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Sample records for flows analytical properties

  1. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature Logging In Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    2008-01-01

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008), we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks

  2. Implementation of a state-to-state analytical framework for the calculation of expansion tube flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. M.; Gildfind, D. E.; Lewis, S. W.; Morgan, R. G.; Zander, F.

    2018-03-01

    Expansion tubes are an important type of test facility for the study of planetary entry flow-fields, being the only type of impulse facility capable of simulating the aerothermodynamics of superorbital planetary entry conditions from 10 to 20 km/s. However, the complex flow processes involved in expansion tube operation make it difficult to fully characterise flow conditions, with two-dimensional full facility computational fluid dynamics simulations often requiring tens or hundreds of thousands of computational hours to complete. In an attempt to simplify this problem and provide a rapid flow condition prediction tool, this paper presents a validated and comprehensive analytical framework for the simulation of an expansion tube facility. It identifies central flow processes and models them from state to state through the facility using established compressible and isentropic flow relations, and equilibrium and frozen chemistry. How the model simulates each section of an expansion tube is discussed, as well as how the model can be used to simulate situations where flow conditions diverge from ideal theory. The model is then validated against experimental data from the X2 expansion tube at the University of Queensland.

  3. Frontier in nanoscale flows fractional calculus and analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Roland; Liu, Hong-yan

    2014-01-01

    This ebook covers the basic properties of nanoscale flows, and various analytical and numerical methods for nanoscale flows and environmental flows. This ebook is a good reference not only for audience of the journal, but also for various communities in mathematics, nanotechnology and environmental science.

  4. Analytical properties of multiple production amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1984-05-01

    Local analytical properties of amplitudes 2..-->..3 and 2..-->..4 are studied. The amplitudes are shown to be analytical functions of total and partial energies at fixed momentum transfers in the neighbourhood of any physical point on the energy shell 14 (for the 2..-->..3 case) and 242 (for the 2..-->..4 case) boundary values are expressed through the amplitudes of real processes.

  5. Analytic properties of the Virasoro modular kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemkov, Nikita [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISIS, The Laboratory of Superconducting metamaterials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-06-15

    On the space of generic conformal blocks the modular transformation of the underlying surface is realized as a linear integral transformation. We show that the analytic properties of conformal block implied by Zamolodchikov's formula are shared by the kernel of the modular transformation and illustrate this by explicit computation in the case of the one-point toric conformal block. (orig.)

  6. SIMMER-III analytic thermophysical property model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K; Tobita, Y.; Kondo, Sa.; Fischer, E.A.

    1999-05-01

    An analytic thermophysical property model using general function forms is developed for a reactor safety analysis code, SIMMER-III. The function forms are designed to represent correct behavior of properties of reactor-core materials over wide temperature ranges, especially for the thermal conductivity and the viscosity near the critical point. The most up-to-date and reliable sources for uranium dioxide, mixed-oxide fuel, stainless steel, and sodium available at present are used to determine parameters in the proposed functions. This model is also designed to be consistent with a SIMMER-III model on thermodynamic properties and equations of state for reactor-core materials. (author)

  7. Analyticity properties of Graham-Witten anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asnin, Vadim

    2008-01-01

    Analytic properties of Graham-Witten anomalies are considered. Weyl anomalies according to their analytic properties are of type A (coming from δ-singularities in correlators of several energy-momentum tensors) or of type B (originating in counterterms which depend logarithmically on a mass scale). It is argued that all Graham-Witten anomalies can be divided into two groups, internal and external, and that all external anomalies are of type B, whereas among internal anomalies there is one term of type A and all the rest are of type B. This argument is checked explicitly for the case of a free scalar field in a six-dimensional space with a two-dimensional submanifold

  8. Analytic approaches to atomic response properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Many important response properties, e.g., multipole polarizabilites and sum rules, photodetachment cross sections, and closely-related long-range dispersion force coefficients, are insensitive to details of electronic structure. In this investigation, analytic asymptotic theories of atomic response properties are constructed that yield results as accurate as those obtained by more elaborate numerical methods. In the first chapter, a novel and simple method is used to determined the multipole sum rules S/sub l/(-k), for positive and negative values of k, of the hydrogen atom and the hydrogen negative ion in the asymptotic approximation. In the second chapter, an analytically-tractable extended asymptotic model for the response properites of weakly-bound anions is proposed and the multipole polarizability, multipole sum rules, and photodetachment cross section determined by the model are computed analytically. Dipole polarizabilities and photodetachment cross sections determined from the model for Li-, Na-, and K- are compared with the numercal results of Moores and Norcross. Agreement is typically within 15% if the pseudopotential is included. In the third chapter a comprehensive and unified treatment of atomic multipole oscillator strengths, dynamic multipole polarizabilites, and dispersion force constants in a variety of Coulomb-like approximations is presented. A theoretically and computationally superior modification of the original Bates-Damgaard (BD) procedure, referred to here as simply the Coulomb approximation (CA), is introduced. An analytic expression for the dynamic multipole polarizability is found which contains as special cases this quantity within the CA, the extended Coulomb approximation (ECA) of Adelman and Szabo, and the quantum defect orbital (QDO) method of Simons

  9. Analytical Models Development of Compact Monopole Vortex Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo V. Lukianov

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The article contains series of the latest analytical models that describe both laminar and turbulent dynamics of monopole vortex flows which have not been reflected in traditional publications up to the present. The further research must be directed to search of analytical models for the coherent vortical structures in flows of viscous fluids, particularly near curved surfaces, where known in hydromechanics “wall law” is disturbed and heat and mass transfer anomalies take place.

  10. Application of system reliability analytical method, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1999-01-01

    The Ship Research Institute proceed a developmental study on GO-FLOW method with various advancing functionalities for the system reliability analysis method occupying main parts of PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). Here was attempted to intend to upgrade functionality of the GO-FLOW method, to develop an analytical function integrated with dynamic behavior analytical function, physical behavior and probable subject transfer, and to prepare a main accident sequence picking-out function. In 1997 fiscal year, in dynamic event-tree analytical system, an analytical function was developed by adding dependency between headings. In simulation analytical function of the accident sequence, main accident sequence of MRX for improved ship propulsion reactor became possible to be covered perfectly. And, input data for analysis was prepared with a function capable easily to set by an analysis operator. (G.K.)

  11. An analytical formulation of thermodynamic properties of dry and metastable steam suitable for computational fluid dynamics modelling of steam turbine flows

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Jan; Pátek, Jaroslav; Duška, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 228, č. 2 (2014), s. 120-128 ISSN 0957-6509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/1593; GA MŠk LG13056 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : metastable steam * thermodynamic properties * computational fluid dynamics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2014 http://pia.sagepub.com/content/228/2.toc

  12. Analytic properties of the whistler dispersion function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The analytic properties of the dispersion function of a whistler are investigated in the complex frequency plane. It possesses a pole and a branch point at a frequency equal to the minimum value of the electron gyrofrequency along the path of propagation. An integral equation relates the dispersion function to the distribution of magnetospheric electrons along the path and the solution of this equation is obtained. It is found that the electron density in the equatorial plane is very simply related to the dispersion function. A discussion of approximate formulae to represent the dispersion shows how particular terms can be related to attributes of the electron density distribution, and a new approximate formula is proposed. (author)

  13. Analytical, numerical, and experimental simulation of tornado flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, S.P.; Krutova, I.Yu.; Obukhov, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that this problem with analytic input data near the point under consideration has a unique analytic solution representable in the form of a convergent series. The analysis of the first coefficients of this series has shown that the circular motion of the gas swirling in the positive direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in the negative direction in the Southern Hemisphere arises immediately at the beginning of the radial flow into the cylinder [ru

  14. Analytical methods for heat transfer and fluid flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This book describes useful analytical methods by applying them to real-world problems rather than solving the usual over-simplified classroom problems. The book demonstrates the applicability of analytical methods even for complex problems and guides the reader to a more intuitive understanding of approaches and solutions. Although the solution of Partial Differential Equations by numerical methods is the standard practice in industries, analytical methods are still important for the critical assessment of results derived from advanced computer simulations and the improvement of the underlying numerical techniques. Literature devoted to analytical methods, however, often focuses on theoretical and mathematical aspects and is therefore useless to most engineers. Analytical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Problems addresses engineers and engineering students. The second edition has been updated, the chapters on non-linear problems and on axial heat conduction problems were extended. And worked out exam...

  15. Flow Injection Analysis: A Revolution in Modern Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1996-01-01

    A review is made of the fundamentals of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), and the versatility and applicability of this analytical concept is demonstrated by a series of examples, comprizing the use of different types of FIA-manifolds and various detection devices (optical and electrochemical...

  16. Analytical study of electron flows with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinov, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of the electron flow behavior by its injection into a half-space is considered. Two problems are considered, namely the long-term injection of a monoenergetic electron flow and instantaneous flow injection with an assigned electron energy spectrum. The all flow electrons in both cases return to the injection plane. The simple analytical self-consistent model of the initial stage of the virtual cathode formation in a plane-parallel equipotential gap is plotted in the course of analysis whereof the duration of the virtual cathode formation process is determined. The performance of this model is not limited by the multivalence of the electron velocity in the flow. This makes it possible to extend the frames of the model performance relative to the moment of the virtual cathode formation and to consider its dynamics. The frequency of electron oscillations in the potential cathode-virtual cathode well is determined on the basis of the above model [ru

  17. Analytical effective tensor for flow-through composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviercoski, Rosangela De Fatima [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-06-19

    A machine, method and computer-usable medium for modeling an average flow of a substance through a composite material. Such a modeling includes an analytical calculation of an effective tensor K.sup.a suitable for use with a variety of media. The analytical calculation corresponds to an approximation to the tensor K, and follows by first computing the diagonal values, and then identifying symmetries of the heterogeneity distribution. Additional calculations include determining the center of mass of the heterogeneous cell and its angle according to a defined Cartesian system, and utilizing this angle into a rotation formula to compute the off-diagonal values and determining its sign.

  18. Equivalent properties for perforated plates. An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepkauskas, M.M.; Yang Jianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Structures that contain perforated plates have been a subject of interest in the Nuclear Industry. Steam generators, condensers and reactor internals utilize plates containing holes which act as flow holes or separate structures from flow by using a 'tube bank' design. The equivalent plate method has been beneficial in analyzing perforate plates. Details are found in various papers found in the bibliography. In addition the ASME code addresses perforated plates in Appendix A-8000, but is limited to a triangular hole pattern. This early work performed in this field utilized test data and analytical approaches. This paper is an examination of an analytical approach for determining equivalent plate mechanical and thermal properties. First a patch of the real plate is identified that provides a model for the necessary physical behavior of the plate. The average strain of this patch is obtained by first applying simplified one dimensional mechanical load to the patch, determining stress as a function of position, converting the stress to strain and then integrating the strain over the patch length. This average strain is then equated to the average strain of an equivalent fictitious rectangular patch. This results in obtaining equivalent Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio for the equivalent plate in all three orthogonal directions. The corresponding equivalent shear modulus in all three directions is then determined. An orthotropic material stress strain matrix relationship is provided for the fictitious properties. By equating the real average strain with the fictitious average strain in matrix form, a stress multiplier is found to convert average fictitious stress to average real stress. This same type of process is repeated for heat conduction coefficients and coefficients of thermal expansion. Results are provided for both a square and triangular hole pattern. Reasonable results are obtained when comparing the effective Young's Modulus and Poison's Ratio with ASME

  19. An analytic model for flow reversal in divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.; Prinja, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    An analytic model is developed and used to study the phenomenon of flow reversal which is observed in two-dimensional simulations of divertor plasmas. The effect is shown to be caused by the radial spread of neutral particles emitted from the divertor target which can lead to a strong peaking of the ionization source at certain radial locations. The results indicate that flow reversal over a portion of the width of the scrape-off layer is inevitable in high recycling conditions. Implications for impurity transport and particle removal in reactors are discussed

  20. Application of analytical procedure on system reliability, GO-FLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    2000-01-01

    In the Ship Research Institute, research and development of GO-FLOW procedure with various advanced functions as a system reliability analysis method occupying main part of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) were promoted. In this study, as an important evaluation technique on executing PSA with lower than level 3, by intending fundamental upgrading of the GO-FLOW procedure, a safety assessment system using the GO-FLOW as well as an analytical function coupling of dynamic behavior analytical function and physical behavior of the system with stochastic phenomenon change were developed. In 1998 fiscal year, preparation and verification of various functions such as dependence addition between the headings, rearrangement in order of time, positioning of same heading to plural positions, calculation of forming frequency with elapsing time were carried out. And, on a simulation analysis function of accident sequence, confirmation on analysis covering all of main accident sequence in the reactor for improved marine reactor, MRX was carried out. In addition, a function near automatically producible on input data for analysis was also prepared. As a result, the conventional analysis not always easy understanding on analytical results except an expert of PSA was solved, and understanding of the accident phenomenon, verification of validity on analysis, feedback to analysis, and feedback to design could be easily carried out. (G.K.)

  1. Analytic properties of many-particle amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, B V; Pavlov, V P; Polivanov, M K; Sukhanov, A D [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Teoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki; AN SSSR, Moscow. Matematicheskij Inst.)

    1982-08-01

    In the framework of N. N. Bogolyubov axiomatic approach the complete proof of the existence of an analytic function the boundary values of which are the amplitudes of any channel of n-particle process is given. The one-particle structure of this function is described.

  2. Analytical Solution for 2D Inter-Well Porous Flow in a Rectangular Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-well fluid flows through porous media are commonly encountered in the production of groundwater, oil, and geothermal energy. In this paper, inter-well porous flow inside a rectangular reservoir is solved based on the complex variable function theory combined with the method of mirror images. In order to derive the solution analytically, the inter-well flow is modeled as a 2D flow in a homogenous and isotropic porous medium. The resulted exact analytical solution takes the form of an infinite series, but it can be truncated to give high accuracy approximation. In terms of nine cases of inter-well porous flow associated with enhanced geothermal systems, the applications of the obtained analytical solution are demonstrated, and the convergence properties of the truncated series are investigated. It is shown that the convergent rate of the truncated series increases with the symmetric level of well distribution inside the reservoir, and the adoption of Euler transform significantly accelerates the convergence of alternating series cases associated with asymmetric well distribution. In principle, the analytical solution proposed in this paper can be applied to other scientific and engineering fields, as long as the involved problem is governed by 2D Laplace equation in a rectangular domain and subject to similar source/sink and boundary conditions, i.e., isolated point sources/sinks and uniform Dirichlet or homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.

  3. Analytic properties of Feynman diagrams in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, I T

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Properties of Feynman Diagrams in Quantum Field Theory deals with quantum field theory, particularly in the study of the analytic properties of Feynman graphs. This book is an elementary presentation of a self-contained exposition of the majorization method used in the study of these graphs. The author has taken the intermediate position between Eden et al. who assumes the physics of the analytic properties of the S-matrix, containing physical ideas and test results without using the proper mathematical methods, and Hwa and Teplitz, whose works are more mathematically inclined with a

  4. Analytical Model of Water Flow in Coal with Active Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemek, Jakub; Stopa, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents new analytical model of gas-water flow in coal seams in one dimension with emphasis on interactions between water flowing in cleats and coal matrix. Coal as a flowing system, can be viewed as a solid organic material consisting of two flow subsystems: a microporous matrix and a system of interconnected macropores and fractures. Most of gas is accumulated in the microporous matrix, where the primary flow mechanism is diffusion. Fractures and cleats existing in coal play an important role as a transportation system for macro scale flow of water and gas governed by Darcy's law. The coal matrix can imbibe water under capillary forces leading to exchange of mass between fractures and coal matrix. In this paper new partial differential equation for water saturation in fractures has been formulated, respecting mass exchange between coal matrix and fractures. Exact analytical solution has been obtained using the method of characteristics. The final solution has very simple form that may be useful for practical engineering calculations. It was observed that the rate of exchange of mass between the fractures and the coal matrix is governed by an expression which is analogous to the Newton cooling law known from theory of heat exchange, but in present case the mass transfer coefficient depends not only on coal and fluid properties but also on time and position. The constant term of mass transfer coefficient depends on relation between micro porosity and macro porosity of coal, capillary forces, and microporous structure of coal matrix. This term can be expressed theoretically or obtained experimentally. W artykule zaprezentowano nowy model matematyczny przepływu wody i gazu w jednowymiarowej warstwie węglowej z uwzględnieniem wymiany masy między systemem szczelin i matrycą węglową. Węgiel jako system przepływowy traktowany jest jako układ o podwójnej porowatości i przepuszczalności, składający się z mikroporowatej matrycy węglowej oraz z

  5. Analytical flow duration curves for summer streamflow in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ana Clara; Portela, Maria Manuela; Rinaldo, Andrea; Schaefli, Bettina

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a systematic assessment of the performance of an analytical modeling framework for streamflow probability distributions for a set of 25 Swiss catchments. These catchments show a wide range of hydroclimatic regimes, including namely snow-influenced streamflows. The model parameters are calculated from a spatially averaged gridded daily precipitation data set and from observed daily discharge time series, both in a forward estimation mode (direct parameter calculation from observed data) and in an inverse estimation mode (maximum likelihood estimation). The performance of the linear and the nonlinear model versions is assessed in terms of reproducing observed flow duration curves and their natural variability. Overall, the nonlinear model version outperforms the linear model for all regimes, but the linear model shows a notable performance increase with catchment elevation. More importantly, the obtained results demonstrate that the analytical model performs well for summer discharge for all analyzed streamflow regimes, ranging from rainfall-driven regimes with summer low flow to snow and glacier regimes with summer high flow. These results suggest that the model's encoding of discharge-generating events based on stochastic soil moisture dynamics is more flexible than previously thought. As shown in this paper, the presence of snowmelt or ice melt is accommodated by a relative increase in the discharge-generating frequency, a key parameter of the model. Explicit quantification of this frequency increase as a function of mean catchment meteorological conditions is left for future research.

  6. Analytical Tools to Improve Optimization Procedures for Lateral Flow Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen V. Hsieh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunochromatographic or lateral flow assays (LFAs are inexpensive, easy to use, point-of-care medical diagnostic tests that are found in arenas ranging from a doctor’s office in Manhattan to a rural medical clinic in low resource settings. The simplicity in the LFA itself belies the complex task of optimization required to make the test sensitive, rapid and easy to use. Currently, the manufacturers develop LFAs by empirical optimization of material components (e.g., analytical membranes, conjugate pads and sample pads, biological reagents (e.g., antibodies, blocking reagents and buffers and the design of delivery geometry. In this paper, we will review conventional optimization and then focus on the latter and outline analytical tools, such as dynamic light scattering and optical biosensors, as well as methods, such as microfluidic flow design and mechanistic models. We are applying these tools to find non-obvious optima of lateral flow assays for improved sensitivity, specificity and manufacturing robustness.

  7. Cryogenic parallel, single phase flows: an analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, R.

    2017-02-01

    Managing the cryogenic flows inside a state-of-the-art accelerator cryomodule has become a demanding endeavour: In order to build highly efficient modules, all heat transfers are usually intercepted at various temperatures. For a multi-cavity module, operated at 1.8 K, this requires intercepts at 4 K and at 80 K at different locations with sometimes strongly varying heat loads which for simplicity reasons are operated in parallel. This contribution will describe an analytical approach, based on optimization theories.

  8. Analytical study of solids-gas two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Minoru

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental studies were made on the hydrodynamics of solids-gas two-phase suspension flow, in which very small solid particles are mixed in a gas flow to enhance the heat transfer characteristics of gas cooled high temperature reactors. Especially, the pressure drop due to friction and the density distribution of solid particles are theoretically analyzed. The friction pressure drop of two-phase flow was analyzed based on the analytical result of the single-phase friction pressure drop. The calculated values of solid/gas friction factor as a function of solid/gas mass loading are compared with experimental results. Comparisons are made for Various combinations of Reynolds number and particle size. As for the particle density distribution, some factors affecting the non-uniformity of distribution were considered. The minimum of energy dispersion was obtained with the variational principle. The suspension density of particles was obtained as a function of relative distance from wall and was compared with experimental results. It is concluded that the distribution is much affected by the particle size and that the smaller particles are apt to gather near the wall. (Aoki, K.)

  9. Big data analytics : predicting traffic flow regimes from simulated connected vehicle messages using data analytics and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-25

    The key objectives of this study were to: 1. Develop advanced analytical techniques that make use of a dynamically configurable connected vehicle message protocol to predict traffic flow regimes in near-real time in a virtual environment and examine ...

  10. Comparison of analytic models of instability of rarefied gas flow in a channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenova, Olga A. [St.-Petersburg State University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 198504, Universitetskiy pr., 28, Peterhof, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Khalidov, Iskander A. [St.-Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, 195251, Polytechnicheskaya ul., 29, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    Numerical and analytical results are compared concerning the limit properties of the trajectories, attractors and bifurcations of rarefied gas flows in channels. The cascade of bifurcations obtained in our previous analytical and numerical investigations is simulated numerically for different scattering functions V generalizing the ray-diffuse reflection of gas particles from the surface. The main purpose of numerical simulation by Monte Carlo method is the investigation of the properties of different analytic nonlinear dynamic systems corresponding to rarefied gas flow in a channel. The results are compared as well for the models suggested originally by R. N. Miroshin, as for the approximations considered for the first time or for studied in our subsequent papers. Analytical solutions we obtained earlier for the ray reflection which means only one determined velocity of scattered from the walls gas atoms, generally different from the specular reflection. The nonlinear iterative equation describing a rarefied gas flow in a long channel becomes unstable in some regions of corresponding parameters of V (it means the sensitivity to boundary conditions). The values of the parameters are found from analytical approximations in these regions. Numerical results show that the chaotic behavior of the nonlinear dynamic system corresponds to strange attractors and distinguishes clearly from Maxwellian distribution and from the equilibrium on the whole. In the regions of instability (as the dimension of the attractor increases) the search for a corresponding state requires a lot more computation time and a lot of data (the amount of data required increases exponentially with embedding dimension). Therefore the main complication in the computation is reducing as well the computing time as the amount of data to find a suitably close solution. To reduce the computing time our analytical results are applied. Flow conditions satisfying the requirements to the experiment are

  11. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  12. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Kaoui, Badr; L'vov, Victor S; Procaccia, Itamar; Rudenko, Oleksii; ten Thije Boonkkamp, J H M; Toschi, Federico

    2012-07-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles. The rotation of the nanoparticles has a twofold effect: it induces a fluid advection around the particle and it strongly influences the statistical distribution of particle orientations. These dynamical effects, which were not included in existing thermal models, are responsible for changing the thermal properties of flowing fluids as compared to quiescent fluids. The proposed model is strongly supported by extensive numerical simulations, demonstrating a potential increase of the heat flux far beyond the Maxwell-Garnett limit for the spherical nanoparticles. The road ahead, which should lead toward robust predictive models of heat flux enhancement, is discussed.

  13. Analytical treatment of gas flows through multilayer insulation, project 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system was made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was also investigated. It was shown that when the relaxation time is less than the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given and comparisons with experimental data were made.

  14. Physical properties corresponding to vortical flow geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K, E-mail: nakayama@aitech.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We examine a vortical flow geometry specified by the velocity gradient tensor ∇v, and derive properties representing the symmetry (axisymmetry or skewness) of the vortical flow in the swirl plane and a property specifying inflowing (outflowing) motion in all directions around the point. We focus on the radial and azimuthal velocities in a plane nonparallel to the eigenvector corresponding to the real eigenvalue of ∇v and show that these components are expressed as specific quadratic forms. The real and imaginary parts of the complex eigenvalues of ∇v represent averages of these eigenvalues of the quadratic forms, and are inadequate to specify the detailed flow geometry uniquely. The new properties complement specifying the precise flow geometry of the vortical flow.

  15. Data analytics and parallel-coordinate materials property charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Jeffrey M.

    2018-01-01

    It is often advantageous to display material properties relationships in the form of charts that highlight important correlations and thereby enhance our understanding of materials behavior and facilitate materials selection. Unfortunately, in many cases, these correlations are highly multidimensional in nature, and one typically employs low-dimensional cross-sections of the property space to convey some aspects of these relationships. To overcome some of these difficulties, in this work we employ methods of data analytics in conjunction with a visualization strategy, known as parallel coordinates, to represent better multidimensional materials data and to extract useful relationships among properties. We illustrate the utility of this approach by the construction and systematic analysis of multidimensional materials properties charts for metallic and ceramic systems. These charts simplify the description of high-dimensional geometry, enable dimensional reduction and the identification of significant property correlations and underline distinctions among different materials classes.

  16. Hepatocyte-based flow analytical bioreactor for xenobiotics metabolism bioprediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Helvenstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research for new in vitro screening tools for predictive metabolic profiling of drug candidates is of major interest in the pharmaceutical field. The main motivation is to avoid late rejection in drug development and to deliver safer drugs to the market. Thanks to the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles, a flow bioreactor has been developed which is able to perform xenobiotic metabolism studies. The selected cell line (HepaRG maintained its metabolic competencies once iron oxide nanoparticles were internalized. Based on magnetically trapped cells in a homemade immobilization chamber, through which a flow of circulating phase was injected to transport nutrients and/or the studied xenobiotic, off-line and online (when coupled to a high-performance liquid chromatography chain metabolic assays were developed using diclofenac as a reference compound. The diclofenac demonstrated a similar metabolization profile chromatogram, both with the newly developed setup and with the control situation. Highly versatile, this pioneering and innovative instrumental design paves the way for a new approach in predictive metabolism studies.

  17. Convergence and analytic properties of manifestly finite perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses more carefully the ultraviolet convergence properties of Feynman diagrams in recently proposed manifestly finite perturbation expansions. Speccifically, he refines one of the constraints on the γ's-the noncanonical dimensions-such that, when satisfied, any general product-type interaction of massive scalar, fermion and vector fields yields finite perturbation expansions requiring no conventional renormalization procedure. Moreover, the analytic properties of the Feynman integrals in the theory are discussed and concluded with remarks on the necessity of a modified Kaellen-Lehmann representation

  18. Analytical properties of time-of-flight PET data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Quanzheng, Li; Leahy, Richard M [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: leahy@sipi.usc.edu

    2008-06-07

    We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data.

  19. Analytical properties of time-of-flight PET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M.

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data.

  20. Analytical properties of time-of-flight PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data

  1. Analytical properties of time-of-flight PET data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sanghee; Ahn, Sangtae; Li Quanzheng; Leahy, Richard M [Signal and Image Processing Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)], E-mail: leahy@sipi.usc.edu

    2008-06-07

    We investigate the analytical properties of time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET) sinograms, where the data are modeled as line integrals weighted by a spatially invariant TOF kernel. First, we investigate the Fourier transform properties of 2D TOF data and extend the 'bow-tie' property of the 2D Radon transform to the time-of-flight case. Second, we describe a new exact Fourier rebinning method, TOF-FOREX, based on the Fourier transform in the time-of-flight variable. We then combine TOF-FOREX rebinning with a direct extension of the projection slice theorem to TOF data, to perform fast 3D TOF PET image reconstruction. Finally, we illustrate these properties using simulated data.

  2. An analytical model for annular flow boiling heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, A.; Hassan, I.

    2009-01-01

    An analytical model has been developed to predict flow boiling heat transfer coefficient in microchannel heat sinks. The new analytical model is proposed to predict the two-phase heat transfer coefficient during annular flow regime based on the separated model. Opposing to the majority of annular flow heat transfer models, the model is based on fundamental conservation principles. The model considers the characteristics of microchannel heat sink during annular flow and eliminates using any empirical closure relations. Comparison with limited experimental data was found to validate the usefulness of this analytical model. The model predicts the experimental data with a mean absolute error 8%. (author)

  3. Analytical properties of the radiance in atmospheric radiative transfer theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    It is demonstrated mathematically strictly that state density functions, as the radiance (specific intensity), exist to describe certain state properties of transported photons on microscopic and the state of the radiation field on macroscopic scale, which have independent physical meanings. Analytical properties as boundedness, continuity, differentiability and integrability of these functions to describe the photon transport are discussed. It is shown that the density functions may be derived based on the assumption of photons as real particles of non-zero and finite size, independently of usual electrodynamics, and certain historically postulated functional relationships between them were proved, that is, these functions can be derived mathematically strictly and consistently within the framework of the theory of the phenomenological radiative transfer if one takes the theory seriously by really assuming photons as particles. In this sense these functions may be treated as fundamental physical quantities within the scope of this theory, if one considers the possibility of the existence of photons. -- Highlights: • Proof of existence of the radiance within the scope of the theory of atmospheric radiative transfer. • Proof of relations between the photon number and photon energy density function and the radiance. • Strictly mathematical derivation of the analytical properties of these state density functions

  4. Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.

  5. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... methods known as the analytical network process (ANP) is used to map the ..... ciated in any prospective way, through feedbacks ..... slide susceptibility by means of multivariate statistical .... and bivariate statistics: A case study in southern Italy;. Nat. ... combination applied to Tevankarai Stream Watershed,.

  6. Information-analytical support of management company cash flow

    OpenAIRE

    Golovko, V.; Mysaka, G.

    2010-01-01

    Article is dedicated to study of the actual questions of the improvement of the dataware and methodic of the economic analysis of the cash and flow in process of the optimization of management company financial resource.

  7. An analytical solution for the Marangoni mixed convection boundary layer flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, M. A.; Kimiaeifar, Amin; Rahimpour, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an analytical solution for a Marangoni mixed convection boundary layer flow is presented. A similarity transform reduces the Navier-Stokes equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which are solved analytically by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM...... the convergence of the solution. The numerical solution of the similarity equations is developed and the results are in good agreement with the analytical results based on the HAM....

  8. Analytical simulations in the field of two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1978-01-01

    Power reactors are designed with engineered safeguards to cope with the consequences of possible failures or malfunctions. Experiments are carried out to verify the analytical simulations used in the design of these engineered safeguards. The paper discusses the basis for the verification of the analytical simulations, the requirements of corresponding experiments used to validitate the analysis and the necessary boundary conditions of the experiment as well as of the reactor systems. A detailed description of a typical boundary condition for real reactor systems is shown to be important, if experimental observations are to be interpreted correctly. Finally, the question will be addressed whether experiments on a larger scale than 1/1000 or 1/100 are necessary to extrapolate experimental observatons to a full scale reactor situation. (author)

  9. MAR flow mapping of Analytical Chemistry Operations (Preliminary Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The recently released Supplemental Directive, NA-1 SD 1027, updates the radionuclide threshold values in DOE-STD-1027-92 CN1 to reflect the use of modern parameters for dose conversion factors and breathing rates. The directive also corrects several arithmetic errors within the original standard. The result is a roughly four-fold increase in the amount of weapons-grade nuclear material allowed within a designated radiological facility. Radiological laboratory space within the recently constructed Radiological Laboratory Office and Utility Building (RLUOB) is slated to house selected analytical chemistry support activities in addition to small-scale actinide R and D activities. RLUOB is within the same facility operations envelope as TA-55. Consolidation of analytical chemistry activities to RLUOB and PF-4 offers operational efficiency improvements relative to the current pre-CMRR plans of dividing these activities between RLUOB, PF-4, and CMR. RLUOB is considered a Radiological Facility under STD-1027 - 'Facilities that do not meet or exceed Category 3 threshold criteria but still possess some amount of radioactive material may be considered Radiological Facilities.' The supplemental directive essentially increases the allowable material-at-risk (MAR) within radiological facilities from 8.4 g to 38.6 g for 239 Pu. This increase in allowable MAR provides a unique opportunity to establish additional analytical chemistry support functions in RLUOB without negatively impacting either R and D activities or facility operations. Individual radiological facilities are tasked to determine MAR limits (up to the Category 3 thresholds) appropriate to their operational conditions. This study presents parameters that impact establishing MAR limits for RLUOB and an assessment of how various analytical chemistry support functions could operate within the established MAR limits.

  10. An analytical study on groundwater flow in drainage basins with horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Zhi; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong

    2014-06-01

    Analytical studies on release/capture zones are often limited to a uniform background groundwater flow. In fact, for basin-scale problems, the undulating water table would lead to the development of hierarchically nested flow systems, which are more complex than a uniform flow. Under the premise that the water table is a replica of undulating topography and hardly influenced by wells, an analytical solution of hydraulic head is derived for a two-dimensional cross section of a drainage basin with horizontal injection/pumping wells. Based on the analytical solution, distributions of hydraulic head, stagnation points and flow systems (including release/capture zones) are explored. The superposition of injection/pumping wells onto the background flow field leads to the development of new internal stagnation points and new flow systems (including release/capture zones). Generally speaking, the existence of n injection/pumping wells would result in up to n new internal stagnation points and up to 2n new flow systems (including release/capture zones). The analytical study presented, which integrates traditional well hydraulics with the theory of regional groundwater flow, is useful in understanding basin-scale groundwater flow influenced by human activities.

  11. Analytic properties of finite-temperature self-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, H. Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The analytic properties in the energy variable k 0 of finite-temperature self-energies are investigated. A typical branch cut results from n particles being emitted into the heat bath and n ' being absorbed from the heat bath. There are three main results: First, in addition to the branch points at which the cuts terminate, there are also branch points attached to the cuts along their length. Second, branch points at k 0 =±k are ubiquitous and for massive particles they are essential singularities. Third, in a perturbative expansion using free particle propagators or in a resummed expansion in which the propagator pole occurs at a real energy, the self-energy will have a branch point at the pole location

  12. Average properties of bidisperse bubbly flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-García, J. C.; Mendez-Díaz, S.; Zenit, R.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed in a vertical channel to study the properties of a bubbly flow composed of two distinct bubble size species. Bubbles were produced using a capillary bank with tubes with two distinct inner diameters; the flow through each capillary size was controlled such that the amount of large or small bubbles could be controlled. Using water and water-glycerin mixtures, a wide range of Reynolds and Weber number ranges were investigated. The gas volume fraction ranged between 0.5% and 6%. The measurements of the mean bubble velocity of each species and the liquid velocity variance were obtained and contrasted with the monodisperse flows with equivalent gas volume fractions. We found that the bidispersity can induce a reduction of the mean bubble velocity of the large species; for the small size species, the bubble velocity can be increased, decreased, or remain unaffected depending of the flow conditions. The liquid velocity variance of the bidisperse flows is, in general, bound by the values of the small and large monodisperse values; interestingly, in some cases, the liquid velocity fluctuations can be larger than either monodisperse case. A simple model for the liquid agitation for bidisperse flows is proposed, with good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  13. On the Analytical Solution of Non-Orthogonal Stagnation Point Flow towards a Stretching Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Bagheri, G. H.; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    An analytical solution for non-orthogonal stagnation point for the steady flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid is presented. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations for the flow field are reduced to ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations existed...... in the literature and are solved analytically by means of the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The comparison of results from this paper and those published in the literature confirms the precise accuracy of the HAM. The resulting analytical equation from HAM is valid for entire physical domain and effective...

  14. Analytical modeling for heat transfer in sheared flows of nanofluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, C.; Kaoui, B.; L'vov, V.S.; Procaccia, I.; Rudenko, O.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Toschi, F.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a model for the enhancement of the heat flux by spherical and elongated nanoparticles in sheared laminar flows of nanofluids. Besides the heat flux carried by the nanoparticles, the model accounts for the contribution of their rotation to the heat flux inside and outside the particles.

  15. An analytical model on thermal performance evaluation of counter flow wet cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analytical model for simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes in a counter flow wet cooling tower, with the assumption that the enthalpy of the saturated air is a linear function of the water surface temperature. The performance of the proposed analytical model is validated in some typical cases. The validation reveals that, when cooling range is in a certain interval, the proposed model is not only comparable with the accurate model, but also can reduce computational complexity. In addition, with the proposed analytical model, the thermal performance of the counter flow wet cooling towers in power plants is calculated. The results show that the proposed analytical model can be applied to evaluate and predict the thermal performance of counter flow wet cooling towers.

  16. Semi-analytical Study of a One-dimensional Contaminant Flow in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual method was used to solve a one- dimensional contaminant flow problem in this paper. The governing equation of the contaminant flow, which is characterized by advection, dispersion and adsorption was discretized and solved to obtain the semi-analytical solution.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF : ANALYTIC ELEMENT MODELING OF GROUND-WATER FLOW AND HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several advances in the analytic element method have been made to enhance its performance and facilitate three-dimensional ground-water flow modeling in a regional aquifer setting. First, a new public domain modular code (ModAEM) has been developed for modeling ground-water flow ...

  18. An analytical solution for Dean flow in curved ducts with rectangular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, M.; Biglari, N.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a full analytical solution for incompressible flow inside the curved ducts with rectangular cross-section is presented for the first time. The perturbation method is applied to solve the governing equations and curvature ratio is considered as the perturbation parameter. The previous perturbation solutions are usually restricted to the flow in curved circular or annular pipes related to the overly complex form of solutions or singularity situation for flow in curved ducts with non-circular shapes of cross section. This issue specifies the importance of analytical studies in the field of Dean flow inside the non-circular ducts. In this study, the main flow velocity, stream function of lateral velocities (secondary flows), and flow resistance ratio in rectangular curved ducts are obtained analytically. The effect of duct curvature and aspect ratio on flow field is investigated as well. Moreover, it is important to mention that the current analytical solution is able to simulate the Taylor-Görtler and Dean vortices (vortices in stable and unstable situations) in curved channels.

  19. Transient flow between aquifers and surface water: analytically derived field-scale hydraulic heads and fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of catchment-scale and basin-scale models of the hydrological cycle makes it desirable to have a simple, yet physically realistic model for lateral subsurface water flow. As a first building block towards such a model, analytical solutions are presented for horizontal groundwater flow to surface waters held at prescribed water levels for aquifers with parallel and radial flow. The solutions are valid for a wide array of initial and boundary conditions and additions or withdrawals of water, and can handle discharge into as well as lateral infiltration from the surface water. Expressions for the average hydraulic head, the flux to or from the surface water, and the aquifer-scale hydraulic conductivity are developed to provide output at the scale of the modelled system rather than just point-scale values. The upscaled conductivity is time-variant. It does not depend on the magnitude of the flux but is determined by medium properties as well as the external forcings that drive the flow. For the systems studied, with lateral travel distances not exceeding 10 m, the circular aquifers respond very differently from the infinite-strip aquifers. The modelled fluxes are sensitive to the magnitude of the storage coefficient. For phreatic aquifers a value of 0.2 is argued to be representative, but considerable variations are likely. The effect of varying distributions over the day of recharge damps out rapidly; a soil water model that can provide accurate daily totals is preferable over a less accurate model hat correctly estimates the timing of recharge peaks.

  20. An Analytical Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Flow Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    .... The analytical solution presented here provides insight into the scaling laws governing fill times and resin inlet placement as a function of the properties of the preform, distribution media, and resin...

  1. The average-shadowing property and topological ergodicity for flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Rongbao; Guo Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the transitive property for a flow without sensitive dependence on initial conditions is studied and it is shown that a Lyapunov stable flow with the average-shadowing property on a compact metric space is topologically ergodic

  2. Extension of analytical indicial aerodynamics to generic trapezoidal wings in subsonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea DA RONCH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytical indicial aerodynamic functions are calculated for several trapezoidal wings in subsonic flow, with a Mach number 0.3 ≤ Ma ≤ 0.7. The formulation herein proposed extends well-known aerodynamic theories, which are limited to thin aerofoils in incompressible flow, to generic trapezoidal wing planforms. Firstly, a thorough study is executed to assess the accuracy and limitation of analytical predictions, using unsteady results from two state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics solvers as cross-validated benchmarks. Indicial functions are calculated for a step change in the angle of attack and for a sharp-edge gust, each for four wing configurations and three Mach numbers. Then, analytical and computational indicial responses are used to predict dynamic derivatives and the maximum lift coefficient following an encounter with a one-minus-cosine gust. It is found that the analytical results are in excellent agreement with the computational results for all test cases. In particular, the deviation of the analytical results from the computational results is within the scatter or uncertainty in the data arising from using two computational fluid dynamics solvers. This indicates the usefulness of the developed analytical theories. Keywords: Analytical approach, CFD, Compressible flow, Gust response, Indicial aerodynamics, Trapezoidal wing

  3. An analytical phantom for the evaluation of medical flow imaging algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaei, A; Fatouraee, N

    2009-01-01

    Blood flow characteristics (e.g. velocity, pressure, shear stress, streamline and volumetric flow rate) are effective tools in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerotic plaque, aneurism and cardiac muscle failure. Noninvasive estimation of cardiovascular blood flow characteristics is mostly limited to the measurement of velocity components by medical imaging modalities. Once the velocity field is obtained from the images, other flow characteristics within the cardiovascular system can be determined using algorithms relating them to the velocity components. In this work, we propose an analytical flow phantom to evaluate these algorithms accurately. The Navier-Stokes equations are used to derive this flow phantom. The exact solution of these equations obtains analytical expression for the flow characteristics inside the domain. Features such as pulsatility, incompressibility and viscosity of flow are included in a three-dimensional domain. The velocity domain of the resulted system is presented as reference images. These images could be employed to evaluate the performance of different flow characteristic algorithms. In this study, we also present some applications of the obtained phantom. The calculation of pressure domain from velocity data, volumetric flow rate, wall shear stress and particle trace are the characteristics whose algorithms are evaluated here. We also present the application of this phantom in the analysis of noisy and low-resolution images. The presented phantom can be considered as a benchmark test to compare the accuracy of different flow characteristic algorithms.

  4. Five-point Element Scheme of Finite Analytic Method for Unsteady Groundwater Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Bo; Mi Xiao; Ji Changming; Luo Qingsong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the finite analytic method's adaptability for irregular unit, by using coordinates rotation technique this paper establishes a five-point element scheme of finite analytic method. It not only solves unsteady groundwater flow equation but also gives the boundary condition. This method can be used to calculate the three typical questions of groundwater. By compared with predecessor's computed result, the result of this method is more satisfactory.

  5. Fluid-elastic instability in a confined annular flow: an experimental and analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcher, G.; Langre, E. de

    1996-12-31

    Self excitation of slender structures under axial flow have been reported in a large variety of local flow configurations. This paper reports the result of a research program, both experimental and analytical, aimed at the result of the basic phenomena leading to such instabilities. A cylindrical body with a diffuser is put in a confined annular flow of water. A case of flutter is observed and analysed with a classical potential flow method and with a friction based model. Closed-form solutions are proposed and the origin of the flutter instability is discussed. (authors). 25 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. An analytical solution to the heat transfer problem in thick-walled hunt flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluck, Michael J; Wolfendale, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Convective heat transfer in Hunt type flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct. • Analytical solution to the H1 constant peripheral temperature in a rectangular duct. • New H1 result demonstrating the enhancement of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Analytical solution to the H2 constant peripheral heat flux in a rectangular duct. • New H2 result demonstrating the reduction of heat transfer due to flow distortion by the applied magnetic field. • Results are important for validation of CFD in magnetohydrodynamics and for implementation of systems code approaches. - Abstract: The flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct, subject to a strong transverse magnetic field is of interest in a number of applications. An important application of such flows is in the context of coolants in fusion reactors, where heat is transferred to a lead-lithium eutectic. It is vital, therefore, that the heat transfer mechanisms are understood. Forced convection heat transfer is strongly dependent on the flow profile. In the hydrodynamic case, Nusselt numbers and the like, have long been well characterised in duct geometries. In the case of liquid metals in strong magnetic fields (magnetohydrodynamics), the flow profiles are very different and one can expect a concomitant effect on convective heat transfer. For fully developed laminar flows, the magnetohydrodynamic problem can be characterised in terms of two coupled partial differential equations. The problem of heat transfer for perfectly electrically insulating boundaries (Shercliff case) has been studied previously (Bluck et al., 2015). In this paper, we demonstrate corresponding analytical solutions for the case of conducting hartmann walls of arbitrary thickness. The flow is very different from the Shercliff case, exhibiting jets near the side walls and core flow suppression which have profound effects on heat transfer.

  7. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the 'flow monograms' describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the 'interface monograms', whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system 'operational monogram'. The 'operational monogram' enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop

  8. Analytical solution of laminar-laminar stratified two-phase flows with curved interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, N.; Rovinsky, J.; Maron, D.M. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel)

    1995-09-01

    The present study represents a complete analytical solution for laminar two-phase flows with curved interfaces. The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the two-phases in bipolar coordinates provides the `flow monograms` describe the relation between the interface curvature and the insitu flow geometry when given the phases flow rates and viscosity ratios. Energy considerations are employed to construct the `interface monograms`, whereby the characteristic interfacial curvature is determined in terms of the phases insitu holdup, pipe diameter, surface tension, fluids/wall adhesion and gravitation. The two monograms are then combined to construct the system `operational monogram`. The `operational monogram` enables the determination of the interface configuration, the local flow characteristics, such as velocity profiles, wall and interfacial shear stresses distribution as well as the integral characteristics of the two-phase flow: phases insitu holdup and pressure drop.

  9. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.

    2013-01-25

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  10. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.; Schotting, R.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  11. Analytical Solution of Unsteady Gravity Flows of A Power-Law Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present an analytical study of unsteady non-linear rheological effects of a power-law fluid under gravity. The fluid flows through a porous medium. The governing equations are derived and similarity solutions are determined. The results show the existence of traveling waves. It is assumed that the viscosity is temperature ...

  12. An Experimental and analytical study on the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition based on the void wave instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa

    1995-02-01

    An experimental and analytical work is performed to investigate the relation between the developing phenomena in bubble flow and the propagation phenomena of void waves. For this purpose, the structural developments in bubble flow and the propagation property of void waves are measured over a broad range of flow conditions including the bubble-to-slug flow regime transition (BSFRT) region. And a linear stability analysis is performed, based on the two-fluid model, to establish the analytical model on the wave propagation parameters, and the predictability of the model is validated by comparing analytical results with experimental observations. In the experimental work, an impedance void meter is developed to measure the void fraction, and a series of test are performed by varying the bubble size in order to investigate the bubble size effect on the bubble flow structures for various flow conditions. Statistical signal processing techniques are applied to void signals in order to objectively identify the changing modes of bubble flow structures and to estimate the wave propagation properties. The impedance void meter developed in this study showed very good temporal and spatial resolutions enough to identify the developing phenomena in bubble flow structures and to investigate the void wave propagations, and the void distribution effect could be minimized by electrically shielding the guard electrodes. It was also designed so that the inherent errors due to the phase shifts between channels be negligible. Various features occurred in the transitional process of bubble flow could be objectively identified by introducing some statistical parameters evaluated from void signals. Two distinct modes of structural development in bubble flow were observed in the transitional process, and they are found to be much influenced by the initial bubble size. And the mechanism to govern BSFRT could be characterized by two ways depending on the developing modes of bubble flow

  13. Local properties of analytic functions and non-standard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brian, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    This is an expository account which shows how the methods of non-standard analysis can be applied to prove the Nullstellensatz for germs of analytic functions. This method of proof was discovered originally by Abraham Robinson. The necessary concepts from model theory are described in some detail and the Nullstellensatz is proved by investigating the relation between the set of infinitesimal elements in the complex n-plane and the spectrum of the ring of germs of analytic functions. (author)

  14. Analytical method for predicting plastic flow in notched fiber composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, P.L.; Ebert, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical system was developed for prediction of the onset and progress of plastic flow of oriented fiber composite materials in which both externally applied complex stress states and stress raisers were present. The predictive system was a unique combination of two numerical systems, the ''SAAS II'' finite element analysis system and a micromechanics finite element program. The SAAS II system was used to generate the three-dimensional stress distributions, which were used as the input into the finite element micromechanics program. Appropriate yielding criteria were then applied to this latter program. The accuracy of the analytical system was demonstrated by the agreement between the analytically predicted and the experimentally measured flow values of externally notched tungsten wire reinforced copper oriented fiber composites, in which the fiber fraction was 50 vol pct

  15. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  16. An analytic, approximate method for modeling steady, three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2001-05-01

    An analytic, approximate solution is derived for the modeling of three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells. The solution is written in terms of a correction on the solution for a fully penetrating well and is obtained by dividing the aquifer up, locally, in a number of aquifer layers. The resulting system of differential equations is solved by application of the theory for multiaquifer flow. The presented approach has three major benefits. First, the solution may be applied to any groundwater model that can simulate flow to a fully penetrating well; the solution may be superimposed onto the solution for the fully penetrating well to simulate the local three-dimensional drawdown and flow field. Second, the approach is applicable to isotropic, anisotropic, and stratified aquifers and to both confined and unconfined flow. Third, the solution extends over a small area around the well only; outside this area the three-dimensional effect of the partially penetrating well is negligible, and no correction to the fully penetrating well is needed. A number of comparisons are made to existing three-dimensional, analytic solutions, including radial confined and unconfined flow and a well in a uniform flow field. It is shown that a subdivision in three layers is accurate for many practical cases; very accurate solutions are obtained with more layers.

  17. Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.

  18. An analytical model for prediction of two-phase (noncondensable) flow pump performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, O.

    1985-01-01

    During operational transients or a hypothetical LOCA (loss of coolant accident) condition, the recirculating coolant of PWR (pressurized water reactor) may flash into steam due to a loss of line pressure. Under such two-phase flow conditions, it is well known that the recirculation pump becomes unable to generate the same head as that of the single-phase flow case. Similar situations also exist in oil well submersible pumps where a fair amount of gas is contained in oil. Based on the one dimensional control volume method, an analytical method has been developed to determine the performance of pumps operating under two-phase flow conditions. The analytical method has incorporated pump geometry, void fraction, flow slippage and flow regime into the basic formula, but neglected the compressibility and condensation effects. During the course of model development, it has been found that the head degradation is mainly caused by higher acceleration on liquid phase and deceleration on gas phase than in the case of single-phase flows. The numerical results for head degradations and torques obtained with the model favorably compared with the air/water two-phase flow test data of Babcock and Wilcox (1/3 scale) and Creare (1/20 scale) pumps

  19. Analytical study on coolant temperature of several leak flows in the experimental VHTr core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoh; Arai, Taketoshi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1982-08-01

    This report describes heat transfer analysis of several leak flows which bypass main coolant flow path in the experimental VHTR core. The analysis contains the leak flow at permanent reflectors, replaceable reflectors and gaps between fuel columns. The summary of the results are as follows: (1) the temperature of the leak flow gas increases up to the surface temperature of permanent reflectors, (2) the gas temperature at replaceable reflectors increases at least 40 0 C in case of the worst analytical condition, (3) the gas temperature increases remarkably with decreasing equivalent diameter which is changed by the angle of bevel edge of the reflector, (4) while the gas temperature is low at the upper part of the fuel element, the temperature increases rapidly when it flow down along the gap of the fuel columns. (author)

  20. Analytical and experimental investigations of magnetohydrodynamic flows near the entrance to a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Dauzvardis, P.V.; Walker, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A program of analytical and experimental investigations in MHD flows has been established at Argonne National Lab. (ANL) within the framework of the Blanket Technology Program. An experimental facility for such investigations has been built and is being operated at ANL. The investigations carried out on the Argonne Liquid-Metal engineering EXperiment (ALEX) are complemented by analysis carried out at the Univ. of Illinois. The first phase of the experimental program is devoted to investigations of well-defined cases for which analytical solutions exist. Such testing will allow validation and increased confidence in the theory. Because analytical solutions exist for only a few cases, which do not cover the entire range of anticipated flow behavior, confining testing to these cases will not be an adequate validation of the theory. For this reason, this phase involves testing and a companion analytical effort aimed toward obtaining solutions for a broad range of cases, which, although simple in geometry, are believed to encompass the range of flow phenomena relevant to fusion. This parallel approach is necessary so that analysis will guide and help plan the experiments, whereas the experimental results will provide information needed to validate and/or refine the analysis

  1. Electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flow of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels: Analytical and semi-analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrás, L. L.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.; Nóbrega, J. M.; Pinho, F. T.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we present a series of solutions for combined electro-osmotic and pressure-driven flows of viscoelastic fluids in microchannels. The solutions are semi-analytical, a feature made possible by the use of the Debye-Hückel approximation for the electrokinetic fields, thus restricted to cases with small electric double-layers, in which the distance between the microfluidic device walls is at least one order of magnitude larger than the electric double-layer thickness. To describe the complex fluid rheology, several viscoelastic differential constitutive models were used, namely, the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model with linear, quadratic or exponential kernel for the stress coefficient function, the Johnson-Segalman model, and the Giesekus model. The results obtained illustrate the effects of the Weissenberg number, the Johnson-Segalman slip parameter, the Giesekus mobility parameter, and the relative strengths of the electro-osmotic and pressure gradient-driven forcings on the dynamics of these viscoelastic flows.

  2. Symmetry orbits and their data-analytic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos A.G. Viana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of data indexed by finite symmetry orbits is reviewed within the data-analytic framework of symmetry studies. Data decompositions are discussed in terms of canonical projections and Plancherel’s formulas, and interpreted in terms of orbit invariants.

  3. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal; Wibowo, Aris T.; Rahmawati, Silvya D.; Yasutra, Amega; Sukarno, Pudjo

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  4. An Analytical Model for Multilayer Well Production Evaluation to Overcome Cross-Flow Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    One of the major concerns in a multi-layer system is that interlayer cross-flow may occur if reservoir fluids are produced from commingled layers that have unequal initial pressures. Reservoir would commonly have bigger average reservoir pressure (pore fluid pressure) as it goes deeper. The phenomenon is, however, not followed by the reservoir productivity or injectivity. The existence of reservoir with quite low average-pressure and high injectivity would tend experiencing the cross-flow problem. It is a phenomenon of fluid from bottom layer flowing into upper layer. It would strict upper-layer fluid to flow into wellbore. It is as if there is an injection treatment from bottom layer. The study deploys productivity index an approach parameter taking into account of cross-flow problem instead of injectivity index since it is a production well. The analytical study is to model the reservoir multilayer by addressing to avoid cross-flow problem. The analytical model employed hypothetical and real field data to test it. The scope of this study are: (a) Develop mathematical-based solution to determine the production rate from each layer; (b) Assess different scenarios to optimize production rate, those are: pump setting depth and performance of in-situ choke (ISC) installation. The ISC is acting as an inflow control device (ICD) alike that help to reduce cross-flow occurrence. This study employed macro program to write the code and develop the interface. Fast iterative procedure happens on solving the analytical model. Comparison results recognized that the mathematical-based solution shows a good agreement with the commercial software derived results.

  5. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  6. An analytical evaluation for the pressure drop characteristics of bottom nozzle flow holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S. G.; Kim, H. J.; Lim, H. T.; Park, E. J.; Jeon, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical evaluation for the bottom nozzle flow holes was performed to find a best design concept in terms of pressure drop. For this analysis, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), FLUENT 5.5, code was selected as an analytical evaluation tool. The applicability of CFD code was verified by benchmarking study with Vibration Investigation of Small-scale Test Assemblies (VISTA) test data in several flow conditions and typical flow hole shape. From this verification, the analytical data were benchmarked roughly within 17% to the VISTA test data. And, overall trend under various flow conditions looked very similar between both cases. Based on the evaluated results using CFD code, it is concluded that the deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge are the excellent design concept to decrease pressure drop across bottom nozzle plate. The deburring and multiple chamfer hole features at leading edge on the bottom nozzle plate have 12% and 17% pressure drop benefit against a single chamfer hole feature on the bottom nozzle plate, respectively. These design features are meaningful and applicable as a low pressure drop design concept of bottom nozzle for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly

  7. Experimental and analytical investigations of granular materials: Shear flow and convective heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hojin

    1989-12-01

    Granular materials flowing down an inclined chute were studied experimentally and analytically. Characteristics of convective heat transfer to granular flows were also investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments on continuous, steady flows of granular materials in an inclined chute were conducted with the objectives of understanding the characteristics of chute flows and of acquiring information on the rheological behavior of granular material flow. Existing constitutive equations and governing equations were used to solve for fully developed chute flows of granular materials, and thus the boundary value problem was formulated with two parameters (the coefficient of restitution between particles, and the chute inclination) and three boundary values at the chute base wall (the values of solid fraction, granular temperature, and mean velocity at the wall). The boundary value problem was numerically solved by the shooting method. These analytical results were also compared with the present experimental values and with the computer simulations by other investigators in their literature. Experiments on heat transfer to granular flows over a flat heating plate were conducted with three sizes of glass beads, polystyrene beads, and mustard seeds. A modification on the existing model for the convective heat transfer was made using the effective Nusselt number and the effective Peclet number, which include the effects of solid fraction variations. The slightly modified model could describe the heat transfer characteristics of both fast and slow flows (supercritical and subcritical). A numerical analysis of the transfer to granular flows was also performed. The results were compared with the present experimental data, and reasonable agreement was found in the comparison.

  8. The Role of Nanoparticle Design in Determining Analytical Performance of Lateral Flow Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Li; Guo, Shuang-Zhuang; Song, Fayi; Gong, Yan; Xu, Feng; Boulware, David R; McAlpine, Michael C; Chan, Warren C W; Bischof, John C

    2017-12-13

    Rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostics are needed to improve healthcare at the point of care (POC). However, the most widely used POC diagnostic, the lateral flow immunoassay (LFA), is ∼1000-times less sensitive and has a smaller analytical range than laboratory tests, requiring a confirmatory test to establish truly negative results. Here, a rational and systematic strategy is used to design the LFA contrast label (i.e., gold nanoparticles) to improve the analytical sensitivity, analytical detection range, and antigen quantification of LFAs. Specifically, we discovered that the size (30, 60, or 100 nm) of the gold nanoparticles is a main contributor to the LFA analytical performance through both the degree of receptor interaction and the ultimate visual or thermal contrast signals. Using the optimal LFA design, we demonstrated the ability to improve the analytical sensitivity by 256-fold and expand the analytical detection range from 3 log 10 to 6 log 10 for diagnosing patients with inflammatory conditions by measuring C-reactive protein. This work demonstrates that, with appropriate design of the contrast label, a simple and commonly used diagnostic technology can compete with more expensive state-of-the-art laboratory tests.

  9. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurien, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  10. Tests of the TRAC code against known analytical solutions for stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, P.S.; Leslie, D.C.; Hewitt, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    The area averaged equations for gas-liquid flow are briefly summarized and related, for the specific case of stratified flow, to the shallow water equations commonly used in hydraulics. These equations are then compared to the equations used in TRAC-PF/MOD1 and are shown to differ in their treatment of the gravity head terms. A modification of the TRAC code is therefore necessary to bring it into line with established shallow water theory. The corrected form of the code was compared with a number of specific cases, each of which throws further light on the code behavior. The following areas are discussed in the paper: (1) the dam break problem; (2) Kelvin-Helmholtz instability; (3) counter-current flow; and (4) slug flow. It is concluded that detailed comparisons of the code with known analytic solutions and with a number of the more complex phenomenological experiments can give useful insights into its behavior

  11. Analytical and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model

    KAUST Repository

    Mazaré , Pierre Emmanuel; Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Claudel, Christian G.; Bayen, Alexandre M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we propose a computational method for solving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation (PDE) semi-analytically for arbitrary piecewise-constant initial and boundary conditions, and for arbitrary concave fundamental diagrams. With these assumptions, we show that the solution to the LWR PDE at any location and time can be computed exactly and semi-analytically for a very low computational cost using the cumulative number of vehicles formulation of the problem. We implement the proposed computational method on a representative traffic flow scenario to illustrate the exactness of the analytical solution. We also show that the proposed scheme can handle more complex scenarios including traffic lights or moving bottlenecks. The computational cost of the method is very favorable, and is compared with existing algorithms. A toolbox implementation available for public download is briefly described, and posted at http://traffic.berkeley.edu/project/downloads/lwrsolver. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Analytical and grid-free solutions to the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards traffic flow model

    KAUST Repository

    Mazaré, Pierre Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    In this article, we propose a computational method for solving the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) partial differential equation (PDE) semi-analytically for arbitrary piecewise-constant initial and boundary conditions, and for arbitrary concave fundamental diagrams. With these assumptions, we show that the solution to the LWR PDE at any location and time can be computed exactly and semi-analytically for a very low computational cost using the cumulative number of vehicles formulation of the problem. We implement the proposed computational method on a representative traffic flow scenario to illustrate the exactness of the analytical solution. We also show that the proposed scheme can handle more complex scenarios including traffic lights or moving bottlenecks. The computational cost of the method is very favorable, and is compared with existing algorithms. A toolbox implementation available for public download is briefly described, and posted at http://traffic.berkeley.edu/project/downloads/lwrsolver. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Analytical and numerical study of electroosmotic slip flows of fractional second grade fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Qi, Haitao; Yu, Bo; Xiong, Zhen; Xu, Huanying

    2017-09-01

    This work investigates the unsteady electroosmotic slip flow of viscoelastic fluid through a parallel plate micro-channel under combined influence of electroosmotic and pressure gradient forcings with asymmetric zeta potentials at the walls. The generalized second grade fluid with fractional derivative was used for the constitutive equation. The Navier slip model with different slip coefficients at both walls was also considered. By employing the Debye-Hückel linearization and the Laplace and sin-cos-Fourier transforms, the analytical solutions for the velocity distribution are derived. And the finite difference method for this problem was also given. Finally, the influence of pertinent parameters on the generation of flow is presented graphically.

  14. Analytical Results for Scaling Properties of the Spectrum of the Fibonacci Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piéchon, Frédéric; Benakli, Mourad; Jagannathan, Anuradha

    1995-06-01

    We solve the approximate renormalization group found by Niu and Nori for a quasiperiodic tight-binding Hamiltonian on the Fibonacci chain. This enables us to characterize analytically the spectral properties of this model.

  15. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  16. Analytical solution for pulsatile viscous flow in a straight elliptic annulus and application to the motion of the cerebrospinal fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2008-09-01

    We present here the analytical solution of transient, laminar, viscous flow of an incompressible, Newtonian fluid driven by a harmonically oscillating pressure gradient in a straight elliptic annulus. The analytical formulation is based on the exact solution of the governing fluid flow equations known as Navier-Stokes equations. We validate the analytical solution using a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics approach. As the analytical solution includes Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions, we also present a stepwise procedure for their evaluation for large complex arguments typically associated with viscous flows. We further outline the procedure for evaluating the associated Fourier coefficients and their eigenvalues. We finally apply the analytical solution to investigate the cerebrospinal fluid flow in the human spinal cavity, which features a shape similar to an elliptic annulus.

  17. Semi-analytical treatment of fracture/matrix flow in a dual-porosity simulator for unsaturated fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1992-04-01

    A semi-analytical dual-porosity simulator for unsaturated flow in fractured rock masses has been developed. Fluid flow between the fracture network and the matrix blocks is described by analytical expressions that have been derived from approximate solutions to the imbibition equation. These expressions have been programmed into the unsaturated flow simulator, TOUGH, as a source/sink term. Flow processes are then simulated using only fracture elements in the computational grid. The modified code is used to simulate flow along single fractures, and infiltration into pervasively fractured formations

  18. Algebraic and analyticity properties of the n-point function in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    The general theory of quantized fields (axiomatic approach) is investigated. A systematic study of the algebraic properties of all the Green functions of a local field, which generalize the ordinary retarded and advanced functions, is presented. The notion emerges of a primitive analyticity domain of the n-point function, and of the existence of auxiliary analytic functions into which the various Green functions can be decomposed. Certain processes of analytic completion are described, and then applied to enlarging the primitive domain, particularly for the case n = 4; among the results the crossing property for all scattering amplitudes which involve two incoming and two outgoing particles is proved. (author) [fr

  19. Analytical modeling of complete Nukiyama curves corresponding to expected low void fraction at high subcooling and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder-Richter, D.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of a new hypothesis of thermodynamic states (the superheated wall layer is not metastable but saturated at locally elevated pressure), an analytical estimation is presented of the whole boiling curve [except critical heat flux (CHF), but fixed at this point, known by experiments or correlation]. The curvature of the boiling curve (bubbly flow) is deduced from thermodynamics of irreversible processes. The wall temperature corresponding to departure from nucleate boiling is calculated from balances of momentum at the interfaces, based on the assumption that the speed of sound may be a limit for maximum evaporation mass flux and thereby heat flux, i.e., CHF. Heat flux during transition boiling is determined from balance of energy at the rewetting front. The Leidenfrost temperature, as well as wall temperature at CHF, can be calculated analytically without using empirical coefficients. Heat flux of bubbly flow and transition boiling can be matched at any empirical CHF point. All these results are determined from properties of state alone, i.e., the models can be verified for all fluids including water and liquid metals (so far at moderate heat fluxes). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A semi-analytical solution for slug tests in an unconfined aquifer considering unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    A semi-analytical solution considering the vertical unsaturated flow is developed for groundwater flow in response to a slug test in an unconfined aquifer in Laplace space. The new solution incorporates the effects of partial penetrating, anisotropy, vertical unsaturated flow, and a moving water table boundary. Compared to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) model, the new solution can significantly improve the fittings of the modeled to the measured hydraulic heads at the late stage of slug tests in an unconfined aquifer, particularly when the slug well has a partially submerged screen and moisture drainage above the water table is significant. The radial hydraulic conductivities estimated with the new solution are comparable to those from the KGS, Bouwer and Rice, and Hvorslev methods. In addition, the new solution also can be used to examine the vertical conductivity, specific storage, specific yield, and the moisture retention parameters in an unconfined aquifer based on slug test data.

  1. Analytical Evalution of Heat Transfer Conductivity with Variable Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Masoume; Hosseini, Mohammad Javad; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) as a new technique which is powerful and easy-to-use, is applied to solve heat transfer problems. In this paper, we use HAM for heat transfer conductivity equation with variable properties which may contain highly nonlinear terms. The obtained results are also...

  2. Local analyticity properties of the n particle scattering amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Bros, J; Glaser, Vladimir Jurko

    1972-01-01

    The connected part F/sub /c(p) of the scattering amplitude (p/sub 1 /...p/sub /r mod S-1 mod p/sub r+1/,..., p/sub n/) defined on the mass shell p/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/ and deduced from a local field theory involving only (stable) particles with strictly positive masses can be represented in a suitable neighbourhood of any physical point p as a finite sum f/sub /c(p)= Sigma /sub 1//sup N/F/sub i/(p) of partial amplitudes', each F/sub i/(k) analytic in a certain domain F /sub i/ of the complex mass shell k/sub i//sup 2/=m/sub i//sup 2/. The mentioned real neighbourhood lies on the boundary of each F/sub i/. The above decomposition may fail to hold only at points p where any two incoming or any two outgoing four-momenta become parallel (thresholds). The number N as well as the shape of the domains F/sub i / depend on the number n and on the real neighbourhood considered. For a generic configuration p the intersection of the domains F/sub i/ is empty. When this does not happen, F/sub i/(p) is the boundar...

  3. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, O.D.L.

    1982-02-01

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks

  4. Analytical Solution of Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Stretching Wall in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dayyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary layer flow through a porous medium over a stretching porous wall has seen solved with analytical solution. It has been considered two wall boundary conditions which are power-law distribution of either wall temperature or heat flux. These are general enough to cover the isothermal and isoflux cases. In addition to momentum, both first and second laws of thermodynamics analyses of the problem are investigated. The governing equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The transformed ordinary equations are solved analytically using homotopy analysis method. A comprehensive parametric study is presented, and it is shown that the rate of heat transfer increases with Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and suction to the surface.

  5. Bingham plastic fluid flow model in tape casting of ceramics using two doctor blades – analytical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common processes used in manufacturing of multilayer ceramic packages, multilayer capacitors and large scale integration circuits is tape casting. In this process, the wet tape thickness is one of the single most determining parameters affecting the final properties of the product......, and it is therefore of great interest to be able to control it. One way to control the tape thickness is to use a two doctor blade configuration in the tape casting machine. In this case, it becomes important to fix the height of the slurry in front of both doctor blades according to the desired tape thickness...... and casting speed (belt velocity). In the present work, the flow in both doctor blade regions of a slurry is described with a steady state momentum equation in combination with a Bingham plastic constitutive equation, and this is integrated to a closed form analytical solution for both reservoirs based...

  6. Analytical Solutions of a Space-Time Fractional Derivative of Groundwater Flow Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical Darcy law is generalized by regarding the water flow as a function of a noninteger order derivative of the piezometric head. This generalized law and the law of conservation of mass are then used to derive a new equation for groundwater flow. Two methods including Frobenius and Adomian decomposition method are used to obtain an asymptotic analytical solution to the generalized groundwater flow equation. The solution obtained via Frobenius method is valid in the vicinity of the borehole. This solution is in perfect agreement with the data observed from the pumping test performed by the institute for groundwater study on one of their boreholes settled on the test site of the University of the Free State. The test consisted of the pumping of the borehole at the constant discharge rate Q and monitoring the piezometric head for 350 minutes. Numerical solutions obtained via Adomian method are compared with the Barker generalized radial flow model for which a fractal dimension for the flow is assumed. Proposition for uncertainties in groundwater studies was given.

  7. Electroosmotic flow of Phan-Thien-Tanner fluids at high zeta potentials: An exact analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rajkumar; Deka, Nabajit; Sarma, Kuldeep; Mondal, Pranab Kumar

    2018-06-01

    We present a mathematical model to study the electroosmotic flow of a viscoelastic fluid in a parallel plate microchannel with a high zeta potential, taking hydrodynamic slippage at the walls into account in the underlying analysis. We use the simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (s-PTT) constitutive relationships to describe the rheological behavior of the viscoelastic fluid, while Navier's slip law is employed to model the interfacial hydrodynamic slip. Here, we derive analytical solutions for the potential distribution, flow velocity, and volumetric flow rate based on the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation (without considering the frequently used Debye-Hückel linear approximation). For the underlying electrokinetic transport, this investigation primarily reveals the influence of fluid rheology, wall zeta potential as modulated by the interfacial electrochemistry and interfacial slip on the velocity distribution, volumetric flow rate, and fluid stress, as well as the apparent viscosity. We show that combined with the viscoelasticity of the fluid, a higher wall zeta potential and slip coefficient lead to a phenomenal enhancement in the volumetric flow rate. We believe that this analysis, besides providing a deep theoretical insight to interpret the transport process, will also serve as a fundamental design tool for microfluidic devices/systems under electrokinetic influence.

  8. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  9. Modelling a flows in supply chain with analytical models: Case of a chemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhida, Khalid; Azougagh, Yassine; Elfezazi, Said

    2016-02-01

    This study is interested on the modelling of the logistics flows in a supply chain composed on a production sites and a logistics platform. The contribution of this research is to develop an analytical model (integrated linear programming model), based on a case study of a real company operating in the phosphate field, considering a various constraints in this supply chain to resolve the planning problems for a better decision-making. The objectives of this model is to determine and define the optimal quantities of different products to route, to and from the various entities in the supply chain studied.

  10. Analytical description of thermodynamic properties of steam, water and the phase interface for use in CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Hrubý Jan; Duška Michal

    2014-01-01

    We present a system of analytical equations for computation of all thermodynamic properties of dry steam and liquid water (undesaturated, saturated and metastable supersaturated) and properties of the liquid-vapor phase interface. The form of the equations is such that it enables computation of all thermodynamic properties for independent variables directly related to the balanced quantities - total mass, liquid mass, energy, momenta. This makes it suitable for the solvers of fluid dynamics e...

  11. Analytic properties of the Ruelle ζ-function for mean field models of phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerberg, Sarah; Just, Wolfram; Radons, Guenter

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate by analytical means the Ruelle ζ-function for a spin model with global coupling. The implications of the ferromagnetic phase transitions for the analytical properties of the ζ-function are discussed in detail. In the paramagnetic phase the ζ-function develops a single branch point. In the low-temperature regime two branch points appear which correspond to the ferromagnetic state and the metastable state. The results are typical for any Ginsburg-Landau-type phase transition

  12. On the analytic solution of the steady flow of a fourth grade fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M.; Hayat, T.; Asghar, S.

    2006-01-01

    The steady flow of a fourth grade fluid is a problem belonging to non-Newtonian fluid mechanics and deserves to be more widely studied than it has been to date. In the non-linear regime the literature is scarce. We develop a formulation suitable for solution of hydrodynamic equation containing non-linear rheological effects of fourth grade fluids. The homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to investigate the flow of a fourth grade fluid past a porous plate. Explicit analytic solution is given. The non-linear effects on the velocity distribution is shown and discussed. Comparison of the present analysis is also made with the existing results in the literature

  13. Flow modeling in a porous cylinder with regressing walls using semi analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the flow in a porous cylinder with a focus on applications to solid rocket motors is presented. As usual, the cylindrical propellant grain of a solid rocket motor is modeled as a long tube with one end closed at the headwall, while the other remains open. The cylindrical wall is assumed to be permeable so as to simulate the propellant burning and normal gas injection. At first, the problem description and formulation are considered. The Navier-Stokes equations for the viscous flow in a porous cylinder with regressing walls are reduced to a nonlinear ODE by using a similarity transformation in time and space. Application of Differential Transformation Method (DTM as an approximate analytical method has been successfully applied. Finally the results have been presented for various cases.

  14. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  15. Regularizing properties of Complex Monge-Amp\\`ere flows

    OpenAIRE

    Tô, Tat Dat

    2016-01-01

    We study the regularizing properties of complex Monge-Amp\\`ere flows on a K\\"ahler manifold $(X,\\omega)$ when the initial data are $\\omega$-psh functions with zero Lelong number at all points. We prove that the general Monge-Amp\\`ere flow has a solution which is immediately smooth. We also prove the uniqueness and stability of solution.

  16. Analytical study of the non orthogonal stagnation point flow of a micro polar fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali. Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the steady two dimensional flow of micro polar fluids on a flat plate. The flow under discussion is the modified Hiemenz flow for a micro polar fluid which occurs in the hjkns + skms boundary layer near an orthogonal stagnation point. The full governing equation reduced to a modified Hiemenz flow. The solution to the boundary value problem is governed by two non dimensional parameters, the material parameter K and the ratio of the micro rotation to skin friction parameter n. The obtained nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations are solved by using the Homotopy perturbation method. Comparison between numerical and analytical solutions of the problem is shown in tables form for different values of the governing parameters K and n. Effects of the material parameter K on the velocity profile and microrotation profiles for different cases of n are discussed graphically as well as numerically. Velocity profile decreases as the material parameter K increases and the microrotation profile increases as the material parameter K increases for different cases of n.

  17. Analytical Model for Mean Flow and Fluxes of Momentum and Energy in Very Large Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    As wind-turbine arrays continue to be installed and the array size continues to grow, there is an increasing need to represent very large wind-turbine arrays in numerical weather prediction models, for wind-farm optimization, and for environmental assessment. We propose a simple analytical model for boundary-layer flow in fully-developed wind-turbine arrays, based on the concept of sparsely-obstructed shear flows. In describing the vertical distribution of the mean wind speed and shear stress within wind farms, our model estimates the mean kinetic energy harvested from the atmospheric boundary layer, and determines the partitioning between the wind power captured by the wind turbines and that absorbed by the underlying land or water. A length scale based on the turbine geometry, spacing, and performance characteristics, is able to estimate the asymptotic limit for the fully-developed flow through wind-turbine arrays, and thereby determine if the wind-farm flow is fully developed for very large turbine arrays. Our model is validated using data collected in controlled wind-tunnel experiments, and its usefulness for the prediction of wind-farm performance and optimization of turbine-array spacing are described. Our model may also be useful for assessing the extent to which the extraction of wind power affects the land-atmosphere coupling or air-water exchange of momentum, with implications for the transport of heat, moisture, trace gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, and ecologically important oxygen.

  18. Mapping debris flow susceptibility using analytical network process in Kodaikkanal Hills, Tamil Nadu (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, Evangelin Ramani; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2017-12-01

    Rapid debris flows, a mixture of unconsolidated sediments and water travelling at speeds > 10 m/s are the most destructive water related mass movements that affect hill and mountain regions. The predisposing factors setting the stage for the event are the availability of materials, type of materials, stream power, slope gradient, aspect and curvature, lithology, land use and land cover, lineament density, and drainage. Rainfall is the most common triggering factor that causes debris flow in the Palar subwatershed and seismicity is not considered as it is a stable continental region and moderate seismic zone. Also, there are no records of major seismic activities in the past. In this study, one of the less explored heuristic methods known as the analytical network process (ANP) is used to map the spatial propensity of debris flow. This method is based on top-down decision model and is a multi-criteria, decision-making tool that translates subjective assessment of relative importance to weights or scores and is implemented in the Palar subwatershed which is part of the Western Ghats in southern India. The results suggest that the factors influencing debris flow susceptibility in this region are the availability of material on the slope, peak flow, gradient of the slope, land use and land cover, and proximity to streams. Among all, peak discharge is identified as the chief factor causing debris flow. The use of micro-scale watersheds demonstrated in this study to develop the susceptibility map can be very effective for local level planning and land management.

  19. Turbofan forced mixer lobe flow modeling. 1: Experimental and analytical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T.; Paterson, R. W.; Skebe, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    A joint analytical and experimental investigation of three-dimensional flowfield development within the lobe region of turbofan forced mixer nozzles is described. The objective was to develop a method for predicting the lobe exit flowfield. In the analytical approach, a linearized inviscid aerodynamical theory was used for representing the axial and secondary flows within the three-dimensional convoluted mixer lobes and three-dimensional boundary layer analysis was applied thereafter to account for viscous effects. The experimental phase of the program employed three planar mixer lobe models having different waveform shapes and lobe heights for which detailed measurements were made of the three-dimensional velocity field and total pressure field at the lobe exit plane. Velocity data was obtained using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and total pressure probing and hot wire anemometry were employed to define exit plane total pressure and boundary layer development. Comparison of data and analysis was performed to assess analytical model prediction accuracy. As a result of this study a planar mixed geometry analysis was developed. A principal conclusion is that the global mixer lobe flowfield is inviscid and can be predicted from an inviscid analysis and Kutta condition.

  20. Analytical solutions of heat transfer for laminar flow in rectangular channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybiński Witold

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two analytical solutions namely for Fanning friction factor and for Nusselt number of fully developed laminar fluid flow in straight mini channels with rectangular cross-section. This type of channels is common in mini- and microchannel heat exchangers. Analytical formulae, both for velocity and temperature profiles, were obtained in the explicit form of two terms. The first term is an asymptotic solution of laminar flow between parallel plates. The second one is a rapidly convergent series. This series becomes zero as the cross-section aspect ratio goes to infinity. This clear mathematical form is also inherited by the formulae for friction factor and Nusselt number. As the boundary conditions for velocity and temperature profiles no-slip and peripherally constant temperature with axially constant heat flux were assumed (H1 type. The velocity profile is assumed to be independent of the temperature profile. The assumption of constant temperature at the channel’s perimeter is related to the asymptotic case of channel’s wall thermal resistance: infinite in the axial direction and zero in the peripheral one. It represents typical conditions in a minichannel heat exchanger made of metal.

  1. Analytical properties and behaviour of scattering amplitude at high energies in the localizable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazur, V.Yu.; Khimich, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical properties of the elastic πN-scattering amplitude in in the cos THETA are proved in the Lehmann ellipse. The instrument for establishing analytical properties of the scattering amplitude in the cos THETA is the Jost-Lehmann-Dyson integral representation proved in terms of the localizable quantum field theory containing the strictly localizable theory and theory of moderate growth as particular cases. On this basis the Greenberg-Low restriction is obtained in frames of this class theories for the πN-scattering amplitude. This result gives a possibility to prove the ordinary dispersion relations with a finite number of subtraction in frames of the localizable quantum field theory

  2. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  3. Properties of flooding waves in vertical churn flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.; Bai, B.; Yang, B.; Xie, C.

    2011-01-01

    It is more accurate to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) from the start of churn flow rather than the start of annular flow. High-speed photography has been employed for qualitative investigation of entrainment in vertical two-phase flow under churn flow condition. This paper mainly focuses on the evolution of the flooding waves close to the water inlet section and liquid distribution in the cross-section of tube. The properties of flooding wave such as frequency and amplitude have been obtained. (author)

  4. Developing Semi-Analytical solutions for Saint-Venant Equations in the Uniform Flow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Heidari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsteady flow in irrigation systems is the result of operations in response to changes in water demand that affect the hydraulic performance networks. The increased hydraulic performance needed to recognize unsteady flow and quantify the factors affecting it. Unsteady flow in open channels is governed by the fully dynamic Saint Venant equation, which express the principles of conservation of mass and momentum. Unsteady flow in open channels can be classified into two types: routing and operation-type problems. In the routing problems, The Saint Venant equations are solved to get the discharge and water level in the time series. Also, they are used in the operation problem to compute the inflow at the upstream section of the channel according to the prescribed downstream flow hydrographs. The Saint Venant equation has no analytical solution and in the majority cases of such methods use numerical integration of continuity and momentum equations, and are characterized by complicated numerical procedures that are not always convenient for carrying out practical engineering calculations. Therefore, approximate methods deserve attention since they would allow the solution of dynamic problems in analytical form with enough exactness. There are effective methods for automatic controller synthesis in control theory that provide the required performance optimization. It is therefore important to get simplified models of irrigation canals for control design. It would be even more interesting to have linear models that explicitly depend on physical parameters. Such models would allow one to, handle the dynamics of the system with fewer parameters, understand the impact of physical parameters on the dynamics, and facilitate the development a systematic design method. Many analytical models have been proposed in the literature, Most of them have been obtained in the frequency domain by applying Laplace transform to linearized Saint

  5. The effect of uniform capture molecule orientation on biosensor sensitivity : dependence on analyte properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trilling, A.K.; Harmsen, M.M.; Ruigrok, V.J.; Zuilhof, H.; Beekwilder, J.

    2013-01-01

    Uniform orientation of capture molecules on biosensors has been reported to increase sensitivity. Here it is investigated which analyte properties contribute to sensitivity by orientation. Orientation of capture molecules on biosensors was investigated using variable domains of llama heavy-chain

  6. Multi-parameter flow cytometry as a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the assessment of bacterial ghost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langemann, Timo; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Meitz, Andrea; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a tool for the analysis of single-cell properties in a cell suspension. In this contribution, we present an improved FCM method for the assessment of E-lysis in Enterobacteriaceae. The result of the E-lysis process is empty bacterial envelopes-called bacterial ghosts (BGs)-that constitute potential products in the pharmaceutical field. BGs have reduced light scattering properties when compared with intact cells. In combination with viability information obtained from staining samples with the membrane potential-sensitive fluorescent dye bis-(1,3-dibutylarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), the presented method allows to differentiate between populations of viable cells, dead cells, and BGs. Using a second fluorescent dye RH414 as a membrane marker, non-cellular background was excluded from the data which greatly improved the quality of the results. Using true volumetric absolute counting, the FCM data correlated well with cell count data obtained from colony-forming units (CFU) for viable populations. Applicability of the method to several Enterobacteriaceae (different Escherichia coli strains, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a) could be shown. The method was validated as a resilient process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the assessment of E-lysis and for particle counting during 20-l batch processes for the production of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 BGs.

  7. Analytic solution to verify code predictions of two-phase flow in a boiling water reactor core channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Olson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    One reliable method that can be used to verify the solution scheme of a computer code is to compare the code prediction to a simplified problem for which an analytic solution can be derived. An analytic solution for the axial pressure drop as a function of the flow was obtained for the simplified problem of homogeneous equilibrium two-phase flow in a vertical, heated channel with a cosine axial heat flux shape. This analytic solution was then used to verify the predictions of the CONDOR computer code, which is used to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of boiling water reactors. The results show excellent agreement between the analytic solution and CONDOR prediction

  8. Analytic properties of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation and the total energy of atomic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, N.H.; Senatore, G.

    1985-06-01

    The analytic properties of solutions of the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation which tend to zero at infinity are first examined, the neutral atom solution being a member of this class. A new length is shown to enter the theory, proportional to the square root of the fine structure constant. This information is used to develop a perturbation expansion around the neutral atom solution, corresponding to positive atomic ions with finite but large radii. The limiting law relating ionic radius to the degree of ionization is thereby displayed in functional form, and solved explicitly to lowest order in the fine structure constant. To embrace this knowledge of heavy positive ions, as well as results from the one-electron Dirac equation, a proposal is then advanced as to the analytic form of the relativistic total energy E(Z,N) of an atomic ion with nuclear charge Ze and total number of electrons N. The fact that, for N>1, the nucleus is known only to bind Z+n electrons, where n is 1 or 2, indicates non-analyticity in the complex Z plane, represented by a circle of radius Z approx.= N. Such non-analyticity is also a property of the non-relativistic energy derived from the many-electron Schroedinger equation. The relativistic theory, however, must also embody a second type of non-analyticity associated with the known property for N=1 that the Dirac equation predicts electron-positron pair production when the electronic binding energy becomes equal to twice the electron rest mass energy. This corresponds to a second circle of non-analyticity in E(Z,N), and hence to a Taylor-Laurent expansion of this quantity in the atomic number Z. The relation of this expansion to the Layzer-Bahcall series is finally discussed. (author)

  9. A novel stress distribution analytical model of O-ring seals under different properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Shao Ping; Wang, Xing Jian

    2017-01-01

    The elastomeric O-ring seals have been widely used as sealing elements in hydraulic systems. The sealing performance of O-ring seals is related to stress distribution. The stresses distribution depends on the squeeze rate and internal pressure, and would vary with properties of O-ring seals materials. Thus, in order to study the sealing performance of O-ring seals, it is necessary to describe the analytic relationship between stress distribution and properties of O-ring seals materials. For this purpose, a novel Stress distribution analytical model (SDAM) is proposed in this paper. The analytical model utilizes two stress complex functions to describe the stress distribution of O-ring seals. The proposed SDAM can express not only the analytical relationship between stress distribution and Young’s modulus, but also the one between stress distribution and Poisson’s ratio. Finally, compared results between finite element analysis and the SDAM validate that the proposed model can effectively reveal the stress distribution under different properties for O-ring materials

  10. A novel stress distribution analytical model of O-ring seals under different properties of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Shao Ping; Wang, Xing Jian [School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The elastomeric O-ring seals have been widely used as sealing elements in hydraulic systems. The sealing performance of O-ring seals is related to stress distribution. The stresses distribution depends on the squeeze rate and internal pressure, and would vary with properties of O-ring seals materials. Thus, in order to study the sealing performance of O-ring seals, it is necessary to describe the analytic relationship between stress distribution and properties of O-ring seals materials. For this purpose, a novel Stress distribution analytical model (SDAM) is proposed in this paper. The analytical model utilizes two stress complex functions to describe the stress distribution of O-ring seals. The proposed SDAM can express not only the analytical relationship between stress distribution and Young’s modulus, but also the one between stress distribution and Poisson’s ratio. Finally, compared results between finite element analysis and the SDAM validate that the proposed model can effectively reveal the stress distribution under different properties for O-ring materials.

  11. Effects of physical properties on thermo-fluids cavitating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. R.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.; Li, D. Q.; Ma, X. J.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and to evaluate the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviours. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the energy equation are applied to numerically investigate the liquid nitrogen cavitating flows around a NASA hydrofoil. Meanwhile, the thermodynamic parameter Σ is used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results indicate that the thermodynamic effects on the thermo-fluid cavitating flows significantly affect the cavitation behaviours, including pressure and temperature distribution, the variation of physical properties, and cavity structures. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by physical properties under the same free-stream conditions. The global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen suggests that ρv, Cl and L significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while pv plays the dominant role when these properties vary with temperature. The liquid viscosity μl slightly affects the flow structure via changing the Reynolds number Re equivalently, however, it hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  12. A study on evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anezaki, S.

    1998-03-01

    Sea/fresh-water boundary caused by density and concentration balance of sea-water and fresh-water is an important item for groundwater flow evaluation in deep underground near the coast. Also, in order to evaluate groundwater quality, it is important to understand the characteristics of sea/fresh-water boundary, for example boundary shape, salt distribution. In order to establish the evaluation and analytical methods for groundwater flow with considering sea/fresh-water boundary, we investigated the following items in this study. (1) Literature survey and data collection. (2) Investigation of analytical methods. (3) Planning of further study. (author). 78 refs

  13. Analytical study of flow instability behaviour in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop under low quality conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Kumar, N.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical investigations have been carried out to study the flow instability behaviour in a boiling two-phase natural circulation loop under low quality conditions. For this purpose, the computer code TINFLO-S has been developed. The code solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and equation of state for homogeneous equilibrium twophase flow using linear analytical technique. The results of the code have been validated with the experimental data of the loop for both the steady state and stability. The study reveals that the stability behaviour of low quality flow oscillations is different from that of the high quality flow oscillations. The instability reduces with increase in power and throttling at the inlet of the heater. The instability first increases and then reduces with increase in pressure at any subcooling. The effects of diameter of riser pipe, heater and the height of the riser on this instability are also investigated. (orig.) [de

  14. Analytical description of thermodynamic properties of steam, water and the phase interface for use in CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubý, Jan; Duška, Michal

    2014-03-01

    We present a system of analytical equations for computation of all thermodynamic properties of dry steam and liquid water (undesaturated, saturated and metastable supersaturated) and properties of the liquid-vapor phase interface. The form of the equations is such that it enables computation of all thermodynamic properties for independent variables directly related to the balanced quantities - total mass, liquid mass, energy, momenta. This makes it suitable for the solvers of fluid dynamics equations in the conservative form. Thermodynamic properties of dry steam and liquid water are formulated in terms of special thermodynamic potentials and all properties are obtained as analytical derivatives. For the surface tension, the IAPWS formula is used. The interfacial internal energy is derived from the surface tension and it is used in the energy balance. Unlike common models, the present one provides real (contrary to perfect gas approximation) properties of steam and water and reflects the energetic effects due to the surface tension. The equations are based on re-fitting the reference formulation IAPWS-95 and selected experimental data. The mathematical structure of the equations is optimized for fast computation.

  15. Analytical description of thermodynamic properties of steam, water and the phase interface for use in CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý Jan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a system of analytical equations for computation of all thermodynamic properties of dry steam and liquid water (undesaturated, saturated and metastable supersaturated and properties of the liquid-vapor phase interface. The form of the equations is such that it enables computation of all thermodynamic properties for independent variables directly related to the balanced quantities - total mass, liquid mass, energy, momenta. This makes it suitable for the solvers of fluid dynamics equations in the conservative form. Thermodynamic properties of dry steam and liquid water are formulated in terms of special thermodynamic potentials and all properties are obtained as analytical derivatives. For the surface tension, the IAPWS formula is used. The interfacial internal energy is derived from the surface tension and it is used in the energy balance. Unlike common models, the present one provides real (contrary to perfect gas approximation properties of steam and water and reflects the energetic effects due to the surface tension. The equations are based on re-fitting the reference formulation IAPWS-95 and selected experimental data. The mathematical structure of the equations is optimized for fast computation.

  16. Big data analytics as a service infrastructure: challenges, desired properties and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    CERN's accelerator complex generates a very large amount of data. A large volumen of heterogeneous data is constantly generated from control equipment and monitoring agents. These data must be stored and analysed. Over the decades, CERN's researching and engineering teams have applied different approaches, techniques and technologies for this purpose. This situation has minimised the necessary collaboration and, more relevantly, the cross data analytics over different domains. These two factors are essential to unlock hidden insights and correlations between the underlying processes, which enable better and more efficient daily-based accelerator operations and more informed decisions. The proposed Big Data Analytics as a Service Infrastructure aims to: (1) integrate the existing developments; (2) centralise and standardise the complex data analytics needs for CERN's research and engineering community; (3) deliver real-time, batch data analytics and information discovery capabilities; and (4) provide transparent access and Extract, Transform and Load (ETL), mechanisms to the various and mission-critical existing data repositories. This paper presents the desired objectives and properties resulting from the analysis of CERN's data analytics requirements; the main challenges: technological, collaborative and educational and; potential solutions. (paper)

  17. A comparative study of the flow enhancing properties of bentonite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of granule flow enhancing property of bentonite, magnesium stearate, talc and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was undertaken. Bentonite was processed into fine powder. A 10 %w/w of starch granules was prepared and separated into different sizes (˂180, 180-500, 500-710 and 710-850 μm).

  18. Scalar statistics in variable property turbulent channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of fully developed, internally heated channel flows with isothermal walls is performed using the low-Mach-number approximation of Navier-Stokes equation to investigate the influence of temperature-dependent properties on turbulent scalar statistics. Different constitutive

  19. Magnetic property zonation in a thick lava flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audunsson, Haraldur; Levi, Shaul; Hodges, Floyd

    1992-04-01

    Intraflow structures and magmatic evolution in an extensive and thick (30-60 m) basaltic lava flow are examined on the basis of grain size and composition-dependent magnetic properties of titanomagnetite materials. Microprobe data indicate that the intraflow oxidation state Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) of the initially precipitated primary titanomagnetites increases with falling equilibrium temperature from the flow margins to a maximum near the center, the position of lowest equilibrium temperature. In contrast, Curie temperature measurements indicate that titanomagnetite oxidation increases with height in the flow. Modification of the initially symmetric equilibrium titanomagnetite compositions was caused by subsolidus high-temperature oxidation possibly due to hydrogen loss produced by dissociation of magmatic water, as well as unknown contributions of circulating air and percolating water from above. The titanomagnetites of the basal layer of the flow remain essentially unaltered.

  20. Semi-analytical solution of flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar; Barry, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Semi-analytical solutions are presented for flow to a well in an extensive homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard. The pumping well is of infinitesimal radius and screened in either the overlying unconfined aquifer or the underlying fractured aquifer. An existing linearization method was used to determine the watertable drainage. The solution was obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms, with results calculated by numerical inversion. The main findings are presented in the form of non-dimensional drawdown-time curves, as well as scaled sensitivity-dimensionless time curves. The new solution permits determination of the influence of fractures, matrix blocks and watertable drainage parameters on the aquifer drawdown. The effect of the aquitard on the drawdown response of the overlying unconfined aquifer and the underlying fractured aquifer was also explored. The results permit estimation of the unconfined and fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters via type-curve matching or coupling of the solution with a parameter estimation code. The solution can also be used to determine aquifer hydraulic properties from an optimal pumping test set up and duration.

  1. Statistical properties of Charney-Hasegawa-Mima zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Johan; Botha, G. J. J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical interpretation of numerically generated probability density functions (PDFs) of intermittent plasma transport events in unforced zonal flows is provided within the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima (CHM) model. The governing equation is solved numerically with various prescribed density gradients that are designed to produce different configurations of parallel and anti-parallel streams. Long-lasting vortices form whose flow is governed by the zonal streams. It is found that the numerically generated PDFs can be matched with analytical predictions of PDFs based on the instanton method by removing the autocorrelations from the time series. In many instances, the statistics generated by the CHM dynamics relaxes to Gaussian distributions for both the electrostatic and vorticity perturbations, whereas in areas with strong nonlinear interactions it is found that the PDFs are exponentially distributed

  2. Dielectric properties of lava flows west of Ascraeus Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L.M.; Campbell, B.A.; Holt, J.W.; Phillips, R.J.; Putzig, N.E.; Mattei, S.; Seu, R.; Okubo, C.H.; Egan, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    The SHARAD instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter detects subsurface interfaces beneath lava flow fields northwest of Ascraeus Mons. The interfaces occur in two locations; a northern flow that originates south of Alba Patera, and a southern flow that originates at the rift zone between Ascraeus and Pavonis Montes. The northern flow has permittivity values, estimated from the time delay of echoes from the basal interface, between 6.2 and 17.3, with an average of 12.2. The southern flow has permittivity values of 7.0 to 14.0, with an average of 9.8. The average permittivity values for the northern and southern flows imply densities of 3.7 and 3.4 g cm-3, respectively. Loss tangent values for both flows range from 0.01 to 0.03. The measured bulk permittivity and loss tangent values are consistent with those of terrestrial and lunar basalts, and represent the first measurement of these properties for dense rock on Mars. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A semi-analytical study of the vibrations induced by flow in the piping of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneschy, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A semi-analytical method is presented to evaluate the piping system safety due to internal flow vibration excitation. The method is based on the application of a plane spectrum on the system, resulted by measured modal accelerations. A criteria is established to verify stress levels and compare with the allowable levels. (Author) [pt

  4. Analytical scale purification of zirconia colloidal suspension using field programmed sedimentation field flow fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Quynh, Alexandra; Blanchart, Philippe; Battu, Serge; Clédat, Dominique; Cardot, Philippe

    2006-03-03

    Sedimentation field flow fractionation was used to obtain purified fractions from a polydispersed zirconia colloidal suspension in the potential purpose of optical material hybrid coating. The zirconia particle size ranged from 50/70 nm to 1000 nm. It exhibited a log-Gaussian particle size distribution (in mass or volume) and a 115% polydispersity index (P.I.). Time dependent eluted fractions of the original zirconia colloidal suspension were collected. The particle size distribution of each fraction was determined with scanning electron microscopy and Coulter sub-micron particle sizer (CSPS). These orthogonal techniques generated similar data. From fraction average elution times and granulometry measurements, it was shown that zirconia colloids are eluted according to the Brownian elution mode. The four collected fractions have a Gaussian like distribution and respective average size and polydispersity index of 153 nm (P.I. = 34.7%); 188 nm (P.I. = 27.9%); 228 nm (P.I. = 22.6%), and 276 nm (P.I. = 22.3%). These data demonstrate the strong size selectivity of SdFFF operated with programmed field of exponential profile for sorting particles in the sub-micron range. Using this technique, the analytical production of zirconia of given average size and reduced polydispersity is possible.

  5. Semi-analytical solutions for flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar

    2015-09-01

    Semi-analytical solutions of flow to a well in an unconfined single porosity aquifer underlain by a fractured double porosity aquifer, both of infinite radial extent, are obtained. The upper aquifer is pumped at a constant rate from a pumping well of infinitesimal radius. The solutions are obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms and are then numerically inverted to time domain solutions using the de Hoog et al. algorithm and Gaussian quadrature. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless type curves. The solution takes into account the effects of pumping well partial penetration, water table with instantaneous drainage, leakage with storage in the lower aquifer into the upper aquifer, and storativity and hydraulic conductivity of both fractures and matrix blocks. Both spheres and slab-shaped matrix blocks are considered. The effects of the underlying fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters on the dimensionless drawdown produced by the pumping well in the overlying unconfined aquifer are examined. The presented solution can be used to estimate hydraulic parameters of the unconfined and the underlying fractured aquifer by type curve matching techniques or with automated optimization algorithms. Errors arising from ignoring the underlying fractured aquifer in the drawdown distribution in the unconfined aquifer are also investigated.

  6. Analytical solution to the circularity problem in the discounted cash flow valuation framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mejía-Peláez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an analytical solution to the circularity problem between value and cost of capital. Our solution is derived starting from a central principle of finance that relates value today to value, cash flow, and the discount rate for next period. We present a general formulation without circularity for the equity value (E, cost of levered equity (Ke, levered firm value (V, and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC. We furthermore compare the results obtained from these formulas with the results of the application of the Adjusted Present Value approach (no circularity and the iterative solution of circularity based upon the iteration feature of a spreadsheet, concluding that all methods yield exactly the same answer. The advantage of this solution is that it avoids problems such as using manual methods (i.e., the popular “Rolling WACC” ignoring the circularity issue, setting a target leverage (usually constant with the inconsistencies that result from it, the wrong use of book values, or attributing the discrepancies in values to rounding errors.

  7. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing aluminum alloy components. Repair process on the Al alloy sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminum alloy component repair by turbulence flow casting. The model is designed based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that analytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result.

  8. Development of an analytical model to assess fuel property effects on combustor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    A generalized first-order computer model has been developed in order to analytically evaluate the potential effect of alternative fuels' effects on gas turbine combustors. The model assesses the size, configuration, combustion reliability, and durability of the combustors required to meet performance and emission standards while operating on a broad range of fuels. Predictions predicated on combustor flow-field determinations by the model indicate that fuel chemistry, as defined by hydrogen content, exerts a significant influence on flame retardation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission.

  9. Semi-analytical investigation of electronics cooling using developing nanofluid flow in rectangular microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mital, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using microchannels is an attractive alternative to bulky aluminum heat sinks. The channels can be integrated directly into a chip, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a rectangular channel nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate effective nanofluid thermophysical properties, which are then incorporated into heat transfer and friction factor correlations in literature for single-phase flows. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to predict the thermal resistance and pumping power as a function of four design variables that include the channel width, the wall width, the flow velocity and the particle volume fraction. The parameters are optimized using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) with minimum thermal resistance as the objective function, and fixed specified value of pumping power as the constraint. For a given value of pumping power, the benefit of nanoparticle addition is evaluated by independently optimizing the heat sink, first with nanofluid, and then with base fluid. Comparing the minimized thermal resistances revealed only a small benefit since the nanoparticles increase the pumping power which can alternately be diverted toward an increased velocity in a pure fluid heat sink. The benefit further diminishes with increase in available pumping power. -- Highlights: ► Validated model used to predict heat transfer and pumping power (p.p.) in nanofluids. ► Genetic algorithm used to minimize thermal resistance with p.p. constraint. ► Heat sink design independently optimized with nanofluid and base fluid coolant. ► No significant benefit through particle

  10. Theoretical study of turbulent channel flow - Bulk properties, pressure fluctuations, and propagation of electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Hartke, G. J.; Battaglia, A.; Chasnov, J.; Albrecht, G. F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we apply two theoretical turbulence models, DIA and the recent GISS model, to study properties of a turbulent channel flow. Both models provide a turbulent kinetic energy spectral function E(k) as the solution of a non-linear equation; the two models employ the same source function but different closures. The source function is characterized by a rate n sub s (k) which is derived from the complex eigenvalues of the Orr-Sommerfeld (OS) equation in which the basic flow is taken to be of a Poiseuille type. The O-S equation is solved for a variety of Reynolds numbers corresponding to available experimental data. A physical argument is presented whereby the central line velocity characterizing the basic flow, U0 sup L, is not to be identified with the U0 appearing in the experimental Reynolds number. The theoretical results are compared with two types of experimental data: (1) turbulence bulk properties, and (2) properties that depend strongly on the structure of the turbulence spectrum at low wave numbers. The only existing analytical expression for Pi (k) cannot be used in the present case because it applies to the case of a flat plate, not a finite channel.

  11. Analytic properties of high energy production amplitudes in N=4 SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, L.N.; Hamburg Univ.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate analytic properties of the six point planar amplitude in N=4 SUSY at the multi-Regge kinematics for final state particles. For inelastic processes the Steinmann relations play an important role because they give a possibility to fix the phase structure of the Regge pole and Mandelstam cut contributions. The analyticity and factorization constraints allow us to reproduce the two-loop correction to the 6- point BDS amplitude in N=4 SUSY obtained earlier in the leading logarithmic approximation with the use of the s-channel unitarity. The cut contribution has the Moebius invariant form in the transverse momentum subspace. The exponentiation hypothesis for the amplitude in the multi-Regge kinematics is also investigated in LLA. (orig.)

  12. Analytic properties of high energy production amplitudes in N=4 SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, L.N. [St. Petersburg Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-08-15

    We investigate analytic properties of the six point planar amplitude in N=4 SUSY at the multi-Regge kinematics for final state particles. For inelastic processes the Steinmann relations play an important role because they give a possibility to fix the phase structure of the Regge pole and Mandelstam cut contributions. The analyticity and factorization constraints allow us to reproduce the two-loop correction to the 6- point BDS amplitude in N=4 SUSY obtained earlier in the leading logarithmic approximation with the use of the s-channel unitarity. The cut contribution has the Moebius invariant form in the transverse momentum subspace. The exponentiation hypothesis for the amplitude in the multi-Regge kinematics is also investigated in LLA. (orig.)

  13. Analytical study on the self-healing property of Bessel beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.

    2012-10-01

    With the help of Babinet principle, an analytical expression for the self-healing of Bessel beam is derived by using the Gaussian absorption function to describe the obstacle. Based on the analytical expression, the self-healing properties of Bessel beam are studied. It shows that Bessel beam has the ability to reconstruct its beam shape disturbed by an obstacle. However, during the self-healing process, not only the intensity of the beam behind the obstacle but also the other part will be affected by the obstruction. Meanwhile, the highlight spot, which intensity is larger than that without the obstacle will appear, and the size and strength of the highlight spot is determined by the size of the obstacle. From the change of Poynting vector and Babinet principle, the physical interpretations for the self-healing ability, the effects of the obstruction on the other part and the appearance of highlight spot are given.

  14. Two-column sequential injection chromatography for fast isocratic separation of two analytes of greatly differing chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Chocholouš, Petr; Válová, Olga; Hanusová, Lucia; Solich, Petr

    2013-09-30

    This paper deals with a novel approach to separate two analytes with different chemical properties and different lipophilicity. The newly described methodology is based on the two column system that was used for isocratic separation of two analytes with very different lipophilicity-dexamethasone and cinchocaine. Simultaneous separation of model compounds cinchocaine and dexamethasone was carried under the following conditions in two-column sequential injection chromatography system (2-C SIC). A 25×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column was used in the first dimension for retention and separation of dexamethasone with mobile phase acetonitrile:water 30:70 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption of 1.7 mL. A 10×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column with 5×4.6 mm C-18 precolumn was used in the second dimension for retention and separation of cinchocaine using mobile phase acetonitrile:water 60:40 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption 1.5 mL. Whole analysis time including both mobile phase's aspirations and both column separations was performed in less than 4 min. The method was fully validated and used for determination of cinchocaine and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical otic drops. The developed 2-C SIC method was compared with HPLC method under the isocratic conditions of separation on monolithic column (25×4.6 mm C-18). Spectrophotometric detection of both compounds was performed at wavelength 240 nm. System repeatability and method precision were found in the range (0.39-3.12%) for both compounds. Linearity of determination was evaluated in the range 50-500 μg mL(-1) and coefficients of determination were found to be r(2)=0.99912 for dexamethasone and r(2)=0.99969 for cinchocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of density step on stirring properties of a strain flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M; Paranthoen, P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of steep density gradient on stirring properties of a strain flow is addressed by considering the problem in which an interface separating two regions with different constant densities is stabilized within a stagnation-point flow. The existence of an analytic solution for the two-dimensional incompressible flow field allows the exact derivation of the velocity gradient tensor and of parameters describing the local flow topology. Stirring properties are affected not only by vorticity production and jump of strain intensity at the interface, but also by rotation of strain principal axes resulting from anisotropy of pressure Hessian. The strain persistence parameter, which measures the respective effects of strain and effective rotation (vorticity plus rotation rate of strain basis), reveals a complex structure. In particular, for large values of the density ratio, it indicates dominating effective rotation in a restricted area past the interface. Information on flow structure derived from the Okubo-Weiss parameter, by contrast, is less detailed. The influence of the density step on stirring properties is assessed by the Lagrangian evolution of the gradient of a passive scalar. Even for a moderate density ratio, alignment of the scalar gradient and growth rate of its norm are deeply altered. Past the interface effective rotation indeed drives the scalar gradient to align with a direction determined by the local strain persistence parameter, away from the compressional strain direction. The jump of strain intensity at the interface, however, opposes the lessening effect of the latter mechanism on the growth rate of the scalar gradient norm and promotes the rise of the gradient.

  16. r-particle irreducible kernels, asymptotic completeness and analyticity properties of several particle collision amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the present status of many-particle structure analysis in the general framework of massive quantum field theory. Two main questions are discussed, namely: i) the equivalence between the asymptotic completeness of a field and the r-particle irreducibility of associated Bether-Salpeter type kernels; ii) the derivation of extended analyticity properties of the Green functions and multiparticle collision amplitudes around the corresponding physical regions. Substantial results concerning the 3→3 particle processes are described. An analogous multiparticle version of these results yields a partial understanding of the general case

  17. Analytical solution for the electrical properties of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with simple vanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, H.

    1982-01-01

    Although the SUPERFISH program is used for calculating the design parameters of an RFQ structure with complex vanes, an analytical solution for electrical properties of an RFQ with simple vanes provides insight into the parametric behavior of these more complicated resonators. The fields in an inclined plane wave guide with proper boundary conditions match those in one quadrant of an RFQ. The principle of duality is used to exploit the solutions to a radial transmission line in solving the field equations. Calculated are the frequency equation, frequency sensitivity factors, electric field, magnetic field, stored energy (U), power dissipation, and quality factor

  18. Some properties of a channeling model of fracture flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Tsang, C.F.; Neretnieks, I.

    1986-12-01

    The Gamma distribution and the log-normal distribution were used to describe the density distribution of the apertures within a channel. For every set of parameter values (correlation length, and the parameters of the distributions) 95 different statistically equivalent channels were generated. The aperture distribution along the channels are then used to determine the total channel volume, the hydraulic conductivity and the flow rate and residence time for a given gradient. The volumes of the channels were found to vary little whereas the hydraulic conductivity, which is primarily determined by the smallest aperture along the channels, varies considerably. For a wide density distribution the hydraulic conductivity easily spans several orders of magnitude. The flow rate and the velocity variations are primarily influenced by the conductivity variations and are only to a small extent influenced by the volume variations in the channel. The average specific area of the whole channel exhibits small variations. The hydraulic and transport properties of hypothetical fractures containing several channels are investigated by randomly picking several of the generated channels, coupling them in parallel and subjecting them to the same hydraulic head difference. The flow rate and residence time distribution of the coupled channels is used to investigate the dispersion properties of the fracture. It was found that the dispersion expressed as Peclet numbers was on the order of 1 to 4 for most of the distributions used but could attain very large Peclet numbers for (unrealistically) narrow aperture distributions. Simulations of breakthrough curves for tracers in single fracture flow experiments indicate that when few channels participate and the dispersion in the individual channels is small, the breakthrough curve is expected not to be entirely smooth but to contain distinct plateaus. This property has been noted in several experiments. (orig./HP)

  19. Analytical analysis of heat transfer and pumping power of laminar nanofluid developing flow in microchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mital, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Thermal management issues are limiting barriers to high density electronics packaging and miniaturization. Liquid cooling using micro and mini channels is an attractive alternative to large and bulky aluminum or copper heat sinks. These channels can be integrated directly into a chip or a heat spreader, and cooling can be further enhanced using nanofluids (liquid solutions with dispersed nanometer-sized particles) due to their enhanced heat transfer effects reported in literature. The goals of this study are to evaluate heat transfer improvement of a nanofluid heat sink with developing laminar flow forced convection, taking into account the pumping power penalty. The phrase heat transfer enhancement ratio (HTR) is used to denote the ratio of average heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid to water at the same pumping power. The proposed model uses semi-empirical correlations to calculate nanofluid thermophysical properties. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with experimental studies. The validated model is used to identify important design variables (Reynolds number, volume fraction and particle size) related to thermal and flow characteristics of the microchannel heat sink with nanofluids. Statistical analysis of the model showed that the volume fraction is the most significant factor impacting the HTR, followed by the particle diameter. The impact of the Reynolds number and other interaction terms is relatively weak. The HTR is maximized at smallest possible particle diameter (since smaller particles improve heat transfer but do not impact pumping power). Then, for a given Reynolds number, an optimal value of volume fraction can be obtained to maximize HTR. The overall aim is to present results that would be useful for understanding and optimal design of microchannel heat sinks with nanofluid flow. - Highlights: ► Validated model is used to investigate heat transfer and pumping power in nanofluids. ► Particles improve heat transfer

  20. A two-dimensional analytical well model with applications to groundwater flow and convective transport modelling in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Nakka, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A two-dimensional analytical well model has been developed to describe steady groundwater flow in an idealized, confined aquifer intersected by a withdrawal well. The aquifer comprises a low-dipping fracture zone. The model is useful for making simple quantitative estimates of the transport of contaminants along groundwater pathways in the fracture zone to the well from an underground source that intercepts the fracture zone. This report documents the mathematical development of the analytical well model. It outlines the assumptions and method used to derive an exact analytical solution, which is verified by two other methods. It presents expressions for calculating quantities such as streamlines (groundwater flow paths), fractional volumetric flow rates, contaminant concentration in well water and minimum convective travel time to the well. In addition, this report presents the results of applying the analytical model to a site-specific conceptual model of the Whiteshell Research Area in southeastern Manitoba, Canada. This hydrogeological model includes the presence of a 20-m-thick, low-dipping (18 deg) fracture zone (LD1) that intercepts the horizon of a hypothetical disposal vault located at a depth of 500 m. A withdrawal well intercepts LD1 between the vault level and the ground surface. Predictions based on parameters and boundary conditions specific to LD1 are presented graphically. The analytical model has specific applications in the SYVAC geosphere model (GEONET) to calculate the fraction of a plume of contaminants moving up the fracture zone that is captured by the well, and to describe the drawdown in the hydraulic head in the fracture zone caused by the withdrawal well. (author). 16 refs., 6 tabs., 35 figs

  1. Experimental Observation and Analytical Modeling of Melting and Solidification during Aluminum Alloy Repair by Turbulence Flow Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muki Satya Permana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the state of the art of applicable casting technology for applications in the field of repairing Aluminium Alloy components. Repair process on the Aluminium sample using similar metal has been carried out to investigate the micro-structural effect. Joining occurs as a result of convection heat transfer of molten flow into the sand mold which melts the existing base metal inside the mold and subsequent solidification. The analytical model has been developed to describe aluminium component repair by Turbulence Flow Casting. The model built is based on heat transfer principle that can handle the phenomena of heat flow. The experimental result and analytical model analyses pointed out that joint quality are greatly affected by parameters of preheating temperature and duration of molten metal flow in the mold. To obtain a desired metallurgical sound at the joint, the optimum temperature and time were adjusted in order to obtain a similarity of microstructure between filler and base metal. This model is aimed to predict the use of the process parameter ranges in order to have the optimum parameters when it is applied to the experiment. The fixed parameters are flow rate, sand ratio, and pouring temperature. The process parameters are preheating temperature and pouring time. It is concluded that anaytical modeling has good agreement with the experimental result

  2. Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tolias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  3. Analytic Approximate Solutions to the Boundary Layer Flow Equation over a Stretching Wall with Partial Slip at the Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Remus-Daniel; Marinca, Vasile; Marinca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Analytic approximate solutions using Optimal Homotopy Perturbation Method (OHPM) are given for steady boundary layer flow over a nonlinearly stretching wall in presence of partial slip at the boundary. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation by means of similarity transformations. Some examples are considered and the effects of different parameters are shown. OHPM is a very efficient procedure, ensuring a very rapid convergence of the solutions after only two iterations.

  4. Flow Reactor for studying Physicochemical and aging properties of SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z. B.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have importance in environmental processes such as affecting earth's radiative balance and cloud formation processes. For studying SOA formation large scale environmental batch reactors and laboratory scale flow reactors have been used. In this study application of flow reactor to study physicochemical properties of SOA is also investigated after its characterization. The flow reactor is of cylindrical design (ID 15 cm x L 70 cm) equipped with UV lamps. It is coupled with various instruments such as scanning mobility particle sizer, NOx analyzer, ozone analyzer, VOC analyzer, hygrometer, and temperature sensors for gas and particle phase measurements. OH radicals were generated by custom build ozone generator and relative humidity. The following characterizations were performed: (1) residence time distribution (RTD) measurements, (2) RH and temperature control, (3) OH radical exposure range (atmospheric aging time), (4) gas phase oxidation of SOA precursors such as α-pinene by OH radical. The flow reactor yielded narrow RTDs. In particular, RH and temperature can be controlled effectively between 0-60% and 22-43oC, respectively. OH radical exposure ranges from 6.49x1010 to 3.68x1011 molecules/cm3s (0.49 to 4.91 days). Our initial efforts on OH radical generation using hydrogen peroxide and its quantification by using flourescenet technique will be also be presented.

  5. Radio properties of central dominant galaxies in cluster cooling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'dea, C.P.; Baum, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    New VLA observations of central dominant (cd) galaxies currently thought to be in cluster cooling flows are combined with observations from the literature to examine the global properties of a heterogeneous sample of 31 cd galaxies. The radio sources tend to be of low or intermediate radio power and have small sizes (median extent about 25 kpc). The resolved sources tend to have distorted morphologies (e.g., wide-angle tails and S shapes). It is not yet clear whether the radio emission from these cd galaxies is significantly different from those not thought to be in cluster cooling flows. The result of Jones and Forman (1984), that there is a possible correlation between radio power and excess X-ray luminosity in the cluster center (above a King model fit to the X-ray surface brightness), is confirmed. 43 references

  6. Yield and flow properties of aluminum alloy AA 8001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.S.; Johnson, H.W.; Han, E.G.

    1995-01-01

    Aluminum alloy AA 8001 is being used at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) for nuclear reactor fuel and target components. The objective of this research was to determine parameters for predictive models of the compressive flow properties of AA 8001. Seventy-five true strain-rate, hot compression tests were performed. New, quantitative information about the yield and flow behavior of aluminum alloy AA 8001 was determined. Parameters were determined to use in a hyperbolic sine constitutive law so that the yield stress, the peak stress, and the peak strain can be predicted from the temperature-compensated strain-rate, Z. It was found that the onset of strain softening was more strongly dependent on Z than the onset of yielding was

  7. Semi-analytical solution for flow in a leaky unconfined aquifer toward a partially penetrating pumping well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Barrash, Warren

    2008-07-01

    SummaryA semi-analytical solution is presented for the problem of flow in a system consisting of unconfined and confined aquifers, separated by an aquitard. The unconfined aquifer is pumped continuously at a constant rate from a well of infinitesimal radius that partially penetrates its saturated thickness. The solution is termed semi-analytical because the exact solution obtained in double Laplace-Hankel transform space is inverted numerically. The solution presented here is more general than similar solutions obtained for confined aquifer flow as we do not adopt the assumption of unidirectional flow in the confined aquifer (typically assumed to be horizontal) and the aquitard (typically assumed to be vertical). Model predicted results show significant departure from the solution that does not take into account the effect of leakage even for cases where aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers. The results show low sensitivity to changes in radial hydraulic conductivities for aquitards that are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers, in conformity to findings of earlier workers that radial flow in aquitards may be neglected under such conditions. Hence, for cases were aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than aquifer conductivities, the simpler models that restrict flow to the radial direction in aquifers and to the vertical direction in aquitards may be sufficient. However, the model developed here can be used to model flow in aquifer-aquitard systems where radial flow is significant in aquitards.

  8. Perturbative calculations of flow patterns in free convection between coaxial cylinders. Non-linear temperature dependences of the fluid properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, J. A.; Madariaga, J. A.; Santamaria, C. M.; Saviron, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    10 refs. Flow pattern calculations in natural convection between two vertical coaxial cylinders are reported. It is assumed trough the paper. that fluid properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density, depend no-linearly on temperature and that the aspects (height/radius) ratio of the cylinders is high. Velocity profiles are calculated trough a perturbative scheme and analytic results for the three first perturbation orders are presented. We outline also an iterative method to estimate the perturbations on the flow patterns which arise when a radial composition gradient is established by external forces in a two-component fluid. This procedure, based on semiempirical basis, is applied to gaseous convection. The influence of the molecules gas properties on tho flow is also discussed. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  10. Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.

  11. Analytical applications of a recycled flow nuclear magnetic resonance system: quantitative analysis of slowly relaxing nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, D.A. Jr.; Lee, R.W.K.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of a recycled flow system for the efficient quantitative analysis of NMR spectra is demonstrated. Requisite conditions are first established for the quantitative flow experiment and then applied to a variety of compounds. An application of the technique to determination of the average polymer chain length for a silicone polymer by quantitative flow 29 Si NMR is also presented. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  12. Analytical Solution for Time-drawdown Response to Constant Pumping from a Homogeneous, Confined Horizontal Aquifer with Unidirectional Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, K. E.; Zhang, J.; Teasdale, E.

    2007-12-01

    An exact analytical solution to the ordinary one-dimensional partial differential equation is derived for transient groundwater flow in a homogeneous, confined, horizontal aquifer using Laplace transformation. The theoretical analysis is based on the assumption that the aquifer is homogeneous and one-dimensional (horizontal); confined between impermeable formations on top and bottom; and of infinite horizontal extent and constant thickness. It is also assumed that there is only a single pumping well penetrating the entire aquifer; flow is everywhere horizontal within the aquifer to the well; the well is pumping with a constant discharge rate; the well diameter is infinitesimally small; and the hydraulic head is uniform throughout the aquifer before pumping. Similar to the Theis solution, this solution is suited to determine transmissivity and storativity for a two- dimensional, vertically confined aquifer, such as a long vertically fractured zone of high permeability within low permeable rocks or a long, high-permeability trench inside a low-permeability porous media. In addition, it can be used to analyze time-drawdown responses to pumping and injection in similar settings. The solution can also be used to approximate the groundwater flow for unconfined conditions if (1) the variation of transmissivity is negligible (groundwater table variation is small in comparison to the saturated thickness); and (2) the unsaturated flow is negligible. The errors associated with the use of the solution to unconfined conditions depend on the accuracies of the above two assumptions. The solution can also be used to assess the impacts of recharge from a seasonal river or irrigation canal on the groundwater system by assuming uniform, time- constant recharge along the river or canal. This paper presents the details for derivation of the analytical solution. The analytical solution is compared to numerical simulation results with example cases. Its accuracy is also assessed and

  13. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  14. An Analytical Approach for Fast Recovery of the LSI Properties in Magnetic Particle Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jabbari Asl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linearity and shift invariance (LSI characteristics of magnetic particle imaging (MPI are important properties for quantitative medical diagnosis applications. The MPI image equations have been theoretically shown to exhibit LSI; however, in practice, the necessary filtering action removes the first harmonic information, which destroys the LSI characteristics. This lost information can be constant in the x-space reconstruction method. Available recovery algorithms, which are based on signal matching of multiple partial field of views (pFOVs, require much processing time and a priori information at the start of imaging. In this paper, a fast analytical recovery algorithm is proposed to restore the LSI properties of the x-space MPI images, representable as an image of discrete concentrations of magnetic material. The method utilizes the one-dimensional (1D x-space imaging kernel and properties of the image and lost image equations. The approach does not require overlapping of pFOVs, and its complexity depends only on a small-sized system of linear equations; therefore, it can reduce the processing time. Moreover, the algorithm only needs a priori information which can be obtained at one imaging process. Considering different particle distributions, several simulations are conducted, and results of 1D and 2D imaging demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Analytic properties for the honeycomb lattice Green function at the origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    The analytic properties of the honeycomb lattice Green function are investigated, where is a complex variable which lies in a plane. This double integral defines a single-valued analytic function provided that a cut is made along the real axis from w  =  ‑3 to . In order to analyse the behaviour of along the edges of the cut it is convenient to define the limit function where . It is shown that and can be evaluated exactly for all in terms of various hypergeometric functions, where the argument function is always real-valued and rational. The second-order linear Fuchsian differential equation satisfied by is also used to derive series expansions for and which are valid in the neighbourhood of the regular singular points and . Integral representations are established for and , where with . In particular, it is proved that where J 0(z) and Y 0(z) denote Bessel functions of the first and second kind, respectively. The results derived in the paper are utilized to evaluate the associated logarithmic integral where w lies in the cut plane. A new set of orthogonal polynomials which are connected with the honeycomb lattice Green function are also briefly discussed. Finally, a link between and the theory of Pearson random walks in a plane is established.

  16. An analytical method for predicting the geometrical and optical properties of the human lens under accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2014-05-01

    We present an analytical method to describe the accommodative changes in the human crystalline lens. The method is based on the geometry-invariant lens model, in which the gradient-index (GRIN) iso-indicial contours are coupled to the external shape. This feature ensures that any given number of iso-indicial contours does not change with accommodation, which preserves the optical integrity of the GRIN structure. The coupling also enables us to define the GRIN structure if the radii and asphericities of the external lens surfaces are known. As an example, the accommodative changes in lenticular radii and central thickness were taken from the literature, while the asphericities of the external surfaces were derived analytically by adhering to the basic physical conditions of constant lens volume and its axial position. The resulting changes in lens geometry are consistent with experimental data, and the optical properties are in line with expected values for optical power and spherical aberration. The aim of the paper is to provide an anatomically and optically accurate lens model that is valid for 3 mm pupils and can be used as a new tool for better understanding of accommodation.

  17. Modified VMD model with correct analytic properties for describing electromagnetic structure of He4 nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Lucan, L.

    1988-12-01

    A new phenomenological model for electromagnetic (e.m.) form factor (ff) of He 4 nucleus is presented, which is based on a modification of the well proved in e.m. interactions of hadrons vector-meson-dominance (VMD) model by means of an incorporation of correct He 4 ff analytic properties, nonzero vector-meson widths and the right power asymptotic behaviour predicted by the quark model. It reproduces the existing experimental information on He 4 e.m. ff in the space-like region quite well. Furthermore, couplings of all well established isoscalar vector mesons with J pc = 1 -- to He 4 nucleus are evaluated as a result of the analysis and the time-like region behaviour of He 4 e.m. ff is predicted. As a consequence of the latter the total cross section of e + e - → He 4 He-bar 4 process is calculated for the first time. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs

  18. An analytical longitudinal dielectric function of primitive electrolyte solutions and its application in predicting thermodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the longitudinal dielectric function ϵ_l(k) of primitive electrolyte solutions is discussed. Starting from a modified mean spherical approximation, an analytical dielectric function in terms of two parameters is established. These two parameters can be related to the first two decay parameters k_1_,_2 of the dielectric response modes of the bulk system, and can be determined using constraints of k_1_,_2 from statistical theories. Furthermore, a combination of this dielectric function and the molecular Debye-Hückel theory[J. Chem. Phys. 135(2011)104104] leads to a self-consistent mean filed description of electrolyte solutions. Our theory reveals a relationship between the microscopic structure parameters of electrolyte solutions and the macroscopic thermodynamic properties, which is applied to concentrated electrolyte solutions.

  19. Laminar dispersion in parallel plate sections of flowing systems used in analytical chemistry and chemical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolev, S.D.; Kolev, Spas D.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact solution of the convective-diffusion equation for fully developed parallel plate laminar flow was obtained. It allows the derivation of theoretical relationships for calculating the Peclet number in the axially dispersed plug flow model and the concentration distribution perpendicular to

  20. A splitting technique for analytical modelling of two-phase multicomponent flow in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, A.P.; Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Shapiro, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss one-dimensional models for two-phase Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) floods (oil displacement by gases, polymers, carbonized water, hot water, etc.). The main result presented here is the splitting of the EOR mathematical model into thermodynamical and hydrodynamical parts...... formation water for chemical flooding can be calculated from the reduced auxiliary system. Reduction of the number of equations allows the generation of new analytical models for EOR. The analytical model for displacement of oil by a polymer slug with water drive is presented....

  1. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows using the analytic hierarchy process method − A case study in Subao river valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingzhang Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many debris flows have occurred in the areas surrounding the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. Susceptibility assessment of debris flows in this area is especially important for disaster prevention and mitigation. This paper studies one of the worst hit areas, the Subao river valley, and the susceptibility assessment of debris flows is performed based on field surveys and remote sensing interpretation. By investigating the formation conditions of debris flows in the valley, the following assessment factors are selected: mixture density of landslides and rock avalanches, distance to the seismogenic fault, stratum lithology, ground roughness, and hillside angle. The weights of the assessment factors are determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method. Each of the assessment factors is further divided into five grades. Then, the assessment model is built using the multifactor superposition method to assess the debris flow susceptibility. Based on the assessment results, the Subao river valley is divided into three areas: high susceptibility areas, medium susceptibility areas, and low susceptibility areas. The high susceptibility areas are concentrated in the middle of the valley, accounting for 17.6% of the valley area. The medium susceptibility areas are in the middle and lower reaches, most of which are located on both sides of the high susceptibility areas and account for 45.3% of the valley area. The remainders are classified as low susceptibility areas. The results of the model are in accordance with the actual debris flow events that occurred after the earthquake in the valley, confirming that the proposed model is capable of assessing the debris flow susceptibility. The results can also provide guidance for reconstruction planning and debris flow prevention in the Subao river valley.

  2. Electrophoretic mobilities of neutral analytes and electroosmotic flow markers in aqueous solutions of Hofmeister salts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, T.; Kubíčková, A.; Hladílková, Jana; Coufal, P.; Heyda, J.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2014), s. 617-624 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : EOF markers * ion-specific effects * ion-specific mobilization * molecular dynamics simulations * neutral analytes Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.028, year: 2014

  3. Salt flow direction and velocity during subsalt normal faulting and syn-kinematic sedimentation—implications from analytical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsitzka, M.; Kukowski, N.; Kley, J.

    2018-04-01

    Salt flow induced by subsalt normal faulting is mainly controlled by tilting of the salt layer, the amount of differential loading due to syn-kinematic deposition, and tectonic shearing at the top or the base of the salt layer. Our study addresses the first two mechanisms and aims to examine salt flow patterns above a continuously moving subsalt normal fault and beneath a syn-kinematic minibasin. In such a setting, salt either tends to flow down towards the basin centre driven by its own weight or is squeezed up towards the footwall side owing to loading differences between the minibasin and the region above the footwall block. Applying isostatic balancing in analytical models, we calculated the steady-state flow velocity in a salt layer. This procedure gives insights into (1) the minimum vertical offset required for upward flow to occur, (2) the magnitude of the flow velocity, and (3) the average density of the supra-salt cover layer at the point at which upward flow starts. In a sensitivity study, we examined how the point of flow reversal and the velocity patterns are influenced by changes of the salt and cover layer thickness, the geometry of the cover flexure, the dip of the subsalt fault, compaction parameters of the supra-salt cover, the salt viscosity and the salt density. Our model results reveal that in most geological scenarios, salt flow above a continuously displacing subsalt normal fault goes through an early phase of downward flow. At sufficiently high fault offset in the range of 700-2600 m, salt is later squeezed upward towards the footwall side. This flow reversal occurs at smaller vertical fault displacement, if the thickness of the pre-kinematic layer is larger, the sedimentation rate of the syn-kinematic cover is higher, the compaction coefficient of cover sediments (i.e. the density increase with depth) is larger or the average density of the salt is lower. Other geometrical parameters such as the width of the cover monocline, the dip of the

  4. A two-dimensional analytical model for groundwater flow in a leaky aquifer extending finite distance under the estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Hung, Chi-Tung; -Yen Lin, Wen; Ma, Kuo-chen

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, cities and industries in the vicinity of the estuarine region have developed rapidly, resulting in a sharp increase in the population concerned. The increasing demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on massive pumping of water in estuarine area. Since the 1950s, numerous studies have focused on the effects of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow in the estuarine area. Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system considered is multi-layered with estuarine bank and the leaky aquifer extend finite distance under the estuary. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such an estuarine aquifer system and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from estuarine river is developed based on the method of separation of variables along with river boundary. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of leakage, hydraulic parameters, and loading effect on the groundwater head fluctuation due to tide are investigated and discussed. KEYWORDS: analytical model, estuarine river, groundwater fluctuation, leaky aquifer.

  5. Local and global statistical dynamical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and repellers: A coarse grained and spectral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKernan, Donal; Basios, Vasileios

    2009-01-01

    The statistical properties of chaotic Markov analytic maps and equivalent repellers are investigated through matrix representations of the Frobenius-Perron operator (U). The associated basis sets are constructed using Chebyshev functions and Markov partitions which can be tailored to examine statistical dynamical properties associated with observables having support over local regions or for example, about periodic orbits. The decay properties of corresponding time correlations functions are given by a analytic expression of the spectra of U which is expected to be valid for a much larger class of systems than that studied here. An explicit and general expression is also derived for the correction factor to the dynamical zeta functions occurring when analytic function spaces are not invariant under U.

  6. Comparison of Different Analytic Solutions to Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow between Two Infinite Parallel Plates with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate squeezing flow between two large parallel plates by transforming the basic governing equations of the first grade fluid to an ordinary nonlinear differential equation using the stream functions ur(r,z,t=(1/r(∂ψ/∂z and uz(r,z,t=−(1/r(∂ψ/∂r and a transformation ψ(r,z=r2F(z. The velocity profiles are investigated through various analytical techniques like Adomian decomposition method, new iterative method, homotopy perturbation, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, and differential transform method.

  7. Measurement of two phase flow properties using the nuclear reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.W.; Washington Univ., Seattle; Crowe, R.D.; Dailey, D.J.; Kosaly, G.; Damborg, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for characterizing one dimensional, two phase flow in terms of three properties; propagation, structure, and dynamics. It is shown that all of these properties can be measured by analyzing the response of the reactor neutron field to a two phase flow perturbation. Therefore, a nuclear reactor can be regarded as a two phase flow instrument. (author)

  8. Metformin: A Review of Characteristics, Properties, Analytical Methods and Impact in the Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Trindade, Mariana Teixeira; Kogawa, Ana Carolina; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2018-01-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a public health problem. The initial treatment consists of improving the lifestyle and making changes in the diet. When these changes are not enough, the use of medication becomes necessary. The metformin aims to reduce the hepatic production of glucose and is the preferred treatment for type 2. The objective is to survey the characteristics and properties of metformin, as well as hold a discussion on the existing analytical methods to green chemistry and their impacts for both the operator and the environment. For the survey, data searches were conducted by scientific papers in the literature as well as in official compendium. The characteristics and properties are shown, also, methods using liquid chromatography techniques, titration, absorption spectrophotometry in the ultraviolet and the infrared region. Most of the methods presented are not green chemistry oriented. It is necessary the awareness of everyone involved in the optimization of the methods applied through the implementation of green chemistry to determine the metformin.

  9. An analytical model of the mechanical properties of bulk coal under confined stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.X.; Wang, Z.T.; Rudolph, V.; Massarotto, P.; Finley, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an analytical model which can be used to relate the structural parameters of coal to its mechanical properties such as elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio under a confined stress condition. This model is developed primarily to support process modeling of coalbed methane (CBM) or CO2-enhanced CBM (ECBM) recovery from coal seam. It applied an innovative approach by which stresses acting on and strains occurring in coal are successively combined in rectangular coordinates, leading to the aggregated mechanical constants. These mechanical properties represent important information for improving CBM/ECBM simulations and incorporating within these considerations of directional permeability. The model, consisting of constitutive equations which implement a mechanically consistent stress-strains correlation, can be used as a generalized tool to study the mechanical and fluid behaviors of coal composites. An example using the model to predict the stress-strain correlation of coal under triaxial confined stress by accounting for the elastic and brittle (non-elastic) deformations is discussed. The result shows a good agreement between the prediction and the experimental measurement. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste Slurry Particle Properties for Use in Slurry Flow Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewett, J. R.; Conrads, T. J.; Julyk, L. J.; Reynolds, D. A.; Jensen, L.; Kirch, N. W.; Estey, S. D.; Bechtold, D. B.; Callaway III, W. S.; Cooke, G. A.; Herting, D. L.; Person, J. C.; Duncan, J. B.; Onishi, Y.; Tingey, J. M.

    2003-02-26

    Hanford's tank farm piping system must be substantially modified to deliver high-level wastes from the underground storage tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction. Improved knowledge of the physical properties of the solids was required to support the design of the modified system. To provide this additional knowledge, particle size distributions for composite samples from seven high-level waste feed tanks were measured using two different laser lightscattering particle size analyzers. These measurements were made under a variety of instrumental conditions, including various flow rates through the sample loop, various stirring rates in the sample reservoir, and before and after subjecting the particles to ultrasonic energy. A mean value over all the tanks of 4.2 {micro}m was obtained for the volume-based median particle size. Additional particle size information was obtained from sieving tests, settling tests and microscopic observations.

  11. Maximum Likelihood Blood Velocity Estimator Incorporating Properties of Flow Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    )-data under investigation. The flow physic properties are exploited in the second term, as the range of velocity values investigated in the cross-correlation analysis are compared to the velocity estimates in the temporal and spatial neighborhood of the signal segment under investigation. The new estimator...... has been compared to the cross-correlation (CC) estimator and the previously developed maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The results show that the CMLE can handle a larger velocity search range and is capable of estimating even low velocity levels from tissue motion. The CC and the MLE produce...... for the CC and the MLE. When the velocity search range is set to twice the limit of the CC and the MLE, the number of incorrect velocity estimates are 0, 19.1, and 7.2% for the CMLE, CC, and MLE, respectively. The ability to handle a larger search range and estimating low velocity levels was confirmed...

  12. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Safia, E-mail: safia_akram@yahoomail.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan); Nadeem, S. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hanif, M. [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this.

  13. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.; Hanif, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this

  14. Local properties of countercurrent stratified steam-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    A study of steam condensation in countercurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water has been carried out in a rectangular channel/flat plate geometry over a wide range of inclination angles (4 0 -87 0 ) at several aspect ratios. Variables were inlet water and steam flow rates, and inlet water temperature. Local condensation rates and pressure gradients were measured, and local condensation heat transfer coefficients and interfacial shear stress were calculated. Contact probe traverses of the surface waves were made, which allowed a statistical analysis of the wave properties. The local condensation Nusselt number was correlated in terms of local water and steam Reynolds or Froude numbers, as well as the liquid Prandtl number. A turbulence-centered model developed by Theofanous, et al. principally for gas absorption in several geometries, was modified. A correlation for the interfacial shear stress and the pressure gradient agreed with measured values. Mean water layer thicknesses were calculated. Interfacial wave parameters, such as the mean water layer thickness, liquid fraction probability distribution, wave amplitude and wave frequency, are analyzed

  15. An analytical wall-function for turbulent flows and heat transfer over rough walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, K.; Craft, T.J.; Iacovides, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a refined wall-function strategy for the modelling of turbulent forced convection heat transfer over smooth and rough surfaces. In order to include the effects of fine-grain surface roughness, the present study extends a more fundamental work by Craft et al. [Craft, T.J., Gerasimov, A.V., Iacovides, H., Launder, B.E., 2002. Progress in the generalisation of wall-function treatment. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 23, 148-160] on the development of advanced wall-functions of general applicability. The presently proposed model is validated through comparisons with data available for internal flows through channels and for external flows over flat and curved plates with both smooth and rough surfaces. Then, its further validation in separating flows over a sand dune and a sand-roughened ramp is discussed. The validation results suggest that the presently proposed form can be successfully applied to a wide range of attached and separated turbulent flows with heat transfer over smooth and fine-grain rough surfaces

  16. The mechanical properties of human dentin for 3-D finite element modeling: Numerical and analytical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzebieluch, Wojciech; Będziński, Romuald; Czapliński, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2017-07-01

    The FEM is often used in investigations of dentin loading conditions; however, its anisotropy is mostly neglected. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the anisotropy and the elastic properties of an equivalent homogenous material model of human dentin as well as to compare isotropic and anisotropic dentin FE-models. Analytical and numerical dentin homogenization according to Luciano and Barbero was performed and E-modulus (E), Poisson's ratios (v) G-modulus (G) were calculated. The E-modulus of the dentin matrix was 28.0 GPa, Poisson's ratio (v) was 0.3; finite element models of orthotropic and isotropic dentin were created, loaded and compared using Ansys® 14.5 and CodeAster® 11.2 software. Anisotropy of the dentin ranged from 6.9 to 35.2%. E-modulus and G-modulus were as follows: E1 = 22.0-26.0 GPa, E2/E3 = 15.7-23.0 GPa; G12/G13 = 6.96-9.35 GPa and G23 = 6.08-8.09 GPa (highest values in the superficial layer). In FEM analysis of the displacement values were higher in the isotropic than in the orthotropic model, reaching up to 16% by shear load, 37% by compression and 23% in the case of shear with bending. Strain values were higher in the isotropic model, up to 35% for the shear load, 31% for compression and 35% in the case of shear with bending. The decrease in the volumetric fraction and diameter of tubules increased the G and E values. Anisotropy of the dentin applied during FEM analysis decreased the displacements and strain values. The numerical and analytical homogenization of dentin showed similar results.

  17. Analytical solution of velocity for ammonia-water horizontal falling-film flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Yide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new falling-film flow model that analyzed the film flow characteristics. • We have obtained a new formula of film thickness over the horizontal tube. • We derived analysis solution to analyze the effect of inertial force to velocity in the entrance region of liquid film. • It described the characters of the ammonia-waterfalling-film film over the horizontal tube. • It is good for falling-film absorption, generation and evaporation to optimizing the design parameters and further improving the capabilities. - Abstract: A new horizontal tube falling film velocity model was built and calculated to analyze the problem of film flow conditions. This model also analyzed the film thickness distribution in horizontal tube falling film flow and considered the effect of the inertial force on velocity. The film thickness and velocity profile can be obtained based on the principle of linear superposition, a method of separation of variables that introduces the effect of variable inertial force on the velocity profile in the process of falling-film absorption. The film flow condition and the film thickness distribution at different fluid Reynolds numbers (Re) and tube diameters were calculated and compared with the results of the Crank–Nicolson numerical solution under the same conditions. The results show that the film flow condition out of a horizontal tube and that the film thickness increases with the fluid Re. At a specific Re and suitable tube diameter, the horizontal tube reaches a more uniform film. Finally, the analysis results have similar trend with the experimental and numerical predicted data in literature.

  18. Analytical solutions of couple stress fluid flows with slip boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devakar M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the exact solutions for fundamental flows namely Couette, Poiseuille and generalized Couette flows of an incompressible couple stress fluid between parallel plates are obtained using slip boundary conditions. The effect of various parameters on velocity for each problem is discussed. It is found that, for each of the problems, the solution in the limiting case as couple stresses approaches to zero is similar to that of classical viscous Newtonian fluid. The results indicate that, the presence of couple stresses decreases the velocity of the fluid.

  19. Three-dimensional analytic probabilities of coupled vibrational-rotational-translational energy transfer for DSMC modeling of nonequilibrium flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes

  20. Analytical Solution for Interface Flow to a Sink With an Upconed Saline Water Lens: Strack's Regimes Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Obnosov, Y. V.

    2018-01-01

    A study is made of a steady, two-dimensional groundwater flow with a horizontal well (drain), which pumps out freshwater from an aquifer sandwiched between a horizontal bedrock and ponded soil surface, and containing a lens-shaped static volume of a heavier saline water (DNAPL-dense nonaqueous phase liquid) as a free surface. For flow toward a line sink, an explicit analytical solution is obtained by a conformal mapping of the hexagon in the complex potential plane onto a reference plane and the Keldysh-Sedov integral representation of a mixed boundary-value problem for a complex physical coordinate. The interface is found as a function of the pumping rate, the well locus, the ratio of liquid densities, and the hydraulic heads at the soil surface and in the well. The shape with two inflexion points and fronts varies from a small-thickness bedrock-spread pancake to a critical curvilinear triangle, which cusps toward the sink. The problem is mathematically solvable in a relatively narrow band of geometric and hydraulic parameters. A similar analytic solution for a static heavy bubble confined by a closed-curve interface (no contact with the bedrock) is outlined as an illustration of the method to solve a mixed boundary-value problem.

  1. A semi-analytical model for the acoustic impedance of finite length circular holes with mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Morgans, Aimee S.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic response of a circular hole with mean flow passing through it is highly relevant to Helmholtz resonators, fuel injectors, perforated plates, screens, liners and many other engineering applications. A widely used analytical model [M.S. Howe. "Onthe theory of unsteady high Reynolds number flow through a circular aperture", Proc. of the Royal Soc. A. 366, 1725 (1979), 205-223] which assumes an infinitesimally short hole was recently shown to be insufficient for predicting the impedance of holes with a finite length. In the present work, an analytical model based on Green's function method is developed to take the hole length into consideration for "short" holes. The importance of capturing the modified vortex noise accurately is shown. The vortices shed at the hole inlet edge are convected to the hole outlet and further downstream to form a vortex sheet. This couples with the acoustic waves and this coupling has the potential to generate as well as absorb acoustic energy in the low frequency region. The impedance predicted by this model shows the importance of capturing the path of the shed vortex. When the vortex path is captured accurately, the impedance predictions agree well with previous experimental and CFD results, for example predicting the potential for generation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies. For "long" holes, a simplified model which combines Howe's model with plane acoustic waves within the hole is developed. It is shown that the most important effect in this case is the acoustic non-compactness of the hole.

  2. Flow Injection and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - An Effective and Attractive Analytical Chemical Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Nielsen, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    One of the advantages of the flow injection (FI) concept is that it is compatible with virtually all detection techniques. Being a versatile vehicle for enhancing the performance of the individual detection devices, the most spectacular results have possibly been obtained in conjunction with atom...

  3. Evaluation and purchase of an analytical flow cytometer: some of the numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Fisher, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    When purchasing a flow cytometer, the decision of which brand, model, specifications, and accessories may be challenging. The decisions should initially be guided by the specific applications intended for the instrument. However, many other factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, quality assurance, support, service, and price and recommendations from colleagues. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process.

  4. Flipping the analytical coin : closing the information flow loop in high speed (real time) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Shahroudi

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis modules tend to be set up as one way flow of information, i.e a clear distinction between cause and effect or input and output. However, as the speed of analysis approaches real time (or faster than movie rate), it becomes increasingly difficult for an external user to

  5. Material flows and economic models: an analytical comparison of SFA, LCA and partial equilibrium models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, M.B.; Heijungs, R.; van der Voet, E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Huppes, G.

    2000-01-01

    The growing concern for environmental problems in the current economy has spurred the study of the way materials and substances flow through the economy, resulting in many different types of analysis. Since all of these have their merits and shortcomings, much of the present theoretical research

  6. Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.

  7. Analytical Solution for Fractional Derivative Gas-Flow Equation in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2017-07-06

    In this paper, we introduce an analytical solution of the fractional derivative gas transport equation using the power-series technique. We present a new universal transform, namely, generalized Boltzmann change of variable which depends on the fractional order, time and space. This universal transform is employed to transfer the partial differential equation into an ordinary differential equation. Moreover, the convergence of the solution has been investigated and found that solutions are unconditionally converged. Results are introduced and discussed for the universal variable and other physical parameters such as porosity and permeability of the reservoir; time and space.

  8. Compatibility of Safety Properties and Possibilistic Information Flow Security in MAKS

    OpenAIRE

    Bauereiss , Thomas; Hutter , Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Part 6: Information Flow Control; International audience; Motivated by typical security requirements of workflow management systems, we consider the integrated verification of both safety properties (e.g. separation of duty) and information flow security predicates of the MAKS framework (e.g. modeling confidentiality requirements). Due to the refinement paradox, enforcement of safety properties might violate possibilistic information flow properties of a system. We present an approach where s...

  9. Analytical solutions of steady-state conjugate heat transfer in ducts with turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, Djane R.; Jian Su

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present an approximate analytical solution of the steady-state conjugate heat transfer of turbulent forced convection in a circular pipe with wall axial heat conduction and external convective boundary conditions. Improved lumped differential approach based on two points Hermite approximation for integrals was applied to reduce the heat conduction equation in the solid into a second-order ordinary differential equation for the radially averaged solid temperature. The energy equation in the fluid was solved by applying the generalized integral transform technique (GITT). The Sturm-Lioville eigenproblem for fluid energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate system was solved by the sign-count method. The truncated system of N ordinary differential equations for transformed potentials of the fluid temperature and the second-order ordinary differential equation for radially averaged solid temperature formed a homogeneous system of N+2 ordinary differential equations, which was solved analytically. The effects of the fluid-solid thermal conductivity ratio on the Nusselt number, the average fluid and solid temperatures, and the fluid-solid interface temperature were investigated. (author)

  10. Analytical framework for borehole heat exchanger (BHE) simulation influenced by horizontal groundwater flow and complex top boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jaime; Blum, Philipp; Bayer, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers (BHE) are the most widely used technologies for tapping low-enthalpy energy resources in the shallow subsurface. Analysis of these systems requires a proper simulation of the relevant processes controlling the transfer of heat between the BHE and the ground. Among the available simulation approaches, analytical methods are broadly accepted, especially when low computational costs and comprehensive analyses are demanded. Moreover, these methods constitute the benchmark solutions to evaluate the performance of more complex numerical models. Within the spectrum of existing (semi-)analytical models, those based on the superposition of problem-specific Green's functions are particularly appealing. Green's functions can be derived, for instance, for nodal or line sources with constant or transient strengths. In the same manner, functional forms can be obtained for scenarios with complex top boundary conditions whose temperature may vary in space and time. Other relevant processes, such as advective heat transport, mechanical dispersion and heat transfer through the unsaturated zone could be incorporated as well. A keystone of the methodology is that individual solutions can be added up invoking the superposition principle. This leads to a flexible and robust framework for studying the interaction of multiple processes on thermal plumes of BHEs. In this contribution, we present a new analytical framework and its verification via comparison with a numerical model. It simulates a BHE as a line source, and it integrates both horizontal groundwater flow and the effect of top boundary effects due to variable land use. All these effects may be implemented as spatially and temporally variable. For validation, the analytical framework is successfully applied to study cases where highly resolved temperature data is available.

  11. Numerical analysis of laser welding with consideration analytical methods of determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piekarska Wiesława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical analysis of laser welding process with consideration analytical methods determining phase transformations and mechanical properties of welded joints are presents in this paper. The analytical CCT diagram and final structural composition of S355 steel are presented. The empirical relations presents in paper are determined by chemical compositions investigated steel and cooling rate between temperatures 800-500°C (t8/5. Phase composition and mechanical properties each of structures of steel in weld and heat affected zone (HAZ are determined on the basis of analytical methods. Laser welded flat is used in numerical simulations in ABAQUS. Mathematical modes of volumetric welding source are used in the calculations. Temperature fields, shape and size of melting zone for selected points in the cross-section of the joint are determined on the basis of thermal cycles obtained numerical.

  12. Finite volume approximation of the three-dimensional flow equation in axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous media based on local analytical solution

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-09-01

    In this work the problem of flow in three-dimensional, axisymmetric, heterogeneous porous medium domain is investigated numerically. For this system, it is natural to use cylindrical coordinate system, which is useful in describing phenomena that have some rotational symmetry about the longitudinal axis. This can happen in porous media, for example, in the vicinity of production/injection wells. The basic feature of this system is the fact that the flux component (volume flow rate per unit area) in the radial direction is changing because of the continuous change of the area. In this case, variables change rapidly closer to the axis of symmetry and this requires the mesh to be denser. In this work, we generalize a methodology that allows coarser mesh to be used and yet yields accurate results. This method is based on constructing local analytical solution in each cell in the radial direction and moves the derivatives in the other directions to the source term. A new expression for the harmonic mean of the hydraulic conductivity in the radial direction is developed. Apparently, this approach conforms to the analytical solution for uni-directional flows in radial direction in homogeneous porous media. For the case when the porous medium is heterogeneous or the boundary conditions is more complex, comparing with the mesh-independent solution, this approach requires only coarser mesh to arrive at this solution while the traditional methods require more denser mesh. Comparisons for different hydraulic conductivity scenarios and boundary conditions have also been introduced. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Dynamic susceptibility of a free electron gas in a D dimensions and its analytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of the free electron susceptibility as a complex function of a wave vector k and a complex frequency ω are examined. Dimensionality D of the space plays a role of a parameter, which may assume noninteger values also. While for general D the susceptibility is obtained in terms of hypergeometric functions, for integer D it can be reduced to a combination of elementary functions. A singular behavior at the points of non-analyticity ω = k modul 1±k/2 is investigated; with increasing D the singularity becomes weaker. A continued fraction representation is obtained and approximations to the susceptibility, based on it, are proposed. The Hartree-Fock static structure factor is obtained as a function of both k and D. An important for applications problem of frequency integration of the dynamic structure factor of interacting-particle systems is investigated. Explicit expressions for integration along the imaginary axis, ready for numerical work, are obtained for D = 3 and 2. (author). 20 refs

  14. Analytic nuclear forces and molecular properties from full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Overy, Catherine; Opalka, Daniel; Alavi, Ali; Knowles, Peter J.; Booth, George H.

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased stochastic sampling of the one- and two-body reduced density matrices is achieved in full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo with the introduction of a second, “replica” ensemble of walkers, whose population evolves in imaginary time independently from the first and which entails only modest additional computational overheads. The matrices obtained from this approach are shown to be representative of full configuration-interaction quality and hence provide a realistic opportunity to achieve high-quality results for a range of properties whose operators do not necessarily commute with the Hamiltonian. A density-matrix formulated quasi-variational energy estimator having been already proposed and investigated, the present work extends the scope of the theory to take in studies of analytic nuclear forces, molecular dipole moments, and polarisabilities, with extensive comparison to exact results where possible. These new results confirm the suitability of the sampling technique and, where sufficiently large basis sets are available, achieve close agreement with experimental values, expanding the scope of the method to new areas of investigation

  15. Modelling of fluid flow in tape casting of thin ceramics: Analytical approaches and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Tape casting has been used to produce thin layers of ceramics that can be used as single layers or can be stacked and laminated into multilayered structures. Many startup products such as multilayered inductors, multilayered varistors, piezoelectrics, ceramic fuel cells and lithium ion battery...... components are dependent upon tape casting technology. One of the growing sciences in the processing of ceramics by tape casting is the use of fluid flow analysis to control and enhance the final tapes. The fluid dynamics analysis of the ceramic slurries during tape casting is an efficient mean to elucidate...... the physical parameters crucial to the process. A review of the development of the tape casting process with particular focus on modelling the material flow is presented and in this context the current status is examined and future potential discussed....

  16. Steady Stokes flow past dumbbell shaped axially symmetric body of revolution: An analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Kumar Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of steady Stokes flow past dumbbell-shaped axially symmetric isolated body of revolution about its axis of symmetry is considered by utilizing a method (Datta and Srivastava, 1999 based on body geometry under the restrictions of continuously turning tangent on the boundary. The relationship between drag and moment is established in transverse flow situation. The closed form expression of Stokes drag is then calculated for dumbbell-shaped body in terms of geometric parameters b, c, d and a with the aid of this linear relation and the formula of torque obtained by (Chwang and Wu, part 1, 1974 with the use of singularity distribution along axis of symmetry. Drag coefficient and moment coefficient are defined in various forms in terms of dumbbell parameters. Their numerical values are calculated and depicted in respective graphs and compared with some known values.

  17. Web-Based Predictive Analytics to Improve Patient Flow in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) simulation project was established to demonstrate how requirements-driven analysis and process simulation can help improve the quality of patient care for the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMC). This project developed a web-based simulation prototype of patient flow in EDs, validated the performance of the simulation against operational data, and documented IT requirements for the ED simulation.

  18. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  19. INTERSTELLAR GAS FLOW PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER-Lo OBSERVATIONS IN 2009 AND 2010: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Möbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; Leonard, T.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wu, X.; Petersen, L.; Valovcin, D.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Crew, G.; Vanderspek, R.; McComas, D. J.; Saul, L.

    2012-01-01

    Neutral atom imaging of the interstellar gas flow in the inner heliosphere provides the most detailed information on physical conditions of the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and its interaction with the heliosphere. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measured neutral H, He, O, and Ne for three years. We compare the He and combined O+Ne flow distributions for two interstellar flow passages in 2009 and 2010 with an analytical calculation, which is simplified because the IBEX orientation provides observations at almost exactly the perihelion of the gas trajectories. This method allows separate determination of the key ISM parameters: inflow speed, longitude, and latitude, as well as temperature. A combined optimization, as in complementary approaches, is thus not necessary. Based on the observed peak position and width in longitude and latitude, inflow speed, latitude, and temperature are found as a function of inflow longitude. The latter is then constrained by the variation of the observed flow latitude as a function of observer longitude and by the ratio of the widths of the distribution in longitude and latitude. Identical results are found for 2009 and 2010: an He flow vector somewhat outside previous determinations (λ ISM∞ = 79. 0 0+3. 0 0(–3. 0 5), β ISM∞ = –4. 0 9 ± 0. 0 2, V ISM∞ 23.5 + 3.0(–2.0) km s –1 , T He = 5000-8200 K), suggesting a larger inflow longitude and lower speed. The O+Ne temperature range, T O+Ne = 5300-9000 K, is found to be close to the upper range for He and consistent with an isothermal medium for all species within current uncertainties.

  20. Visualization of microscale phase displacement proceses in retention and outflow experiments: nonuniquensess of unsaturated flow properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    -scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these microscale processes yields macroscale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. Such results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties....

  1. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  2. Analytic solutions to linear, time-dependent fission product deposition models for isothermal laminar, slug, or multiregion flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkee, J.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The time-dependent convective-diffusion equation with radioactive decay is solved analytically in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry for laminar and slug velocity profiles under isothermal conditions. Concentration dependent diffusion is neglected. The laminar flow solution is derived using the method of separation of variables and Frobenius' technique for constructing a series expansion about a regular singular point. The slug flow multiregion solution is obtained using the method of separation of variables. The Davidon Variable Metric Minimization algorithm is used to compute the coupling coefficients. These solutions, which describe the transport of fission products in a flowing stream, are then used to determine the concentration of radioactive material deposited on a conduit wall using a standard mass transfer model. Fission product deposition measurements for five diffusion tubes in a Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor plateout probe are analyzed. Using single region slug and laminar models, the wall mass transfer coefficients, diffusion coefficients, and inlet concentrations are determined using least squares analysis. The diffusion coefficients and inlet concentrations are consistent between tubes. The derived diffusion coefficients and wall mass transfer coefficients are in relative agreement with known literature values

  3. Evaluation of approaches for improving diesel cold flow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, Ilshat; Stratiev, Dicho; Dinkov, Rossen [Lukoil Neftochim Bourgas AD, Bourgas (Bulgaria); Bachvarov, Assen [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Petkov, Petko [Bourgas Univ. ' ' Assen Zlatarov' ' (Bulgaria)

    2012-06-15

    Four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 420 C), one lower boilingmiddle distillate fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 310 C) and kerosene fraction (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of 271 C) obtained from the Lukoil Neftochim Burgas (LNB) process units during the processing of Russian Export Crude Blend (REBCO) along with four heavy diesel fractions (FBP according to ASTM D-2887 of about 370 C) obtained by fractionation of four crudes: Oil Blend, REBCO, Siberian Light Crude Oil (SLCO) and CPC (Caspian Consortium Pipeline) were investigated for their cold flow properties. It was found that undercutting diesel improves cloud point (CP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by 4 C/10 C cut point. Blending of kerosene improves CP and CFPP by about 2 C/10% added kerosene. The treatment with CP depressants may improve CP by about 2 C if the proper combination diesel - depressant is selected and the improvement can reach up to 6 C for a definite diesel. The treatment with CFPP depressant is much more efficient achieving an improvement of 18 C. By assuming definite fuel prices (Platts) and by applying the LNB linear programming model using Honeywell's RPMS software it was found that catalytic dewaxing is the most efficient approach for producing diesel with improved cold flowproperties if the diesel yield from the dewaxing process is higher than 90%. (orig.)

  4. An experimental and analytical study of fluid flow and critical heat flux in PWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowditch, F.H.; Mogford, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes experiments that have been carried out at the Winfrith Establishment of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority to determine the critical heat flux characteristics of pressurized water reactor fuel elements over an unusually wide range of coolant flow conditions that are relevant to both normal and fault conditions of reactor operation. The experiments were carried out in the TITAN loop using an electrically heated bundle of 25 rods of 9.5 mm diameter on a 12.7 mm pitch fitted with plain grids in order to provide a generic base for code validation. The fully tabulated experimental data for critical heat flux, pressure drop and sub-channel mixing are encompassed by ranges of pressure between 20 and 160 Bar, coolant flow between 150 and 3600 Kg/m 2 s, and coolant inlet temperature between 150 and 320 0 C. The results of the experiments are compared with predicted data based upon several established critical heat flux correlations. It is concluded that the extrapolation of some correlations to conditions beyond their intended range of application can lead to dangerous over estimates of critical heat flux, but the Winfrith WSC-2 and the EPRI NP-2609 correlations perform well over the whole data range and correlate all data with RMS errors of 9% and 6% respectively. (author)

  5. Analytical Application of Flow Immunosensor in Detection of Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Tanveer A; Zargar, Seema; Majid, Salma; Darwish, Ibrahim A

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an immunosensor based on kinetic exclusion analysis (KinExA) was used for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) estimation. A KinExA™ 3200 instrument was used for this analysis, which is an automated flow fluorimeter designed to separate free unbound antibody binding sites in reaction mixtures of antibody, antigen, and antibody-antigen complex. A T3-BSA- and T4-BSA-coated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bead microcolumn is generated inside the flow cell of the instrument. A sample mixture containing T3 and T4 with their respective monoclonal antibodies and their complexes are drawn past the microbead column. The unbound T3 or T4 monoclonal antibody binding sites are captured by their respective T3 and T4 antigens coated on the PMMA beads as bovine serum albumin conjugates. Fluorescently labeled secondary antibodies bind to the T3 or T4 antigen-antibody complex to generate fluorescence intensity for analysis. The limit of detection for the T3 and T4 assays was found to be 0.06 and 1.9 ng mL -1 with acceptable precision values. The convenience of the automated KinExA format may be valuable in medical diagnostic laboratories.

  6. Analytical study of narrow channel flow for a spallation target system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Monde, Masanori [Saga Univ., Saga (Japan); Terada, Atsuhiko; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under fully developed turbulent water flow condition were analyzed over a two-dimensional narrow rectangular channel whose height is H=1.2 mm. The channel configuration and water flow condition simulate forced convection cooling of a spallation target system components design such as a solid target and a proton beam window. The high-Reynolds number form of the standard k - {epsilon} and RNG k - {epsilon} models employing wall functions for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 7,000 to 22,000 were used in the analyses. As for heat transfer characteristics of a smooth channel, the Nusselt number obtained by the standard k - {epsilon} model agreed very well with the Dittus-Boelter correlation. No significant differences in friction factors for the smooth channel were observed for these two models, which agreed well with the Blasius correlation. However, the standard k - {epsilon} model could not predict friction factors well for the rib-roughened channel. (author)

  7. Analytical study of narrow channel flow for a spallation target system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Monde, Masanori; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kinoshita, Hidetaka; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-07-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under fully developed turbulent water flow condition were analyzed over a two-dimensional narrow rectangular channel whose height is H=1.2 mm. The channel configuration and water flow condition simulate forced convection cooling of a spallation target system components design such as a solid target and a proton beam window. The high-Reynolds number form of the standard k - ε and RNG k - ε models employing wall functions for the Reynolds number (Re) range of 7,000 to 22,000 were used in the analyses. As for heat transfer characteristics of a smooth channel, the Nusselt number obtained by the standard k - ε model agreed very well with the Dittus-Boelter correlation. No significant differences in friction factors for the smooth channel were observed for these two models, which agreed well with the Blasius correlation. However, the standard k - ε model could not predict friction factors well for the rib-roughened channel. (author)

  8. The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of porous titanium scaffolds: comparative study on experimental and analytical values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Meratian, Mahmood; Savabi, Omid

    2018-05-01

    Reducing the elastic modulus and also improving biological fixation to the bone is possible by using porous scaffolds. In the present study, porous titanium scaffolds containing different porosities were fabricated using the space holder method. Pore distribution, formed phases and mechanical properties of titanium scaffolds were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold compression test. Then the results of compression test were compared to the Gibson-Ashby model. Both experimentally measured and analytically calculated elastic modulus of porous titanium scaffolds decreased by porosity increment. The compliance between experimentally measured and analytically calculated elastic modulus of titanium scaffolds are also increased by porosity increment.

  9. Analytical investigation of third grade nanofluidic flow over a riga plate using Cattaneo-Christov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Anum; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Farooq, M. U.

    2018-06-01

    This article addresses third grade nanofluidic flow instigated by riga plate and Cattaneo-Christov theory is adopted to investigate thermal and mass diffusions with the incorporation of newly eminent zero nanoparticles mass flux condition. The governing system of equations is nondimensionalized through relevant similarity transformations and significatory findings are attained by using optimal homotopy analysis method. The behaviors of affecting parameters for velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are depicted graphically and also verified through three dimensional patterns for some parameters. Values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number with the apposite discussion have been recorded. The current results reveal that temperature and concentration profiles experience decline when thermal and concentration relaxation parameters are augmented respectively.

  10. Normal stress differences from Oldroyd 8-constant framework: Exact analytical solution for large-amplitude oscillatory shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, C.; Giacomin, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Oldroyd 8-constant framework for continuum constitutive theory contains a rich diversity of popular special cases for polymeric liquids. In this paper, we use part of our exact solution for shear stress to arrive at unique exact analytical solutions for the normal stress difference responses to large-amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow. The nonlinearity of the polymeric liquids, triggered by LAOS, causes these responses at even multiples of the test frequency. We call responses at a frequency higher than twice the test frequency higher harmonics. We find the new exact analytical solutions to be compact and intrinsically beautiful. These solutions reduce to those of our previous work on the special case of the corotational Maxwell fluid. Our solutions also agree with our new truncated Goddard integral expansion for the special case of the corotational Jeffreys fluid. The limiting behaviors of these exact solutions also yield new explicit expressions. Finally, we use our exact solutions to see how η∞ affects the normal stress differences in LAOS.

  11. Predicting areas of sustainable error growth in quasigeostrophic flows using perturbation alignment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, G.; Hua, B. L.

    2004-10-01

    A new perturbation initialization method is used to quantify error growth due to inaccuracies of the forecast model initial conditions in a quasigeostrophic box ocean model describing a wind-driven double gyre circulation. This method is based on recent analytical results on Lagrangian alignment dynamics of the perturbation velocity vector in quasigeostrophic flows. More specifically, it consists in initializing a unique perturbation from the sole knowledge of the control flow properties at the initial time of the forecast and whose velocity vector orientation satisfies a Lagrangian equilibrium criterion. This Alignment-based Initialization method is hereafter denoted as the AI method.In terms of spatial distribution of the errors, we have compared favorably the AI error forecast with the mean error obtained with a Monte-Carlo ensemble prediction. It is shown that the AI forecast is on average as efficient as the error forecast initialized with the leading singular vector for the palenstrophy norm, and significantly more efficient than that for total energy and enstrophy norms. Furthermore, a more precise examination shows that the AI forecast is systematically relevant for all control flows whereas the palenstrophy singular vector forecast leads sometimes to very good scores and sometimes to very bad ones.A principal component analysis at the final time of the forecast shows that the AI mode spatial structure is comparable to that of the first eigenvector of the error covariance matrix for a "bred mode" ensemble. Furthermore, the kinetic energy of the AI mode grows at the same constant rate as that of the "bred modes" from the initial time to the final time of the forecast and is therefore characterized by a sustained phase of error growth. In this sense, the AI mode based on Lagrangian dynamics of the perturbation velocity orientation provides a rationale of the "bred mode" behavior.

  12. Analytical validation of a flow cytometric protocol for quantification of platelet microparticles in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Signe E; Krogh, Anne K H; Hedström, Matilda E K; Christiansen, Liselotte B; Tarnow, Inge; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2018-06-01

    Platelet microparticles (PMPs) are subcellular procoagulant vesicles released upon platelet activation. In people with clinical diseases, alterations in PMP concentrations have been extensively investigated, but few canine studies exist. This study aims to validate a canine flow cytometric protocol for PMP quantification and to assess the influence of calcium on PMP concentrations. Microparticles (MP) were quantified in citrated whole blood (WB) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) using flow cytometry. Anti-CD61 antibody and Annexin V (AnV) were used to detect platelets and phosphatidylserine, respectively. In 13 healthy dogs, CD61 + /AnV - concentrations were analyzed with/without a calcium buffer. CD61 + /AnV - , CD61 + /AnV + , and CD61 - /AnV + MP quantification were validated in 10 healthy dogs. The coefficient of variation (CV) for duplicate (intra-assay) and parallel (inter-assay) analyses and detection limits (DLs) were calculated. CD61 + /AnV - concentrations were higher in calcium buffer; 841,800 MP/μL (526,000-1,666,200) vs without; 474,200 MP/μL (278,800-997,500), P < .05. In WB, PMP were above DLs and demonstrated acceptable (<20%) intra-assay and inter-assay CVs in 9/10 dogs: 1.7% (0.5-8.9) and 9.0% (0.9-11.9), respectively, for CD61 + /AnV - and 2.4% (0.2-8.7) and 7.8% (0.0-12.8), respectively, for CD61 + /AnV + . Acceptable CVs were not seen for the CD61 - /AnV + MP. In PPP, quantifications were challenged by high inter-assay CV, overlapping DLs and hemolysis and lipemia interfered with quantification in 5/10 dogs. Calcium induced higher in vitro PMP concentrations, likely due to platelet activation. PMP concentrations were reliably quantified in WB, indicating the potential for clinical applications. PPP analyses were unreliable due to high inter-CV and DL overlap, and not obtainable due to hemolysis and lipemia interference. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Optimizing the combustion and cold flow properties of biogasoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, Tamas; Hollo, Andras [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Plc., Szazhalombatta (Hungary); Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Normal paraffin containing mixtures produced from different natural triglycerides (conventional and improved vegetable oils, used cooking oils and fats, etc.) have high cetane number (9S-105 units), but their freezing points are high (between +15 and +32 C). This property needs to be improved. For this the most suitable process is the isomerization, because among paraffins with the same carbon number, the branched paraffins have a lower freezing point by 20-40 C, relative to normal paraffins. At the same time there is a cetane number decrease of 15-40 units. During the isomerization of these mixtures choosing the favorable process parameters the cold flow demands (< 5 C; < -20 C; < -32 C, etc.) can be fulfilled with high biogasoil product yield and with even high cetane number. The aim of the experimental work was the investigation of the effects of operational parameters (T = 280-380 C; P = 20-80 bar; LHSV = 0.25-4.0 h{sup -1}; apparent contact time: between 1/3 and 4.0 h (at LHSV = 3.0 h{sup -1}); H{sub 2}/feedstock = 400 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}) on the isomerization of paraffin mixtures produced by the catalytic conversion of triglycerides. Biogasoils obtained over a 0.5% Pt/SAP0-11 catalyst had a CFPP values of +5 C; -20 C and -32 C, while the cetane number was 87, 70 and 65, the product yield was 98%, 92% and 86%, respectively. Accordingly they are suitable for bio-component of premium quality diesel fuel. Using biogasoils for the improvement of cetane number and for the reductions in density could provide some economic savings and some flexibility to refineries. (orig.)

  14. EDDA 1.0: integrated simulation of debris flow erosion, deposition and property changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhang, L. M.

    2015-03-01

    Debris flow material properties change during the initiation, transportation and deposition processes, which influences the runout characteristics of the debris flow. A quasi-three-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model, EDDA (Erosion-Deposition Debris flow Analysis), is presented in this paper to simulate debris flow erosion, deposition and induced material property changes. The model considers changes in debris flow density, yield stress and dynamic viscosity during the flow process. The yield stress of the debris flow mixture determined at limit equilibrium using the Mohr-Coulomb equation is applicable to clear water flow, hyper-concentrated flow and fully developed debris flow. To assure numerical stability and computational efficiency at the same time, an adaptive time stepping algorithm is developed to solve the governing differential equations. Four numerical tests are conducted to validate the model. The first two tests involve a one-dimensional debris flow with constant properties and a two-dimensional dam-break water flow. The last two tests involve erosion and deposition, and the movement of multi-directional debris flows. The changes in debris flow mass and properties due to either erosion or deposition are shown to affect the runout characteristics significantly. The model is also applied to simulate a large-scale debris flow in Xiaojiagou Ravine to test the performance of the model in catchment-scale simulations. The results suggest that the model estimates well the volume, inundated area, and runout distance of the debris flow. The model is intended for use as a module in a real-time debris flow warning system.

  15. Analytical solutions for benchmarking cold regions subsurface water flow and energy transport models: one-dimensional soil thaw with conduction and advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous cold regions water flow and energy transport models have emerged in recent years. Dissimilarities often exist in their mathematical formulations and/or numerical solution techniques, but few analytical solutions exist for benchmarking flow and energy transport models that include pore water phase change. This paper presents a detailed derivation of the Lunardini solution, an approximate analytical solution for predicting soil thawing subject to conduction, advection, and phase change. Fifteen thawing scenarios are examined by considering differences in porosity, surface temperature, Darcy velocity, and initial temperature. The accuracy of the Lunardini solution is shown to be proportional to the Stefan number. The analytical solution results obtained for soil thawing scenarios with water flow and advection are compared to those obtained from the finite element model SUTRA. Three problems, two involving the Lunardini solution and one involving the classic Neumann solution, are recommended as standard benchmarks for future model development and testing.

  16. Three-dimensional semi-analytical solution to groundwater flow in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Samani, Nozar; Sleep, Brent

    2009-06-01

    The Laplace domain solutions have been obtained for three-dimensional groundwater flow to a well in confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers. The solutions take into account partial penetration effects, instantaneous drainage or delayed yield, vertical anisotropy and the water table boundary condition. As a basis, the Laplace domain solutions for drawdown created by a point source in uniform, anisotropic confined and unconfined wedge-shaped aquifers are first derived. Then, by the principle of superposition the point source solutions are extended to the cases of partially and fully penetrating wells. Unlike the previous solution for the confined aquifer that contains improper integrals arising from the Hankel transform [Yeh HD, Chang YC. New analytical solutions for groundwater flow in wedge-shaped aquifers with various topographic boundary conditions. Adv Water Resour 2006;26:471-80], numerical evaluation of our solution is relatively easy using well known numerical Laplace inversion methods. The effects of wedge angle, pumping well location and observation point location on drawdown and the effects of partial penetration, screen location and delay index on the wedge boundary hydraulic gradient in unconfined aquifers have also been investigated. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless drawdown-time and boundary gradient-time type curves. The curves are useful for parameter identification, calculation of stream depletion rates and the assessment of water budgets in river basins.

  17. Big data analytics as a service infrastructure: challenges, desired properties and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Martín-Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    CERN's accelerator complex generates a very large amount of data. A large volumen of heterogeneous data is constantly generated from control equipment and monitoring agents. These data must be stored and analysed. Over the decades, CERN's researching and engineering teams have applied different approaches, techniques and technologies for this purpose. This situation has minimised the necessary collaboration and, more relevantly, the cross data analytics over different domains. These two factors are essential to unlock hidden insights and correlations between the underlying processes, which enable better and more efficient daily-based accelerator operations and more informed decisions. The proposed Big Data Analytics as a Service Infrastructure aims to: (1) integrate the existing developments, (2) centralise and standardise the complex data analytics needs for CERN's research and engineering community, (3) deliver real-time, batch data analytics and information discovery capabilities, and (4) provide transpare...

  18. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of the three-dimensional flow field and relative analyte concentration distribution in an atmospheric pressure ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.

  19. EDDA: integrated simulation of debris flow erosion, deposition and property changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Zhang, L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Debris flow material properties change during the initiation, transportation and deposition processes, which influences the runout characteristics of the debris flow. A quasi-three-dimensional depth-integrated numerical model, EDDA, is presented in this paper to simulate debris flow erosion, deposition and induced material property changes. The model considers changes in debris flow density, yield stress and dynamic viscosity during the flow process. The yield stress of debris flow mixture is determined at limit equilibrium using the Mohr-Coulomb equation, which is applicable to clear water flow, hyper-concentrated flow and fully developed debris flow. To assure numerical stability and computational efficiency at the same time, a variable time stepping algorithm is developed to solve the governing differential equations. Four numerical tests are conducted to validate the model. The first two tests involve a one-dimensional dam-break water flow and a one-dimensional debris flow with constant properties. The last two tests involve erosion and deposition, and the movement of multi-directional debris flows. The changes in debris flow mass and properties due to either erosion or deposition are shown to affect the runout characteristics significantly. The model is also applied to simulate a large-scale debris flow in Xiaojiagou Ravine to test the performance of the model in catchment-scale simulations. The results suggest that the model estimates well the volume, inundated area, and runout distance of the debris flow. The model is intended for use as a module in a real-time debris flow warning system.

  20. Data analysis and analytical predictions of a steam generator tube bundle flow field for verification of 2-D T/H computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, J.Y.; Reid, H.C.; Berringer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical predictions of the flow field within a 60 deg segment flow model of a proposed sodium heated steam generator are compared to experimental results obtained from several axial levels between baffling. The axial/crossflow field is developed by use of alternating multi-ported baffling, accomplished by radial perforation distribution. Radial and axial porous model predictions from an axisymmetric computational analysis compared to intra-pitch experimental data at the mid baffle span location for various levels. The analytical mechanics utilizes a cylindrical, axisymmetric, finite difference model, solving conservation mass and momentum equations. 6 refs

  1. Influence of steady shear flow on dynamic viscoelastic properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    temporary network formed by the fibres, their entangle- ment etc. The structural density is also a function of vol- ume fraction of reinforcing fibres (Amari et al 1992). The complex flow pattern encountered during moulding/ stamping are generally far from simple steady or oscilla- tory shear flow. Therefore, it is important to ...

  2. Assessment of fluid distribution and flow properties in two phase fluid flow using X-ray CT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Bohao; Li, Xingbo; Wang, Sijia; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xinhuan; Zhang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    To study on microscale distribution of CO2 and brine during two-phase flow is crucial for understanding the trapping mechanisms of CO2 storage. In this study, CO2-brine flow experiments in porous media were conducted using X-ray computed tomography. The porous media were packed with glass beads. The pore structure (porosity/tortuosity) and flow properties at different flow rates and flow fractions were investigated. The results showed that porosity of the packed beads differed at different position as a result of heterogeneity. The CO2 saturation is higher at low injection flow rates and high CO2 fractions. CO2 distribution at the pore scale was also visualized. ∅ Porosity of porous media CT brine_ sat grey value of sample saturated with brine CT dry grey value of sample saturated with air CT brine grey value of pure brine CT air grey value of pure air CT flow grey values of sample with two fluids occupying the pore space {CT}_{CO_2_ sat} grey value of sample saturated with CO2 {f}_{CO_2}({S}_{CO_2}) CO2 fraction {q}_{CO_2} the volume flow rate for CO2 q brine the volume flow rate for brine L Thickness of the porous media, mm L e a bundle of capillaries of equal length, mm τ Tortuosity, calculated from L e / L.

  3. Variable property, steady, axi-symmetric, laminar, continuum plasma flow over spheroidal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Yuemin; Jog, Milind A.

    2005-01-01

    Steady, continuum, laminar plasma flow over spheroidal particles has been numerically investigated in this paper using a finite volume method. To body-fit the non-spherical particle surface, an adaptive orthogonal grid is generated. The flow field and the temperature distribution are calculated for oblate and prolate particle shapes. A number of particle surface temperatures and far field temperatures are considered and thermo-physical property variation is fully accounted for in our model. The particle shapes are represented in terms of axis ratio which is defined as the ratio of axis perpendicular to the flow direction to the axis along the flow direction. For oblate shape, axis ratios from 1.6 (disk-like) to 1 (sphere) are used whereas for prolate shape, axis ratios of 1(sphere) to 0.4 (cylinder-like) are used. Effects of flow Reynolds number, particle shape, surface and far field temperatures, and variable properties, on the flow field, temperature variations, drag coefficient, and Nusselt number are outlined. Results show that particle shape has significant effect on flow and heat transfer to particle surface. Compared to a constant property flow, accounting for thermo-physical property variation leads to prediction of higher temperature and velocity gradients in the vicinity of the particle surface. Based on the numerical results, a correlation for the Nusslet number is proposed that accounts for the effect of particle shape in continuum flow with large thermo-physical property variation

  4. The radial flow method: constraints from laboratory experiments on the evolution of hydraulic properties of fractures during frictional sliding experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewel, M.; Renner, J.

    2017-12-01

    The variation of hydraulic properties during sliding events is of importance for source mechanics and analyses of the evolution in effective stresses. We conducted laboratory experiments on samples of Padang granite to elucidate the interrelation between shear displacement on faults and their hydraulic properties. The cylindrical samples of 30 mm diameter and 75 mm length were prepared with a ground sawcut, inclined 35° to the cylindrical axis and accessed by a central bore of 3 mm diameter. The conventional triaxial compression experiments were conducted at effective pressures of 30, 50, and 70 MPa at slip rates of 2×10-4 and 8×10-4 mm s-1. The nominally constant fluid pressure of 30 MPa was modulated by oscillations with an amplitude of up to 0.5 MPa. Permeability and specific storage capacity of the fault were determined using the oscillatory radial-flow method that rests on an analysis of amplitude ratio and phase shift between the oscillatory fluid pressure and the oscillatory fluid flow from and into the fault plane. This method allowed us to continuously monitor the hydraulic evolution during elastic loading and frictional sliding. The chosen oscillation period of 60 s guaranteed a resolution of hydraulic properties for slip increments as small as 20 μm. The determined hydraulic properties show a fairly uniform dependence on normal stress at hydrostatic conditions and initial elastic loading. The samples exhibited stable frictional sliding with modest strengthening with increasing strain. Since not all phase-shift values fell inside the theoretical range for purely radial pressure diffusion during frictional sliding, the records of equivalent hydraulic properties exhibit some gaps. In the phases with evaluable phase-shift values, permeability fluctuates by almost one order of magnitude over slip intervals of as little as 100 μm. We suppose that the observed fluctuations are related to comminution and reconfiguration of asperities on the fault planes

  5. Some geometric properties of magneto-fluid flows

    OpenAIRE

    Gangwar, S. S.; Babu, Ram

    1982-01-01

    By employing an anholonomic description of the governing equations, certain geometric results are obtained for a class of non-dissipative magnetofluid flows. The stream lines are geodesics on a normal congruence of the surfaces which are the Maxwellian surfaces.

  6. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part I: symmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The problem of determination of nuclear surface energy is addressed within the framework of the extended Thomas Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We propose an analytical model for the density profiles with variationally determined diffuseness parameters. In this first paper, we consider the case of symmetric nuclei. In this situation, the ETF functional can be exactly integrated, leading to an analytical formula expressing the surface energy as a function of the couplings of the energy functional. The importance of non-local terms is stressed and it is shown that they cannot be deduced simply from the local part of the functional, as it was suggested in previous works.

  7. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Ravula, Jeswanth [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Thadela, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.V.K. Institute of Technology, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-12-15

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T{sub C} + 10 K) and pressure (P{sub C} + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  8. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Ravula, Jeswanth; Thadela, S.; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2015-01-01

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T_C + 10 K) and pressure (P_C + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  9. Analytical and laser scanning techniques to determine shape properties of mineral aggregates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available processed to reconstruct 3-D models of the aggregate particles. The models were further analyzed to determine the form properties. In this paper, two analysis approaches, based on aggregate physical properties and spherical harmonic analysis, were employed...

  10. Analytic solutions and universal properties of sugar loading models in Münch phloem flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kåre Hartvig; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2012-01-01

    The transport of sugars in the phloem vascular system of plants is believed to be driven by osmotic pressure differences according to the Münch hypothesis. Thus, the translocation process is viewed as a passive reaction to the active sugar loading in the leaves and sugar unloading in roots and ot...

  11. NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION FLOWS WITH A NON-ZERO TORQUE BOUNDARY CONDITION AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-12-20

    A stellar-mass black hole (BH) surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) has been discussed in a number of works as the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). It is widely believed that NDAF cannot liberate enough energy for bright GRBs. However, these works have been based on the assumption of a “no torque” boundary condition, which is invalid when the disk is magnetized. In this paper, we present both numerical and analytical solutions for NDAFs with non-zero boundary stresses and reexamine their properties. We find that an NDAF with such a boundary torque can be powerful enough to account for those bright short GRBs, energetic long GRBs, and ultra-long GRBs. The disk becomes viscously unstable, which makes it possible to interpret the variability of GRB prompt emission and the steep decay phase in the early X-ray afterglow. Finally, we study the gravitational waves radiated from a processing BH-NDAF. We find that the effects of the boundary torque on the strength of the gravitational waves can be ignored.

  12. STRUCTURES OF TURBULENT VORTICES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON FLOW PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsas Rimkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the many investigations that have been conducted on turbulent flows, the generation and development of turbulent vortices has not been investigated sufficiently yet. This prevents to understand well the processes involved in the flow. That is unfavorable for the further investigations. The developing vortex structures are interacting, and this needs to be estimated. Physical summing of velocities, formed by all structures, can be unfavorable for investigations, therefore they must be separated; otherwise bias errors can occur. The difficulty for investigations is that the widely employed Particle Image Velocity (PIV method, when a detailed picture of velocity field picture is necessary, can provide photos covering only a short interval of flow, which can’t include the largest flow structures, i.e. macro whirlpools. Consequently, action of these structures could not be investigated. Therefore, in this study it is tried to obtain the necessary data about the flow structure by analyzing the instantaneous velocity measurements by 3D means, which lasts for several minutes, therefore the existence and interaction of these structures become visible in measurement data. The investigations conducted in this way have been already discussed in the article, published earlier. Mostly the generation and development of bottom vortices was analyzed. In this article, the analysis of these turbulent velocity measurements is continued and the additional data about the structure of turbulent vortices is obtained.

  13. Analytical solution for the problem of maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction in gravity flow discharge chutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinic, Slavisa [University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kraljevo (RS)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, an analytical solution for the problem of finding profiles of gravity flow discharge chutes required to achieve maximum exit velocity under Coulomb friction is obtained by application of variational calculus. The model of a particle which moves down a rough curve in a uniform gravitational field is used to obtain a solution of the problem for various boundary conditions. The projection sign of the normal reaction force of the rough curve onto the normal to the curve and the restriction requiring that the tangential acceleration be non-negative are introduced as the additional constraints in the form of inequalities. These inequalities are transformed into equalities by introducing new state variables. Although this is fundamentally a constrained variational problem, by further introducing a new functional with an expanded set of unknown functions, it is transformed into an unconstrained problem where broken extremals appear. The obtained equations of the chute profiles contain a certain number of unknown constants which are determined from a corresponding system of nonlinear algebraic equations. The obtained results are compared with the known results from the literature. (orig.)

  14. Analytical and experimental study of the acoustics and the flow field characteristics of cavitating self-resonating water jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahine, G.L.; Genoux, P.F.; Johnson, V.E. Jr.; Frederick, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    Waterjet nozzles (STRATOJETS) have been developed which achieve passive structuring of cavitating submerged jets into discrete ring vortices, and which possess cavitation incipient numbers six times higher than obtained with conventional cavitating jet nozzles. In this study we developed analytical and numerical techniques and conducted experimental work to gain an understanding of the basic phenomena involved. The achievements are: (1) a thorough analysis of the acoustic dynamics of the feed pipe to the nozzle; (2) a theory for bubble ring growth and collapse; (3) a numerical model for jet simulation; (4) an experimental observation and analysis of candidate second-generation low-sigma STRATOJETS. From this study we can conclude that intensification of bubble ring collapse and design of highly resonant feed tubes can lead to improved drilling rates. The models here described are excellent tools to analyze the various parameters needed for STRATOJET optimizations. Further analysis is needed to introduce such important factors as viscosity, nozzle-jet interaction, and ring-target interaction, and to develop the jet simulation model to describe the important fine details of the flow field at the nozzle exit.

  15. Development of quantitative analytical procedures on two-phase flow in tight-lattice fuel bundles for reduced-moderation light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, A.; Kureta, M.; Takae, K.; Tamai, H.; Akimoto, H.; Yoshida, H.

    2004-01-01

    The research project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 2002. The RMWR is a light water reactor for which a higher conversion ratio more than one can be expected. In order to attain this higher conversion ratio, triangular tight-lattice fuel bundles whose gap spacing between each fuel rod is around 1 mm are required. As for the thermal design of the RMWR core, conventional analytical methods are no good because the conventional composition equations can not predict the RMWR core with high accuracy. Then, development of new quantitative analytical procedures was carried out. Those analytical procedures are constructed by model experiments and advanced two-phase flow analysis codes. This paper describes the results of the model experiments and analytical results with the developed analysis codes. (authors)

  16. Nonlocal rheological properties of granular flows near a jamming limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranson, Igor S; Tsimring, Lev S; Malloggi, Florent; Clément, Eric

    2008-09-01

    We study the rheology of sheared granular flows close to a jamming transition. We use the approach of partially fluidized theory (PFT) with a full set of equations extending the thin layer approximation derived previously for the description of the granular avalanches phenomenology. This theory provides a picture compatible with a local rheology at large shear rates [G. D. R. Midi, Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341 (2004)] and it works in the vicinity of the jamming transition, where a description in terms of a simple local rheology comes short. We investigate two situations displaying important deviations from local rheology. The first one is based on a set of numerical simulations of sheared soft two-dimensional circular grains. The next case describes previous experimental results obtained on avalanches of sandy material flowing down an incline. Both cases display, close to jamming, significant deviations from the now standard Pouliquen's flow rule [O. Pouliquen, Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999); 11, 1956 (1999)]. This discrepancy is the hallmark of a strongly nonlocal rheology and in both cases, we relate the empirical results and the outcomes of PFT. The numerical simulations show a characteristic constitutive structure for the fluid part of the stress involving the confining pressure and the material stiffness that appear in the form of an additional dimensionless parameter. This constitutive relation is then used to describe the case of sandy flows. We show a quantitative agreement as far as the effective flow rules are concerned. A fundamental feature is identified in PFT as the existence of a jammed layer developing in the vicinity of the flow arrest that corroborates the experimental findings. Finally, we study the case of solitary erosive granular avalanches and relate the outcome with the PFT analysis.

  17. Local scattering property scales flow speed estimation in laser speckle contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Peng; Chao, Zhen; Feng, Shihan; Ji, Yuanyuan; Yu, Hang; Thakor, Nitish V; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has been widely used in in vivo blood flow imaging. However, the effect of local scattering property (scattering coefficient µ s ) on blood flow speed estimation has not been well investigated. In this study, such an effect was quantified and involved in relation between speckle autocorrelation time τ c and flow speed v based on simulation flow experiments. For in vivo blood flow imaging, an improved estimation strategy was developed to eliminate the estimation bias due to the inhomogeneous distribution of the scattering property. Compared to traditional LSCI, a new estimation method significantly suppressed the imaging noise and improves the imaging contrast of vasculatures. Furthermore, the new method successfully captured the blood flow changes and vascular constriction patterns in rats’ cerebral cortex from normothermia to mild and moderate hypothermia. (letter)

  18. Some geometric properties of magneto-fluid flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Gangwar

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing an anholonomic description of the governing equations, certain geometric results are obtained for a class of non-dissipative magnetofluid flows. The stream lines are geodesics on a normal congruence of the surfaces which are the Maxwellian surfaces.

  19. Ergodic Properties of the Quantum Geodesic Flow on Tori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, SLawomir [Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Department of Mathematics (United States); Kondracki, Witold [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Mathematics (Poland)

    2005-05-15

    We study ergodic averages for a class of pseudo-differential operators on the flat N-dimensional torus with respect to the Schroedinger evolution. The later can be consider a quantization of the geodesic flow on T{sup N}. We prove that, up to semi-classically negligible corrections, such ergodic averages are translationally invariant operators.

  20. A Flow-Sensitive Analysis of Privacy Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    that information I send to some service never is leaked to another service? - unless I give my permission? We shall develop a static program analysis for the pi- calculus and show how it can be used to give privacy guarantees like the ones requested above. The analysis records the explicit information flow...

  1. What is the Relationship Between the Properties of Photospheric Flows and Flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Brian; Li, Y.; Schuck, P. W.; Fisher, G. H.

    2009-05-01

    We estimated photospheric velocities by separately applying the Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) and Differential Affine Velocity Estimator (DAVE) methods to 2708 co-registered pairs of SOHO/MDI magnetograms, with nominal 96-minute cadence, from 46 active regions (ARs) from 1996-1998 over the time interval κ45 when each AR was within 45° of disk center. For each magnetogram pair, we computed the average estimated radial magnetic field, BR and each tracking method produced an independently estimated flow field, u. We then quantitatively characterized these magnetic and flow fields by computing several extrinsic and intrinsic properties of each; extrinsic properties scale with AR size, while intrinsic properties do not depend directly on AR size. Intrinsic flow properties included moments of speeds, horizontal divergences, and radial curls; extrinsic flow properties included included sums of these properties, and a crude proxy for the ideal Poynting flux, ∑ |u| BR2. Several quantities derived from BR were also computed, including: total unsigned flux, Φ a measure of the amount of unsigned flux near strong-field polarity inversion lines (SPILs), R and ∑ BR2. Next, using correlation and discriminant analysis, we investigated the associations between derived properties and average flare flux determined from the GOES flare catalog, when averaged over both κ45 and shorter time windows, of 6 and 24 hours. Our AR sample included both flaring and flare-quiet ARs; the latter did not flare above GOES C1.0 level during κ45. Among magnetic properties, we found R to be most strongly associated with flare flux. Among extrinsic flow properties, the proxy Poynting flux, ∑ |u| BR2, was most strongly associated with flux, at a level comparable to that of R. All intrinsic flow properties studied were more poorly associated with flare flux than these magnetic properties.

  2. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  3. Analytical and experimental comparisons of modal properties of a flood water storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thinnes, G.L.; Dooley, W.T.; Gorman, V.W.

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons of measured frequencies, mode shapes, and damping from experimental modal testing and analytical predictions have been performed on a vertically standing 90,000 liter flood water storage tank. The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of analytical calculations with experimentally obtained data. The need for this comparison arises because safety assessments of the integrity of such vessels are normally based upon analyses which have not usually been validated by experiments. The tank was excited using random input from an electromagnetic shaker. Data reduction was performed using frequency response functions. Analyses, including modal analysis calculations, were performed on the tank for three water level conditions using finite element methods. Results of the analyses are presented, comparisons to test data are shown, and conclusions and recommendations are made as a result of these studies. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Investigating physical properties of solid dosage forms during pharmaceutical processing : Process analytical applications of vibrational spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Römer, Meike

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve and continuously develop the quality of pharmaceutical products, the process analytical technology (PAT) framework has been adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration. One of the aims of PAT is to identify critical process parameters and their effect on the quality of the final product. Real time analysis of the process data enables better control of the processes to obtain a high quality product. The main purpose of this work was to monitor crucial pharmaceutical...

  5. Twist-2 at seven loops in planar N=4 SYM theory: full result and analytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marboe, Christian [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin,College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Adlershof, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Velizhanin, Vitaly [Theoretical Physics Division, NRC “Kurchatov Institute”,Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Orlova Roscha,Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Adlershof, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-11-04

    The anomalous dimension of twist-2 operators of arbitrary spin in planar N=4 SYM theory is found at seven loops by using the quantum spectral curve to compute values at fixed spin, and reconstructing the general result using the LLL-algorithm together with modular arithmetic. The result of the analytic continuation to negative spin is presented, and its relation with the recently computed correction to the BFKL and double-logarithmic equation is discussed.

  6. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. R. Sanal; Sankar, Vigneshwaran; Chandrasekaran, Nichith; Saravanan, Vignesh; Natarajan, Vishnu; Padmanabhan, Sathyan; Sukumaran, Ajith; Mani, Sivabalan; Rameshkumar, Tharikaa; Nagaraju Doddi, Hema Sai; Vysaprasad, Krithika; Sharan, Sharad; Murugesh, Pavithra; Shankar, S. Ganesh; Nejaamtheen, Mohammed Niyasdeen; Baskaran, Roshan Vignesh; Rahman Mohamed Rafic, Sulthan Ariff; Harisrinivasan, Ukeshkumar; Srinivasan, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  7. A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Sanal Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A closed-form analytical model is developed for estimating the 3D boundary-layer-displacement thickness of an internal flow system at the Sanal flow choking condition for adiabatic flows obeying the physics of compressible viscous fluids. At this unique condition the boundary-layer blockage induced fluid-throat choking and the adiabatic wall-friction persuaded flow choking occur at a single sonic-fluid-throat location. The beauty and novelty of this model is that without missing the flow physics we could predict the exact boundary-layer blockage of both 2D and 3D cases at the sonic-fluid-throat from the known values of the inlet Mach number, the adiabatic index of the gas and the inlet port diameter of the internal flow system. We found that the 3D blockage factor is 47.33 % lower than the 2D blockage factor with air as the working fluid. We concluded that the exact prediction of the boundary-layer-displacement thickness at the sonic-fluid-throat provides a means to correctly pinpoint the causes of errors of the viscous flow solvers. The methodology presented herein with state-of-the-art will play pivotal roles in future physical and biological sciences for a credible verification, calibration and validation of various viscous flow solvers for high-fidelity 2D/3D numerical simulations of real-world flows. Furthermore, our closed-form analytical model will be useful for the solid and hybrid rocket designers for the grain-port-geometry optimization of new generation single-stage-to-orbit dual-thrust-motors with the highest promising propellant loading density within the given envelope without manifestation of the Sanal flow choking leading to possible shock waves causing catastrophic failures.

  8. Analytical properties and resonant structure of the S-matrix in case of noncentral and parity-violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Zaichenko, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The analytical properties and the resonant structure of the nonrelativistic S-matrix are investigated for elastic scattering with absorption for central, noncentral and parity-violating interactions and when the equations of motion for particles inside a sphere with finite radius are unknown. The conditions for the completeness of wave functions outside the interaction sphere, for the symmetry and for the generalized unitarity of the S-matrix are used. The conditions of micro- and macro-causality for the obtained results are investigated. (author)

  9. Process Analytical Technology for High Shear Wet Granulation: Wet Mass Consistency Reported by In-Line Drag Flow Force Sensor Is Consistent With Powder Rheology Measured by At-Line FT4 Powder Rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ajit S; Sheverev, Valery; Freeman, Tim; Both, Douglas; Stepaniuk, Vadim; Delancy, Michael; Millington-Smith, Doug; Macias, Kevin; Subramanian, Ganeshkumar

    2016-01-01

    Drag flow force (DFF) sensor that measures the force exerted by wet mass in a granulator on a thin cylindrical probe was shown as a promising process analytical technology for real-time in-line high-resolution monitoring of wet mass consistency during high shear wet granulation. Our previous studies indicated that this process analytical technology tool could be correlated to granulation end point established independently through drug product critical quality attributes. In this study, the measurements of flow force by a DFF sensor, taken during wet granulation of 3 placebo formulations with different binder content, are compared with concurrent at line FT4 Powder Rheometer characterization of wet granules collected at different time points of the processing. The wet mass consistency measured by the DFF sensor correlated well with the granulation's resistance to flow and interparticulate interactions as measured by FT4 Powder Rheometer. This indicated that the force pulse magnitude measured by the DFF sensor was indicative of fundamental material properties (e.g., shear viscosity and granule size/density), as they were changing during the granulation process. These studies indicate that DFF sensor can be a valuable tool for wet granulation formulation and process development and scale up, as well as for routine monitoring and control during manufacturing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study about pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Bernardi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Flow cytometry (FC is an increasingly required technique on which veterinary oncologists rely to have an accurate, fast, minimally invasive lymphoma or leukemia diagnosis. FC has been studied and applied with great results in canine oncology, whereas in feline oncology the use of this technique is still to be experienced. This is mainly due to a supposed discomfort in sampling, because of the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods 97 consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors’ institution FC database. The referring veterinarians were recalled and interrogated about several different variables, including signalling, features of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of being finally processed for FC. Results None of the investigated variables significantly influenced the quality of the submitted samples, but the needle size, with 21G needles providing the highest cellularity (Table 1. Notably, the samples quality did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Sample cellularity alone influenced the likelihood of being processed. About a half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling. Conclusions FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, even for intra-abdominal lesions. 21G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the bases for the spread of this minimally invasive, fast and cost-effective technique in feline medicine.

  11. Flow cytometry for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study regarding pre-analytical factors possibly affecting the quality of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Valeria; Bernardi, Serena; Marelli, Priscilla; Cozzi, Marzia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Objectives Flow cytometry (FC) is becoming increasingly popular among veterinary oncologists for the diagnosis of lymphoma or leukaemia. It is accurate, fast and minimally invasive. Several studies of FC have been carried out in canine oncology and applied with great results, whereas there is limited knowledge and use of this technique in feline patients. This is mainly owing to the high prevalence of intra-abdominal lymphomas in this species and the difficulty associated with the diagnostic procedures needed to collect the sample. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether any pre-analytical factor might affect the quality of suspected feline lymphoma samples for FC analysis. Methods Ninety-seven consecutive samples of suspected feline lymphoma were retrospectively selected from the authors' institution's FC database. The referring veterinarians were contacted and interviewed about several different variables, including signalment, appearance of the lesion, features of the sampling procedure and the experience of veterinarians performing the sampling. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the possible influence of these variables on the cellularity of the samples and the likelihood of it being finally processed for FC. Results Sample cellularity is a major factor in the likelihood of the sample being processed. Moreover, sample cellularity was significantly influenced by the needle size, with 21 G needles providing the highest cellularity. Notably, the sample cellularity and the likelihood of being processed did not vary between peripheral and intra-abdominal lesions. Approximately half of the cats required pharmacological restraint. Side effects were reported in one case only (transient swelling after peripheral lymph node sampling). Conclusions and relevance FC can be safely applied to cases of suspected feline lymphomas, including intra-abdominal lesions. A 21 G needle should be preferred for sampling. This study provides the basis for

  12. Cellular properties of slug flow in vertical co-current gas-liquid flow: slug-churn transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusseyran, Francois

    1990-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study and description of the structure of a slug flow regime in a co-current vertical cylindrical duct, and the characterization and prediction of its transition towards a slug-churn (de-structured) regime. Flow physical mechanisms highlighted by the measurement of two important dynamics variables (wall friction and thickness of liquid films) are related to hypotheses of cellular models. The author first proposes an overview of slug flow regimes: theoretical steady and one-dimensional analysis, mass assessment equations of cellular models, application to the assessment of the flow rate and of the thickness of the film surrounding the gas slug. In the second part, the author addresses the slug flow regime transition towards the slug-churn regime: assessment of the evolution of flow dynamic properties, use of average wall friction analysis to obtain a relevant transition criterion. The third part presents experimental conditions, and measurement methods: conductometry for thickness measurement, polarography for wall friction measurement, and gas phase detection by using an optic barrier or optic fibres [fr

  13. Physical properties and analytical models of band-to-band tunneling in low-bandgap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing; Dang Chien, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Low-bandgap semiconductors, such as InAs and InSb, are widely considered to be ideal for use in tunnel field-effect transistors to ensure sufficient on-current boosting at low voltages. This work elucidates the physical and mathematical considerations of applying conventional band-to-band tunneling models in low-bandgap semiconductors, and presents a new analytical alternative for practical use. The high-bandgap tunneling generates most at maximum field region with shortest tunnel path, whereas the low-bandgap generations occur dispersedly because of narrow tunnel barrier. The local electrical field associated with tunneling-electron numbers dominates in low-bandgap materials. This work proposes decoupled electric-field terms in the pre-exponential factor and exponential function of generation-rate expressions. Without fitting, the analytical results and approximated forms exhibit great agreements with the sophisticated forms both in high- and low-bandgap semiconductors. Neither nonlocal nor local field is appropriate to be used in numerical simulations for predicting the tunneling generations in a variety of low- and high-bandgap semiconductors

  14. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Selvarajoo, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcripts to proteins show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale, and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  15. Is central dogma a global property of cellular information flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent ePiras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology has come under scrutiny in recent years. Here, we reviewed high-throughput mRNA and protein expression data of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and several mammalian cells. At both single cell and population scales, the statistical comparisons between the entire transcriptomes and proteomes show clear correlation structures. In contrast, the pair-wise correlations of single transcript to protein show nullity. These data suggest that the organizing structure guiding cellular processes is observed at omics-wide scale and not at single molecule level. The central dogma, thus, globally emerges as an average integrated flow of cellular information.

  16. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: hot accretion flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-04-01

    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important test bed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modelling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a non-thermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  17. Water movement through plant roots - exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Félicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Draye, Xavier; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil-root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact of root maturation

  18. Water movement through plant roots – exact solutions of the water flow equation in roots with linear or exponential piecewise hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meunier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1978, Landsberg and Fowkes presented a solution of the water flow equation inside a root with uniform hydraulic properties. These properties are root radial conductivity and axial conductance, which control, respectively, the radial water flow between the root surface and xylem and the axial flow within the xylem. From the solution for the xylem water potential, functions that describe the radial and axial flow along the root axis were derived. These solutions can also be used to derive root macroscopic parameters that are potential input parameters of hydrological and crop models. In this paper, novel analytical solutions of the water flow equation are developed for roots whose hydraulic properties vary along their axis, which is the case for most plants. We derived solutions for single roots with linear or exponential variations of hydraulic properties with distance to root tip. These solutions were subsequently combined to construct single roots with complex hydraulic property profiles. The analytical solutions allow one to verify numerical solutions and to get a generalization of the hydric behaviour with the main influencing parameters of the solutions. The resulting flow distributions in heterogeneous roots differed from those in uniform roots and simulations led to more regular, less abrupt variations of xylem suction or radial flux along root axes. The model could successfully be applied to maize effective root conductance measurements to derive radial and axial hydraulic properties. We also show that very contrasted root water uptake patterns arise when using either uniform or heterogeneous root hydraulic properties in a soil–root model. The optimal root radius that maximizes water uptake under a carbon cost constraint was also studied. The optimal radius was shown to be highly dependent on the root hydraulic properties and close to observed properties in maize roots. We finally used the obtained functions for evaluating the impact

  19. Heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel and its application to a flow analytical system using flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Masanobu; Suzuki, Toshinobu; Sugita, Tsuyoshi; Nagai, Daisuke; Hirayama, Kazuo; Onozato, Makoto; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Calcium-alginate-modified dien-silica gel adsorbed multivalent metal ions. • Metal ions adsorbed on CaAD were eluted using low acidic concentrations. • Flow system with CaAD-packed column enriched metal concentrations up to 50-fold. - Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal adsorptivity of calcium-alginate-modified diethylenetriamine-silica gel (CaAD) and incorporate this biosorbent into a flow analytical system for heavy metal ions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The biosorbent was synthesized by electrostatically coating calcium alginate onto diethylenetriamine (dien)-silica gel. Copper ion adsorption tests by a batch method showed that CaAD exhibited a higher adsorption rate compared with other biosorbents despite its low maximum adsorption capacity. Next, CaAD was packed into a 1 mL microcolumn, which was connected to a flow analytical system equipped with an FAAS instrument. The flow system quantitatively adsorbed heavy metals and enriched their concentrations. This quantitative adsorption was achieved for pH 3–4 solutions containing 1.0 × 10 −6 M of heavy metal ions at a flow rate of 5.0 mL min −1 . Furthermore, the metal ions were successfully desorbed from CaAD at low nitric acid concentrations (0.05–0.15 M) than from the polyaminecarboxylic acid chelating resin (Chelex 100). Therefore, CaAD may be considered as a biosorbent that quickly adsorbs and easily desorbs analyte metal ions. In addition, the flow system enhanced the concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ by 50-fold. This new enrichment system successfully performed the separation and determination of Cu 2+ (5.0 × 10 −8 M) and Zn 2+ (5.7 × 10 −8 M) in a river water sample and Pb 2+ (3.8 × 10 −9 M) in a ground water sample

  20. Property relationships of the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ta; Zou, Sheng-Rong; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    We studied both empirically and analytically the correlation between the degrees or the clustering coefficients, respectively, of the networks in the physical infrastructure and the traffic flow layers in three Chinese transportation systems. The systems are bus transportation systems in Beijing and Hangzhou, and the railway system in the mainland. It is found that the correlation between the degrees obey a linear function; while the correlation between the clustering coefficients obey a power law. A possible dynamic explanation on the rules is presented.

  1. Analytic properties of the partial amplitudes in the three-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Simonov, Yu.A.

    1978-01-01

    The singularities of the partial waves for a multiple scattering series of a system of three nonrelativistic particles with arbitrary masses are studied. Both on-shell and off-shell diagrams are considered for binary processes (2→2), break-up processes (2→3) and also three-particle scattering (3→3). For any diagram there are obtained: 1) simple analytic expressions for the loci of the nonpotential singularities of the partial amplitudes, i.e. for the singularities independent of the form of interaction between particles; 2) necessary and sufficient conditions of an existence of these singularities on the physical sheet; 3) a character of the singularities. A criterium is found for the kinematic possibility of a process of N subsequent pair collisions in a classical system of three point like masses with the contact interaction the maximal number Nsub(max) of these collisions is deduced

  2. Substituent and environment influence on analytical properties of associates of xanthene dyes with polyhexamethyleneguanidine chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Chmilenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of 5 anionic xanthene dyes – 9-R-2,3,7-trihydroxy-6-fluorones (ТОF with cationic polyelectrolyte (PE – polyhexamethyleneguanidine chloride (PHMG has been studied by the optical spectroscopy in a concentration range where PHMG has a polyelectrolyte effect. Hammet σ-constants were calculated. The correlations between structure of ТОF and shift of protolytic equilibrium in aqueous-polyelectrolyte solutions were established. Influence of рН, concentration of the ethanol, components ratio in the system PHMG-TOF on the character of the interaction of cationic PE with ТОF and value of the analytical signal were studied based on absorption spectra. The results were compared to those obtained in water solutions. 

  3. 2D XXZ model ground state properties using an analytic Lanczos expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Weihong Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A formalism was developed for calculating arbitrary expectation values for any extensive lattice Hamiltonian system using a new analytic Lanczos expansion, or plaquette expansion, and a recently proved exact theorem for ground state energies. The ground state energy, staggered magnetisation and the excited state gap of the 2D anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model are then calculated using this expansion for a range of anisotropy parameters and compared to other moment based techniques, such as the t-expansion, and spin-wave theory and series expansion methods. It was found that far from the isotropic point all moment methods give essentially very similar results, but near the isotopic point the plaquette expansion is generally better than the others. 20 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Development of Analytical Method for Predicting Residual Mechanical Properties of Corroded Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. R. S. Appuhamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge infrastructure maintenance and assurance of adequate safety is of paramount importance in transportation engineering and maintenance management industry. Corrosion causes strength deterioration, leading to impairment of its operation and progressive weakening of the structure. Since the actual corroded surfaces are different from each other, only experimental approach is not enough to estimate the remaining strength of corroded members. However, in modern practices, numerical simulation is being used to replace the time-consuming and expensive experimental work and to comprehend on the lack of knowledge on mechanical behavior, stress distribution, ultimate behavior, and so on. This paper presents the nonlinear FEM analyses results of many corroded steel plates and compares them with their respective tensile coupon tests. Further, the feasibility of establishing an accurate analytical methodology to predict the residual strength capacities of a corroded steel member with lesser number of measuring points is also discussed.

  5. Analytical solutions for the temperature field in a 2D incompressible inviscid flow through a channel with walls of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin BERBENTE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A gas (oxidizer flows between two parallel walls of solid fuel. A combustion is initiated: the solid fuel is vaporized and a diffusive flame occurs. The hot combustion products are submitted both to thermal diffusion and convection. Analytical solutions can be obtained both for the velocity and temperature distributions by considering an equivalent mean temperature where the density and the thermal conductivity are evaluated. The main effects of heat transfer are due to heat convection at the flame. Because the detailed mechanism of the diffusion flame is not introduced the reference chemical reaction is the combustion of premixed fuel with oxidizer in excess. In exchange the analytical solution is used to define an ideal quasi-uniform combustion that could be realized by an n adequate control. The given analytical closed solutions prove themselves flexible enough to adjust the main data of some existing experiments and to suggest new approaches to the problem.

  6. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-01-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  7. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T., E-mail: messaris@upatras.gr [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Hadjinicolaou, Maria [School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, 11 Sahtouri Street, GR 262 22 Patras (Greece); Karahalios, George T. [Department of Physics, Division of Theoretical Physics, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α < ∞, a range which includes the values of α that refer to the physiological flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses

  8. Unsteady fluid flow in a slightly curved pipe: A comparative study of a matched asymptotic expansions solution with a single analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Hadjinicolaou, Maria; Karahalios, George T.

    2016-08-01

    The present work is motivated by the fact that blood flow in the aorta and the main arteries is governed by large finite values of the Womersley number α and for such values of α there is not any analytical solution in the literature. The existing numerical solutions, although accurate, give limited information about the factors that affect the flow, whereas an analytical approach has an advantage in that it can provide physical insight to the flow mechanism. Having this in mind, we seek analytical solution to the equations of the fluid flow driven by a sinusoidal pressure gradient in a slightly curved pipe of circular cross section when the Womersley number varies from small finite to infinite values. Initially the equations of motion are expanded in terms of the curvature ratio δ and the resulting linearized equations are solved analytically in two ways. In the first, we match the solution for the main core to that for the Stokes boundary layer. This solution is valid for very large values of α. In the second, we derive a straightforward single solution valid to the entire flow region and for 8 ≤ α flows. Each solution contains expressions for the axial velocity, the stream function, and the wall stresses and is compared to the analogous forms presented in other studies. The two solutions give identical results to each other regarding the axial flow but differ in the secondary flow and the circumferential wall stress, due to the approximations employed in the matched asymptotic expansion process. The results on the stream function from the second solution are in agreement with analogous results from other numerical solutions. The second solution predicts that the atherosclerotic plaques may develop in any location around the cross section of the aortic wall unlike to the prescribed locations predicted by the first solution. In addition, it gives circumferential wall stresses augmented by approximately 100% with respect to the matched asymptotic expansions

  9. Analytical relationships for prediction of the mechanical properties of additively manufactured porous biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, A.A.; Hedayati, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques have motivated an increasing number of researchers to study regular porous biomaterials that are based on repeating unit cells. The physical and mechanical properties of such porous biomaterials have therefore received increasing attention

  10. Analytic Study of Optical, Electro-optical and Magnetooptical Properties of Cabon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarifi, Abbas

    Multi-wall and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNs) have attracted considerable amount of attention in nanoscience due to their unique physical properties and great potential for nanotechnology applications. The SWCNs are more fundamental and had been the basis for a large body of theoretical...

  11. Measurement of Flow Properties of Mammalian Blood with Different Hematocrit Values Using Falling Needle Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Suzuki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of viscometry with high accuracy and quick operation, as well as the establishment of a data evaluation method by pathology are largely required. Especially, the flow properties of human blood are an important factor in the evaluation of blood disease on the medicine, but the method of viscometry and the data collection are not so easy. This study has been described on the viscosity measurement and their evaluations for mammalian blood (rabbit, pig and horse including human blood. A compact-sized falling needle rheometer (FNR and a flow analysis method using this device for blood have been developed, and the relationship between the apparent viscosity and physical properties (density, hematocrit value of blood have also been evaluated. Measured flow properties of blood are evaluated as a flow curve showing the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate. Observed flow curves of mammalian bloods show three typical fluid regions, these are, the Non-newtonian fluid region for a low shear rate range, the transition region and the Newtonian fluid region for a high shear rate range. Flow properties of blood in the Casson fluid region and the apparent viscosity (μ in the Newtonian fluid region are measured, and they are compared between mammals.

  12. Improved Flow Property Determination from Nanotomography of Porous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jha, Diwaker

    tomogram often contains ring artifacts, which have no physical significance but that introduce false pores or solids when the image is segmented. I developed an algorithm that successfully suppresses these artifacts and can be operated automatically over large SXCT datasets. Another hindrance for an SXCT......, the extracted properties show a higher dependence on image resolution than sample volume. This indicates that high resolution tomography is not always needed for some rock types. A straightforward application of 3D tomograms for a pore scale NMR simulation gave a false estimation of available surfaces...

  13. Evaluation of setting time and flow properties of self-synthesize alginate impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Calista; Cahyanto, Arief; Sriwidodo, Harsatiningsih, Zulia

    2018-02-01

    Alginate is an elastic hydrocolloid dental impression materials to obtain negative reproduction of oral mucosa such as to record soft-tissue and occlusal relationships. The aim of the present study was to synthesize alginate and to determine the setting time and flow properties. There were five groups of alginate consisted of fifty samples self-synthesize alginate and commercial alginate impression product. Fifty samples were divided according to two tests, each twenty-five samples for setting time and flow test. Setting time test was recorded in the s unit, meanwhile, flow test was recorded in the mm2 unit. The fastest setting time result was in the group three (148.8 s) and the latest was group fours). The highest flow test result was in the group three (69.70 mm2) and the lowest was group one (58.34 mm2). Results were analyzed statistically by one way ANOVA (α= 0.05), showed that there was a statistical significance of setting time while no statistical significance of flow properties between self-synthesize alginate and alginate impression product. In conclusion, the alginate impression was successfully self-synthesized and variation composition gives influence toward setting time and flow properties. The most resemble setting time of control group is group three. The most resemble flow of control group is group four.

  14. Analytical Solutions of Heat Transfer and Film Thickness with Slip Condition Effect in Thin-Film Evaporation for Two-Phase Flow in Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jassim Shkarah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and mathematical model has been developed to predict the two-phase flow and heat transfer in a microchannel with evaporative heat transfer. Sample solutions to the model were obtained for both analytical analysis and numerical analysis. It is assumed that the capillary pressure is neglected (Morris, 2003. Results are provided for liquid film thickness, total heat flux, and evaporating heat flux distribution. In addition to the sample calculations that were used to illustrate the transport characteristics, computations based on the current model were performed to generate results for comparisons with the analytical results of Wang et al. (2008 and Wayner Jr. et al. (1976. The calculated results from the current model match closely with those of analytical results of Wang et al. (2008 and Wayner Jr. et al. (1976. This work will lead to a better understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow occurring in the evaporating film region and develop an analytical equation for evaporating liquid film thickness.

  15. Effect of flow field on open channel flow properties using numerical investigation and experimental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaee, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Torbat-e-jam branch, Islamic Azad University, Torbat-e-jam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadiun, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a complete three-dimensional and two phase CFD model for flow distribution in an open channel investigated. The finite volume method (FVM) with a dynamic Sub grid-scale was carried out for seven cases of different aspect ratios, different inclination angles or slopes and convergence-divergence condition. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to allow the free-surface to deform freely with the underlying turbulence. The discharge through open channel flow is often evaluated by velocity-area integration method from the measurement of velocity at discrete locations in the measuring section. The variation of velocity along horizontal and vertical directions is thus very important to decide the location of the sensors. The aspect ratio of the channel, slope of the channel and divergence- convergence of the channel have investigated and the results show that the depth of water at the end of the channel is higher at AR=0.8 against the AR=0.4 and AR=1.2. Also it is clear that by increasing the inclination angle or slope of the channel in case1, case4 and case5 the depth of the water increases. Also it is clear that the outlet mass flow rate is at a minimum value at a range of inclination angle of the channel.

  16. Gas-liquid mass transfer in a cross-flow hollow fiber module : Analytical model and experimental validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindore, V. Y.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The cross-flow operation of hollow fiber membrane contactors offers many advantages and is preferred over the parallel-flow contactors for gas-liquid mass transfer operations. However, the analysis of such a cross-flow membrane gas-liquid contactor is complicated due to the change in concentrations

  17. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  18. Analyticity without Differentiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Evgenia; Spindler, Karlheinz

    2008-01-01

    In this article we derive all salient properties of analytic functions, including the analytic version of the inverse function theorem, using only the most elementary convergence properties of series. Not even the notion of differentiability is required to do so. Instead, analytical arguments are replaced by combinatorial arguments exhibiting…

  19. Properties of an Arithmetic Code for Geodesic Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Daniel P B; Palazzo, Reginaldo Jr; Rios Leite, Jose R

    2011-01-01

    Topological analysis of chaotic dynamical systems emerged in the nineties as a powerful tool in the study of strange attractors in low-dimensional dynamical systems. It is based on identifying the stretching and squeezing mechanisms responsible for creating a strange attractor and organize all the unstable periodic orbits in this attractor. This method is concerned with the manifold generated by the chaotic system. Furthermore, as a mathematical object, the manifolds have a well studied geometric and algebraic structure, particularly for the case of compact surfaces. Intending to use this structure in the analysis and application of chaotic systems through their topological characteristics, we determine properties of geodesic codes for compact surfaces necessary for the construction of encoders from the symbolic sequences of experimental data generated by the unstable periodic orbits of the strange attractor (related to the behavior changes of the system with the variation of control parameters) to the geodesic code sequences, which permits to use the surface structure to study the system orbits.

  20. Study the effect of nitrogen flow rate on tribological properties of tantalum nitride based coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Makwana, Nishant S.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Tantalum Nitride (TaN) based coatings are well-known for their high temperature stability and chemical inertness. We have studied the effect of nitrogen flow rate variation on the structural and tribological properties of TaN based coating deposited by RF magnetron sputtering process. The nitrogen flow rate was varied from 5 to 30 sccm. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to determine structure and surface topography of coating. Pin on disc tribometer was used to determine tribological properties of coating. TaN coated brass and mild steel substrates shows higher wear resistance compared to uncoated substrates of brass and mild steel.

  1. Influence of air flow rate on structural and electrical properties of undoped indium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzapour, S.; Rozati, S.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Marathe, B.R.; Bhide, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Using the spray pyrolysis technique thin films of indium oxide were prepared on Corning glass (7059) at a substrate temperature of 425 C at different flow rates. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The Hall measurements at room temperature showed that the films prepared in an air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 have the highest mobility of 47 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and a minimum resistivity of 1.125 x 10 -3 Ω cm. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the films have a preferred orientation of [400] which peaks at the air flow rate of 7 litre min -1 . (orig.)

  2. Estimation of Rheological Properties of Viscous Debris Flow Using a Belt Conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübl, J.; Steinwendtner, H.

    2000-09-01

    Rheological parameters of viscous debris flows are influenced by a great amount of factors and are therefore extremely difficult to estimate. Because of this uncertainties a belt conveyor (conveyor channel) was constructed to measure flow behaviour and rheological properties of natural debris flow material. The upward movement of the smooth rubberised belt between fixed lateral plastic walls causes a stationary wave relative to these bends. This special experimental design enables to study behaviour of viscous ebris flow material with maximum grain diameters up to 20 mm within several minutes and to hold measuring equipment very simple. The conveyor channel was calibrated first with Xanthan, a natural polysaccharide used as thickener in food technology, whose rheological properties are similar to viscous debris flow material. In a second step natural debris flow material was investigated. Velocities and rheological parameters were measured with varying solid concentration and slope of the channel. In cases where concentration of coarse particles exceed around 15% by volume the conveyor channel obtains an alternative to expensive commercial viscometers for determination of rheological parameters of viscous debris flows.

  3. Semi-analytic models for the CANDELS survey: comparison of predictions for intrinsic galaxy properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Croton, Darren; Porter, Lauren; Primack, Joel; Moody, Chris; Behroozi, Peter S.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng; Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; White, Catherine E.; Finlator, Kristian; Castellano, Marco; Sommariva, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models (SAMs) that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the 'Bolshoi' high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Comparing SAM predictions with existing estimates of the stellar mass function from z = 0-8, we show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present-day stellar mass function, as is the present common wisdom. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data. The predictions for metallicity-stellar mass relations and their evolution clearly diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor produced by feedback. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1 < z < 5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the constrained models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs

  4. Semi-analytic models for the CANDELS survey: comparison of predictions for intrinsic galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Porter, Lauren; Primack, Joel; Moody, Chris [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Behroozi, Peter S.; Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Koo, David C.; Guo, Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; White, Catherine E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Finlator, Kristian [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Castellano, Marco; Sommariva, Veronica, E-mail: luyu@stanford.edu, E-mail: rwechsler@stanford.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy)

    2014-11-10

    We compare the predictions of three independently developed semi-analytic galaxy formation models (SAMs) that are being used to aid in the interpretation of results from the CANDELS survey. These models are each applied to the same set of halo merger trees extracted from the 'Bolshoi' high-resolution cosmological N-body simulation and are carefully tuned to match the local galaxy stellar mass function using the powerful method of Bayesian Inference coupled with Markov Chain Monte Carlo or by hand. The comparisons reveal that in spite of the significantly different parameterizations for star formation and feedback processes, the three models yield qualitatively similar predictions for the assembly histories of galaxy stellar mass and star formation over cosmic time. Comparing SAM predictions with existing estimates of the stellar mass function from z = 0-8, we show that the SAMs generally require strong outflows to suppress star formation in low-mass halos to match the present-day stellar mass function, as is the present common wisdom. However, all of the models considered produce predictions for the star formation rates (SFRs) and metallicities of low-mass galaxies that are inconsistent with existing data. The predictions for metallicity-stellar mass relations and their evolution clearly diverge between the models. We suggest that large differences in the metallicity relations and small differences in the stellar mass assembly histories of model galaxies stem from different assumptions for the outflow mass-loading factor produced by feedback. Importantly, while more accurate observational measurements for stellar mass, SFR and metallicity of galaxies at 1 < z < 5 will discriminate between models, the discrepancies between the constrained models and existing data of these observables have already revealed challenging problems in understanding star formation and its feedback in galaxy formation. The three sets of models are being used to construct catalogs

  5. Electrode-analytical properties of polyvinylchloride membranes based on triple metal-polymeric complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina V. Matorina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the nature of the electrode-active substances (EAS, the composition of the external and internal solutions on the formation of the analytical signal of polyvinylchloride (PVC membranes based on associates and triple metal-polymeric complexes (TMPC was established. Dehumidification of synthesized membranes increases with the content of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The value of the swelling degree is more than two times greater for membranes, which contain as EAS TMPC, relative to membranes based on associates. The value of water absorption of membranes is determined by the nature of EAS. They formed a series of increasing of the swelling degree such as associate < background membrane < TMPC. Swelling of the background membrane is explained by the physical sorption of water molecules on the surface of plasticized membrane. Hydration of PVP macromolecules varies with the introduction of metal ions, macromolecules unit undergoes a conformational transition. PVP macromolecules form tunnels or cavities where complex particles distributed and additional water accumulated through the second coordination layer. Constructed sensors based on TMPC have slope of electrode function equal to 25 mV/pC. Linear dependence of potential on the polymer concentration is observed in the range of 5–7 pC units. Sensors based on associates have slope of the electrode function of 20–25 mV/pC that can be varied depending on the nature of the EAS. Working range is 4–8 pC. Response time of sensor is less than 1 min. The optimal time for conditioning of the synthesized PVC membrane is 24 hours. Potentiometric sensors have been developed for the determination of residual amounts of low molecular PVP which is a food additive E 1201 commonly used for thickening, stabilizing and clarifying of food products. The content of PVP was determined in real objects (apple juice, beer, red wine and cognac with using the polyvinylpyrrolidone sensors (Sr < 0.08. The

  6. Obtaining of Analytical Relations for Hydraulic Parameters of Channels With Two Phase Flow Using Open CFD Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varseev, E.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is dedicated to verification of numerical model in standard solver of open-source CFD code OpenFOAM for two-phase flow simulation and to determination of so-called “baseline” model parameters. Investigation of heterogeneous coolant flow parameters, which leads to abnormal friction increase of channel in two-phase adiabatic “water-gas” flows with low void fractions, presented.

  7. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  8. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF DAMAGED AIRCRAFT SKIN BONDED REPAIRS ASSUMING THE MATERIAL PROPERTIES DEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of optimal variants for composite repair patches allows to increase the service life of a damaged air- plane structure. To sensibly choose the way of repair, it is necessary to have a computational complex to predict the stress- strain condition of "structure-adhesive-patch" system and to take into account the damage growth considering the material properties change. The variant of the computational complex based on inclusion method is proposed.For calculation purposes the repair bonded joint is divided into two areas: a metal plate with patch-shaped hole and a "patch-adhesive layer-skin" composite plate (inclusion.Calculation stages:Evaluation of the patch influence to the skin stress-strain condition, stress distribution between skin and patch in the case of no damage. Calculation of the stress-strain condition is performed separately for the skin with hole and for the inclusion; solutions are coupled based on strain compatibility.Definition of the damage growth parameters at new stress-strain condition due to bonded patch existence. Skincrack stress intensity factors are found to identify the crack growth velocity. Patch is modelled as a set of "springs" bridging the crack.Degradation analysis of elasticity properties for the patch material.Repair effectiveness is evaluated with respect to crack growth velocity reduction in the initial material in compari- son with the case of the patch absence.Calculation example for the crack repair effectiveness depending on number of loading cycles for the 7075-T6 aluminum skin is given. Repair patches are carbon-epoxy, glass-epoxy and boron-epoxy material systems with quasi- isotropic layup and GLARE hybrid metal-polymeric material.The analysis shows the high effectiveness of the carbon-epoxy patch. Due to low stiffness, the glass-epoxy patchdemonstrates the least effectiveness. GLARE patch containing the fiberglass plies oriented across the crack has the same effectiveness as the carbon and

  9. Effects of thermal property variations on the liquid flow and heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhigang [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huai, Xiulan; Tao, Yujia; Chen, Huanzhuo [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-12-15

    Three-dimensional conjugate numerical simulations using the inlet, average and variable thermal properties respectively were performed for the laminar water flow and heat transfer in rectangular microchannels with D{sub h} of 0.333 mm at Re of 101-1775. Both average and variable properties are adopted in data reduction. The calculated local and average characteristics of flow and heat transfer are compared among different methods, and with the experiments, correlations and simplified theoretical solution data from published literatures. Compared with the inlet property method, both average and variable property methods have significantly lower f{sub app}, but higher convective heat transfer coefficient h{sub z} and Nu{sub z}. Compared with the average property method, the variable property method has higher f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and lower h{sub z} at the beginning, but lower f{sub app}Re{sub ave} and higher h{sub z} at the later section of the channel. The calculated Nu{sub ave} agree well with the Sieder-Tate correlation and the recently reported experiment, validating the traditional macroscale theory in predicting the flow and heat transfer characteristics in the dimension and Re range of the present work. (author)

  10. MHD unsteady GO-water-squeezing nanofluid flow-heat and mass transfer between two infinite parallel moving plates: analytical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Investigation for unsteady squeezing viscous flow is one of the most important research topics due to its wide range of engineering applications such as polymer processing and lubrication systems. The aim of the present paper is to study the unsteady squeezing viscous graphene oxide-water nanofluid flow with heat transfer between two infinite parallel plates. The governing equations, continuity, momentum and energy for this problem are reduced to coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using a similarity transformation. The transmuted model is shown to be controlled by a number of thermo-physical parameters, viz., moving parameter, graphene oxide nanoparticles solid volume fraction, Eckert and Prandtl numbers. Nusselt number and skin friction parameter are obtained for various values of GO solid volume fraction and Eckert number. Comparison between analytical results and numerical ones achieved by fourth order Runge-Kutta method revealed that our analytical method can be a simple, powerful and efficient technique for finding analytical solutions in science and engineering nonlinear differential equations. (author)

  11. Investigation of analytical methods in thermal stratification analysis. Evaluation of flow rates through flow holes for normal and scram conditions of 40% power operation with AQUA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Yoshihiro; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1997-08-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are observed in an upper plenum of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) under reactor scram conditions, which give rise to thermal stress on structural components. Therefore it is important to evaluate characteristics of phenomena in the design of the internal structure in an LMFBR plenum. To evaluate flow rates through flow holes of the prototype fast breeder reactor, MONJU, numerical analyses were carried out with AQUA code for normal and scram conditions with 40% power operation. Through comparison of analysis results and measured temperature, thermal stratification phenomena in 300 second period after the scram was evaluated. Flow rate through the upper flow holes, the lower flow holes and annular gap between the inner barrel and the reactor vessel were evaluated with the measured temperature and the analysis results individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. The Study of Kinetic Properties and Analytical Pyrolysis of Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic properties of coconut shells during pyrolysis were studied to determine its reactivity in ground form. The kinetic parameters were determined by using thermogravimetric analyser. The activation energy was 122.780 kJ/mol. The pyrolysis products were analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the distribution of the pyrolytic products were assessed in a temperature range between 673 K and 1073 K. The set time for pyrolysis was 2 s. Several compounds were observed; they were grouped into alkanes, acids, ethers and alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones, furans and pyrans, aromatic compounds, and nitrogen containing compounds. The product compositions varied with temperature in that range. The highest gas proportion was observed at high temperature while the acid proportion was observed to be highest in coconut shells, thus lowering the quality of bio-oil. It has been concluded that higher pyrolysis temperature increases the amount of pyrolysis products to a maximum value. It has been recommended to use coconut shell for production of gas, instead of production of bio-oil due to its high proportion of acetic acid.

  13. Properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas: Analytic and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melatos, A.; Robinson, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recently developed perturbation theory of transit-time interactions between particles and coherent wave packets in magnetized plasmas is applied to particular field structures. Limits of validity are determined by comparison with test-particle simulations, showing that the theory is accurate everywhere except near certain well-determined resonances, for wave fields exceeding a characteristic threshold, and for particles below a particular velocity. The properties of transit-time interactions in magnetized plasmas are investigated in detail to determine their dependence on the fields and parameters of the particle motion. Resonant particle scattering is found to occur at low particle velocities when the frequency of the coherent wave packet is an integer multiple of the gyrofrequency. Two different types of resonant transit-time dissipation are also observed: one arises from transient cyclotron acceleration in the localized wave packet, the other from beating between the gyration of the particles and the oscillation of the wave packet field. Both effects involve an interplay between the field geometry and resonant oscillations

  14. Analytical calculations and properties of gamma-rays polymerization of novel acrylates copolymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S.M., E-mail: smelsayed@hotmail.co [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Madani, M.; El-Bayoumi, A.S. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    A detailed study of some physical properties of pure PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) film and MMA/Ani (methyl methacrylate/aniline) films is presented. Films of thicknesses ranged from 0.04 to 0.72 mm for MMA/Ani were prepared while it is 0.68 mm for PMMA. The structure of the sample is analyzed by X-ray diffraction technique and is found to be amorphous (PMMA) and partially crystalline (MMA/Ani). Ultra violet-visible electronic absorption spectra measurements were analyzed to obtain some important parameters such as molar extrication coefficient, oscillator strength, dipole strength and having good thermal stability (T{sub d} >300 deg. C) was also reported. TGA studies revealed that the thermal stability of polymethyl methacrylate, prepared by radiation polymerization of methyl methacrylate, improved after copolymerization with aniline. Also, optical behavior of film samples was analyzed by obtaining transmission spectra, in the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm. It was found that all studied samples lead to the appearance of a second edge at lower photon energy due to the formation of the induced energy states. From the intensity of absorption interband transitions (B and Q) which are assigned as type pi-pi* for both PMMA and MMA/Ani films, the energy gaps E{sub g1} and E{sub g2} were calculated respectively. The optical conductivity (sigma) was determined and it was found that with the increase of thicknesses optical energy gap decreases monotonically and the refractive index increases.

  15. Properties of the positive column of a glow discharge in flowing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, H.; Rocca Serra, J.; Mabru, M.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a theoretical model for predicting the effects of gas flow on the properties of the positive column in a glow discharge are presented. A cylindrical discharge at low pressure ( 2 molecules and H atoms produced by the discharge are calculated. Comparison with available experimental data is made

  16. Bubble properties of heterogeneous bubbly flow in a square bubble column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Wei; Deen, Niels G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on the measurements of bubble properties in heterogeneous bubbly flows in a square bubble column. A four-point optical fibre probe was used for this purpose. The accuracy and intrusive effect of the optical probe was investigated first. The results show that the optical

  17. Influence of fluid-property variation on turbulent convective heat transfer in vertical annular CHANNEL FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong Hun Bae; Jung Yul Yoo; Haecheon Choi

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The influence of variable fluid property on turbulent convective heat transfer is investigated using direct numerical simulations. We consider thermally-developing flows of air and supercritical-pressure CO 2 in a vertical annular channel where the inner wall is heated with a constant heat flux and the outer wall is insulated. Turbulence statistics show that the heat and momentum transport characteristics of variable-property flows are significantly different from those of constant-property flows. The difference is mainly caused by the spatial and temporal variations of fluid density. The non-uniform density distribution causes fluid particles to be accelerated either by expansion or buoyancy force, while the temporal density fluctuations change the heat and momentum transfer via transport of turbulent mass flux, ρ'u' i . Both effects of the spatial and temporal variations of density are shown to be important in the analysis of turbulent convective heat transfer for supercritical-pressure fluids. For variable-property heated air flows, however, the effect of temporal density fluctuations can be neglected at low Mach number, which is in good accordance with the Morkovin's hypothesis. (authors)

  18. Flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock: Effects of multiscale heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2002-01-01

    The heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties at different scales may have different effects on flow and transport processes in a subsurface system. A model for the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is developed to represent complex heterogeneity at two different scales: (1) layer scale corresponding to geologic layering and (2) local scale. The layer-scale hydrogeologic properties are obtained using inverse modeling, based on the available measurements collected from the Yucca Mountain site. Calibration results show a significant lateral and vertical variability in matrix and fracture properties. Hydrogeologic property distributions in a two-dimensional, vertical cross section of the site are generated by combining the average layer-scale matrix and fracture properties with local-scale perturbations generated using a stochastic simulation method. The unsaturated water flow and conservative (nonsorbing) tracer transport through the cross section are simulated for different sets of matrix and fracture property fields. Comparison of simulation results indicates that the local-scale heterogeneity of matrix and fracture properties has a considerable effect on unsaturated flow processes, leading to fast flow paths in fractures and the matrix. These paths shorten the travel time of a conservative tracer from the source (repository) horizon in the unsaturated zone to the water table for small fractions of total released tracer mass. As a result, the local-scale heterogeneity also has a noticeable effect on global tracer transport processes, characterized by an average breakthrough curve at the water table, especially at the early arrival time of tracer mass. However, the effect is not significant at the later time after 20 percent tracer mass reaches the water table. The simulation results also verify that matrix diffusion plays an important role in overall solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Flow Properties between Two Alumina-Based Dry Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Minniti de Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured and compared the flow properties of two alumina-based powders. The alumina powder (AP is irregularly shaped and has a smooth surface and moisture content of 0.16% (d.b., and the ceramic powder (CP, obtained after atomization in a spray dryer, is spherical and has a rough surface and moisture content of 1.07%. We measured the Hausner ratio (HR, the static angle of repose (AoR, the flow index (FI, the angle of internal friction, and the wall's friction angle. The properties measured using aerated techniques (AoR and HR demonstrated that AP presents true cohesiveness (and therefore a difficult flow, while CP presents some cohesiveness and its flow might be classified as half way between difficult and easy flow. Their FI values, which were obtained using a nonaerated technique, enable us to classify the alumina as cohesive and the ceramic powder as an easy-flow powder. The large mean diameter and morphological characteristics of CP reduce interparticle forces and improve flowability, in spite of the higher moisture content of their granules. The angles of internal friction and of wall friction were not significantly different when comparing the two powders.

  20. An investigation of flow properties of metal matrix composites suspensions for injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, F.; Bevis, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Flow properties of metal matrix composites suspensions have significant effects on the fibre orientation during mould filling. The results presented in this paper relate to the flow properties of aluminium powder and glass fibres compounded into a sacrificial thermoplastics binder. For this purpose, a range of aluminium compounds and aluminium composite suspensions were investigated over a wide shear rate range expected to occur during injection mould process. Aluminium composites wee prepared by substituting glass fibres for aluminium in aluminium compound. Aluminium composite containing a maximum critical volume fraction of fibres which did not exhibit an increase n viscosity was determined. The effect of temperature on the flow behaviour of aluminium composite was also investigated. (author)

  1. Electrochemiluminescence properties of Tb(III) nicotinic acid complex and its analytical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yu [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Anhui Normal University, No. 1 Beijing East Road, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhang, Yuqin [The Department of Material Engineering, Wuhu Institute of Technology, No. 201 Wenjin Road, Wuhu 241003 (China); Shu, Guibo; Dong, Qin; Zou, Lili [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Anhui Normal University, No. 1 Beijing East Road, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhu, Yinggui, E-mail: ygzhu08@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Anhui Normal University, No. 1 Beijing East Road, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2015-03-15

    A water soluble lanthanide Tb(III) complex Tb{sub 2}(C{sub 6}NO{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4} has been synthesized as luminescent material, and it is characterized by X-ray crystallography, infrared spectra and elemental analysis, respectively. This material showed excellent characterize of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) in the presence of co-reactant potassium peroxodisulfate (K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) at glassy carbon electrode. With the increase of the concentration for nicotinic acid (NA), the ECL intensity of the complex/K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} system in HAc–NaAc buffer solution will be decreased apparently. Novel approach for the detection of nicotinic acid (NA) was developed based on the quenching effect of NA. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms for the ECL behavior of Tb{sub 2}(C{sub 6}NO{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}/K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} system are proposed. The effects of K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} concentration, pH of the buffer on the ECL intensity have also been discussed in detail. The experiment results showed that the limit of detection for NA was 6.0×10{sup −7} M (S/N=3) with a linear range of 2.0×10{sup −6}–2.0×10{sup −4} M. - Highlights: • A novel ECL material Tb{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}(C{sub 6}NO{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 6} was synthesized and characterized. • The ECL property of the terbium chelate has been studied detail, and possible mechanism was been proposed. • A new ECL method for the determination of nicotinic acid with a wide liner range and a low detection limit was proposed.

  2. Strategy for solving semi-analytically three-dimensional transient flow in a coupled N-layer aquifer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own

  3. The use of a diffuse interface model to estimate effective transport properties for two-phase flows in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichot, Floriana; Duval, Fabiena; Garcia, Aureliena; Belloni, Julien; Quintard, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the framework of its research programme on severe nuclear reactor accidents, IRSN investigates the water flooding of an overheated porous bed, where complex two-phase flows are likely to exist. The goal is to describe the flow with a general model, covering rods and debris beds regions in the vessel. A better understanding of the flow at the pore level appears to be necessary in order to justify and improve closure laws of macroscopic models. Although the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of two-phase flows is possible with several methods, applications are now limited to small computational domains, typically of the order of a few centimeters. Therefore, numerical solutions at the reactor scale can only be obtained by using averaged models. Volume averaging is the most traditional way of deriving such models. For nuclear safety codes, a control volume must include a few rods or a few debris particles, with a characteristic dimension of a few centimeters. The difficulty usually met with averaged models is the closure of several transport or source terms which appear in the averaged conservation equations (for example the interfacial drag or the heat transfers between phases) [2]. In the past, the closure of these terms was obtained, when possible, from one-dimensional experiments that allowed measurements of heat flux or pressure drops. For more complex flows, the experimental measurement of local parameters is often impossible and the effective properties cannot be determined easily. An alternative way is to perform 'numerical experiments' with numerical simulations of the local flow. As mentioned above, the domain of application of DNS corresponds to the size of control volumes necessary to derive averaged models. Therefore DNS appears as a powerful tool to investigate the local features of a two-phase flow in complex geometries. Diffuse interface methods provide a way to model flows with interfacial phenomena through an

  4. Properties of two-temperature dissipative accretion flow around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dihingia, Indu K.; Das, Santabrata; Mandal, Samir

    2018-04-01

    We study the properties of two-temperature accretion flow around a non-rotating black hole in presence of various dissipative processes where pseudo-Newtonian potential is adopted to mimic the effect of general relativity. The flow encounters energy loss by means of radiative processes acted on the electrons and at the same time, flow heats up as a consequence of viscous heating effective on ions. We assumed that the flow is exposed with the stochastic magnetic fields that leads to Synchrotron emission of electrons and these emissions are further strengthen by Compton scattering. We obtain the two-temperature global accretion solutions in terms of dissipation parameters, namely, viscosity (α) and accretion rate ({\\dot{m}}), and find for the first time in the literature that such solutions may contain standing shock waves. Solutions of this kind are multitransonic in nature, as they simultaneously pass through both inner critical point (xin) and outer critical point (xout) before crossing the black hole horizon. We calculate the properties of shock-induced global accretion solutions in terms of the flow parameters. We further show that two-temperature shocked accretion flow is not a discrete solution, instead such solution exists for wide range of flow parameters. We identify the effective domain of the parameter space for standing shock and observe that parameter space shrinks as the dissipation is increased. Since the post-shock region is hotter due to the effect of shock compression, it naturally emits hard X-rays, and therefore, the two-temperature shocked accretion solution has the potential to explain the spectral properties of the black hole sources.

  5. An analytical study on nested flow systems in a Tóthian basin with a periodically changing water table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ke-Yu; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Wang, Heng; Li, Hailong

    2018-01-01

    Classical understanding on basin-scale groundwater flow patterns is based on Tóth's findings of a single flow system in a unit basin (Tóth, 1962) and nested flow systems in a complex basin (Tóth, 1963), both of which were based on steady state models. Vandenberg (1980) extended Tóth (1962) by deriving a transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a unit basin and examined the flow field distortion under different dimensionless response time, τ∗. Following Vandenberg's (1980) approach, we extended Tóth (1963) by deriving the transient solution under a periodically changing water table in a complex basin and examined the transient behavior of nested flow systems. Due to the effect of specific storage, the flow field is asymmetric with respect to the midline, and the trajectory of internal stagnation points constitutes a non-enclosed loop, whose width decreases when τ∗ decreases. The distribution of the relative magnitude of hydraulic head fluctuation, Δh∗ , is dependent on the horizontal distance away from a divide and the depth below the land surface. In the shallow part, Δh∗ decreases from 1 at the divide to 0 at its neighboring valley under all τ∗, while in the deep part, Δh∗ reaches a threshold, whose value decreases when τ∗ increases. The zones with flowing wells are also found to change periodically. As water table falls, there is a general trend of shrinkage in the area of zones with flowing wells, which has a lag to the declining water table under a large τ∗. Although fluxes have not been assigned in our model, the recharge/discharge flux across the top boundary can be obtained. This study is critical to understand a series of periodically changing hydrogeological phenomena in large-scale basins.

  6. Dependence of fracture mechanical and fluid flow properties on fracture roughness and sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter study has been carried out to investigate the interdependence of mechanical and fluid flow properties of fractures with fracture roughness and sample size. A rough fracture can be defined mathematically in terms of its aperture density distribution. Correlations were found between the shapes of the aperture density distribution function and the specific fractures of the stress-strain behavior and fluid flow characteristics. Well-matched fractures had peaked aperture distributions that resulted in very nonlinear stress-strain behavior. With an increasing degree of mismatching between the top and bottom of a fracture, the aperture density distribution broadened and the nonlinearity of the stress-strain behavior became less accentuated. The different aperture density distributions also gave rise to qualitatively different fluid flow behavior. Findings from this investigation make it possible to estimate the stress-strain and fluid flow behavior when the roughness characteristics of the fracture are known and, conversely, to estimate the fracture roughness from an examination of the hydraulic and mechanical data. Results from this study showed that both the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the fracture are controlled by the large-scale roughness of the joint surface. This suggests that when the stress-flow behavior of a fracture is being investigated, the size of the rock sample should be larger than the typical wave length of the roughness undulations

  7. Comparison of Themodynamic and Transport Property Models for Computing Equilibrium High Enthalpy Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasahayam, Veda Krishna Vyas; Diwakar, Anant; Bodi, Kowsik

    2017-11-01

    To study the flow of high temperature air in vibrational and chemical equilibrium, accurate models for thermodynamic state and transport phenomena are required. In the present work, the performance of a state equation model and two mixing rules for determining equilibrium air thermodynamic and transport properties are compared with that of curve fits. The thermodynamic state model considers 11 species which computes flow chemistry by an iterative process and the mixing rules considered for viscosity are Wilke and Armaly-Sutton. The curve fits of Srinivasan, which are based on Grabau type transition functions, are chosen for comparison. A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver is developed to simulate high enthalpy flows with numerical fluxes computed by AUSM+-up. The accuracy of state equation model and curve fits for thermodynamic properties is determined using hypersonic inviscid flow over a circular cylinder. The performance of mixing rules and curve fits for viscosity are compared using hypersonic laminar boundary layer prediction on a flat plate. It is observed that steady state solutions from state equation model and curve fits match with each other. Though curve fits are significantly faster the state equation model is more general and can be adapted to any flow composition.

  8. Experimental and analytical studies on high-speed plane jet along concave wall simulating IFMIF Li target flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Ida, M.; Kato, Y.; Maekawa, H.; Katsuta, H.; Itoh, K.; Kukita, Y.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the conceptual design activity (CDA) of the international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF), the characteristics of the high-speed liquid lithium (Li) plane jet target flow have been studied by water experiments and numerical analyses for both heating and non-heating conditions. The simulated prototypal-size water flows were stable over the entire length of ∝130 mm at the average velocity up to 17 m/s. The jet flow had a specific radial velocity profile, close to that of free-vortex flow, because of a static pressure distribution in the jet thickness due to centrifugal force. Detailed velocity measurement revealed that this flow condition is penetrating into the upstream reducer nozzle up to a distance ∼ the jet thickness. The numerical analyses using a two-dimensional Cartesian-coordinate model were successful to predict the velocity profile transient around the nozzle exit, though underestimated the development of the velocity profile and the jet thickness. (orig.)

  9. Detection of nanoplastics in food by asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to multi-angle light scattering: possibilities, challenges and analytical limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Manuel; Löschner, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    We tested the suitability of asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) for detection of nanoplastics in fish. A homogenized fish sample was spiked with 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs) (1.3 mg/g fish). Two sample preparation strategies...... were tested: acid digestion and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. Both procedures were found suitable for degradation of the organic matrix. However, acid digestion resulted in large PSNPs aggregates/agglomerates (> 1 μm). The presence of large particulates was not observed after enzymatic...

  10. Hagfish slime and mucin flow properties and their implications for defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Fischer, Peter; Böcker, Lukas; Kuster, Simon; Rühs, Patrick A.

    2016-07-01

    When hagfish (Myxinidae) are attacked by predators, they form a dilute, elastic, and cohesive defensive slime made of mucins and protein threads. In this study we propose a link between flow behavior and defense mechanism of hagfish slime. Oscillatory rheological measurements reveal that hagfish slime forms viscoelastic networks at low concentrations. Mucins alone did not contribute viscoelasticity, however in shear flow, viscosity was observed. The unidirectional flow, experienced by hagfish slime during suction feeding by predators, was mimicked with extensional rheology. Elongational stresses were found to increase mucin viscosity. The resulting higher resistance to flow could support clogging of the attacker’s gills. Shear flow in contrast decreases the slime viscosity by mucin aggregation and leads to a collapse of the slime network. Hagfish may benefit from this collapse when trapped in their own slime and facing suffocation by tying a sliding knot with their body to shear off the slime. This removal could be facilitated by the apparent shear thinning behavior of the slime. Therefore hagfish slime, thickening in elongation and thinning in shear, presents a sophisticated natural high water content gel with flow properties that may be beneficial for both, defense and escape.

  11. Development of preparative and analytical methods of the hop bitter acid oxide fraction and chemical properties of its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Matsukura, Yasuko; Taniguchi, Harumi; Koizumi, Hideki; Katayama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The bitter acids in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) and beer, such as α-, β-, and iso-α-acids, are known to affect beer quality and display various physiological effects. However, these compounds readily oxidize, and the effect of the oxides on the properties of beer or their potential health benefits are not well understood. In this study, we developed a simple preparative method for the bitter acid oxide fraction derived from hops and designated the constituents as matured hop bitter acids (MHBA). HPLC-PDA-ESI/HRMS and MS(2) revealed that MHBA are primarily composed of α-acid-derived oxides, which possess a common β-tricarbonyl moiety in their structures similar to α-, β-, and iso-α-acids. We also developed a quantitative analytical method of whole MHBA by HPLC, which showed high precision and reproducibility. Using our newly developed method, the concentration of whole MHBA in several commercial beers was evaluated. Our results will promote the study of bitter acid oxides.

  12. Analyticity properties of the S-matrix: historical survey and recent results in S-matrix theory and axiomatic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1981-02-01

    An introduction to recent works, in S-matrix theory and axiomatic field theory, on the analysis and derivation of momentum-space analyticity properties of the multiparticle S matrix is presented. It includes an historical survey, which outlines the successes but also the basic difficulties encountered in the sixties in both theories, and the evolution of the subject in the seventies

  13. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

    2016-06-01

    In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

  14. Experimental and analytical study of intermittency in direct contact condensation of steam in a cross-flow of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerx, N.; Geld, van der C.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The topology of a condensing steam jet, at low steam mass fluxes, injected in a cross-flow of water has been investigatedexperimentally for various conditions (system pressure around 3 bar). The intermittent character of the steam pocket growthand collapse clearly appeared from the high speed

  15. Characterization of acid-base properties of unstable drugs using a continuous-flow system with UV-vis spectrophotometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argemí, Anna; Saurina, Javier

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we propose a continuous-flow system for the study of the acid-base characteristics of unstable drugs. 5-Azacytidine has been selected as a first model of unstable compound, which progressively decomposes in aqueous solutions. Besides, other compounds undergoing hydrolysis and oxidation side reactions have been also analyzed to explore the performance of the method. In comparison with conventional batch titrations, the drug decomposition can be minimized by the continuous renewal of the analyte solution. The composition of the buffer mixture is varied on-line during the process from successive changes in the flow rates of acid and basic stock solutions. As a result, the pH value of the test solution is varied in a controlled manner in the range of 1-13. Multivariate curve resolution based on alternating least squares has been used to extract relevant information concerning the acid-base properties of analytes. Results from the continuous-flow system have been compared with those obtained, using batch spectrophotometric titrations, and in the case of fast degradations, the performance of the proposed procedure has been superior.

  16. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  17. Plastic flow properties and fracture toughness characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tempered martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaetig, P.; Bonade, R.; Odette, G.R.; Rensman, J.W.; Campitelli, E.N.; Mueller, P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the plastic flow properties at low and high temperature of the tempered martensitic steel Eurofer97. We show that below room temperature, where the Peierls friction on the screw dislocation is active, it is necessary to modify the usual Taylor's equation between the flow stress and the square root of the dislocation density and to include explicitly the Peierls friction stress in the equation. Then, we compare the fracture properties of the Eurofer97 with those of the F82H steel. A clear difference of the fracture toughness-temperature behavior was found in the low transition region. The results indicate a sharper transition for Eurofer97 than for the F82H. Finally, the shift of the median toughness-temperature curve of the F82H steel was determined after two neutron irradiations performed in the High Flux Reactor in Petten

  18. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  19. An analytical model for flow induced by a constant-head pumping in a leaky unconfined aquifer system with considering unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Li, Ming-Hsu; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2017-09-01

    A new mathematical model is developed to describe the flow in response to a constant-head pumping (or constant-head test, CHT) in a leaky unconfined aquifer system of infinite lateral extent with considering unsaturated flow. The model consists of an unsaturated zone on the top, an unconfined aquifer in the middle, and a second aquifer (aquitard) at the bottom. The unsaturated flow is described by Richard's equation, and the flows in unconfined aquifer and second layer are governed by the groundwater flow equation. The well partially penetrates the unconfined aquifer with a constant head in the well due to CHT. The governing equations of the model are linearized by the perturbation method and Gardner's exponential model is adopted to describe the soil retention curves. The solution of the model for drawdown distribution is obtained by applying the methods of Laplace transform and Weber transform. Then the solution for the wellbore flowrate is derived from the drawdown solution with Darcy's law. The issue of the equivalence of normalized drawdown predicted by the present solution for constant-head pumping and Tartakovsky and Neuman's (2007) solution for constant-rate pumping is discussed. On the basis of the wellbore flowrate solution, the results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the wellbore flowrate is very sensitive to the changes in the radial hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the saturated zone. Moreover, the results predicted from the present wellbore flowrate solution indicate that this new solution can reduce to Chang's et al. (2010a) solution for homogenous aquifers when the dimensionless unsaturated exponent approaches 100. The unsaturated zone can be considered as infinite extent in the vertical direction if the thickness ratio of the unsaturated zone to the unconfined aquifer is equal to or greater than one. As for the leakage effect, it can be ignored when the vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio (i.e., the vertical hydraulic

  20. A first-order Green's function approach to supersonic oscillatory flow: A mixed analytic and numeric treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, M. I.; Sipcic, S.; Tseng, K.

    1985-01-01

    A frequency domain Green's Function Method for unsteady supersonic potential flow around complex aircraft configurations is presented. The focus is on the supersonic range wherein the linear potential flow assumption is valid. In this range the effects of the nonlinear terms in the unsteady supersonic compressible velocity potential equation are negligible and therefore these terms will be omitted. The Green's function method is employed in order to convert the potential flow differential equation into an integral one. This integral equation is then discretized, through standard finite element technique, to yield a linear algebraic system of equations relating the unknown potential to its prescribed co-normalwash (boundary condition) on the surface of the aircraft. The arbitrary complex aircraft configuration (e.g., finite-thickness wing, wing-body-tail) is discretized into hyperboloidal (twisted quadrilateral) panels. The potential and co-normalwash are assumed to vary linearly within each panel. The long range goal is to develop a comprehensive theory for unsteady supersonic potential aerodynamic which is capable of yielding accurate results even in the low supersonic (i.e., high transonic) range.

  1. Distinguished hyperbolic trajectories in time-dependent fluid flows: analytical and computational approach for velocity fields defined as data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop analytical and numerical methods for finding special hyperbolic trajectories that govern geometry of Lagrangian structures in time-dependent vector fields. The vector fields (or velocity fields may have arbitrary time dependence and be realized only as data sets over finite time intervals, where space and time are discretized. While the notion of a hyperbolic trajectory is central to dynamical systems theory, much of the theoretical developments for Lagrangian transport proceed under the assumption that such a special hyperbolic trajectory exists. This brings in new mathematical issues that must be addressed in order for Lagrangian transport theory to be applicable in practice, i.e. how to determine whether or not such a trajectory exists and, if it does exist, how to identify it in a sequence of instantaneous velocity fields. We address these issues by developing the notion of a distinguished hyperbolic trajectory (DHT. We develop an existence criteria for certain classes of DHTs in general time-dependent velocity fields, based on the time evolution of Eulerian structures that are observed in individual instantaneous fields over the entire time interval of the data set. We demonstrate the concept of DHTs in inhomogeneous (or "forced" time-dependent linear systems and develop a theory and analytical formula for computing DHTs. Throughout this work the notion of linearization is very important. This is not surprising since hyperbolicity is a "linearized" notion. To extend the analytical formula to more general nonlinear time-dependent velocity fields, we develop a series of coordinate transforms including a type of linearization that is not typically used in dynamical systems theory. We refer to it as Eulerian linearization, which is related to the frame independence of DHTs, as opposed to the Lagrangian linearization, which is typical in dynamical systems theory, which is used in the computation of Lyapunov exponents. We

  2. Determination of the diffusivity, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis in heterogeneous porous flow. Part I: Analytical solutions with the extended method of moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Irina; Vikhansky, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The extended method of moments (EMM) is elaborated in recursive algorithmic form for the prediction of the effective diffusivity, the Taylor dispersion dyadic and the associated longitudinal high-order coefficients in mean-concentration profiles and residence-time distributions. The method applies in any streamwise-periodic stationary d-dimensional velocity field resolved in the piecewise continuous heterogeneous porosity field. It is demonstrated that EMM reduces to the method of moments and the volume-averaging formulation in microscopic velocity field and homogeneous soil, respectively. The EMM simultaneously constructs two systems of moments, the spatial and the temporal, without resorting to solving of the high-order upscaled PDE. At the same time, the EMM is supported with the reconstruction of distribution from its moments, allowing to visualize the deviation from the classical ADE solution. The EMM can be handled by any linear advection-diffusion solver with explicit mass-source and diffusive-flux jump condition on the solid boundary and permeable interface. The prediction of the first four moments is decisive in the optimization of the dispersion, asymmetry, peakedness and heavy-tails of the solute distributions, through an adequate design of the composite materials, wetlands, chemical devices or oil recovery. The symbolic solutions for dispersion, skewness and kurtosis are constructed in basic configurations: diffusion process and Darcy flow through two porous blocks in "series", straight and radial Poiseuille flow, porous flow governed by the Stokes-Brinkman-Darcy channel equation and a fracture surrounded by penetrable diffusive matrix or embedded in porous flow. We examine the moments dependency upon porosity contrast, aspect ratio, Péclet and Darcy numbers, but also for their response on the effective Brinkman viscosity applied in flow modeling. Two numerical Lattice Boltzmann algorithms, a direct solver of the microscopic ADE in heterogeneous

  3. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Salazar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land–atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  4. Scaling properties reveal regulation of river flows in the Amazon through a forest reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Juan Fernando; Villegas, Juan Camilo; María Rendón, Angela; Rodríguez, Estiven; Hoyos, Isabel; Mercado-Bettín, Daniel; Poveda, Germán

    2018-03-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we introduce a novel physical interpretation of the scaling properties of river flows and show that it leads to a parsimonious characterization of the flow regime of any river basin. This allows river basins to be classified as regulated or unregulated, and to identify a critical threshold between these states. We applied this framework to the Amazon river basin and found both states among its main tributaries. Then we introduce the forest reservoir hypothesis to describe the natural capacity of river basins to regulate river flows through land-atmosphere interactions (mainly precipitation recycling) that depend strongly on the presence of forests. A critical implication is that forest loss can force the Amazonian river basins from regulated to unregulated states. Our results provide theoretical and applied foundations for predicting hydrological impacts of global change, including the detection of early-warning signals for critical transitions in river basins.

  5. Fracture Flow Characterization from Seismic and Electric Properties: Insight from Experimental and Numerical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawayama, K.; Kitamura, K.; Tsuji, T.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of fluid flow and its distribution in the fracture is essential to evaluate subsurface fluid (e.g., geothermal water, ground water, oil and gas). Recently, fluid flow in the geothermal reservoir has been attracting attention to develop EGS (enhanced geothermal system) technique. To detect the fluid distribution under the ground, geophysical exploration such as seismic and electromagnetic methods have been broadly applied. For better interpretation of these exploration data, more detailed investigation about the effect of fluid on seismic and electric properties of fracture is required. In this study, we measured and calculated seismic and electric properties of a cracked rock to discuss the effect of water distribution and saturation on them as well as fluid flow. For the experimental observation, we developed the technique to measure electrical impedance, P-wave velocity and water saturation simultaneously during the fluid-flow test. The test has been conducted as follows; a cracked andesite core sample was filled with nitrogen gas (Pp = 10 MPa) under 20 MPa of confining pressure and then, brine (1wt.%-KCl, 1.75 S/m) was injected into the sample to replace the gas. During the test, water saturation, permeability, electrical impedance and P-wave velocity were measured. As a result of this experimental study, electrical impedance dramatically decreased from 105 to 103 Ω and P-wave velocity increased by 2% due to the brine injection. This remarkable change of the electrical impedance could be due to the replacement of pre-filled nitrogen gas to the brine in the broad fracture. After the brine injection, electrical impedance decreased with injection pressure by up to 40% while P-wave velocity was almost constant. This decrease of electrical impedance could be related to the flow to the narrow path (microcrack) which cannot be detected by P-wave velocity. These two types of fluid flow mechanism were also suggested from other parameters such as

  6. Tensile properties and flow behavior analysis of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kanwarjeet, E-mail: kanwar722@yahoo.com; Latha, S.; Nandagopal, M.; Mathew, M.D.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-11-15

    The tensile properties and flow behavior of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube have been investigated in the framework of various constitutive equations for a wide range of temperatures (300–923 K) and strain rates (3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}, 3 × 10{sup −4} s{sup −1} and 3 × 10{sup −5} s{sup −1}). The tensile flow behavior of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube was most accurately described by Voce equation. The variation of instantaneous work hardening rate (θ = dσ/dε) and σθ with stress (σ) indicated two stage behavior characterized by rapid decrease at low stresses (transient stage) followed by a gradual decrease in high stresses (Stage III). The variation of work hardening parameters and work hardening rate in terms of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ with temperature exhibited three distinct regimes. Rapid decrease in flow stress and work hardening parameters and rapid shift of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ towards low stresses with increase in temperature indicated dynamic recovery at high temperatures. Tensile properties of the material have been best predicted from Voce equation.

  7. Tensile properties and flow behavior analysis of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwarjeet; Latha, S.; Nandagopal, M.; Mathew, M. D.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-11-01

    The tensile properties and flow behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube have been investigated in the framework of various constitutive equations for a wide range of temperatures (300-923 K) and strain rates (3 × 10-3 s-1, 3 × 10-4 s-1 and 3 × 10-5 s-1). The tensile flow behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel clad tube was most accurately described by Voce equation. The variation of instantaneous work hardening rate (θ = dσ/dε) and σθ with stress (σ) indicated two stage behavior characterized by rapid decrease at low stresses (transient stage) followed by a gradual decrease in high stresses (Stage III). The variation of work hardening parameters and work hardening rate in terms of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ with temperature exhibited three distinct regimes. Rapid decrease in flow stress and work hardening parameters and rapid shift of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ towards low stresses with increase in temperature indicated dynamic recovery at high temperatures. Tensile properties of the material have been best predicted from Voce equation.

  8. R134a Flow Boiling Analysis with Modified Thermodynamic Property File of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gyumin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Previous study showed application of RELAP5 code to solar energy facility with molten salt (60% NaNO3 and 40% KNO3) as working fluid. Based on external experimental correlations, thermodynamic properties of molten salt were evaluated as a function of pressure and temperature and those equations were used to generate tpf. To validate external tpf, experimental values were compared with RELAP5 analysis. In nuclear field, utilization of other fluid is also important since many thermal-hydraulic experiments used various fluids such as FC-72, R123, and R134a. Theses refrigerants have been used to simulate the high pressure environment of nuclear power plants due to their low boiling point, and density ratio between vapor and liquid. Thus, this study aims for tpf generation of R134a and verification by analyzing real case. R134a is selected as a fluid to be implemented and analyzed because it is currently used in refrigerator and frequently used in flow boiling experiment related with heat transfer coefficient and CHF measurement. R134a property file were generated with fitted equation using temperature and pressure as variables, originated from external data source. For validation, flow boiling experiment case were made into simplified input. Analysis with tpfr134a showed that application of Gnielinksi correlation could enhance single phase flow accuracy. Large error of HTC from two phase analysis requires parameter study. Future work aims for more specified experimental case comparison and correlation enhancement for two phase analysis.

  9. Tensile properties and flow behavior analysis of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kanwarjeet; Latha, S.; Nandagopal, M.; Mathew, M.D.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The tensile properties and flow behavior of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube have been investigated in the framework of various constitutive equations for a wide range of temperatures (300–923 K) and strain rates (3 × 10 −3 s −1 , 3 × 10 −4 s −1 and 3 × 10 −5 s −1 ). The tensile flow behavior of modified 9Cr–1Mo steel clad tube was most accurately described by Voce equation. The variation of instantaneous work hardening rate (θ = dσ/dε) and σθ with stress (σ) indicated two stage behavior characterized by rapid decrease at low stresses (transient stage) followed by a gradual decrease in high stresses (Stage III). The variation of work hardening parameters and work hardening rate in terms of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ with temperature exhibited three distinct regimes. Rapid decrease in flow stress and work hardening parameters and rapid shift of θ vs. σ and σθ vs. σ towards low stresses with increase in temperature indicated dynamic recovery at high temperatures. Tensile properties of the material have been best predicted from Voce equation

  10. Comparison between a Direct-Flow SPR Immunosensor for Ampicillin and a Competitive Conventional Amperometric Device: Analytical Features and Possible Applications to Real Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Merola, Giovanni; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Sanzò, Gabriella; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we developed a direct-flow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for ampicillin to perform direct, simple, and fast measurements of this important antibiotic. In order to better evaluate the performance, it was compared with a conventional amperometric immunosensor, working with a competitive format with the aim of finding out experimental real advantages and disadvantages of two respective methods. Results showed that certain analytical features of the new SPR immunodevice, such as the lower limit of detection (LOD) value and the width of the linear range, are poorer than those of a conventional amperometric immunosensor, which adversely affects the application to samples such as natural waters. On the other hand, the SPR immunosensor was more selective to ampicillin, and measurements were more easily and quickly attained compared to those performed with the conventional competitive immunosensor. PMID:28394296

  11. Analytical solution to the problem of heat transfer in an MHD flow inside a channel with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zniber, K.; Oubarra, A.; Lahjomri, J.

    2005-01-01

    An MHD laminar flow through a two dimensional channel subjected to a uniform magnetic field and heated at the walls of the conduit over the whole length with a sinusoidal heat flux of vanishing mean value or not, is studied analytically. General expressions of the temperature distribution and of the local and mean Nusselt numbers are obtained by using the technique of linear operators in the case of negligible Joule and viscous dissipation and by taking into account the axial conduction effect. The principal results show that an increase of the local Nusselt number with Hartmann number is observed, and, far from the inlet section, the average heat transfer between the fluid and the walls shows a significant improvement at all values of Hartmann number used when the frequency of the prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux is increasing in the case of vanishing mean value of the heat flux and this is true especially at low Peclet numbers

  12. Analytical transport network theory to guide the design of 3-D microstructural networks in energy materials: Part 1. Flow without reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alex P.; Nakajo, Arata; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a fully analytical, heuristic model - the "Analytical Transport Network Model" - for steady-state, diffusive, potential flow through a 3-D network. Employing a combination of graph theory, linear algebra, and geometry, the model explicitly relates a microstructural network's topology and the morphology of its channels to an effective material transport coefficient (a general term meant to encompass, e.g., conductivity or diffusion coefficient). The model's transport coefficient predictions agree well with those from electrochemical fin (ECF) theory and finite element analysis (FEA), but are computed 0.5-1.5 and 5-6 orders of magnitude faster, respectively. In addition, the theory explicitly relates a number of morphological and topological parameters directly to the transport coefficient, whereby the distributions that characterize the structure are readily available for further analysis. Furthermore, ATN's explicit development provides insight into the nature of the tortuosity factor and offers the potential to apply theory from network science and to consider the optimization of a network's effective resistance in a mathematically rigorous manner. The ATN model's speed and relative ease-of-use offer the potential to aid in accelerating the design (with respect to transport), and thus reducing the cost, of energy materials.

  13. Steady shear flow properties of Cordia myxa leaf gum as a function of concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharlang, Mahmood; Samavati, Vahid

    2015-08-01

    The steady shear flow properties of dispersions of Cordia myxa leaf gum (CMLG) were determined as a function of concentration (0.5-2.5%, w/w), and temperature (10-50 °C). The CMLG dispersions exhibited strong shear-thinning behavior at all concentrations and temperatures. The Power-law (Ostwald-Waele's) and Herschel-Bulkley models were employed to characterize flow behavior of CMLG solutions at 0.1-100 s(-1) shear rate. Non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was observed at all temperatures and concentrations. While increase in temperature decreased the viscosity and increased the flow behavior indices, adverse effect was obtained by increasing the concentration. The Power-law model was found the best model to describe steady shear flow behavior of CMLG. The pseudoplasticity of CMLG increased markedly with concentration. An Arrhenius-type model was also used to describe the effect of temperature. The activation energy (Ea) appeared in the range of 5.972-18.104 kJ/mol, as concentration increased from 0.5% to 2.5%, at a shear rate of 10 s(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  15. The Properties of Reconnection Current Sheets in GRMHD Simulations of Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects may play a significant role in determining the dynamics, thermal properties, and observational signatures of radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto black holes. In particular, particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection events may influence black hole spectra and flaring properties. We use representative general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of black hole accretion flows to identify and explore the structures and properties of current sheets as potential sites of magnetic reconnection. In the case of standard and normal evolution (SANE) disks, we find that in the reconnection sites, the plasma beta ranges from 0.1 to 1000, the magnetization ranges from 10‑4 to 1, and the guide fields are weak compared with the reconnecting fields. In magnetically arrested (MAD) disks, we find typical values for plasma beta from 10‑2 to 103, magnetizations from 10‑3 to 10, and typically stronger guide fields, with strengths comparable to or greater than the reconnecting fields. These are critical parameters that govern the electron energy distribution resulting from magnetic reconnection and can be used in the context of plasma simulations to provide microphysics inputs to global simulations. We also find that ample magnetic energy is available in the reconnection regions to power the fluence of bright X-ray flares observed from the black hole in the center of the Milky Way.

  16. Influence of flow constraints on the properties of the critical endpoint of symmetric nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanytskyi, A. I.; Bugaev, K. A.; Sagun, V. V.; Bravina, L. V.; Zabrodin, E. E.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a novel family of equations of state for symmetric nuclear matter based on the induced surface tension concept for the hard-core repulsion. It is shown that having only four adjustable parameters the suggested equations of state can, simultaneously, reproduce not only the main properties of the nuclear matter ground state, but the proton flow constraint up its maximal particle number densities. Varying the model parameters we carefully examine the range of values of incompressibility constant of normal nuclear matter and its critical temperature, which are consistent with the proton flow constraint. This analysis allows us to show that the physically most justified value of nuclear matter critical temperature is 15.5-18 MeV, the incompressibility constant is 270-315 MeV and the hard-core radius of nucleons is less than 0.4 fm.

  17. A meta-analytic review of life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies of palm oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, Yosef; Halog, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews and performs a meta-analysis of the recent life cycle assessment and flow analyses studies palm oil biodiesel. The best available data and information are extracted, summarized, and discussed. Most studies found palm oil biodiesel would produce positive energy balance with an energy ratio between 2.27 and 4.81, and with a net energy production of 112 GJ ha(-1) y(-1). With the exception of a few studies, most conclude that palm oil biodiesel is a net emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG). The origin of oil palm plantation (planted area) is the foremost determinant of GHG emissions and C payback time (CPBT). Converting peatland forest results in GHG emissions up to 60 tons CO(2) equivalent (eq) ha(-1) y(-1) leading to 420 years of CPBT. In contrast, converting degraded land or grassland for plantation can positively offset the system to become a net sequester of 5 tons CO(2) eq ha(-1) y(-1). Few studies have discussed cradle-to-grave environmental impacts such as acidification, eutrophication, toxicity, and biodiversity, which open opportunity for further studies. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. CO2 interfacial properties: application to multiphase flow at reservoir conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalbaud, C.

    2007-07-01

    In this work we deal with the interfacial properties of CO 2 at reservoir conditions with a special interest on deep saline aquifers. Each chapter of this dissertation represents a different physical scale studied with different experimental devices and simulation tools. The results obtained in the first part of this study represent a complete data set of brine-CO 2 interfacial tension at reservoir conditions. A semi-analytical equation is proposed in order to facilitate the work of reservoir engineers. The second deals with the interfacial properties at the pore scale using glass micro-models at different wettability conditions. This part shows the wetting behavior of CO 2 on hydrophobic or oil-wet solid surfaces. A pore network model was used for the interpretation and exploitation of these results. The third part corresponds to two different experimental approaches at the core scale at different wettability conditions associated to a modelling at flue Darcy scale. This part is a significant contribution to the validation of COORES compositional reservoir simulator developed by IFP. It has also allow us to estimate multiphase properties, Pc and kr, for brine-CO 2 systems at reservoir conditions. This study presents the necessary scales to model CO 2 storage in deep saline aquifers. (author)

  19. Thin-coating as an alternative approach to improve flow properties of ibuprofen powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Ehlers, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, thin-coating as a potential method for improving flow properties of cohesive ibuprofen powder was introduced. Briefly, the technique was based on the successive deposition of ultrasound-assisted fine polymer mist onto the surface of the powdered active pharmaceutical...... ingredient (API), producing individual particles with a hydrophilic thin-coat. A 0.15% m/V aqueous solution of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was used. Particle size and surface analysis revealed a decrease in the cohesiveness of ibuprofen powder and an increase in the homogeneity of particle surfaces...

  20. Non-Newtonian flow between concentric cylinders calculated from thermophysical properties obtained from simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, A.P.; Rainwater, J.C.; Hanley, H.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the Weissenberg effect (rod climbing in a stirred system) based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is reported. Simulation results from a soft-sphere fluid are used to obtain a self-consistent free-surface profile of the fluid of finite compressibility undergoing Couette flow between concentric cylinders. A numerical procedure is then applied to calculate the height profile for a hypothetical fluid with thermophysical properties of the soft-sphere liquid and of a dense colloidal suspension. The height profile calculated is identified with shear thickening and the forms of the viscometric functions. The maximum climb occurs between the cylinders rather than at the inner cylinder

  1. Statistical Properties of Lorenz-like Flows, Recent Developments and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Vitor; Galatolo, Stefano; Pacifico, Maria José

    We comment on the mathematical results about the statistical behavior of Lorenz equations and its attractor, and more generally on the class of singular hyperbolic systems. The mathematical theory of such kind of systems turned out to be surprisingly difficult. It is remarkable that a rigorous proof of the existence of the Lorenz attractor was presented only around the year 2000 with a computer-assisted proof together with an extension of the hyperbolic theory developed to encompass attractors robustly containing equilibria. We present some of the main results on the statistical behavior of such systems. We show that for attractors of three-dimensional flows, robust chaotic behavior is equivalent to the existence of certain hyperbolic structures, known as singular-hyperbolicity. These structures, in turn, are associated with the existence of physical measures: in low dimensions, robust chaotic behavior for flows ensures the existence of a physical measure. We then give more details on recent results on the dynamics of singular-hyperbolic (Lorenz-like) attractors: (1) there exists an invariant foliation whose leaves are forward contracted by the flow (and further properties which are useful to understand the statistical properties of the dynamics); (2) there exists a positive Lyapunov exponent at every orbit; (3) there is a unique physical measure whose support is the whole attractor and which is the equilibrium state with respect to the center-unstable Jacobian; (4) this measure is exact dimensional; (5) the induced measure on a suitable family of cross-sections has exponential decay of correlations for Lipschitz observables with respect to a suitable Poincaré return time map; (6) the hitting time associated to Lorenz-like attractors satisfy a logarithm law; (7) the geometric Lorenz flow satisfies the Almost Sure Invariance Principle (ASIP) and the Central Limit Theorem (CLT); (8) the rate of decay of large deviations for the volume measure on the ergodic basin of

  2. Analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations on effective mechanical properties and performances of carbon nanotubes and nanotube based nanocomposites with novel three dimensional nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Davood

    The theoretical objectives and accomplishment of this work are the analytical and numerical investigation of material properties and mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanotube nanocomposites when they are subjected to various loading conditions. First, the finite element method is employed to investigate numerically the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of a single-walled CNT. Next, the effects of chirality on the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are investigated and then variations of their effective coefficient of thermal expansions and effective thermal conductivities are studied for CNTs with different structural configurations. To study the influence of small vacancy defects on mechanical properties of CNTs, finite element analyses are performed and the behavior of CNTs with various structural configurations having different types of vacancy defects is studied. It is frequently reported that nano-materials are excellent candidates as reinforcements in nanocomposites to change or enhance material properties of polymers and their nanocomposites. Second, the inclusion of nano-materials can considerably improve electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the bonding agent, i.e., resin. Note that, materials atomic and molecular level do not usually show isotropic behaviour, rather they have orthotropic properties. Therefore, two-phase and three-phase cylindrically orthotropic composite models consisting of different constituents with orthotropic properties are developed and introduced in this work to analytically predict the effective mechanical properties and mechanical behavior of such structures when they are subjected to various external loading conditions. To verify the analytically obtained exact solutions, finite element analyses of identical cylindrical structures are also performed and then results are compared with those obtained analytically, and excellent agreement is achieved. The third part of this

  3. Flow properties of MK-based geopolymer pastes. A comparative study with standard Portland cement pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Aurélie; Hot, Julie; Habert, Guillaume; Roussel, Nicolas; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-02-28

    Geopolymers are presented in many studies as alternatives to ordinary Portland cement. Previous studies have focused on their chemical and mechanical properties, their microstructures and their potential applications, but very few have focussed on their rheological behaviour. Our work highlights the fundamental differences in the flow properties, which exist between geopolymers made from metakaolin and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). We show that colloidal interactions between metakaolin particles are negligible and that hydrodynamic effects control the rheological behaviour. Metakaolin-based geopolymers can then be described as Newtonian fluids with the viscosity controlled mainly by the high viscosity of the suspending alkaline silicate solution and not by the contribution of direct contacts between metakaolin grains. This fundamental difference between geopolymers and OPC implies that developments made in cement technology to improve rheological behaviour such as plasticizers will not be efficient for geopolymers and that new research directions need to be explored.

  4. An analytical two-flow model to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Ming

    1997-06-01

    An analytical two-flow model is derived from the radiative transfer equation to simulate the distribution of irradiance in coastal waters with a wind-roughed surface and bottom reflectance. The model utilizes unique boundary conditions, including the surface slope of the downwelling and upwelling irradiance as well as the influence of wind and bottom reflectance on simulated surface reflectance. The developed model provides a simple mathematical concept for understanding the irradiant light flux and associated processes in coastal or fresh water as well as turbid estuarine waters. The model is applied to data from the Banana River and coastal Atlantic Ocean water off the east coast of central Florida, USA. The two-flow irradiance model is capable of simulating realistic above-surface reflectance signatures under wind-roughened air-water surface given realistic input parameters including a specular flux conversion coefficient, absorption coefficient, backscattering coefficient, atmospheric visibility, bottom reflectance, and water depth. The root-mean-squared error of the calculated above-surface reflectances is approximately 3% in the Banana River and is less than 15% in coastal Atlantic Ocean off the east of Florida. Result of the subsurface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the specular conversion coefficient is the most sensitive parameter in the model, followed by the beam attenuation coefficient, absorption coefficient, water depth, backscattering coefficient, specular irradiance, diffuse irradiance, bottom reflectance, and wind speed. On the other hand, result of the above-surface reflectance sensitivity analysis indicates that the wind speed is the most important parameter, followed by bottom reflectance, attenuation coefficient, water depth, conversion coefficient, specular irradiance, downwelling irradiance, absorption coefficient, and backscattering coefficient. Model results depend on the accuracy of these parameters to a large degree and

  5. An in-situ analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigation of structure-property relationships in electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andrew James

    photovoltaic performance. The annealing process, however, requires exceptionally high temperature (> 600 °C) and time (tens of hours), limiting throughput and costing energy. In an effort to fabricate polycrystalline solar cells at lower cost, large ( 30 nm) silicon nanocrystals were incorporated into hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a Si:H) thin films. When annealed, the embedded nanocrystals were expected to act as heterogeneous nucleation sites and crystallize the surrounding amorphous matrix. When observed in the TEM, an additional and unexpected event was observed. At the boundary between the nanocrystal and amorphous matrix, nanocavities were observed to form. Continued annealing resulted in movement of the cavities away from the nanocrystal while leaving behind a crystalline tail. The origins and fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon were examined by in-situ heating TEM and ex-situ crystallographic TEM techniques. We demonstrate a mechanism of solid-phase crystallization (SPC) enabled by nanoscale cavities formed at the interface between an hydrogenated amorphous silicon film and embedded 30 nm to 40 nm Si nanocrystals. The nanocavities, 10 nm to 25 nm across, have the unique property of an internal surface that is part amorphous and part crystalline, enabling capillarity-driven diffusion from the amorphous to the crystalline domain. The nanocavities propagate rapidly through the amorphous phase, up to five times faster than the SPC growth rate, while "pulling behind" a crystalline tail. It is shown that twin boundaries exposed on the crystalline surface accelerate crystal growth and influence the direction of nanocavity propagation. The mechanical properties and mechanisms of plasticity in these same silicon nanocubes have also been investigated. The strain-dependent mechanical properties and the underlying mechanisms governing the elastic-plastic response are explored in detail. Elastic strains approaching 7% and flow stresses of 11 GPa were observed

  6. Nanoclay Effect on the Flow and Thermal Properties of PP/SEBS-g-MA Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanoclay (Cloisite® 15A was studied in relation to the flow behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene/maleic anhydride-g-(styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (PP/SEBS(15%-g-MA blend. In this regard, the composites based on the blend and various amounts of nanoclay (1,3,5 wt% were melt compounded using an internal mixer at the temperature of 190°C, rotor speed of 75rpm for 12min. The prepared samples were compression molded in a hot-press machine under the conditions of 190°C, 31 MPa pressure for 9 min to obtain the sheets in various thicknesses. The sheets were then cooled to ambient temperature with cooling water at the rate of 1.5°C.s-1. X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to study the structure and morphology of the samples. In addition, the mechanical and thermal properties were determined by standard methods. The results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron photographs confirmed both exfoliated and intercalated structures in the prepared samples. There were balanced strength/toughness properties in all the prepared nanocomposites by addition of both SEBS-g-MA and clay simultaneously. The measurement of rheological properties showed that as the shear rate increased, the apparent viscosity of the samples decreased (shear thinning behavior. Gradual increase in incorporation of nanoclay also decreased the melt flow index (MFI values. In addition, increases in nanoclay content had an insignificant effect on the thermal behavior and in that respect there were slight increases in degree of crystallinity, heat deflection temperature (HDT as well as Vicat softening point by slight increase in temperatureThe effect of nanoclay (Cloisite® 15A was studied in relation to the flow behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene/maleic anhydride-g-(styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene triblock copolymer (PP/SEBS(15%-g-MA blend. In this regard

  7. Detection of palytoxin-like compounds by a flow cytometry-based immunoassay supported by functional and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, María; Vilariño, Natalia; Louzao, M Carmen; Fernández, Diego A; Poli, Mark; Botana, Luis M

    2016-01-15

    Palytoxin (PLTX) is a complex marine toxin produced by zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis) and cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). PLTX outbreaks are usually associated with Indo-Pacific waters, however their recent repeated occurrence in Mediterranean-European Atlantic coasts demonstrate their current worldwide distribution. Human sickness and fatalities have been associated with toxic algal blooms and ingestion of seafood contaminated with PLTX-like molecules. These toxins represent a serious threat to human health. There is an immediate need to develop easy-to-use, rapid detection methods due to the lack of validated protocols for their detection and quantification. We have developed an immuno-detection method for PLTX-like molecules based on the use of microspheres coupled to flow-cytometry detection (Luminex 200™). The assay consisted of the competition between free PLTX-like compounds in solution and PLTX immobilized on the surface of microspheres for binding to a specific monoclonal anti-PLTX antibody. This method displays an IC50 of 1.83 ± 0.21 nM and a dynamic range of 0.47-6.54 nM for PLTX. An easy-to-perform extraction protocol, based on a mixture of methanol and acetate buffer, was applied to spiked mussel samples providing a recovery rate of 104 ± 8% and a range of detection from 374 ± 81 to 4430 ± 150 μg kg(-1) when assayed with this method. Extracts of Ostreopsis cf. siamensis and Palythoa tuberculosa were tested and yielded positive results for PLTX-like molecules. However, the data obtained for the coral sample suggested that this antibody did not detect 42-OH-PLTX efficiently. The same samples were further analyzed using a neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay and UPLC-IT-TOF spectrometry, which also pointed to the presence of PLTX-like compounds. Therefore, this single detection method for PLTX provides a semi-quantitative tool useful for the screening of PLTX-like molecules in different matrixes. Copyright © 2015

  8. Influence of Chemical Blends on Palm Oil Methyl Esters’ Cold Flow Properties and Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed M. Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels, like biodiesel, are being utilized as a renewable energy source and an effective substitute for the continuously depleting supply of mineral diesel as they have similar combustion characteristics. However, the use of pure biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is currently limited due to problems relating to fuel properties and its relatively poor cold flow characteristics. Therefore, the most acceptable option for improving the properties of biodiesel is the use of a fuel additive. In the present study, the properties of palm oil methyl esters with increasing additive content were investigated after addition of ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether. The results revealed varying improvement in acid value, density, viscosity, pour point and cloud point, accompanied by a slight decrease in energy content with an increasing additive ratio. The viscosity reductions at 5% additive were 12%, 7%, 16.5% for ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether, respectively, and the maximum reduction in pour point was 5 °C at 5% diethyl ether blend. Engine test results revealed a noticeable improvement in engine brake power and specific fuel consumption compared to palm oil biodiesel and the best performance was obtained with diethyl ether. All the biodiesel-additive blend samples meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 biodiesel fuel standards for the measured properties.

  9. Evaluation of flow properties in the weldments of vanadium alloys using a novel indentation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) testing, was successfully employed to determine the flow properties of the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welds of the V-4Cr-4Ti (large heat no. 832665) and the V-5Cr-5Ti (heat 832394) alloys. ABI test results showed a clear distinction among the properties of the fusion zone, HAZ, and base metal in both GTA and EB welds of the two alloys. GTA and EB welds of both V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys show strengthening of both the fusion zone and the HAZ (compared to base metal) with the fusion zone having higher strength than the HAZ. These data correlate well with the Brinell hardness. On the other hand, GTA welds of both alloys, after a post-weld heat treatment of 950{degrees}C for 2 h, show a recovery of the properties to base metal values with V-5Cr-5Ti showing a higher degree of recovery compared to V-4Cr-4Ti. These measurements correlate with the reported recovery of the Charpy impact properties.

  10. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  11. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  12. Effect of tungsten on tensile properties and flow behaviour of RAFM steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanaja, J., E-mail: jvanaja@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Laha, K.; Nandagopal, M. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2013-02-15

    Effect of tungsten in the range of 1–2 wt.% on tensile properties and flow behaviour of 9Cr–W–Ta–V Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been investigated. The tungsten in the investigated range was found to have only minor effect on the tensile properties of the steel over the temperature range of 300–873 K and at a strain rate of 3 × 10{sup −3} s{sup −1}. The tensile flow behaviour of the RAFM steels was adequately described by the Voce’s constitutive equation. The tensile strength of the steels were predicted well from the parameters of the Voce’s constitutive equation. The Voce’s strain hardening parameter ‘n{sub v}’ was found to be quite sensitive to the tungsten content and predicted the onset of dislocation climbing process at relatively higher testing temperature with the increase in tungsten content. The equivalence between tensile and creep deformations and the influence of tungsten have been discussed.

  13. Selected properties of laser cladding coatings shaped using Flow drill technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkowski Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the investigations of selected chemical and mechanical properties as well as macro- and microstructure of materials formed using thermal drilling process (Flow drill. The aim of this study was to determine the microstructure of the coatings produced using laser cladding with powder technology. The coatings were produced on the low-carbon steel using 1 kW disc laser. After modification of surface, the thermal drilling process was applied. To produce all coatings, the pure copper powder was used. In this study the laser power equal of 500, 700 and 900 W were used. The microstructure, chemical composition (EDS and microhardness were investigation. It was found that the surface modification of low carbon steel and next conducted thermal drilling process caused change the surface properties on the hole flange. It was found that surface modification of steel using laser cladding with cooper powder and next Flow drill process contributes to the change in microhardness and chemical composition on hole flange.

  14. Effect of tungsten on tensile properties and flow behaviour of RAFM steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Nandagopal, M.; Sam, Shiju; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of tungsten in the range of 1–2 wt.% on tensile properties and flow behaviour of 9Cr–W–Ta–V Reduced Activation Ferritic–Martensitic (RAFM) steel has been investigated. The tungsten in the investigated range was found to have only minor effect on the tensile properties of the steel over the temperature range of 300–873 K and at a strain rate of 3 × 10 −3 s −1 . The tensile flow behaviour of the RAFM steels was adequately described by the Voce’s constitutive equation. The tensile strength of the steels were predicted well from the parameters of the Voce’s constitutive equation. The Voce’s strain hardening parameter ‘n v ’ was found to be quite sensitive to the tungsten content and predicted the onset of dislocation climbing process at relatively higher testing temperature with the increase in tungsten content. The equivalence between tensile and creep deformations and the influence of tungsten have been discussed

  15. In vitro and ex vivo effect of hyaluronic acid on erythrocyte flow properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatnik S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronic acid (HA is present in many tissues; its presence in serum may be related to certain inflammatory conditions, tissue damage, sepsis, liver malfunction and some malignancies. In the present work, our goal was to investigate the significance of hyaluronic acid effect on erythrocyte flow properties. Therefore we performed in vitro experiments incubating red blood cells (RBCs with several HA concentrations. Afterwards, in order to corroborate the pathophysiological significance of the results obtained, we replicated the in vitro experiment with ex vivo RBCs from diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, a serum HA-increasing pathology. Methods Erythrocyte deformability (by filtration through nucleopore membranes and erythrocyte aggregability (EA were tested on blood from healthy donors additioned with purified HA. EA was measured by transmitted light and analyzed with a mathematical model yielding two parameters, the aggregation rate and the size of the aggregates. Conformational changes of cytoskeleton proteins were estimated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR. Results In vitro, erythrocytes treated with HA showed increased rigidity index (RI and reduced aggregability, situation strongly related to the rigidization of the membrane cytoskeleton triggered by HA, as shown by EPR results. Also, a significant correlation (r: 0.77, p Conclusions Our results lead us to postulate the hypothesis that HA interacts with the erythrocyte surface leading to modifications in erythrocyte rheological and flow properties, both ex vivo and in vitro.

  16. The flow properties of colliery spoil rockpaste as used in the infilling of abandoned mine workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghataora, G.S.; Jarvis, S.T. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    Colliery spoil is the major constituent of colliery spoil 'rockpaste' which has been used to infill abandoned limestone mines in the West Midlands of England since the early 1980s. The other constituents of rockpaste are pulverised fuel ash, lime and water. A key property of the rockpaste is its ability to flow within the mine workings over considerable distances before setting. This paper describes the work carried out to identify suitable sites as sources of colliery spoil for making rockpaste and goes on to consider the flow properties of the material and the monitoring methods used on-site. A full-scale trial comprising infilling a 6600 m{sup 3} section of an abandoned mine was conducted prior to the infilling of the Littleton Street Mine which had a volume of about 500 000 m{sup 3}. As well as describing the methods used for monitoring the movement of rockpaste material, a description is also given of a dip-meter developed specifically for the purpose of measuring the level of paste in the mine. The monitoring systems developed for use in the two case studies presented in this paper are now being used extensively for infilling other abandoned mine workings. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab., 1 plate.

  17. Tribological properties of high-speed steel treated by compression plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenda, K.K.; Uglov, V.V.; Anishchik, V.M.; Stalmashonak, A.K.; Astashinski, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The investigation of tribological properties of two high-speed steels AISI M2 and AISI Tl treated by the nitrogen compression plasma flow was the main aim of this work. Two types of samples were investigated before and after quenching. The plasma flow was received in a magneto-plasma compressor. The impulse duration was ∼100 μs, the number of impulses varied in the range of 1-5, the nitrogen pressure in the chamber was 400-4000 Pa, the energy absorbed by the sample was 2-10 J/cm 2 per impulse. Tribological properties were examined by means of a tribometer TAYl under conditions of dry friction. The Vickers's microhardness was measured by a hard meter PMT3. X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion microanalysis were used for samples characterization. The earlier conducted investigations showed that the compression plasma flow suited well for the improvement of tribological properties of iron and low-alloyed steels due to the formation of hardening nitrides in the near surface layer. It was found that in the case of high-speed steels only not quenched samples had increased hardness after treatment. The latter can be explained by the formation of hardening nitrides though the phase analysis did not clearly reveal their presence. The element composition confirmed the presence of nitrogen in the surface layer with the concentration up to 30 at. %. The treatment of quenched samples almost always resulted in the hardness decrease due to the dissolution or partial dissolution of alloying elements carbides: M 6 C, MC, M 23 C 6 . The rate of carbides dissolution increased with the growth of the energy absorbed by the sample. The treated samples showed a lower value of the friction coefficient than the untreated one. It could be explained by the formation of nitrogenous austenite which was found out by the phase analysis. At the same time the compression plasma flow strongly influenced surface

  18. Study of the rheological properties and the finishing behavior of abrasive gels in abrasive flow machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, A. C.; Liu, C. H.; Liang, K. Z.; Pai, S. H. [Ching Yun University, Taipei (China)

    2007-10-15

    Abrasive flow machining (AFM) is an effective method to finish the smooth surface in the complex holes. Abrasive media are key elements which dominate the polished results in AFM. But it is hard to develop the machining model of these abrasive gels because of its complicated mechanism. In this research, a non-Newtonian flow is used to set up the abrasive mechanism of the abrasive media in AFM. Power law is a main equation of the non-Newtonian flow to describe the motion of the abrasive media. Viscosities vs. shear rates of different abrasive gels are used to establish the power law in CFD-ACE{sup +} software first. And the working parameters of AFM were applied as input to study the properties of the abrasive gels in AFM. Finally, the relationships between the simulations and the experiments were found. And the abrasive mechanism of the abrasive gels was set up in AFM. The simulated results show that the abrasive gel with high viscosity can entirely deform in the complex hole than the abrasive gel with low viscosity. And the abrasive gel with high viscosity generates a larger shear force than the abrasive gel with low viscosity in the same area. Moreover, the strain rate is seriously changed when the abrasive gel cross over the narrow cross-section of the complex hole. It also means that abrasive gel will produce large finish force in that area. And these results indeed consist with the experiments in AFM.

  19. Biophysical properties of the normal-sized aorta in patients with Marfan syndrome: evaluation with MR flow mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenink, M.; de Roos, A.; Mulder, B. J.; Verbeeten, B.; Timmermans, J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Spaan, J. A.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) flow mapping in the assessment of aortic biophysical properties in patients with Marfan syndrome and to detect differences in biophysical properties in the normal-sized aorta distal to the aortic root between these patients and

  20. Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs

  1. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO 2 -Acidified Brine Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-15

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel

  2. Influence of ammonia flow rate for improving properties of polycrystalline GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.

    2018-06-01

    Post-annealing treatment in ammonia ambient is widely accepted for GaN material, but less works have been done to investigate the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow rate for reducing the N-deficiency as well as improving the quality of the material. In this work, we investigated the influence of NH3 flow rate at 1, 2, 3, and 4 slm in improving properties of a ∼1 μm thick polycrystalline GaN layer. Our simulation work suggested that the uniformity of temperature and pressure gradient of the NH3 gas did not lead to the reduction of N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Instead, it was found that the mitigation of the N-deficiency was strongly influenced by the fluid velocity of the NH3 gas, which had passed over the layer. Either at lower or higher fluid velocity, the chance for the active N atoms to incorporate into the GaN lattice structure was low. Therefore, the N-deficiency on the polycrystalline GaN layer could not be minimized under these conditions. As measured by EDX, the N atoms incorporation was the most effective when the NH3 flow rate at 3 slm, suggesting the flow rate significantly improved the N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Furthermore, it favored the formation of larger hexagonal faceted grains, with the smallest FWHM of XRD peaks from the GaN diffractions in (10 1 bar 0), (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations, while allowing the polycrystalline GaN layer to show sharp and intense emissions peak of NBE in a PL spectrum.

  3. Uncertainty in sap flow-based transpiration due to xylem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looker, N. T.; Hu, J.; Martin, J. T.; Jencso, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    Transpiration, the evaporative loss of water from plants through their stomata, is a key component of the terrestrial water balance, influencing streamflow as well as regional convective systems. From a plant physiological perspective, transpiration is both a means of avoiding destructive leaf temperatures through evaporative cooling and a consequence of water loss through stomatal uptake of carbon dioxide. Despite its hydrologic and ecological significance, transpiration remains a notoriously challenging process to measure in heterogeneous landscapes. Sap flow methods, which estimate transpiration by tracking the velocity of a heat pulse emitted into the tree sap stream, have proven effective for relating transpiration dynamics to climatic variables. To scale sap flow-based transpiration from the measured domain (often area) to the whole-tree level, researchers generally assume constancy of scale factors (e.g., wood thermal diffusivity (k), radial and azimuthal distributions of sap velocity, and conducting sapwood area (As)) through time, across space, and within species. For the widely used heat-ratio sap flow method (HRM), we assessed the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to uncertainty in k (a function of wood moisture content and density) and As. A sensitivity analysis informed by distributions of wood moisture content, wood density and As sampled across a gradient of water availability indicates that uncertainty in these variables can impart substantial error when scaling sap flow measurements to the whole tree. For species with variable wood properties, the application of the HRM assuming a spatially constant k or As may systematically over- or underestimate whole-tree transpiration rates, resulting in compounded error in ecosystem-scale estimates of transpiration.

  4. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  5. The influence of interfacial properties on two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, K.F.; Demond, A.H.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate how changes in interfacial chemical properties affect two-phase transport relationships. Specifically, the objective is to develop a quantitative means that will enable the prediction of changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationship, a fundamental constitutive relationship in multiphase flow, from changes in interfacial properties, such as adsorption and electrophoretic mobility, through a knowledge of their effect on wettability. The information presented here summarizes the progress we have made in the past eight months of the second project period. Working with a system composed of air-water-silica-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), we have obtained a relationship between degree of adsorption and the surface charge of silica (as measured by electrophoretic mobility), and the drainage and imbibition capillary pressure relationships of system. The bulk of this report describes the completed set of measurements for the air-water-silica-CTAB system at pH 6. We are currently working on a comparable set of measurements for the xylene-water-silica-CTAB system at pH 6. Described here are the interfacial tension, contact angle and preliminary drainage capillary pressure measurements. Our work to date shows a dependence of surface properties on pH. Consequently, in the coming year, we will also complete a set of measurements at another pH value to show the effect of pH on capillary pressure relationships

  6. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes-Abellan, J.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Candela, L.; Tamoh, K.

    2015-07-01

    Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i) non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii) automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic). Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm). Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher. (Author)

  7. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  8. Sirolimus formulation with improved pharmacokinetic properties produced by a continuous flow method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Tamás; Angi, Réka; Basa-Dénes, Orsolya; Ránky, Soma; Ötvös, Zsolt; Glavinas, Hristos; Filipcsei, Genovéva; Heltovics, Gábor

    2015-08-01

    The oral bioavailability of Sirolimus is limited by poor dissolution of the compound in the gastrointestinal tract resulting in a low bioavailability and large inter-individual differences in blood levels. Several different formulation approaches were applied to overcome these disadvantageous pharmacokinetic properties including the marketed oral solution and a tablet form containing wet milled nanocrystals. These approaches deliver improved pharmacokinetics, yet, they share the characteristics of complex production method and composition. We have developed a nanostructured Sirolimus formulation prepared by the controlled continuous flow precipitation of the compound from its solution in the presence of stabilizers. We have shown that contrary to the batch production the process could be easily intensified and scaled up; apparently the uniformity of the precipitation is heavily dependent on the production parameters, most likely the mixing of the solvent and antisolvent. We compared the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of the nanostructured formula with the marketed nanoformula. We found that our method produces particles in the size range of less than 100nm. The solid form redispersed instantaneously in water and in biorelevant media. Both the solid form and the redispersed colloid solution showed excellent stability even in accelerated test conditions. The oral administration of the nanostructured formula resulted in faster absorption, higher exposure and higher trough concentrations when compared to the marked form. These advantageous properties could allow the development of solid oral Sirolimus formulae with lower strength and gel based topical delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of power series of analytic in a bidisc functions of bounded $\\mathbf{L}$-index in joint variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bandura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We generalized some criteria of boundedness of $\\mathbf{L}$-index in joint variables for analytic in a bidisc functions, where $\\mathbf{L}(z=(l_1(z_1,z_2,$ $l_{2}(z_1,z_2,$ $l_j:\\mathbb{D}^2\\to \\mathbb{R}_+$ is a continuous function, $j\\in\\{1,2\\},$ $\\mathbb{D}^2$ is a bidisc $\\{(z_1,z_2\\in\\mathbb{C}^2: |z_1|<1,|z_2|<1\\}.$ The propositions describe a behaviour of power series expansion on a skeleton of a bidisc. We estimated power series expansion by a dominating homogeneous polynomial with the degree that does not exceed some number depending only from radii of bidisc. Replacing universal quantifier by existential quantifier for radii of bidisc, we also proved sufficient conditions of boundedness of $\\mathbf{L}$-index in joint variables for analytic functions which are weaker than necessary conditions.

  10. Analysis of heterogeneous hydrological properties of a mountainous hillslope using intensive water flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Naoya; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Yamakawa, Yosuke; Mizuyama, Takahisa; Tsutsumi, Daizo

    2013-04-01

    Heterogeneous hydrological properties in a foot slope area of mountainous hillslopes should be assessed to understand hydrological phenomena and their effects on discharge and sediment transport. In this study, we analyzed the high-resolution and three-dimensional water movement data to clarify the hydrological process, including heterogeneous phenomena, in detail. We continuously monitored the soil matric pressure head, psi, using 111 tensiometers installed at grid intervals of approximately 1 meter within the soil mantle at the study hillslope. Under a no-rainfall condition, the existence of perennial groundwater seepage flow was detected by exfiltration flux and temporal psi waveforms, which showed delayed responses, only to heavy storm events, and gradual recession limbs. The seepage water spread in the downslope direction and supplied water constantly to the lower section of the slope. At some points in the center of the slope, a perched saturated area was detected in the middle of soil layer, while psi exhibited negative values above the bedrock surface. These phenomena could be inferred partly from the bedrock topography and the distribution of soil hydraulic conductivity assumed from the result of penetration test. At the peak of a rainfall event, on the other hand, continuous high pressure zones (i.e., psi > 50 cmH2O) were generated in the right and left sections of the slope. Both of these high pressure zones converged at the lower region, showing a sharp psi spike up to 100 cmH2O. Along the high pressure zones, flux vectors showed large values and water exfiltration, indicating the occurrence of preferential flow. Moreover, the preferential flow occurred within the area beneath the perched water, indicating the existence of a weathered bedrock layer. This layer had low permeability, which prevented the vertical infiltration of water in the upper part of the layer, but had high permeability as a result of the fractures distributed heterogeneously inside

  11. Scaling Properties of Particle Density Fields Formed in Simulated Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    inertial-range energy dissipation fields of experimental turbulent flows at Re(sub lambda) = 110 and 1100. Based on this agreement, and the expectation that both dissipation and particle concentration are controlled by the same cascade process, we hypothesize that singularity spectra similar to the ones found in this work provide a good characterization of the spatially averaged statistical properties of preferentially concentrated particles in higher Re(sub lambda) turbulent flows.

  12. An analytic solution to the time-dependent first-daughter fission-product plateout problem for multi-region isothermal slug flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkee, J.W. Jr.; Lee, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The time-dependent, axisymmetric, isothermal slug flow convective-diffusion equation with radioactive decay is solved analytically to predict the behavior of a first-daughter fission-product undergoing gaseous transport through multiple materials in a cylindrical pipe. The integration coefficients are determined using the Davidon variable metric minimization method. The behavior of fission-product material deposited on the conduit wall is described by a standard mass-transfer model. The time-dependent plateout rate behavior, determined previously for parent fission-product deposition, is again evident for daughter product plateout. Dominance of the daughter plateout by parent deposition characteristics is apparent. The determination of the daughter wall mass-transfer and diffusion coefficient using a least-squares analysis of measured data depends upon a reasonably low ratio of parent/daughter half-lives. This is illustrated with 137 Cs/ 137 Ba(=2x10 5 ) and 140 Ba/ 140 La(=7.6), where for 137 Cs/ 137 Ba the solution sensitivity to the 137 Ba deposition parameters is small and for 140 Ba/ 140 La a reasonable solution is readily obtained. (author)

  13. Characterization of Spatial Variability of Hydrogeologic Properties for Unsaturated Flow in the Fractured Rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Liu, Hui-Hai; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial variability of layer-scale hydrogeologic properties of the unsaturated zone (UZ) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is investigated using inverse modeling. The thick UZ is grouped into five hydrostratigraphic units and further into 35 hydrogeologic layers. For each layer, lateral variability is represented by the variations in calibrated values of layer-scale properties at different individual deep boreholes. In the calibration model, matrix and fracture properties are calibrated for the one-dimensional vertical column at each individual borehole using the ITOUGH2 code. The objective function is the summation of the weighted misfits between the ambient unsaturated flow (represented by measured state variables: water saturation, water potential, and pneumatic pressure) and the simulated one in the one-dimensional flow system. The objective function also includes the weighted misfits between the calibrated properties and their prior information. Layer-scale state variables and prior rock properties are obtained from their core-scale measurements. Because of limited data, the lateral variability of three most sensitive properties (matrix permeability, matrix of the van Genuchten characterization, and fracture permeability) is calibrated, while all other properties are fixed at their calibrated layer-averaged values. Considerable lateral variability of hydrogeologic properties is obtained. For example, the lateral variability of is two to three orders of magnitude and that of and is one order of magnitude. The effect of lateral variability on site-scale flow and transport will be investigated in a future study

  14. Oesophageal heat transfer properties indication of segmental blood flow changes during distension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Donghua; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Brock, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The pain perception to distension of the oesophagus can be explained by activation of receptors responding to mechanical deformation or to distension-induced ischaemia. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for detection of changes in segmental blood flow during distension based...... on measurement of heat transfer. A bag was distended in the distal oesophagus of six healthy subjects followed by cooling or heating of the bag fluid to 5 or 60 degrees C. After equilibrium, the temperature was allowed to change back to body temperature. The temperature was recorded together with intraluminal...... ultrasound imaging, allowing assessment of the heat transfer properties at different bag volumes. The heat transfer constants were higher after heating the bag than after cooling the bag (Tukey, P

  15. The flow properties and presence of crystals in drug-polymer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, J; Van Renterghem, J; Arnfast, L

    2017-01-01

    and ibuprofen with polyethylene oxide and methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit(®) E PO) were observed by polarized microscopy simultaneously while measuring their rheological properties within temperature ranges relevant for melt processes, such as hot melt extrusion and fused deposition modeling 3D printing....... The dissolution of solid crystalline matter into the molten polymer and its effects on the rheological parameters showed that the plasticization effect of the drug was highly dependent on the temperature range, and at a temperature high enough, plasticization induced by the small-molecule drugs could enhance...... morphological changes in the drug-polymer and the flow behavior of the drug-polymer mixtures at different temperature ranges and deformation modes....

  16. Rapid flow cytometry analysis of antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattuniemi, Maarit; Korhonen, Johanna; Jaakkola, Mari; Räty, Jarkko; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    Both nettle (Urtica dioica) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus) are widely known to have good influence on health. The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial properties of nettle powder and cranberry powder against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and monitor the growth of the bacteria by a rapid flow cytometry (FCM) method. For FCM measurements samples were stained with fluorescent dyes. The inhibitory effects of plant material on growth of E. coli were estimated by comparing the results of control sample (E. coli) to E. coli samples with plant material. FCM offers both a brilliant tool to investigate the kinetics of the growth of bacterium, since subsamples can be taken from the same liquid medium during the growing period and with fluorescent dyes a rapid method to investigate viability of the bacterium.

  17. 3D Acoustic Modelling of Dissipative Silencers with Nonhomogeneous Properties and Mean Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Sánchez-Orgaz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A finite element approach is proposed for the acoustic analysis of automotive silencers including a perforated duct with uniform axial mean flow and an outer chamber with heterogeneous absorbent material. This material can be characterized by means of its equivalent acoustic properties, considered coordinate-dependent via the introduction of a heterogeneous bulk density, and the corresponding material airflow resistivity variations. An approach has been implemented to solve the pressure wave equation for a nonmoving heterogeneous medium, associated with the problem of sound propagation in the outer chamber. On the other hand, the governing equation in the central duct has been solved in terms of the acoustic velocity potential considering the presence of a moving medium. The coupling between both regions and the corresponding acoustic fields has been carried out by means of a perforated duct and its acoustic impedance, adapted here to include absorbent material heterogeneities and mean flow effects simultaneously. It has been found that bulk density heterogeneities have a considerable influence on the silencer transmission loss.

  18. Effect of sub-pore scale morphology of biological deposits on porous media flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biological deposits often influence fluid flow by altering the pore space morphology and related hydrologic properties such as porosity, water retention characteristics, and permeability. In most coupled-processes models changes in porosity are inferred from biological process models using mass-balance. The corresponding evolution of permeability is estimated using (semi-) empirical porosity-permeability functions such as the Kozeny-Carman equation or power-law functions. These equations typically do not account for the heterogeneous spatial distribution and morphological irregularities of the deposits. As a result, predictions of permeability evolution are generally unsatisfactory. In this presentation, we demonstrate the significance of pore-scale deposit distribution on porosity-permeability relations using high resolution simulations of fluid flow through a single pore interspersed with deposits of varying morphologies. Based on these simulations, we present a modification to the Kozeny-Carman model that accounts for the shape of the deposits. Limited comparison with published experimental data suggests the plausibility of the proposed conceptual model.

  19. The influence of salt chaotropicity, column hydrophobicity and analytes' molecular properties on the retention of pramipexole and its impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemić, Ana; Kalinić, Marko; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2015-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of the chaotropic salts of different position in Hofmeister series (CF3COONa, NaClO4, NaPF6) added to the mobile phase with the stationary phases of different hydrophobicity (C8 and C18 XTerra(®) columns), as well as their common influence on the retention behavior of pramipexole and its structurally related impurities. The extended thermodynamic approach enabled the understanding of the underlying separation mechanism. Comparing six different column-salt systems it was observed that general system hydrophobicity presented by salt chaotropicity and column hydrophobicity favors stationary phase ion-pairing over the ion-pair formation in the eluent. Further, an attempt was made to describe the influence of analytes' nature on their retention behavior in such chromatographic systems. An analysis is performed in order to select and elucidate the molecular descriptors (electrostatical, quantum-chemical, geometrical, topological, and constitutional) that best explain the experimental evidence and findings obtained by the thermodynamic approach. The results of this analysis suggest that analytes' charge distribution and its complementarity to the structure of the electric double layer formed on the surface of the stationary phase upon the addition of chaotropic additives can be useful for understanding the differences in retention of structurally related analytes. These findings provide a novel understanding of the interactions between all the components of the chromatographic system containing chaotropic additive and a good basis for further investigations suggesting the development of generally applicable predictors in structure-retention relationship studies in related chromatographic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytic first derivatives for a spin-adapted open-shell coupled cluster theory: Evaluation of first-order electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Dipayan, E-mail: datta@uni-mainz.de; Gauss, Jürgen, E-mail: gauss@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    An analytic scheme is presented for the evaluation of first derivatives of the energy for a unitary group based spin-adapted coupled cluster (CC) theory, namely, the combinatoric open-shell CC (COSCC) approach within the singles and doubles approximation. The widely used Lagrange multiplier approach is employed for the derivation of an analytical expression for the first derivative of the energy, which in combination with the well-established density-matrix formulation, is used for the computation of first-order electrical properties. Derivations of the spin-adapted lambda equations for determining the Lagrange multipliers and the expressions for the spin-free effective density matrices for the COSCC approach are presented. Orbital-relaxation effects due to the electric-field perturbation are treated via the Z-vector technique. We present calculations of the dipole moments for a number of doublet radicals in their ground states using restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock (ROHF) and quasi-restricted HF (QRHF) orbitals in order to demonstrate the applicability of our analytic scheme for computing energy derivatives. We also report calculations of the chlorine electric-field gradients and nuclear quadrupole-coupling constants for the CCl, CH{sub 2}Cl, ClO{sub 2}, and SiCl radicals.

  1. Non-dimensional characterization of the friction stir/spot welding process using a simple Couette flow model part I: Constant property Bingham plastic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Gregory A.; Langerman, Michael

    2004-01-01

    A simplified model for the material flow created during a friction stir/spot welding process has been developed using a boundary driven cylindrical Couette flow model with a specified heat flux at the inner cylinder for a Bingham plastic material. Non-dimensionalization of the constant property governing equations identified three parameters that influence the velocity and temperature fields. Analytic solutions to these equations are presented and some representative results from a parametric study (parameters chosen and varied over ranges expected for the welding of a wide variety of metals) are discussed. The results also provide an expression for the critical radius (location of vanishing material velocity) as functions of the relevant non-dimensional parameters. A final study was conducted in which values for the non-dimensional heat flux parameter were chosen to produce peak dimensional temperatures on the order of 80% of the melting temperature for a typical 2000 series aluminum. Under these conditions it was discovered that the ratio of the maximum rate of shear work within the material (viscous dissipation) to the rate of energy input at the boundary due to frictional heating, ranged from about 0.0005% for the lowest pin tool rotation rate, to about 1.3% for the highest tool rotation rate studied. Curve fits to previous Gleeble data taken for a number of aluminum alloys provide reasonable justification for the Bingham plastic constitutive model, and although these fits indicate a strong temperature dependence for critical flow stress and viscosity, this work provides a simple tool for more sophisticated model validation. Part II of this study will present numerical solutions for velocity and temperature fields resulting from the non-linear coupling of the momentum and energy equations created by temperature dependent transport properties

  2. A novel analytical solution for estimating aquifer properties within a horizontally anisotropic aquifer bounded by a stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yibin; Zhan, Hongbin; Knappett, Peter S. K.

    2018-04-01

    Past studies modeling stream-aquifer interaction commonly account for vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, but rarely address horizontal anisotropy, which may exist in certain sedimentary environments. If present, horizontal anisotropy will greatly impact stream depletion and the amount of recharge a pumped aquifer captures from the river. This scenario requires a different and somewhat more sophisticated mathematical approach to model and interpret pumping test results than previous models used to describe captured recharge from rivers. In this study, a new mathematical model is developed to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of drawdown from stream-bank pumping with a well screened across a horizontally anisotropic, confined aquifer, laterally bounded by a river. This new model is used to estimate four aquifer parameters including the magnitude and directions of major and minor principal transmissivities and storativity based on the observed drawdown-time curves within a minimum of three non-collinear observation wells. In order to approve the efficacy of the new model, a MATLAB script file is programmed to conduct a four-parameter inversion to estimate the four parameters of concern. By comparing the results of analytical and numerical inversions, the accuracy of estimated results from both inversions is acceptable, but the MATLAB program sometimes becomes problematic because of the difficulty of separating the local minima from the global minima. It appears that the new analytical model of this study is applicable and robust in estimating parameter values for a horizontally anisotropic aquifer laterally bounded by a stream. Besides that, the new model calculates stream depletion rate as a function of stream-bank pumping. Unique to horizontally anisotropic and homogeneous aquifers, the stream depletion rate at any given pumping rate depends closely on the horizontal anisotropy ratio and the direction of the principle transmissivities relative to

  3. Interactions Between Stratigraphy and Interfacial Properties on Flow and Trapping in Geologic Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bo; Clarens, Andres F.

    2018-01-01

    Gas leakage from geologic carbon storage sites could undermine the long-term goal of reducing emissions to the atmosphere and negatively impact groundwater resources. Despite this, there remain uncertainties associated with the transport processes that would govern this leakage. These stem from the complex interaction between governing forces (e.g., gravitational, viscous, and capillary), the heterogeneous nature of the porous media, and the characteristic length scales of these leakage events, all of which impact the CO2 fluid flow processes. Here we assessed how sub-basin-scale horizons in porous media could impact the migration and trapping of a CO2 plume. A high-pressure column packed with two layers of sand with different properties (e.g., grain size and wettability) was used to create a low-contrast stratigraphic horizon. CO2 in supercritical or liquid phase was injected into the bottom of the column under various conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and capillary number) and the transport of the resulting plume was recorded using electrical resistivity. The results show that CO2 trapping was most strongly impacted by shifting the wettability balance to mixed-wet conditions, particularly for residual saturation. A 16% increase in the cosine of the contact angle for a mixed-wet sand resulted in nearly twice as much residual trapping. Permeability contrast, pressure, and temperature also impacted the residual saturation but to a lesser extent. Flow rate affected the dynamics of saturation profile development, but the effect is transient, suggesting that the other effects observed here could apply to a broad range of leakage conditions.

  4. Polymer concentration and properties of elastic turbulence in a von Karman swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yonggun; Steinberg, Victor

    2017-10-01

    We report detailed experimental studies of statistical, scaling, and spectral properties of elastic turbulence (ET) in a von Karman swirling flow between rotating and stationary disks of polymer solutions in a wide, from dilute to semidilute entangled, range of polymer concentrations ϕ . The main message of the investigation is that the variation of ϕ just weakly modifies statistical, scaling, and spectral properties of ET in a swirling flow. The qualitative difference between dilute and semidilute unentangled versus semidilute entangled polymer solutions is found in the dependence of the critical Weissenberg number Wic of the elastic instability threshold on ϕ . The control parameter of the problem, the Weissenberg number Wi, is defined as the ratio of the nonlinear elastic stress to dissipation via linear stress relaxation and quantifies the degree of polymer stretching. The power-law scaling of the friction coefficient on Wi/Wic characterizes the ET regime with the exponent independent of ϕ . The torque Γ and pressure p power spectra show power-law decays with well-defined exponents, which has values independent of Wi and ϕ separately at 100 ≤ϕ ≤900 ppm and 1600 ≤ϕ ≤2300 ppm ranges. Another unexpected observation is the presence of two types of the boundary layers, horizontal and vertical, distinguished by their role in the energy pumping and dissipation, which has width dependence on Wi and ϕ differs drastically. In the case of the vertical boundary layer near the driving disk, wvv is independent of Wi/Wic and linearly decreases with ϕ /ϕ * , while in the case of the horizontal boundary layer wvh its width is independent of ϕ /ϕ * , linearly decreases with Wi/Wic , and is about five times smaller than wvv. Moreover, these Wi and ϕ dependencies of the vertical and horizontal boundary layer widths are found in accordance with the inverse turbulent intensity calculated inside the boundary layers Vθh/Vθh rms and Vθv/Vθv rms , respectively

  5. Photoacoustic-fluorescence in vitro flow cytometry for quantification of absorption, scattering and fluorescence properties of the cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedosekin, D. A.; Sarimollaoglu, M.; Foster, S.; Galanzha, E. I.; Zharov, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry is a well-established analytical tool that provides quantification of multiple biological parameters of cells at molecular levels, including their functional states, morphology, composition, proliferation, and protein expression. However, only the fluorescence and scattering parameters of the cells or labels are available for detection. Cell pigmentation, presence of non-fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles cannot be reliably quantified. Herewith, we present a novel photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry design for simple integration of absorbance measurements into schematics of conventional in vitro flow cytometers. The integrated system allow simultaneous measurements of light absorbance, scattering and of multicolor fluorescence from single cells in the flow at rates up to 2 m/s. We compared various combinations of excitation laser sources for multicolor detection, including simultaneous excitation of PA and fluorescence using a single 500 kHz pulsed nanosecond laser. Multichannel detection scheme allows simultaneous detection of up to 8 labels, including 4 fluorescent tags and 4 PA colors. In vitro PA-fluorescence flow cytometer was used for studies of nanoparticles uptake and for the analysis of cell line pigmentation, including genetically encoded melanin expression in breast cancer cell line. We demonstrate that this system can be used for direct nanotoxicity studies with simultaneous quantification of nanoparticles content and assessment of cell viability using a conventional fluorescent apoptosis assays.

  6. The influence of heat transfer and the variations of the properties of the fluids in turbulent flow in tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, G.J.; Sielwa, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    The study is presented of the effects of heat transfer and the variations of the properties of the fluids in turbulent flow in tube. One model for the turbulent Eddy viscosity and termal Eddy diffusivity developed by CEBECI; NA and HABIB was utilized. The theoretical results agree well with experimental results [pt

  7. Flow network QSAR for the prediction of physicochemical properties by mapping an electrical resistance network onto a chemical reaction poset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Klein, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Usual quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are computed from unstructured input data, by using a vector of molecular descriptors for each chemical in the dataset. Another alternative is to consider the structural relationships between the chemical structures, such as molecular similarity, presence of certain substructures, or chemical transformations between compounds. We defined a class of network-QSAR models based on molecular networks induced by a sequence of substitution reactions on a chemical structure that generates a partially ordered set (or poset) oriented graph that may be used to predict various molecular properties with quantitative superstructure-activity relationships (QSSAR). The network-QSAR interpolation models defined on poset graphs, namely average poset, cluster expansion, and spline poset, were tested with success for the prediction of several physicochemical properties for diverse chemicals. We introduce the flow network QSAR, a new poset regression model in which the dataset of chemicals, represented as a reaction poset, is transformed into an oriented network of electrical resistances in which the current flow results in a potential at each node. The molecular property considered in the QSSAR model is represented as the electrical potential, and the value of this potential at a particular node is determined by the electrical resistances assigned to each edge and by a system of batteries. Each node with a known value for the molecular property is attached to a battery that sets the potential on that node to the value of the respective molecular property, and no external battery is attached to nodes from the prediction set, representing chemicals for which the values of the molecular property are not known or are intended to be predicted. The flow network QSAR algorithm determines the values of the molecular property for the prediction set of molecules by applying Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's current law to the poset

  8. The Anatomy of the Blue Dragon: Changes in Lava Flow Morphology and Physical Properties Observed in an Open Channel Lava Flow as a Planetary Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Downs, M.; Whittington, A. G.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Lava terrains on other planets and moons exhibit morphologies similar to those found on Earth, such as smooth pāhoehoe transitioning to rough `a`ā terrains based on the viscosity - strain rate relationship of the lava. Therefore, the morphology of lava flows is governed by eruptive conditions such as effusion rate, underlying slope, and the fundamental thermo-physical properties of the lava, including temperature (T), composition (X), viscosity (η), fraction of crystals (φc) and vesicles (φb), as well as bulk density (ρ). These textural and rheological changes were previously studied for Hawaiian lava, where the lava flow started as channelized pāhoehoe and transitioned into `a`ā, demonstrating a systematic trend in T, X, η, φc, φb, and ρ. NASA's FINESSE focuses on Science and Exploration through analogue research. One of the field sites is Craters of the Moon, Idaho. We present field work done at a 3.0 km long lava flow belonging to the Blue Dragon lavas erupted from a chain of spatter cones, which then coalesced into channelized flows. We acquired UAV imagery along the entire length of the flow, and generated a high resolution DTM of 5 cm/pixel, from which we derived height profiles and surface roughness values. Field work included mapping the change in surface morphology and sample collection every 150 meters. In the laboratory, we measured φc, φb, and ρ for all collected samples. Viscosity measurements were carried out by concentric cylinder viscometry at subliquidus temperatures between 1310ºC to 1160ºC to study the rheology of the lava, enabling us to relate changes in flow behavior to T and φc. Our results are consistent with observations made for Hawaiian lava, including increasing bulk density downflow, and porosity changing from connected to isolated pore space. Crystallinity increases downflow, and the transition from pāhoehoe to `a`ā occurs between 1230ºC to 1150ºC, which is prompted by nucleation and growth of plagioclase

  9. The flow properties of axoplasm in a defined chemical environment: influence of anions and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinson, K A; Baker, P F

    1979-08-31

    The flow properties of axoplasm have been studied in a defined chemical environment. Axoplasm extruded from squid giant axons was introduced into porous cellulose acetate tubes of diameter roughly equal to that of the original axon. Passage of axoplasm along the tube rapidly coated the tube walls with a layer of protein. By measuring the rate of low back and forth along the tube, the rheological properties of the axoplasm plug were investigated at a range of pressures and in a variety of media. Axoplasm behaves as a classical Bingham body the motion of which can be characterized by a yield stress (theta) and a plastic viscosity (eta p). In a potassium methanesulphonate medium containing 65 nM free Ca2+, theta averaged 109 +/- 46 dyn/cm2 and eta p1 146 +/- 83 P. These values were little affected by ATP, COLCHICINE, CYTOCHOLASIN B or by replacing K by Na but were sensitive to the anion composition of the medium. The effectiveness of different anions at reducing theta and eta p1 was in the order SCN greater than I greater then Br greater than Cl greater than methanesulphonate. Theta and eta p1 were also drastically reduced by increasing the ionized Ca. This effect required millimolar amounts of Ca, was unaffected by the presence of ATP and was irreversible. It could be blocked by the protease inhibitor TLCK. E.p.r. measurements showed that within the matrix of the axoplasm gel there is a watery space that is largely unaffected by anions or calcium.

  10. Simultaneous retrieval of aerosols and ocean properties: A classic inverse modeling approach. I. Analytic Jacobians from the linearized CAO-DISORT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurr, Robert; Stamnes, Knut; Eide, Hans; Li Wei; Zhang Kexin; Stamnes, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper and the sequel, we investigate the application of classic inverse methods based on iterative least-squares cost-function minimization to the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and ocean properties from visible and near infrared spectral radiance measurements such as those from the SeaWiFS and MODIS instruments. Radiance measurements at the satellite are simulated directly using an accurate coupled atmosphere-ocean-discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (CAO-DISORT) code as the main component of the forward model. For this kind of cost-function inverse problem, we require the forward model to generate weighting functions (radiance partial derivatives) with respect to the aerosol and marine properties to be retrieved, and to other model parameters which are sources of error in the retrievals. In this paper, we report on the linearization of the CAO-DISORT model. This linearization provides a complete analytic differentiation of the coupled-media radiative transfer theory, and it allows the model to generate analytic weighting functions for any atmospheric or marine parameter. For high solar zenith angles, we give an implementation of the pseudo-spherical (P-S) approach to solar beam attenuation in the atmosphere in the linearized model. We summarize a number of performance enhancements such as the use of an exact single-scattering calculation to improve accuracy. We derive inherent optical property inputs for the linearized CAO-DISORT code for a simple 2-parameter bio-optical model for the marine environment coupled to a 2-parameter bimodal atmospheric aerosol medium

  11. Estimation of cloud optical thickness by processing SEVIRI images and implementing a semi analytical cloud property retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N.

    2009-04-01

    Clouds play a very important role in the Earth's climate system, as they form an intermediate layer between Sun and the Earth. Satellite remote sensing systems are the only means to provide information about clouds on large scales. The geostationary satellite, Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) has onboard an imaging radiometer, the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). SEVIRI is a 12 channel imager, with 11 channels observing the earth's full disk with a temporal resolution of 15 min and spatial resolution of 3 km at nadir, and a high resolution visible (HRV) channel. The visible channels (0.6 µm and 0.81 µm) and near infrared channel (1.6µm) of SEVIRI are being used to retrieve the cloud optical thickness (COT). The study domain is over Europe covering the region between 35°N - 70°N and 10°W - 30°E. SEVIRI level 1.5 images over this domain are being acquired from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) archive. The processing of this imagery, involves a number of steps before estimating the COT. The steps involved in pre-processing are as follows. First, the digital count number is acquired from the imagery. Image geo-coding is performed in order to relate the pixel positions to the corresponding longitude and latitude. Solar zenith angle is determined as a function of latitude and time. The radiometric conversion is done using the values of offsets and slopes of each band. The values of radiance obtained are then used to calculate the reflectance for channels in the visible spectrum using the information of solar zenith angle. An attempt is made to estimate the COT from the observed radiances. A semi analytical algorithm [Kokhanovsky et al., 2003] is implemented for the estimation of cloud optical thickness from the visible spectrum of light intensity reflected from clouds. The asymptotical solution of the radiative transfer equation, for clouds with large optical thickness, is the basis of

  12. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Experiencing of Self Scale (EOSS) for assessment in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Aguayo, Luis; Ferro-García, Rafael; López-Bermúdez, Miguel Ángel; Selva-López de Huralde, María de los Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The Experiencing of Self Scale (EOSS) was created to evaluate the experience of the personal self, within the field of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy. This paper presents a study of the reliability and validity of the EOSS in a Spanish sample. The study sample, chosen from 24 different centres, comprised 1,040 participants aged between 18-75, of whom 32% were men and 68% women. The clinical sample was made up of 32.7%, whereas 67.3% had no known problem. To obtain evidence of convergent validity, other questionnaires related to the self (EPQ-R, DES, RSES) were used for comparison. The EOSS showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .941) and significantly high correlations with the EPQ-R Neuroticism scale and the DES Dissociation scale, while showing negative correlations with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The EOSS revealed 4 principal factors: a self in close relationships, a self with casual social relationships, a self in general and a positive self-concept. Significant statistical differences were found between the clinical and standard sample, the former showing a higher average. The EOSS had high internal consistency, showing evidence of convergent validity with similar scales and proving useful for the assessment of people with psychological problems related to the self.

  13. Extraction of fibre network architecture by X-ray tomography and prediction of elastic properties using an affine analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsarouchas, D.; Markaki, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting reliable architectural characteristics from complex porous structures using micro-computed tomography (μCT) images. The work focuses on a highly porous material composed of a network of fibres bonded together. The segmentation process, allowing separation of the fibres from the remainder of the image, is the most critical step in constructing an accurate representation of the network architecture. Segmentation methods, based on local and global thresholding, were investigated and evaluated by a quantitative comparison of the architectural parameters they yielded, such as the fibre orientation and segment length (sections between joints) distributions and the number of inter-fibre crossings. To improve segmentation accuracy, a deconvolution algorithm was proposed to restore the original images. The efficacy of the proposed method was verified by comparing μCT network architectural characteristics with those obtained using high resolution CT scans (nanoCT). The results indicate that this approach resolves the architecture of these complex networks and produces results approaching the quality of nanoCT scans. The extracted architectural parameters were used in conjunction with an affine analytical model to predict the axial and transverse stiffnesses of the fibre network. Transverse stiffness predictions were compared with experimentally measured values obtained by vibration testing.

  14. Computing and Comparing Effective Properties for Flow and Transport in Computer-Generated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    We compute effective properties (i.e., permeability, hydraulic tortuosity, and diffusive tortuosity) of three different digital porous media samples, including in-line array of uniform shapes, staggered-array of squares, and randomly distributed squares. The permeability and hydraulic tortuosity are computed by solving a set of rescaled Stokes equations obtained by homogenization, and the diffusive tortuosity is computed by solving a homogenization problem given for the effective diffusion coefficient that is inversely related to diffusive tortuosity. We find that hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different by up to a factor of ten in the same pore geometry, which indicates that these tortuosity terms cannot be used interchangeably. We also find that when a pore geometry is characterized by an anisotropic permeability, the diffusive tortuosity (and correspondingly the effective diffusion coefficient) can also be anisotropic. This finding has important implications for reservoir-scale modeling of flow and transport, as it is more realistic to account for the anisotropy of both the permeability and the effective diffusion coefficient.

  15. Computing and Comparing Effective Properties for Flow and Transport in Computer-Generated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2017-02-13

    We compute effective properties (i.e., permeability, hydraulic tortuosity, and diffusive tortuosity) of three different digital porous media samples, including in-line array of uniform shapes, staggered-array of squares, and randomly distributed squares. The permeability and hydraulic tortuosity are computed by solving a set of rescaled Stokes equations obtained by homogenization, and the diffusive tortuosity is computed by solving a homogenization problem given for the effective diffusion coefficient that is inversely related to diffusive tortuosity. We find that hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different by up to a factor of ten in the same pore geometry, which indicates that these tortuosity terms cannot be used interchangeably. We also find that when a pore geometry is characterized by an anisotropic permeability, the diffusive tortuosity (and correspondingly the effective diffusion coefficient) can also be anisotropic. This finding has important implications for reservoir-scale modeling of flow and transport, as it is more realistic to account for the anisotropy of both the permeability and the effective diffusion coefficient.

  16. Towards an integrated petrophysical tool for multiphase flow properties of core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenormand, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of an Integrated Petrophysical Tool (IPT) on reservoir rock samples. The IPT simultaneously measures the following petrophysical properties: (1) Complete capillary pressure cycle: primary drainage, spontaneous and forced imbibitions, secondary drainage (the cycle leads to the wettability of the core by using the USBM index); End-points and parts of the relative permeability curves; Formation factor and resistivity index. The IPT is based on the steady-state injection of one fluid through the sample placed in a Hassler cell. The experiment leading to the whole Pc cycle on two reservoir sandstones consists of about 30 steps at various oil or water flow rates. It takes about four weeks and is operated at room conditions. Relative permeabilities are in line with standard steady-state measurements. Capillary pressures are in accordance with standard centrifuge measurements. There is no comparison for the resistivity index, but the results are in agreement with literature data. However, the accurate determination of saturation remains the main difficulty and some improvements are proposed. In conclusion, the Integrated Petrophysical Tool is as accurate as standard methods and has the advantage of providing the various parameters on the same sample and during a single experiment. The FIT is easy to use and can be automated. In addition, it can be operated in reservoir conditions.

  17. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  18. Sealing properties of mechanical seals for an axial flow blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, J; Mori, T; Yamazaki, K; Koyanagi, H

    1999-08-01

    A miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump for left ventricular support is under development. One of the key technologies required for such pumps is sealing of the motor shaft. In this study, to prevent blood backflow into the motor side, mechanical seals were developed and their sealing properties investigated. In the experimental apparatus, the mechanical seal separated the bovine blood on the chamber side from the cooling water on the motor side. A leakage of the blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) light emission analysis. The rate of hemolysis was measured by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Frictional torque acting on the shaft was measured by a torque transducer. In the experiments, the rotational speed of the shaft was changed from 1,000 to 10,000 rpm, and the contact force of the seal faces was changed from 1.96 to 4.31 N. To estimate lubrication regimes, the Stribeck curve, a diagram of the coefficient of friction against the bearing characteristic G number, was drawn. The results of the experiments showed that both the leakage of blood and the rate of hemolysis were very small. The friction loss was also very small. The mechanical seal was operated in various lubrication regimes, from a fluid lubrication regime to a mixed lubrication regime.

  19. Electrochemical Properties of Current Collector in the All-vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gan-Jin; Oh, Yong-Hwan; Ryu, Cheol-Hwi; Choi, Ho-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Two commercial carbon plates were evaluated as a current collector (bipolar plate) in the all vanadium redox-flow battery (V-RFB). The performance properties of V-RFB were test in the current density of 60 mA/cm 2 . The electromotive forces (OCV at SOC 100%) of V-RFB using A and B current collector were 1.47 V and 1.54 V. The cell resistance of V-RFB using A current collector was 4.44-5.00 Ω·cm 2 and 3.28-3.75 Ω·cm 2 for charge and discharge, respectively. The cell resistance of V-RFB using B current collector was 4.19-4.42Ω·cm 2 and 4.71-5.49Ω·cm 2 for charge and discharge, respectively. The performance of V-RFB using each current collector was evaluated. The performance of V-RFB using A current collector was 93.1%, 76.8% and 71.4% for average current efficiency, average voltage efficiency and average energy efficiency, respectively. The performance of V-RFB using B current collector was 96.4%, 73.6% and 71.0% for average current efficiency, average voltage efficiency and average energy efficiency, respectively

  20. Influence of core sand properties on flow dynamics of core shooting process based on experiment and multiphase simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jiang Ni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of core sand properties on flow dynamics was investigated synchronously with various core sands, transparent core-box and high-speed camera. To confirm whether the core shooting process has significant turbulence, the flow pattern of sand particles in the shooting head and core box was reproduced with colored core sands. By incorporating the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF, kinetic-frictional constitutive correlation and turbulence model, a two-fluid model (TFM was established to study the flow dynamics of the core shooting process. Two-fluid model (TFM simulations were then performed and a areasonable agreement was achieved between the simulation and experimental results. Based on the experimental and simulation results, the effects of turbulence, sand density, sand diameter and binder ratio were analyzed in terms of filling process, sand volume fraction (αs and sand velocity (Vs.

  1. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer with Variable Fluid Properties on a Moving Flat Plate in a Parallel Free Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfifah Bachok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a viscous fluid on a moving flat plate in a parallel free stream with variable fluid properties are studied. Two special cases, namely, constant fluid properties and variable fluid viscosity, are considered. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known as Keller-box method. Numerical results for the flow and the thermal fields for both cases are obtained for various values of the free stream parameter and the Prandtl number. It is found that dual solutions exist for both cases when the fluid and the plate move in the opposite directions. Moreover, fluid with constant properties shows drag reduction characteristics compared to fluid with variable viscosity.

  2. Quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties for detection of non-calcified plaques in ECG-gated coronary CT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chughtai, Aamer; Agarwal, Prachi; Kuriakose, Jean; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a computer-aided detection system to assist radiologists in detection of non-calcified plaques (NCPs) in coronary CT angiograms (cCTA). In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of arterial flow properties in each vessel branch and extracted flow information to differentiate the presence and absence of stenosis in a vessel segment. Under rest conditions, blood flow in a single vessel branch was assumed to follow Poiseuille's law. For a uniform pressure distribution, two quantitative flow features, the normalized arterial compliance per unit length (Cu) and the normalized volumetric flow (Q) along the vessel centerline, were calculated based on the parabolic Poiseuille solution. The flow features were evaluated for a two-class classification task to differentiate NCP candidates obtained by prescreening as true NCPs and false positives (FPs) in cCTA. For evaluation, a data set of 83 cCTA scans was retrospectively collected from 83 patient files with IRB approval. A total of 118 NCPs were identified by experienced cardiothoracic radiologists. The correlation between the two flow features was 0.32. The discriminatory ability of the flow features evaluated as the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 for Cu and 0.63 for Q in comparison with AUCs of 0.56-0.69 from our previous luminal features. With stepwise LDA feature selection, volumetric flow (Q) was selected in addition to three other luminal features. With FROC analysis, the test results indicated a reduction of the FP rates to 3.14, 1.98, and 1.32 FPs/scan at sensitivities of 90%, 80%, and 70%, respectively. The study indicated that quantitative blood flow analysis has the potential to provide useful features for the detection of NCPs in cCTA.

  3. Combine effects of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD and partial slip on peristaltic Blood flow of Ree–Eyring fluid with wall properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Bhatti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, combine effects of Magnetohydrodynamics and partial slip on Blood flow of Ree–Eyring fluid through a porous medium have been investigated. The walls of the non-uniform porous channel are considered as compliant. The governing equation of Ree–Eyring fluid for blood flow are simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation. The obtained resulting equation are solved analytically and exact solution has been obtained. The impact of different physical parameters such as Hartmann number, slip parameter, porous parameter, wall rigidity parameter, wall tension and mass characterization parameter are taken into account. It is found that velocity distribution increases due to slip effects while its behavior is opposite for Hartmann number. Trapping mechanism has also taken under consideration by drawing contour streamlines.

  4. System analytical studies on ground state properties of neutron-rich nuclides in the nuclear mass region A ≅ 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenhardt, M.

    1987-01-01

    In this thesis only nuclei with even proton and even neutron number have been studied. This constraint allows to use a for the description of excitation spectra very successful model, the interacting boson model (IBM) and to combine this with the density functional method. From the obtained Hamiltonian via an energy-density functional an effective potential is constructed which can be applied in the framework of the density-functional method in order to calculate ground state energies and densities. From the density distributions radii and values for the static deformation are determined. As further ground state property the separation energy for two neutrons is studied. (orig./HSI) [de

  5. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  6. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  7. Analytical, Numerical, and Experimental Investigation on a Non-Contact Method for the Measurements of Creep Properties of Ultra-High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyun; Hyers, Robert W.; Rogers, Jan R.; Rathz, Thomas J.; Choo, Hahn; Liaw, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Responsive access to space requires re-use of components such as rocket nozzles that operate at extremely high temperatures. For such applications, new ultra-hightemperature materials that can operate over 2,000 C are required. At the temperatures higher than the fifty percent of the melting temperature, the characterization of creep properties is indispensable. Since conventional methods for the measurement of creep is limited below 1,700 C, a new technique that can be applied at higher temperatures is strongly demanded. This research develops a non-contact method for the measurement of creep at the temperatures over 2,300 C. Using the electrostatic levitator in NASA MSFC, a spherical sample was rotated to cause creep deformation by centrifugal acceleration. The deforming sample was captured with a digital camera and analyzed to measure creep deformation. Numerical and analytical analyses have also been conducted to compare the experimental results. Analytical, numerical, and experimental results showed a good agreement with one another.

  8. Place, Capital Flows and Property Regimes: The Elites’ Former Houses in Beijing’s South Luogu Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Place is seen as a process whereby social and cultural forms are reproduced. This process is closely linked to capital flows, which are, in turn, shaped by changing property regimes. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the relationship between property regimes, capital flows and place-making. The goal of this paper is to highlight the role of changing property regimes in the production of place. Our research area is South Luogu Lane (SLL in Central Beijing. We take elites’ former houses in SLL as the main unit of analysis in this study. From studying this changing landscape, we draw four main conclusions. First, the location of SSL was critical in enabling it to emerge as a high-status residential community near the imperial city. Second, historical patterns of capital accumulation influenced subsequent rounds of private investment into particular areas of SLL. Third, as laws relating to the ownership of land and real estate changed fundamentally in the early 1950s and again in the 1980s, the target and intensity of capital flows into housing in SLL changed too. Fourth, these changes in capital flow are linked to ongoing changes in the place image of SLL.

  9. Influence of trimethylsilane flow on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Zhifeng; Yan, Jiwang; Li, Lawrence Kwok-Yan

    2015-11-01

    CrSiCN coatings with different silicon and carbon contents were deposited on silicon wafers and 316L stainless steels using unbalanced magnetron sputtering via adjusting trimethylsilane (TMS) flow, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy(XPS) and nano-indenter, respectively. The tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings sliding against SiC balls in water were investigated using ball-on-disk tribometer. The results showed that the CrSiCN coatings had fine composite microstructure consisting of nanocrystallites of Cr(C, N) crystal and amorphous phases such as a-Si3N4 and a-C(a-CNx). The typical columnar structures changed from fine cluster to coarse ones when the Si content was beyond 3.4 at.%. With an increase in the TMS flow, the hardness and Young's modulus of Corsican coatings all first increased, and then rapidly decreased, but the compressive stress in the coatings varied in the range of 2.8-4.8 GPa. When the TMS flow was 10 sccm, the CrSiCN coatings exhibited the highest hardness of 21.3 GPa and the lowest friction coefficient (0.11) and wear rate (8.4 × 10-8 mm3/N m). But when the TMS flow was beyond 15 sccm, the tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water became poor.

  10. Extractive properties of benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl-benzohydroxamic acids as analytical reagents towards six transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Rafie Hamid

    1999-06-01

    Two hydroxamic acids were prepared: benzohydroxamic and N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acids. The former was prepared by coupling the free hydrox amine with benzoyl chloride with the ratio 1:1 in alkaline medium, where as the latter by the same procedure with the ratio 1:2 respectively, they were identified by their melting points, elemental analysis of their nitrogen contents. infra-red spectrophotometry, as well as their nitrogen using elevation of boiling point and the titration method to determine their molecular weights. The two hydroxamic acids were used as analytical reagents for the extraction of the metals Cr(vi), Fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi). Benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction 99.55% for Cr.(vi) 3M H 2 SO 4 , of 90.16% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0,of 80.56% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and 98.01% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. N-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction of 96.45% for Cr(vi) at 3M H 2 So 4 , of 90.82% for Fe(III) at pH 4.0, of 97.02% for V(v) at 3M H 2 So 4 , of 83.56% for Ti(iv) at pH 2.0, of 89.82% for Co(II) at pH 8.0 and of 97.16% for U(vi) at pH 6.0. at the same pH of maximum extraction using heavy matrix, synthetic sea-water, benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 91.08%, of 77.99%, of 91.39%, of 87.50 and of 93.17% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co9II) and U(vi) respectively whereas n-benzoyl benzohydroxamic acid has maximum values of 86.17%, of 77.78%, of 89.61%, of 75.66%, of 79.63% and of 91.18% for Cr(vi), Fe(III), V(v), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively. The ratio of metal to ligand was determined utilizing the continuous variation method. It was 1 :2, 1: 1, 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1: 2 and 1 : 2 with respect to Cr(vi), fe(III), Ti(iv), Co(II) and U(vi) respectively.(Author)

  11. Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ji; Wang Xianjia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate, which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies. But in some systems, especially biological systems, the players interact with each other discriminately. Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies. Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population. But in reality, the number of individuals in the population is always finite, and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process. Therefore, it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations. In fact, the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult. Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper, ''The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations''. In this paper, we are exactly doing this work. We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case, especially focusing on the infiuence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system. We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process. Based on the limit distribution of the process, we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system. We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games. For each case game, the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough. In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method, all our results obtained are analytical. Especially, in the dominant-case game, coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model. This result can be

  12. The Effect of Trimethylaluminum Flow Rate on the Structure and Optical Properties of AlInGaN Quaternary Epilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongbo Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of quaternary AlxInyGa1−x−yN thin films have been successfully achieved using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD method with adjustable trimethylaluminum (TMA flows. Surface morphology and optical properties of AlxInyGa1−x−yN films have been evaluated. The indium segregation effect on the enhancement of UV luminescence emission in AlxInyGa1-x-yN films with increasing TMA flows was investigated. Our results shed some lights on future optical materials design and LED/LD applications.

  13. Some elements of a theory of multidimensional complex variables. I - General theory. II - Expansions of analytic functions and application to fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1989-01-01

    The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.

  14. Use of tracer tests to investigate changes in flow and transport properties due to bioclogging of porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2007-01-01

    by up to three orders of magnitude. The hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity parameters were almost recovered after disinfection of the columns. Different models relating the changes of the hydraulic conductivity to the changes in the mobile porosity due to bioclogging were reviewed......Tracer tests were conducted in three laboratory columns to study changes in the hydraulic properties of a porous medium due to bioclogging. About 30 breakthrough curves (BTCs) for each column were obtained. The BTCs were analyzed using analytical equilibrium and dual-porosity models, and estimates...

  15. Influence of trimethylsilane flow on the microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Zhifeng; Yan, Jiwang; Li, Lawrence Kwok-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CrSiCN coatings with different Si and C contents were deposited. • CrSiCN coatings consisted of Cr(C,N) nanocrystallites and amorphous phases such as a-Si_3N_4(SiC, SiCN) and a-C(a-CN_x). • CrSiCN coatings exhibited the highest hardness of 21.3 GPa at the TMS flow of 10 sccm. • CrSiCN coatings deposited at the TMS flow of 10 sccm possessed the excellent tribological properties in water. • The wear mechanism changed from tribochemical wear to mechanical wear when the TMS flow increased. - Abstract: CrSiCN coatings with different silicon and carbon contents were deposited on silicon wafers and 316L stainless steels using unbalanced magnetron sputtering via adjusting trimethylsilane (TMS) flow, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy(XPS) and nano-indenter, respectively. The tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings sliding against SiC balls in water were investigated using ball-on-disk tribometer. The results showed that the CrSiCN coatings had fine composite microstructure consisting of nanocrystallites of Cr(C, N) crystal and amorphous phases such as a-Si_3N_4 and a-C(a-CN_x). The typical columnar structures changed from fine cluster to coarse ones when the Si content was beyond 3.4 at.%. With an increase in the TMS flow, the hardness and Young's modulus of Corsican coatings all first increased, and then rapidly decreased, but the compressive stress in the coatings varied in the range of 2.8–4.8 GPa. When the TMS flow was 10 sccm, the CrSiCN coatings exhibited the highest hardness of 21.3 GPa and the lowest friction coefficient (0.11) and wear rate (8.4 × 10"−"8 mm"3/N m). But when the TMS flow was beyond 15 sccm, the tribological properties of CrSiCN coatings in water became poor.

  16. Structural characterization and numerical simulations of flow properties of standard and reservoir carbonate rocks using micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Amina; Chevalier, Sylvie; Sassi, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    With advances in imaging techniques and computational power, Digital Rock Physics (DRP) is becoming an increasingly popular tool to characterize reservoir samples and determine their internal structure and flow properties. In this work, we present the details for imaging, segmentation, as well as numerical simulation of single-phase flow through a standard homogenous Silurian dolomite core plug sample as well as a heterogeneous sample from a carbonate reservoir. We develop a procedure that integrates experimental results into the segmentation step to calibrate the porosity. We also look into using two different numerical tools for the simulation; namely Avizo Fire Xlab Hydro that solves the Stokes' equations via the finite volume method and Palabos that solves the same equations using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Representative Elementary Volume (REV) and isotropy studies are conducted on the two samples and we show how DRP can be a useful tool to characterize rock properties that are time consuming and costly to obtain experimentally.

  17. Reference interaction site model with hydrophobicity induced density inhomogeneity: An analytical theory to compute solvation properties of large hydrophobic solutes in the mixture of polyatomic solvent molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Siqin; Sheong, Fu Kit; Huang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    Reference interaction site model (RISM) has recently become a popular approach in the study of thermodynamical and structural properties of the solvent around macromolecules. On the other hand, it was widely suggested that there exists water density depletion around large hydrophobic solutes (>1 nm), and this may pose a great challenge to the RISM theory. In this paper, we develop a new analytical theory, the Reference Interaction Site Model with Hydrophobicity induced density Inhomogeneity (RISM-HI), to compute solvent radial distribution function (RDF) around large hydrophobic solute in water as well as its mixture with other polyatomic organic solvents. To achieve this, we have explicitly considered the density inhomogeneity at the solute-solvent interface using the framework of the Yvon-Born-Green hierarchy, and the RISM theory is used to obtain the solute-solvent pair correlation. In order to efficiently solve the relevant equations while maintaining reasonable accuracy, we have also developed a new closure called the D2 closure. With this new theory, the solvent RDFs around a large hydrophobic particle in water and different water-acetonitrile mixtures could be computed, which agree well with the results of the molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we show that our RISM-HI theory can also efficiently compute the solvation free energy of solute with a wide range of hydrophobicity in various water-acetonitrile solvent mixtures with a reasonable accuracy. We anticipate that our theory could be widely applied to compute the thermodynamic and structural properties for the solvation of hydrophobic solute

  18. Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-15

    I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.

  19. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO 3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO 3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO 3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO 3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO 3 , which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The

  20. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  1. Multiphase Flow Dynamics 4 Turbulence, Gas Adsorption and Release, Diesel Fuel Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    The present Volume 4 of the successful monograh package “Multiphase Flow Dynamics”is devoted to selected Chapters of the multiphase fluid dynamics that are important for practical applications but did not find place in the previous volumes. The state of the art of the turbulence modeling in multiphase flows is presented. As introduction, some basics of the single phase boundary layer theory including some important scales and flow oscillation characteristics in pipes and rod bundles are presented. Then the scales characterizing the dispersed flow systems are presented. The description of the turbulence is provided at different level of complexity: simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity, simple algebraic models based on the Boussinesq hypothesis, modification of the boundary layer share due to modification of the bulk turbulence, modification of the boundary layer share due to nucleate boiling. The role of the following forces on the mathematical description of turbulent flows is discussed: the lift fo...

  2. Documentation for the “XT3D” option in the Node Property Flow (NPF) Package of MODFLOW 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Alden M.; Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2017-08-10

    This report describes the “XT3D” option in the Node Property Flow (NPF) Package of MODFLOW 6. The XT3D option extends the capabilities of MODFLOW by enabling simulation of fully three-dimensional anisotropy on regular or irregular grids in a way that properly takes into account the full, three-dimensional conductivity tensor. It can also improve the accuracy of groundwater-flow simulations in cases in which the model grid violates certain geometric requirements. Three example problems demonstrate the use of the XT3D option to simulate groundwater flow on irregular grids and through three-dimensional porous media with anisotropic hydraulic conductivity.Conceptually, the XT3D method of estimating flow between two MODFLOW 6 model cells can be viewed in terms of three main mathematical steps: construction of head-gradient estimates by interpolation; construction of fluid-flux estimates by application of the full, three-dimensional form of Darcy’s Law, in which the conductivity tensor can be heterogeneous and anisotropic; and construction of the flow expression by enforcement of continuity of flow across the cell interface. The resulting XT3D flow expression, which relates the flow across the cell interface to the values of heads computed at neighboring nodes, is the sum of terms in which conductance-like coefficients multiply head differences, as in the conductance-based flow expression the NPF Package uses by default. However, the XT3D flow expression contains terms that involve “neighbors of neighbors” of the two cells for which the flow is being calculated. These additional terms have no analog in the conductance-based formulation. When assembled into matrix form, the XT3D formulation results in a larger stencil than the conductance-based formulation; that is, each row of the coefficient matrix generally contains more nonzero elements. The “RHS” suboption can be used to avoid expanding the stencil by placing the additional terms on the right-hand side

  3. Quantification of Optical and Physical Properties of Combustion-Generated Carbonaceous Aerosols (Analytical and Microscopic Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Inoka Eranda; Litton, Charles D

    2015-03-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to quantify and characterize the optical and physical properties of combustion-generated aerosols during both flaming and smoldering combustion of three materials common to underground mines-Pittsburgh Seam coal, Styrene Butadiene Rubber (a common mine conveyor belt material), and Douglas-fir wood-using a combination of analytical and gravimetric measurements. Laser photometers were utilized in the experiments for continuous measurement of aerosol mass concentrations and for comparison to measurements made using gravimetric filter samples. The aerosols of interest lie in the size range of tens to a few hundred nanometers, out of range of the standard photometer calibration. To correct for these uncertainties, the photometer mass concentrations were compared to gravimetric samples to determine if consistent correlations existed. The response of a calibrated and modified combination ionization/photoelectric smoke detector was also used. In addition, the responses of this sensor and a similar, prototype ionization/photoelectric sensor, along with discrete angular scattering, total scattering, and total extinction measurements, were used to define in real time the size, morphology, and radiative transfer properties of these differing aerosols that are generally in the form of fractal aggregates. SEM/TEM images were also obtained in order to compare qualitatively the real-time, continuous experimental measurements with the visual microscopic measurements. These data clearly show that significant differences exist between aerosols from flaming and from smoldering combustion and that these differences produce very different scattering and absorption signatures. The data also indicate that ionization/photoelectric sensors can be utilized to measure continuously and in real time aerosol properties over a broad spectrum of applications related to adverse environmental and health effects.

  4. A synthesis of light absorption properties of the Pan-Arctic Ocean: application to semi-analytical estimates of dissolved organic carbon concentrations from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Bélanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2013-11-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean (e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012), the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (aφ(λ)) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific aφ(λ) values (Matsuoka et al., 2013), this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately derived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC vs. CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  5. Phenolic Molecules in Virgin Olive Oils: a Survey of Their Sensory Properties, Health Effects, Antioxidant Activity and Analytical Methods. An Overview of the Last Decade Alessandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lercker

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Among vegetable oils, virgin olive oil (VOO has nutritional and sensory characteristics that to make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. The importance of VOO is mainly attributed both to its high content of oleic acid a balanced contribution quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids and its richness in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. The polar phenolic compounds of VOO belong to different classes: phenolic acids, phenyl ethyl alcohols, hydroxy-isochromans, flavonoids, lignans and secoiridoids. This latter family of compounds is characteristic of Oleaceae plants and secoiridoids are the main compounds of the phenolic fraction. Many agronomical and technological factors can affect the presence of phenols in VOO. Its shelf life is higher than other vegetable oils, mainly due to the presence of phenolic molecules having a catechol group, such as hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives. Several assays have been used to establish the antioxidant activity of these isolated phenolic compounds. Typical sensory gustative properties of VOO, such as bitterness and pungency, have been attributed to secoiridoid molecules. Considering the importance of the phenolic fraction of VOO, high performance analytical methods have been developed to characterize its complex phenolic pattern. The aim of this review is to realize a survey on phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils bearing in mind their chemical-analytical, healthy and sensory aspects. In particular, starting from the basic studies, the results of researches developed in the last ten years will be focused.

  6. A Synthesis of Light Absorption Properties of the Arctic Ocean: Application to Semi-analytical Estimates of Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Babin, M.; Doxaran, D.; Hooker, S. B.; Mitchell, B. G.; Belanger, S.; Bricaud, A.

    2014-01-01

    The light absorption coefficients of particulate and dissolved materials are the main factors determining the light propagation of the visible part of the spectrum and are, thus, important for developing ocean color algorithms. While these absorption properties have recently been documented by a few studies for the Arctic Ocean [e.g., Matsuoka et al., 2007, 2011; Ben Mustapha et al., 2012], the datasets used in the literature were sparse and individually insufficient to draw a general view of the basin-wide spatial and temporal variations in absorption. To achieve such a task, we built a large absorption database at the pan-Arctic scale by pooling the majority of published datasets and merging new datasets. Our results showed that the total non-water absorption coefficients measured in the Eastern Arctic Ocean (EAO; Siberian side) are significantly higher 74 than in the Western Arctic Ocean (WAO; North American side). This higher absorption is explained 75 by higher concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in watersheds on the Siberian 76 side, which contains a large amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) compared to waters off 77 North America. In contrast, the relationship between the phytoplankton absorption (a()) and chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration in the EAO was not significantly different from that in the WAO. Because our semi-analytical CDOM absorption algorithm is based on chl a-specific a() values [Matsuoka et al., 2013], this result indirectly suggests that CDOM absorption can be appropriately erived not only for the WAO but also for the EAO using ocean color data. Derived CDOM absorption values were reasonable compared to in situ measurements. By combining this algorithm with empirical DOC versus CDOM relationships, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating DOC concentrations for coastal waters at the Pan-Arctic scale is presented and applied to satellite ocean color data.

  7. Influence of fluid properties, flow rate and aspect ratios on stratification in a cylindrical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhdjar, A.; Benyoucef, B.; Harhad, A.

    2005-01-01

    Fluid flow and temperature field in a cavity are numerically simulated using finite volume techniques. The fluid flow in the vertical cylindrical cavity is assumed to be two-dimensional. Inflow occurs at the top through a ring like entrance and outflow takes place at the bottom through an exit of the same shape. The study considers a transient mixed convection flow. The governing equations are the conservation equations for laminar natural convection flow based on the Boussinesq approximation. Forced convection flow is superimposed through the appropriate boundary conditions (inflow and outflow conditions). The influence of the mass flow rate and of the fluid is made through the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. Stratification analysis is made qualitatively through temperature distribution. In a previous study, consideration was given to low Reynolds numbers i.e. Re +4 ) in considering water (Pr=3.01) as the working fluid for the thermal energy storage. Correlations for the storage efficiency are deduced with respect to the Reynolds number and cavity aspect ratios of 1/0.5, 1/1 and 1/2. So the objective of the work is to get more information on the influence of flow rate on the storage efficiency as well as on the medium mean temperature. (author)

  8. Influence of fluid properties, flow rate and aspect ratios on stratification in a cylindrical cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhdjar, A.; Harhad, A.; Guerri, O.

    2003-01-01

    The fluid flow and temperature field in a cavity are numerically simulated using finite volume techniques. The fluid flow in the vertical cylindrical cavity is assumed to be two-dimensional. Inflow occurs at the top through a ring like entrance and outflow takes place at the bottom through an exit of the same shape. The study considers a transient mixed convection flow. The governing equations are the conservation equations for laminar natural convection flow based on the Boussinesq approximation. Forced convection flow is superimposed through the appropriate boundary conditions (inflow and outflow conditions). The influence of the mass flow rate and of the fluid is made through the Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. Stratification analysis is made qualitatively through temperature distribution. The study considers two fluids i.e. water (Pr=4.5) and ethylene glycol (Pr=51) and cavity aspect ratios of 1/0.5 and 1 /2. So the objective of the work is to get more information on the influence of flow rate on the performance of the thermal energy storage. Correlations for the storage efficiency are deduced with respect to the Reynolds number. (author)

  9. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  11. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Chaoqun; Liu Yejin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will often be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. Analytical Predictions of Fatigue Crack Growth in the Lower Plate of the F-111 Wing Pivot Fitting Fuel Flow Hole Number 58

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MUrtagh, B

    1998-01-01

    ... (then General Dynamics), predicted a fatigue life of approximately 57,000 flight hours. An equivalent analysis was conducted using the analytical crack closure code, FASTRAN II, and this resulted in a life prediction of about 25,000 flight hours...

  13. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed. (author)

  14. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongyang [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Shuanjin, E-mail: wangshj@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiao Min [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Meng Yuezhong, E-mail: mengyzh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  15. On the properties and mechanisms of microjet arrays in crossflow for the control of flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Erik J.

    By utilizing passive and active methods of flow control, the aerodynamic performance of external and internal components can be greatly improved. Recently however, the benefits of applying active flow control methods to turbomachinery components for improved fuel efficiency, reduced engine size, and greater operational envelope has sparked a renewed interest in some of these flow control techniques. The more attractive of these, is active control in the form of jets in cross flow. With their ability to be turned on and off, as well as their negligible effect on drag when not being actuated, they are well suited for applications such as compressor and turbine blades, engine inlet diffusers, internal engine passages, and general external aerodynamics. This study consists of two parts. The first is the application of active control on a low-pressure turbine (LPT) cascade to determine the effectiveness of microjet actuators on flow separation at relatively low speeds. The second study, motivated by the first, involves a parametric study on a more canonical model to examine the effects of various microjet parameters on the efficacy of separation control and to provide a better understanding of the relevant flow physics governing this control approach. With data obtained from velocity measurements across the wide parametric range, correlations for the growth of the counter-rotating vortex pairs generated by these actuators are deduced. From the information and models obtained throughout the study, basic suggestions for microjet actuator design are presented.

  16. On regional flow in Baltic shield rock. An application of an analytical solution using hydrogeologic conditions at Aberg, Beberg, and Ceberg of SR97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbinder, G.; Isaksson, Alf

    1997-11-01

    This report is one of many in support of SR 97, and is an analysis of the residence and transport times of a fluid particle at the three hypothetical domains of SR 97. The three domains are arbitrary named Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The report is intended to provide a quantitative assessment of the lateral length scales governing groundwater flow. The largest of these scales is believed to govern regional flow, i.e., flow at great depth. The calculated reference times presented in this report are fairly constant with the shortest reference time for Ceberg and the longest for Beberg. The difference in the calculated reference times are mainly due to the obtained differences in the lateral length scales at the three domains. However, the calculated residence times are extremely long. The corresponding transport times are very different from those obtained by means of numerical modeling of regional flow at Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The value is also contradicted by recent hydrochemical composition analyses of deep groundwater at Laxemar and Aespoe. A speculative interpretation of this result is that large scale regional flow, in the sense of meaning flow paths with long lateral extent, should be questioned for the kind of depth (500 m) and hydrogeologic system (hard rock) dealt with in this report. In other words, large scale regional flow may play a role for a repository at great depth (>>500 m), whereas non-periodic local variations in the topography may govern the flow pattern at moderate depths, e.g., depths less than 1000 m. There are several observations which support this interpretation

  17. An analytical model for the prediction of fluid-elastic forces in a rod bundle subjected to axial flow: theory, experimental validation and application to PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaud, F.

    1997-01-01

    A model predicting the fluid-elastic forces in a bundle of circular cylinders subjected to axial flow is presented in this paper. Whereas previously published models were limited to circular flow channel, the present one allows to take a rectangular flow external boundary into account. For that purpose, an original approach is derived from the standard method of images. This model will eventually be used to predict the fluid-structure coupling between the flow of primary coolant and a fuel assemblies in PWR nuclear reactors. It is indeed of major importance since the flow is shown to induce quite high damping and could therefore mitigate the incidence of an external load like a seismic excitation on the dynamics of the assemblies. The proposed model is validated on two cases from the literature but still needs further comparisons with the experiments being currently carried out on the EDF set-up. The flow has been shown to induce an approximate 12% damping on a PWR fuel assembly, at nominal reactor conditions. The possible grid effect on the fluid-structure coupling has been neglected so far but will soon be investigated at EDF. (author)

  18. Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D.

    1990-01-01

    Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection

  19. Influence of flow rate on different properties of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Santra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN thin films were deposited on pyrex glass substrate using different flow rate of haxamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO based liquid precursor with nitrogen gas as a glow discharged decomposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. The significant influence of different precursor flow rates on refractive index and thickness of the DLN films was measured by using spectroscopic filmatrics and DEKTAK profilometer. Optical transparency of the DLN thin films was analyzed by UV-VIS-NIR spectrometer. FTIR spectroscopy, provides the information about shifted bonds like SiC2, Si-C, Si-O, C-C, Si-H, C-H, N-H, and O-H with different precursor flow rate. We have estimated the hardness of the DLN films from Raman spectroscopy using Gaussian deconvolution method and tried to investigate the correlation between hardness, refractive index and thickness of the films with different precursor flow rates. The composition and surface morphology of the DLN films were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM respectively. We have analyzed the hardness by intensity ratio (ID/IG of D and G peaks and correlates with hardness measurement by nanoindentation test where hardness increases from 27.8 μl/min to 80.6μl/min and then decreases with increase of flow rate from 80.6μl/min to 149.5μl/min. Finally, we correlates different parameters of structural, optical and tribological properties like film-thickness, refractive index, light transmission, hardness, surface roughness, modulus of elasticity, contact angle etc. with different precursor flow rates of DLN films.

  20. One-baryon spectrum and analytical properties of one-baryon dispersion curves in 3 + 1 dimensional strongly coupled lattice QCD with three flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A.; O’Carroll, Michael; Valencia Alvites, José C.

    2016-01-01

    Considering a 3 + 1 dimensional lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) model defined with the improved Wilson action, three flavors, and 4 × 4 Dirac spin matrices, in the strong coupling regime, we reanalyze the question of the existence of the eightfold way baryons and complete our previous work where the existence of isospin octet baryons was rigorously solved. Here, we show the existence of isospin decuplet baryons which are associated with isolated dispersion curves in the subspace of the underlying quantum mechanical Hilbert space with vectors constructed with an odd number of fermion and antifermion basic quark and antiquark fields. Moreover, smoothness properties for these curves are obtained. The present work deals with a case for which the traditional method to solve the implicit equation for the dispersion curves, based on the use of the analytic implicit function theorem, cannot be applied. We do not have only one but two solutions for each one-baryon decuplet sector with fixed spin third component. Instead, we apply the Weierstrass preparation theorem, which also provides a general method for the general degenerate case. This work is completed by analyzing a spectral representation for the two-baryon correlations and providing the leading behaviors of the field strength normalization and the mass of the spectral contributions with more than one-particle. These are needed results for a rigorous analysis of the two-baryon and meson-baryon particle spectra.

  1. One-baryon spectrum and analytical properties of one-baryon dispersion curves in 3 + 1 dimensional strongly coupled lattice QCD with three flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria da Veiga, Paulo A., E-mail: veiga@icmc.usp.br; O’Carroll, Michael, E-mail: michaelocarroll@gmail.com; Valencia Alvites, José C., E-mail: cien.mat@hotmail.com [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada e Estatística, ICMC, USP-São Carlos, C.P. 668, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Considering a 3 + 1 dimensional lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) model defined with the improved Wilson action, three flavors, and 4 × 4 Dirac spin matrices, in the strong coupling regime, we reanalyze the question of the existence of the eightfold way baryons and complete our previous work where the existence of isospin octet baryons was rigorously solved. Here, we show the existence of isospin decuplet baryons which are associated with isolated dispersion curves in the subspace of the underlying quantum mechanical Hilbert space with vectors constructed with an odd number of fermion and antifermion basic quark and antiquark fields. Moreover, smoothness properties for these curves are obtained. The present work deals with a case for which the traditional method to solve the implicit equation for the dispersion curves, based on the use of the analytic implicit function theorem, cannot be applied. We do not have only one but two solutions for each one-baryon decuplet sector with fixed spin third component. Instead, we apply the Weierstrass preparation theorem, which also provides a general method for the general degenerate case. This work is completed by analyzing a spectral representation for the two-baryon correlations and providing the leading behaviors of the field strength normalization and the mass of the spectral contributions with more than one-particle. These are needed results for a rigorous analysis of the two-baryon and meson-baryon particle spectra.

  2. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  3. Analytical description of the effects of melting practice and heat treatment on the creep properties of a 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel is used worldwide as an elevated-temperature structural material, particularly in steam generation systems. Since this material is often used at service temperatures up to 600 0 C, successful design requires a consideration of its creep properties. Unfortunately, the development of an analytical description of the creep behavior of 2 1 / 4 Cr-1 Mo steel is complicated by two phenomena. First, the creep strength of this material is quite sensitive to heat treatment. Second, this material tends to exhibit nonclassical creep under some conditions. In addition, especially in nuclear applications, the material used may be air-melted, vacuum-arc remelted (VAR), or electroslag remelted (ESR). Available creep data from air-melted, VAR, and ESR material have been analyzed. Heat treatments included both annealed and isothermally annealed, with and without a subsequent ''postweld'' heat treatment. It has been found that the elevated-temperature ultimate tensile strength (UTS) is a useful indicator of creep strength for a given heat of material regardless of melting practice or heat treatment. Meanwhile, the nonclassical creep behavior has been attributed to a change in creep mechanism which has been mathematically modeled

  4. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  5. Bimodal polyethylenes form one pot synthesis : effect of flow induced crystallization on physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukalyekar, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate properties of a polymer are governed not only by the chemical structure of the polymer chains but also by the processing conditions applied during fabrication of the final product, in particular as a result of orientation of long-chain molecules. The intrinsic properties of a polymer

  6. Analytical chemistry of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, H.; Marty, P.

    2001-01-01

    Different characterization methods specifically applied to the actinides are presented in this review such as ICP/OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry), ICP/MS (inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy-mass spectrometry), TIMS (thermal ionization-mass spectrometry) and GD/OES (flow discharge optical emission). Molecular absorption spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis are also available to complete the excellent range of analytical tools at our disposal. (authors)

  7. A study on mechanical properties and flow-induced vibrations of coil-shaped holddown spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2010-01-01

    The fuel assemblies used in the OPR1000s in Korea employ four coil-shaped hold-down springs to exert compressive load at the top of fuel assembly so that the assemblies may not be damaged by preventing its hydraulic-induced lifting-off from its lower seating surface. However, the coolant flow generates the flow-induced vibration at the coil-shaped hold-down springs which may cause wear on the spring surfaces. A hold-own spring may be fractured if torsional stress acting on its worn area exceeds a stress limit, resulting in the loss of hold-down spring force of the fuel assembly. In this paper, flow-induced vibration tests were performed for standard and improved coil type hold-down springs to investigate the effects of these two hold-down spring designs on flow-induced vibration wear. In parallel, a wide spectrum of mechanical tests was performed to obtain vibration-related characteristics of these two hold-down springs, which can be used as input data for the fuel assembly static and dynamic analysis. It is found that the improved hold-down spring design is better against flow-induced vibration wear than the standard one. With the use of the three-dimensional Solidwork model, the stress-related design lifetime of the improved hold-down spring was estimated by extrapolating its wear data measured from the flow-induced vibration tests, which indicates that the improved HD spring design will maintain integrity during the fuel design lifetime in OPR1000s in Korea.

  8. Asymptotic properties of axisymmetric Stokes flow of a viscous liquid with intersecting boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinov, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The general axisymmetric problem on the liquid flow by the low Reynolds number when the boundary surfaces (both of the solid body and free one) are intersecting at the certain angle on the moving line, is considered. The work is aimed at establishing the asymptotic regularities of the behavior of the current function and voltages in the small vicinity of the intersection (contact) line of the boundary surfaces. The asymptotic analysis makes it possible to consider the arbitrary axisymmetric Stokes flow with the intersecting boundaries [ru

  9. Determination of Critical Properties of Endothermic Hydrocarbon Fuel RP-3 Based on Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The critical pressure and temperature of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel RP-3 were determined by flow visualization. The flow pattern images of RP-3 at different pressures and temperatures were obtained. The critical pressure is identified by disappearance of the phase change while the critical temperature is determined by appearance of the opalescence phenomenon under the critical pressure. The opalescence phenomenon is unique to the critical point. The critical pressure and temperature of RP-3 are determined to be 2.3 MPa and 646 K, respectively.

  10. Influence of Nitrogen Gas Flow Rate on The Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Tin Deposited Carbon Steel Synthesized by Cae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mubarak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on carbon steel plates, using cathodic arc evaporation CAE PVD technique. We studied and discussed the effect of various nitrogen gas flow rates on microstructural and mechanical properties of TiN-coated carbon steel plates. The coating properties investigated in this work included the surface morphology, thickness of deposited coating, adhesion between the coating and substrate, coating composition, coating crystallography, hardness and surface characterization using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Xray diffraction (XRD with glazing incidence angle (GIA technique, scratch tester, hardness testing machine, surface roughness tester and atomic force microscope (AFM. SEM analyses showed that all the films had columnar and dense structures with clearly defined substrate-film interfacial layers. The hardness of TiN-coated carbon steel was noted six times more than the hardness of uncoated one. An increase in nitrogen gas flow rate showed; decrease in the formation of macro-droplets, average roughness (Ra and root-mean-square (RMS values in CAE PVD technique. During XRD-GIA studies, it was observed that by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate, the main peak [1,1,1] shifted toward the lower angular position. Microhardness of TiN-coated carbon steel showed about six times increase in hardness than the uncoated one. Scratch tester results showed an average adhesion between the coating material and substrate. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that by increasing nitrogen gas flow rate there was percentage increase in the bearing ratio while percentage decrease in histogram.

  11. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Warfare, Naval Sea Systems Command Acquisition Cycle Time : Defining the Problem David Tate, Institute for Defense Analyses Schedule Analytics Jennifer...research was comprised of the following high- level steps :  Identify and review primary data sources 1...research. However, detailed reviews of the OMB IT Dashboard data revealed that schedule data is highly aggregated. Program start date and program end date

  12. Compact toroids with Alfvenic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhehui; Tang, X.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar equilibria form a class of stationary ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria stabilized by magnetic-field-aligned Alfvenic flows. Analytic solutions of the Chandrasekhar equilibria are explicitly constructed for both field-reversed configurations and spheromaks. Favorable confinement property of nested closed flux surfaces and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the compact toroids are of interest for both magnetic trapping of high energy electrons in astrophysics and confinement of high temperature plasmas in laboratory

  13. Influence of nitrogen flow rates on materials properties of CrNx films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An elemental analysis of the samples was realized by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrical studies indicated the semiconducting behaviour of the films at the nitrogen flow rate of 15 ... important industrial process which is used to protect base ... than 40 μm can be obtained on a variety of engineering sub-.

  14. Effects of bathymetric lidar errors on flow properties predicted with a multi-dimensional hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. McKean; D. Tonina; C. Bohn; C. W. Wright

    2014-01-01

    New remote sensing technologies and improved computer performance now allow numerical flow modeling over large stream domains. However, there has been limited testing of whether channel topography can be remotely mapped with accuracy necessary for such modeling. We assessed the ability of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, to support a multi-dimensional...

  15. Semi-local scaling and turbulence modulation in variable property turbulent channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.; Peeters, J.W.R.; Boersma, B.J.; Pecnik, R.

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the effect of temperature dependent density and viscosity on turbulence in channel flows. First, a mathematical framework is developed to support the validity of the semi-local scaling as proposed based on heuristic arguments by Huang, Coleman, and

  16. Properties of iopamidol-incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol) microparticle as an X-ray imaging flow tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Jung, Sung Yong; Lee, Jin Pyung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-02-10

    We have recently reported on poly(vinyl alcohol) microparticles containing X-ray contrast agent, iopamidol, designed as a flow tracer working in synchrotron X-ray imaging ( Biosens. Bioelectron. 2010 , 25 , 1571 ). Although iopamidol is physically encapsulated in the microparticles, it displays a great contrast enhancement and stable feasibility in in vitro human blood pool. Nonetheless, a direct relation between the absolute amount of incorporated iopamidol and the enhancement in imaging efficiency was not observed. In this study, physical properties of the designed microparticle are systematically investigated experimentally with theoretical interpretation to correlate an enhancement in X-ray imaging efficiency. The compositional ratio of X-ray contrast agent in polymeric microparticle is controlled as 1/1 and 10/1 [contrast agent/polymer microparticle (w/w)] with changed degree of cross-linkings. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), retractive force (τ) and degree of swelling of the designed polymeric microparticles are investigated. In addition, the hydrodynamic size (D(H)) and ζ-potential are evaluated in terms of environment responsiveness. The physical properties of the designed flow tracer microparticles under a given condition are observed to be strongly related with the X-ray absorption efficiency, which are also supported by the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The designed microparticles are almost nontoxic with a reasonable concentration and time period, enough to be utilized as a flow tracer in various biomedical applications. This study would contribute to the basic understanding on the physical property connected with the imaging efficiency of contrast agents.

  17. A Microfluidics Study to Quantify the Impact of Microfracture Properties on Two-Phase Flow in Tight Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, A.; Kelly, S. A.; Torres-Verdin, C.; Balhoff, M.

    2017-12-01

    Microfluidics provides the opportunity for controlled experiments of immiscible fluid dynamics in quasi two-dimensional permeable media and allows their direct observation. We leverage microfluidics to investigate the impact of microfracture properties on water imbibition and drainage in a porous matrix. In the context of this work, microfractures are defined as apertures or preferential flow paths formed along planes of weakness, such as between two different rock fabrics. Patterns of pseudo-microfractures with orientations from parallel and perpendicular to fluid flow as well as variations in their connectivity were fabricated in glass micromodels; surface roughness of the micromodels was also varied utilizing a new method. Light microscopy and image analysis were used to quantify transient front advancement and trapped non-wetting phase saturation during imbibition as well as residual wetting phase saturation and its spatial distribution following drainage. Our experiments enable the assessment of quantitative relationships between fluid invasion rate and residual phase distributions as functions of microfracture network properties. Ultimately, the wide variety of microfluidic experiments performed in this study provide valuable insight into two-phase fluid dynamics in microfracture/matrix networks, the extent of fracture fluid invasion, and the saturation of trapped phases. In reservoir description, the geometries of subsurface fractures are often difficult to ascertain, but the distribution of rock types in a zone, from highly laminated to homogenous, can be reliably assessed with core data and well logs. Assuming that microcracks are functions of lamination planes (thin beds), then a priori predictions of the effect of microcracks on two-phase fluid flow across various geological conditions can possibly be upscaled via effective lamination properties. Such upscaling can significantly reduce the uncertainties associated with subsurface operations, including

  18. Regional variation of flow duration curves in the eastern United States: Process-based analyses of the interaction between climate and landscape properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa Chouaib; Peter V. Caldwell; Younes Alila

    2018-01-01

    This paper advances the physical understanding of the flow duration curve (FDC) regional variation. It provides a process-based analysis of the interaction between climate and landscape properties to explain disparities in FDC shapes. We used (i) long term measured flow and precipitation data over 73 catchments from the eastern US. (ii) We calibrated the...

  19. Perturbative calculations of flow patterns in free convection between coaxial cylinders. Non-linear temperature dependences of the fluid properties; Un metodo de perturbaciones para la obtencion de perfiles de velocidad en conveccion natural entre cilindros coaxiales, dependencias de la temperatura no-lineales de las propiedades del fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J A; Madariaga, J A; Santamaria, C M; Saviron, J M

    1980-07-01

    10 refs. Flow pattern calculations in natural convection between two vertical coaxial cylinders are reported. It is assumed trough the paper. that fluid properties, viscosity, thermal conductivity and density, depend no-linearly on temperature and that the aspects (height/radius) ratio of the cylinders is high. Velocity profiles are calculated trough a perturbative scheme and analytic results for the three first perturbation orders are presented. We outline also an iterative method to estimate the perturbations on the flow patterns which arise when a radial composition gradient is established by external forces in a two-component fluid. This procedure, based on semiempirical basis, is applied to gaseous convection. The influence of the molecules gas properties on tho flow is also discussed. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Quantitative analysis of optical properties of flowing blood using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo code: effects of red blood cells' orientation on light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-05-01

    Optical properties of flowing blood were analyzed using a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model with the physical properties of the flowing red blood cells (RBCs) such as cell size, shape, refractive index, distribution, and orientation as the parameters. The scattering of light by flowing blood at the He-Ne laser wavelength of 632.8 nm was significantly affected by the shear rate. The light was scattered more in the direction of flow as the flow rate increased. Therefore, the light intensity transmitted forward in the direction perpendicular to flow axis decreased. The pciMC model can duplicate the changes in the photon propagation due to moving RBCs with various orientations. The resulting RBC's orientation that best simulated the experimental results was with their long axis perpendicular to the direction of blood flow. Moreover, the scattering probability was dependent on the orientation of the RBCs. Finally, the pciMC code was used to predict the hematocrit of flowing blood with accuracy of approximately 1.0 HCT%. The photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model can provide optical properties of flowing blood and will facilitate the development of the non-invasive monitoring of blood in extra corporeal circulatory systems.

  1. Prediction of liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube development of analytical method under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Hideaki; Kaminaga, Fumito

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed based on the conservation lows to predict critical heat flux (CHF) causing liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube under BWR conditions. The applicable range of the method is within the pressure of 3-9 MPa, mass flux of 500-2,000 kg/m 2 ·s, heat flux of 0.33-2.0 MW/m 2 and boiling length-to-tube diameter ratio of 200-800. The two-phase annular-mist flow was modeled with the three-fluid streams with liquid film, entrained droplets and gas flow. Governing equations of the method are mass continuity and energy conservation on the three-fluid streams. Constitutive equations on the mass transfer which consist of the entrainment fraction at equilibrium and the mass transfer coefficient were newly proposed in this study. Confirmation of the present method were performed in comparison with the available film flow measurements and various CHF data from experiments in uniformly heated narrow tubes under high pressure steam-water conditions. In the heat flux range (q'' 2 ) practical for a BWR, agreement of the present method with CHF data was obtained as, (Averaged ratio) ± (Standard deviation) = 0.984 ± 0.077, which was shown to be the same or better agreement than the widely-used CHF correlations. (author)

  2. Effect of flowing sodium on corrosion and tensile properties of AISI type 316LN stainless steel at 823 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivai Bharasi, N.; Thyagarajan, K.; Shaikh, H.; Balamurugan, A. K.; Bera, Santanu; Kalavathy, S.; Gurumurthy, K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dayal, R. K.; Rajan, K. K.; Khatak, H. S.

    2008-07-01

    AISI type 316LN stainless steel was exposed to flowing sodium in mass transfer loop (MTL) at 823 K for 16 000 h and then examined for changes in the tensile properties due to the mass transfer and corrosion effects. Comparisons in microstructural and mechanical properties were made between annealed, thermally aged and sodium exposed materials. Microstructural examination of thermally aged and sodium exposed materials revealed precipitation of carbides at the grain boundaries. The sodium exposed samples contained a degraded layer at the surface up to a depth of around 10 μm and a surface carburized layer of about 30 μm. There was about 15% increase in yield strength and a decrease of about 20% in ductility for the sodium exposed material vis-a-vis thermally aged material and this was attributed to carburization effects and microstructural changes.

  3. Effect of flowing sodium on corrosion and tensile properties of AISI type 316LN stainless steel at 823 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivai Bharasi, N.; Thyagarajan, K.; Shaikh, H.; Balamurugan, A.K.; Bera, Santanu; Kalavathy, S.; Gurumurthy, K.; Tyagi, A.K.; Dayal, R.K.; Rajan, K.K.; Khatak, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    AISI type 316LN stainless steel was exposed to flowing sodium in mass transfer loop (MTL) at 823 K for 16 000 h and then examined for changes in the tensile properties due to the mass transfer and corrosion effects. Comparisons in microstructural and mechanical properties were made between annealed, thermally aged and sodium exposed materials. Microstructural examination of thermally aged and sodium exposed materials revealed precipitation of carbides at the grain boundaries. The sodium exposed samples contained a degraded layer at the surface up to a depth of around 10 μm and a surface carburized layer of about 30 μm. There was about 15% increase in yield strength and a decrease of about 20% in ductility for the sodium exposed material vis-a-vis thermally aged material and this was attributed to carburization effects and microstructural changes

  4. The influence of interfacial properties on the two-phase liquid flow of organic contaminants in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demond, A.H.; Desai, F.N.; Hayes, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's waste sites are contaminated with a variety of organic liquids. Because of their low solubility in water, organic liquids such as these will persist as separate liquid phases and be transported as such in the subsurface. Thus, an improved understanding of the factors influencing the movement of a separate organic liquid phase in the subsurface is important to DOE's efforts to control groundwater contamination. Wettability is sometimes cited as the most important factor influencing two-phase flow in porous media. The wetting phase migrates preferentially through the smaller pores, whereas the nonwetting phase is concentrated in the larger pores. Typically, aquifers are thought of as strongly water-wet, implying that the organic liquid preferentially occupies the larger pores. But in fact, that state depends on the properties of the three interfaces of the system: between the organic liquid and water, water and the solid, and the organic liquid and the solid. Characteristics of the system which affect the interfacial properties also impact the wettability, such as the nature of the aquifer solids' surfaces, the composition of the goundwater and the properties of the organic contaminant. The alteration of wettability at DOE waste sites may be dominated by the presence of co-contaminants such as organic acids and bases which behave as surface-active agents or surfactants. Because of their physicochemical nature, surfactants will sorb preferentially at the interfaces of the system, thereby impacting the wettability and the distribution of the liquids in the porous medium. The over-all objective of this research was to determine how changes in interfacial properties affect two-phase flow. Specifically, the objective was to examine the effect of surfactant sorption on capillary pressure relationships by correlating measurements of sorption, zeta potential, interfacial tension and contact angle, with changes in the capillary pressure-saturation relationships

  5. Neural network: an instrument to study flow and packing properties of pharmaceutical powders

    OpenAIRE

    Mulas, Gilberto; Kachrimanis, K.; Gavini, Elisabetta; Giunchedi, Paolo; Malamataris, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study five brands of microcrystalline cellulose (Ph101, Vivapur, Ph 301, Emcocel and Prosolv), three brands of Crospovidone (XL, XL-10 and INF) and pregelatinized Starch were mixed with 2% w/w of Aerosil 200, Aerosil R972 (two different kinds of colloidal silicon dioxide) or Mg stearate, to obtain 27 distinct mixtures. Flow rate, bulk and tapped density of mixtures were measured and tablets were prepared.

  6. The effect of particle size and concentration on the flow properties of a homogeneous slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.A.; Crowe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the effects of particle size and concentration on the velocity distribution in the fully developed flow of a homogeneous slurry. The slurry consisted of chloroform and silica gel with matched index of refraction to enable Laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements through the mixture. Slurries with two particle sizes and solids concentration up to 30% by volume were studied. Measurements were made over a Reynolds number range of 1,200 to 30,000

  7. Effects of fluid properties on the cross-flow between subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Mie; Hotta, Akitoshi; Shirai, Hiroshi; Ninokata, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    This study is one part of the fundamental research on the development of generalized boiling transition analysis methodology applicable to a wide variety of BWR-type fuel bundle geometries. In this study, quantitative identification of the void drift component in cross-flow is conducted by the combination of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) interface tracking technique and the Multiple Auto Regressive (MAR) method. The numerical model consists of two subchannels with a communication slit. The cross section is modeled in a reference of the Tapucu model, which is extracted from a symmetrical cell pair of actual square lattice fuel rod bundles. An air-water mixture in the slug and churn regimes at atmospheric pressure and room temperature is used as the working fluid. As a result, a concept on extraction of void drift and turbulent mixing components from cross-flow according to experimental data is confirmed by a numerical approach in which pressure is adjusted at each channel outlet using a model of two parallel channels with a communication slit. Criteria to extract components of the turbulent mixing and the void drift components from cross-flow assuming a multi-component mixture are proposed. Effects of surface tension and density ratio of water and air on the cross-flow between subchannels are investigated under conditions to maintain the gas-liquid evolution process based on the proposed criteria. The qualitative evaluation technique with dependency on surface tension and density ratio was proposed. It is expected to provide supplemental information which is difficult to obtain from experiments. (author)

  8. Electric and thermodynamic properties of plasma flows created by a magnetoplasma compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puric, J; Dojcinovic, I P; Astashynski, V M; Kuraica, M M; Obradovic, B M

    2004-01-01

    A magnetoplasma compressor of compact geometry (MPC-CG) with a semi-transparent electrode system that operates in the ion current transfer regime was constructed and studied. The electric and thermodynamic parameters of the discharge and the plasma flow created in different gases and their mixtures (hydrogen, nitrogen, argon and Ar + 3% H 2 ) have been measured to optimize the working conditions within the 100-3000 Pa pressure range for input energy up to 6.4 kJ. A special construction of the accelerator electrode system shielded by the self-magnetic field results in protection from erosion, which is the main cause of the high current cut-off in conventional plasma accelerators. It was found that the compression plasma flow velocity, electron density and temperature predominantly depend on the energy conversion rate from the energy supply to the plasma, since the current cut-off is avoided. The maximum energy conversion rate for MPC-CG was found when operating in hydrogen. The plasma flow velocity and electron density maximum values are measured close to 100 km s -1 and 10 17 cm -3 , respectively, for input energy of 6.4 kJ at 1000 Pa pressure in hydrogen. Our results appear in good agreement with existing theoretical and experimental data

  9. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  11. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  12. Analytic energy derivatives for the calculation of the first-order molecular properties using the domain-based local pair-natural orbital coupled-cluster theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipayan; Kossmann, Simone; Neese, Frank

    2016-09-01

    The domain-based local pair-natural orbital coupled-cluster (DLPNO-CC) theory has recently emerged as an efficient and powerful quantum-chemical method for the calculation of energies of molecules comprised of several hundred atoms. It has been demonstrated that the DLPNO-CC approach attains the accuracy of a standard canonical coupled-cluster calculation to about 99.9% of the basis set correlation energy while realizing linear scaling of the computational cost with respect to system size. This is achieved by combining (a) localized occupied orbitals, (b) large virtual orbital correlation domains spanned by the projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and (c) compaction of the virtual space through a truncated pair natural orbital (PNO) basis. In this paper, we report on the implementation of an analytic scheme for the calculation of the first derivatives of the DLPNO-CC energy for basis set independent perturbations within the singles and doubles approximation (DLPNO-CCSD) for closed-shell molecules. Perturbation-independent one-particle density matrices have been implemented in order to account for the response of the CC wave function to the external perturbation. Orbital-relaxation effects due to external perturbation are not taken into account in the current implementation. We investigate in detail the dependence of the computed first-order electrical properties (e.g., dipole moment) on the three major truncation parameters used in a DLPNO-CC calculation, namely, the natural orbital occupation number cutoff used for the construction of the PNOs, the weak electron-pair cutoff, and the domain size cutoff. No additional truncation parameter has been introduced for property calculation. We present benchmark calculations on dipole moments for a set of 10 molecules consisting of 20-40 atoms. We demonstrate that 98%-99% accuracy relative to the canonical CCSD results can be consistently achieved in these calculations. However, this comes with the price of tightening the

  13. Effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on the tribological properties of TiN coated HSS using CAE PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, A.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-Speed Steel (HSS) is a material that used in various Hi-Tech industries for many reasons. The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of TiN (Titanium Nitride)-coated HSS. Using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) technique coated samples. The goal of this work is to determine usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve tribological properties of HSS, as vastly use in cutting tool industry for various applications. A Pin-on-Disc test showed that the minimum value recorded for friction coefficient was reduced from 0.294 to 0.239 when the nitrogen gas flow rate was increased from 100 sccm to 200 sccm. The decrease in friction coefficient resulted from the reduction in macrodroplets by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate during deposition. The worn surface morphology of the TiN coated HSS was observed on a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and the elemental composition on the wear scar were investigated by means of EDXS. (Author)

  14. Studies on the effect of compatibilizers on mechanical, thermal and flow properties of polycarbonate/poly (butylene terephthalate) blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravindra; Kar, Kamal K.; Kumar, Vijai

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) were melt blended with ethylene-n-butylacrylate-glycidylmethacrylate terpolymer (E-BA-GMA) at various proportions in order to study the effects of compatibilizers on mechanical, thermal and flow properties of blends. Furthermore, on the basis of this study, PC and PBT were melt-blended at 60/40 proportion with three different compatibilizers viz., ethylene-n-butylacrylate copolymer (E-BA), E-BA-GMA and random copolymer of ethylene and glycidylmethacrylate (E-GMA) at 3 phr loading in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were carried out on injection molded samples of PC/PBT blends. The notched izod impact strength increases enormously (˜2-3 times) on addition of any one of the three compatibilizers, and elongation at break (%) also improves tremendously (3, 5 and 4 times) on incorporation of E-BA, E-BA-GMA and E-GMA copolymer, respectively while other mechanical properties decreases slightly (3%-8%) on addition of any one of these compatibilizers. The heat deflection temperature (HDT) raises ˜8 °C-9 °C on addition of either E-BA-GMA or E-GMA, while E-BA shows a negative effect on HDT. The melt flow index diminishes significantly (˜5%-20%) on incorporation of these compatibilizers. The morphology studies via scanning electron microscopy of these four blends were carried out to confirm the mechanical results.

  15. Modeling and Vulnerability Analysis of Cyber-Physical Power Systems Considering Network Topology and Power Flow Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional power systems are developing into cyber-physical power systems (CPPS with wide applications of communication, computer and control technologies. However, multiple practical cases show that the failure of cyber layers is a major factor leading to blackouts. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the cascading failure process considering cyber layer failures and analyze the vulnerability of CPPS. In this paper, a CPPS model, which consists of cyber layer, physical layer and cyber-physical interface, is presented using complex network theory. Considering power flow properties, the impacts of cyber node failures on the cascading failure propagation process are studied. Moreover, two vulnerability indices are established from the perspective of both network structure and power flow properties. A vulnerability analysis method is proposed, and the CPPS performance before and after cascading failures is analyzed by the proposed method to calculate vulnerability indices. In the case study, three typical scenarios are analyzed to illustrate the method, and vulnerabilities under different interface strategies and attack strategies are compared. Two thresholds are proposed to value the CPPS vulnerability roughly. The results show that CPPS is more vulnerable under malicious attacks and cyber nodes with high indices are vulnerable points which should be reinforced.

  16. Use of Isomerization and Hydroisomerization Reactions to Improve the Cold Flow Properties of Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Reaume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel with the potential to reduce overall net CO2 emissions. However, the high cloud point of biodiesel must be reduced when used in cold climates. We report on the use of isomerization and hydroisomerization reactions to reduce the cloud point of eight different fats and oils. Isomerization was carried out at 260 °C and 1.5 MPa H2 pressure utilizing beta zeolite catalyst, while hydroisomerization was carried out at 300 °C and 4.0 MPa H2 pressure utilizing 0.5 wt % Pt-doped beta zeolite catalyst. Reaction products were tested for cloud point and flow properties, in addition to catalyst reusability and energy requirements. Results showed that high unsaturated fatty acid biodiesels increased in cloud point, due to the hydrogenation side reaction. In contrast, low unsaturated fatty acid biodiesels yielded cloud point reductions and overall improvement in the flow properties. A maximum cloud point reduction of 12.9 °C was observed with coconut oil as the starting material. Results of the study have shown that branching can reduce the cloud point of low unsaturated fatty acid content biodiesel.

  17. Crystal and Particle Engineering Strategies for Improving Powder Compression and Flow Properties to Enable Continuous Tablet Manufacturing by Direct Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Sayantan; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2018-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing of tablets has many advantages, including batch size flexibility, demand-adaptive scale up or scale down, consistent product quality, small operational foot print, and increased manufacturing efficiency. Simplicity makes direct compression the most suitable process for continuous tablet manufacturing. However, deficiencies in powder flow and compression of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) limit the range of drug loading that can routinely be considered for direct compression. For the widespread adoption of continuous direct compression, effective API engineering strategies to address power flow and compression problems are needed. Appropriate implementation of these strategies would facilitate the design of high-quality robust drug products, as stipulated by the Quality-by-Design framework. Here, several crystal and particle engineering strategies for improving powder flow and compression properties are summarized. The focus is on the underlying materials science, which is the foundation for effective API engineering to enable successful continuous manufacturing by the direct compression process. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Entropy generation in turbulent mixed convection heat transfer to highly variable property pipe flow of supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Mahdi; Bazargan, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The entropy generation in supercritical fluid flows has been numerically investigated. • The mechanisms of entropy generation are different near and away from the walls. • In the near wall region, the energy dissipation is the deciding parameter. • Away from the wall, the heat transfer is the effective factor in entropy generation. • The bulk Be number is greater in the liquid-like region than in vapor-like region. - Abstract: In this study, a two dimensional CFD code has been developed to investigate entropy generation in turbulent mixed convection heat transfer flow of supercritical fluids. Since the fluid properties vary significantly under supercritical conditions, the changes of entropy generation are large. The contribution of each of the mechanisms of entropy production (heat transfer and energy dissipation) is compared in different regions of the flow. The results show that the mechanisms of entropy generation act differently in the near wall region within the viscous sub-layer and in the region away from the wall. The effects of the wall heat flux on the entropy generation are also investigated

  19. A modified variable physical properties model, for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer over nonlinearly stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooria Akbarzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of laminar nanofluid flow which results from the nonlinear stretching of a flat sheet is investigated numerically. In this paper, a modified variable physical properties model for analyzing nanofluids flow and heat transfer is introduced. In this model, the effective viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity of the solid-liquid mixture (nanofluids which are commonly utilized in the homogenous single-phase model, are locally combined with the prevalent single-phase model. A numerical similarity solution is considered which depends on the local Prandtl number, local Brownian motion number, local Lewis number, and local thermophoresis number. The results are compared to the prevalent single-phase model. This comparison depicts that the prevalent single-phase model has a considerable deviation for predicting the behavior of nanofluids flow especially in dimensionless temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction. In addition the effect of the governing parameters such as Prandtl number, the Brownian motion number, the thermophoresis parameter, the Lewis number, and etc. on the velocity, temperature, and volume fraction distribution and the dimensionless heat and mass transfer rates are examined.

  20. Experimental–theoretical methodology for determination of inertial pressure drop distribution and pore structure properties in wall-flow diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Serrano, J.R.; Piqueras, P.

    2011-01-01

    Wall-flow particulate filters have been placed as a standard technology for Diesel engines because of the increasing restrictions to soot emissions. The inclusion of this system within the exhaust line requires the development of computational tools to properly simulate its flow dynamics and acoustics behaviour. These aspects become the key to understand the influence on engine performance and driveability as a function of the filter placement. Since the pressure drop and the filtration process are strongly depending on the pore structure properties – permeability, porosity and pore size – a reliable definition of these characteristics is essential for model development. In this work a methodology is proposed to determine such properties based on the combination of the pressure drop rement in a steady flow test rig and two theoretical approaches. The later are a lumped model and a one-dimensional (1D) unsteady compressible flow model. The purpose is to simplify the integration of particulate filters into the global engine modelling and development processes avoiding the need to resort to specific and expensive characterisation tests. The proposed methodology was validated against measurements of the response of an uncoated diesel particulate filter (DPF) under different flow conditions as cold steady flow, impulsive flow and hot pulsating flow. -- Highlights: ► Experimental and modelling tools to characterise wall-flow DPFs pressure drop. ► Decomposition of inertial pressure drop contributions in canned DPFs. ► Methodology to define pore structure properties in clean wall-flow DPFs. ► Evaluation of specific permeability, porosity and mean pore diameter. ► Significant influence of slip-flow effect on uncoated wall-flow DPFs.