experimental prototype linear pump coupled pistons to an off-the-shelf linear motor to validate the mechanical and pressure dynamics models. The magnetic circuit force calculation agreed within 3% of finite element analysis, and within 8% of experimental data from the unoptimized prototype linear motor. The optimized motor geometry also had good agreement with FEA; at zero piston displacement, the magnetic circuit calculates optimized motor force within 10% of FEA in less than 1/1000 the computational time. This makes it well suited to genetic optimization algorithms. The mechanical model agrees very well with the experimental piston pump position data when tuned for additional unmodeled mechanical friction. Optimized results suggest that an improvement of 400% of the state of the art power density is attainable with as high as 85% net efficiency. This demonstrates that a linear electromagnetic piston pump has potential to serve as a more compact and efficient supply of fluid power for the human scale.

  7. Optical Pumping of Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    ser emission ott a The typical experimental apparatus is shown i.- Fig. *series of green and yellow molecular B-X’-basnd transi- 2. For B-bantd optical...with A, at 0. 473 pim and that Na2 may operate as a flash -lamp -pumped laser X,... at 0. 54 umn the Doppler widths are AwD - 12.42 source with buffer

  8. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Dell'Orto, Marta; Michoud, Gregoire; Soussi, Asma; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2018-05-22

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves\\' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  11. Critical heat flux evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  12. Neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Tai, Ichiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the measuring accuracy and the reponse time within an allowable range in accordance with the change of neutron fluxes in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Constitution: Neutron fluxes within a nuclear reactor pressure vessel are detected by detectors, converted into pulse signals and amplified in a range switching amplifier. The amplified signals are further converted through an A/D converter and digital signals from the converter are subjected to a square operation in an square operation circuit. The output from the circuit is inputted into an integration circuit to selectively accumulate the constant of 1/2n, 1 - 1/2n (n is a positive integer) respectively for two continuing signals to perform weighing. Then, the addition is carried out to calculate the integrated value and the addition number is changed by the chane in the number n to vary the integrating time. The integrated value is inputted into a control circuit to control the value of n so that the fluctuation and the calculation time for the integrated value are within a predetermined range and, at the same time, the gain of the range switching amplifier is controlled. (Seki, T.)

  13. Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, Ahmad; Hosono, Takahiro; Ide, Kiyoshi; Kagabu, Makoto; Iskandar, Irwan; Effendi, Agus J.; Hutasoit, Lambok M.; Shimada, Jun

    2017-12-01

    In the Bandung basin, Indonesia, excessive groundwater pumping caused by rapid increases in industrialization and population growth has caused subsurface environmental problems, such as excessive groundwater drawdown and land subsidence. In this study, multiple hydrogeochemical techniques and numerical modeling have been applied to evaluate the recharge processes and groundwater age (rejuvenation). Although all the groundwater in the Bandung basin is recharged at the same elevation at the periphery of the basin, the water type and residence time of the shallow and deep groundwater could be clearly differentiated. However, there was significant groundwater drawdown in all the depression areas and there is evidence of groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater. The groundwater mixing was traced from the high dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) concentrations in some deep groundwater samples and by estimating the rejuvenation ratio (R) in some representative observation wells. The magnitude of CFC-12 concentration, as an indicator of young groundwater, showed a good correlation with R, determined using 14C activity in samples taken between 2008 and 2012. These correlations were confirmed with the estimation of vertical downward flux from shallower to deeper aquifers using numerical modeling. Furthermore, the change in vertical flux is affected by the change in groundwater pumping. Since the 1970s, the vertical flux increased significantly and reached approximately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s, as it compensated the groundwater pumping. This study clearly revealed the processes of groundwater impact caused by excessive groundwater pumping using a combination of hydrogeochemical methods and modeling.

  14. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: Functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na+ and lose K+, leading to a rise in extracellular K+ ([K+]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na+,K+-ATPase (also known as the Na+,K+ pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K+. As a result of their electrogenic action, Na+,K+ pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na+,K+-pump function and the capacity of the Na+,K+ pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na+,K+-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na+,K+-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na+,K+ pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [3H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na+,K+ pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na+,K+-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na+ and K+ fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na+ loading or intense excitation, all the Na+,K+ pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na+,K+-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na+,K+ pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K+ deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their number in response to exercise and the glucocorticoid dexamethasone but have not

  15. Quantification of Na+,K+ pumps and their transport rate in skeletal muscle: functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben

    2013-10-01

    During excitation, muscle cells gain Na(+) and lose K(+), leading to a rise in extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o), depolarization, and loss of excitability. Recent studies support the idea that these events are important causes of muscle fatigue and that full use of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also known as the Na(+),K(+) pump) is often essential for adequate clearance of extracellular K(+). As a result of their electrogenic action, Na(+),K(+) pumps also help reverse depolarization arising during excitation, hyperkalemia, and anoxia, or from cell damage resulting from exercise, rhabdomyolysis, or muscle diseases. The ability to evaluate Na(+),K(+)-pump function and the capacity of the Na(+),K(+) pumps to fill these needs require quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-pump activity, or a decrease in their content, reduces muscle contractility. Conversely, stimulation of the Na(+),K(+)-pump transport rate or increasing the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps enhances muscle excitability and contractility. Measurements of [(3)H]ouabain binding to skeletal muscle in vivo or in vitro have enabled the reproducible quantification of the total content of Na(+),K(+) pumps in molar units in various animal species, and in both healthy people and individuals with various diseases. In contrast, measurements of 3-O-methylfluorescein phosphatase activity associated with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase may show inconsistent results. Measurements of Na(+) and K(+) fluxes in intact isolated muscles show that, after Na(+) loading or intense excitation, all the Na(+),K(+) pumps are functional, allowing calculation of the maximum Na(+),K(+)-pumping capacity, expressed in molar units/g muscle/min. The activity and content of Na(+),K(+) pumps are regulated by exercise, inactivity, K(+) deficiency, fasting, age, and several hormones and pharmaceuticals. Studies on the α-subunit isoforms of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase have detected a relative increase in their

  16. Damages on pumps and systems the handbook for the operation of centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Merkle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Damage on Pumps and Systems. The Handbook for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps offers a combination of the theoretical basics and practical experience for the operation of circulation pumps in the engineering industry. Centrifugal pumps and systems are extremely vulnerable to damage from a variety of causes, but the resulting breakdown can be prevented by ensuring that these pumps and systems are operated properly. This book provides a total overview of operating centrifugal pumps, including condition monitoring, preventive maintenance, life cycle costs, energy savings and economic aspects. Extra emphasis is given to the potential damage to these pumps and systems, and what can be done to prevent breakdown. Addresses specific issues about pumping of metal chips, sand, abrasive dust and other solids in fluidsEmphasis on economic and efficiency aspects of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring Uses life cycle costs (LCC) to evaluate and calculate the costs of pumping systems

  17. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  18. Synchronized and configurable source of electrical pulses for x-ray pump-probe experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J. P.; Chembrolu, V.; Yu, X. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Acremann, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of software tunable patterns of nanosecond electrical pulses. The bipolar, high repetition rate (up to 250 MHz), fast rise time (<30 ps), square pulses are suitable for applications such as the excitation sequence in dynamic pump-probe experiments. Synchronization with the time structure of a synchrotron facility is possible as well as fine control of the relative delay in steps of 10 ps. The pulse generator described here is used to excite magnetic nanostructures with current pulses. Having an excitation system which can match the high repetition rate of a synchrotron allows for utilization of the full x-ray flux and is needed in experiments which require a large photon flux. The fast rise times allow for picosecond time resolution in pump-probe experiments. All pulse pattern parameters are configurable by software

  19. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  20. Manufacturing and microstructural characterization of sintered nickel wicks for capillary pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Reimbrecht

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sintered nickel powder is proposed to be used as porous wicks in heat pipes and capillary pumps. In this work the manufacturing procedure for tubular wicks for capillary pump application is discussed. The porosity, mechanical resistance and roundness of tubular wicks made of carbonila powder, atomized powder and a powder mixture of both are analyzed. A powder mixture was selected as the best raw material. In this case, pore size in the range of 2 to 24 mm and porosity about 50% were measured. First tests carried out in the laboratory, using acetone as the working fluid, show capillary pumping pressures up to 4 kPa and heat fluxes of about 1 W/cm2 in a two-phase heat transfer loop.

  1. Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munn, W.I.

    1981-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site a few miles north of Richland, Washington, is a major link in the chain of development required to sustain and advance Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology in the United States. This 400 MWt sodium cooled reactor is a three loop design, is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy, and is the largest research reactor of its kind in the world. The purpose of the facility is three-fold: (1) to provide a test bed for components, materials, and breeder reactor fuels which can significantly extend resource reserves; (2) to produce a complete body of base data for the use of liquid sodium in heat transfer systens; and (3) to demonstrate inherent safety characteristics of LMFBR designs

  2. High efficiency, variable geometry, centrifugal cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, M.D.; Nichols, K.E.; Beale, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been developed which has a basic design that is rugged and reliable with variable speed and variable geometry features that achieve high pump efficiency over a wide range of head-flow conditions. The pump uses a sealless design and rolling element bearings to achieve high reliability and the ruggedness to withstand liquid-vapor slugging. The pump can meet a wide range of variable head, off-design flow requirements and maintain design point efficiency by adjusting the pump speed. The pump also has features that allow the impeller and diffuser blade heights to be adjusted. The adjustable height blades were intended to enhance the pump efficiency when it is operating at constant head, off-design flow rates. For small pumps, the adjustable height blades are not recommended. For larger pumps, they could provide off-design efficiency improvements. This pump was developed for supercritical helium service, but the design is well suited to any cryogenic application where high efficiency is required over a wide range of head-flow conditions

  3. Reactor coolant pumps for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harand, E.; Richter, G.; Tschoepel, G.

    1975-01-01

    A brake for the pump rotor of a main coolant pump or a shutoff member on the pump are provided in order to prevent excess speeds of the pump rotor. Such excess speeds may occur in PWR type reactors with water at a pressure below, e.g., 150 bars if there is leakage from a coolant line associated with the main coolant pump. As a brake, a centrifugal brake depending upon the pump speed or a brake ring arranged on the pump housing and acting on the pump rotor, which ring would be activated by pressure differentials in the pump, may be used. If the pressure differences between suction and pressure sockets are very small, a controlled hydraulic increase of the pressure force on the brake may also be provided. Furthermore, a turbine brake may be provided. A slide which is automatically movable in closing position along the pump rotor axis is used as a shutoff element. It is of cylindrical configuration and is arranged concentrically with the rotor axis. (DG) [de

  4. Residual heat removal pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps installed in pressurized water reactor power plants are used to provide the removal of decay heat from the reactor and to provide low head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. These pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, therefore, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. RHR pumps have traditionally been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. The close-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. The casing separation requires the loosening of numerous highly torqued studs. Once the casing is separated, the impeller is dropped from the motor shaft to allow removal of the mechanical seal and casing cover from the motor shaft. Galling of the impeller to the motor shaft is not uncommon. The RHR pump internals are radioactive and the separation of the pump casing to perform routine maintenance exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. The handling of the impeller also exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR pumps to a coupled configuration

  5. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  6. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  7. Thermodynamical double-flux ventilation system in individual house; Systeme de ventilation double flux thermodynamique en maison individuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This guidebook written by the French scientific and technical committee of the space heating, ventilation and air-conditioning industry (Costic) with the collaboration of the French association of coldness production engineering (AFF) and Electricite de France (EdF), presents the technical rules and practical advices for the installation of thermodynamical double-flux ventilation systems in residential houses. Content: heat pumps (standardization and regulation, choice and dimensioning of the auxiliary electrical supply, installation, acoustic precautions), aeraulic networks (standardization and regulation, choice and dimensioning, installation), thermal insulation, thermoregulation, control and start-up, maintenance. (J.S.)

  8. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  9. Effect of Non-linear Velocity Loss Changes in Pumping Stage of Hydraulic Ram Pumps on Pumping Discharge Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fatahialkouhi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The ram pump is a device which pumps a portion of input discharge to the pumping system in a significant height by using renewable energy of water hammer. The complexities of flow hydraulic on one hand and on the other hand the use of simplifying assumptions in ram pumps have caused errors in submitted analytical models for analyzing running cycle of these pumps. In this study it has been tried to modify the governing analytical model on hydraulic performance of these pumps in pumping stage. In this study by creating a logical division, the cycle of the ram pump was divided into three stages of acceleration, pumping and recoil and the governing equations on each stage of cycling are presented by using method of characteristics. Since the closing of impulse valve is nonlinear, velocity loss in pumping stage is considered nonlinearly. Also the governing equations in pumping stage were modified by considering disc elasticity of impulse valve and changing volume of the pump body when the water hammer phenomenon is occurred. In order to evaluate results and determine empirical factors of the proposed analytical model, a physical model of the ram pump is made with internal diameter of 51 mm. Results of this study are divided into several parts. In the first part, loss coefficients of the impulse valve were measured experimentally and empirical equations of drag coefficient and friction coefficient of the impulse valve were submitted by using nonlinear regression. In the second part, results were evaluated by using experimental data taken from this study. Evaluation of statistical error functions showed that the proposed model has good accuracy for predicting experimental observations. In the third part, in order to validate the results in pumping stage, the analytical models of Lansford and Dugan (1941 and Tacke (1988 were used and the error functions resulted from prediction of experimental observations were investigated through analytical models of

  10. Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory (HFIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Heat Flux Instrumentation Laboratory is used to develop advanced, flexible, thin film gauge instrumentation for the Air Force Research Laboratory....

  11. An experimental study on pump clogging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, M; Nohmi, M; Uchida, H; Kawai, M; Kudo, H; Kawahara, T; Miyagawa, K; Saito, S

    2014-01-01

    For sewage pump that various foreign substance is flowed into, anti-clogging performance is a factor as important as pump efficiency in order to avoid clogging trouble by foreign substance. Many investigations about pump inner flow and pump efficiency estimation have been carried out conventionally in order to realize coexistence with anti-clogging performance and pump performance. And these results have been reflected in construction of the running water section design method. As a index of anti-clogging performance, ''impeller passage diameter'' which is diameter of spherical solid that can pass through the pump is used widely. And there are various type of the sewage pump which have large impeller passage diameter. However real cause of clog is not a solid, and it is fibrous material such as towel and clothes, vinyl and paper diaper. In most case these material accumulate in the pump, so that clog is occurred. In this study, for the purpose of quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials, the factor that affect to clogging of pump was investigated by pump model test using a string. The test is done based on Taguchi method. In this test, type of the pump model, diameter of the string, material of the string, length of the string and flow rate are selected for the factor, and the effect that they have on the clogging of the pump was investigated. As a result of this test, it was made clear that length of the string has a strong influence on the clogging of the pump. And from the result of this test, evaluation method of anti-clogging performance of the pump against fibrous material by using string was considered. According to the result of above test based on Taguchi method, it was assumed that quantification of anti-clogging performance against fibrous materials is possible by flowing plural strings into the pump and calculating the probability of passing. Plurality sewage pumps of different types were evaluated based

  12. Heavy water pumps; Pumpe D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zecevic, V; Nikolic, M

    1963-12-15

    Continuous increase of radiation intensity was observed on all the elements in the heavy water system during first three years of RA reactor operation. The analysis of heavy water has shown the existence of radioactive cobalt. It was found that cobalt comes from stellite, cobalt based alloy which was used for coating of the heavy water pump discs in order to increase resistance to wearing. Cobalt was removed from the surfaces due to friction, and transferred by heavy water into the reactor where it has been irradiated for 29 876 MWh up to 8-15 Ci/g. Radioactive cobalt contaminated all the surfaces of aluminium and stainless steel parts. This report includes detailed description of heavy water pumps repair, exchange of stellite coated parts, decontamination of the heavy water system, distillation of heavy water. [Serbo-Croat] U toku prve tri godine eksploatacije reaktora RA uocen je neprekidni porast intenziteta zracenja na svim elementima u teskovodnom sistemu. Analizom teske vode utvrdjeno je postojanje radioaktivnog kobalta. Ustanovljeno je da kobalt potice od stelita, legure na bazi kobalta kojim su presvuceni rukavci vratila teskovodnih pumpi radi otpornosi na habanje. Kobalt je trenjem skidan sa povrsina, u toku rada prenosen je teskom vodom u reaktor i ozracivan u toku 29 876 MWh do specificne aktivnosti 8-15 Ci/g. Radioaktivni kobalt je kontaminirao sve povrsine od aluminijuma i nerdjajuceg celika. Ovaj izvestaj sadrzi detaljan opis remonta pumpi, zamene delova teskovodnih pumpi novim delovima bez stelitnog sloja, dekontaminacije teskovodnog sistema, destilacije teske vode.

  13. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs

  14. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  15. Rotary piston blood pumps: past developments and future potential of a unique pump type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappenschmidt, Johannes; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Margreiter, Raimund; Klima, Günter; Goetzenich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The design of implantable blood pumps is either based on displacement pumps with membranes or rotary pumps. Both pump types have limitations to meet the clinical requirements. Rotary piston blood pumps have the potential to overcome these limitations and to merge the benefits. Compared to membrane pumps, they are smaller and with no need for wear-affected membranes and valves. Compared to rotary pumps, the blood flow is pulsatile instead of a non-physiological continuous flow. Furthermore, the risk of flow-induced blood damage and platelet activation may be reduced due to low shear stress to the blood. The past developments of rotary piston blood pumps are summarized and the main problem for long-term application is identified: insufficient seals. A new approach with seal-less drives is proposed and current research on a simplified rotary piston design is presented. Expert commentary: The development of blood pumps focuses mainly on the improvement of rotary pumps. However, medical complications indicate that inherent limitations of this pump type remain and restrict the next substantial step forward in the therapy of heart failure patients. Thus, research on different pump types is reasonable. If the development of reliable drives and bearings succeeds, rotary piston blood pumps become a promising alternative.

  16. Development of model pump for establishing hydraulic design of primary sodium pumps in PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, R.J.; Sahasrabudhe, H.G.; Rao, A.S.L.K.; Balchander, K.; Kale, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam indicated requirement of indigenous development of primary sodium pump, handling liquid sodium as coolant in Fast Breeder Reactor. The primary sodium pump concept selected in its preliminary design is a vertical, single stage, with single suction impeller, suction facing downwards. The pump is having diffuser, discharge casing and discharge collector. The 1/3 rd size model pump is developed to establish the hydraulic performance of the prototype primary sodium pump. The main objectives were to verify the hydraulic design to operate on low net positive suction head available (NPSHA), no evidence of visible cavitation at available NPSHA, the pump should be designed with a diffuser etc. The model pump PSP 250/40 was designed and successfully developed by Research and Development Division of M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd., Kirloskarvadi. The performance testing using model pump was successfully carried out on a closed circuit test rig. The performance of a model pump at three different speeds 1900 rpm, 1456 rpm and 975 rpm was established. The values of hydraulic axial thrust with and without balancing holes on impeller at 1900 rpm was measured. Visual cavitation study at 1900 rpm was carried out to establish the NPSH at bubble free operation of the pump. The tested performance of the model pump is converted to the full scale prototype pump. The predicted performance of prototype pump at 700 rpm was found to be meeting fully with the expected duties. (author). 6 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Absorption Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A carbon dioxide absorption heat pump cycle is disclosed using a high pressure stage and a super-critical cooling stage to provide a non-toxic system. Using carbon dioxide gas as the working fluid in the system, the present invention desorbs the CO2 from an absorbent and cools the gas in the super-critical state to deliver heat thereby. The cooled CO2 gas is then expanded thereby providing cooling and is returned to an absorber for further cycling. Strategic use of heat exchangers can increase the efficiency and performance of the system.

  19. Smart Grid enabled heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Detlefsen, Nina; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2014-01-01

    The transition towards a 100 % fossil-free energy system, while achieving extreme penetration levels of intermittent wind and solar power in electricity generation, requires demand-side technologies that are smart (intermittency-friendly) and efficient. The integration of Smart Grid enabling...... with an empirical study in order to achieve a number of recommendations with respect to technology concepts and control strategies that would allow residential vapor-compression heat pumps to support large-scale integration of intermittent renewables. The analysis is based on data gathered over a period of up to 3...

  20. Forces on Centrifugal Pump Impellers

    OpenAIRE

    Jery, Belgacem; Brennen, Christopher E.; Caughey, Thomas K.; Acosta, Allan

    1985-01-01

    Forces are exerted on a centrifugal pump impeller, due to the asymmetry of the flow caused by the volute of diffuser, and to the motion of the center of the impeller whenever the shaft whirls. Recent work in the measurement of these forces as a function of the whirl speed to shaft speed ratio, and the influence of the volute, is reviewed. These forces may be decomposed into a steady force, a static stiffness matrix, a damping matrix and an inertia matrix. It is shown that for centrifugal p...

  1. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  2. Condition monitoring of main coolant pumps, Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Acharya, V.N.; Tikku, A.C.; Mishra, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Dhruva is a 100 MW research reactor with natural uranium fuel, heavy water as moderator and primary coolant. Three Centrifugal pumps circulate the primary coolant across the core and the heat exchangers. Each pump is coupled to a flywheel (FW) assembly in order to meet operational safety requirements. All the 3 main coolant pump (MCP) sets are required to operate during operation of the reactor. The pump-sets are in operation since the year 1984 and have logged more than 1,00,000 hrs. Frequent breakdowns of its FW bearings were experienced during initial years of operation. Condition monitoring of these pumps, largely on vibration based parameters, was initiated on regular basis. Break-downs of main coolant pumps reduced considerably due to the fair accurate predictions of incipient break-downs and timely maintenance efforts. An effort is made in this paper to share the experience

  3. Walking beam pumping unit system efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgore, J.J.; Tripp, H.A.; Hunt, C.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes

  4. Hydrostatic radial bearing of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrostatic radial pump is described characterized by the fact that part of the medium off-taken from delivery is used as a lubricating medium. Two additional bodies are placed alongside a hydrostatic bearing with coils in between them and the pump shaft; the coils have an opposite pitch. The feed channel for the hydrostatic bearing pocket is linked to delivery. The coil outlets are connected to the pump suction unit. Two rotating coils placed alongside the hydrostatic bearing will considerably simplify the communication channel design and reduce the dependence on the pump shaft deflections. The addition of another rotating coil in the close vicinity of the pump shaft or directly on the shaft further increases the efficiency. The bearing can be used in designing vertical circulating pumps for the cooling circuits of nuclear reactors. (J.B.)

  5. Geothermal heat pumps - Trends and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    1989-01-01

    Heat pumps are used where geothermal water or ground temperatures are only slightly above normal, generally 50 to 90 deg. F. Conventional geothermal heating (and cooling) systems are not economically efficient at these temperatures. Heat pumps, at these temperatures, can provide space heating and cooling, and with a desuperheater, domestic hot water. Two basic heat pump systems are available, air-source and water- or ground-source. Water- and ground-coupled heat pumps, referred to as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), have several advantages over air-source heat pumps. These are: (1) they consume about 33% less annual energy, (2) they tap the earth or groundwater, a more stable energy source than air, (3) they do not require supplemental heat during extreme high or low outside temperatures, (4) they use less refrigerant (freon), and (5) they have a simpler design and consequently less maintenance.

  6. Compact, Lightweight Electromagnetic Pump for Liquid Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Palzin, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A proposed direct-current electromagnetic pump for circulating a molten alkali metal alloy would be smaller and lighter and would demand less input power, relative to currently available pumps of this type. (Molten alkali metals are used as heat-transfer fluids in high-temperature stages of some nuclear reactors.) The principle of operation of this or any such pump involves exploitation of the electrical conductivity of the molten metal: An electric current is made to pass through the liquid metal along an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the flow channel, and a magnetic field perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis and the electric current is superimposed on the flowchannel region containing the electric current. The interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field produces the pumping force along the longitudinal axis. The advantages of the proposed pump over other such pumps would accrue from design features that address overlapping thermal and magnetic issues.

  7. Knudsen pump driven by a thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharas, Kunal; McNamara, Shamus

    2010-01-01

    The first use of a thermoelectric material in the bidirectional operation of a gas pump using thermal transpiration has been demonstrated. The thermoelectric material maintains a higher temperature difference which favors thermal transpiration and thus increases the efficiency of gas pumping. Since the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric material are reversible, the direction of the pump may be changed by reversing the electrical current direction. Two different pump designs are presented that illustrate some of the design tradeoffs. The pumps are characterized by measuring the pressure difference that may be generated and by measuring the flow rate in the forward and reverse directions. For a pump composed of a porous material with a pore size of 100 nm, a maximum flow rate of 0.74 cm 3 min −1 and a maximum pressure of 1.69 kPa are achieved

  8. Is the Ca2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum also a heat pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelstrup, Signe; de Meis, Leopoldo; Bedeaux, Dick; Simon, Jean-Marc

    2008-11-01

    We calculate, using the first law of thermodynamics, the membrane heat fluxes during active transport of Ca(2+) in the Ca(2+)-ATPase in leaky and intact vesicles, during ATP hydrolysis or synthesis conditions. The results show that the vesicle interior may cool down during hydrolysis and Ca(2+)-uptake, and heat up during ATP synthesis and Ca(2+)-efflux. The heat flux varies with the SERCA isoform. Electroneutral processes and rapid equilibration of water were assumed. The results are consistent with the second law of thermodynamics for the overall processes. The expression for the heat flux and experimental data, show that important contributions come from the enthalpy of hydrolysis for the medium in question, and from proton transport between the vesicle interior and exterior. The analysis give quantitative support to earlier proposals that certain, but not all, Ca(2+)-ATPases, not only act as Ca(2+)-pumps, but also as heat pumps. It can thus help explain why SERCA 1 type enzymes dominate in tissues where thermal regulation is important, while SERCA 2 type enzymes, with their lower activity and better ability to use the energy from the reaction to pump ions, dominate in tissues where this is not an issue.

  9. Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1987-01-01

    Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

  10. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times. ...

  12. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  13. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  14. Absorption heat pump for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan; Simon, William E.; Warrier, Gopinath R.; Woramontri, Woranun

    1993-01-01

    In the first part, the performance of the Absorption Heat Pump (AHP) with water-sulfuric acid and water-magnesium chloride as two new refrigerant-absorbent fluid pairs was investigated. A model was proposed for the analysis of the new working pairs in a heat pump system, subject to different temperature lifts. Computer codes were developed to calculate the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system with the thermodynamic properties of the working fluids obtained from the literature. The study shows the potential of water-sulfuric acid as a satisfactory replacement for water-lithium bromide in the targeted temperature range. The performance of the AHP using water-magnesium chloride as refrigerant-absorbent pair does not compare well with those obtained using water-lithium bromide. The second part concentrated on the design and testing of a simple ElectroHydrodynamic (EHD) Pump. A theoretical design model based on continuum electromechanics was analyzed to predict the performance characteristics of the EHD pump to circulate the fluid in the absorption heat pump. A numerical method of solving the governing equations was established to predict the velocity profile, pressure - flow rate relationship and efficiency of the pump. The predicted operational characteristics of the EHD pump is comparable to that of turbomachinery hardware; however, the overall efficiency of the electromagnetic pump is much lower. An experimental investigation to verify the numerical results was conducted. The pressure - flow rate performance characteristics and overall efficiency of the pump obtained experimentally agree well with the theoretical model.

  15. Development of submersible axial pump for wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jeong Eui [Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    This study was performed to develop a high efficiency submersible axial pump for concentration wastewater treatment. To do this, we simulated the effect of some parameters such as the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}), the radial twist angle of a blade({alpha}) and the length of a blade ({iota}) on pump efficiency using commercial code, ANSYS CFX and BladeGen. The results showed that the axial twist angle of a blade({beta}) was the most sensible parameter on the pump efficiency. And the pump efficiency had a maximum at {beta}=20.deg, {alpha}=110.deg and {iota}=240mm.

  16. Circulating water pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Ohmori, Tsuneaki

    1979-01-01

    Shortly, the nuclear power station with unit power output of 1100 MW will begin the operation, and the circulating water pumps manufactured recently are those of 2.4 to 4 m bore, 840 to 2170 m 3 /min discharge and 2100 to 5100 kW driving power. The circulating water pumps are one of important auxiliary machines, because if they fail, power generation capacity lowers immediately. Enormous quantity of cooling water is required to cool condensers, therefore in Japan, sea water is usually used. As siphon is formed in circulating water pipes, the total head of the pumps is not very high. The discharge of the pumps is determined so as to keep the temperature rise of discharged water lower than 7 deg. C. The quantity of cooling water for nuclear power generation is about 50% more as compared with thermal power generation because of the difference in steam conditions. The total head of the pumps is normally from 8 to 15 m. The circulating water pumps rarely stop after they started the operation, therefore it is economical to determine the motor power so that it can withstand 10% overload for a short period, instead of large power. At present, vertical shaft, oblique flow circulating water pumps are usually employed. Recently, movable blade pumps are adopted. The installation, construction and materials of the pumps and the problems are described. (Kako, I.)

  17. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  18. Development and evaluation of cryosorption pump and cryotrapping pump for CTR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, S.; Ota, H.; Sato, H.

    1986-01-01

    In order to obtain the engineering data to design compound cryopump for CTR, the authors tested the cryosorption pump and cryotrapping pump. The cryosorption panel was consisted of coconut charcoal metallically bonded to 4.2K cryopanel by brazing. The initial pumping speed of helium of cryosorption pump was found to be ≅2.2 iota/scm/sup 2/. The speed dropped off with loading (about 8 Torr iota/cm/sup 2/) to 1.5 iota/scm/sup 2/. The initial helium pumping speed of the 4.2K cryotrapping pump by argon spray was found to be ≅6 iota/scm/sup 2/. The speed, however, dropped off with loading (≅0.3 Torr iota/cm/sup 2/) to less than 5%. These results indicate that the cryosorption pump by coconut charcoal is superior to the cryotrapping pump, because the capacity of the former is larger than the latter

  19. Efficiency and threshold pump intensity of CW solar-pumped solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In H.; Lee, Ja H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors consider the relation between the threshold pumping intensity, the material properties, the resonator parameters, and the ultimate slope efficiencies of various solid-state laser materials for solar pumping. They clarify the relation between the threshold pump intensity and the material parameters and the relation between the ultimate slope efficiency and the laser resonator parameters such that a design criterion for the solar-pumped solid-state laser can be established. Among the laser materials evaluated, alexandrite has the highest slope efficiency of about 12.6 percent; however, it does not seem to be practical for a solar-pumped laser application because of its high threshold pump intensity. Cr:Nd:GSGG is the most promising for solar-pumped lasing. Its threshold pump intensity is about 100 air-mass-zero (AM0) solar constants and its slope efficiency is about 12 percent when thermal deformation is completely prevented.

  20. Quantification of the lithogenic carbon pump following a simulated dust-deposition event in large mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressac, M.; Guieu, C.; Doxaran, D.; Bourrin, F.; Desboeufs, K.; Leblond, N.; Ridame, C.

    2014-02-01

    Lithogenic particles, such as desert dust, have been postulated to influence particulate organic carbon (POC) export to the deep ocean by acting as mineral ballasts. However, an accurate understanding and quantification of the POC-dust association that occurs within the upper ocean is required in order to refine the "ballast hypothesis". In the framework of the DUNE (a DUst experiment in a low-Nutrient, low-chlorophyll Ecosystem) project, two artificial seedings were performed seven days apart within large mesocosms. A suite of optical and biogeochemical measurements were used to quantify surface POC export following simulated dust events within a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem. The two successive seedings led to a 2.3-6.7-fold higher POC flux than the POC flux observed in controlled mesocosms. A simple linear regression analysis revealed that the lithogenic fluxes explained more than 85% of the variance in POC fluxes. On the scale of a dust-deposition event, we estimated that 42-50% of POC fluxes were strictly associated with lithogenic particles (through aggregation and most probably sorption processes). Lithogenic ballasting also likely impacted the remaining POC fraction which resulted from the fertilization effect. The observations support the "ballast hypothesis" and provide a quantitative estimation of the surface POC export abiotically triggered by dust deposition. In this work, we demonstrate that the strength of such a "lithogenic carbon pump" depends on the biogeochemical conditions of the water column at the time of deposition. Based on these observations, we suggest that this lithogenic carbon pump could represent a major component of the biological pump in oceanic areas subjected to intense atmospheric forcing.

  1. Quantification of the lithogenic carbon pump following a dust deposition event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressac, M.; Guieu, C.; Doxaran, D.; Bourrin, F.; Desboeufs, K.; Leblond, N.; Ridame, C.

    2013-08-01

    Lithogenic particles, such as desert dust, have been postulated to influence particulate organic carbon (POC) export to the deep ocean by acting as mineral ballasts. However, an accurate understanding and quantification of the POC-dust association that occurs within the upper ocean is required in order to affine the "ballast hypothesis". In the framework of the DUNE project, two artificial seedings were performed seven days apart within large mesocosms. A suite of optical and biogeochemical measurements were used to quantify surface POC export following simulated dust events within a low-nutrient low-chlorophyll ecosystem. The two successive seedings led to a 2.3-6.7 fold higher POC flux as compared to the POC flux observed in controlled mesocosms. A simple linear regression analysis revealed that the lithogenic fluxes explained more than 85% of the variance in POC fluxes. At the scale of a dust deposition event, we estimated that 42-50% of POC fluxes were strictly associated with lithogenic particles through an aggregation process. Lithogenic ballasting also likely impacted the remaining POC fraction which resulted from the fertilization effect. The observations support the "ballast hypothesis" and provide a quantitative estimation of the surface POC export abiotically triggered by dust deposition. In this work, we demonstrate that the strength of such a "lithogenic carbon pump" depends on the biogeochemical conditions of the water column at the time of deposition. Based on these observations, we suggest that this "lithogenic carbon pump" could represent a major component of the biological pump in oceanic areas subjected to intense atmospheric forcing.

  2. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dall'Olio, Stefano; Tušek, Janez; Pryds, Nini

    2016-10-01

    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years; however, caloric-based technologies (those using the magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, barocaloric or elastocaloric effect) have recently shown a significant potential as alternatives to replace this technology due to high efficiency and the use of green solid-state refrigerants. Here, we report a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg-1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications.

  3. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs

  4. Photoacoustic imaging of lymphatic pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Alex; Heinmiller, Andrew; Zemp, Roger J.

    2017-10-01

    The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging is capable of separating the components; however, the slow wavelength switching speed of most laser systems is inadequate for imaging lymphatic pumping without motion artifacts being introduced into the processed images. We investigate two approaches for visualizing lymphatic processes in vivo. First, single-wavelength differential photoacoustic imaging is used to visualize lymphatic pumping in the hindlimb of a mouse in real time. Second, a fast-switching multiwavelength photoacoustic imaging system was used to assess the propulsion profile of dyes through the lymphatics in real time. These approaches may have profound impacts in noninvasively characterizing and investigating the lymphatic system.

  5. HSB 84A pumping test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, W.

    2000-03-06

    Two constant discharge, multiple well pumping tests were performed in the Congaree aquifer at the H-Area seepage basins during the weeks of April 30 through May 11. The purpose of the tests was to collect information that might determine the source of groundwater contamination in the Congaree aquifer and to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. Transmissivity estimates from data collected in Test One ranged from 1,644 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,253 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,013 ft{sup 2}/day and from 1,812 ft{sup 2}/day to 2,562 ft{sup 2}/day with an average of 2,269 ft{sup 2}/day in Test Two. Some leakage through the confining bed was apparent in the vicinity of observation well HSB 69A. This report includes the data collected, the analyses, results and interpretation of the pumping tests performed at HSB 84A. It should serve as a good baseline for future studies on the subject of contaminant migration in the Congaree aquifer on the Savannah River Site.

  6. Mathematical modeling of reciprocating pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Jung, Jun Ki; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented for the analysis and diagnosis of a high-pressure reciprocating pump system with three cylinders. The kinematic and hydrodynamic behaviors of the pump system are represented by the piston displacements, volume flow rates and pressures in its components, which are expressed as functions of the crankshaft angle. The flow interaction among the three cylinders, which was overlooked in the previous models, is considered in this model and its effect on the cylinder pressure profiles is investigated. The tuning parameters in the mathematical model are selected, and their values are adjusted to match the simulated and measured cylinder pressure profiles in each cylinder in a normal state. The damage parameter is selected in an abnormal state, and its value is adjusted to match the simulated and ensured pressure profiles under the condition of leakage in a valve. The value of the damage parameter over 300 cycles is calculated, and its probability density function is obtained for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic feature of valve leakage.

  7. Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Nesgaard; Johansen, Per Birger; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months and a di......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months...... and a discussion of these findings and how this has influenced our understanding of this association, the clinical impact and the underlying pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use does not appear to pose a lower...... risk than long-term use. There is a continued lack of conclusive studies identifying the pathogenesis. Direct effects on calcium absorption or on osteoblast or osteoclast action cannot at present plausibly explain the mechanism. SUMMARY: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis...

  8. HSB 84A pumping test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, W.

    2000-01-01

    Two constant discharge, multiple well pumping tests were performed in the Congaree aquifer at the H-Area seepage basins during the weeks of April 30 through May 11. The purpose of the tests was to collect information that might determine the source of groundwater contamination in the Congaree aquifer and to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer. Transmissivity estimates from data collected in Test One ranged from 1,644 ft 2 /day to 2,253 ft 2 /day with an average of 2,013 ft 2 /day and from 1,812 ft 2 /day to 2,562 ft 2 /day with an average of 2,269 ft 2 /day in Test Two. Some leakage through the confining bed was apparent in the vicinity of observation well HSB 69A. This report includes the data collected, the analyses, results and interpretation of the pumping tests performed at HSB 84A. It should serve as a good baseline for future studies on the subject of contaminant migration in the Congaree aquifer on the Savannah River Site

  9. Study of the Relap5/mod3.2 wall heat flux partitioning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari, S.; Hassan, Y.A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of the subcooled boiling model adapted in RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been assessed in detail for low-pressure conditions and it has been found that the void fraction profile is under-predicted. In general, any subcooled boiling model is composed of individual sub-models that account for the different physical mechanism that govern the overall process, as the wall vapor generation, interfacial shear and condensation etc. The wall heat flux partitioning model is one of the important sub-models that is a constituent of any subcooled boiling model. The function of this model is to apportion the wall heat flux to the different components (as the single/two phase fluid or bubble), as the case may be, in a two-phase flow-boiling scenario adjacent to a heated wall. The ''pumping factor'' approach is generally followed by most of the wall heat flux partitioning models, for partitioning the wall heat flux. In this work, the wall heat flux partitioning model of RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code is studied; in particular, the ''pumping factor'' formulation in the present code version is assessed for its performance under low-pressure conditions. In addition, three different ''pumping factor'' formulations available in the literature have been introduced into the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. Simulations of two low-pressure subcooled flow boiling experiments were performed with the refined code versions to determine the appropriate pumping factor to be used under these conditions. (author)

  10. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Squeezing Flux Out of Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Merging transcriptomics or metabolomics data remains insufficient for metabolic flux estimation. Ramirez et al. integrate a genome-scale metabolic model with extracellular flux data to predict and validate metabolic differences between white and brown adipose tissue. This method allows both metab...

  12. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  13. Multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Eugen; Raney, Michael Raymond

    2004-07-06

    A multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump for a vehicle includes a housing having an inlet and an outlet and a motor disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump also includes a shaft extending axially and disposed in the housing. The multi-stage internal gear/turbine fuel pump further includes a plurality of pumping modules disposed axially along the shaft. One of the pumping modules is a turbine pumping module and another of the pumping modules is a gerotor pumping module for rotation by the motor to pump fuel from the inlet to the outlet.

  14. Solar proton fluxes since 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of 56 Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of 22 Na and 55 Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity

  15. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.T.; Ten Thije O.G. Boonkkamp, J.; Borg, van der N.J.C.M.; Beek, van M.

    1997-01-01

    The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued. Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig

  16. Early outcome of off-pump versus on-pump coronary revascularization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The use of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or without CPB technique (off-pump) can be associated with different mortality and morbidity and their outcomes remain uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the early outcome of on-pump versus off-pump CABG.

  17. Root cause analysis of pump valve failures of three membrane pump systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, L.J.; Eijk, A.; Hooft, L. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper will present the root cause analysis and the solution of fatigue failures of the pump valves of three membrane pump systems installed on a chemical plant of Momentive in Pernis, the Netherlands. The membrane pumps were installed approximately 30 years ago. Each system has encountered

  18. Development of new design mechanical seal tester for Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Naoki; Koshiba, Koremutsu

    1995-01-01

    The mechanical seal for a Primary Loop Recirculation Pump (PLR Pump) is an important part of a BWR plant. This study describes a new mechanical seal tester developed to certify mechanical seal performance before installation in a PLR Pump on site. (author)

  19. Pump audit identifies the energy consumers; Pump Audit identifiziert gezielt die Energieverschwender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekemann, Ralf [Grundfos GmbH, Erkrath (Germany)

    2011-03-14

    Engineering and services, which enhance and secure the energy efficiency of pump systems, are demanded. Speed-regulated pumps, included high efficient motors and a service philosophy, be designed on value conservation and cost control, are as well as professional ''pump-audits''. (orig./GL)

  20. The comparison of heat flux pattern on lower divertor in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Eunnam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Bak, JunGyo; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hongtack; Kim, Hakkun; Yang, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat flux on the lower divertor is higher than upper divertor. • The heat flux on OD is decreased with IVCP. • The heat flux on CD is decreased with RMP, but that on OD is increased. • Because the strike point was shifted from CD toward OD due to the RMP. - Abstract: The heat flux in KSTAR is estimated for various discharge conditions by using thermocouple arrays. The heat flux on the divertor is higher than that on inboard limiter or passive stabilizer by a factor of 2. Although the plasma configuration in KSTAR has been set to a double-null configuration, the heat flux on lower divertor is higher than that on upper divertor by 3–8 times, indicating a lower-single-null-like configuration. It is observed that the operation of the in-vessel cryo-pump (IVCP) changes the heat flux pattern significantly: When the IVCP was not operated, the heat fluxes on inboard divertor (ID), central divertor (CD) and outboard divertor (OD) were similar, but when the IVCP was operated, the heat fluxes on ID and CD were increased slightly and that on OD was decreased by 2–3 times. The heat flux on divertor was decreased from 35 to 26 kW/m"2 with the use of the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP), especially that on CD was decreased by 2–4 times, while that on OD is increased by 2–3 times than without RMP. For the longest H-mode pulse of 22 s shot, the heat flux on lower OD was 73 kW/m"2, which is the maximum heat flux among the shots obtained in 2013 campaign.