WorldWideScience

Sample records for flow solar reactor

  1. Continuous-flow solar UVB disinfection reactor for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonimpa, Eric Gentil; Vadheim, Bryan; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2012-05-01

    Access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water is a long-standing problem among people in developing countries. Sustainable solutions to these problems often involve point-of-use or community-scale water treatment systems that rely on locally-available resources and expertise. This philosophy was used in the development of a continuous-flow, solar UVB disinfection system. Numerical modeling of solar UVB spectral irradiance was used to define temporal variations in spectral irradiance at several geographically-distinct locations. The results of these simulations indicated that a solar UVB system would benefit from incorporation of a device to amplify ambient UVB fluence rate. A compound parabolic collector (CPC) was selected for this purpose. Design of the CPC was based on numerical simulations that accounted for the shape of the collector and reflectance. Based on these simulations, a prototype CPC was constructed using materials that would be available and inexpensive in many developing countries. A UVB-transparent pipe was positioned in the focal area of the CPC; water was pumped through the pipe to allow exposure of waterborne microbes to germicidal solar UVB radiation. The system was demonstrated to be effective for inactivation of Escherichia coli, and DNA-weighted UV dose was shown to govern reactor performance. The design of the reactor is expected to scale linearly, and improvements in process performance (relative to results from the prototype) can be expected by use of larger CPC geometry, inclusion of better reflective materials, and application in areas with greater ambient solar UV spectral irradiance than the location of the prototype tests. The system is expected to have application for water treatment among communities in (developing) countries in near-equatorial and tropical locations. It may also have application for disaster relief or military field operations, as well as in water treatment in areas of developed countries that receive

  2. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. II: a simplified analysis for flow reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC (Univ. Nacional del Litoral and CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Very frequently outgoing streams of real wastewaters do not have a definite and constant composition. Additionally, when the degradation process makes use of solar irradiation, the photon flux is hardly constant. These two factors strongly militate against the use of very elaborate, exact models for analyzing the performance of the employed reactors. In these cases, approximate methods may be the most practical approach. One possible way is presented in this paper. The observed photonic efficiency concept developed in a previous contribution (sagawe et al., 2002a) is applied to continuous reactors for both steady state and transient operations of photocatalytic reactions applied to wastewaters decontamination processes. For this reactor the local observed photonic efficiency, defined at each reactor longitudinal position, is the convenient property to express the concentration spatial evolution. It is also shown that the description of the reactor performance employing a mass balance can be done in a rather simple way introducing a mass-moving coordinate transformation that remodel the mass inventory and permits working with simpler ordinary differential equations. (orig.)

  3. Rapid solar-thermal dissociation of natural gas in an aerosol flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jaimee K.; Buechler, Karen J.; Finley, Ryan; Stanislaus, Timothy; Weimer, Alan W.; Lewandowski, Allan; Bingham, Carl; Smeets, Alexander; Schneider, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    A solar-thermal aerosol flow reactor process is being developed to dissociate natural gas (NG) to hy drogen (H 2 ) and carbon black at high rates. Concentrated sunlight approaching 10 kW heats a 9.4 cm long x2.4 cm diameter graphite reaction tube to temperatures ∼2000 K using a 74% theoretically efficient secondary concentrator. Pure methane feed has been dissociated to 70% for residence times less than 0.1 s. The resulting carbon black is 20-40 nm in size, amorphous, and pure. A 5 million (M) kg/yr carbon black/1.67 M kg/yr H 2 plant is considered for process scale-up. The total permanent investment (TPI) of this plant is $12.7 M. A 15% IRR after tax is achieved when the carbon black is sold for $0.66/kg and the H 2 for $13.80/GJ. This plant could supply 0.06% of the world carbon black market. For this scenario, the solar-thermal process avoids 277 MJ fossil fuel and 13.9 kg-equivalent CO 2 /kg H 2 produced as compared to conventional steam-methane reforming and furnace black processing

  4. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination: a simplified analysis for n-steps flow reactors with recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Universitaet Hannover (Germany). Institut fuer Technische Chemie; Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC Universidad Nacional del Litoral and CONICET, Sante Fe (Argentina)

    2005-09-01

    The concentration of dissolved oxygen in water, in equilibrium with atmospheric air (ca. 8 ppm at 20{sup o}C), defines the limits of all practical oxidizing processes for removing pollutants in photocatalytic reactors. To solve this limitation, an alternative approach to that of a continuously aerated reactor is the use of a recirculating system with aeration performed after every cycle at the reactor entering stream. As defined by the nature of a single recirculating step (the need of a reactor operation at a rather low concentration range), this procedure results in a very low photonic efficiency (thus requiring a large photon collecting area and consequently increasing the capital cost). The design engineer will have to resort to a series of several reactors with recirculation. This solution may then lead to a very high Photonic Efficiency for the entire process (i.e., a reduced light harvesting area) at the price of an increase in the required capital cost (due to the larger number of reactors). This paper provides a very simple analysis and analytical expressions that can be used to estimate, for a desired degree of degradation, a trade-off solution between a high number of reactors and a very large surface area to collect the solar photons. (author)

  5. A novel combined solar pasteurizer/TiO2 continuous-flow reactor for decontamination and disinfection of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José María; Durán, Antonio; Martín, Israel San; Acevedo, Alba María

    2017-02-01

    A new combined solar plant including an annular continuous-flow compound parabolic collector (CPC) reactor and a pasteurization system was designed, built, and tested for simultaneous drinking water disinfection and chemical decontamination. The plant did not use pumps and had no electricity costs. First, water continuously flowed through the CPC reactor and then entered the pasteurizer. The temperature and water flow from the plant effluent were controlled by a thermostatic valve located at the pasteurizer outlet that opened at 80 °C. The pasteurization process was simulated by studying the effect of heat treatment on the death kinetic parameters (D and z values) of Escherichia coli K12 (CECT 4624). 99.1% bacteria photo-inactivation was reached in the TiO 2 -CPC system (0.60 mg cm -2 TiO 2 ), and chemical decontamination in terms of antipyrine degradation increased with increasing residence time in the TiO 2 -CPC system, reaching 70% degradation. The generation of hydroxyl radicals (between 100 and 400 nmol L -1 ) was a key factor in the CPC system efficiency. Total thermal bacteria inactivation was attained after pasteurization in all cases. Chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation in the TiO 2 -CPC system were improved with the addition of 150 mg L -1 of H 2 O 2 , which generated approximately 2000-2300 nmol L -1 of HO ● radicals. Finally, chemical degradation and bacterial photo-inactivation kinetic modelling in the annular CPC photoreactor were evaluated. The effect of the superficial liquid velocity on the overall rate constant was also studied. Both antipyrine degradation and E. coli photo-inactivation were found to be controlled by the catalyst surface reaction rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  7. Pressurized water reactor flow arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; Knapp, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A flow path is provided for cooling the control rods of a pressurized water reactor. According to this scheme, a small amount of cooling water enters the control rod guide tubes from the top and passes downwards through the tubes before rejoining the main coolant flow and passing through the reactor core. (LL)

  8. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to clear the entire heavy-ion beam path of splashed molten salt. The structural components, including the structure between beam ports, are shielded. 3 refs., 12 figs

  9. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

  10. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  11. Flow model study of 'Monju' reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaguchi, Kimihide

    1980-01-01

    In the case of designing the structures in nuclear reactors, various problems to be considered regarding thermo-hydrodynamics exist, such as the distribution of flow quantity and the pressure loss in reactors and the thermal shock to inlet and outlet nozzles. In order to grasp the flow characteristics of coolant in reactors, the 1/2 scale model of the reactor structure of ''Monju'' was attached to the water flow testing facility in the Oarai Engineering Center, and the simulation experiment has been carried out. The flow characteristics in reactors clarified by experiment and analysis so far are the distribution of flow quantity between high and low pressure regions in reactors, the distribution of flow quantity among flow zones in respective regions of high and low pressure, the pressure loss in respective parts in reactors, the flow pattern and the mixing effect of coolant in upper and lower plenums, the effect of the twisting angle of inlet nozzles on the flow characteristics in lower plenums, the effect of internal cylinders on the flow characteristics in upper plenums and so on. On the basis of these test results, the improvement of the design of structures in reactors was made, and the confirmation test on the improved structures was carried out. The testing method, the calculation method, the test results and the reflection to the design of actual machines are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. The BGU/CERN solar hydrothermal reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Caspers, Fritz; Garb, Yaakov; Gross, Amit; Pauletta, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel solar hydrothermal reactor (SHR) under development by Ben Gurion University (BGU) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. We describe in broad terms the several novel aspects of the device and, by extension, of the niche it occupies: in particular, enabling direct off-grid conversion of a range of organic feedstocks to sterile useable (solid, liquid) fuels, nutrients, products using only solar energy and water. We then provide a brief description of the high temperature high efficiency panels that provide process heat to the hydrothermal reactor, and review the basics of hydrothermal processes and conversion taking place in this. We conclude with a description of a simulation of the pilot system that will begin operation later this year.

  13. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. I: a simplified analysis for batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC (Univ. Nacional del Litoral and CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Usual applications of photocatalytic reactors for treating wastewater exhibit the difficulty of handling fluids having varying composition and/or concentrations; thus, a detailed kinetic representation may not be possible. When the catalyst activation is obtained employing solar illumination an additional complexity always coexists: solar fluxes are permanently changing with time. For comparing different reacting systems under similar operating conditions and to provide approximate estimations for scaling up purposes, simplified models may be useful. For these approximations the model parameters should be restricted as much as possible to initial physical and boundary conditions such as: initial concentrations (expressed as such or as TOC measurements), flow rate or reactor volume, irradiated reactor area, incident radiation fluxes and a fairly simple experimental observation such as the photonic efficiency. A combination of a new concept: the ''actual observed photonic efficiency'' with ideal reactor models and empirical kinetic rate expressions can be used to provide rather simple working equations that can be efficiently used to describe the performance of practical reactors. In this paper, the method has been developed for the case of a photocatalytic batch reactor (PBR). (orig.)

  14. Novel Solar Photocatalytic Reactor for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutisna; Rokhmat, M.; Wibowo, E.; Murniati, R.; Khairurrijal; Abdullah, M.

    2017-07-01

    A new solar photocatalytic reactor (photoreactor) using TiO2 nanoparticles coated onto plastic granules has been designed. Catalyst granules are placed into the cavity of a reactor panel made of glass. A pump is used to circulate wastewater in the photoreactor. Methylene blue (MB) dissolved in water was chosen as the wastewater model. The performance of the photoreactor was evaluated based on changes in MB concentration with respect to time. The photoreactor showed a good performance by degrading 10 L of MB solution up to 96.54% after 48 h of solar irradiation. The photoreactor was scaled up by enlarging the panel area to twice its original size. The increase in the surface area of the reactor panel and therefore of the mass of catalyst granules and reactor volume led to a three-fold increase of the photodegradation rate. In addition, the MB degradation kinetics were also studied. Data analysis confirmed the applicability of the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The proposed photoreactor has great potential for use in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  15. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump....... The flow rate is increasing for increasing temperature.The flow rate at the high temperature level is typically 70 % greater than the flow rate at the low temperature level.Further, the energy consumption for the electronically controlled pump in a solar heating system will be somewhat smaller than...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0...

  16. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  17. Feasibility study of a solar reactor for phenol treatment by the Photo-Fenton process in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, K.R.B.; Nascimento, C.A.O.; Guardani, R.; Teixeira, A.C.S.C. [University of Sao Paulo, Chemical Engineering Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Solar reactors can be attractive in photodegradation processes due to lower electrical energy demand. The performance of a solar reactor for two flow configurations, i.e., plug flow and mixed flow, is compared based on experimental results with a pilot-scale solar reactor. Aqueous solutions of phenol were used as a model for industrial wastewater containing organic contaminants. Batch experiments were carried out under clear sky, resulting in removal rates in the range of 96-100 %. The dissolved organic carbon removal rate was simulated by an empirical model based on neural networks, which was adjusted to the experimental data, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.9856. This approach enabled to estimate effects of process variables which could not be evaluated from the experiments. Simulations with different reactor configurations indicated relevant aspects for the design of solar reactors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Microcrystalline thin-film solar cell deposition on moving substrates using a linear VHF-PECVD reactor and a cross-flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flikweert, A J; Zimmermann, T; Merdzhanova, T; Weigand, D; Appenzeller, W; Gordijn, A

    2012-01-01

    A concept for high-rate plasma deposition (PECVD) of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon on moving substrates (dynamic deposition) is developed and evaluated. The chamber allows for substrates up to a size of 40 × 40 cm 2 . The deposition plasma is sustained between linear VHF electrodes (60 MHz) and a moving substrate. Due to the gas flow geometry and the high degree of source gas depletion, from the carrier's point of view the silane concentration varies when passing the electrodes. This is known to lead to different growth conditions which can induce transitions from microcrystalline to amorphous growth. The effect of different silane concentrations is simulated at a standard RF showerhead electrode by intentionally varying the silane concentration during deposition in static mode. This variation may decrease the layer quality of microcrystalline silicon, due to a shift of the crystallinity away from the optimum. However, adapting the input silane concentration, state-of-the-art solar cells are obtained. Microcrystalline cells (ZnO : Al/Ag back contacts) produced by the linear VHF plasma sources show an efficiency of 7.9% and 6.6% for depositions in static and dynamic mode, respectively. (paper)

  19. Reactor coolant flow measurements at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenciaglia, G.; Gurevich, Y.; Liu, G.

    1996-01-01

    The CROSSFLOW ultrasonic flow measurement system manufactured by AMAG is fully proven as reliable and accurate when applied to large piping in defined geometries for such applications as feedwater flows measurement. Its application to direct reactor coolant flow (RCF) measurements - both individual channel flows and bulk flows such as pump suction flow - has been well established through recent work by AMAG at Point Lepreau, with application to other reactor types (eg. PWR) imminent. At Point Lepreau, Measurements have been demonstrated at full power; improvements to consistently meet ±1% accuracy are in progress. The development and recent customization of CROSSFLOW to RCF measurement at Point Lepreau are described in this paper; typical measurement results are included. (author)

  20. Cascading pressure reactor and method for solar-thermochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermanoski, Ivan

    2017-11-14

    Reactors and methods for solar thermochemical reactions are disclosed. The reactors and methods include a cascade of reduction chambers at successively lower pressures that leads to over an order of magnitude pressure decrease compared to a single-chambered design. The resulting efficiency gains are substantial, and represent an important step toward practical and efficient solar fuel production on a large scale.

  1. Photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light in a CPC based solar reactor: Reactor design and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Dengwei; Liu Huan; Zhang Xianghui; Zhao Liang; Guo Liejin

    2009-01-01

    In despite of so many types of solar reactors designed for solar detoxification purposes, few attempts have been made for photocatalytic hydrogen production, which in our option, is one of the most promising approaches for solar to chemical energy conversion. Addressing both the similarity and dissimilarity for these two processes and by fully considering the special requirements for the latter reaction, a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar reactor has been designed for the first time. The design and optimization of this CPC based solar reactor has been discussed in detail. Preliminary results demonstrated that efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light can be accomplished by coupling tubular reactors with CPC concentrators. It is anticipated that this first demonstration of concentrator-based solar photocatalytic hydrogen production would draw attention for further studies in this promising direction.

  2. Limiting photocurrent analysis of a wide channel photoelectrochemical flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Jonathan T; Esposito, Daniel V

    2017-01-01

    The development of efficient and scalable photoelectrochemical (PEC) reactors is of great importance for the eventual commercialization of solar fuels technology. In this study, we systematically explore the influence of convective mass transport and light intensity on the performance of a 3D-printed PEC flow cell reactor based on a wide channel, parallel plate geometry. Using this design, the limiting current density generated from the hydrogen evolution reaction at a p-Si metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) photocathode was investigated under varied reactant concentration, fluid velocity, and light intensity. Additionally, a simple model is introduced to predict the range of operating conditions (reactant concentration, light intensity, fluid velocity) for which the photocurrent generated in a parallel plate PEC flow cell is limited by light absorption or mass transport. This model can serve as a useful guide for the design and operation of wide-channel PEC flow reactors. The results of this study have important implications for PEC reactors operating in electrolytes with dilute reactant concentrations and/or under high light intensities where high fluid velocities are required in order to avoid operation in the mass transport-limited regime. (paper)

  3. Neutronics of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, P.D.; Hansen, G.E.

    1977-11-01

    The study was made to investigate the neutronic feasibility of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor. Three reactor concepts were studied: four- and seven-cell radial reactors and a seven-cell scallop reactor. The reactors were fueled with UF 6 (either U-233 or U-235) and various parameters were varied. A four-cell reactor is not practical nor is the U-235 fueled seven-cell radial reactor; however, the 7-cell U-233 radial and scallop reactors can satisfy all design criteria. The mixed flow gas core reactor is a very attractive reactor concept and warrants further investigation

  4. Calorimetric and reactor coolant system flow uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.; McLean, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the quantification of errors associated with the determination of a feedwater flow, secondary power, and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) flow used at the Trojan Nuclear Plant to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. The sources of error in Plant indications and process measurement are identified and tracked, using examples, through the mathematical processes necessary to calculate the uncertainty in the RCS flow measurement. An error of approximately 1.4 percent is calculated for secondary power. This error results, along with the consideration of other errors, in an uncertainty of approximately 3 percent in the RCS flow determination

  5. Reactor core flow rate control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Hitoshi; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Miyakawa, Tetsuya.

    1996-01-01

    When an internal pump is started by a variable frequency power source device, if magnetic fields of an AC generator are introduced after the rated speed is reached, neutron flux high scram occurs by abrupt increase of a reactor core flow rate. Then, in the present invention, magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced at a speed previously set at which the fluctuation range of the reactor core flow rate (neutron flux) by the start up of the internal pump is within an allowable value. Since increase of the speed of the internal pump upon its start up is suppressed to determine the change of the reactor core flow rate within an allowable range, increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed to enable stable start up. Then, since transition boiling of fuels caused by abrupt decrease of the reactor core flow rate upon occurrence of abnormality in an external electric power system is prevented, and the magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced in such a manner to put the speed increase fluctuation range of the internal pump upon start up within an allowable value, neutron flux high scram is not caused to enable stable start-up. (N.H.)

  6. Inferences of the deep solar meridional flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Vincent G. A.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the solar meridional flow is important for uncovering the origin of the solar activity cycle. Yet, recent helioseismic estimates of this flow have come to conflicting conclusions in deeper layers of the solar interior, i.e., at depths below about 0.9 solar radii. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of the deep solar meridional flow. Time-distance helioseismology is the major method for investigating this flow. In this method, travel times of waves propagating between pairs of locations on the solar surface are measured. Until now, the travel-time measurements have been modeled using the ray approximation, which assumes that waves travel along infinitely thin ray paths between these locations. In contrast, the scattering of the full wave field in the solar interior due to the flow is modeled in first order by the Born approximation. It is in general a more accurate model of the physics in the solar interior. In a first step, an existing model for calculating the sensitivity of travel-time measurements to solar interior flows using the Born approximation is extended from Cartesian to spherical geometry. The results are succesfully compared to the Cartesian ones and are tested for self-consistency. In a second step, the newly developed model is validated using an existing numerical simulation of linear wave propagation in the Sun. An inversion of artificial travel times for meridional flow shows excellent agreement for noiseless data and reproduces many features in the input flow profile in the case of noisy data. Finally, the new method is used to infer the deep meridional flow. I used Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) data that were earlier analyzed using the ray approximation and I employed the same Substractive Optimized Local Averaging (SOLA) inversion technique as in the earlier study. Using an existing formula for the covariance of travel-time measurements, it is shown that the assumption of uncorrelated errors

  7. CFD simulation on reactor flow mixing phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, T.S.; Kim, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    A pre-test calculation for multi-dimensional flow mixing in a reactor core and downcomer has been studied using a CFD code. To study the effects of Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) and core zone on the boron mixing behaviors in a lower downcomer and core inlet, a 1/5-scale CFD model of flow mixing test facility for the APR+ reference plant was simulated. The flow paths of the 1/5-scale model were scaled down by the linear scaling method. The aspect ratio (L/D) of all flow paths was preserved to 1. To preserve a dynamic similarity, the ratio of Euler number was also preserved to 1. A single phase water flow at low pressure and temperature conditions was considered in this calculation. The calculation shows that the asymmetric effect driven by RCPs shifted the high velocity field to the failed pump's flow zone. The borated water flow zone at the core inlet was also shifted to the failed RCP side. (author)

  8. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination, Part 3: a simplified analysis for recirculating reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [Universidad Nacional de Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina). Inst. de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Imdustria Quimica

    2004-11-01

    A solar photoreactor operated in the batch, recirculating mode is analyzed in terms of very simple observable variables such as the impinging photon flux, the incident area, the initial concentration, the flow rate, the reactor volume and a property defined as the Observed Photonic Efficiency. The proposed equipment is made of a tubular reactor, a tank, a pump and the connecting pipes. The analysis is formulated in terms of the photon input corresponding to an equivalent batch system that is derived as a new reaction coordinate for photoreactions. Employing several plausible approximations, the pollutant concentration evolution in the tank is cast in terms of very simple analytical solutions. Process photonic efficiencies are defined for the system operation and calculated with respect to the maximum achievable yield corresponding to the differential operation of the solar recirculating reactor. (Author)

  9. Constraining neutrino magnetic moment with solar and reactor neutrino data

    OpenAIRE

    Tortola, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    We use solar neutrino data to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Such moments, if present, would contribute to the neutrino-electron scattering cross section and hence alter the signal observed in Super-Kamiokande. Using the latest solar neutrino data, combined with the results of the reactor experiment KamLAND, we perform a simultaneous fit of the oscillation parameters and TMs. Furthermore, we include data from the reactor experiments Rovno, TEXONO and MU...

  10. Design of A solar Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor for Small Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashad, El H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2004-01-01

    A 10 m(3) completely stirred tank reactor has been designed for anaerobic treatment of liquid cow manure under thermophilic conditions (50degreesC), using a solar heating system mounted on the reactor roof. Simulation models for two systems have been developed. The first system consists of loose

  11. SOLAR ROTATION EFFECTS ON THE HELIOSHEATH FLOW NEAR SOLAR MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, Sergey N.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Ebert, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between fast and slow solar wind (SW) due to the Sun's rotation creates corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which further interact with each other creating complex plasma structures at large heliospheric distances. We investigate the global influence of CIRs on the SW flow in the inner heliosheath between the heliospheric termination shock (TS) and the heliopause. The stream interaction model takes into account the major global effects due to slow-fast stream interaction near solar minima. The fast and slow wind parameters are derived from the Ulysses observations. We investigate the penetration of corotating structures through the TS and their further propagation through the heliosheath. It is shown that the heliosheath flow structure may experience substantial modifications, including local decreases in the radial velocity component observed by Voyager 1.

  12. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  13. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...

  14. Thermodynamic modelling and solar reactor design for syngas production through SCWG of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Mahesh B.; Rahbari, Alireza; Pye, John

    2017-06-01

    Conversion of algal biomass into value added products, such as liquid fuels, using solar-assisted supercritical water gasification (SCWG) offers a promising approach for clean fuel production. SCWG has significant advantages over conventional gasification in terms of flexibility of feedstock, faster intrinsic kinetics and lower char formation. A relatively unexplored avenue in SCWG is the use of non-renewable source of energy for driving the endothermic gasification. The use of concentrated solar thermal to provide the process heat is attractive, especially in the case of expensive feedstocks such as algae. This study attempts to identify the key parameters and constraints in designing a solar cavity receiver/reactor for on-sun SCWG of algal biomass. A tubular plug-flow reactor, operating at 24 MPa and 400-600 °C with a solar input of 20MWth is modelled. Solar energy is utilized to increase the temperature of the reaction medium (10 wt.% algae solution) from 400 to 605 °C and simultaneously drive the gasification. The model additionally incorporates material constraints based on the allowable stresses for a commercially available Ni-based alloy (Inconel 625), and exergy accounting for the cavity reactor. A parametric evaluation of the steady state performance and quantification of the losses through wall conduction, external radiation and convection, internal convection, frictional pressure drop, mixing and chemical irreversibility, is presented.

  15. A Novel Dual-Stage Hydrothermal Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The dual-stage reactor is a novel continuous flow reactor with two reactors connected in series. It is designed for hydrothermal flow synthesis of nanocomposites, in which a single particle consists of multiple materials. The secondary material may protect the core nanoparticle from oxidation....... The dual-stage reactor combines the ability to produce advanced materials with an upscaled capacity in excess of 10 g/hour (dry mass). TiO2 was synthesized in the primary reactor and reproduced previous results. The dual-stage capability was succesfully demonstrated with a series of nanocomposites incl. Ti...

  16. Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical note: Development of a Linear Flow Channel Reactor for sulphur removal ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... 000 mg∙ℓ-1 Na2SO4 solution) and the Liner Flow Channel Reactors (surface area ...

  17. Investigation of flow stabilization in a compact reactor vessel of a FBR. Flow visualization in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Kamide, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    In the feasibility studies of Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System, a compact reactor vessel is considered from economical improvement point of a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor. The flow field was visualized by water experiment for a reactor vessel with 'a column type UIS (Upper Internal Structure)', which has a slit for fuel handling mechanism and is useful for a compact fast reactor. In this research, the 1/20 scale test equipment using water was made to understand coolant flow through a slit of a column type UIS' and fundamental behavior of reactor upper plenum flow. In the flow visualization tests, tracer particles were added in the water, and illuminated by the slit-shaped pulse laser. The flow visualization image was taken with a CCD camera. We obtained fluid velocity vectors from the visualization image using the Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The results are as follows. 1. Most of coolant flow through a slit of 'column type UIS' arrived the dip plate directly. In the opposite side of a slit, most of coolant flowed toward reactor vessel wall before it arrived the dip plate. 2. The PIV was useful to measure the flow field in the reactor vessel. The obtained velocity field was consistent with the flow visualization result. 3. The jet through the UIS slit was dependent on the UIS geometry. There is a possibility to control the jet by the UIS geometry. (author)

  18. A fast spectrum dual path flow cermet reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghaie, S.; Feller, G.J.; Peery, S.D.; Parsley, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A cermet fueled, dual path fast reactor for space nuclear propulsion applications is conceptually designed. The reactor utilizes an outer annulus core and an inner cylindrical core with radial and axial reflector. The dual path flow minimizes the impact of power peaking near the radial reflector. Basic neutronics and core design aspects of the reactor are discussed. The dual path reactor is integrated into a 25000 lbf thrust nuclear rocket

  19. Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends

  20. Analyses of Decrease in Reactor Coolant Flow Rate in SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Choi, Suhn

    2011-01-01

    SMART is a small integral reactor, which is under development at KAERI to get the standard design approval by the end of 2011. SMART works like a pressurized light-water reactor in principle though it is more compact than large commercial reactors. SMART houses major components such as steam generators, a pressurizer, and reactor coolant pumps inside the reactor pressure vessel. Due to its compact design, SMART adopts a canned-motor type reactor coolant pump which has much smaller rotational inertia than the ones used in commercial reactors. As a consequence, the reactor coolant pump has very short coastdown time and reactor coolant flow rate decreases more severely compared to commercial reactors. The transients initiated by reduction of reactor coolant flow rate have been analyzed to ensure that SMART can be safely shutdown on such transients. The design basis events in this category are complete loss of flow, single pump locked rotor with loss of offsite power, and single pump shaft break with loss of offsite power

  1. Flow rate control systems for coolants for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yoko; Kato, Naoyoshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase spontaneous recycling flow rate of coolants in BWR type reactors when the water level in the reactor decreases, by communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum. Constitution: An opening is provided to the back plate disposed at the lower end of a reactor core shroud for communicating a downcomer with a lower plenum, and an ON-OFF valve actuated by an operation rod is provided to the opening. When abnormal water level or pressure in the reactor is detected by a level metal or pressure meter, the operation rod is driven to open the ON-OFF valve, whereby coolants fed from a jet pump partially flows through the opening to increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants. This can increase the spontaneous recycling flow rate of the coolants upon spontaneous recycling operation, thereby maintaining the reactor safety and the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a sodium cooled reactor of the type having a reactor hot pool, a slightly lower pressure reactor cold pool and a reactor vessel liner defining a reactor vessel liner flow gap separating the hot pool and the cold pool along the reactor vessel sidewalls and wherein the normal sodium circuit in the reactor includes main sodium reactor coolant pumps having a suction on the lower pressure sodium cold pool and an outlet to a reactor core; the reactor core for heating the sodium and discharging the sodium to the reactor hot pool; a heat exchanger for receiving sodium from the hot pool, and removing heat from the sodium and discharging the sodium to the lower pressure cold pool; the improvement across the reactor vessel liner comprising: a jet pump having a venturi installed across the reactor vessel liner, the jet pump having a lower inlet from the reactor vessel cold pool across the reactor vessel liner and an upper outlet to the reactor vessel hot pool

  3. Demonstration of a 100-kWth high-temperature solar thermochemical reactor pilot plant for ZnO dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, E.; Villasmil, W.; Meier, A.

    2016-05-01

    Solar thermochemical H2O and CO2 splitting is a viable pathway towards sustainable and large-scale production of synthetic fuels. A reactor pilot plant for the solar-driven thermal dissociation of ZnO into metallic Zn has been successfully developed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Promising experimental results from the 100-kWth ZnO pilot plant were obtained in 2014 during two prolonged experimental campaigns in a high flux solar simulator at PSI and a 1-MW solar furnace in Odeillo, France. Between March and June the pilot plant was mounted in the solar simulator and in-situ flow-visualization experiments were conducted in order to prevent particle-laden fluid flows near the window from attenuating transparency by blocking incoming radiation. Window flow patterns were successfully characterized, and it was demonstrated that particle transport could be controlled and suppressed completely. These results enabled the successful operation of the reactor between August and October when on-sun experiments were conducted in the solar furnace in order to demonstrate the pilot plant technology and characterize its performance. The reactor was operated for over 97 hours at temperatures as high as 2064 K; over 28 kg of ZnO was dissociated at reaction rates as high as 28 g/min.

  4. Design of micro-reactors and solar photocatalytic prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores E, R.M.; Hernandez H, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, M.R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Jimenez B, J.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Castaneda J, G.; Lugo H, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the ININ is carried out research in heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial light for to degrade organic compounds. In this context, it is sought to use the solar radiation as energy source to knock down costs. Of equal form it requires to link the basic and applied research. For it, a methodology that allows to design and to build micro-reactors and plants pilot has been developed, like previous step, to request external supports and to a future commercialization. The beginning of these works gave place to the partial construction of a prototype of photocatalytic reactor of the cylinder-parabolic composed type (CPC)

  5. Numerical simulation of flow field in the China advanced research reactor flow-guide tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Changjiang

    2002-01-01

    The flow-guide tank in China advanced research reactor (CARR) acts as a reactor inlet coolant distributor and play an important role in reducing the flow-induced vibration of the internal components of the reactor core. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the flow-guide tank under different conceptual designing configurations are carried out using the PHOENICS3.2. It is seen that the inlet coolant is well distributed circumferentially into the flow-guide tank with the inlet buffer plate and the flow distributor barrel. The maximum cross-flow velocity within the flow-guide tank is reduced significantly, and the reduction of flow-induced vibration of reactor internals is expected

  6. Design of micro-reactors and solar photocatalytic prototypes; Diseno de micro-reactores y prototipos fotocataliticos solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Hernandez H, M.; Perusquia del Cueto, M.R.; Bonifacio M, J.; Jimenez B, J.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Castaneda J, G.; Lugo H, M. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac (Mexico)]. e-mail: rmfe@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    In the ININ is carried out research in heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial light for to degrade organic compounds. In this context, it is sought to use the solar radiation as energy source to knock down costs. Of equal form it requires to link the basic and applied research. For it, a methodology that allows to design and to build micro-reactors and plants pilot has been developed, like previous step, to request external supports and to a future commercialization. The beginning of these works gave place to the partial construction of a prototype of photocatalytic reactor of the cylinder-parabolic composed type (CPC)

  7. Dynamic Behavior of Reverse Flow Reactor for Lean Methane Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Yogi W. Budhi; M. Effendy; Yazid Bindar; Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    The stability of reactor operation for catalytic oxidation of lean CH4 has been investigated through modeling and simulation, particularly the influence of switching time and heat extraction on reverse flow reactor (RFR) performance. A mathematical model of the RFR was developed, based on one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model for mass and heat balances, incorporating heat loss through the reactor wall. The configuration of the RFR consisted of inert-catalyst-inert, with or without heat ext...

  8. A Study on the Flow Characterization in the Reactor Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Ko, Kwang Jeok; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Gyu; Cho, Yeon Ho; Kim, Hyun Min [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this study, the flow characterization of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed by using a 3 dimensional model and the ANSYS CFX software in order to predict the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC) of the RCPSA. The Reactor Cavity is the annular space by the concrete structure, the Reactor Cavity Pool Seal Assembly (RCPSA), which consists of the welded steel and is designed to be installed between the RV and the refueling pool floor, and the Reactor Vessel (RV). For such reason, the RCPSA should be designed to provide the cooling air passage for ventilation to circulate high temperature air passing by the RV during the reactor operation. It means that the RCPSA is influenced by the convection of cooling air and the thermal expansion of the RV. Therefore, the flow characterization at the reactor cavity is one of the factors of the RCPSA design during the reactor operation. The flow distribution of the cooling air in reactor cavity nearby RCPSA has been analyzed using ANSYS CFX software to obtain the CHTC at surface of the RCPSA. 1) The temperature from the RV and the insulation is one of the critical factors for the thermal gradient of the cooling air and the CHTC in the reactor cavity. 2) The rapid change of the CHTC in inner region nearby inner and outer flexure is related to the geometry shape of the RCPSA and velocity of cooling air.

  9. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  10. On the factors influencing the performance of solar reactors for water disinfection with photosensitized singlet oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, Francisco; Villén, Laura; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Two solar reactors based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) were optimized for water disinfection by photosensitized singlet oxygen (1O2) production in the heterogeneous phase. Sensitizing materials containing Ru(II) complexes immobilized on porous silicone were produced, photochemically characterized, and successfully tested for the inactivation of up to 10(4) CFU mL(-1) of waterborne Escherichia coli (gram-negative) or Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacteria. The main factors determining the performance of the solar reactors are the type of photosensitizing material, the sensitizer loading, the CPC collector geometry (fin- vs coaxial-type), the fluid rheology, and the balance between concurrent photothermal--photolytic and 1O2 effects on the microorganisms' inactivation. In this way, at the 40 degrees N latitude of Spain, water can be disinfected on a sunny day (0.6-0.8 MJ m(-2) L(-1) accumulated solar radiation dose in the 360-700 nm range, typically 5-6 h of sunlight) with a fin-type reactor containing 0.6 m2 of photosensitizing material saturated with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (ca. 2.0 g m(-2)). The optimum rheological conditions require laminar-to-transitional water flow in both prototypes. The fin-type system showed better inactivation efficiency than the coaxial reactor due to a more important photolytic contribution. The durability of the sensitizing materials was tested and the operational lifetime of the photocatalyst is at least three months without any reduction in the bacteria inactivation efficiency. Solar water disinfection with 1O2-generating films is demonstrated to be an effective technique for use in isolated regions of developing countries with high yearly average sunshine.

  11. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  12. Device for preventing cooling water from flowing out of reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinen, Masanori; Kotani, Koichi; Murase, Michio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide emergency cooling system, which can prevent cooling water bearing radioactivity from flowing to the outside of the reactor at the time of breakage of feedwater pipe, thus eliminating the possibility of exposure of the fuel rod to provide high reliability and also reducing the possibility of causing radioactive pollution. Structure: The device for preventing cooling water from flowing out from the reactor features a jet nozzle inserted in a feedwater pipe adjacent to the inlet or outlet thereof immediately before the reactor container. The nozzle outlet is provided in the vicinity of the reactor wall and in a direction opposite to the direction of out-flow, and water supplied from a high pressure pump is jetted from it. (Nakamura, S.)

  13. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  14. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  15. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM) reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitroo, Dhruv; Sun, Yujian; Combest, Daniel P.; Kumar, Purushottam; Williams, Brent J.

    2018-03-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate). While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs) inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM) reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS) model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study).

  16. Assessing the degree of plug flow in oxidation flow reactors (OFRs: a study on a potential aerosol mass (PAM reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mitroo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs have been developed to achieve high degrees of oxidant exposures over relatively short space times (defined as the ratio of reactor volume to the volumetric flow rate. While, due to their increased use, attention has been paid to their ability to replicate realistic tropospheric reactions by modeling the chemistry inside the reactor, there is a desire to customize flow patterns. This work demonstrates the importance of decoupling tracer signal of the reactor from that of the tubing when experimentally obtaining these flow patterns. We modeled the residence time distributions (RTDs inside the Washington University Potential Aerosol Mass (WU-PAM reactor, an OFR, for a simple set of configurations by applying the tank-in-series (TIS model, a one-parameter model, to a deconvolution algorithm. The value of the parameter, N, is close to unity for every case except one having the highest space time. Combined, the results suggest that volumetric flow rate affects mixing patterns more than use of our internals. We selected results from the simplest case, at 78 s space time with one inlet and one outlet, absent of baffles and spargers, and compared the experimental F curve to that of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation. The F curves, which represent the cumulative time spent in the reactor by flowing material, match reasonably well. We value that the use of a small aspect ratio reactor such as the WU-PAM reduces wall interactions; however sudden apertures introduce disturbances in the flow, and suggest applying the methodology of tracer testing described in this work to investigate RTDs in OFRs to observe the effect of modified inlets, outlets and use of internals prior to application (e.g., field deployment vs. laboratory study.

  17. (CSTR) and 1-plug flow reactor (PFR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. ... modeled as PFR and described by Michaelis. Menten equation. Designed equations derived from the two equations are used for the reactor sizing of ... Herbivores make a living on cellulose by possessing.

  18. TREATMENT OF METHANOLIC WASTEWATER BY ANAEROBIC DOWN-FLOW HANGING SPONGE (ANDHS) REACTOR AND UASB REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumino, Haruhiko; Wada, Keiji; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    Anaerobic down-flow hanging sponge (AnDHS) reactor and UASB reactor were operated at 30℃ for over 400 days in order to investigate the process performance and the sludge characteristics of treating methanolic wastewater (2 gCOD/L). The settings OLR of AnDHS reactor and of UASB reactor were 5.0 -10.0 kgCOD/m3/d and 5.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The average of the COD removal demonstrated by both reactors were over 90% throughout the experiment. From the results of methane producing activities and the PCR-DGGE method, most methanol was directly converted to methane in both reactors. The conversion was carried out by different methanogens: one closely related to Methanomethylovorans hollandica in the AnDHS retainted sludge and the other closely related to Methanosarcinaceae and Metanosarciales in the UASB retainted sludge.

  19. Flow Reactor for studying Physicochemical and aging properties of SOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z. B.

    2016-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) have importance in environmental processes such as affecting earth's radiative balance and cloud formation processes. For studying SOA formation large scale environmental batch reactors and laboratory scale flow reactors have been used. In this study application of flow reactor to study physicochemical properties of SOA is also investigated after its characterization. The flow reactor is of cylindrical design (ID 15 cm x L 70 cm) equipped with UV lamps. It is coupled with various instruments such as scanning mobility particle sizer, NOx analyzer, ozone analyzer, VOC analyzer, hygrometer, and temperature sensors for gas and particle phase measurements. OH radicals were generated by custom build ozone generator and relative humidity. The following characterizations were performed: (1) residence time distribution (RTD) measurements, (2) RH and temperature control, (3) OH radical exposure range (atmospheric aging time), (4) gas phase oxidation of SOA precursors such as α-pinene by OH radical. The flow reactor yielded narrow RTDs. In particular, RH and temperature can be controlled effectively between 0-60% and 22-43oC, respectively. OH radical exposure ranges from 6.49x1010 to 3.68x1011 molecules/cm3s (0.49 to 4.91 days). Our initial efforts on OH radical generation using hydrogen peroxide and its quantification by using flourescenet technique will be also be presented.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of light water reactor flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Weber, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), turbulence simulation, and parallel computing have made feasible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) single-phase and two-phase flow CFD codes that can simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in realistic reactor geometries with significantly reduced reliance, especially in single phase, on empirical correlations. The objective of this work was to assess the predictive power and computational efficiency of a CFD code in the analysis of a challenging single-phase light water reactor problem, as well as to identify areas where further improvements are needed

  1. Electrochemical degradation of the chloramphenicol at flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, Luis Gustavo P.; Prado, Vania M. do; Rocha, Robson S.; Beati, Andre A.G.F.; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar T.; Lanza, Marcos R.V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study of electrochemical degradation of the chloramphenicol antibiotic in aqueous medium using a flow-by reactor with DSA anode. The process efficiency was monitored by chloramphenicol concentration analysis with liquid chromatography (HPLC) during the experiments. Analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was performed to estimate the degradation degree and Ion Chromatography (IC) was performed to determinate inorganic ions formed during the electrochemical degradation process. In electrochemical flow-by reactor, 52% of chloramphenicol was degraded, with 12% TOC reduction. IC analysis showed the production of chloride ions (25 mg L -1 ), nitrate ions (6 mg L -1 ) and nitrite ions (4.5 mg L -1 ). (author)

  2. Ruthenium based redox flow battery for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Roberts, Edward Pelham Lindfield; Bae, Chulheung; Saleem, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undivided redox flow battery employing porous graphite felt electrodes was used. → Ruthenium acetylacetonate dissolved in acetonitrile was the electrolyte. → Charge/discharge conditions were determined for both 0.02 M and 0.1 M electrolytes. → Optimum power output of 0.180 W was also determined for 0.1 M electrolyte. → 55% voltage efficiency was obtained when battery was full of electrolytes. -- Abstract: The technical performance for the operation of a stand alone redox flow battery system for solar energy storage is presented. An undivided reactor configuration has been employed along with porous graphite felt electrodes and ruthenium acetylacetonate as electrolyte in acetonitrile solvent. Limiting current densities are determined for concentrations of 0.02 M and 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate. Based on these, operating conditions for 0.02 M ruthenium acetylacetonate are determined as charging current density of 7 mA/cm 2 , charge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0072 cm/s (through the porous electrodes), discharge current density of 2 mA/cm 2 and discharge electrolyte superficial velocity of 0.0045 cm/s. An optimum power output of 35 mW is also obtained upon discharge at 2.1 mA/cm 2 . With an increase in the concentration of ruthenium species from 0.02 M to 0.1 M, the current densities and power output are higher by a factor of five approximately (at same superficial velocities) due to higher mass transport phenomenon. Moreover at 0.02 M concentration the voltage efficiency is better for battery full of electrolytes prior to charging (52.1%) in comparison to an empty battery (40.5%) due to better mass transport phenomenon. Voltage efficiencies are higher as expected at concentrations of 0.1 M ruthenium acetylacetonate (55% when battery is full of electrolytes and 48% when empty) showing that the all-ruthenium redox flow battery has some promise for future applications in solar energy storage. Some improvements for the

  3. Solar-cycle variation of zonal and meridional flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komm, R; Howe, R; Hill, F; Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Haber, D

    2011-01-01

    We study the variation with the solar cycle of the zonal and meridional flows in the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone. We have analyzed MDI Dynamics-Program data with ring-diagram analysis covering the rising phase of cycle 23, while the analyzed GONG high-resolution data cover the maximum and declining phase of cycle 23. For the zonal flow, the migration with latitude of the flow pattern is apparent in the deeper layers, while for the meridional flow, a migration with latitude is apparent only in the layers close to the surface. The faster-than-average bands of the zonal flow associated with the new cycle are clearly visible. Similarly, a pattern related to the new cycle appears in the residual meridional flow. We also study the flow differences between the hemispheres during the course of the solar cycle. The difference pattern of the meridional flow is slanted in latitude straddling the faster-than-average band of the torsional oscillation pattern in the zonal flow. The difference pattern of the zonal flow, on the other hand, resembles the cycle variation of the meridional flow. In addition, the meridional flow during the minimum of cycle 23/24 appears to be slightly stronger than during the previous minimum of cycle 22/23.

  4. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  5. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  6. Review of leakage-flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The primary-coolant flow paths of a reactor system are usually subject to close scrutiny in a design review to identify potential flow-induced vibration sources. However, secondary-flow paths through narrow gaps in component supports, which parallel the primary-flow path, occasionally are the excitation source for significant vibrations even though the secondary-flow rates are orders of magnitude smaller than the primary-flow rate. These so-called leakage flow problems are reviewed here to identify design features and excitation sources that should be avoided. Also, design rules of thumb are formulated that can be employed to guide a design, but quantitative prediction of component response is found to require scale-model testing

  7. Investigation of slightly forced buoyant flow in a training reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legradi, G.; Aszodi, A.; Por, G.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement based on the temperature noise analysis method was carried out in the Training Reactor of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. The main goals were the estimation of the flow velocity immediately above the reactor core and investigation of the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the reactor, mainly in the core. Subsequently 2D and 3D computations were carried out with the aid of the code CFX- 4.3. The main objective of the 2D calculation was to clarify the thermal-hydraulical conditions of the whole reactor tank with a reasonable computing demand. It was also necessary to accomplish 3D numerical investigations of the reactor core and the space above since three dimensional effects of the flow could only be studied in this way. In addition, obtaining certain boundary conditions of the 3D computations was another significant aim of the 2D investigations. It is important that the results of the noise analysis and the operational measuring system of the reactor gave us a basis for verifying our computations.(author)

  8. Flow analysis in a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, C.H.; Kochan, R.J.; Beller, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), also known as hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), involves the oxidation of hazardous waste at conditions of elevated temperature and pressure (e.g., 500 C--600 C and 234.4 bar) in the presence of approximately 90% of water and a 10% to 20% excess amount of oxidant over the stoichiometric requirement. Under these conditions, organic compounds are completely miscible with supercritical water, oxygen and nitrogen, and are rapidly oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. The essential part of the process is the reactor. Many reactor designs such as tubular, vertical vessel, and transpiring wall type have been proposed, patented, and tested at both bench and pilot scales. These designs and performances need to be scaled up to a waste throughput 10--100 times that currently being tested. Scaling of this magnitude will be done by creating a numerical thermal-hydraulic model of the smaller reactor for which test data is available, validating the model against the available data, and then using the validated model to investigate the larger reactor performance. This paper presents a flow analysis of the MODAR bench scale reactor (vertical vessel type). These results will help in the design of the reactor in an efficient manner because the flow mixing coupled with chemical kinetics eventually affects the process destruction efficiency

  9. Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.

  10. Entrained Flow Reactor Test of Potassium Capture by Kaolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study a method to simulate the reaction between gaseous KCl and kaolin at suspension fired condition was developed using a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR). Kaolin was injected into the EFR for primary test of this method. By adding kaolin, KCl can effectively be captured...

  11. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K

  12. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...

  13. Turbine flow diagram of Paks-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancso, Tamas

    1983-01-01

    Computer calculations and programs are presented which inform the operators on the effect projected on the turbine and thermal efficiency of the modification in the flow diagram and in the starting parameters of the power cycle. In the program the expansion line of steam turbine type K-220-44 and the thermo-technical parameters of the elements of the feed-water heater system are determined. Detailed degree calculations for turbine unit of high pressure can be made. (author)

  14. Complete Flow Blockage of a Fuel Channel for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeonghee; Park, Suki

    2015-01-01

    The CHF correlation suitable for narrow rectangular channels are implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.3 code for the analyses, and the behavior of fuel temperatures and MCHFR(minimum critical heat flux ratio) are compared between the original and modified codes. The complete flow blockage of fuel channel for research reactor is analyzed using original and modified RELAP5/MOD3.3 and the results are compared each other. The Sudo-Kaminaga CHF correlation is implemented into RELAP5/MOD3.3 for analyzing the behavior of fuel adjacent to the blocked channel. A flow blockage of fuel channels can be postulated by a foreign object blocking cooling channels of fuels. Since a research reactor with plate type fuel has isolated fuel channels, a complete flow blockage of one fuel channel can cause a failure of adjacent fuel plates by the loss of cooling capability. Although research reactor systems are designed to prevent foreign materials from entering into the core, partial flow blockage accidents and following fuel failures are reported in some old research reactors. In this report, an analysis of complete flow blockage accident is presented for a 15MW pool-type research reactor with plate type fuels. The fuel surface experience different heat transfer regime in the results from original and modified RELAP5/MOD3.3. By the discrepancy in heat transfer mode of two cases, a fuel melting is expected by the modified RELAP5/MOD3.3, whereas the fuel integrity is ensured by the original code

  15. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

    1988-01-01

    A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

  16. Core Flow Distribution from Coupled Supercritical Water Reactor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an extended code package PARCS/RELAP5 to analyze steady state of SCWR US reference design. An 8 × 8 quarter core model in PARCS and a reactor core model in RELAP5 are used to study the core flow distribution under various steady state conditions. The possibility of moderator flow reversal is found in some hot moderator channels. Different moderator flow orifice strategies, both uniform across the core and nonuniform based on the power distribution, are explored with the goal of preventing the reversal.

  17. Thermalhydraulics of flowing particle-bed-type fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nietert, R.E.; Abdelk-Khalik, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of gravity-flowing particle beds using a special heat transfer loop. Glass microspheres were allowed to flow by gravity at controlled rates through an electrically heated stainless steel tubular test section. Values of the local and average convective heat transfer coefficient as a function of the average bed velocity, particle size and heat flux were determined. Such information is necessary for the design of gravity-flowing particle-bed type fusion reactor-blankets and associated tritium recovery systems. (orig.)

  18. A flow reactor for the flow supercritical water oxidation of wastes to mitigate the reactor corrosion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitanvis, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    We have designed a flow tube reactor for supercritical water oxidation of wastes that confines the oxidation reaction to the vicinity of the axis of the tube. This prevents high temperatures and reactants as well as reaction products from coming in intimate contact with reactor walls. This implies a lessening of corrosion of the walls of the reactor. We display numerical simulations for a vertical reactor with conservative design parameters that illustrate our concept. We performed our calculations for the destruction of sodium nitrate by ammonium hydroxide In the presence of supercritical water, where the production of sodium hydroxide causes corrosion. We have compared these results with that for a horizontal set-up where the sodium hydroxide created during the reaction ends up on the floor of the tube, implying a higher probability of corrosion

  19. Scale modeling flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-06-01

    Similitude relationships currently employed in the design of flow-induced vibration scale-model tests of nuclear reactor components are reviewed. Emphasis is given to understanding the origins of the similitude parameters as a basis for discussion of the inevitable distortions which occur in design verification testing of entire reactor systems and in feature testing of individual component designs for the existence of detrimental flow-induced vibration mechanisms. Distortions of similitude parameters made in current test practice are enumerated and selected example tests are described. Also, limitations in the use of specific distortions in model designs are evaluated based on the current understanding of flow-induced vibration mechanisms and structural response

  20. Beyond organometallic flow chemistry : the principles behind the use of continuous-flow reactors for synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noel, T.; Su, Y.; Hessel, V.; Noël, T.

    2015-01-01

    Flow chemistry is typically used to enable challenging reactions which are difficult to carry out in conventional batch equipment. Consequently, the use of continuous-flow reactors for applications in organometallic and organic chemistry has witnessed a spectacular increase in interest from the

  1. Reactor core flow measurements during plant start-up using non-intrusive flow meter CROSSFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, V.; Sharp, B.; Gurevich, A., E-mail: vkanda@amag-inc.com, E-mail: bsharp@amag-inc.com, E-mail: agurevich@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada); Gurevich, Y., E-mail: yuri.gurevich@daystartech.ca [Daystar Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Selvaratnarajah, S.; Lopez, A., E-mail: sselvaratnarajah@amag-inc.com, E-mail: alopez@amag-inc.com [Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc., Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    For the first time, direct measurements of the total reactor coolant flow and the flow distribution between the inner reactor zone and the outer zone were conducted using the non-intrusive clamp on ultrasonic cross-correlation flow meter, CROSSFLOW, developed and manufactured by Advanced Measurement & Analysis Group Inc. (AMAG). The measurements were performed at Bruce Power A Unit 1 on the Pump Discharge piping of the Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system during start-up. This paper describes installation processes, hydraulic testing, uncertainty analysis and traceability of the measurements to certified standards. (author)

  2. Deposition reactors for solar grade silicon: A comparative thermal analysis of a Siemens reactor and a fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Filtvedt, W. O.; Lindholm, D.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Rodríguez, A.; del Cañizo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Polysilicon production costs contribute approximately to 25-33% of the overall cost of the solar panels and a similar fraction of the total energy invested in their fabrication. Understanding the energy losses and the behaviour of process temperature is an essential requirement as one moves forward to design and build large scale polysilicon manufacturing plants. In this paper we present thermal models for two processes for poly production, viz., the Siemens process using trichlorosilane (TCS) as precursor and the fluid bed process using silane (monosilane, MS). We validate the models with some experimental measurements on prototype laboratory reactors relating the temperature profiles to product quality. A model sensitivity analysis is also performed, and the effects of some key parameters such as reactor wall emissivity and gas distributor temperature, on temperature distribution and product quality are examined. The information presented in this paper is useful for further understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of both deposition technologies, and will help in optimal temperature profiling of these systems aiming at lowering production costs without compromising the solar cell quality.

  3. Effect of different materials in the performance of solar reactors deployed in Jaiba, Minas Gerais state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Marcia Aparecida; Soares, Antonio Alves; Soares, Adilson Rodrigues; Batista, Rafael Oliveira; Leite, Caio Vinicius [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of different materials (masonry, butyl canvas and fiberglass) in the performance of solar reactors deployed in the city of Jaiba, Minas Gerais State. To do so, mini-stations to treat the domestic sewage were assembled. During the tests, samples of the effluent were collected upstream and downstream of the septic tank and the solar reactor. Fecal coliforms, BOD and COD were quantified in laboratory. The results indicated that the materials tested for construction of the reactor did not influence the solar disinfection of fecal coliforms. (author)

  4. Solar oxidation and removal of arsenic--Key parameters for continuous flow applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, L W; O'Farrell, C

    2015-12-01

    Solar oxidation to remove arsenic from water has previously been investigated as a batch process. This research has investigated the kinetic parameters for the design of a continuous flow solar reactor to remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater supplies. Continuous flow recirculated batch experiments were carried out under artificial UV light to investigate the effect of different parameters on arsenic removal efficiency. Inlet water arsenic concentrations of up to 1000 μg/L were reduced to below 10 μg/L requiring 12 mg/L iron after receiving 12 kJUV/L radiation. Citrate however was somewhat surprisingly found to promote a detrimental effect on the removal process in the continuous flow reactor studies which is contrary to results found in batch scale tests. The impact of other typical water groundwater quality parameters (phosphate and silica) on the process due to their competition with arsenic for photooxidation products revealed a much higher sensitivity to phosphate ions compared to silicate. Other results showed no benefit from the addition of TiO2 photocatalyst but enhanced arsenic removal at higher temperatures up to 40 °C. Overall, these results have indicated the kinetic envelope from which a continuous flow SORAS single pass system could be more confidently designed for a full-scale community groundwater application at a village level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advancements in solar stills for enhanced flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sourav; Dubey, Maneesh; Raghuwanshi, Jitendra; Sharma, Vipin

    2018-05-01

    All over the world there is a scarcity of water and it is difficult to access potable water. Due to this most of the people are affected by diseases that are caused due to drinking of polluted water. There are technologies through which we can purify polluted water but the only problem is these technologies uses electrical energy. Since solar energy is abundant in nature therefore we can use solar as an energy source in solar stills for water distillation. Solar stills can be used in village areas where there is no electricity. It is simple and also economic in construction. This article addresses advancement in solar distillation and usage of nanofluids for enhancement in flow rate.

  6. Analysis on flow characteristic of nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin

    1997-06-01

    The experiment was carried out on the test loop HRTL-5, which simulates the geometry and system design of a 5 MW Nuclear heating reactor. The analysis was based on a one-dimensional two-phase flow drift model with conservation equations for mass, steam mass, energy and momentum. Clausius-Clapeyron equation was used for the calculation of flashing front in the riser. A set of ordinary equation, which describes the behavior of two-phase flow in the natural circulation system, was derived through integration of the above conservation equations in subcooled boiling region, bulk boiling region in the heated section and in the riser. The method of time-domain was used for the calculation. Both static and dynamic results are presented. System pressure, inlet subcooling and heat flux are varied as input parameters. The results show that, firstly, subcooled boiling in the heated section and void flashing in the riser have significant influence on the distribution of the void fraction, mass flow rate and stability of the system, especially at lower pressure, secondly, in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions, only subcooled boiling occurs in the heated section. For the designed two-phase regime operation of the 5 MW nuclear heating reactor, the temperature at the core exit has not reaches its saturation value. Thirdly, the mechanism of two-phase flow oscillation, namely, 'zero-pressure-drop', is described. In the wide range of inlet subcooling (0 K<ΔT<28 K) there exists three regions for system flow condition, namely, (1) stable two-phase flow, (2) bulk and subcooled boiling unstable flow, (3) subcooled boiling and single phase stable flow. The response of mass flow rate, after a small disturbance in the heat flux, is showed in the above inlet subcooling range, and based on it the instability map of the system is given through experiment and calculation. (3 refs., 9 figs.)

  7. Conductive solar wind models in rapidly diverging flow geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, T.E.; Leer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed parameter study of conductive models of the solar wind has been carried out, extending the previous similar studies of Durney (1972) and Durney and Hundhausen (1974) by considering collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction, rapidly diverging flow geometries, and the structure of solutions for the entire n 0 -T 0 plane (n 0 and T 0 are the coronal base density and temperature). Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the complex effects of the physical processes operative in conductive solar wind models. There are five points of particular interest that have arisen from the study: (1) neither collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction nor rapidly diverging flow geometries can significantly increase the solar wind speed at 1 AU; (2) there exists a firm upper limit on the coronal base temperature consistent with observed values of the coronal base pressure and solar wind mass flux density; (3) the principal effect of rapidly diverging flow geometries is a decrease in the solar wind mass flux density at 1 AU and an increase in the mass flux density at the coronal base; (4) collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction can lead to a solar wind flow speed that either increases or decreases with increasing coronal base density (n 0 ) and temperature (T 0 , depending on the region of the n 0 -T 0 plane considered; (5) there is a region of the n 0 -T/sub o/ plane at high coronal base densities where low-speed, high-mass-flux, transonic solar wind flows exist: a region not previously considered

  8. Solar-cycle Variations of Meridional Flows in the Solar Convection Zone Using Helioseismic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chou, Dean-Yi

    2018-06-01

    The solar meridional flow is an axisymmetric flow in solar meridional planes, extending through the convection zone. Here we study its solar-cycle variations in the convection zone using SOHO/MDI helioseismic data from 1996 to 2010, including two solar minima and one maximum. The travel-time difference between northward and southward acoustic waves is related to the meridional flow along the wave path. Applying the ray approximation and the SOLA inversion method to the travel-time difference measured in a previous study, we obtain the meridional flow distributions in 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.96R ⊙ at the minimum and maximum. At the minimum, the flow has a three-layer structure: poleward in the upper convection zone, equatorward in the middle convection zone, and poleward again in the lower convection zone. The flow speed is close to zero within the error bar near the base of the convection zone. The flow distribution changes significantly from the minimum to the maximum. The change above 0.9R ⊙ shows two phenomena: first, the poleward flow speed is reduced at the maximum; second, an additional convergent flow centered at the active latitudes is generated at the maximum. These two phenomena are consistent with the surface meridional flow reported in previous studies. The change in flow extends all the way down to the base of the convection zone, and the pattern of the change below 0.9R ⊙ is more complicated. However, it is clear that the active latitudes play a role in the flow change: the changes in flow speed below and above the active latitudes have opposite signs. This suggests that magnetic fields could be responsible for the flow change.

  9. Exergy Based Performance Analysis of Double Flow Solar Air Heater with Corrugated Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Sharma; Som Nath Saha

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the performance, based on exergy analysis of double flow solar air heaters with corrugated and flat plate absorber. A mathematical model of double flow solar air heater based on energy balance equations has been presented and the results obtained have been compared with that of a conventional flat-plate solar air heater. The double flow corrugated absorber solar air heater performs thermally better than the flat plate double flow and conventional flat-plate solar air heate...

  10. Preliminary observations of a continuous flow solar disinfection system for a rural community in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, L.W.; Price, C.

    2010-01-01

    This project involves the design and installation of a continuous flow reactor which uses solar radiation, an abundant resource in most sub-Saharan countries, to disinfect water supplies. The system was installed at a rural village in Kenya to disinfect surface water collected at a recently constructed micro-dam. The solar reactor uses CPC reflectors which reflect both direct and diffuse solar radiation onto clear pipes through which the requisite water supply flows. The reaction kinetics for the full-scale design had been determined on a variety of pathogenic micro-organisms under both artificial and real sunlight in controlled conditions. The community fully participated in the planning, installation and subsequent operation of the system. The preliminary water quality results indicate that the system is providing a safe source of water for the community. The installation, commissioning and initial use of the system highlights the critical need for community involvement and approval if such interventions are going to be successful in rural areas, alongside the requirements for strategic and technical support.

  11. Steady flows in the solar transition region observed with SMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.; Hill, F.; Toomre, J.; November, L.J.; Simon, G.W.; Gurman, J.B.; Shine, R.A.; Woodgate, B.E.; Athay, R.G.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.; Rehse, R.A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Steady flows in the quiet solar transition region have been observed with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) experiment on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. The persistent vertical motions seen at disk center have spatial rms amplitudes of 1.4 km s -1 in the C II line, 3.9 km s -1 in Si IV, and 4.2 km s -1 in C IV. The amplitudes of the more horizontal flows seen toward the limb tend to be somewhat higher. Plots of steady vertical velocity versus intensity seen at disk center in Si IV and C IV show two distinct branches

  12. Neural network modeling of chaotic dynamics in nuclear reactor flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welstead, S.T.

    1992-01-01

    Neural networks have many scientific applications in areas such as pattern classification and time series prediction. The universal approximation property of these networks, however, can also be exploited to provide researchers with tool for modeling observed nonlinear phenomena. It has been shown that multilayer feed forward networks can capture important global nonlinear properties, such as chaotic dynamics, merely by training the network on a finite set of observed data. The network itself then provides a model of the process that generated the data. Characterizations such as the existence and general shape of a strange attractor and the sign of the largest Lyapunov exponent can then be extracted from the neural network model. In this paper, the author applies this idea to data generated from a nonlinear process that is representative of convective flows that can arise in nuclear reactor applications. Such flows play a role in forced convection heat removal from pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, and decay heat removal from liquid-metal-cooled reactors, either by natural convection or by thermosyphons

  13. Reactor vessel and core two-phase flow ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia. Separate effects tests and two-phase flow tests have been conducted to characterize the detector. Tests show the detector can perform in a 343 0 C pressurized water reactor environment and measure the average density of the media surrounding the sensor

  14. Device for controlling a recirculation flow in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Toichi; Tohei, Kazushige; Hirose, Masao; Nakamura, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide an emergency cut-off valve in a recirculation system in a reactor to control the recirculation at the time of turbine trip or load cut-off, thereby relieving excessive increase in heat output of fuel. Structure: A recirculation pump is driven through a recirculation pump motor by an AC generator, which is driven by a driving motor through a fluid coupling, so that reactor water passes the emergency cut-off valve and recirculation flow stop valve and then passes a jet pump into the core. At the time of turbine trip or load cut-off, the emergency cut-off valve is closed by a hydraulic circuit, whereby core flow is merely decreased by 20 to 30% in a short period of time to restrain excessive increase in heat output. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Computer modeling of flow induced in-reactor vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, P.; Mulcahy, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the reliability of finite element method computer models, as applied to the computation of flow induced vibration response of components used in nuclear reactors, is presented. The prototype under consideration was the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor being constructed for US-ERDA. Data were available from an extensive test program which used a scale model simulating the hydraulic and structural characteristics of the prototype components, subjected to scaled prototypic flow conditions as well as to laboratory shaker excitations. Corresponding analytical solutions of the component vibration problems were obtained using the NASTRAN computer code. Modal analyses and response analyses were performed. The effect of the surrounding fluid was accounted for. Several possible forcing function definitions were considered. Results indicate that modal computations agree well with experimental data. Response amplitude comparisons are good only under conditions favorable to a clear definition of the structural and hydraulic properties affecting the component motion. 20 refs

  16. Modeling Vertical Plasma Flows in Solar Filament Barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Speeds of observed flows in quiescent solar filaments are typically much less than the local Alfvén speed. This is why the flows in filament barbs can be modeled by perturbing a local magnetostatic solution describing the balance between the Lorentz force, gravity, and gas pressure in a barb. Similarly, large-scale filament flows can be treated as adiabatically slow deformations of a force-free magnetic equilibrium that describes the global structure of a filament. This approach reconciles current theoretical models with the puzzling observational result that some of the flows appear to be neither aligned with the magnetic field nor controlled by gravity.

  17. Effect of a flow-corrective insert on the flow pattern in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3083, VIC (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: shengyaojiang@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effect of an insert on improving flow uniformity and eliminating stagnant zone is studied. • Three values concerned with the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence are used. • Outlet diameter is a critical parameter that determines balancing mechanism of the insert. • Height/location is varied to let the insert work in unbalanced region and avoid adverse effect. - Abstract: A flow-corrective insert is adopted in the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to improve flow performance of the pebble flow for the first time. 3D discrete element method (DEM) modeling is employed to study this slow and dense granular flow. It is verified that locating a properly designed insert in the bed can help transform unsatisfactory flow field to the preferred flow pattern for pebble bed reactors. Three characteristic values on the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence of pebble flow are defined to evaluate uniformity of the overall flow field quantitatively. The results demonstrate that the pebble bed equipped with an insert performs better than normal beds from all these three aspects. Moreover, based on numerical experiments, several universal tips for insert design on height, location and outlet diameter are suggested.

  18. Recycling flow rate control device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Tadashi; Koda, Yasushi

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the recycling pump speed if the pressure variation width and the variation ratio in the nuclear reactor exceed predetermined values, to thereby avoid the shutdown of the plant. Constitution: There has been proposed a method of monitoring the neutron flux increase thereby avoiding unnecessary plant shutdown, but it involves a problems of reactor scram depending on the state of the plant and the set values. In view of the above, in the plant using internal pumps put under the thyristor control and having high response to recycling flow rate, the reactor pressure is monitored and the speed of the internal pump is rapidly reduced when the pressure variation width and variation ratio exceed predetermined values to reduce the reactor power and avoid the plant shutdown. This can reduce the possibility of unnecessary power reduction due to neutron flux noises or the possibility of plant shutdown under low power conditions. Further, since the reactor operation can be continued without stopping the recycling pump, the operation upon recovery can be made rapid. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Transient performance of flow in circuits of PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirdes, V.R.; Carajilescov, P.

    1988-09-01

    Generally, PWR's are designed with several primary loops, each one provided with a pump to circulate the coolant through the core. If one or more of these pumps fail, there would be a decrease in reactor flow rate which could cause coolant phase change in the core and components overheating. The present work establishes a simulation model for pump failure in PWR's and the SARDAN-FLOW computes code was developed, considering any combination of such failures. Based on the data of Angra I, several accident and operational transient conditions were simulated. (author) [pt

  20. Transient performance of flow in PWR reactor circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirdes, V.R.T.R.; Carajilescov, P.

    1988-12-01

    Generally, PWR's are designed with several primary loops, each one provided with a pump to circulate the coolant through the core. If one or more of these pumps fail, there would be a decrease in reactor flow rate which cause coolant phase change in the core and components overheating. The present work establishes a simulation model for pump failure in PWR's and the SARDAN-FLOW computes code was developed, considering any combination of such failures. Based on the data of Angra I, several accident and operational transient conditions were simulated. (author) [pt

  1. Flow characteristics of Korea multi-purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heonil Kim; Hee Taek Chae; Byung Jin Jun; Ji Bok Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    The construction of Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor (KMRR), a 30 MW{sub th} open-tank-in-pool type, is completed. Various thermal-hydraulic experiments have been conducted to verify the design characteristics of the KMRR. This paper describes the commissioning experiments to determine the flow distribution of KMRR core and the flow characteristics inside the chimney which stands on top of the core. The core flow is distributed to within {+-}6% of the average values, which is sufficiently flat in the sense that the design velocity in the fueled region is satisfied. The role of core bypass flow to confine the activated core coolant in the chimney structure is confirmed.

  2. Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, C.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool

  3. Solar wind acceleration in a prescribed flow geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, H.; Koemle, N.; Lichtenegger, H.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the flow tubes above coronal holes diverge stronger than radial and that the magnetic field lines may be considerably curved near the border of the holes. The authors investigate the consequences of such a magnetic field geometry on the flow of the solar wind plasma in the vicinity of the Sun. For this purpose the one-dimensional conservation equations are solved along prescribed flow tubes. A temperature profile based on observational data (EUV rocket-observations) is used in the calculations. In an alternative approach the temperature is determined by a polytropic index, which is assumed to be variable. The authors study how both curvature and non-radial divergence of the flow tubes modify the velocity, the density, and the energy balance of the solar wind plasma. (Auth.)

  4. Numerical computation of fluid flow in different nonferrous metallurgical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, A.

    1996-10-01

    Heat, mass and fluid flow phenomena in metallurgical reactor systems such as smelting cyclones or electrolytic cells are complex and intricately linked through the governing equations of fluid flow, chemical reaction kinetics and chemical thermodynamics. The challenges for the representation of flow phenomena in such reactors as well as the transfers of these concepts to non-specialist modelers (e.g. plant operators and management personnel) can be met through scientific flow visualization techniques. In the first example the fluid flow of the gas phase and of concentrate particles in a smelting cyclone for copper production are calculated three dimensionally. The effect of design parameters (length and diameter of reactor, concentrate feeding tangentially or from the top, ..) and operating conditions are investigated. Single particle traces show, how to increase particle retention time before the particles reach the liquid film flowing down the cyclone wall. Cyclone separators are widely used in the metallurgical and chemical industry for collection of large quantities of dust. Most of the empirical models, which today are applied for the design, are lacking in being valid in the high temperature region. Therefore the numerical prediction of the collection efficiency of dust particles is done. The particle behavior close to the wall is considered by applying a particle restitution model, which calculates individual particle restitution coefficients as functions of impact velocity and impact angle. The effect of design parameters and operating are studied. Moreover, the fluid flow inside a copper refining electrolysis cell is modeled. The simulation is based on density variations in the boundary layer at the electrode surface. Density and thickness of the boundary layer are compared to measurements in a parametric study. The actual inhibitor concentration in the cell is calculated, too. Moreover, a two-phase flow approach is developed to simulate the behavior of

  5. Vortex flows in the solar chromosphere. I. Automatic detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Wedemeyer, S.

    2017-05-01

    Solar "magnetic tornadoes" are produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend from the upper convection zone and the photosphere to the corona of the Sun. Recent studies show that these kinds of rotating features are an integral part of atmospheric dynamics and occur on a large range of spatial scales. A systematic statistical study of magnetic tornadoes is a necessary next step towards understanding their formation and their role in mass and energy transport in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, we develop a new automatic detection method for chromospheric swirls, meaning the observable signature of solar tornadoes or, more generally, chromospheric vortex flows and rotating motions. Unlike existing studies that rely on visual inspections, our new method combines a line integral convolution (LIC) imaging technique and a scalar quantity that represents a vortex flow on a two-dimensional plane. We have tested two detection algorithms, based on the enhanced vorticity and vorticity strength quantities, by applying them to three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar atmosphere with CO5BOLD. We conclude that the vorticity strength method is superior compared to the enhanced vorticity method in all aspects. Applying the method to a numerical simulation of the solar atmosphere reveals very abundant small-scale, short-lived chromospheric vortex flows that have not been found previously by visual inspection.

  6. Solar photochemical treatment of winery wastewater in a CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Mosteo, Rosa; Maldonado, Manuel I; Malato, Sixto; Peres, José A

    2009-12-09

    Degradation of simulated winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar reactor. Total organic carbon (TOC) reduction by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO(2)) and homogeneous photocatalysis with photo-Fenton was observed. The influence of TiO(2) concentration (200 or 500 mg/L) and also of combining TiO(2) with H(2)O(2) or Na(2)S(2)O(8) on heterogeneous photocatalysis was evaluated. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO(2), TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) and TiO(2)/S(2)O(8)(2-) is revealed to be inefficient in removing TOC, originating TOC degradation of 10%, 11% and 25%, respectively, at best. However, photo-Fenton experiments led to 46% TOC degradation in simulated wastewater prepared with diluted wine (WV) and 93% in wastewater prepared with diluted grape juice (WG), and if ethanol is previously eliminated from mixed wine and grape juice wastewater (WW) by air stripping, it removes 96% of TOC. Furthermore, toxicity decreases during the photo-Fenton reaction very significantly from 48% to 28%. At the same time, total polyphenols decrease 92%, improving wastewater biodegradability.

  7. Flow tube used to cool solar-pumped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    A flow tube has been designed and constructed to provide two major functions in the application of a laser beam for transmission of both sound and video. It maintains the YAG laser at the proper operating temperature of 300 degrees K under solar pumping conditions, and it serves as a pump cavity for the laser crystal.

  8. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior. 355. Figure 2. Zonal and meridional components of the time-dependent residual velocity at a few selected depths as marked above each panel, are plotted as contours of constant velocity in the longitude-latitude plane. The left panels show the zonal component, ...

  9. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-05-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K to 1313 K, under atmospheric pressure. Sole distinctive weak flame was observed for each mixture, with inlet fuel/air mixture velocity set low at 2 cm/s. One-dimensional computation with comprehensive chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, one-stage oxidation was confirmed from heat release rate profiles, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. The weak flame positions were congruent with literature describing reactivity of the butanol isomers. These weak flame responses were also found to mirror the trend in Anti-Knock Indexes of the butanol isomers. Flux and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the fuel oxidation pathways at low and high temperatures. Further computational investigations on oxidation of butanol isomers at higher pressure of 5 atm indicated two-stage oxidation through the heat release rate profiles. Low temperature chemistry is accentuated in the region near the first weak cool flame for oxidation under higher pressure, and its impact on key species – such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and carbon monoxide – were considered. Both experimental and computational findings demonstrate the advantage of employing the micro flow reactor in investigating oxidation processes in the temperature region of interest along the reactor channel. By varying physical conditions such as pressure, the micro flow reactor system is proven to be highly beneficial in elucidating oxidation behavior of butanol isomers in conditions in engines such as those that mirror HCCI operations.

  10. State of the art on reactor designs for solar gasification of carbonaceous feedstock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Tora, E.A.; Bruno, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    to produce high quality synthesis gas with a higher output per unit of feedstock and that allows for the chemical storage of solar energy in the form of a readily transportable fuel, among other advantages. The present paper describes the latest advances in solar thermochemical reactors for gasification...

  11. Piecewise mass flows within a solar prominence observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Tam, Kuan Vai; Zhao, Mingyu; Zhang, Xuefei

    2018-06-01

    The material of solar prominences is often observed in a state of flowing. These mass flows (MF) are important and useful for us to understand the internal structure and dynamics of prominences. In this paper, we present a high resolution Hα observation of MFs within a quiescent solar prominence. From the observation, we find that the plasma primarily has a circular motion and a downward motion separately in the middle section and legs of the prominence, which creates a piecewise mass flow along the observed prominence. Moreover, the observation also shows a clear displacement of MF's velocity peaks in the middle section of the prominence. All of these provide us with a detailed record of MFs within a solar prominence and show a new approach to detecting the physical properties of prominence.

  12. The Cross-Flow Mixing Analysis of Quasi-Static Pebble Flow in Pebble Bed Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Liu Zhiyong; Sun Yanfei; Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao

    2014-01-01

    In the pebble bed reactor, large number of fuel pebbles’ movement law and moving state can affect the reactor’s design, operation and safety directly. Therefore the pebble flow, which is based on the theory of particle streaming, is one of the most important research subjects of the pebble bed reactor engineering. The in-core pebble flow is a very slow particle flow (or called quasi-static particle flow), which is very different from the usual particle motion. How to accurately describe the characteristics of in-core pebble flow is a central issue for this subject. Due to the presence of random flow, the cross-mixing phenomenon will occur inevitably. In the present paper, the mixing phenomenon of pebble flow is generalized on the basis of experiment results. The pebble flow cross-mixing probability serves as the parameter which describes both the regularity and the randomness of pebble flow. The results are provided in the form of diagrammatic presentation. (author)

  13. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling of the system in the DTU lab is done to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple with less components...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...

  14. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guri; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-03

    Wet macroalgal slurries have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to a gravity-separable oil product of 58.8% was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a pressurized (subcritical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using feedstock slurries with a 21.7% concentration of dry solids. As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent, and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water-soluble organics. Conversion of 99.2% of the carbon left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. Finally, as a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of residual organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  15. High-speed solar wind flow parameters at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    To develop a set of constraints for theories of solar wind high-speed streams, a detailed study was made of the fastest streams observed at 1 AU during the time period spanning March 1971 through July 1974. Streams were accepted for study only if (1) the maximum speed exceeded 650 km s -1 ; (2) effects of stream-stream dynamical interaction on the flow parameters could be safely separated from the intrinsic characteristics of the high-speed regions; (3) the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the stream when mapped back to 20 solar radii by using a constant speed approximation was greater than 45degree in Carrington longitude; and (4) there were no obvious solar-activity-induced contaminating effects. Nineteen streams during this time interval satisfied these criteria. Average parameters at 1 AU for those portions of these streams above V=650 km s -1 are given.Not only is it not presently known why electrons are significantly cooler than the protons within high-speed regions, but also observed particle fluxes and convected energy fluxes for speed greater than 650 km s -1 are substantially larger than those values predicted by any of the existing theories of solar wind high-speed streams. More work is therefore needed in refining present solar wind models to see whether suitable modifications and/or combinations of existing theories based on reasonable coronal conditions can accommodate the above high-speed flow parameters

  16. Measured gas and particle temperatures in VTT's entrained flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Sørensen, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Particle and gas temperature measurements were carried out in experiments on VTTs entrained flow reactor with 5% and 10% oxygen using Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIR). Particle temperature measurements were performed on polish coal,bark, wood, straw particles, and bark...... and wood particles treated with additive. A two-color technique with subtraction of the background light was used to estimate particle temperatures during experiments. A transmission-emission technique was used tomeasure the gas temperature in the reactor tube. Gas temperature measurements were in good...... agreement with thermocouple readings. Gas lines and bands from CO, CO2 and H2O can be observed in the spectra. CO was only observed at the first measuring port (100ms) with the strongest CO-signal seen during experiments with straw particles. Variations in gas concentration (CO2 and H2O) and the signal from...

  17. SOLAR REFRIGERATING UNIT WITH AN ADSORPTION REACTOR AND EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Vieira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the principles of operation of a solar refrigerator with the following basic components: a reactor, a set of evacuated tube solar collectors, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and an evaporator. During the heating phase, solar radiation is collected and transferred to the reactor for desorption by a vapor thermal siphon loop. During the cooling phase, heat from the reactor is released to the ambient by a second water vapor loop. Ambient data collected daily during a period of 18 years were divided into hourly values and used to simulate the temperatures of the reactor, which uses salt impregnated with graphite and ammonia, during the adsorption / desorption processes. The results show that the refrigerator operates well in Fortaleza and that better results are expected for the countryside of the state of Ceara. It is concluded that only a high efficiency collector set can be used in the system

  18. Flow induced vibrational excitation of nuclear reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure fluctuations generated by disturbed flows, encountered in nuclear reactors induce vibrations in the structures. In order to make forecastings for these vibrational levels, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the random pressure fluctuations induced in the walls by the main flow peculiarities of the circuits. This knowledge is essentially provided by experimentation which shows that most of the energy from these fluctuations is in the low frequency area. It is also necessary to determine the transfer functions of the fluid-structure coupled system. Given the frequency range of the excitations, a calculation of the characteristics of the first eigenmodes is generally sufficient. This calculation is carried out by finite element codes, the modal dampings being assessed separately. In this paper, emphasis is placed mainly on the analysis of the sources of excitation due to flow peculiarities. Some examples will also be given of assessments of vibrations in real structures (pipes, reactor internals, etc.) and of comparisons with the experimental results obtained on models or on a site [fr

  19. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  20. PDBD with continuous liquids flows in a discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Gutiérrez-León, D G; López-Callejas, R; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Belman-Flores, J M; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a cylindrical pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) reactor aimed to microbiological elimination of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 bacteria. In the reactor, water flowed continuously and to countercurrent an oxygen gas was injected. The water pumping was carried out with a peristaltic pump type, stainless steel and aluminum constructed, and water was recirculated through norprene tubing. The considered parameters in order to promote energetic efficiency were: the residence time of the water contaminated with bacteria, flow rate of the liquid, shape and material used to build electrodes and dielectric, pressure, and gas injection flow rate. The pulsed power supply parameters are featured by 25-30 kV high voltage, 500 Hz frequency and 30 μs width. The outcome elimination of E. coli bacteria at 10 3 , 10 4 and 10 6 CFU/mL concentrations reached an efficiency over 0.5 log-order in absence of oxygen; while >2 log-orders when oxygen gas was injected during the process. (paper)

  1. Modelling of non-catalytic reactors in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor: Dry, regenerative flue gas desulphurization using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.H.A.; Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-phase dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe the steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In this reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with as downward-flowing dilute solids phase

  2. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2, at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low.

  3. Photocatalytic Solar Tower Reactor for the Elimination of a Low Concentration of VOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Negishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We developed a photocatalytic solar tower reactor for the elimination of low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs typically emitted from small industrial establishments. The photocatalytic system can be installed in a narrow space, as the reactor is cylindrical-shaped. The photocatalytic reactor was placed vertically in the center of a cylindrical scattering mirror, and this vertical reactor was irradiated with scattered sunlight generated by the scattering mirror. About 5 ppm toluene vapor, used as representative VOC, was continuously photodegraded and converted to CO2 almost stoichiometrically under sunny conditions. Toluene removal depended only on the intensity of sunlight. The performance of the solar tower reactor did not decrease with half a year of operation, and the average toluene removal was 36% within this period.

  4. 3 D flow computations under a reactor vessel closure head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daubert, O.; Bonnin, O.; Hofmann, F.; Hecker, M.

    1995-12-01

    The flow under a vessel cover of a pressurised water reactor is investigated by using several computations and a physical model. The case presented here is turbulent, isothermal and incompressible. Computations are made with N3S code using a k-epsilon model. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results are on the whole satisfying. Some local improvements are expected either with more sophisticated turbulence models or with mesh refinements automatically computed by using the adaptive meshing technique which has been just implemented in N3S for 3D cases. (authors). 6 refs., 7 figs

  5. Transverse flow reactor studies of the dynamics of radical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Radical reactions are in important in combustion chemistry; however, little state-specific information is available for these reactions. A new apparatus has been constructed to measure the dynamics of radical reactions. The unique feature of this apparatus is a transverse flow reactor in which an atom or radical of known concentration will be produced by pulsed laser photolysis of an appropriate precursor molecule. The time dependence of individual quantum states or products and/or reactants will be followed by rapid infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The reaction H + O{sub 2} {yields} OH + O will be studied.

  6. Measurement of two phase flow properties using the nuclear reactor instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.W.; Washington Univ., Seattle; Crowe, R.D.; Dailey, D.J.; Kosaly, G.; Damborg, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure is introduced for characterizing one dimensional, two phase flow in terms of three properties; propagation, structure, and dynamics. It is shown that all of these properties can be measured by analyzing the response of the reactor neutron field to a two phase flow perturbation. Therefore, a nuclear reactor can be regarded as a two phase flow instrument. (author)

  7. Studies on modelling of bubble driven flows in chemical reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevskott, Sverre

    1997-12-31

    Multiphase reactors are widely used in the process industry, especially in the petrochemical industry. They very often are characterized by very good thermal control and high heat transfer coefficients against heating and cooling surfaces. This thesis first reviews recent advances in bubble column modelling, focusing on the fundamental flow equations, drag forces, transversal forces and added mass forces. The mathematical equations for the bubble column reactor are developed, using an Eulerian description for the continuous and dispersed phase in tensor notation. Conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and chemical species are given, and the k-{epsilon} and Rice-Geary models for turbulence are described. The different algebraic solvers used in the model are described, as are relaxation procedures. Simulation results are presented and compared with experimental values. Attention is focused on the modelling of void fractions and gas velocities in the column. The energy conservation equation has been included in the bubble column model in order to model temperature distributions in a heated reactor. The conservation equation of chemical species has been included to simulate absorption of CO{sub 2}. Simulated axial and radial mass fraction profiles for CO{sub 2} in the gas phase are compared with measured values. Simulations of the dynamic behaviour of the column are also presented. 189 refs., 124 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Computer simulation of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1993-01-01

    Two-phase flow models dominate the requirements of economic resources for the development and use of computer codes which serve to analyze thermohydraulic transients in nuclear power plants. An attempt is made to reduce the effort of analyzing reactor transients by combining purpose-oriented modelling with advanced computing techniques. Six principles are presented on mathematical modeling and the selection of numerical methods, along with suggestions on programming and machine selection, all aimed at reducing the cost of analysis. Computer simulation is contrasted with traditional computer calculation. The advantages of run-time interactive access operation in a simulation environment are demonstrated. It is explained that the drift-flux model is better suited than the two-fluid model for the analysis of two-phase flow in nuclear reactors, because of the latter's closure problems. The advantage of analytical over numerical integration is demonstrated. Modeling and programming techniques are presented which minimize the number of needed arithmetical and logical operations and thereby increase the simulation speed, while decreasing the cost. (orig.)

  9. Device for measuring flow rate in a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, Jiro.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To always calculate core flow rate automatically and accurately in BWR type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Jet pumps are provided to the recycling pump and to the inside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. The jet pumps comprise a plurality of calibrated jet pumps for forcively convecting the coolants and a plurality of not calibrated jet pumps in order to cool the heat generated in the reactor core. The difference in the pressures between the upper and the lower portions in both of the jet pumps is measured by difference pressure transducers. Further, a thermo-sensitive element is provided to measure the temperature of recycling water at the inlet of the recycling pump. The output signal from the difference pressure transducer is inputted to a process computer, calculated periodically based on predetermined calculation equations, compensated for the temperature by a recycling water temperature signal and outputted as a core flow rate signal to a recoder. The signal is also used for the power distribution calculation in the process computer and the minimum limit power ratio as the thermal limit value for the fuels is outputted. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Solar wind flows associated with hot heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-05-01

    Solar wind heavy ion spectra measured with the Vela instrumentation have been studied with the goal of determining the solar origins of various solar wind structures which contain anomalously high ionization states. Since the ionization states freeze-in close to the sun they are good indicators of the plasma conditions in the low and intermediate corona. Heavy ion spectra from three different periods throughout the solar cycle have been analyzed. These data are consistent with freezing-in temperatures ranging from approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K to higher than 9 x 10 6 . The spectra indicating hot coronal conditions occur in roughly 1/7 of all measurements and almost exclusively in postshock flows (PSFs), nonshock related helium abundance enhancements (HAEs), or noncompressive density enhancements (NCDEs). The PSFs and HAEs are both probably interplanetary manifestations of solar flares. The observation of several flare-related HAEs which were not preceded by an interplanetary shock suggests that the flare-heated plasma can evolve into the solar wind without producing a noticeable shock at 1 AU. The NCDEs with hot heavy ions differ from the PSF-HAEs in several ways implying that they evolve from events or places with lower temperatures and less energy than those associated with the flares, but with higher temperatures and densities than the quiet corona. Active regions, coronal mass ejections, and equatorial streamers are possible sources for the NCDEs with spectra indicating hot coronal conditions. These events owe their enhanced densities to coronal processes as opposed to interplanetary dynamical processes. Models of the solar wind expansion demonstrate how some NCDEs can have extreme, nonequilibrium ionization distributions

  11. Improved Flow Modeling in Transient Reactor Safety Analysis Computer Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holowach, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Cheung, F.B.

    2002-01-01

    A method of accounting for fluid-to-fluid shear in between calculational cells over a wide range of flow conditions envisioned in reactor safety studies has been developed such that it may be easily implemented into a computer code such as COBRA-TF for more detailed subchannel analysis. At a given nodal height in the calculational model, equivalent hydraulic diameters are determined for each specific calculational cell using either laminar or turbulent velocity profiles. The velocity profile may be determined from a separate CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis, experimental data, or existing semi-empirical relationships. The equivalent hydraulic diameter is then applied to the wall drag force calculation so as to determine the appropriate equivalent fluid-to-fluid shear caused by the wall for each cell based on the input velocity profile. This means of assigning the shear to a specific cell is independent of the actual wetted perimeter and flow area for the calculational cell. The use of this equivalent hydraulic diameter for each cell within a calculational subchannel results in a representative velocity profile which can further increase the accuracy and detail of heat transfer and fluid flow modeling within the subchannel when utilizing a thermal hydraulics systems analysis computer code such as COBRA-TF. Utilizing COBRA-TF with the flow modeling enhancement results in increased accuracy for a coarse-mesh model without the significantly greater computational and time requirements of a full-scale 3D (three-dimensional) transient CFD calculation. (authors)

  12. Aqueous Lithium-Iodine Solar Flow Battery for the Simultaneous Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; McCulloch, William D; Beauchamp, Damian R; Huang, Zhongjie; Ren, Xiaodi; Wu, Yiying

    2015-07-08

    Integrating both photoelectric-conversion and energy-storage functions into one device allows for the more efficient solar energy usage. Here we demonstrate the concept of an aqueous lithium-iodine (Li-I) solar flow battery (SFB) by incorporation of a built-in dye-sensitized TiO2 photoelectrode in a Li-I redox flow battery via linkage of an I3(-)/I(-) based catholyte, for the simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. During the photoassisted charging process, I(-) ions are photoelectrochemically oxidized to I3(-), harvesting solar energy and storing it as chemical energy. The Li-I SFB can be charged at a voltage of 2.90 V under 1 sun AM 1.5 illumination, which is lower than its discharging voltage of 3.30 V. The charging voltage reduction translates to energy savings of close to 20% compared to conventional Li-I batteries. This concept also serves as a guiding design that can be extended to other metal-redox flow battery systems.

  13. Progress in the Development of Compressible, Multiphase Flow Modeling Capability for Nuclear Reactor Flow Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; F. Petitpas; E. Daniel; O. Le Metayer; S. Gavrilyuk; N. Dovetta

    2008-10-01

    In nuclear reactor safety and optimization there are key issues that rely on in-depth understanding of basic two-phase flow phenomena with heat and mass transfer. Within the context of multiphase flows, two bubble-dynamic phenomena – boiling (heterogeneous) and flashing or cavitation (homogeneous boiling), with bubble collapse, are technologically very important to nuclear reactor systems. The main difference between boiling and flashing is that bubble growth (and collapse) in boiling is inhibited by limitations on the heat transfer at the interface, whereas bubble growth (and collapse) in flashing is limited primarily by inertial effects in the surrounding liquid. The flashing process tends to be far more explosive (and implosive), and is more violent and damaging (at least in the near term) than the bubble dynamics of boiling. However, other problematic phenomena, such as crud deposition, appear to be intimately connecting with the boiling process. In reality, these two processes share many details.

  14. Impact of VOC Composition and Reactor Conditions on the Aging of Biomass Cookstove Emissions in an Oxidation Flow Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation flow reactor (OFR) experiments in our lab have explored secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production during photochemical aging of emissions from cookstoves used by billions in developing countries. Previous experiments, conducted with red oak fuel under conditions of hig...

  15. Multiphase flow problems on thermofluid safety for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    2003-01-01

    As the thermofluid safety study for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), thermal-hydraulic characteristics of Tokamak fusion reactors under transient events were investigated experimentally and analyzed numerically. As severe transient events an ingress-of-coolant event (ICE) and a loss-of-vacuum event (LOVA) were considered. An integrated ICE test facility was constructed to demonstrate that the ITER safety design approach and parameters are adequate. Water-vapor two-phase flow behavior and performance of the ITER pressure suppression system during the ICE were clarified by the integrated ICE experiments. The TRAC was modified to specify the two-phase flow behavior under the ICE. The ICE experimental results were verified using the modified TRAC code. On the other hand, activated dust mobilization and air ingress characteristics in the ITER vacuum vessel during the LOVA were analyzed using a newly developed analysis code. Some physical models on the motion of dust were considered. The rate of dust released from the vacuum vessel through breaches to the outside was characterized quantitatively. The predicted average pressures in the vacuum vessel during the LOVA were in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, direct-contact condensation characteristics between water and vapor inside the ITER suppression tank were observed visually and simulated by the direct two-phase flow analysis. Furthermore, chemical reaction characteristics between vapor and ITER plasma-facing component materials were predicted numerically in order to obtain qualitative estimation on generation of inflammable gases such as hydrogen and methane. The experimental and numerical results of the present studies were reflected in the ITER thermofluid safety design. (author)

  16. A plug flow reactor model of a vanadium redox flow battery considering the conductive current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, S.; Suriyah, M. R.; Leibfried, T.

    2017-08-01

    A lumped-parameter model for vanadium redox flow batteries, which use metallic current collectors, is extended into a one-dimensional model using the plug flow reactor principle. Thus, the commonly used simplification of a perfectly mixed cell is no longer required. The resistances of the cell components are derived in the in-plane and through-plane directions. The copper current collector is the only component with a significant in-plane conductance, which allows for a simplified electrical network. The division of a full-scale flow cell into 10 layers in the direction of fluid flow represents a reasonable compromise between computational effort and accuracy. Due to the variations in the state of charge and thus the open circuit voltage of the electrolyte, the currents in the individual layers vary considerably. Hence, there are situations, in which the first layer, directly at the electrolyte input, carries a multiple of the last layer's current. The conventional model overestimates the cell performance. In the worst-case scenario, the more accurate 20-layer model yields a discharge capacity 9.4% smaller than that computed with the conventional model. The conductive current collector effectively eliminates the high over-potentials in the last layers of the plug flow reactor models that have been reported previously.

  17. Unbiased, complete solar charging of a neutral flow battery by a single Si photocathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedege, Kristina; Bae, Dowon; Dražević, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Solar redox flow batteries have attracted attention as a possible integrated technology for simultaneous conversion and storage of solar energy. In this work, we review current efforts to design aqueous solar flow batteries in terms of battery electrolyte capacity, solar conversion efficiency...... and depth of solar charge. From a materials cost and design perspective, a simple, cost-efficient, aqueous solar redox flow battery will most likely incorporate only one semiconductor, and we demonstrate here a system where a single photocathode is accurately matched to the redox couples to allow...... for a complete solar charge. The single TiO2 protected Si photocathode with a catalytic Pt layer can fully solar charge a neutral TEMPO-sulfate/ferricyanide battery with a cell voltage of 0.35 V. An unbiased solar conversion efficiency of 1.6% is obtained and this system represents a new strategy in solar RFBs...

  18. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of wastewater dyeing agent by photocatalytic process in solar reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zahraa, O.; Maire, S.; Evenou, F.; Hachem, C.; Pons, M. N.; Alinsafi, A.; Bouchy, M.

    2006-01-01

    The photocatalytic decolorization of industrial textile dyes has been studied. The treatment was carried out on a solar reactor consisting in a flat active plane, tilted so as to face the sun and to allow the trickling of the water to be treated. Alternatively the reactor could be irradiated by an artificial source. After checking the system using salicylic acid, a conventional model molecule, the photocatalytic decolorization of Orange II, Yellow Drimarene, and Black Drimarene dyes was inves...

  20. Thermal and flow design of helium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese, G.; Katz, R.

    1984-01-01

    This book continues the American Nuclear Society's series of monographs on nuclear science and technology. Chapters of the book include information on the first-generation gas-cooled reactors; HTGR reactor developments; reactor core heat transfer; mechanical problems related to the primary coolant circuit; HTGR design bases; core thermal design; gas turbines; process heat HTGR reactors; GCFR reactor thermal hydraulics; and gas cooling of fusion reactors

  1. Micro reactor and flow chemistry for industrial applications in drug discovery and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambarussi Baraldi, P.; Hessel, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, case studies focused on syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and lead compounds are reported employing micro reactors and continuous flow technology in areas such as medicinal chemistry, chemical development and manufacturing. The advantages of flow

  2. Effect of the empty fraction in a solar reactor of fluidized bed; Efecto de la fraccion vacia en un reactor solar de lecho fluidizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Alejandro; Romero-Paredes, Hernando; Vazquez, Alejandro; Torijano, Eugenio; Ambriz, Juan J [Universidad Autonoma Metropilitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to obtain the temperature profiles and concentration of a solar reactor of fluidized bed that simultaneously serves as a solar receiver of a thermo-chemical storage system of solar energy. The complex phenomena that are inherent of these reactors make their sizing difficult for their solar application. For this reason, to model and to simulate its behavior without and with the chemical reaction helps to palliate this disadvantage. One of the present phenomena is the change of the empty fraction in which we concentrate our attention. In this paper an alternative is proposed in the modeling of these systems, considering local fluctuations of the empty fraction or porosity {epsilon}(x,y) in the bed. For this a probabilistic uniform distribution is proposed for all the nodes of the (x, y) mesh of the bed where local values of porosity for each node of the mesh are associated by means of a random generator where {epsilon}(x, y){epsilon} [0.1]. The hollow fraction plays a very important role because the penetration of the solar radiation in these systems of opaque bodies depends directly on the distribution of empty spaces in the trajectory of the incident radiation that affects its thermal and kinetic behavior. From the results the characteristic of non- isothermicity of the reactor can be incorporated which entails, once reached the reaction temperature, to a dispersed profile of concentrations. The empty fraction is a parameter that influences greatly in these profiles and that increasing the fluidization number is the way this time is diminished. In conclusion, the importance the empty fraction plays in the evolution of the temperature profiles as well as in the concentration profiles is emphasized. The behavior of the bed in the simulation becomes more precise in agreement with the experimental results previously obtained. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo es obtener los perfiles de temperatura y concentracion de un reactor solar

  3. Methanol synthesis in a countercurrent gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuczynski, M.; Oyevaar, M.H.; Pieters, R.T.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis of methanol from CO and H2 was executed in a gas-solid-solid trickle flow reactor. The reactor consisted of three tubular reactor sections with cooling sections in between. The catalyst was Cu on alumina, the adsorbent was a silica-alumina powder and the experimental range 498–523 K,

  4. COUNTERCURRENT FLOW LIMITATION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING FOR IMPROVED REACTOR SAFETY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierow, Karen

    2008-01-01

    This project is investigating countercurrent flow and 'flooding' phenomena in light water reactor systems to improve reactor safety of current and future reactors. To better understand the occurrence of flooding in the surge line geometry of a PWR, two experimental programs were performed. In the first, a test facility with an acrylic test section provided visual data on flooding for air-water systems in large diameter tubes. This test section also allowed for development of techniques to form an annular liquid film along the inner surface of the 'surge line' and other techniques which would be difficult to verify in an opaque test section. Based on experiences in the air-water testing and the improved understanding of flooding phenomena, two series of tests were conducted in a large-diameter, stainless steel test section. Air-water test results and steam-water test results were directly compared to note the effect of condensation. Results indicate that, as for smaller diameter tubes, the flooding phenomena is predominantly driven by the hydrodynamics. Tests with the test sections inclined were attempted but the annular film was easily disrupted. A theoretical model for steam venting from inclined tubes is proposed herein and validated against air-water data. Empirical correlations were proposed for air-water and steam-water data. Methods for developing analytical models of the air-water and steam-water systems are discussed, as is the applicability of the current data to the surge line conditions. This report documents the project results from July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008

  5. Radioactive tracer applications in the study of flow reactors. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Hovorka, J.

    1975-01-01

    Response curves of gas streaming through the jet fluidized bed of a granular material in a rotary-jet pilot reactor were measured for a number of gas flow rates. A mathematical model of the gas residence time distribution was designed. Good agreement of the mathematical model with the experiments permits determining the ratio of streaming through the fluidized bed in form of bubbles of a different size. The measured values were evaluated as the distribution density of the gas residence time (age) at the outlet, the distribution function of the internal gas age in the device, and the so-called intensity function. The gas was labelled by a rapid injection of the radioactive 85 Kr and the response was studied by specially connected Geiger-Mueller counters placed inside the device, immediately above the granular material bed. (author)

  6. A CFD Study on Inlet Plenum Flow Field of Pebble Bed Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2005-01-01

    High temperature gas cooled reactor, largely divided into two types of PBR (Pebble Bed Reactor) and PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor), has becomes great interest of researchers in connection with the hydrogen production. KAERI has started a project to develop the gas cooled reactor for the hydrogen production and has been doing in-depth study for selecting the reactor type between PBR and PMR. As a part of the study, PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor) was selected as a reference PBR reactor for the CFD analysis and the flow field of its inlet plenum was simulated with computational fluid dynamics program CFX5. Due to asymmetrical arrangement of pipes to the inlet plenum, non-uniform flow distribution has been expected to occur, giving rise to non-uniform power distribution at the core. Flow fields of different arrangement of inlet pipes were also investigated, as one of measures to reduce the non-uniformity

  7. The flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Seo, J. K.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    It is the common features of the integral reactors that the main components of the primary system are installed within the reactor vessel, and so there are no any flow pipes connecting the reactor coolant pumps or steam generators. Due to no any flow pipes, it is impossible to measure the differential pressure at the primary system of the integral reactors, and it also makes impossible measure the primary coolant flow rate. The objective of the study is to draw up the flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors. As a result of the review, we have made a selection of the flow measurement method by pump speed, bt HBM, and by pump motor power as the flow measurement methods for the primary system of integral reactors. Peculiarly, we did not found out a precedent which the direct pump motor power-flow rate curve is used as the flow measurement method in the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. Therefore, to use this method for integral reactors, it is needed to bear the follow-up measures in mind. The follow-up measures is included in this report

  8. Reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding : analysis, modeling and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhi, Y.W.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The novel concept of reverse flow operation with reactor side feeding is studied for selective oxidation of NH3 to produce either N2, N2O, or NO. During normal reverse flow operation, where the feeds are alternately introduced from either end of the reactor, the conversion is always lower when

  9. Similarity Analysis for Reactor Flow Distribution Test and Its Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon; Ha, Jung Hui [Heungdeok IT Valley, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoo; Han, Ji Woong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    facility. It was clearly found in Hong et al. In this study the feasibility of the similarity analysis of Hong et al. was examined. The similarity analysis was applied to SFR which has been designed in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) in order to design the reactor flow distribution test. The length scale was assumed to be 1/5, and the velocity scale 1/2, which bounds the square root of the length scale (1/√5). The CFX calculations for both prototype and model were carried out and the flow field was compared.

  10. Transition between trickle flow and pulse flow in a cocurrent gas-liquid trickle-bed reactor at elevated pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, W.J.A.; Mechielsen, S.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of reactor pressure in the range of 0.2–2.0 MPa on the transition between the trickle-flow and the pulse-flow regime has been investigated for the non-foaming water—nitrogen and aqueous 40% ethyleneglycol—nitrogen systems. Most models and flow charts which are all based on atmospheric

  11. Modelling of flow stabilization by the swirl of a peripheral flow as applied to plasma reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchkov, E.P.; Lebedev, V.P.; Terekhov, V.I.; Shishkin, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    The gas-swirl stabilization of plasma jets is one of effective methods of its retention in the near-axial area of channels in generators of low-temperature plasma. Except the effect of gas-dynamic compression, the peripheral swirl allows to solve another urgent problem - to protect the reactor walls from the heat influence of the plasma jet. Swirl flows are also used for the flow structure formation and control of the heat and gas-dynamic characteristics of different power devices and apparatuses, using high-temperature working media: in swirl furnaces and burners, in aviation engines, etc. Investigations show that during swirl stabilization the gas-dynamic structure of the flow influences significantly the spatial stability of the plasma column and its characteristics

  12. Effect of air flow on tubular solar still efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirugnanasambantham, Arunkumar; Rajan, Jayaprakash; Ahsan, Amimul; Kandasamy, Vinothkumar

    2013-01-01

    An experimental work was reported to estimate the increase in distillate yield for a compound parabolic concentrator-concentric tubular solar still (CPC-CTSS). The CPC dramatically increases the heating of the saline water. A novel idea was proposed to study the characteristic features of CPC for desalination to produce a large quantity of distillate yield. A rectangular basin of dimension 2 m × 0.025 m × 0.02 m was fabricated of copper and was placed at the focus of the CPC. This basin is covered by two cylindrical glass tubes of length 2 m with two different diameters of 0.02 m and 0.03 m. The experimental study was operated with two modes: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively. THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY WAS OPERATED WITH TWO MODES: without and with air flow between inner and outer tubes. The rate of air flow was fixed throughout the experiment at 4.5 m/s. On the basis of performance results, the water collection rate was 1445 ml/day without air flow and 2020 ml/day with air flow and the efficiencies were 16.2% and 18.9%, respectively.

  13. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  14. Effect of a solar Fered-Fenton system using a recirculation reactor on biologically treated landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhihong; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Lin; Wu, Luxue; Qian, Yue; Geng, Jinyao; Chen, Mengmeng

    2016-12-05

    The effects of electrochemical oxidation (EO), Fered-Fenton and solar Fered-Fenton processes using a recirculation flow system containing an electrochemical cell and a solar photo-reactor on biochemically treated landfill leachate were investigated. The most successful method was solar Fered-Fenton which achieved 66.5% COD removal after 120min treatment utilizing the optimum operating conditions of 47mM H2O2, 0.29mM Fe(2+), pH0 of 3.0 and a current density of 60mA/cm(2). The generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) are mainly from Fered-Fenton process, which is enhanced by the introduction of renewable solar energy. Moreover, Fe(2+)/chlorine and UV/chlorine processes taking place in this system also result in additional production of OH due to the relatively high concentration of chloride ions contained in the leachate. The energy consumption was 74.5kWh/kg COD and the current efficiency was 36.4% for 2h treatment. In addition, the molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis and PARAFAC analysis of excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy for different leachate samples indicated that the organics in the leachate were significantly degraded into either small molecular weight species or inorganics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictions of the Bypass Flows in the HTR-PM Reactor Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Li Fu

    2014-01-01

    In the HTR-PM reactor core, the basic structure materials are large amount of graphite reflectors and carbon bricks. Small gaps among those graphite and carbon bricks are widespread in the reactor core so that the cold helium flow may be bypassed and not completely heated. The bypass flows in relative lower temperature would change the flow and temperature distributions in the reactor core, therefore, the accurate prediction of bypass flows need to be carried out carefully to evaluate the influence to the reactor safety. Based on the characteristics of the bypass flow problem, hybrid method of the flow network and the CFD tools was employed to represent the connections and calculate flow distributions of all the main flow and bypass flow paths. In this paper, the hybrid method was described and applied to specific bypass flow problem in the HTR-PM. Various bypass flow paths in the HTR-PM were reviewed, figured out, and modeled by the flow network and the CFD methods, including the axial vertical gaps in the side reflectors, control rod channels, absorber sphere channels and radial gap flow through keys around the hot helium plenum. The bypass flow distributions and its flow rate ratio to the total flow rate in the primary loop were also calculated, discussed and evaluated. (author)

  16. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process: evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Falco, M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  17. Solar membrane natural gas steam-reforming process : evaluation of reactor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, de M.; Basile, A.; Gallucci, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the performance of an innovative plant for efficient hydrogen production using solar energy for the process heat duty requirements has been evaluated via a detailed 2D model. The steam-reforming reactor consists of a bundle of coaxial double tubes assembled in a shell. The annular

  18. Radiation absorption and optimization of solar photocatalytic reactors for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a systematic and quantitative approach to the analysis and optimization of solar photocatalytic reactors utilized in environmental applications such as pollutant remediation and conversion of biomass (waste) to hydrogen. Ray tracing technique was coupled with the six-flux absorption scattering model (SFM) to analyze the complex radiation field in solar compound parabolic collectors (CPC) and tubular photoreactors. The absorption of solar radiation represented by the spatial distribution of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) depends strongly on catalyst loading and geometry. The total radiation absorbed in the reactors, the volumetric rate of absorption (VRPA), was analyzed as a function of the optical properties (scattering albedo) of the photocatalyst. The VRPA reached maxima at specific catalyst concentrations in close agreement with literature experimental studies. The CPC has on average 70% higher photon absorption efficiency than a tubular reactor and requires 39% less catalyst to operate under optimum conditions. The "apparent optical thickness" is proposed as a new dimensionless parameter for optimization of CPC and tubular reactors. It removes the dependence of the optimum catalyst concentration on tube diameter and photocatalyst scattering albedo. For titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) Degussa P25, maximum photon absorption occurs at apparent optical thicknesses of 7.78 for CPC and 12.97 for tubular reactors.

  19. Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2013-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena

  20. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR for solar photocatalytic inactivation of aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sadia J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of infectious diseases by microbial pathogens can cause substantial losses of stock in aquaculture systems. There are several ways to eliminate these pathogens including the use of antibiotics, biocides and conventional disinfectants, but these leave undesirable chemical residues. Conversely, using sunlight for disinfection has the advantage of leaving no chemical residue and is particularly suited to countries with sunny climates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 is a photocatalyst that increases the effectiveness of solar disinfection. In recent years, several different types of solar photocatalytic reactors coated with TiO2 have been developed for waste water and drinking water treatment. In this study a thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR, designed as a sloping flat plate reactor coated with P25 DEGUSSA TiO2, was used. Results The level of inactivation of the aquaculture pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined after travelling across the TFFBR under various natural sunlight conditions (300-1200 W m-2, at 3 different flow rates (4.8, 8.4 and 16.8 L h-1. Bacterial numbers were determined by conventional plate counting using selective agar media, cultured (i under conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and (ii under conditions designed to neutralise reactive oxygen species (agar medium supplemented with the peroxide scavenger sodium pyruvate at 0.05% w/v, incubated under anaerobic conditions, to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive cells. The results clearly demonstrate that high sunlight intensities (≥ 600 W m-2 and low flow rates (4.8 L h-1 provided optimum conditions for inactivation of A. hydrophila ATCC 3564, with greater overall inactivation and fewer sub-lethally injured cells than at low sunlight intensities or high flow rates. Low sunlight intensities resulted in reduced overall inactivation and greater sub-lethal injury at all flow rates. Conclusions This

  1. Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation of a cavity solar reactor for the reduction of cerium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villafan-Vidales, H.I.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, A.P. 34, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Romero-Paredes, H. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No.186, Col. Vicentina, A.P. 55-534, Mexico D.F 09340 (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    Radiative heat transfer in a solar thermochemical reactor for the thermal reduction of cerium oxide is simulated with the Monte Carlo method. The directional characteristics and the power distribution of the concentrated solar radiation that enters the cavity is obtained by carrying out a Monte Carlo ray tracing of a paraboloidal concentrator. It is considered that the reactor contains a gas/particle suspension directly exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The suspension is treated as a non-isothermal, non-gray, absorbing, emitting, and anisotropically scattering medium. The transport coefficients of the particles are obtained from Mie-scattering theory by using the optical properties of cerium oxide. From the simulations, the aperture radius and the particle concentration were optimized to match the characteristics of the considered concentrator. (author)

  2. Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a computer code for the analysis of the detailed flow of helium in prismatic fuel reactors is reported. The code, called BYPASS, solves, a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the Modular High-Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (MHTGR). The discretization of the flow in a core region typically considers the main coolant flow paths, the bypass gap flow paths, and the crossflow connections between them. 16 refs., 5 figs

  3. Hydrocarbon pyrolysis reactor experimentation and modeling for the production of solar absorbing carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Lee Thomas

    Much of combustion research focuses on reducing soot particulates in emissions. However, current research at San Diego State University (SDSU) Combustion and Solar Energy Laboratory (CSEL) is underway to develop a high temperature solar receiver which will utilize carbon nanoparticles as a solar absorption medium. To produce carbon nanoparticles for the small particle heat exchange receiver (SPHER), a lab-scale carbon particle generator (CPG) has been built and tested. The CPG is a heated ceramic tube reactor with a set point wall temperature of 1100-1300°C operating at 5-6 bar pressure. Natural gas and nitrogen are fed to the CPG where natural gas undergoes pyrolysis resulting in carbon particles. The gas-particle mixture is met downstream with dilution air and sent to the lab scale solar receiver. To predict soot yield and general trends in CPG performance, a model has been setup in Reaction Design CHEMKIN-PRO software. One of the primary goals of this research is to accurately measure particle properties. Mean particle diameter, size distribution, and index of refraction are calculated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and a Diesel Particulate Scatterometer (DPS). Filter samples taken during experimentation are analyzed to obtain a particle size distribution with SEM images processed in ImageJ software. These results are compared with the DPS, which calculates the particle size distribution and the index of refraction from light scattering using Mie theory. For testing with the lab scale receiver, a particle diameter range of 200-500 nm is desired. Test conditions are varied to understand effects of operating parameters on particle size and the ability to obtain the size range. Analysis of particle loading is the other important metric for this research. Particle loading is measured downstream of the CPG outlet and dilution air mixing point. The air-particle mixture flows through an extinction tube where opacity of the mixture is measured with a 532 nm

  4. A method and programme (BREACH) for predicting the flow distribution in water cooled reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randles, J.; Roberts, H.A.

    1961-03-01

    The method presented here of evaluating the flow rate in individual reactor channels may be applied to any type of water cooled reactor in which boiling occurs The flow distribution is calculated with the aid of a MERCURY autocode programme, BREACH, which is described in detail. This programme computes the steady state longitudinal void distribution and pressure drop in a single channel on the basis of the homogeneous model of two phase flow. (author)

  5. A method and programme (BREACH) for predicting the flow distribution in water cooled reactor cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randles, J; Roberts, H A [Technical Assessments and Services Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1961-03-15

    The method presented here of evaluating the flow rate in individual reactor channels may be applied to any type of water cooled reactor in which boiling occurs The flow distribution is calculated with the aid of a MERCURY autocode programme, BREACH, which is described in detail. This programme computes the steady state longitudinal void distribution and pressure drop in a single channel on the basis of the homogeneous model of two phase flow. (author)

  6. Effects of key factors on solar aided methane steam reforming in porous medium thermochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Ma, Lanxin; Leng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of key factors on chemical reaction for solar methane reforming are studied. • MCRT and FVM method coupled with UDFs is used to establish numerical model. • Heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction is established. • LTNE model coupled with P1 approximation is used for porous matrix solar reactor. • A formula between H 2 production and conductivity of porous matrix is put forward. - Abstract: With the aid of solar energy, methane reforming process can save up to 20% of the total methane consumption. Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method and Finite Volume Method (FVM) combined method are developed to establish the heat and mass transfer model coupled with thermochemical reaction kinetics for porous medium solar thermochemical reactor. In order to provide more temperature information, local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model coupled with P1 approximation is established to investigate the thermal performance of porous medium solar thermochemical reaction. Effects of radiative heat loss and thermal conductivity of porous matrix on temperature distribution and thermochemical reaction for solar driven steam methane reforming process are numerically studied. Besides, the relationship between hydrogen production and thermal conductivity of porous matrix are analyzed. The results illustrate that hydrogen production shows a 3 order polynomial relation with thermal conductivity of porous matrix

  7. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

  8. Renewable Wood Pulp Paper Reactor with Hierarchical Micro/Nanopores for Continuous-Flow Nanocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Hirotaka; Namba, Naoko; Takahashi, Tsukasa; Nogi, Masaya; Nishina, Yuta

    2017-06-22

    Continuous-flow nanocatalysis based on metal nanoparticle catalyst-anchored flow reactors has recently provided an excellent platform for effective chemical manufacturing. However, there has been limited progress in porous structure design and recycling systems for metal nanoparticle-anchored flow reactors to create more efficient and sustainable catalytic processes. In this study, traditional paper is used for a highly efficient, recyclable, and even renewable flow reactor by tailoring the ultrastructures of wood pulp. The "paper reactor" offers hierarchically interconnected micro- and nanoscale pores, which can act as convective-flow and rapid-diffusion channels, respectively, for efficient access of reactants to metal nanoparticle catalysts. In continuous-flow, aqueous, room-temperature catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-anchored paper reactor with hierarchical micro/nanopores provided higher reaction efficiency than state-of-the-art AuNP-anchored flow reactors. Inspired by traditional paper materials, successful recycling and renewal of AuNP-anchored paper reactors were also demonstrated while high reaction efficiency was maintained. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Flow distribution in a solar collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontally inclined strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid...... dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m(2) solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  10. Flow rate analysis of wastewater inside reactor tanks on tofu wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat; Sintawardani, N.; Astuti, J. T.; Nilawati, D.; Wulan, D. R.; Muchlis; Sriwuryandari, L.; Sembiring, T.; Jern, N. W.

    2017-03-01

    The research aimed to analyse the flow rate of the wastewater inside reactor tanks which were placed a number of bamboo cutting. The resistance of wastewater flow inside reactor tanks might not be occurred and produce biogas fuel optimally. Wastewater from eleven tofu factories was treated by multi-stages anaerobic process to reduce its organic pollutant and produce biogas. Biogas plant has six reactor tanks of which its capacity for waste water and gas dome was 18 m3 and 4.5 m3, respectively. Wastewater was pumped from collecting ponds to reactors by either serial or parallel way. Maximum pump capacity, head, and electrical motor power was 5m3/h, 50m, and 0.75HP, consecutively. Maximum pressure of biogas inside the reactor tanks was 55 mbar higher than atmosphere pressure. A number of 1,400 pieces of cutting bamboo at 50-60 mm diameter and 100 mm length were used as bacteria growth media inside each reactor tank, covering around 14,287 m2 bamboo area, and cross section area of inner reactor was 4,9 m2. In each reactor, a 6 inches PVC pipe was installed vertically as channel. When channels inside reactor were opened, flow rate of wastewater was 6x10-1 L.sec-1. Contrary, when channels were closed on the upper part, wastewater flow inside the first reactor affected and increased gas dome. Initially, wastewater flowed into each reactor by a gravity mode with head difference between the second and third reactor was 15x10-2m. However, head loss at the second reactor was equal to the third reactor by 8,422 x 10-4m. As result, wastewater flow at the second and third reactors were stagnant. To overcome the problem pump in each reactor should be installed in serial mode. In order to reach the output from the first reactor and the others would be equal, and biogas space was not filled by wastewater, therefore biogas production will be optimum.

  11. Utilization of Stop-flow Micro-tubing Reactors for the Development of Organic Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Ren Wei; Li, Jie Sheng; Wu, Jie

    2018-01-04

    A new reaction screening technology for organic synthesis was recently demonstrated by combining elements from both continuous micro-flow and conventional batch reactors, coined stop-flow micro-tubing (SFMT) reactors. In SFMT, chemical reactions that require high pressure can be screened in parallel through a safer and convenient way. Cross-contamination, which is a common problem in reaction screening for continuous flow reactors, is avoided in SFMT. Moreover, the commercially available light-permeable micro-tubing can be incorporated into SFMT, serving as an excellent choice for light-mediated reactions due to a more effective uniform light exposure, compared to batch reactors. Overall, the SFMT reactor system is similar to continuous flow reactors and more superior than batch reactors for reactions that incorporate gas reagents and/or require light-illumination, which enables a simple but highly efficient reaction screening system. Furthermore, any successfully developed reaction in the SFMT reactor system can be conveniently translated to continuous-flow synthesis for large scale production.

  12. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  13. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus on the co...... for future system optimization....

  14. Numerical modelling of heat and mass transfer in adsorption solar reactor of ammonia on active carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroudam, El. H.

    In this paper, we present a modelling of the performance of a reactor of a solar cooling machine based carbon-ammonia activated bed. Hence, for a solar radiation, measured in the Energetic Laboratory of the Faculty of Sciences in Tetouan (northern Morocco), the proposed model computes the temperature distribution, the pressure and the ammonia concentration within the activated carbon bed. The Dubinin-Radushkevich formula is used to compute the ammonia concentration distribution and the daily cycled mass necessary to produce a cooling effect for an ideal machine. The reactor is heated at a maximum temperature during the day and cool at the night. A numerical simulation is carried out employing the recorded solar radiation data measured locally and the daily ambient temperature for the typical clear days. Initially the reactor is at ambient temperature, evaporating pressure; Pev=Pst(Tev=0 ∘C) and maintained at uniform concentration. It is heated successively until the threshold temperature corresponding to the condensing pressure; Pcond=Pst(Tam) (saturation pressure at ambient temperature; in the condenser) and until a maximum temperature at a constant pressure; Pcond. The cooling of the reactor is characterised by a fall of temperature to the minimal values at night corresponding to the end of a daily cycle. We use the mass balance equations as well as energy equation to describe heat and mass transfer inside the medium of three phases. A numerical solution of the obtained non linear equations system based on the implicit finite difference method allows to know all parameters characteristic of the thermodynamic cycle and consider principally the daily evolution of temperature, ammonia concentration for divers positions inside the reactor. The tube diameter of the reactor shows the dependence of the optimum value on meteorological parameters for 1 m2 of collector surface.

  15. Boundary Layer of Photon Absorption Applied to Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Solar Flat Plate Reactor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor L. Otálvaro-Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information to design heterogeneous photocatalytic solar reactors with flat plate geometry used in treatment of effluents and conversion of biomass to hydrogen. The concept of boundary layer of photon absorption taking into account the efficient absorption of radiant energy was introduced; this concept can be understood as the reactor thickness measured from the irradiated surface where 99% of total energy is absorbed. Its thickness and the volumetric rate of photons absorption (VRPA were used as design parameters to determine (i reactor thickness, (ii maximum absorbed radiant energy, and (iii the optimal catalyst concentration. Six different commercial brands of titanium dioxide were studied: Evonik-Degussa P-25, Aldrich, Merck, Hombikat, Fluka, and Fisher. The local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA inside the reactor was described using six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM applied to solar radiation. The radiation field and the boundary layer thickness of photon absorption were simulated with absorption and dispersion effects of catalysts in water at different catalyst loadings. The relationship between catalyst loading and reactor thickness that maximizes the absorption of radiant energy was obtained for each catalyst by apparent optical thickness. The optimum concentration of photocatalyst Degussa P-25 was 0.2 g/l in 0.86 cm of thickness, and for photocatalyst Aldrich it was 0.3 g/l in 0.80 cm of thickness.

  16. Nature and characteristics of pulsing flow in trickle-bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsing flow is well known for its advantages in terms of an increase in mass and heat transfer rates, complete catalyst wetting and a decrease in axial dispersion compared to trickle flow. The operation of a trickle-bed reactor in the pulsing flow regime is favorable in terms of a capacity increase

  17. Enlargement of the pulsing flow regime by periodic operation of a trickle-bed reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelhouwer, J.G.; Piepers, H.W.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    1999-01-01

    Potential advantages of pulsing flow in trickle-bed reactors include capacity increase and elimination of hot spots through the enhanced mass and heat transfer rates. A disadvantage of naturally occurring pulsing flow is the necessity of relatively high gas and liquid flow rates, especially at

  18. High Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Anthony H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This research and development project is focused on the advancement of a technology that produces hydrogen at a cost that is competitive with fossil-based fuels for transportation. A twostep, solar-driven WS thermochemical cycle is theoretically capable of achieving an STH conversion ratio that exceeds the DOE target of 26% at a scale large enough to support an industrialized economy [1]. The challenge is to transition this technology from the laboratory to the marketplace and produce hydrogen at a cost that meets or exceeds DOE targets.

  19. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

  20. Methane-steam reforming by molten salt - membrane reactor using concentrated solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanuki, K.; Nakajima, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kaneko, H.; Tamaura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    By utilization of concentrated solar thermal energy for steam reforming of natural gas, which is an endothermic reaction, the chemical energy of natural gas can be up-graded. The chemical system for steam reforming of natural gas with concentrated solar thermal energy was studied to produce hydrogen by using the thermal storage with molten salt and the membrane reactor. The original steam reforming module with hydrogen permeable palladium membrane was developed and fabricated. Steam reforming of methane proceeded with the original module with palladium membrane below the decomposition temperature of molten salt (around 870 K). (authors)

  1. Transient freezing of molten salts in pipe-flow systems: Application to the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, N.; Hewitt, G.F.; Markides, C.N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-hydraulic model has been proposed to simulate the transient freezing of molten salts in complex piping systems. • The passive safety system DRACS in Generation-IV, molten salt reactor is susceptible to failure due to salt freezing. • For the prototypical 0.2 MW reactor considered in this study considerable freezing occurs after 20 minutes leading to reactor temperatures above 900 °C within 4 hours. • Conservative criteria for the most important/least known variables in the design of DRACS have been discussed. • Over-conservative approaches in designing the NDHX should be used with caution as they can promote pipe clogging due to freezing. - Abstract: The possibility of molten-salt freezing in pipe-flow systems is a key concern for the solar-energy industry and a safety issue in the new generation of molten-salt reactors, worthy of careful consideration. This paper tackles the problem of coolant solidification in complex pipe networks by developing a transient thermohydraulic model and applying it to the ‘Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System’ (DRACS), the passive-safety system proposed for the Generation-IV molten-salt reactors. The results indicate that DRACS, as currently envisioned, is prone to failure due to freezing in the air/molten-salt heat exchanger, which can occur after approximately 20 minutes, leading to reactor temperatures above 900 °C within 4 hours. The occurrence of this scenario is related to an unstable behaviour mode of DRACS in which newly formed solid-salt deposit on the pipe walls acts to decrease the flow-rate in the secondary loop, facilitating additional solid-salt deposition. Conservative criteria are suggested to facilitate preliminary assessments of early-stage DRACS designs. The present study is, to the knowledge of the authors, the first of its kind in serving to illustrate possible safety concerns in molten-salt reactors, which are otherwise considered very safe in the literature. Furthermore

  2. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  3. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y.

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  4. MEMBRANOUS FLOWS IN GAS-LIQUID COLLECTORS-REGENERATORS OF SOLAR ABSORPTIVE SYSTEMS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko А.V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the creation of new generation of solar collectors of the gas-liquid type, intended for use in alternative refrigerating and conditioning systems of drying-evaporating type with direct solar regeneration of absorbent. Special attention is given to the study of membranous flows features on inclined surfaces, including questions of such flows stability.

  5. Investigations on efficiencies of HT solar collectors for different flow rates and collector tilts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between the abso......Two HT solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one solar collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates and tilt. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rates are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good...

  6. Efficiency calculations and optimization analysis of a solar reactor for the high temperature step of the zinc/zinc-oxide thermochemical redox cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haussener, S.

    2007-03-15

    A solar reactor for the first step of the zinc/zinc-oxide thermochemical redox cycle is analysed and dimensioned in terms of maximization of efficiency and reaction conversion. Zinc-oxide particles carried in an inert carrier gas, in our case argon, enter the reactor in absorber tubes and are heated by concentrated solar radiation mainly due to radiative heat transfer. The particles dissociate and, in case of complete conversion, a gas mixture of argon, zinc and oxygen leaves the reactor. The aim of this study is to find an optimal design of the reactor regarding efficiency, materials and economics. The number of absorber tubes and their dimensions, the cavity dimension and its material as well as the operating conditions should be determined. Therefore 2D and 3D simulations of an 8 kW reactor are implemented. The gases are modeled as ideal gases with temperature-dependent properties. Absorption and scattering of the particle gas mixture are calculated by Mie-theory. Radiative heat transfer is included in the simulation and implemented with the aid of the discrete ordinates (DO) method. The mixture is modeled as ideal mixture and the reaction with an Arrhenius-type ansatz. Temperature distribution, reaction efficiency (heat used for zinc-oxide reaction divided by input) and tube efficiency (heat going into absorber tubes divided by input) as well as reaction conversion are analyzed to find the most promising reactor design. The results show that the most significant factors for efficiencies, conversion and absorber fluid temperature are concentration of the solar incoming radiation, zinc-oxide mass flow, the number of tubes and their dimension. Higher concentration leads to solely positive effects. Zinc-oxide mass flow variations indicate the existence of an optimal flow rate for each reactor design which maximizes efficiencies and conversion. Higher zinc-oxide mass flow leads, on one hand, to higher tube efficiency but on the other hand to lower temperatures in

  7. Treatment of wastewater dyeing agent by photocatalytic process in solar reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zahraa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of industrial textile dyes has been studied. The treatment was carried out on a solar reactor consisting in a flat active plane, tilted so as to face the sun and to allow the trickling of the water to be treated. Alternatively the reactor could be irradiated by an artificial source. After checking the system using salicylic acid, a conventional model molecule, the photocatalytic decolorization of Orange II, Yellow Drimarene, and Black Drimarene dyes was investigated. Artificial and solar irradiation gave comparable results although the heating by the sun reduced the amount of adsorption. The kinetics agrees with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model and a discrepancy between adsorption constants deduced from the kinetic and adsorption experiments was interpreted by considering various types of adsorption sites. Orange II and Drimarene dyes decolorization kinetics are opposite limiting cases of the above model, as being of order 0 and 1 with respect to the dye, respectively.

  8. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi 2 surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department

  9. Hydrogeological and Groundwater Flow Model for C, K, L, and P Reactor Areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    1999-02-24

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi{sup 2} surrounding the C, K. L. and P reactor areas has been developed. The Reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department.

  10. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  11. A reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the production of syngas: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper experimental results are presented for a demonstration unit of a recently proposed novel integrated reactor concept (Smit et. al., 2005) for the partial oxidation of natural gas to syngas (POM), namely a Reverse Flow Catalytic Membrane Reactor (RFCMR). Natural gas has great potential

  12. Maximum production rate optimization for sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Lingen; Xia, Shaojun; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    A sulphuric acid decomposition process in a tubular plug-flow reactor with fixed inlet flow rate and completely controllable exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile is studied in this paper by using finite-time thermodynamics. The maximum production rate of the aimed product SO 2 and the optimal exterior wall temperature profile and reactants pressure profile are obtained by using nonlinear programming method. Then the optimal reactor with the maximum production rate is compared with the reference reactor with linear exterior wall temperature profile and the optimal reactor with minimum entropy generation rate. The result shows that the production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor with the maximum production rate has an increase of more than 7%. The optimization of temperature profile has little influence on the production rate while the optimization of reactants pressure profile can significantly increase the production rate. The results obtained may provide some guidelines for the design of real tubular reactors. - Highlights: • Sulphuric acid decomposition process in tubular plug-flow reactor is studied. • Fixed inlet flow rate and controllable temperature and pressure profiles are set. • Maximum production rate of aimed product SO 2 is obtained. • Corresponding optimal temperature and pressure profiles are derived. • Production rate of SO 2 of optimal reactor increases by 7%.

  13. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

  14. Safety analysis of switching between reductive and oxidative conditions in a reaction coupling reverse flow reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2001-01-01

    A new reverse flow reactor is developed where endothermic reactants (propane dehydrogenation) and exothermic reactants (fuel combustion) are fed sequentially to a monolithic catalyst, while periodically alternating the inlet and outlet positions. Upon switching from reductive to oxidative conditions

  15. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  16. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  17. Efficient algorithms for flow simulation related to nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornak, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Safety analysis is of ultimate importance for operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The overall modeling and simulation of physical and chemical processes occuring in the course of an accident is an interdisciplinary problem and has origins in fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, reactor technology and computer programming. The aim of the study is therefore to create the foundations of a multi-dimensional non-isothermal fluid model for a NPP containment and software tool based on it. The numerical simulations allow to analyze and predict the behavior of NPP systems under different working and accident conditions, and to develop proper action plans for minimizing the risks of accidents, and/or minimizing the consequences of possible accidents. A very large number of scenarios have to be simulated, and at the same time acceptable accuracy for the critical parameters, such as radioactive pollution, temperature, etc., have to be achieved. The existing software tools are either too slow, or not accurate enough. This thesis deals with developing customized algorithm and software tools for simulation of isothermal and non-isothermal flows in a containment pool of NPP. Requirements to such a software are formulated, and proper algorithms are presented. The goal of the work is to achieve a balance between accuracy and speed of calculation, and to develop customized algorithm for this special case. Different discretization and solution approaches are studied and those which correspond best to the formulated goal are selected, adjusted, and when possible, analysed. Fast directional splitting algorithm for Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries, in presence of solid and porous obstacles, is in the core of the algorithm. Developing suitable pre-processor and customized domain decomposition algorithms are essential part of the overall algorithm amd software. Results from numerical simulations in test geometries and in real geometries are presented and discussed.

  18. Reactor mass flow data base prepared for the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm III, R.T.C.

    1981-02-01

    This report presents charge and discharge mass flow data for reactors judged to have received sufficient technical development to enable them to be demonstrated or commercially available by the year 2000. Brief descriptions of the reactors and fuel cycles evaluated are presented. A discussion of the neutronics methods used to produce the mass flow data is provided. Detailed charge and discharge fuel isotopics are presented. U 3 O 8 , separative work, and fissile material requirements are computed and provided for each fuel cycle

  19. Evaluation of solar thermal storages with quantitative flow visualisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logie, W.; Frank, E.; Luzzi, A.

    2008-07-15

    The non-intrusive Quantitative Flow Visualisation (QFV) Techniques of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been evaluated in the context of experimental investigations on solar Thermal Energy Storages (TES). Much competence and experience has been gained in the integration of these powerful yet complex and time consuming flow analysis methods into the realm of laboratory experimentation. In addition to gathering experience in the application of QFV techniques, a number of charging and discharging variations were considered in light of exergetic evaluation for the influence they have on the ability of a TES to stratify. The contemporary awareness that poorly chosen pitch to diameter ratios by the design of immersed coil heat exchangers leads to a reduction in heat exchange and an increase in mixing phenomenon has been confirmed. The observation of two combitank (combined domestic hot water and space heating) configurations has shown that free convective heat transfer forces in the form of mixing energy play a significant role in the stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages. (author)

  20. Calculation of pressure drop and flow redistribution in the core of LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.; Morgado, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    It is studied the flow redistribution through of fuel elements to the pressure drop calculation in the core of sodium cooled reactors. Using the quasi-static formulation of equations of the conservation of mass, energy and momentum, it was developed a computer program to flow redistribution calculations and pressure drop for different power levels and total flow simulating an arbitrary number of channels for sodium flowing . An optimization of the number of sufficient channels for calculations of this nature is done. The method is applied in studies of transients in the same reactor. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Experimental results of acetone hydrogenation on a heat exchanger type reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru acetone suisoka hanno netsu kaishu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, T; Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Miyahara, R; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    With the purpose of converting solar heat energy to industrial heat energy, an experiment of acetone hydrogenation was carried out using a heat exchanger type reactor that recovers heat generated by acetone hydrogenation, an exothermic reaction, and supplies it to an outside load. In the experiment, a pellet-like activated carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst was used for the acetone hydrogenation with hydrogen and acetone supplied to the catalyst layer at a space velocity of 400-1,200 or so. In the external pipe of the double-pipe type reactor, a heating medium oil was circulated in parallel with the flow of the reactant, with the heat of reaction recovered that was generated from the acetone hydrogenation. In this experiment, an 1wt%Ru/C catalyst and a 5wt%Ru/C catalyst were used so as to examine the effects of variation in the space velocity. As a result, from the viewpoint of recovering the heat of reaction, it was found desirable to increase the reaction speed by raising catalytic density and also to supply the reactant downstream inside the reaction pipe by increasing the space velocity. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Validation of Reactor Physics-Thermal hydraulics Calculations for Research Reactors Cooled by the Laminar Flow of Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K. A.; Schubring, D. [Univ. of Florida, Florida (United States); Girardin, G.; Pautz, A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    A collaboration between the University of Florida and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) has been formed to develop and validate detailed coupled multiphysics models of the zero-power (100 W) CROCUS reactor at EPFL and the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor, for the comprehensive analysis of the reactor behavior under transient (neutronic or thermal-hydraulic induced) conditions. These two reactors differ significantly in the core design and thermal power output, but share unique heat transfer and flow characteristics. They are characterized by single-phase laminar water flow at near-atmospheric pressures in complex geometries with the possibility of mechanically entrained air bubbles. Validation experiments will be designed to expand the validation domain of these existing models, computational codes and techniques. In this process, emphasis will be placed on validation of the coupled models developed to gain confidence in their applicability for safety analysis. EPFL is responsible for the design and implementation of transient experiments to generate a database of reactor parameters (flow distribution, power profile, and power evolution) to be used to validate against code predictions. The transient experiments performed at EPFL will be simulated on the basis of developed models for these tasks. Comparative analysis will be performed with SERPENT and MCNPX reference core models. UF focuses on the generation of the coupled neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic models, including implementation of a TRACE/PARCS reactor simulator model, a PARET model, and development of full-field computational fluid dynamics models (using OpenFOAM) for refined thermal-hydraulics physics treatments. In this subtask of the project, the aim is to verify by means of CFD the validity of TRACE predictions for near-atmospheric pressure water flow in the presence of mechanically entrained air bubbles. The scientific understanding of these multiphysics

  3. Validation of Reactor Physics-Thermal hydraulics Calculations for Research Reactors Cooled by the Laminar Flow of Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K. A.; Schubring, D.; Girardin, G.; Pautz, A.

    2013-01-01

    A collaboration between the University of Florida and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (EPFL) has been formed to develop and validate detailed coupled multiphysics models of the zero-power (100 W) CROCUS reactor at EPFL and the 100 kW University of Florida Training Reactor, for the comprehensive analysis of the reactor behavior under transient (neutronic or thermal-hydraulic induced) conditions. These two reactors differ significantly in the core design and thermal power output, but share unique heat transfer and flow characteristics. They are characterized by single-phase laminar water flow at near-atmospheric pressures in complex geometries with the possibility of mechanically entrained air bubbles. Validation experiments will be designed to expand the validation domain of these existing models, computational codes and techniques. In this process, emphasis will be placed on validation of the coupled models developed to gain confidence in their applicability for safety analysis. EPFL is responsible for the design and implementation of transient experiments to generate a database of reactor parameters (flow distribution, power profile, and power evolution) to be used to validate against code predictions. The transient experiments performed at EPFL will be simulated on the basis of developed models for these tasks. Comparative analysis will be performed with SERPENT and MCNPX reference core models. UF focuses on the generation of the coupled neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulic models, including implementation of a TRACE/PARCS reactor simulator model, a PARET model, and development of full-field computational fluid dynamics models (using OpenFOAM) for refined thermal-hydraulics physics treatments. In this subtask of the project, the aim is to verify by means of CFD the validity of TRACE predictions for near-atmospheric pressure water flow in the presence of mechanically entrained air bubbles. The scientific understanding of these multiphysics

  4. Numerical simulation of flow characteristics of lean jet to cross-flow in safety injection of reactor cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; He Huining; Luo Yushan; Wang Weishu

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, a numerical simulation was performed to study the flow characteristics of lean jet to cross flow in a main tube in the safety injection of reactor cooling system. The influence scope and mixing characteristics of the confined lean jet in cross-flow were studied. It can be concluded that three basic flow regimes are marked, namely the attached lean jet, lift-off lean jet and impinging lean jet. The velocity ratio V R is the key factor in the flow state. The depth and region of jet to main flow are enhanced with the increase of the velocity ratio. The jet flow penetrates through the main flow with the increase of the velocity ratio. At higher velocity ratio, the jet flow strikes the main flow bottom and circumfluence happens in upriver of main flow. The vortex flow characteristics dominate the flow near region of jet to cross-flow and the mixture of jet to cross-flow. At different velocity ratio V R , the vortex grows from the same displacement, but the vortex type and the vortex is different. At higher velocity ratio, the vortex develops fleetly, wears off sharp and dies out sharp. The study is very important to the heat transfer experiments of cross-flow jet and thermal stress analysis in the designs of nuclear engineering. (authors)

  5. 1-D Two-phase Flow Investigation for External Reactor Vessel Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Cheol

    2007-02-01

    During a severe accident, when a molten corium is relocated in a reactor vessel lower head, the RCF(Reactor Cavity Flooding) system for ERVC (External Reactor Vessel Cooling) is actuated and coolants are supplied into a reactor cavity to remove a decay heat from the molten corium. This severe accident mitigation strategy for maintaining a integrity of reactor vessel was adopted in the nuclear power plants of APR1400, AP600, and AP1000. Under the ERVC condition, the upward two-phase flow is driven by the amount of the decay heat from the molten corium. To achieve the ERVC strategy, the two-phase natural circulation in the annular gap between the external reactor vessel and the insulation should be formed sufficiently by designing the coolant inlet/outlet area and gap size adequately on the insulation device. Also the natural circulation flow restriction has to be minimized. In this reason, it is needed to review the fundamental structure of insulation. In the existing power plants, the insulation design is aimed at minimizing heat losses under a normal operation. Under the ERVC condition, however, the ability to form the two-phase natural circulation is uncertain. Namely, some important factors, such as the coolant inlet/outlet areas, flow restriction, and steam vent etc. in the flow channel, should be considered for ERVC design. T-HEMES 1D study is launched to estimate the natural circulation flow under the ERVC condition of APR1400. The experimental facility is one-dimensional and scaled down as the half height and 1/238 channel area of the APR1400 reactor vessel. The air injection method was used to simulate the boiling at the external reactor vessel and generate the natural circulation two-phase flow. From the experimental results, the natural circulation flow rate highly depended on inlet/outlet areas and the circulation flow rate increased as the outlet height as well as the supplied water head increased. On the other hand, the simple analysis using the drift

  6. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-López, M I; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; Navntoft, C; García-Fernández, I; Dunlop, P S M; Schmid, M; Byrne, J A; McGuigan, K G

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo-López, M.I.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; Navntoft, C.; García-Fernández, I.; Dunlop, P.S.M.; Schmid, M.; Byrne, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  8. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  9. Sodium flow measurement in large pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors with bypass type flow meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Vinod, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bypass type permanent magnet flow meters are more suitable for sodium flow measurement. • A higher sodium velocity through the PMFM sensor will increase its sensitivity and resolution. • By modifying the geometry of bypass line, higher sodium velocity through sensor is achieved. • With optimized geometry the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system was increased by 70%. - Abstract: Liquid sodium flow through the pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor circuits are measured using electromagnetic flow meters. Bypass type flow meter with a permanent magnet flow meter as sensor in the bypass line is selected for the flow measurement in the 800 NB main secondary pipe line of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), which is at the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam. For increasing the sensitivity of bypass flow meters in future SFRs, alternative bypass geometry was considered. The performance enhancement of the proposed geometry was evaluated by experimental and numerical methods using scaled down models. From the studies it is observed that the new configuration increases the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system by around 70%. Using experimentally validated numerical tools the volumetric flow ratio for the bypass configurations is established for the operating range of Reynolds numbers.

  10. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

  11. CFD analysis of flow distribution of reactor core and temperature rise of coolant in fuel assembly for VVER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Daiquan; Zeng Xiaokang; Xiong Wanyu; Yang Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Flow field of VVER-1000 reactor core was investigated by using computational fluid dynamics code CFX, and the temperature rise of coolant in hot assembly was calculated. The results show that the maximum value of flow distribution factor is 1.12 and the minimum value is 0.92. The average value of flow distribution factor in hot assembly is 0.97. The temperature rise in hot assembly is higher than current warning limit value ΔT t under the deviated operation condition. The results can provide reference for setting ΔT t during the operation of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  12. Effect of ship motions and flow stability in a small marine reactor driven by natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoritsune, Tsutomu; Ishida, Toshihisa

    2001-12-01

    By using a small reactor as a power source for investigations and developments under sea, widely expanded activity is expectable. In this case, as for a nuclear reactor, small-size and lightweightness, and simplification of a system are needed with the safety. In JAERI, very small reactors for submersible research vessel (Deep-sea Reactor DRX and submersible Compact Reactor SCR) have been designed on the basis of needs investigation of sea research. Although the reactor is a PWR type, self-pressurization and natural circulation system are adopted in a primary system for small size and lightweightness. The fluid flow condition of the reactor core outlet is designed to be the two-phase with a low quality. Although the flow of a primary system is the two-phase flow with a low quality, the density wave oscillation may occur according to operating conditions. Moreover, since there are ship motions of heaving (the vertical direction acceleration) etc., when a submersible research vessel navigates on the sea surface, the circulation flow of the primary system is directly influenced by this external force. In order to maintain stable operations of the reactor, it is necessary to clarify effects of the flow stability characteristic of the primary coolant system and the external force. Until now, as for the flow stability of a nuclear reactor itself, many research reports have been published including the nuclear-coupled thermal oscillation of BWRs such as LaSalle-2, WNP-2 etc. As for the effect of external force, it is reported that the acceleration change based on a seismic wave affects the reactor core flow and the reactor power in a BWR. On the other hand, also in a PWR, since adoption of natural circulation cooling is considered for a generation 4 reactor, it is thought that the margin of the reactor core flow stability becomes an important parameter in the design. The reactor coolant flow mentioned in this report is the two-phase natural circulation flow coupled with

  13. Biological nitrogen and carbon removal in a gravity flow biomass concentrator reactor for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel; Hidaka, Taira; Campo, Pablo; Kleiner, Eric; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2013-01-01

    A novel membrane system, the Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR), was evaluated as an alternative technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. Because the BCR is equipped with a membrane whose average poresize is 20 μm (18-28 μm), the reactor requires low-pressure differential to operate (gravity). The effectiveness of this system was evaluated for the removal of carbon and nitrogen using two identical BCRs, identified as conventional and hybrid, that were operated in parallel. The conventional reactor was operated under full aerobic conditions (i.e., organic carbon and ammonia oxidation), while the hybrid reactor incorporated an anoxic zone for nitrate reduction as well as an aerobic zone for organic carbon and ammonia oxidation. Both reactors were fed synthetic wastewater at a flow rate of 71 L d(-1), which resulted in a hydraulic retention time of 9 h. In the case of the hybrid reactor, the recycle flow from the aerobic zone to the anoxic zone was twice the feed flow rate. Reactor performance was evaluated under two solids retention times (6 and 15 d). Under these conditions, the BCRs achieved nearly 100% mixed liquor solids separation with a hydraulic head differential of less than 2.5 cm. The COD removal efficiency was over 90%. Essentially complete nitrification was achieved in both systems, and nitrogen removal in the hybrid reactor was close to the expected value (67%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae in a continuous plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Panneerselvam; Savithri, Sivaraman

    2018-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used in this work to simulate the hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae in a lab-scale continuous plug-flow reactor to understand the fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a HTL reactor under hydrothermal condition. The temperature profile in the reactor and the yield of HTL products from the present simulation are obtained and they are validated with the experimental data available in the literature. Furthermore, the parametric study is carried out to study the effect of slurry flow rate, reactor temperature, and external heat transfer coefficient on the yield of products. Though the model predictions are satisfactory in comparison with the experimental results, it still needs to be improved for better prediction of the product yields. This improved model will be considered as a baseline for design and scale-up of large-scale HTL reactor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance evaluation of a flow-down collecting solar system; Ryuka shunetsushiki solar system no seino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K; Li, X; Baba, H; Endo, N [Kitami Institute of Technology, (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper evaluated performance of a flow-down collecting solar system. The solar heat pump PV system is composed of a solar system, heat pump and PV, of which the heat collecting portion is a water-use horizontal evacuated double glass tube solar collector. As a result of the performance measurement, the necessity of fundamental improvement arose. Under an idea of disproving common sense of the original forced circulation solar system, a system was designed in which heat is collected by making the heat media reversely circulate and flow down in accordance with gravity. When the flow rate was 2m{sup 3}/h, the collecting rate reached a maximum, approximately 54% (36.9% before improvement). When the flow rate was 1.3-1.5m{sup 3}/h, the system can realize the maximum merit, and the collecting efficiency became approximately 50%. Helped by reduction in consumed power, the average system performance coefficient reached more than 85% (28.9% before improvement). The obtainable energy rate rapidly increased to 2.9 times more than before improvement. Further, the consumed power of pump was decreased 65% from before improvement when the flow rate was 2.4m{sup 3}/h. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2014-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the suing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer is implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer is produced an inverse buoyant force make the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow - open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 M watt) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against Gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability

  19. Experimental Investigation of the Hot Water Layer Effect on Upward Flow Open Pool Reactor Operability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Elmaaty, T.

    2015-01-01

    The open pool reactor offers a high degree of reliability in the handling and manoeuvring, the replacement of reactor internal components and the swing of vertical irradiation channels. The protection of both the operators and the reactor hall environment against radiation hazards is considered a matter of interest. So, a hot water layer implemented above many of the research reactors main pool, especially those whose flow direction is upward flow. An experimental work was carried out to ensure the operability of the upward flow open pool research reactor with / without the hot water layer. The performed experiment showed that, the hot water layer produced an inverse buoyant force making the water to diffuse downward against the ordinary natural circulation from the reactor core. An upward flow-open pool research reactor (with a power greater than 20 Mw) could not wok without a hot water layer. The high temperature of the hot water layer surface could release a considerable amount of water vapour into the reactor hall, so a heat and mass transfer model is built based on the measured hot water layer surface temperature to calculate the amount of released water vapour during the reactor operating period. The effects of many parameters like the ambient air temperature, the reactor hall relative humidity and the speed of the pushed air layer above the top pool end on the evaporation rate is studied. The current study showed that, the hot water layer system is considered an efficient shielding system against gamma radiation for open pool upward flow reactor and that system should be operated before the reactor start up by a suitable period of time. While, the heat and mass transfer model results showed that, the amount of the released water vapour is increased as a result of both the increase in hot water layer surface temperature and the increase in air layer speed. As the increase in hot water layer surface temperature could produce a good operability conditions from

  20. Biological hydrogen production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in an unsaturated flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Bruns, Mary Ann; Logan, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    A mesophilic unsaturated flow (trickle bed) reactor was designed and tested for H2 production via fermentation of glucose. The reactor consisted of a column packed with glass beads and inoculated with a pure culture (Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824). A defined medium containing glucose was fed at a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min (0.096 L/h) into the capped reactor, producing a hydraulic retention time of 2.1 min. Gas-phase H2 concentrations were constant, averaging 74 +/- 3% for all conditions tested. H2 production rates increased from 89 to 220 mL/hL of reactor when influent glucose concentrations were varied from 1.0 to 10.5 g/L. Specific H2 production rate ranged from 680 to 1270 mL/g glucose per liter of reactor (total volume). The H2 yield was 15-27%, based on a theoretical limit by fermentation of 4 moles of H2 from 1 mole of glucose. The major fermentation by-products in the liquid effluent were acetate and butyrate. The reactor rapidly (within 60-72 h) became clogged with biomass, requiring manual cleaning of the system. In order to make long-term operation of the reactor feasible, biofilm accumulation in the reactor will need to be controlled through some process such as backwashing. These tests using an unsaturated flow reactor demonstrate the feasibility of the process to produce high H2 gas concentrations in a trickle-bed type of reactor. A likely application of this reactor technology could be H2 gas recovery from pre-treatment of high carbohydrate-containing wastewaters.

  1. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

  2. A numerical model to evaluate the flow distribution in a large solar collector field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a numerical model to evaluate the flow distribution in a large solar collector field, with solar collectors connected both in series and in parallel. The boundary conditions of the systems, such as flow rate, temperature, fluid type and layout of the collector field can...... be easily changed in the model. The model was developed in Matlab and the calculated pressure drop and flow distribution were compared with measurements from a solar collector field. A good agreement between model and measurements was found. The model was then used to study the flow distribution...... in different conditions. Balancing valves proved to be an effective way to achieve uniform flow distribution also in conditions different from those for which the valves were regulated. For small solar collector fields with limited number of collector rows connected in parallel, balancing valves...

  3. Design and Implementation of a Novel Quench Flow Reactor for the Study of Nascent Olefin Polymerisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Martino, Audrey; Broyer, Jean Pierre; Schweich, Daniel; de Bellefon, Claude; Weickert, G.; McKenna, Timothy F.L.

    2007-01-01

    A novel stopped flow reactor system is described in the current work, along with the underlying design philosophy. While the concept of stopped flow technology is not recent, this system is the first to be designed with the objective of studying particle morphology, and to work at extremely short

  4. CFD analysis and flow model reduction for surfactant production in helix reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikačević, N.M.; Thielen, L.; Twerda, A.; Hof, P.M.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    Flow pattern analysis in a spiral Helix reactor is conducted, for the application in the commercial surfactant production. Step change response curves (SCR) were obtained from numerical tracer experiments by three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Non-reactive flow is

  5. Student-Fabricated Microfluidic Devices as Flow Reactors for Organic and Inorganic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Edelman, Kate R.; Swanson, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Flow synthesis in microfluidic devices has been rapidly adapted in the pharmaceutical industry and in many research laboratories. Yet, the cost of commercial flow reactors is a major factor limiting the dissemination of this technology in the undergraduate curriculum. Here, we present a laboratory activity where students design and fabricate…

  6. A solar rechargeable flow battery based on photoregeneration of two soluble redox couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Cao, Yu-liang; Li, Guo-Ran; Gao, Xue-Ping; Ai, Xin-Ping; Yang, Han-Xi

    2013-05-01

    Storable sunshine, reusable rays: A solar rechargeable redox flow battery is proposed based on the photoregeneration of I(3)(-)/I(-) and [Fe(C(10)H(15))(2)](+)/Fe(C(10)H(15))(2) soluble redox couples, which can be regenerated by flowing from a discharged redox flow battery (RFB) into a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and then stored in tanks for subsequent RFB applications This technology enables effective solar-to-chemical energy conversion. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Controlled synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles in capillary micro-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengtai; Liu Yulan; Maeda, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    In this study, using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary tube as a micro-flow reactor, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles were controllably synthesized with different flow rates of precursory solution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images and UV-visible absorbance spectra showed that silver nanoparticles with large size can be prepared with slow flow rate in the PTFE capillary reactor. The effects of tube diameters on the growth of colloidal silver nanoparticles were investigated. Experiment results demonstrated that using tube with small diameter was more propitious for the controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles with different sizes.

  8. Effects of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a sand bed solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maganhar, A.L.; Memon, A.H.; Panhwar, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The often discussed renewable sources of energy have been great interest to energy researchers and planners for quite some time. The primary of renewing all sources of energy is the sun. There have been two main problems not yet fully resolved. One is the large scale production of energy and other is the cost factor. In the present study, the cost factor is under consideration. In this regard a non-conventional solar collector using indigenous material (pit sand) as solar absorber is designed and manufactured. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of solar collecting area and water flow rate on the performance of a pit sand bed solar collector especially in terms of rise in water temperature. Three pit sand solar collectors of area 1m/sup 2/ each were connected in series to enhance the collecting area and the system was tested for different flow rates. Experimental results proved that there was increase in water temperature with increase in solar collecting area an decreases in water temperature with increase in flow rate. (author)

  9. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  10. Large-scale Flow and Transport of Magnetic Flux in the Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. Horizontal large-scale velocity field describes horizontal displacement of the photospheric magnetic flux in zonal and meridian directions. The flow systems of solar plasma, constructed according to the velocity field, create the large-scale cellular-like patterns with up-flow in the center and the down-flow on the ...

  11. Fluid flow and heat transfer investigation of pebble bed reactors using mesh-adaptive LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Lathouwers, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The very high temperature reactor is one of the designs currently being considered for nuclear power generation. One its variants is the pebble bed reactor in which the coolant passes through complex geometries (pores) at high Reynolds numbers. A computational fluid dynamics model with anisotropic mesh adaptivity is used to investigate coolant flow and heat transfer in such reactors. A novel method for implicitly incorporating solid boundaries based on multi-fluid flow modelling is adopted. The resulting model is able to resolve and simulate flow and heat transfer in randomly packed beds, regardless of the actual geometry, starting off with arbitrarily coarse meshes. The model is initially evaluated using an orderly stacked square channel of channel-height-to-particle diameter ratio of unity for a range of Reynolds numbers. The model is then applied to the face-centred cubical geometry. coolant flow and heat transfer patterns are investigated

  12. Solar gasification of biomass: design and characterization of a molten salt gasification reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Brandon Jay

    The design and implementation of a prototype molten salt solar reactor for gasification of biomass is a significant milestone in the development of a solar gasification process. The reactor developed in this work allows for 3 kWth operation with an average aperture flux of 1530 suns at salt temperatures of 1200 K with pneumatic injection of ground or powdered dry biomass feedstocks directly into the salt melt. Laboratory scale experiments in an electrically heated reactor demonstrate the benefits of molten salt and the data was evaluated to determine the kinetics of pyrolysis and gasification of biomass or carbon in molten salt. In the presence of molten salt overall gas yields are increased by up to 22%; pyrolysis rates double due to improved heat transfer, while carbon gasification rates increase by an order of magnitude. Existing kinetic models for cellulose pyrolysis fit the data well, while carbon gasification in molten salt follows kinetics modeled with a 2/3 order shrinking-grain model with a pre-exponential factor of 1.5*106 min-1 and activation energy of 158 kJ/mol. A reactor concept is developed based around a concentric cylinder geometry with a cavity-style solar receiver immersed within a volume of molten carbonate salt. Concentrated radiation delivered to the cavity is absorbed in the cavity walls and transferred via convection to the salt volume. Feedstock is delivered into the molten salt volume where biomass gasification reactions will be carried out producing the desired product gas. The features of the cavity receiver/reactor concept are optimized based on modeling of the key physical processes. The cavity absorber geometry is optimized according to a parametric survey of radiative exchange using a Monte Carlo ray tracing model, resulting in a cavity design that achieves absorption efficiencies of 80%-90%. A parametric survey coupling the radiative exchange simulations to a CFD model of molten salt natural convection is used to size the annulus

  13. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-01-01

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  14. The role of heater thermal response in reactor thermal limits during oscillartory two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggles, A.E.; Brown, N.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vasil`ev, A.D. [Nuclear Safety Institute, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Wendel, M.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Analytical and numerical investigations of critical heat flux (CHF) and reactor thermal limits are conducted for oscillatory two-phase flows often associated with natural circulation conditions. It is shown that the CHF and associated thermal limits depend on the amplitude of the flow oscillations, the period of the flow oscillations, and the thermal properties and dimensions of the heater. The value of the thermal limit can be much lower in unsteady flow situations than would be expected using time average flow conditions. It is also shown that the properties of the heater strongly influence the thermal limit value in unsteady flow situations, which is very important to the design of experiments to evaluate thermal limits for reactor fuel systems.

  15. Fluid-Structure Interaction for Coolant Flow in Research-type Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Franklin G.; Ekici, Kivanc; Freels, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is scheduled to undergo a conversion of the fuel used and this proposed change requires an extensive analysis of the flow through the reactor core. The core consists of 540 very thin and long fuel plates through which the coolant (water) flows at a very high rate. Therefore, the design and the flow conditions make the plates prone to dynamic and static deflections, which may result in flow blockage and structural failure which in turn may cause core damage. To investigate the coolant flow between fuel plates and associated structural deflections, the Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) module in COMSOL will be used. Flow induced flutter and static deflections will be examined. To verify the FSI module, a test case of a cylinder in crossflow, with vortex induced vibrations was performed and validated.

  16. Thermal Performance of a Large Low Flow Solar Heating System with a Highly Thermally Stratified Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2005-01-01

    are facing west. The collector tilt is 15° from horizontal for all collectors. Both the east-facing and the west-facing collectors have their own solar collector loop, circulation pump, external heat exchanger and control system. The external heat exchangers are used to transfer the heat from the solar......In year 2000 a 336 m² solar domestic hot water system was built in Sundparken, Elsinore, Denmark. The solar heating system is a low flow system with a 10000 l hot-water tank. Due to the orientation of the buildings half of the solar collectors are facing east, half of the solar collectors...... collector fluid to the domestic water. The domestic water is pumped from the bottom of the hot-water tank to the heat exchanger and back to the hot-water tank through stratification inlet pipes. The return flow from the DHW circulation pipe also enters the tank through stratification inlet pipes. The tank...

  17. Analytical evaluation of two-phase natural circulation flow characteristics under external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2009-01-01

    This work proposes an analytical method of evaluating the effects of design and operating parameters on the low-pressure two-phase natural circulation flow through the annular shaped gap at the reactor vessel exterior surface heated by corium (molten core) relocated to the reactor vessel lower plenum after loss of coolant accidents. A natural circulation flow velocity equation derived from steady-state mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for homogeneous two-phase flow is numerically solved for the core melting conditions of the APR1400 reactor. The solution is compared with existing experiments which measured natural circulation flow through the annular gap slice model. Two kinds of parameters are considered for this analytical method. One is the thermal-hydraulic conditions such as thermal power of corium, pressure and inlet subcooling. The others are those for the thermal insulation system design for the purpose of providing natural circulation flow path outside the reactor vessel: inlet flow area, annular gap clearance and system resistance. A computer program NCIRC is developed for the numerical solution of the implicit flow velocity equation.

  18. Precision Polymer Design in Microstructured Flow Reactors: Improved Control and First Upscale at Once

    OpenAIRE

    Junkers, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Continuous flow synthesis techniques have in recent years conquered laboratory scale synthesis, yet within the field of precision polymer synthesis its use is still not fully established despite the large advantages that can be gained from switching from classical batch-wise chemistry to flow chemistry, often already by using relatively simple chip-based or cheap tubular micro- and mesoscaled reactors. Translating a polymerization from batch to continuous flow marks not only a mere change in ...

  19. Optimum cadmium reactor designs for colorimetric determination of nitrate with flow injection and gas-segmented continuous flow analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cadmium reactor types can be grouped into four categories: packed bed; filamentous; open tubular; and planar. Packed bed cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium filings, granules, powder, or electrolytically precipitated needles packed into glass or polymeric tubes, are by far the most widely used for both FIA and CFA methods. Surprisingly, filamentous cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium wire slipped into flexible polymeric tubing, have been reported for CFA applications only. Open tubular cadmium reactors, in the form of small diameter cadmium tubing coiled into a helix, have been fully characterized and described for CFA applications. A preliminary description of planar cadmium reactors, in the form of cadmium foil sandwiched between continuous flow dialyzer blocks has also been reported. In this presentation, each reactor type is evaluated in terms of cost, ease of use, reduction efficiency, and long-term stability. Factors that make some reactors more applicable to FIA than to CFA (or the reverse) are also discussed, and experimental data are presented

  20. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    been proved to be very promising additives and havereceived extensive studies during the past decades. However, mostprevious studies were carried out in fixed-bed reactors where the reaction conditions are obviously different from that in suspension fired boilers.Detailed knowledge on the reaction...

  1. Calculation of the flow distribution for the new core of the RA-6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.C.; Delmastro, Dario F.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the pressure drop, the flow distribution, effective cooling flow rate and the velocity in the subchannels that cool fuel plates for the new core of RA-6 research reactor were calculated. These calculations were performed for a flow of 340 m 3 /hr and water temperatures of 12 C degrees, of 35 C degrees and 42 C degrees. The flow distribution was calculated without considering either safety factors or geometric changes. All the calculations were performed considering the flow as isothermal. (author) [es

  2. Direct numerical simulation of reactor two-phase flows enabled by high-performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jun; Cambareri, Joseph J.; Brown, Cameron S.; Feng, Jinyong; Gouws, Andre; Li, Mengnan; Bolotnov, Igor A.

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear reactor two-phase flows remain a great engineering challenge, where the high-resolution two-phase flow database which can inform practical model development is still sparse due to the extreme reactor operation conditions and measurement difficulties. Owing to the rapid growth of computing power, the direct numerical simulation (DNS) is enjoying a renewed interest in investigating the related flow problems. A combination between DNS and an interface tracking method can provide a unique opportunity to study two-phase flows based on first principles calculations. More importantly, state-of-the-art high-performance computing (HPC) facilities are helping unlock this great potential. This paper reviews the recent research progress of two-phase flow DNS related to reactor applications. The progress in large-scale bubbly flow DNS has been focused not only on the sheer size of those simulations in terms of resolved Reynolds number, but also on the associated advanced modeling and analysis techniques. Specifically, the current areas of active research include modeling of sub-cooled boiling, bubble coalescence, as well as the advanced post-processing toolkit for bubbly flow simulations in reactor geometries. A novel bubble tracking method has been developed to track the evolution of bubbles in two-phase bubbly flow. Also, spectral analysis of DNS database in different geometries has been performed to investigate the modulation of the energy spectrum slope due to bubble-induced turbulence. In addition, the single-and two-phase analysis results are presented for turbulent flows within the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core geometries. The related simulations are possible to carry out only with the world leading HPC platforms. These simulations are allowing more complex turbulence model development and validation for use in 3D multiphase computational fluid dynamics (M-CFD) codes.

  3. Modelling of sludge blanket height and flow pattern in UASB reactors treating municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.S.; Viraraghavan, T.

    2002-01-01

    Two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were started-up and operated for approximately 900 days to examine the feasibility of treating municipal wastewater under low temperature conditions. A modified solid distribution model was formulated by incorporating the variation of biogas production rate with a change in temperature. This model was used to optimize the sludge blanket height of UASB reactors for an effective operation of gas-liquid-solid (GLS) separation device. This model was found to simulate well the solid distribution as confirmed experimental observation of solid profile along the height of the reactor. Mathematical analysis of tracer curves indicated the presence of a mixed type of flow pattern in the sludge-bed zone of the reactor. It was found that the dead-zone and by-pass flow fraction were impacted by the change in operating temperatures. (author)

  4. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  5. Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Shuai, Yong; Gong, Liang; Tan, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 production by hybrid solar energy and methane steam reforming is analyzed. • MCRT and FVM coupling method is used for chemical reaction in solar porous reactor. • LTNE model is used to study the solid phase and fluid phase thermal performance. • Modified P1 approximation programmed by UDFs is used for irradiative heat transfer. - Abstract: The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production

  6. Effect of 3-D moderator flow configurations on the reactivity of CANDU nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadeh, Foad Mehdi; Etienne, Stephane; Chambon, Richard; Marleau, Guy; Teyssedou, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 3-D CFD simulations of CANDU-6 moderator flows are presented. • A thermal-hydraulic code using thermal physical fluid properties is used. • The numerical approach and convergence is validated against available data. • Flow configurations are correlated using Richardson’s number. • The interaction between moderator temperatures with reactivity is determined. - Abstract: The reactivity of nuclear reactors can be affected by thermal conditions prevailing within the moderator. In CANDU reactors, the moderator and the coolant are mechanically separated but not necessarily thermally isolated. Hence, any variation of moderator flow properties may change the reactivity. Until now, nuclear reactor calculations have been performed by assuming uniform moderator flow temperature distribution. However, CFD simulations have predicted large time dependent flow fluctuations taking place inside the calandria, which can bring about local temperature variations that can exceed 50 °C. This paper presents robust CANDU 3-D CFD moderator simulations coupled to neutronic calculations. The proposed methodology makes it possible to study not only different moderator flow configurations but also their effects on the reactor reactivity coefficient.

  7. Mass-transfer characterization in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor with convergent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colli, A.N.; Bisang, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A convergent laminar flow enhances and becomes more uniform the mass-transfer rate. • The mass-transfer rate is increased under convergent turbulent flow conditions. • The mass-transfer rate under convergent laminar flow can be theoretically predicted. • A convergent duct improves the reactor behaviour and the concept is easily applicable. -- Abstract: A continuous reduction in the cross-section area is analysed as a means of improving mass-transfer in a parallel-plate electrochemical reactor. Experimental local mass-transfer coefficients along the electrode length are reported for different values of the convergent ratio and Reynolds numbers, using the reduction of ferricyanide as a test reaction. The Reynolds numbers evaluated at the reactor inlet range from 85 to 4600 with interelectrode gaps of 2 and 4 mm. The convergent flow improves the mean mass-transfer coefficient by 10–60% and mass-transfer distribution under laminar flow conditions becomes more uniform. The experimental data under laminar flow conditions are compared with theoretical calculations obtained by a computational fluid dynamics software and also with an analytical simplified model. A suitable agreement is observed between both theoretical treatments and with the experimental results. The pressure drop across the reactor is reported and compared with theoretical predictions

  8. Experimental and computational investigation of flow of pebbles in a pebble bed nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khane, Vaibhav B.

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a 4th generation nuclear reactor which is conceptually similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBR core, nuclear fuel in the form of pebbles moves slowly under the influence of gravity. Due to the dynamic nature of the core, a thorough understanding about slow and dense granular flow of pebbles is required from both a reactor safety and performance evaluation point of view. In this dissertation, a new integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a PBR has been performed. Continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking flow of pebbles in a PBR, is designed and developed. Experimental investigation of the flow of pebbles in a mimicked test reactor was carried out for the first time using non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) and residence time distribution (RTD) techniques to measure the pebble trajectory, velocity, overall/zonal residence times, flow patterns etc. The tracer trajectory length and overall/zonal residence time is found to increase with change in pebble's initial seeding position from the center towards the wall of the test reactor. Overall and zonal average velocities of pebbles are found to decrease from the center towards the wall. Discrete element method (DEM) based simulations of test reactor geometry were also carried out using commercial code EDEM(TM) and simulation results were validated using the obtained benchmark experimental data. In addition, EDEM(TM) based parametric sensitivity study of interaction properties was carried out which suggests that static friction characteristics play an important role from a packed/pebble beds structural characterization point of view. To make the RPT technique viable for practical applications and to enhance its accuracy, a novel and dynamic technique for RPT calibration was designed and developed. Preliminary feasibility results suggest that it can be implemented as a non

  9. Investigation of fluid flow in various geometries related to nuclear reactor using PIV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, A.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Singh, R.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Singh, R.K.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive technique for simultaneously measuring the velocities at many points in a fluid flow. The PIV system used is comprised of Nd:YAG laser source, CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera, timing controller (to control the laser and camera) and software used for analyzing the flow velocities. Several case studies related to nuclear reactor were performed with the PIV system. Some of the cases like flow in circular tube, submerged jet, natural convection in a water pool, flow field of moderator inlet diffuser of 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and fluidic flow control device (FFCD) used in advanced accumulator of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) have been studied using PIV system. Theoretical studies have been performed and comparisons with PIV results are also given in the present studies. (author)

  10. K-capture by Al-Si based Additives in an Entrained Flow Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A water slurry, consisting of KCl and Al-Si based additives (kaolin and coal fly ash) was fed into an entrained flow reactor (EFR) to study the K-capturing reaction of the additives at suspension-fired conditions. Solid products collected from the reactor were analysed with respect to total...... of KCl to K-aluminosilicate decreased. When reaction temperature increased from 1100 °C to 1450 °C, the conversion of KCl does not change significantly, which differs from the trend observed in fixed-bed reactor....

  11. A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyi, A S; Fomichev, Yu V; Duplyakin, V K; Alfeev, V S

    1977-07-01

    A microcatalytic flow reactor for the study of heterogeneous catalytic reactions at elevated pressures (i.e., up to 40 atm) and nearly isothermal conditions up to 600/sup 0/C was designed for the conversion of small quantities of petrochemical feeds or feed mixtures at uniform, controllable flow rates of 0.5-5.0 cc/hr, for direct gas-chromatographic analysis of product samples at the reactor outlet, and for continuous monitoring of the degree of conversion in processes that evolve or absorb hydrogen. The device includes a feed injection system with a unique sealing feature that ensures a constant flow of liquid from a feed buret under positive displacement by a counterweight piston at very low rates into a tubular reactor of the perfect mixing type, a highly efficient vaporizer-mixer, and a two-channel sampler leading to the chromatograph. The apparatus has proved reliable, accurate, and convenient in two years of regular use. Diagrams.

  12. Study of coolant flow distribution within the PWR type reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, L.M.M.

    1983-01-01

    The thermohydraulic design of a pressurized water reactor requires the determination of the coolant flow distributions within the reactor vessel, particulary at the core inlet. In this work it is proposed the study of this flow, using potencial flow theory governed by Laplace's equation, nabla 2 φ = O. The solution of the potential field is obtained by the finite element method, which simplifies considerably the treatment of complex geometrical configurations. The equation is solved by the finite element computer code ANSYS, developed and licensed for structural and thermal analysis by using the analogy between steady state heat transfer equation without heat generation, nabla 2 T=O, and Laplace's equation of the velocity potential. The proposed method has been applied to a commercial reactor, and the results are consistent with the available experimental data. (author) [pt

  13. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time....

  14. Development of a detailed core flow analysis code for prismatic fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the core flow distribution in prismatic fuel reactors is of interest for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) design and safety analyses. Such analyses involve the steady-state flow of helium through highly cross-connected flow paths in and around the prismatic fuel elements. Several computer codes have been developed for this purpose. However, since they are proprietary codes, they are not generally available for independent MHTGR design confirmation. The previously developed codes do not consider the exchange or diversion of flow between individual bypass gaps with much detail. Such a capability could be important in the analysis of potential fuel block motion, such as occurred in the Fort St. Vrain reactor, or for the analysis of the conditions around a flow blockage or misloaded fuel block. This work develops a computer code with fairly general-purpose capabilities for modeling the flow in regions of prismatic fuel cores. The code, called BYPASS solves a finite difference control volume formulation of the compressible, steady-state fluid flow in highly cross-connected flow paths typical of the MHTGR

  15. Experimental and Computational Study of Multiphase Flow Hydrodynamics in 2D Trickle Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, H.; Ben Salem, I.; Kurnia, J. C.; Rabbani, S.; Shamim, T.; Sassi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Trickle bed reactors are largely used in the refining processes. Co-current heavy oil and hydrogen gas flow downward on catalytic particle bed. Fine particles in the heavy oil and/or soot formed by the exothermic catalytic reactions deposit on the bed and clog the flow channels. This work is funded by the refining company of Abu Dhabi and aims at mitigating pressure buildup due to fine deposition in the TBR. In this work, we focus on meso-scale experimental and computational investigations of the interplay between flow regimes and the various parameters that affect them. A 2D experimental apparatus has been built to investigate the flow regimes with an average pore diameter close to the values encountered in trickle beds. A parametric study is done for the development of flow regimes and the transition between them when the geometry and arrangement of the particles within the porous medium are varied. Liquid and gas flow velocities have also been varied to capture the different flow regimes. Real time images of the multiphase flow are captured using a high speed camera, which were then used to characterize the transition between the different flow regimes. A diffused light source was used behind the 2D Trickle Bed Reactor to enhance visualizations. Experimental data shows very good agreement with the published literature. The computational study focuses on the hydrodynamics of multiphase flow and to identify the flow regime developed inside TBRs using the ANSYS Fluent Software package. Multiphase flow inside TBRs is investigated using the "discrete particle" approach together with Volume of Fluid (VoF) multiphase flow modeling. The effect of the bed particle diameter, spacing, and arrangement are presented that may be used to provide guidelines for designing trickle bed reactors.

  16. Kinetic parameters of hydroprocessing reactions in a flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raychaudhuri, U.; Banerjee, T.S.; Ghar, R.N. (Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India))

    1994-01-01

    The change in distillation properties of a blend of light and heavy distillates over a commercial hydrotreating catalyst was studied using a small packed bed reactor. The results were interpreted assuming a pseudo-component model that took into account the physical and chemical complexity of the system. A first order series-parallel reaction mechanism was found to be valid for the operating conditions involved. Pore diffusion effects were also taken into consideration. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Development of a Test Facility to Simulate the Reactor Flow Distribution of APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, D. J.; Cho, S.; Youn, Y. J.; Kim, J. T.; Kang, H. S.; Kwon, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recently a design of new reactor, APR+, is being developed, as an advanced type of APR1400. In order to analyze the thermal margin and hydraulic characteristics of APR+, quantification tests for flow and pressure distribution with a conservation of flow geometry are necessary. Hetsroni (1967) proposed four principal parameters for a hydraulic model representing a nuclear reactor prototype: geometry, relative roughness, Reynolds number, and Euler number. He concluded that the Euler number should be similar in the prototype and model under the preservation of the aspect ratio on the flow path. The effect of the Reynolds number at its higher values on the Euler number is rather small, since the dependency of the form and frictional loss coefficients on the Reynolds number is seen to be small. ABB-CE has carried out several reactor flow model test programs, mostly for its prototype reactors. A series of tests were conducted using a 3/16 scale reactor model. (see Lee et al., 2001). Lee et al (1991) performed experimental studies using a 1/5.03 scale reactor flow model of Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4. They showed that the measured data met the acceptance criteria and were suitable for their intended use in terms of performance and safety analyses. The design of current test facility was based on the conservation of Euler number which is a ratio of pressure drop to dynamic pressure with a sufficiently turbulent region having a high Reynolds number. By referring to the previous study, the APR+ design is linearly reduced to 1/5 ratio with a 1/2 of the velocity scale, which yields a 1/39.7 of Reynolds number scaling ratio. In the present study, the design feature of the facilities, named 'ACOP', in order to investigate flow and pressure distribution are described

  18. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL ABSORBER STRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... collector fluid, and by increased collector tilt and inlet temperature, the flow distribution gets worse resulting in a decreased collector efficiency and an increased risk of boiling in the upper part of the collector panel. Keywords: Solar collector; Flow distribution; Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD...

  19. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yongqi; Liu, Ruixiang; Meng, Jian; Mao, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h) and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C) within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and res...

  20. Nocturnal reverse flow in water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Runsheng; Yang, Yuqin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at night was studied. • Experimental measurements showed that reverse flow occurred in SWHs at night. • Reverse flow in SWHs was very high but the heat loss due to reverse flow was very low. • Reverse flow seemed not sensitive to atmospheric clearness but sensitive to collector tilt-angle. - Abstract: In this work, the thermal performance of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters (SWH) at nights was experimentally investigated. Measurements at nights showed that the water temperature in solar tubes was always lower than that in the water tank but higher than the ambient air temperature and T exp , the temperature of water inside tubes predicted in the case of the water in tubes being naturally cooled without reverse flow. This signified that the reverse flow in the system occurred at nights, making the water in solar tubes higher than T exp . It is found that the reverse flow rate in the SWH, estimated based on temperature measurements of water in solar tubes, seemed not sensitive to the atmospheric clearness but sensitive to the collector tilt-angle, the larger the tilt-angle of the collector, the higher the reverse flow rate. Experimental results also showed that, the reverse flow in the SWH was much higher as compared to that in a thermosyphonic domestic solar water heater with flat-plate collectors, but the heat loss from collectors to the air due to reverse flow in SWHs was very small and only took about 8–10% of total heat loss of systems

  1. Perspectives of advanced thermal management in solar thermochemical syngas production using a counter-flow solid-solid heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christoph; Sizmann, Andreas; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    A modular reactor model is presented for the description of solar thermochemical syngas production involving counter-flow heat exchangers that recuperate heat from the solid phase. The development of the model is described including heat diffusion within the reactive material as it travels through the heat exchanger, which was previously identified to be a possibly limiting factor in heat exchanger design. Heat transfer within the reactive medium is described by conduction and radiation, where the former is modeled with the three-resistor model and the latter with the Rosseland diffusion approximation. The applicability of the model is shown by the analysis of heat exchanger efficiency for different material thicknesses and porosities in a system with 8 chambers and oxidation and reduction temperatures of 1000 K and 1800 K, respectively. Heat exchanger efficiency is found to rise strongly for a reduction of material thickness, as the element mass is reduced and a larger part of the elements takes part in the heat exchange process. An increase of porosity enhances radiation heat exchange but deteriorates conduction. The overall heat exchange in the material is improved for high temperatures in the heat exchanger, as radiation dominates the energy transfer. The model is shown to be a valuable tool for the development and analysis of solar thermochemical reactor concepts involving heat exchange from the solid phase.

  2. 3D NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW IN A SOLAR CHIMNEY POWER PLANT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHAR TAYEBI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer process and fluid flow in a Solar Chimney Power Plant System (SCPPS are investigated numerically. As simulation object we use the Spanish prototype plant. The calculative model and boundary conditions in calculation are introduced. Boussinesq model was chosen in the natural convection processus, Discrete Ordinate radiation model was employed for radiation. The principal factors that influence on the performance of the Solar Chimney have been analysed. The effects on the flow of the Solar Chimney which caused by solar radiation intensity have been simulated. The calculated results are compared and are approximately equivalent to the relative experimental data of the Manzanares prototype. It can be concluded that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of collector, as well as the air velocity in the collector of the system, is increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity and the pressure throughout system is negative value.

  3. Effect of the design change of the LSSBP on core flow distribution of APR+ Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kihwan; Euh, Dong-Jin; Choi, Hae-Seob; Kwon, Tae-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The uniform core inlet flow distribution of an Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR+) is required to prevent the failure rate of the HIPER fuel assembly and improve the core thermal margin. KEPCO-E and C and KAERI proposed a design change of the Lower Support Structure Bottom Plate (LSSBP), since the core flow rates were intense near the outer region of the intact LSSBP in a previous study. In this study, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the design change of the LSSBP on the core flow distribution using the APR+ Core Flow and Pressure (ACOP) test facility. The results showed great improvement on the core flow distribution under a 4-pump balanced flow condition. Under the 4-pump balanced flow condition, fifteen tests were repeated using the ACOP test facility to verify the effect of the 50% blocked flow area at the outer region of the LSSBP on the core inlet flow distribution. The profiles of the core inlet mass flow rates were analyzed using ensemble averaged values, and compared with that of the intact LSSBP. The results showed great improvement for the overall core region. The change in design of the LSSBP is expected to improve the hydraulic performance of an APR+ reactor

  4. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P.

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

  5. CFD analysis and flow model reduction for surfactant production in helix reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikačević N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow pattern analysis in a spiral Helix reactor is conducted, for the application in the commercial surfactant production. Step change response curves (SCR were obtained from numerical tracer experiments by three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. Non-reactive flow is simulated, though viscosity is treated as variable in the direction of flow, as it increases during the reaction. The design and operating parameters (reactor diameter, number of coils and inlet velocity are varied in CFD simulations, in order to examine the effects on the flow pattern. Given that 3D simulations are not practical for fast computations needed for optimization, scale-up and control, CFD flow model is reduced to one-dimensional axial dispersion (AD model with spatially variable dispersion coefficient. Dimensionless dispersion coefficient (Pe is estimated under different conditions and results are analyzed. Finally, correlation which relates Pe number with Reynolds number and number of coils from the reactor entrance is proposed for the particular reactor application and conditions.

  6. Analysis of loss of flow events on Brazilian multipurpose reactor by RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Humberto V.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F., E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: laubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores, CNPq (Brazil); Aronne, Ivan D.; Rezende, Guilherme P., E-mail: aroneid@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (BMR) is currently being projected and analyzed. It will be a 30 MW open pool multipurpose research reactor with a compact core using Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) type fuel assembly, with planar plates. BMR will be cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and heavy water. This work presents the calculations of steady state operation of BMR using the RELAP5 model and also three transient cases of loss of flow accident (LOFA), in the primary cooling system. A LOFA may arise through failures associated with the primary cooling system pumps or through events resulting in a decrease in the primary coolant flow with the primary cooling system pumps functioning normally. The cases presented in this paper are: primary cooling system pump shaft seizure, failure of one primary cooling system pump motor and failure of both primary cooling system pump motors. In the shaft seizure case, the flow reduction is sudden, with the blocking of the flow coast down The motor failure cases, deal with the failure of one or two pump motor due to, for example, malfunction or interruption of power and differently of the shaft seizure it can be observed the flow coast down provided by the pump inertia. It is shown that after all initiating events the reactor reaches a safe new steady state keeping the integrity of the fuel elements. (author)

  7. Biological oxidation of dissolved methane in effluents from anaerobic reactors using a down-flow hanging sponge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ozaki, Noriatsu; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment plants discharge dissolved methane, which is usually not recovered. To prevent emission of methane, which is a greenhouse gas, we utilized an encapsulated down-flow hanging sponge reactor as a post-treatment to biologically oxidize dissolved methane. Within 3 weeks after reactor start-up, methane removal efficiency of up to 95% was achieved with a methane removal rate of 0.8 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at an HRT of 2 h. After increasing the methane-loading rate, the maximum methane removal rate reached 2.2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) at an HRT of 0.5 h. On the other hand, only about 10% of influent ammonium was oxidized to nitrate during the first period, but as airflow was increased to 2.5 L day(-1), nitrification efficiency increased to approximately 70%. However, the ammonia oxidation rate then decreased with an increase in the methane-loading rate. These results indicate that methane oxidation occurred preferentially over ammonium oxidation in the reactor. Cloning of the 16S rRNA and pmoA genes as well as phylogenetic and T-RFLP analyses revealed that type I methanotrophs were the dominant methane oxidizers, whereas type II methanotrophs were detected only in minor portion of the reactor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Passive flow heat exchanger simulation for power generation from solar pond using thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Nuraida'Aadilia; Arzami, Amir Afiq; Singh, Baljit; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Tan, Lippong; Oberoi, Amandeep

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a thermoelectric generator heat exchanger system was designed and simulated for electricity generation from solar pond. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger was studied by using Computational Fluid Dynamics to simulate flow and heat transfer. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger designed for passive in-pond flow used in solar pond for electrical power generation. A simple analysis simulation was developed to obtain the amount of electricity generated at different conditions for hot temperatures of a solar pond at different flow rates. Results indicated that the system is capable of producing electricity. This study and design provides an alternative way to generate electricity from solar pond in tropical countries like Malaysia for possible renewable energy applications.

  9. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benghanem

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia. The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed. Keywords: Photovoltaic water pumping system, Solar radiation data, Simulation, Flow rate

  10. A model for a countercurrent gas—solid—solid trickle flow reactor for equilibrium reactions. The methanol synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kuczynski, M.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical background for a novel, countercurrent gas—solid—solid trickle flow reactor for equilibrium gas reactions is presented. A one-dimensional, steady-state reactor model is developed. The influence of the various process parameters on the reactor performance is discussed. The physical

  11. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Odstrcil, Dusan [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstrčil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ☉ , to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  13. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaminet, J.F.; Kendall, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishment of the UF 6 critical cavity experiments, currently in progress, and planned confined flowing UF 6 initial experiments requires development of reliable techniques for handling heated UF 6 throughout extended ranges of temperature, pressure, and flow rate. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressures up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50 g/s is presented. A UF 6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is described. The system was designed to supply UF 6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressures up to 4 atm. A second UF 6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50 g/s of gaseous UF 6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described

  14. Detailed flow analysis for the Three Mile Island unit 2 reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillington, J.N.; Lyons, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Some particular characteristics of the steam flow in the accident at the Three Mile Island unit 2 pressurized water reactor are investigated using the AEA Technology Flow3D code. Natural circulation flows with heat removal from the core and deposition in the upper plenum are predicted during the primary heating phase. The structure of the upper plenum cylinder and core blockage, owing to material relocation, are shown to force the flow into a complex three-dimensional pattern. The flows and temperature distributions from the calculations are shown to be consistent with the observed damage pattern above the core. Despite high core temperatures, damage was limited by the operation of one of the pumps at the end of the initial heating phase. Flow3D calculations are also carried out to demonstrate that the three-dimensional buoyancy driven flows are completely destroyed by the high steam generation rates arising from the pump operation. (author)

  15. Analysis of impact of mixing flow on the pebble bed high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chen; Li Fu; Guo Jiong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the mixing flow in the pebble flow on pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR) was analyzed in the paper. New code package MFVSOP which can simulate the mixing flow was developed. The equilibrium core of HTR-PM was selected as reference case, the impact of the mixing flow on the core parameters such as core power peak factor, power distribution was analyzed with different degree of mixing flow, and uncertainty analysis was carried out. Numerical results showed that the mixing flow had little impact on key parameters of pebble bed HTR, and the multiple-pass-operation-mode in pebble bed HTR can reduce the uncertainty arouse from the mixing flow. (authors)

  16. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wenjie

    2016-09-21

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L−1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency.

  17. Integrated Photoelectrochemical Solar Energy Conversion and Organic Redox Flow Battery Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjie; Fu, Hui-Chun; Li, Linsen; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; He, Jr-Hau; Jin, Song

    2016-10-10

    Building on regenerative photoelectrochemical solar cells and emerging electrochemical redox flow batteries (RFBs), more efficient, scalable, compact, and cost-effective hybrid energy conversion and storage devices could be realized. An integrated photoelectrochemical solar energy conversion and electrochemical storage device is developed by integrating regenerative silicon solar cells and 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonic acid (AQDS)/1,2-benzoquinone-3,5-disulfonic acid (BQDS) RFBs. The device can be directly charged by solar light without external bias, and discharged like normal RFBs with an energy storage density of 1.15 Wh L -1 and a solar-to-output electricity efficiency (SOEE) of 1.7 % over many cycles. The concept exploits a previously undeveloped design connecting two major energy technologies and promises a general approach for storing solar energy electrochemically with high theoretical storage capacity and efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. CFD Modeling of Flow and Ion Exchange Kinetics in a Rotating Bed Reactor System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Hilde Kristina; Schjøtt Andersen, Patrick Alexander; Byström, Emil

    2017-01-01

    A rotating bed reactor (RBR) has been modeled using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow pattern in the RBR was investigated and the flow through the porous material in it was quantified. A simplified geometry representing the more complex RBR geometry was introduced and the simplified...... model was able to reproduce the main characteristics of the flow. Alternating reactor shapes were investigated, and it was concluded that the use of baffles has a very large impact on the flows through the porous material. The simulations suggested, therefore, that even faster reaction rates could...... be achieved by making the baffles deeper. Two-phase simulations were performed, which managed to reproduce the deflection of the gas–liquid interface in an unbaffled system. A chemical reaction was implemented in the model, describing the ion-exchange phenomena in the porous material using four different...

  19. Deleterious Thermal Effects due to Randomized Flow Paths in Pebble Bed, and Particle Bed Style Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactor fuel rod surface area that is perpendicular to coolant flow direction (+S) i.e. perpendicular to the P creates areas of coolant stagnation leading to increased coolant temperatures resulting in localized changes in fluid properties. Changes in coolant fluid properties caused by minor increases in temperature lead to localized reductions in coolant mass flow rates leading to localized thermal instabilities. Reductions in coolant mass flow rates result in further increases in local temperatures exacerbating changes to coolant fluid properties leading to localized thermal runaway. Unchecked localized thermal runaway leads to localized fuel melting. Reactor designs with randomized flow paths are vulnerable to localized thermal instabilities, localized thermal runaway, and localized fuel melting.

  20. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C.

    2016-09-01

    This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor, together with the 10 jet pumps of each loop. The behavior of the power and the reactivity insertion due to the change of the refrigerant flow pattern is also analyzed. The simulation was carried out using the RELAP/SCDAPSIM version 3.5 code, using a reactor model with 10 jet pumps in each recirculation loop and a core consisting of 6 radial zones and 25 axial zones. The scenario postulates the flow obstruction in a jet pump in a recirculation loop A when the reactor operates at 100% rated power, causing a change in the total flow of refrigerant in the reactor core, leading to a decrease in power. Once the reactor conditions are established to its new power, the operator tries to recover the nominal power using the flow control valve of the recirculation loop A, opening stepwise as a strategy to safely recover the reactor power. In this analysis is assumed that the intention of the nuclear plant operator is to maintain the operation of the reactor during the established cycle. (Author)

  1. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH 4 /gVS added /d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration experience in operating gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvers, L.J.

    1977-03-01

    An overview has been presented of flow-induced and acoustically induced vibration failures that occurred in the past in gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors, and the importance of this experience for the Gas-Cooled Fast-Breeder Reactor (GCFR) project has been assessed. Until now only failures in CO 2 -cooled reactors have been found. No problems with helium-cooled reactors have been encountered so far. It is shown that most of the failures occurred because flow-induced and acoustically induced dynamic loads were underestimated, while at the same time not enough was known about the influence of environmental parameters on material behavior. All problems encountered were solved. The comparison of the influence of the gas properties on acoustically induced and flow-induced vibration phenomena shows that the interaction between reactor design and the thermodynamic properties of the primary coolant precludes a general preference for either carbon dioxide or helium. The acoustic characteristics of CO 2 and He systems are different, but the difference in dynamic loadings due to the use of one rather than the other remains difficult to predict. A slight preference for helium seems, however, to be justified

  3. Evaluating the consequences of loss of flow accident for a typical VVER-1000 nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirvakili, S.M.; Safaei, S. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering; Faghihi, F. [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Safety Research Center

    2010-07-01

    The loss of coolant flow in a nuclear reactor can result from a mechanical or electrical failure of the coolant pump. If the reactor is not tripped promptly, the immediate effect is a rapid increase in coolant temperature, decrease in minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) and fuel damage. This study evaluated the shaft seizure of a reactor coolant pump in a VVER-1000 nuclear reactor. The locked rotor results in rapid reduction of flow through the affected reactor coolant loop and in turn leads to an increase in the primary coolant temperature and pressure. The analysis was conducted with regard for superimposing loss of power to the power plant at the initial accident moment. The required transient functions of flow, pressure and power were obtained using system transient calculations applied in COBRA-EN computer code in order to calculate the overall core thermal-hydraulic parameters such as temperature, critical heat flux and DNBR. The study showed that the critical period for the locked rotor accident is the first few seconds during which the maximum values of pressure and temperature are reached. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Effect of friction on pebble flow pattern in pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D DEM study on particle–wall/particle friction in pebble bed reactor is carried out. • Characteristic values are defined to evaluate features of pebble flow pattern quantitatively. • Particle–wall friction is dominant to determine flow pattern in a specific pebble bed. • Friction effect of hopper part on flow field is more critical than that of cylinder part. • Three cases of 1:1 full scale practical pebble beds are simulated for demonstration. - Abstract: Friction affects pebble flow pattern in pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) significantly. Through a series of three dimensional DEM (discrete element method) simulations it is shown that reducing friction can be beneficial and create a uniform and consistent flow field required by nuclear engineering. Particle–wall friction poses a decisive impact on flow pattern, and particle–particle friction usually plays a secondary role; relation between particle–wall friction and flow pattern transition is also concluded. Moreover, new criteria are created to describe flow patterns quantitatively according to crucial issues in HTGR like stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence. Last but not least, it is proved that friction control of hopper part is more important than that of cylinder part in practical pebble beds, so reducing friction between pebbles and hopper surface is the engineering priority.

  5. PEBBLES: A COMPUTER CODE FOR MODELING PACKING, FLOW AND RECIRCULATIONOF PEBBLES IN A PEBBLE BED REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2006-10-01

    A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.

  6. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-02-11

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area.

  7. Regional groundwater flow model for C, K. L. and P reactor areas, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    A regional groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 100 mi2 surrounding the C, K, L, and P reactor areas has been developed. The reactor flow model is designed to meet the planning objectives outlined in the General Groundwater Strategy for Reactor Area Projects by providing a common framework for analyzing groundwater flow, contaminant migration and remedial alternatives within the Reactor Projects team of the Environmental Restoration Department. The model provides a quantitative understanding of groundwater flow on a regional scale within the near surface aquifers and deeper semi-confined to confined aquifers. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through Spring 1999. Model preprocessing is automated so that future updates and modifications can be performed quickly and efficiently. The CKLP regional reactor model can be used to guide characterization, perform scoping analyses of contaminant transport, and serve as a common base for subsequent finer-scale transport and remedial/feasibility models for each reactor area

  8. The Effect of the Volume Flow rate on the Efficiency of a Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    rates. Theoretically, a simplified model of the solar collector panel is built by means of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code Fluent, where the geometry of the collector panel except the casing is fully modeled. Both lateral and longitudinal heat conduction in the absorber fins, the heat...... transfer from the absorber to the solar collector fluid and the heat loss from the absorber are considered. Flow and temperature distribution in the collector panel are investigated with buoyancy effect. Measurements are carried out with the solar collector panel. Collector efficiencies are measured......The flow distribution inside a collector panel with an area of 12.5 m² and with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins and the effect of the flow nonuniformity on the risk of boiling and on the collector efficiency have been theoretically and experimentally investigated for different volume flow...

  9. The gas-solid trickle-flow reactor for the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulphide: a trickle-phase model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, A.B.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation of H2S by O2 producing elemental sulphur has been studied at temperatures of 100–300°C and at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory-scale gas-solid trickle-flow reactor. In this reactor one of the reaction products, i.e. sulphur, is removed continuously by flowing solids. A porous,

  10. Two-phase-flow cooling concept for fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The new two-phase heat transfer medium proposed is a mixture of potassium droplets and helium which permits blanket operation at hih temperature and low pressure, while maintaining acceptable pumping power requirements, coolant ducting size, and blanket structure fractions. A two-phase flow model is described. The helium pumping power and the primary heat transfer loop are discussed

  11. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  12. Integrated flow reactor that combines high-shear mixing and microwave irradiation for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choedkiatsakul, I.; Ngaosuwan, K.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Tabasso, S.; Cravotto, G.

    2015-01-01

    A new simple flow system which is made up of a multi-rotor high-shear mixer connected to a multimode microwave reactor has been assembled. This simple loop reactor has been successfully used in the NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of refined palm oil in methanol. Thanks to optimal mass/heat transfer, full conversion was achieved within 5 min (biodiesel yield of 99.80%). High-quality biodiesel was obtained that is in accordance with international specifications and analytical ASTM standards. The procedure's high efficiency and low energy consumption should pave the way for process scale up. - Highlights: • The combination of HSM-MW flow system for biodiesel production has been proposed. • Highly efficient mass and heat transfer in transesterification reaction. • The hybrid reactor enables a complete conversion in 5 min reaction time. • The new system halved the energy consumption of conventional processes

  13. Sterilization of E. coli bacterium in a flowing N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villeger, S; Cousty, S; Ricard, A; Sixou, M

    2003-01-01

    Effective destruction of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria has been obtained in a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave post-discharge reactor. The sterilizing agents are the O atoms and the UV emissions of NOβ which are produced by N and O atoms recombination in the reactor. In the following plasma conditions: pressure 5 Torr, flow rate 1 L n min -1 , microwave power of 100 W in a quartz tube of 5 mm, an O atom density of 2.5x10 15 cm -3 is measured by NO titration in the post-discharge reactor with UV emission in a N 2 -(5%)O 2 gas mixture. Full destruction of 10 13 cfu ml -1 E. coli is observed after a treatment time of 25 min. (rapid communication)

  14. A high-pressure plug flow reactor for combustion chemistry investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhewen; Cochet, Julien; Leplat, Nicolas; Yang, Yi; Brear, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    A plug flow reactor (PFR) is built for investigating the oxidation chemistry of fuels at up to 50 bar and 1000 K. These conditions include those corresponding to the low temperature combustion (i.e. the autoignition) that commonly occurs in internal combustion engines. Turbulent flow that approximates ideal, plug flow conditions is established in a quartz tube reactor. The reacting mixture is highly diluted by excess air to reduce the reaction rates for kinetic investigations. A novel mixer design is used to achieve fast mixing of the preheated air and fuel vapour at the reactor entrance, reducing the issue of reaction initialization in kinetic modelling. A water-cooled probe moves along the reactor extracting gases for further analysis. Measurement of the sampled gas temperature uses an extended form of a three-thermocouple method that corrects for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples to the enclosed PFR environment. Investigation of the PFR’s operation is first conducted using non-reacting flows, and then with isooctane oxidation at 900 K and 10 bar. Mixing of the non-reacting temperature and species fields is shown to be rapid. The measured fuel consumption and CO formation are then closely reproduced by kinetic modelling using an extensively validated iso-octane mechanism from the literature and the corrected gas temperature. Together, these results demonstrate the PFR’s utility for chemical kinetic investigations. (paper)

  15. Novel swirl-flow reactor for kinetic studies of semiconductor photocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray, A.K; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1997-01-01

    A new two-phase swirl-flow monolithic-type reactor was designed to study the kinetics of heterogeneous photocatalytic processes on immobilized semiconductor catalysts. True kinetic rate constants for destruction of a textile dye were measured as a function of wavelength of light intensity and angle

  16. A high-pressure plug flow reactor for combustion chemistry investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhewen; Cochet, Julien; Leplat, Nicolas; Yang, Yi; Brear, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    A plug flow reactor (PFR) is built for investigating the oxidation chemistry of fuels at up to 50 bar and 1000 K. These conditions include those corresponding to the low temperature combustion (i.e. the autoignition) that commonly occurs in internal combustion engines. Turbulent flow that approximates ideal, plug flow conditions is established in a quartz tube reactor. The reacting mixture is highly diluted by excess air to reduce the reaction rates for kinetic investigations. A novel mixer design is used to achieve fast mixing of the preheated air and fuel vapour at the reactor entrance, reducing the issue of reaction initialization in kinetic modelling. A water-cooled probe moves along the reactor extracting gases for further analysis. Measurement of the sampled gas temperature uses an extended form of a three-thermocouple method that corrects for radiative heat losses from the thermocouples to the enclosed PFR environment. Investigation of the PFR’s operation is first conducted using non-reacting flows, and then with isooctane oxidation at 900 K and 10 bar. Mixing of the non-reacting temperature and species fields is shown to be rapid. The measured fuel consumption and CO formation are then closely reproduced by kinetic modelling using an extensively validated iso-octane mechanism from the literature and the corrected gas temperature. Together, these results demonstrate the PFR’s utility for chemical kinetic investigations.

  17. Air purification by catalytic oxidation in a reactor with periodic flow reversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, Bert; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The behaviour of an adiabatic packed bed reactor with periodic flow reversal has been studied by means of model calculations. A heterogeneous model as well as a pseudo-homogeneous model have been developed. It is shown that a high degree of conversion can be obtained in an autothermal process even

  18. Gas–liquid flow in stirred reactors: Trailing vortices and gas accumulation behind impeller blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranade, V.; Deshpande, Vaibhav R.

    1999-01-01

    In a gas–liquid stirred reactor, gas tends to accumulate in low-pressure regions behind the impeller blades. Such gas accumulation significantly alters impeller performance characteristics. We have computationally investigated gas–liquid flow generated by a Rushton (disc) turbine. Rotating Rushton

  19. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate=4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance=2.8 cm, current density=5.78 mA/cm(2), A/V ratio=0.248 cm(-1). The NOM removal according to UV(254) absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m(3). According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. ► Highest NOM removal according to UV 254 was 77% relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 μg/l), relative to raw groundwater. ► Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m 3 and 66 g Al/m 3 . - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm 2 , A/V ratio = 0.248 cm −1 . The NOM removal according to UV 254 absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m 3 . According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  1. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: emohora@ifc.org [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  2. Prediction, analysis and solution of flow inversion phenomenon in a typical MTR reactor with upward core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din

    2010-01-01

    Research reactors of power greater than 20 MW are usually designed to be cooled with upward coolant flow direction inside the reactor core. This is mainly to prevent flow inversion problems following a pump coast down. However, in some designs and under certain operating conditions, flow inversion phenomenon is predicted. In the present work, the best-estimate Material Testing Reactors Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis program (MTRTHA) is used to simulate a typical MTR reactor behavior with upward cooling under a hypothetical case of loss of off-site power. The flow inversion phenomenon is predicted under certain decay heat and/or pool temperature values below the design values. The reactor simulation under loss of off-site power is performed for two cases namely; two-flap valves open and one flap-valve fails to open. The model results for the flow inversion phenomenon prediction is analyzed and a solution of the problem is suggested. (orig.)

  3. A Two-Dimensional Multiphysics Coupling Model of a Middle and Low Temperature Solar Receiver/Reactor for Methanol Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the endothermic methanol decomposition reaction is used to obtain syngas by transforming middle and low temperature solar energy into chemical energy. A two-dimensional multiphysics coupling model of a middle and low temperature of 150~300 °C solar receiver/reactor was developed, which couples momentum equation in porous catalyst bed, the governing mass conservation with chemical reaction, and energy conservation incorporating conduction/convection/radiation heat transfer. The complex thermochemical conversion process of the middle and low temperature solar receiver/reactor (MLTSRR system was analyzed. The numerical finite element method (FEM model was validated by comparing it with the experimental data and a good agreement was obtained, revealing that the numerical FEM model is reliable. The characteristics of chemical reaction, coupled heat transfer, the components of reaction products, and the temperature fields in the receiver/reactor were also revealed and discussed. The effects of the annulus vacuum space and the glass tube on the performance of the solar receiver/reactor were further studied. It was revealed that when the direct normal irradiation increases from 200 W/m2 to 800 W/m2, the theoretical efficiency of solar energy transformed into chemical energy can reach 0.14–0.75. When the methanol feeding rate is 13 kg/h, the solar flux increases from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, methanol conversion can fall by 6.8–8.9% with air in the annulus, and methanol conversion can decrease by 21.8–28.9% when the glass is removed from the receiver/reactor.

  4. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  5. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  6. A gas-phase reactor powered by solar energy and ethanol for H2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    In the view of H 2 as the future energy vector, we presented here the development of a homemade photo-reactor working in gas phase and easily interfacing with fuel cell devices, for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation. The process generates acetaldehyde as the main co-product, which is more economically advantageous with respect to the low valuable CO 2 produced in the alternative pathway of ethanol photoreforming. The materials adopted as photocatalysts are based on TiO 2 substrates but properly modified with noble (Au) and not-noble (Cu) metals to enhance light harvesting in the visible region. The samples were characterized by BET surface area analysis, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and UV–visible Diffusive Reflectance Spectroscopy, and finally tested in our homemade photo-reactor by simulated solar irradiation. We discussed about the benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a conventional slurry photo-reactor (minimization of scattering phenomena, no metal leaching, easy product recovery, etc.). Results showed that high H 2 productivity can be obtained in gas phase conditions, also irradiating titania photocatalysts doped with not-noble metals. - Highlights: • A gas-phase photoreactor for H 2 production by ethanol dehydrogenation was developed. • The photocatalytic behaviours of Au and Cu metal-doped TiO 2 thin layers are compared. • Benefits of operating in gas phase with respect to a slurry reactor are presented. • Gas phase conditions and use of not-noble metals are the best economic solution

  7. Microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor combined with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the treatment of municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kengo; Hayashi, Mikio; Matsunaga, Kengo; Iguchi, Akinori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Li, Yu-You; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The microbial community composition of a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-DHS system used for the treatment of municipal sewage was investigated. The clone libraries showed marked differences in microbial community composition at different reactor heights and in different seasons. The dominant phylotypes residing in the upper part of the reactor were likely responsible for removing organic matters because a significant reduction in organic matter in the upper part was observed. Quantification of the amoA genes revealed that the proportions of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) varied along the vertical length of the reactor, with more AOB colonizing the middle and lower parts of the reactor than the top of the reactor. The findings indicated that sewage treatment was achieved by a separation of microbial habitats responsible for organic matter removal and nitrification in the DHS reactor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental results of 2-propanol dehydrogenation with a falling-liquid film reactor for solar chemical heat pump; Solar chemical heat pump ni okeru ryuka ekimakushiki 2-propanol bunkai hanno jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, T; Tanaka, T; Ando, Y; Takashima, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Koike, M; Kamoshida, J [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A solar chemical heat pump is intended to attempt multi-purposed effective utilization of solar energy by raising low temperature solar heat of about 100 degC to 150 to 200 degC by utilizing chemical reactions. The chemical heat pump under the present study uses a 2-propanol (IPA)/acetone/hydrogen system which can utilize low-temperature solar heat and has large temperature rising degree. It was found from the result of experiments and analyses that IPA dehydrogenation reaction can improve more largely the heat utilization rate in using a falling-liquid film reactor than using a liquid phase suspended system. As an attempt to improve further the heat utilization rate, this paper reports the result of experimental discussions on inclination angles of a reaction vessel and feed liquid flow rate which would affect the fluid condition of the liquid film. As a result of the experiments, the initial deterioration in the catalyst has settled in about 15 hours, and its activity has decreased to about 60% of the initial activity. It was made clear that the influence of the inclination angle of the reaction vessel on the reaction is small. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  9. One-step synthesis of pyridines and dihydropyridines in a continuous flow microwave reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Bagley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bohlmann–Rahtz pyridine synthesis and the Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis can be carried out in a microwave flow reactor or using a conductive heating flow platform for the continuous processing of material. In the Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction, the use of a Brønsted acid catalyst allows Michael addition and cyclodehydration to be carried out in a single step without isolation of intermediates to give the corresponding trisubstituted pyridine as a single regioisomer in good yield. Furthermore, 3-substituted propargyl aldehydes undergo Hantzsch dihydropyridine synthesis in preference to Bohlmann–Rahtz reaction in a very high yielding process that is readily transferred to continuous flow processing.

  10. Secondary flows in the cooling channels of the high-performance light-water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurien, E.; Wintterle, Th. [Stuttgart Univ., Institute for Nuclear Technolgy and Energy Systems (IKE) (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The new design of a High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR) involves a three-pass core with an evaporator region, where the compressed water is heated above the pseudo-critical temperature, and two superheater regions. Due to the strong dependency of the supercritical water density on the temperature significant mass transfer between neighboring cooling channels is expected if the temperature is unevenly distributed across the fuel element. An inter-channel flow is then superimposed to the secondary flow vortices induced by the non-isotropy of turbulence. In order to gain insight into the resulting flow patterns as well as into temperature and density distributions within the various subchannels of the fuel element CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) calculations for the 1/8 fuel element are performed. For simplicity adiabatic boundary conditions at the moderator box and the fuel element box are assumed. Our investigation confirms earlier results obtained by subchannel analysis that the axial mass flux is significantly reduced in the corner subchannel of this fuel element resulting in a net mass flux towards the neighboring subchannels. Our results provide a first estimation of the magnitude of the secondary flows in the pseudo-critical region of a supercritical light-water reactor. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that CFD is an efficient tool for investigations of flow patterns within nuclear reactor fuel elements. (authors)

  11. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of flow inversion in a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeminejad, H.

    2008-01-01

    The course of loss of flow accident and flow inversion in a pool type research reactor, with scram enabled under natural circulation condition is numerically investigated. The analyses were performed by a lumped parameters approach for the coupled kinetic-thermal-hydraulics, with continuous feedback due to coolant and fuel temperature effects. A modified Runge-Kutta method was adopted for a better solution to the set of stiff differential equations. Transient thermal-hydraulics during the process of flow inversion and establishment of natural circulation were considered for a 10-MW IAEA research reactor. Some important parameters such as the peak temperatures for the hot channel were obtained for both high-enriched and low enriched fuel. The model prediction is also verified through comparison with other computer code results reported in the literature for detailed simulations of loss of flow accidents (LOFA) and the agreement between the results for the peak clad temperatures and key parameters has been satisfactory. It was found that the flow inversion and subsequent establishment of natural circulation keep the peak cladding surface temperature below the saturation temperature to avoid the escalation of clad temperature to the level of onset of nucleate boiling and sub-cooled void formation to ensure the safe operation of the reactor

  12. Transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in recessive cavitation transition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuli; Yuan Shouqi; Zhu Rongsheng; Yu Zhijun

    2013-01-01

    The numerical simulation calculation of the transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in the recessive cavitation transition process in the nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller passage is conducted by CFX, and the transient flow characteristics of nuclear reactor coolant pump in the transition process from reducing the inlet pressure at cavitation-born conditions to NPSHc condition is studied and analyzed. The flow field analysis shows that, in the recessive cavitation transition process, the speed diversification at the inlet is relative to the bubble increasing, and makes the speed near the blade entrance increase when the bubble phase region becomes larger. The bubble generation and collapse will affect the the speed fluctuation near the entrance. The vorticity close to the blade entrance gradually increasing is influenced by the bubble phase, and the collapse of bubble generated by cavitation will reduce the vorticity from the collapse to impeller outlet. Pump asymmetric structure causes the asymmetry of the flow, velocity and outlet pressure distribution within every impeller flow passage, which cause the asymmetry of the transient radial force. From the dimensionless t/T = 0.6, the bubble phase starts to have impact on the impeller transient radial force, and results in the irregular fluctuations. (authors)

  13. Study on natural circulation flow under reactor cavity flooding condition in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Jun; Yang Jiang; Cao Jianhua; Lu Xianghui; Guo Dingqing

    2015-01-01

    Cavity flooding is an important severe accident management measure for the in-vessel retention of a degraded core by external reactor vessel cooling in advanced PWRs. A code simulation study on the natural circulation flow in the gap between the reactor vessel wall and insulation material under cavity flooding condition is performed by using a detailed mechanistic thermal-hydraulic code package RELAP 5. By simulating of an experiment carried out for studying the natural circulation flow for APR1400 shows that the code is applicable for analyzing the circulation flow under this condition. The analysis results show that heat removal capacity of the natural circulation flow in AP1000 is sufficient to prevent thermal failure of the reactor vessel under bounding heat load. Several conclusions can be drawn from the sensitivity analysis. Larger coolant inlet area induced larger natural circulation flow rate. The outlet should be large enough and should not be submerged by the cavity water to vent the steam-water mixture. In the implementation of cavity flooding, the flooding water level should be high enough to provide sufficient natural circulation driven force. (authors)

  14. Modeling Heat Flow In a Calorimeter Equipped With a Textured Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Allen, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Heat engines are being considered for generating electric power for minisatellite applications, particularly for those missions in high radiation threat orbits. To achieve this objective, solar energy must be collected and transported to the hot side of the heat engine. A solar collector is needed having the combined properties of high solar absorptance, low infrared emittance, and high thermal conductivity. To test candidate solar collector concepts, a simple calorimeter was designed, manufactured, and installed in a bench top vacuum chamber to measure heat flow. In addition, a finite element analysis model of the collector/calorimeter combination was made to model this heat flow. The model was tuned based on observations from the as-manufactured collector/calorimeter combination. In addition, the model was exercised to examine other collector concepts, properties, and scale up issues.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Flow Resistance in a Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Preheated Catalytic Oxidation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigation of flow resistance in a coal mine ventilation air methane preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The experimental system was installed at the Energy Research Institute of Shandong University of Technology. The system has been used to investigate the effects of flow rate (200 Nm3/h to 1000 Nm3/h and catalytic oxidation bed average temperature (20°C to 560°C within the preheated catalytic oxidation reactor. The pressure drop and resistance proportion of catalytic oxidation bed, the heat exchanger preheating section, and the heat exchanger flue gas section were measured. In addition, based on a large number of experimental data, the empirical equations of flow resistance are obtained by the least square method. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for preheated catalytic oxidation designs when employed in industry.

  16. Flow velocity calculation to avoid instability in a typical research reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Flow velocity through a research reactor core composed by MTR-type fuel elements is investigated. Core cooling capacity must be available at the same time that fuel-plate collapse must be avoided. Fuel plates do not rupture during plate collapse, but their lateral deflections can close flow channels and lead to plate over-heating. The critical flow velocity is a speed at which the plates collapse by static instability type failure. In this paper, critical velocity and coolant velocity are evaluated for a typical MTR-type flat plate fuel element. Miller's method is used for prediction of critical velocity. The coolant velocity is limited to 2/3 of the critical velocity, that is a currently used criterion. Fuel plate characteristics are based on the open pool Australian light water reactor. (author)

  17. Flow distribution of pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactors using large eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhan Yesilyurt; Hassan, Y.A.

    2003-01-01

    A High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the renewed reactor designs to play a role in nuclear power generation. This reactor design concepts is currently under consideration and development worldwide. Since the HTGR concept offers inherent safety, has a very flexible fuel cycle with capability to achieve high burnup levels, and provides good thermal efficiency of power plant, it can be considered for further development and improvement as a reactor concept of generation IV. The combination of coated particle fuel, inert helium gas as coolant and graphite moderated reactor makes it possible to operate at high temperature yielding a high efficiency. In this study the simulation of turbulent transport for the gas through the gaps of the spherical fuel elements (fuel pebbles) will be performed. This will help in understanding the highly three-dimensional, complex flow phenomena in pebble bed caused by flow curvature. Under these conditions, heat transfer in both laminar and turbulent flows varies noticeably around curved surfaces. Curved flows would be present in the presence of contiguous curved surfaces. In the case of a laminar flow and of an appreciable effect of thermogravitional forces, the Nusselt (Nu) number depends significantly on the curvature shape of the surface. It changes with order of 10 times. The flow passages through the gap between the fuel balls have concave and convex configurations. Here the action of the centrifugal forces manifests itself differently on convex and concave parts of the flow path (suppression or stimulation of turbulence). The flow of this type has distinctive features. In such flow there is a pressure gradient, which strongly affects the boundary layer behavior. The transition from a laminar to turbulent flow around this curved flow occurs at deferent Reynolds (Re) numbers. Consequently, noncircular curved flows as in the pebble-bed situation, in detailed local sense, is interesting to be investigated. To the

  18. Seismic probing of solar flows using high-degree oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Employing solar-oscillation modes of degree 50 ≤ l ≤ 850, the author estimated the equatorial rotation rate with depth, searched for possible anisotropies in power for modes travelling in different directions, and examined the influence of a major flare on the oscillations. Motivated by the need in studying solar rotation for accurate frequency splittings between individual modes, different spatial-filtering methods were evaluated to determine which yield the most-accurate frequencies. A filtering method based on spherical-harmonic projection of the data is found to be superior in this regard. The various filtering techniques are applied to three days of concatenated Doppler-velocity data taken on a long, narrow grid centered on the solar disk. An inversion procedure is then performed to determine the equatorial solar rotation in the upper convection zone. The rotation rate is found to increase to a depth of about 2 Mm before decreasing over the next 14 Mm. Power in sectoral modes traveling along the equator (equatorial modes) is compared to that in poleward-traveling sectoral modes (polar modes). Full-disk Doppler velocities observed before and after a major white-light flare are compared to detect any influence of the flare on the 5-minute oscillations

  19. A completely passive continuous flow solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, William S.; Hodgson, David A. [Dept. of Mechanical Enginnering, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Water-borne pathogens in developing countries cause several billion cases of disease and up to 10 million deaths each year, at least half of which are children. Solar water pasteurization is a potentially cost-effective, robust and reliable solution to these problems. A completely passively controlled solar water pasteurization system with a total collector area of 0.45 m{sup 2} has been constructed. The system most recently tested produced 337 litres per m{sup 2} of collector area of treated water on a sunny day. We developed our completely passive density-driven solar water pasteurization system over a five year span so that it now achieves reliable control for all possible variations in solar conditions. We have also substantially increased its daily pure water production efficiency over the same period. We will discuss the performance of our water purification system and provide an analyses that demonstrates that the system insures safe purified water production at all times. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro, E-mail: indartaaji@s.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Waris, Abdul, E-mail: awaris@fi.itb.ac.id; Permana, Sidik [Nuclear Physics & Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ThF{sub 4}-{sup 233}UF{sub 4} respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155.

  1. Analysis of fluid fuel flow to the neutron kinetics on molten salt reactor FUJI-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactor is a reactor are operating with molten salt fuel flowing. This condition interpret that the neutron kinetics of this reactor is affected by the flow rate of the fuel. This research analyze effect by the alteration velocity of the fuel by MSR type Fuji-12, with fuel composition LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 - 233 UF 4 respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Calculation process in this study is performed numerically by SOR and finite difference method use C programming language. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section for calculation process obtain from SRAC-CITATION (Standard thermal Reactor Analysis Code) and JENDL-4.0 data library. SRAC system designed and developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). This study aims to observe the effect of the velocity of fuel salt to the power generated from neutron precursors at fourth year of reactor operate (last critical condition) with number of multiplication effective; 1.0155

  2. Synthesis of Struvite using a Vertical Canted Reactor with Continuous Laminar Flow Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono, S.; Edahwati, L.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Struvite is a white crystalline that is chemically known as magnesium ammonium phosphorus hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). It can easily dissolve in acidic conditions and slightly soluble in neutral and alkaline conditions. In industry, struvite forms as a scale deposit on a pipe with hot flow fluid. However, struvite can be used as fertilizer because of its phosphate content. A vertical canted reactor is a promising technology for recovering phosphate levels in wastewater through struvite crystallization. The study was carried out with the vertical canted reactor by mixing an equimolar stock solution of MgCl2, NH4OH, and H3PO4 in 1: 1: 1 ratio. The crystallization process worked with the flow rate of three stock solution entering the reactor in the range of 16-38 ml/min, the temperature in the reactor is worked on 20°, 30°, and 40°C, while the incoming air rate is kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. Moreover, pH was maintained at a constant value of 9. The struvite crystallization process run until the steady state was reached. Then, the result of crystal precipitates was filtered and dried at standard temperature room for 48 hours. After that, struvite crystals were stored for the subsequent analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) method. The use of canted reactor provided the high pure struvite with a prismatic crystal morphology.

  3. A Development of Technical Specification of a Research Reactor with Plate Fuels Cooled by Upward Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sujin; Kim, Jeongeun; Kim, Hyeonil

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the TS(Technical Specifications) are definitions, safety limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting conditions for operation, surveillance requirements, design features, and administrative controls. TS for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been developed since many years until now. On the other hands, there are no applicable modernized references of TS for research reactors with many differences from NPPs in purpose and characteristics. Fuel temperature and Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) are being used as references from the thermal-hydraulic analysis point of view for determining whether the design of research reactors satisfies acceptance criteria for the nuclear safety or not. Especially for research reactors using plate-type fuels, fuel temperature and critical heat flux, however, are very difficult to measure during the reactor operation. This paper described the outline of main contents of a TS for open-pool research reactor with plate-type fuels using core cooling through passive systems, where acceptance criteria for nuclear safety such as CHF and fuel temperature cannot be directly measured, different from circumstances in NPPs. Thus, three independent variables instead of non-measurable acceptance criteria: fuel temperature and CHF are considered as safety limits, i.e., power, flow, and flow temperature

  4. Thermal fluid flow analysis in downcomer of JAERI passive safety light water reactor (JPSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, K.; Iwamura, T.; Murao, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The residual heat for the JPSR (JAERI Passive Safety Light Water Reactor) is removed by a natural-circulation of coolant flowing through downcomer. The numerical analysis has been performed taking account of the downcomer being a three-dimensional annulus flow pass with the purposes to confirm the abilities of (1) approximation of three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer to simple one-dimensional one assumed on the preliminary design of the passive residual heat removal system and (2) achievement of an enough driving-force of the natural circulation to remove the residual heat. The following results were obtained : (1) Flow pattern in downcomer shows remarkable three-dimensionality (multi-dimensionality) at lower inlet flow rate not to be able to approximate to one-dimensional flow field. However, the temperature distribution does not deviate from uniform one so much even if the multi-dimensional flow such as large vortex arises. (2) It can be expected to obtain the required enough driving-force at a steady state in any case of inlet flow rate where multi-dimensional flow pattern appears. (3) The increase ratio of the driving-force with the time-integrated coolant amount can be estimated as two functional curves in case of higher and other lower inlet flow rates not dependent only on the respective inlet flow rate. (Author)

  5. Numerical Simulation of a Coolant Flow and Heat Transfer in a Pebble Bed Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang-Kee; Kim, Min-Hwan; Lee, Won-Jae

    2008-01-01

    Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) is one of the very high temperature gas cooled reactors(VHTR) which have been reviewed in the Generation IV International Forum as potential sources for future energy needs, particularly for a hydrogen production. The pebble bed modular reactor(PBMR) exhibits inherent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core. PBR uses coated fuel particles(TRISO) embedded in spherical graphite fuel pebbles. The fuel pebbles flow down through the PBR core during a reactor operation and the coolant flows around randomly distributed spheres. For the reliable operation and the safety of the PBR, it is important to understand the coolant flow structure and the fuel pebble temperature in the PBR core. There have been few experimental and numerical studies to investigate the fluid and heat transfer phenomena in the PBR core. The objective of this paper is to predict the fluid and heat transfer in the PBR core. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, STAR-CCM+(V2.08) is used to perform the CFD analysis using the design data for the PBMR400

  6. Experimental study of flow field characteristics on bed configurations in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xinlong; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jia, Haijun; Jiang, Shengyao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PTV study of flow fields of pebble bed reactor with different configurations are carried out. • Some criteria are proposed to quantify vertical velocity field and flow uniformity. • The effect of different pebble bed configurations is also compared by the proposed criteria. • The displacement thickness is used analogically to analyze flow field characteristics. • The effect of mass flow variation in the stagnated region of the funnel flow is measured. - Abstract: The flow field characteristics are of fundamental importance in the design work of the pebble bed high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR). The different effects of bed configurations on the flow characteristics of pebble bed are studied through the PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) experiment. Some criteria, e.g. flow uniformity (σ) and mass flow level (α), are proposed to estimate vertical velocity field and compare the bed configurations. The distribution of the Δθ (angle difference between the individual particle velocity and the velocity vector sum of all particles) is also used to estimate the resultant motion consistency level. Moreover, for each bed configuration, the thickness of displacement is analyzed to measure the effect of the funnel flow zone based on the boundary layer theory. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity and other characteristics; and the sequence of levels of each estimation criterion is obtained for all bed configurations. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested and these estimation criteria can be also applied and adopted in testing other geometry designs of pebble bed.

  7. Transient heat transfer in a directly-irradiated solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Lipinski, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation is carried out in a solar thermochemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO at 2000 K using concentrated solar energy. The reactor consists of a cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles and directly exposed to high-flux irradiation. A transient heat transfer model is formulated to link the rate of radiation, convection, and conduction heat transfer to the reaction kinetics. The radiosity and Monte Carlo methods are applied to obtain the distribution of net radiative fluxes at the internal surfaces of the reactor cavity and at the surface of the ZnO bed. Validation is accomplished in terms of the calculated and measured transient temperature profiles and chemical reaction rates

  8. Activity of corrosion products in pool type reactors with ascending flow in the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade e Silva, Graciete S. de; Queiroz Bogado Leite, Sergio de

    1995-01-01

    A model for the activity of corrosion products in the water of a pool type reactor with ascending flow is presented. The problem is described by a set of coupled differential equations relating the radioisotope concentrations in the core and pool circuits and taking into account two types of radioactive sources: i) those from radioactive species formed in the fuel cladding, control elements, reflector, etc, and afterwards released to the primary stream by corrosion (named reactor sources) and ii) those formed from non radioactive isotopes entering the primary stream by corrosion of the circuit components and being activated when passing through the core (named circuit sources). (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration prediction techniques for in-reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.; Turula, P.

    1975-05-01

    Selected in-reactor components of a hydraulic and structural dynamic scale model of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration experimental Fast Test Reactor have been studied in an effort to develop and evaluate techniques for predicting vibration behavior of elastic structures exposed to a moving fluid. Existing analysis methods are used to compute the natural frequencies and modal shapes of submerged beam and shell type components. Component response is calculated, assuming as fluid forcing mechanisms both vortex shedding and random excitations characterized by the available hydraulic data. The free and force vibration response predictions are compared with extensive model flow and shaker test data. (U.S.)

  10. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Gil, J; Martin, J A; Frances, E; Olivares, A; Caballero, M A; Perez, P [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  11. Recent advances in AFB biomass gasification pilot plant with catalytic reactors in a downstream slip flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Gil, J.; Martin, J.A.; Frances, E.; Olivares, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Perez, P. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment; Corella, J. [Madrid Univ. (Spain)

    1996-12-31

    A new 3rd generation pilot plant is being used for hot catalytic raw gas cleaning. It is based on a 15 cm. i.d. fluidized bed with biomass throughputs of 400-650 kg/h.m{sup 2}. Gasification is performed using mixtures of steam and oxygen. The produced gas is passed in a slip flow by two reactors in series containing a calcined dolomite and a commercial reforming catalyst. Tars are periodically sampled and analysed after the three reactors. Tar conversions of 99.99 % and a 300 % increase of the hydrogen content in the gas are obtained. (author) (2 refs.)

  12. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April 1978-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schardt, J.F.

    1980-03-01

    Flow-Induced vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program commenced December 1, 1976, but was suspended on September 30, 1978, due to a shift in Department of Energy (DOE) priorities away from LWR productivity/availability. It was reinitiated as of August 1, 1979. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1978 to December 1979

  13. Change of neutron flow sensors effectiveness in the course of reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Kotov, V.M.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: IGR reactor is a reactor of thermal capacity type. During the operation, uranium-graphite core can be heated up to 1500 deg. C and reactivity can be changed considerably. Core dimensions are comparatively small. Amount of control rods, providing required reactivity, is not big as well. Increasing of core temperature leads to the rise of neutrons path length in its basic material - graphite. Change of temperature is not even. All this causes the non-conservation of neutron flows ratio in irradiated sample and in the place of reactor power sensors installation. Deviations in this ratio were registered during the number of reactor experiments. Empiric corrections can be introduced in order to decrease influence of change of neutron flow effectiveness upon provision of required parameters of investigated matters load. However, dependence of these corrections upon many factors can lead to the increasing of instability of process control. Previous experiment-calculated experiments showed inequality of neutron field in the place of sensors location (up to tens of percent), low effectiveness of experimental works, carried out without access to the individual reactor laying elements. Imperfection during the experiment was an idea of possibility to connect distribution of out of reactor neutron flow and control rods position. Subsequent analysis showed that for the development of representative phenomenon model it is necessary to take into account reactor operation dynamic subject to unevenness of heating of individual laying parts. Elemental calculations showed that temperature laying effects in the change of neutron outer field are great. Algorithm of calculations for the change of outer filed and field of investigated fabrication includes calculation of neutron-physic reactor characteristics interlacing with calculations of thermal-physic reactor characteristics, providing correlation of temperature fields for neutron-physic calculations. In the course of such

  14. The flow of interstellar dust through the solar system: the role of dust charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Schwehm, G.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Strub, P.; Gruen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Interstellar dust can enter the solar system through the relative motion of the Sun with respect to the Local Interstellar Cloud. The trajectories of the dust through the solar system are not only influenced by gravitation and solar radiation pressure forces, but also by the Lorentz forces due to the interaction of the interplanetary magnetic field with the charged dust particles. The interplanetary magnetic field changes on two major time scales: 25 days (solar rotation frequency) and 22 years (solar cycle). The short-term variability averages out for regions that are not too close (>∼2 AU) to the Sun. This interplanetary magnetic field variability causes a time-variability in the interstellar dust densities, that is correlated to the solar cycle.In this work we characterize the flow of interstellar dust through the solar system using simulations of the dust trajectories. We start from the simple case without Lorentz forces, and expand to the full simulation. We pay attention to the different ways of modeling the interplanetary magnetic field, and discuss the influence of the dust parameters on the resulting flow patterns. We also discuss the possibilities of using this modeling for prediction of dust fluxes for different space missions or planets, and we pay attention to where simplified models are justified, and where or when a full simulation, including all forces is necessary. One of the aims of this work is to understand measurements of spacecraft like Ulysses, Cassini and Stardust.

  15. Estimation of daily flow rate of photovoltaic water pumping systems using solar radiation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benghanem, M.; Daffallah, K. O.; Almohammedi, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simple model which allows us to contribute in the studies of photovoltaic (PV) water pumping systems sizing. The nonlinear relation between water flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enables us to simulate the water flow rate using solar radiation data for different heads (50 m, 60 m, 70 m and 80 m) and for 8S × 3P PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility located at Madinah site (Saudi Arabia). The performances are calculated using the measured solar radiation data of different locations in Saudi Arabia. Knowing the solar radiation data, we have estimated with a good precision the water flow rate Q in five locations (Al-Jouf, Solar Village, AL-Ahsa, Madinah and Gizan) in Saudi Arabia. The flow rate Q increases with the increase of pump power for different heads following the nonlinear model proposed.

  16. Investigation on the Core Bypass Flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yassin

    2013-10-22

    Uncertainties associated with the core bypass flow are some of the key issues that directly influence the coolant mass flow distribution and magnitude, and thus the operational core temperature profiles, in the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR). Designers will attempt to configure the core geometry so the core cooling flow rate magnitude and distribution conform to the design values. The objective of this project is to study the bypass flow both experimentally and computationally. Researchers will develop experimental data using state-of-the-art particle image velocimetry in a small test facility. The team will attempt to obtain full field temperature distribution using racks of thermocouples. The experimental data are intended to benchmark computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes by providing detailed information. These experimental data are urgently needed for validation of the CFD codes. The following are the project tasks: • Construct a small-scale bench-top experiment to resemble the bypass flow between the graphite blocks, varying parameters to address their impact on bypass flow. Wall roughness of the graphite block walls, spacing between the blocks, and temperature of the blocks are some of the parameters to be tested. • Perform CFD to evaluate pre- and post-test calculations and turbulence models, including sensitivity studies to achieve high accuracy. • Develop the state-of-the art large eddy simulation (LES) using appropriate subgrid modeling. • Develop models to be used in systems thermal hydraulics codes to account and estimate the bypass flows. These computer programs include, among others, RELAP3D, MELCOR, GAMMA, and GAS-NET. Actual core bypass flow rate may vary considerably from the design value. Although the uncertainty of the bypass flow rate is not known, some sources have stated that the bypass flow rates in the Fort St. Vrain reactor were between 8 and 25 percent of the total reactor mass flow rate. If bypass flow rates are on the

  17. Falling liquid film flow along cascade-typed first wall of laser-fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugi, T.; Nakai, T.; Kawara, Z.

    2007-01-01

    To protect from high energy/particle fluxes caused by nuclear fusion reaction such as extremely high heat flux, X rays, Alpha particles and fuel debris to a first wall of an inertia fusion reactor, a 'cascade-typed' first wall with a falling liquid film flow is proposed as the 'liquid wall' concept which is one of the reactor chamber cooling and wall protection schemes: the reactor chamber can protect by using a liquid metal film flow (such as Li 17 Pb 83 ) over the wall. In order to investigate the feasibility of this concept, we conducted the numerical analyses by using the STREAM code and also conducted the flow visualization experiments. The numerical results suggested that the cascade structure design should be improved, so that we redesigned the cascade-typed first wall and performed the flow visualization as a POP (proof-of-principle) experiment. In the numerical analyses, the water is used as the working liquid and an acrylic plate as the wall. These selections are based on two reasons: (1) from the non-dimensional analysis approach, the Weber number (We=ρu 2 δ/σ: ρ is density, u is velocity, δ is film thickness, σ is surface tension coefficient) should be the same between the design (Li 17 Pb 83 flow) and the model experiment (water flow) because of the free-surface instability, (2) the SiC/SiC composite would be used as the wall material, so that the wall may have the less wettability: the acrylic plate has the similar feature. The redesigned cascade-typed first wall for one step (30 cm height corresponding to 4 Hz laser duration) consists of a liquid tank having a free-surface for keeping the constant water-head located at the backside of the first wall, and connects to a slit which is composed of two plates: one plate is the first wall, and the other is maintaining the liquid level. This design solved the trouble of the previous design. The test section for the flow visualization has the same structure and the same height as the reactor design

  18. MHD effects of the solar wind flow around planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Biernat

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the interaction of the solar wind with magnetized and unmagnetized planets forms a central topic of space research. Focussing on planetary magnetosheaths, we review some major developments in this field. Magnetosheath structures depend crucially on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind Alfvén Mach number, the shape of the obstacle (axisymmetric/non-axisymmetric, etc., the boundary conditions at the magnetopause (low/high magnetic shear, and the degree of thermal anisotropy of the plasma. We illustrate the cases of Earth, Jupiter and Venus. The terrestrial magnetosphere is axisymmetric and has been probed in-situ by many spacecraft. Jupiter's magnetosphere is highly non-axisymmetric. Furthermore, we study magnetohydrodynamic effects in the Venus magnetosheath.

  19. CFD investigation of flow inversion in typical MTR research reactor undergoing thermal-hydraulic transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Amgad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The 3D, CFD simulation of FLOFA accident in the generic IAEA 10 MW research reactor is carried out. → The different flow and heat transfer mechanisms involved in this process were elucidated. → The transition between these mechanisms during the course of FLOFA is discussed and investigated. → The interesting inversion process upon the transition from downward flow to upward flow is shown. → The temperature field and the friction coefficient during the whole transient process were shown. - Abstract: Three dimensional CFD full simulations of the fast loss of flow accident (FLOFA) of the IAEA 10 MW generic MTR research reactor are conducted. In this system the flow is initially downward. The transient scenario starts when the pump coasts down exponentially with a time constant of 1 s. As a result the temperatures of the heating element, the clad, and the coolant rise. When the flow reaches 85% of its nominal value the control rod system scrams and the power drops sharply resulting in the temperatures of the different components to drop. As the coolant flow continues to drop, the decay heat causes the temperatures to increase at a slower rate in the beginning. When the flow becomes laminar, the rate of temperature increase becomes larger and when the pumps completely stop a flow inversion occurs because of natural convection. The temperature will continue to rise at even higher rates until natural convection is established, that is when the temperatures settle off. The interesting 3D patterns of the flow during the inversion process are shown and investigated. The temperature history is also reported and is compared with those estimated by one-dimensional codes. Generally, very good agreement is achieved which provides confidence in the modeling approach.

  20. A numerical study of boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, A.K.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Schrauwen, Frans; Molenaar, Peter; Rogers, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system. The numerical model solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy applicable to a two-fluid and three-field steam-water system using a finite difference technique. The computer code MONA was used for this purpose. The code was applied to the thermosyphon system of an EO (ethylene oxide) chemical reactor in which the heat released by a catalytic reaction is carried by boiling water under natural circulation conditions. The steady-state characteristics of the reactor thermosyphon system were predicted using the MONA code and conventional two-phase flow models in order to understand the model applicability for this type of thermosyphon system. The two-fluid model was found to predict the flow closest to the measured value of the plant. The stability behaviour of the thermosyphon system was investigated for a wide range of operating conditions. The effects of power, subcooling, riser length and riser diameter on the boiling flow instability were determined. The system was found to be unstable at higher power conditions which is typical for a Type II instability. However, with an increase in riser diameter, oscillations at low power were observed as well. These are classified as Type I instabilities. Stability maps were predicted for both Type I and Type II instabilities. Methods of improving the stability of the system are discussed

  1. A numerical study of boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, A.K.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Schrauwen, Frans; Molenaar, Peter; Rogers, Andrew [Shell Research and Technology Centre, Badhuisweg 3, 1031 CM Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-01

    A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the boiling flow instability of a reactor thermosyphon system. The numerical model solves the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy applicable to a two-fluid and three-field steam-water system using a finite difference technique. The computer code MONA was used for this purpose. The code was applied to the thermosyphon system of an EO (ethylene oxide) chemical reactor in which the heat released by a catalytic reaction is carried by boiling water under natural circulation conditions. The steady-state characteristics of the reactor thermosyphon system were predicted using the MONA code and conventional two-phase flow models in order to understand the model applicability for this type of thermosyphon system. The two-fluid model was found to predict the flow closest to the measured value of the plant. The stability behaviour of the thermosyphon system was investigated for a wide range of operating conditions. The effects of power, subcooling, riser length and riser diameter on the boiling flow instability were determined. The system was found to be unstable at higher power conditions which is typical for a Type II instability. However, with an increase in riser diameter, oscillations at low power were observed as well. These are classified as Type I instabilities. Stability maps were predicted for both Type I and Type II instabilities. Methods of improving the stability of the system are discussed. [Author].

  2. Using Flow Electrodes in Multiple Reactors in Series for Continuous Energy Generation from Capacitive Mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-12-09

    Efficient conversion of “mixing energy” to electricity through capacitive mixing (CapMix) has been limited by low energy recoveries, low power densities, and noncontinuous energy production resulting from intermittent charging and discharging cycles. We show here that a CapMix system based on a four-reactor process with flow electrodes can generate constant and continuous energy, providing a more flexible platform for harvesting mixing energy. The power densities were dependent on the flow-electrode carbon loading, with 5.8 ± 0.2 mW m–2 continuously produced in the charging reactor and 3.3 ± 0.4 mW m–2 produced in the discharging reactor (9.2 ± 0.6 mW m–2 for the whole system) when the flow-electrode carbon loading was 15%. Additionally, when the flow-electrode electrolyte ion concentration increased from 10 to 20 g L–1, the total power density of the whole system (charging and discharging) increased to 50.9 ± 2.5 mW m–2.

  3. Accidents of loss of flow for the ETTR-2 reactor; deterministic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main objective for reactor safety is to keep the fuel in a thermally safe condition with adequate safety margins during all operational modes (normal-abnormal and accidental states). To achieve this purpose an accident analysis of different design base accident (DBA) as loss of flow accident (LOFA), is required assessing reactor safety. The present work concerns this transients applied to Egypt Test and Research Reactor ETRR-3 (new reactor). An accident analysis code FLOWTR is developed to investigate the thermal behaviour of the core during such flow transients. The active core is simulated by two channels: 1 - hot channel (HC), and 2 - average channel (AC) representing the remainder of the core. Each channel is divided into four axial sections. The external loop, core plenums, and core chimney are simulated by different dynamic loops. The code includes modules for pump cast down, flow regimes, decay heat, temperature distributions, and feedback coefficients. FLOWTR is verified against results from RETRAN code, THERMIC code and commissioning tests for null transient case. The comparison shows a good agreement. The study indicates that for LOFA transients, provided the scram system is available, the core is shutdown safely by low flow signal (496.6 kg/s) at 1.4 s were the HC temperature reaches the maximum value, 45.64 o C after shutdown. On the other hand, if the scram system is unavailable, and at t = 47.33 s, the core flow decreases to 67.41 kg/s, the HC temperature increases to 164.02 o C, and the HC clad surface heat flux exceeds its critical value of 400.00 W/cm 2 resulting of fuel burnout. (author)

  4. Parametric study of natural circulation flow in molten salt fuel in molten salt reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Anas Muhamad, E-mail: Anas@uniten.edu.my [Centre of Nuclear Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cioncolini, Andrea; Iacovides, Hector [School of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering (MACE), University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-29

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is one of the most promising system proposed by Generation IV Forum (GIF) for future nuclear reactor systems. Advantages of the MSR are significantly larger compared to other reactor system, and is mainly achieved from its liquid nature of fuel and coolant. Further improvement to this system, which is a natural circulating molten fuel salt inside its tube in the reactor core is proposed, to achieve advantages of reducing and simplifying the MSR design proposed by GIF. Thermal hydraulic analysis on the proposed system was completed using a commercial computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software called FLUENT by ANSYS Inc. An understanding on theory behind this unique natural circulation flow inside the tube caused by fission heat generated in molten fuel salt and tube cooling was briefly introduced. Currently, no commercial CFD software could perfectly simulate natural circulation flow, hence, modeling this flow problem in FLUENT is introduced and analyzed to obtain best simulation results. Results obtained demonstrate the existence of periodical transient nature of flow problem, hence improvements in tube design is proposed based on the analysis on temperature and velocity profile. Results show that the proposed system could operate at up to 750MW core power, given that turbulence are enhanced throughout flow region, and precise molten fuel salt physical properties could be defined. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editor the name of the co-author Andrea Cioncolini was corrected from Andrea Coincolini. The same name correction was made in the Acknowledgement section on page 030004-10 and in reference number 4. The updated article was published on 11 May 2015.

  5. CFD simulation of flow pattern in a bubble column reactor for forming aerobic granules and its development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenwen; Yuan, LinJiang; Li, Yonglin

    2018-06-04

    The flow pattern is considered to play an important role in the formation of aerobic granular sludge in a bubble column reactor; therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of the flow in the reactor. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for bubble column reactor was established to visualize the flow patterns of two-phase air-liquid flow and three-phase air-liquid-sludge flow under different ratios of height to diameter (H/D ratio) and superficial gas upflow velocities (SGVs). Moreover, a simulation of the three-phase flow pattern at the same SGV and different characteristics of the sludge was performed in this study. The results show that not only SGV but also properties of sludge involve the transformation of flow behaviors and relative velocity between liquid and sludge. For the original activated sludge floc to cultivate aerobic granules, the flow pattern has nothing to do with sludge, but is influenced by SGV, and the vortices is occurred and the relative velocity is increased with an increase in SGV; the two-phase flow can simplify the three-phase flow that predicts the flow pattern development in bubble column reactor (BCR) for aerobic granulation. For the aerobic granules, the liquid flow behavior developed from the symmetrical circular flow to numbers and small-size vortices with an increase in the sludge diameter, the relative velocity is amount up to u r =5.0, it is 29.4 times of original floc sludge.

  6. Safety aspects of forced flow cooldown transients in modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    During some of the design basis accidents in Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (MHTGRs) the main Heat Transport System (HTS) and the Shutdown Cooling System (SCS), are assumed to have failed. Decay heat is then removed by the passive Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) only. If either forced flow cooling system becomes available during such a transient, its restart could significantly reduce the down-time. This paper uses the THATCH code to examine whether such restart, during a period of elevated core temperatures, can be accomplished within safe limits for fuel and metal component temperatures. If the reactor is scrammed, either system can apparently be restarted at any time, without exceeding any safe limits. However, under unscrammed conditions a restart of forced cooling can lead to recriticality, with fuel and metal temperatures significantly exceeding the safety limits

  7. Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Dufva, Martin; Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in small-scale bio-reactors has increased dramatically. To ensure homogeneous conditions within the complete area of perfused microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continually feed bio-reactor with uniform perfusion flow. This is achieved...... by introducing a specific type of perfusion inlet to the reaction area. The geometry of these inlets are found using the methods of topology optimization and shape optimization. The results are compared with two different analytic models, from which a general parametric description of the design is obtained...... and tested numerically. Such a parametric description will generally be beneficial for the design of a broad range of microfluidic bioreactors used for, e. g., cell culturing and analysis and in feeding bio-arrays....

  8. Cold flow study of liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) through radioisotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Rupesh; Upadhyay, Rajesh K.; Pant, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    As the world's demand for energy continues to increase burning of coal, oil and natural gases continue to increase which will eventually cause build-up in emission of greenhouse gasses. To overcome this challenge worldwide effort is in progress to develop an economical, more efficient and safer nuclear power. Higher thermal efficiency and enhances safety feature of Generation IV liquid cooled pebble bed reactor (LC-PBR) makes it viable option to replace existing nuclear reactor. However, this reactor is still in research stage and need detailed study before commercialization. In current work, hydrodynamics of LC-PBR is studied by using radioisotope based techniques, radioactive particle tracking and gamma-ray densitometry. Pebble flow profile and distribution are measured for different operating conditions. Optimal operating parameters are identified for operating LC-PBR based on hydrodynamics. (author)

  9. Operational performance of the development of a 15 kW parabolic trough mid-temperature solar receiver/reactor for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hui; Liu, Qibin; Jin, Hongguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A 15 kW solar chemical receiver/reactor for hydrogen production was developed. ► The solar thermochemical efficiency of the receiver/reactor was in the range of 20–28%. ► Hydrogen production exceeding 80% was achieved. ► The research results extend the application of mid-temperature solar thermal energy. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report the operational performance and energy conversion efficiency of a developed 15 kW solar chemical receiver/reactor for hydrogen production. A concentrated solar heat of around 200–300 °C was utilized to provide process heat to drive methanol steam reforming. A modified 15 kW direct-irradiation solar reactor coupled with a linear receiver positioned along the focal line of a one-axis parabolic trough concentrator was used. The experiments were conducted from 200 to 300 °C under a mean solar flux of 300–800 W/m 2 and a reactant feeding rate of 6 kg/h. Reactants were continuously fed, and the attained conversion rate of methanol was more than 70% at 700 W/m 2 . The typical solar thermochemical efficiency of solar thermal energy converted into chemical energy was in the 20–28% range. The overall energy efficiency of input solar power conversion into chemical energy reached up to 17% and may be further increased by improving solar field efficiency. Hydrogen production exceeding 80% was achieved. In addition, preliminary economic evaluation was performed, and methods for further improvement were proposed. This paper proves that solar hydrogen production is feasible by combining solar thermal energy with alternative fuel at around 200–300 °C, which is much lower than the temperature of other solar thermochemical processes. This may offer an economic approach to solar fuel production and extend the application of mid-temperature solar thermal energy.

  10. Study of core flow distribution for small modular natural circulation lead or lead-alloy cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhao; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhou, Guangming; Chen, Hongli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A core flow distribution calculation code for natural circulation LFRs was developed. • The comparison study between the channel method and the CFD method was conducted. • The core flow distribution analysis and optimization design for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was conducted. - Abstract: Small modular natural circulation lead or lead-alloy cooled fast reactor (LFR) is a potential candidate for LFR development. It has many attractive advantages such as reduced capital costs and inherent safety. The core flow distribution calculation is an important issue for nuclear reactor design, which will provide important input parameters to thermal-hydraulic analysis and safety analysis. The core flow distribution calculation of a natural circulation LFR is different from that of a forced circulation reactor. In a forced circulation reactor, the core flow distribution can be controlled and adjusted by the pump power and the flow distributor, while in a natural circulation reactor, the core flow distribution is automatically adjusted according to the relationship between the local power and the local resistance feature. In this paper, a non-uniform heated parallel channel flow distribution calculation code was developed and the comparison study between the channel method and the CFD method was carried out to assess the exactness of the developed code. The core flow distribution analysis and optimization design for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was conducted using the developed code. A core flow distribution optimization design scheme for a 10MW natural circulation LFR was proposed according to the optimization analysis results

  11. Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) flow coefficient of reactivity: (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarber, W.K.; Stout, J.W.; Atherton, R.

    1987-06-01

    This report discusses the results of an experimental program to measure and categorize the causes for increases in the magnitude of the LWBR flow coefficient of reactivity at 10,932 EFPH from previously measured near zero values to a value of about 6 x 10 -4 Δ rho for a flow decrease from 100 to 80% of full flow. Reactor protection analyses confirmed that existing protection systems were adequate for continued operation. Subsequently, the flow coefficient decreased in magnitude to approximately 2.25 x 10 -4 Δ rho at 20,000 EFPH and remained about constant through the remainder of core life, 29,047 EFPH. The increase in flow coefficient of reactivity is attributed to a flow-force dependent change in the effective core diameter such that an increase in core flow decreased the core diameter, resulting in an increase in fuel-to-water ratio and a consequent decrease in the reactivity of this relatively undermoderated core. This report discusses why the increased flow coefficient did not occur until after 10,932 EFPH and why the magnitude of flow coefficient reduced with continued core operation

  12. Numerical simulation study on the air/water countercurrent flow limitation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morghi, Youssef; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: ssfmorghi@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Puente, Jesus, E-mail: jpuente720@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educaçao Tecnologica Celso Suckowda Fonseca (CEFET), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Baliza, Ana R., E-mail: baliza@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    After a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), the temperature of the fuel elements cladding increases dramatically due to the heat produced by the fission products decay, which is not adequately removed by the vapor contained in the core. In order to avoid this sharp rise in temperature and consequent melting of the core, the Emergency Core Cooling System is activated. This system initially injects borated water from accumulator tanks of the reactor through the inlet pipe (cold leg) and the outlet pipe (hot leg), or through the cold leg only, depending on the plant manufacturer. Some manufacturers add to this, direct injection into the upper plenum of the reactor. The penetration of water into the reactor core is a complex thermo fluid dynamic process because it involves the mixing of water with the vapor contained in the reactor, added to that generated in the contact of the water with the still hot surfaces in various geometries. In some critical locations, the vapor flowing in the opposite direction of the water can control the penetration of this into the core. This phenomenon is known as Countercurrent Flow Limitation (CCFL) or Flooding, and it is characterized by the control that a gas exerts in the liquid flow in the opposite direction. This work presents a proposal to use a CFD to simulate the CCFL phenomenon. Numerical computing can provide important information and data that is difficult or expensive to measure or test experimentally. Given the importance of computational science today, it can be considered a third and independent branch of science on an equal footing with the theoretical and experimental sciences. (author)

  13. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental validation of TASS/SMR-S critical flow model for the integral reactor SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Si Won; Ra, In Sik; Kim, Kun Yeup [ACT Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    An advanced integral PWR, SMART (System- Integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is being developed in KAERI. It has a compact size and a relatively small power rating (330MWt) compared to a conventional reactor. Because new concepts are applied to SMART, an experimental and analytical validation is necessary for the safety evaluation of SMART. The analytical safety validation is being accomplished by a safety analysis code for an integral reactor, TASS/SMR-S developed by KAERI. TASS/SMR-S uses a lumped parameter one dimensional node and path modeling for the thermal hydraulic calculation and it uses point kinetics for the reactor power calculation. It has models for a general usage such as a core heat transfer model, a wall heat structure model, a critical flow model, component models, and it also has many SMART specific models such as an once through helical coiled steam generator model, and a condensate heat transfer model. To ensure that the TASS/SMR-S code has the calculation capability for the safety evaluation of SMART, the code should be validated for the specific models with the separate effect test experimental results. In this study, TASS/SMR-S critical flow model is evaluated as compared with SMD (Super Moby Dick) experiment

  15. Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flows Through Packed Bed Reactors in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2001-01-01

    The simultaneous flow of gas and liquid through a fixed bed of particles occurs in many unit operations of interest to the designers of space-based as well as terrestrial equipment. Examples include separation columns, gas-liquid reactors, humidification, drying, extraction, and leaching. These operations are critical to a wide variety of industries such as petroleum, pharmaceutical, mining, biological, and chemical. NASA recognizes that similar operations will need to be performed in space and on planetary bodies such as Mars if we are to achieve our goals of human exploration and the development of space. The goal of this research is to understand how to apply our current understanding of two-phase fluid flow through fixed-bed reactors to zero- or partial-gravity environments. Previous experiments by NASA have shown that reactors designed to work on Earth do not necessarily function in a similar manner in space. Two experiments, the Water Processor Assembly and the Volatile Removal Assembly have encountered difficulties in predicting and controlling the distribution of the phases (a crucial element in the operation of this type of reactor) as well as the overall pressure drop.

  16. System and method for determining coolant level and flow velocity in a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Bruce William; Morris, William Guy; Zheng, Danian; Monk, David James; Fang, Biao; Surman, Cheryl Margaret; Anderson, David Deloyd

    2013-09-10

    A boiling water reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel having a feedwater inlet for the introduction of recycled steam condensate and/or makeup coolant into the vessel, and a steam outlet for the discharge of produced steam for appropriate work. A fuel core is located within a lower area of the pressure vessel. The fuel core is surrounded by a core shroud spaced inward from the wall of the pressure vessel to provide an annular downcomer forming a coolant flow path between the vessel wall and the core shroud. A probe system that includes a combination of conductivity/resistivity probes and/or one or more time-domain reflectometer (TDR) probes is at least partially located within the downcomer. The probe system measures the coolant level and flow velocity within the downcomer.

  17. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required

  18. Plasma flow reactor for steady state monitoring of physical and chemical processes at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroglu, Batikan; Mehl, Marco; Armstrong, Michael R; Crowhurst, Jonathan C; Weisz, David G; Zaug, Joseph M; Dai, Zurong; Radousky, Harry B; Chernov, Alex; Ramon, Erick; Stavrou, Elissaios; Knight, Kim; Fabris, Andrea L; Cappelli, Mark A; Rose, Timothy P

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a steady state plasma flow reactor to investigate gas phase physical and chemical processes that occur at high temperature (1000 flow injector). We have modeled the system using computational fluid dynamics simulations that are bounded by measured temperatures. In situ line-of-sight optical emission and absorption spectroscopy have been used to determine the structures and concentrations of molecules formed during rapid cooling of reactants after they pass through the plasma. Emission spectroscopy also enables us to determine the temperatures at which these dynamic processes occur. A sample collection probe inserted from the open end of the reactor is used to collect condensed materials and analyze them ex situ using electron microscopy. The preliminary results of two separate investigations involving the condensation of metal oxides and chemical kinetics of high-temperature gas reactions are discussed.

  19. Measurement of flow field in the pebble bed type high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sa Ya; Lee, Jae Young

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flow field measurement of the Pebble Bed Reactor(PBR) for the High Temperature Gascooled Reactor(HTGR) was performed. Large number of pebbles in the core of PBR provides complicated flow channel. Due to the complicated geometries, numerical analysis has been intensively made rather than experimental observation. However, the justification of computational simulation by the experimental study is crucial to develop solid analysis of design method. In the present study, a wind tunnel installed with pebbles stacked was constructed and equipped with the Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV). We designed the system scaled up to realize the room temperature condition according to the similarity. The PIV observation gave us stagnation points, low speed region so that the suspected high temperature region can be identified. With the further supplementary experimental works, the present system may produce valuable data to justify the Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) simulation method

  20. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  1. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  2. Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish. 2: Modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skocypec, Russell D.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Muir, James F.

    1991-01-01

    The catalytically enhanced solar absorption receiver (CAESAR) experiment was conducted to determine the thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance of a commercial-scale, dish-mounted, direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) reactor over a range of steady state and transient (cloud) operating conditions. The focus of the experiment is on global performance such as receiver efficiencies and overall methane conversion; it was not intended to provide data for code validation. A numerical model was previously developed to provide guidance in the design of the absorber. The one-dimensional, planar and steady-state model incorporates, the following energy transfer mechanisms: solar and infrared radiation, heterogeneous chemical reaction, conduction in the solid phase, and convection between the fluid and solid phases. A number of upgrades to the model and improved property values are presented here. Model predictions are shown to bound the experimental axial thermocouple data when experimental uncertainties are included. Global predictions are made using a technique in which the incident solar flux distribution is subdivided into flux contour bands. Model predictions for each band are then spatially integrated to provide global predictions such as reactor efficiencies and methane conversions. Global predictions are shown to compare well with experimental data. Reactor predictions for anticipated operating conditions suggest a further decrease in optical density at the front of the absorber inner disk may be beneficial. The need to conduct code-validation experiments is identified as being essential in improving the confidence in the capability to predict large-scale reactor operation.

  3. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

  4. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholikov, S. [National Solar Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Serebryanskiy, A. [Ulugh Beg Astronomical Institute, Uzbek Academy of Science, Tashkent 100052 (Uzbekistan); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: kholikov@noao.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  5. A dynamic model of the reactor coolant system flow for KMRR plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, B.W.; Noh, T.W.; Park, C.; Sim, B.S.; Oh, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    To support computer simulation studies for reactor control system design and performance evaluation, a dynamic model of the reactor coolant system (RCS) and reflector cooling system has been developed. This model is composed of the reactor coolant loop momentum equation, RCS pump dynamic equation, RCS pump characteristic equation, and the energy equation for the coolant inside the various components and piping. The model is versatile enough to simulate the normal steady-state conditions as well as most of the anticipated flow transients without pipe rupture. This model has been successfully implemented as the plant simulation code KMRRSIM for the Korea Multi-purpose Research Reactor and is now under extensive validation testing. The initial stage of validation has been comparison of its result with that of already validated, more detailed reactor system transient codes such as RELAP5. The results, as compared to the predictions by RELAP5 simulation, have been generally found to be very encouraging and the model is judged to be accurate enough to fulfill its intended purpose. However, this model will continue to be validated against other plant's data and eventually will be assessed by test data from KMRR

  6. Identification of significant process variables for a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    The effects of four process variables on the destruction efficiency of a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor were investigated. These process variables included: (1) reactor throughput (GPH), (2) concentration of the surrogate waste (% acetone), (3) maximum reactor tube-wall temperature (OC), and (4) applied stoichiometric oxygen. The analysis was conducted utilizing two-level factorial experiments, steepest ascent methods, and central composite designs. This experimental protocol assures efficient experimentation and allows for an empirical response surface model of the system to be developed. This experimentation identified a significant positive effect for stoichiometric oxygen applied and temperature variations between 400 to 500 degrees C. The increase in destruction efficiency due to stoichiometric 0 2 provides strong evidence that supercritical water oxidations are catalyzed by excess oxygen, and the strong temperature effect is a result of large increases in the kinetic rates for this temperature range. However, increasing temperature between 550 to 650 degrees C does not provide substantial increases in destruction efficiency. In addition, destruction efficiency is significantly unproved by increasing the Reynolds number and residence time. The destruction efficiency of the reactor is also dependent upon the initial concentration of surrogate waste. This concentration dependence may indicate first-order supercritical CO kinetics is inadequate for describing all waste types and reactor configurations. Alternatively, it may indicate reactant mixing, caused by local turbulence at the oxidation fronts of these higher concentration waste streams, results in higher destruction efficiencies

  7. The decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane: Studies in a high-temperature flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Osterheld, T.H.; Melius, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS), a common silicon carbide precursor, in a high-temperature flow reactor are presented. The results indicate that methane and hydrogen chloride are major products of the decomposition. No chlorinated silane products were observed. Hydrogen carrier gas was found to increase the rate of MTS decomposition. The observations suggest a radical-chain mechanism for the decomposition. The implications for silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition are discussed.

  8. Expansion connection of socket in flow distributed cabin of heavy water research reactor inner shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhiliang; Li Yanshui

    1995-01-01

    Expansion connection of aluminium alloy LT21 socket in flow distributed cabin of Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR) inner shell is described systematically. The expansion connection technology parameters of products are determined through tests. They are as following: bounce value of inner diameter after expansion, expansion degree, space between socket and plate hole, device for expanding pipes, selection of tools for enlarging or reaming holes, manufacture for socket inner hole and cleaning after expansion

  9. Problems of two-phase flows in water cooled and moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syu, Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Heat exchange in two-phase flows of coolant in loss of coolant accidents in PWR and BWR reactors has been investigated. Three main stages of accident history are considered: blowdown, reflooding using emergency core cooling system and rewetting. Factors, determining the rate of coolant leakage and the rate of temperature increase in fuel cladding during blowdown, processes of vapour during reflooding and liquid priming by vapour during rewetting, are discussed

  10. Numerical simulation of moderator flow and temperature distributions in a CANDU reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes numerical predictions of the two-dimensional flow and temperature fields of an internally-heated liquid in a typical CANDU reactor vessel. Turbulence momentum and energy transport are simulated using the k-epsilon model. Both steady-state and transient results are discussed. The finite control volume analogues of the conservation equations are solved using a modified version of the TEACH code

  11. Diels–Alder reactions of myrcene using intensified continuous-flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Hornung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the Diels–Alder reaction of the naturally occurring substituted butadiene, myrcene, with a range of different naturally occurring and synthetic dienophiles. The synthesis of the Diels–Alder adduct from myrcene and acrylic acid, containing surfactant properties, was scaled-up in a plate-type continuous-flow reactor with a volume of 105 mL to a throughput of 2.79 kg of the final product per day. This continuous-flow approach provides a facile alternative scale-up route to conventional batch processing, and it helps to intensify the synthesis protocol by applying higher reaction temperatures and shorter reaction times.

  12. SCEPTIC, Pressure Drop, Flow Rate, Heat Transfer, Temperature in Reactor Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattchee, N.; Reynolds, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SCEPTIC is a program for calculating pressure drop, flow rates, heat transfer rates, and temperature in heat exchangers such as fuel elements of typical gas or liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The effects of turbulent and heat interchange between flow passages are considered. 2 - Method of solution: The computation procedure amounts to a nodal of lumped parameter type of calculation. The axial mesh size is automatically selected to assure that a prescribed accuracy of results is obtained. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of subchannels is 25, maximum number of heated surfaces is 46

  13. The effect of retarding torque during a flow transient for Tehran Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhadi, Kazem, E-mail: kfarhadi@aeoi.org.ir [Engineering Science Research Group, Nuclear Science Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The primary cooling system of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has been analysed for a possible flow transient phenomenon caused by power cut-off. All the components of the TRR primary cooling loop that offer resistance to the coolant flow are physically modelled. Differential equations of motion for the coolant in the primary piping of the TRR and for the rotating parts of the centrifugal pump are then derived. The equation of flow motion is solved simultaneously with momentum conservation equation of the rotating parts of the pump which predicts the TRR pump speed during the flow transient. Electrical and mechanical losses are measured for the TRR three-phase induction motor in order to calculate the motor retarding torque during the event. The results of the present study are compared with the other similar primary loop results. The present model shows good agreement with the existing experimental and theoretical studies.

  14. Experimental studies of flow induced vibrations of the fuel assembly for the PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitimada, D.; Presaghi, M.; Tampone, O.; Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    The vibration behaviour of an assembly of seven mock-up fuel bundles of PEC reactor has been investigated. The assembly was excited by a parallel flow of water simulating sodium. The motion of the group (or of a single bundle in the group) has been measured in transverse sections detecting two orthogonal components of displacement. During the experiences the following parameters were varied: bundle foot and pads restraints, flow rate condition, coolant flow outlet conditions at the head of fuel bundles. Experimental data were processed in order to obtain: trajectories of three points of fuel bundle axis, power density spectra of measured vibration amplitudes, correlations between coolant flow rate and vibration amplitude R.M.S. (author)

  15. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

  16. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The reactor design features 4 independent cooling loops (3 active, 1 standby), each containing a main circulation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and also that the check valve in that loop remains stuck open. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-dia instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against 4 thermal limits: T wall = T sat , incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, results show that these limits are not exceeded (at 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (present design value). For the second transient, the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39 C, so the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusion may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems

  17. Hydrodynamic flow regimes, gas holdup, and liquid circulation in airlift reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashar, M.E.; Narsingh, U.; Rouillard, A.E.; Judd, R. [Univ. of Durban (South Africa)

    1998-04-01

    This study reports an experimental investigation into the hydrodynamic behavior of an external-loop airlift reactor (ALR) for the air-water system. Three distinct flow regimes are identified--namely homogeneous, transition, and heterogeneous regimes. The transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous flow is observed to occur over a wide range rather than being merely a single point as has been previously reported in the literature. A gas holdup correlation is developed for each flow regime. The correlations fit the experimental gas holdup data with very good accuracy (within {+-}5%). It would appear, therefore, that a deterministic equation to describe each flow regime is likely to exist in ALRs. This equation is a function of the reactor geometry and the system`s physical properties. New data concerning the axial variation of gas holdup is reported in which a minimum value is observed. This phenomenon is discussed and an explanation offered. Discrimination between two sound theoretical models--namely model 1 (Chisti et al., 1988) and model 2 (Garcia Calvo, 1989)--shows that model 1 predicts satisfactorily the liquid circulation velocity with an error of less than {+-} 10%. The good predictive features of model 1 may be due to the fact that it allows for a significant energy dissipation by wakes behind bubbles. Model 1 is now further improved by the new gas holdup correlations which are derived for the three different flow regimes.

  18. Reactive flow analysis with fluorine thermal dissociation in a FLUOREX flame reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Masaya; Tagawa, Hisato; Sasahira, Akira; Hoshino, Kuniyoshi; Kawamura, Fumio; Homma, Shunji; Amano, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    A reactive flow analysis method for flame reactors of the FLUOREX (Hybrid Process of Fluoride Volatility and Solvent Extraction) method was been developed. Transport equations for UO 2 /PuO 2 mixed particles were formulated in the Lagrangian framework and several fluid/particles interactions were modeled using mass, momentum and energy exchanges through surface chemical reactions, forces and heat transfers. The coal combustion model was modified without devolatilization and the char burnout model was replaced by the UO 2 /PuO 2 fluorination model. Overall reaction rates were calculated using the combined model of the surface reaction rate and the diffusion rate of F2 and F. Fluid flows were modeled through incompressible flows using the k-ε turbulent model in the Euler framework. A cylindrical flame reactor (φ 80 mm x 500mm was analyzed where 99%UO 2 +1%PuO 2 mixed particles were injected with Ar and 5% excess F 2 flow. The average particle diameter was 4 μm and the flow rate was 300 g/h. The fluorination reaction of PuO 2 was limited through fluorine molecular reaction but was accelerated due to fluorine thermal dissociation. The simulated corresponded to the experimental result in that both UO 2 and PuO 2 were almost completely fluorinated. (author)

  19. Mercury adsorption characteristics of HBr-modified fly ash in an entrained-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Lilin; Guo, Ruitao; Song, Na; Wang, Jiawei; Cao, Yan; Orndorff, William; Pan, Wei-ping

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the mercury adsorption characteristics of HBr-modified fly ash in an entrained-flow reactor were investigated through thermal decomposition methods. The results show that the mercury adsorption performance of the HBr-modified fly ash was enhanced significantly. The mercury species adsorbed by unmodified fly ash were HgCl2, HgS and HgO. The mercury adsorbed by HBr-modified fly ash, in the entrained-flow reactor, existed in two forms, HgBr2 and HgO, and the HBr was the dominant factor promoting oxidation of elemental mercury in the entrained-flow reactor. In the current study, the concentration of HgBr2 and HgO in ash from the fine ash vessel was 4.6 times greater than for ash from the coarse ash vessel. The fine ash had better mercury adsorption performance than coarse ash, which is most likely due to the higher specific surface area and longer residence time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Features and validation of discrete element method for simulating pebble flow in reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yong; Li Yanjie

    2005-01-01

    The core of a High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is composed of big number of fuel pebbles, their kinetic behaviors are of great importance in estimating the path and residence time of individual pebble, the evolution of the mixing zone for the assessment of the efficiency of a reactor. Numerical method is highlighted in modern reactor design. In view of granular flow, the Discrete Element Model based on contact mechanics of spheres was briefly described. Two typical examples were presented to show the capability of the DEM method. The former is piling with glass/steel spheres, which provides validated evidences that the simulated angles of repose are in good coincidence with the experimental results. The later is particle discharge in a flat- bottomed silo, which shows the effects of material modulus and demonstrates several features. The two examples show the DEM method enables to predict the behaviors, such as the evolution of pebble profiles, streamlines etc., and provides sufficient information for pebble flow analysis and core design. In order to predict the cyclic pebble flow in a HTGR core precisely and efficiently, both model and code improvement are needed, together with rational specification of physical properties with proper measuring techniques. Strategic and methodological considerations were also discussed. (authors)

  1. Comparison of reactivity in a flow reactor and a single cylinder engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natelson, Robert H.; Johnson, Rodney O.; Kurman, Matthew S.; Cernansky, Nicholas P.; Miller, David L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2875 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The relative reactivity of 2:1:1 and 1:1:1 mixtures of n-decane:n-butylcyclohexane:n-butylbenzene and an average sample of JP-8 were evaluated in a single cylinder engine and compared to results obtained in a pressurized flow reactor. At compression ratios of 14:1, 15:1, and 16:1, inlet temperature of 500 K, inlet pressure of 0.1 MPa, equivalence ratio of 0.23, and engine speed of 800 RPM, the autoignition delay times were, from shortest to longest, the 2:1:1, followed by the 1:1:1, and then the JP-8. This order corresponded with recent results in a pressurized flow reactor, where the preignition oxidation chemistry was monitored at temperatures of 600-800 K, 0.8 MPa pressure, and an equivalence ratio of 0.30, and where the preignition reactivity from highest to lowest was the 2:1:1, followed by the 1:1:1, and the JP-8. This shows that the relative reactivity at low temperatures in the flow reactor tracks the autoignition tendencies in the engine for these particular fuels. (author) the computed experimental error. (author)

  2. CFD analysis of multiphase coolant flow through fuel rod bundles in advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, A.; Turcu, I.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D.; Danila, N.

    2010-01-01

    The key component of a pressure tube nuclear reactor core is pressure tube filled with a stream of fuel bundles. This feature makes them suitable for CFD thermal-hydraulic analysis. A methodology for CFD analysis applied to pressure tube nuclear reactors is presented in this paper, which is focused on advanced pressure tube nuclear reactors. The complex flow conditions inside pressure tube are analysed by using the Eulerian multiphase model implemented in FLUENT CFD computer code. Fuel rods in these channels are superheated but the liquid is under high pressure, so it is sub-cooled in normal operating conditions on most of pressure tube length. In the second half of pressure tube length, the onset of boiling occurs, so the flow consists of a gas liquid mixture, with the volume of gas increasing along the length of the channel in the direction of the flow. Limited computer resources enforced us to use CFD analysis for segments of pressure tube. Significant local geometries (junctions, spacers) were simulated. Main results of this work are: prediction of main thermal-hydraulic parameters along pressure tube including CHF evaluation through fuel assemblies. (authors)

  3. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  4. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase chemical kinetics under tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L. (Inventor); Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A flow reactor for simulating the interaction in the troposphere is set forth. A first reactant mixed with a carrier gas is delivered from a pump and flows through a duct having louvers therein. The louvers straighten out the flow, reduce turbulence and provide laminar flow discharge from the duct. A second reactant delivered from a source through a pump is input into the flowing stream, the second reactant being diffused through a plurality of small diffusion tubes to avoid disturbing the laminar flow. The commingled first and second reactants in the carrier gas are then directed along an elongated duct where the walls are spaced away from the flow of reactants to avoid wall interference, disturbance or turbulence arising from the walls. A probe connected with a measuring device can be inserted through various sampling ports in the second duct to complete measurements of the first and second reactants and the product of their reaction at selected XYZ locations relative to the flowing system.

  5. Operation of a catalytic reverse flow reactor for the purification of air contamined with volatile organic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beld, L.; van de Beld, L.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation in a reverse flow reactor is an attractive process for the decontamination of air polluted with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper several aspects of operating this type of reactor for air purification under strongly varying conditions will be discussed. For a

  6. Feasibility study of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor with porous membranes for the production of syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a novel reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) is proposed for the partial oxidation of CH4 to syngas. The feasibility of the RFCMR concept has been investigated for industrial conditions on basis of a simulation study employing a reactor model, which includes a detailed

  7. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  8. Flow of ideal fluid through a central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1991-04-01

    The results are given of calculations of the flow of an ideal fluid through the central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly. The computer code used is briefly described. (author). 10 figs., 4 refs

  9. FLODIS: a computer model to determine the flow distribution and thermal response of the Fort St. Vrain reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, D.D.

    1976-06-01

    FLODIS is a combined heat transfer and fluid flow analysis calculation written specifically for the core of the Fort St. Vrain reactor. It is a lumped-node representation of the 37 refueling regions in the active core. Heat conduction to the coolant and in the axial direction is represented; however, the effect of conduction between refueling regions is not included. The calculation uses the specified operating conditions for the reactor at power to determine appropriate loss coefficients for the variable orifices in each refueling region. Flow distributions following reactor trip and a reduction in coolant pressure and flow are determined assuming that the orifice coefficients remain constant. Iterative techniques are used to determine the distribution of coolant flow as a function of time during the transient. Results are presented for the evaluation of the transient for the Fort St. Vrain reactor following depressurization and cooling with two circulators operating at 8000 rpm.

  10. FLODIS: a computer model to determine the flow distribution and thermal response of the Fort St. Vrain reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, D.D.

    1976-06-01

    FLODIS is a combined heat transfer and fluid flow analysis calculation written specifically for the core of the Fort St. Vrain reactor. It is a lumped-node representation of the 37 refueling regions in the active core. Heat conduction to the coolant and in the axial direction is represented; however, the effect of conduction between refueling regions is not included. The calculation uses the specified operating conditions for the reactor at power to determine appropriate loss coefficients for the variable orifices in each refueling region. Flow distributions following reactor trip and a reduction in coolant pressure and flow are determined assuming that the orifice coefficients remain constant. Iterative techniques are used to determine the distribution of coolant flow as a function of time during the transient. Results are presented for the evaluation of the transient for the Fort St. Vrain reactor following depressurization and cooling with two circulators operating at 8000 rpm

  11. Benchmark exercise for fluid flow simulations in a liquid metal fast reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzari, E., E-mail: emerzari@anl.gov [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Fischer, P. [Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Yuan, H. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States); Van Tichelen, K.; Keijers, S. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol (Belgium); De Ridder, J.; Degroote, J.; Vierendeels, J. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Doolaard, H.; Gopala, V.R.; Roelofs, F. [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • A EUROTAM-US INERI consortium has performed a benchmark exercise related to fast reactor assembly simulations. • LES calculations for a wire-wrapped rod bundle are compared with RANS calculations. • Results show good agreement for velocity and cross flows. - Abstract: As part of a U.S. Department of Energy International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (I-NERI), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is collaborating with the Dutch Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN), and Ghent University (UGent) in Belgium to perform and compare a series of fuel-pin-bundle calculations representative of a fast reactor core. A wire-wrapped fuel bundle is a complex configuration for which little data is available for verification and validation of new simulation tools. UGent and NRG performed their simulations with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The high-fidelity Argonne large-eddy simulations were performed with Nek5000, used for CFD in the Simulation-based High-efficiency Advanced Reactor Prototyping (SHARP) suite. SHARP is a versatile tool that is being developed to model the core of a wide variety of reactor types under various scenarios. It is intended both to serve as a surrogate for physical experiments and to provide insight into experimental results. Comparison of the results obtained by the different participants with the reference Nek5000 results shows good agreement, especially for the cross-flow data. The comparison also helps highlight issues with current modeling approaches. The results of the study will be valuable in the design and licensing process of MYRRHA, a flexible fast research reactor under design at SCK·CEN that features wire-wrapped fuel bundles cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic.

  12. Effect of solar chimney inclination angle on space flow pattern and ventilation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan; Korah, Nader S.A. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering and Energy, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-02-15

    The solar chimney is a simple and practical idea that is applied to enhance space natural ventilation. The chimney could be vertical or inclined. The chimney inclination angle is an important parameter that greatly affects space flow pattern and ventilation rate. In the present study, the effect of chimney inclination angle on air change per hour and indoor flow pattern was numerically and analytically investigated. A numerical simulation using Ansys, a FEM-based code, was used to predict flow pattern. Then the results were compared with published experimental measurements. A FORTRAN program was developed to iteratively solve the mathematical model that was obtained through an overall energy balance on the solar chimney. The analytical results showed that an optimum air flow rate value was achieved when the chimney inclination is between 45 and 70 for latitude of 28.4 . The numerically predicted flow pattern inside the space supports this finding. Moreover, in the present study a correlation to predict the air change per hour was developed. The correlation was tested within a solar intensity greater than or equal to 500 W/m{sup 2}, and chimney width from 0.1 m to 0.35 m for different inclination angles with acceptable values. (author)

  13. Hall-magnetohydrodynamic waves in flowing ideal incompressible solar-wind plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelyazkov, I

    2010-01-01

    It is well established now that the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the corona and the solar wind, is a highly structured medium. Satellite observations have confirmed the presence of steady flows there. Here, we investigate the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) eigenmodes (kink and sausage surface waves) travelling along an ideal incompressible flowing plasma cylinder (flux tube) surrounded by a flowing plasma environment in the framework of the Hall magnetohydrodynamics. The propagation characteristics of the waves are studied in a reference frame moving with the mass flow outside the tube. In general, the flows change the waves' phase velocities compared with their magnitudes in a static MHD flux tube and the Hall effect extends the number of the possible wave dispersion curves. It turns out that while the kink waves, considered in the context of the standard magnetohydrodynamics, are unstable against the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, they become stable when the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law is taken into account. The sausage waves are stable in both considerations. All results concerning the waves' propagation and their stability/instability status are obtained on the basis of the linearized Hall-magnetohydrodynamic equations and are applicable mainly to the solar wind plasmas.

  14. Laboratory determination of normal operating flow rates with enlarged outlet fittings -- BDF reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.

    1960-02-02

    Experiments have been conducted in the Hydraulics Laboratory, at the request of IPD`s Mechanical Development-A Operation, to determine the energy losses of various enlarged outlet fitting combinations. These experiments were conducted an steady state runs and allow the determination of the normal operating point (flow rate) of a reactor process channel under selected conditions of front header pressure and fuel charge. No attempt is made to make a mechanical or economic evaluation of the particular fitting combinations, although observations were noted which might bear on this evaluation. It is very important for the reader to bear in mind that changing outlet fittings will definitely affect the reactor tube power limits and outlet vater temperature limits. The size of the outlet fittings largely determines the present outlet temperature limits of the old reactors. The flow characteristics of these present fittings cause some degree of pressurization to suppress boiling on the fuel charge and also cause dual Panellit trip protection for certain flow changes and for power surges. Enlargement of the outlet fittings may actually reduce the allowable outlet coolant temperature limits. Since these effects cannot be determined on the apparatus used in these experiments, a complete discussion of this point is not included in this report. However, the seriousness of these effects should be known and carefully analyzed before a final selection of enlarged outlet fittings in made. This report will be one of a series. New reports in the series will be issued as data are obtained for other such outlet fitting combinations or for new concepts of outlet fitting assemblies such as the new nozzle being developed by C. E. Trantz for use on F-reactor stuck gunbarrel tubes.

  15. Kinetics Analysis of Synthesis Reaction of Struvite With Air-Flow Continous Vertical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edahwati, L.; Sutiyono, S.; Muryanto, S.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, dan A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Kinetics reaction is a knowledge about a rate of chemical reaction. The differential of the reaction rate can be determined from the reactant material or the formed material. The reaction mechanism of a reactor may include a stage of reaction occurring sequentially during the process of converting the reactants into products. In the determination of reaction kinetics, the order of reaction and the rate constant reaction must be recognized. This study was carried out using air as a stirrer as a medium in the vertical reactor for crystallization of struvite. Stirring is one of the important aspects in struvite crystallization process. Struvite crystals or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrates (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is commonly formed in reversible reactions and can be generated as an orthorhombic crystal. Air is selected as a stirrer on the existing flow pattern in the reactor determining the reaction kinetics of the crystal from the solution. The experimental study was conducted by mixing an equimolar solution of 0.03 M NH4OH, MgCl2 and H3PO4 with a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The crystallization process of the mixed solution was observed in an inside reactor at the flow rate ranges of 16-38 ml/min and the temperature of 30°C was selected in the study. The air inlet rate was kept constant at 0.25 liters/min. The pH solution was adjusted to be 8, 9 and 10 by dropping wisely of 1 N KOH solution. The crystallization kinetics was examined until the steady state of the reaction was reached. The precipitates were filtered and dried at a temperature for subsequent material characterization, including Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and XRD (X-Ray diffraction) method. The results show that higher flow rate leads to less mass of struvite.

  16. Steel slag carbonation in a flow-through reactor system: the role of fluid-flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Eleanor J; Williams-Jones, Anthony E; Migdisov, Artashes A

    2015-01-01

    Steel production is currently the largest industrial source of atmospheric CO2. As annual steel production continues to grow, the need for effective methods of reducing its carbon footprint increases correspondingly. The carbonation of the calcium-bearing phases in steel slag generated during basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel production, in particular its major constituent, larnite {Ca2SiO4}, which is a structural analogue of olivine {(MgFe)2SiO4}, the main mineral subjected to natural carbonation in peridotites, offers the potential to offset some of these emissions. However, the controls on the nature and efficiency of steel slag carbonation are yet to be completely understood. Experiments were conducted exposing steel slag grains to a CO2-H2O mixture in both batch and flow-through reactors to investigate the impact of temperature, fluid flux, and reaction gradient on the dissolution and carbonation of steel slag. The results of these experiments show that dissolution and carbonation of BOF steel slag are more efficient in a flow-through reactor than in the batch reactors used in most previous studies. Moreover, they show that fluid flux needs to be optimized in addition to grain size, pressure, and temperature, in order to maximize the efficiency of carbonation. Based on these results, a two-stage reactor consisting of a high and a low fluid-flux chamber is proposed for CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation, allowing dissolution of the slag and precipitation of calcium carbonate to occur within a single flow-through system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    A dual passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactors is described, comprising the combination of: a reactor vessel for containing a pool of liquid metal coolant with a core of heat generating fissionable fuel substantially submerged therein, a side wall of the reactor vessel forming an innermost first partition; a containment vessel substantially surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a second partition; a first baffle cylinder substantially encircling the containment vessel in spaced apart relation having an encircling wall forming a third partition; a guard vessel substantially surrounding the containment vessel and first baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation having a side wall forming a forth partition; a sliding seal at the top of the guard vessel edge to isolate the dual cooling system air streams; a second baffle cylinder substantially encircling the guard vessel in spaced part relationship having an encircling wan forming a fifth partition; a concrete silo substantially surrounding the guard vessel and the second baffle cylinder in spaced apart relation providing a sixth partition; a first fluid coolant circulating flow course open to the ambient atmosphere for circulating air coolant comprising at lent one down comer duct having an opening to the atmosphere in an upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the guard vessel and the first baffle cylinder and at least one riser duct having an opening to the atmosphere in the upper area thereof and making fluid communication with the space between the first baffle cylinder and the containment vessel whereby cooling fluid air can flow from the atmosphere down through the down comer duct and space between the forth and third partitions and up through the space between the third and second partition and the riser duct then out into the atmosphere; and a second fluid coolant circulating flow

  18. Solar photoelectro-Fenton flow plant modeling for the degradation of the antibiotic erythromycin in sulfate medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Tzayam; Sirés, Ignasi; Brillas, Enric; Nava, José L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of a 10 dm 3 solar plant with a FM01-LC cell and a CPC photoreactor. • Predominant H 2 O 2 production at the graphite-felt cathode and photolysis at the CPC. • Close agreement was obtained between theoretical and experimental data. • Four heterocyclic, one aromatic, one tertiary amine and five carboxylic acids detected. • Release of nitrate ions and, to a lesser extent, ammonium ion. - Abstract: A solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) plant containing a filter-press FM01-LC flow reactor in series with a compound parabolic collector (CPC) as photoreactor, operating in batch recirculation mode, was simulated using a parametric model. The degradation of 10 dm 3 of solutions of the heterocyclic antibiotic erythromycin (ERY) in 0.050 mol dm −3 Na 2 SO 4 at pH 3.0 was used for validation. The filter-press reactor contained a platinized titanium plate anode and a graphite-felt cathode that produced H 2 O 2 from the reduction of dissolved oxygen (0.24 mmol dm −3 ). Trials were performed under potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions with predominance of H 2 O 2 production, minimizing H 2 evolution reaction. The effect of initial catalyst (Fe 2+ ) concentration, current density (j), initial antibiotic concentration as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and volumetric flow rate on the ERY mineralization was studied. Good agreement between simulations and experimental DOC decays was obtained. Mineralization current efficiencies and specific energy consumptions were also determined. The best performance under galvanostatic conditions was found for 0.225 mmol dm −3 ERY (100 mg dm −3 DOC), 0.50 mmol dm −3 Fe 2+ , volumetric flow rate of 3.0 dm 3 min −1 and j cath = -0.16 mA cm −2 , reaching 69% mineralization with current efficiency of 75% and specific energy consumption of 0.059 kWh (g DOC) −1 . Six organic by-products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, whereas final short-chain carboxylic acids like formic and oxalic

  19. Accidents and transients analyses of a super fast reactor with single flow pass core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutanto,; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Safety analysis of a Super FR with single flow pass core is conducted. • Loss of feed water flow leads to a direct effect on the loss of fuel channel flow. • The core pressure is sensitive to LOCA accidents due to the direct effect. • Small LOCA introduces a critical break. • The safety criteria for all selected events are satisfied. - Abstract: The supercritical water cooled fast reactor with single flow pass core has been designed to simplify refueling and the structures of upper and lower mixing plenums. To evaluate the safety performance, safety analysis has been conducted with regard to LOCA and non-LOCA accidents including transient events. Safety analysis results show that the safety criteria are satisfied for all selected events. The total loss of feed water flow is the most important accident which the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) is high due to a direct effect of the accident on the total loss of flow in all fuel assemblies. However, actuation of the ADS can mitigate the accident. Small LOCA also introduces a critical break at 7.8% break which results high MCST at BOC because the scram and ADS are not actuated. Early ADS actuation is effective to mitigate the accident. In large LOCA, 100% break LOCA results a high MCST of flooding phase at BOC due to high power peaking at the bottom part. Use of high injection flow rate by 2 LPCI units is effective to decrease the MCST

  20. Flow instability tests for a particle bed reactor nuclear thermal rocket fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Timothy J.

    1993-05-01

    Recent analyses have focused on the flow stability characteristics of a particle bed reactor (PBR). These laminar flow instabilities may exist in reactors with parallel paths and are caused by the heating of the gas at low Reynolds numbers. This phenomena can be described as follows: several parallel channels are connected at the plenum regions and are stabilized by some inlet temperature and pressure; a perturbation in one channel causes the temperature to rise and increases the gas viscosity and reduces the gas density; the pressure drop is fixed by the plenum regions, therefore, the mass flow rate in the channel would decrease; the decrease in flow reduces the ability to remove the energy added and the temperature increases; and finally, this process could continue until the fuel element fails. Several analyses based on different methods have derived similar curves to show that these instabilities may exist at low Reynolds numbers and high phi's ((Tfinal Tinitial)/Tinitial). These analyses need to be experimentally verified.

  1. An estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty using UFM-based feedwater flow rate in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Ryul Jung; Ho Cheol Jang; Byung Jin Lee; Se Jin Baik; Woo Hyun Jang

    2005-01-01

    Most of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) utilize the venturi meters (VMs) to measure the feedwater (FW) flow rate to the steam generator in the calorimetric measurement, which is used in the reactor thermal power (RTP) estimation. However, measurement drifts have been experienced due to some anomalies on the venturi meter (generally called the venturi meter fouling). The VM's fouling tends to increase the measured pressure drop across the meter, which results in indication of increased feedwater flow rate. Finally, the reactor thermal power is overestimated and the actual reactor power is to be reduced to remain within the regulatory limits. To overcome this VM's fouling problem, the Ultrasonic Flow Meter (UFM) has recently been gaining attention in the measurement of the feedwater flow rate. This paper presents the applicability of a UFM based feedwater flow rate in the estimation of reactor thermal power uncertainty. The FW and RTP uncertainties are compared in terms of sensitivities between the VM- and UFM-based feedwater flow rates. Data from typical Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) plants are used to estimate the uncertainty. (authors)

  2. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C K; Whittemore, W L; Kim, B S; Lee, J B; Blevins, R D; Burton, T E [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); General Atomic Company, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1976-07-01

    The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

  3. Critical heat flux and flow instability in an advanced light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dae-Hyun Hwang; Kyong-Won Seo; Chung-Chan Lee; Sung-Kyun Zee

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An advanced light water reactor concept has been continuously studied in KAERI with an output in the range of about 60 to 300 MW th . The reactor is purposed to be utilized as an energy source for seawater desalination as well as small scale power generation. In order to achieve the intrinsic safety and enhanced operational flexibility, some specific design considerations such as low power density and soluble boron free operation have been incorporated in the multiple-parallel-channel type reactor core. The low power density can be achieved by adopting fuel assemblies with tightly spaced non-square lattice rod array. The allowable core operating region should be primarily limited by the two design parameters; the critical heat flux(CHF) and the flow instabilities in the multiple parallel fuel assembly channels. The characteristics of CHF and flow instability have been investigated through experimental and analytical works. The CHF prediction model was established on the basis of experimental data obtained from 19-rod test bundles. The CHF experiments have been conducted for various test bundles with different heated lengths, uniform and non-uniform radial and axial power distributions, water and Freon as the working fluids, and different number of unheated rods. The parametric ranges of CHF experiments covers the pressure from 6 to 18 MPa, the mass flux from 150 to 2000 kg/m 2 /s, and the inlet subcooling from 10 to 120 deg. C. The flow instabilities due to density wave oscillations were investigated by conducting experiments with two parallel channels under the pressure ranges from 6 to 16 MPa. The parametric behavior of flow instability was examined for the test sections with different lengths of adiabatic risers, different axial power shapes, different inlet restrictions, and different channel cross sections. The stability boundary was experimentally determined by increasing channel inlet temperature or reducing the flow rate

  4. Flow-induced vibration phenomenon in a Mark III TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.; Whittemore, W.L.; Kim, B.S.; Lee, J.B.; Blevins, R.D.; Burton, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Mark III TRIGA reactor with hexagonal fuel spacing is capable of operating at 2.0 MW. The Mark III at San Diego operated without core cooling problems or vibration at power levels up to 2.0 MW. All Mark III reactors have operated trouble-free up to 1.0 MW. The Mark III TRIGA in Korea was installed in 1972 and operated many months without trouble at 2.0 MW. During this period core changes including addition of new fuel were made. Eighteen months after startup, a coolant flow-induced vibration was observed for the first time at a power of 1.5 MW. A lengthy series of tests showed that it was not possible to establish a core configuration that permitted vibration-free operation for power levels in the range 1.5 - 2.0 MW. Observations during the tests confirmed that standing waves in the reactor tank water coupled the source within the core to the shield structure and surrounding building. Analysis of the data indicates strongly that the source of the vibration is the creation and collapse of bubbles with the core acting as a resonator. A substantially increased flow of coolant through the upper grid plate is expected to eliminate the vibration phenomenon and permit trouble-free operation at power up to 2.0 MW. In an attempt to seek a remedy, both GAC and KAERI have independently developed designs for upper grid plates. KAERI has constructed and installed an interim version of the standard grid plate which was calculated to provide 25% more coolant flow and mounted high so as to provide less restriction to flow around the upper fittings of the fuel elements. A substantial reduction in vibration was observed. No vibration was observed at any power up to 2.0 MW with cooling water at or below 20 C. A slight vibration at 1.8 MW occurred for higher cooling temperatures. The GAC grid plate design provides not only for increasing the flow area but also for streamlining the flow surfaces on the grid plate and possibly also on the top fittings of the fuel elements. It is

  5. Thermofluid experiments for Fusion Reactor Safety. Visualization of exchange flows through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Sadao; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1997-01-01

    Exchange flow rates through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA (Loss of VAcuum event) conditions were measured quantitatively by using a preliminary LOVA apparatus and exchange flow patterns over the breach were visualized qualitatively by smoke. Velocity distributions in the exchange flows were predicted from the observed flow patterns by using the correlation method in the flow visualization procedures. Mean velocities calculated from the predicted velocity distributions at the outside of the breach were in good agreement with the LOVA experimental results when the exchange flow velocities were low. It was found that the present flow visualization and the image processing system might be an useful procedure to evaluate the exchange flow rates. (author)

  6. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngji; Joo, Hyunku; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin; Sohn, Jinsik; Kim, Sungpyo; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-rotating reactor including TiO 2 NTs is applied under solar irradiation. • Simultaneously photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and EDCs is observed to be up to 95%. • Photocatalytic reactions of Cr(VI) and EDCs are favorable under acidic pH. • Charge interaction and hole scavenge between TiO 2 and pollutants are synergy factors. - Abstract: In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO 2 nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO 2 nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron–hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions

  7. Flow visualization study of two-phase flow in a single bend outlet feeder pipe of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savalaxs, S.-A.; Lister, D.H.; Steward, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, the feeder piping that is used to direct the high-temperature water coolant between the fuel channels and the steam generators is made of carbon steel. Since 1996, several CANDU stations have reported excessive corrosion of their outlet feeders. The first metre is particularity vulnerable because the piping there consists of single or double bends, which have relatively thin walls produced by the bending process. Early studies related the attack to the hydrodynamics of the coolant and verified that it was a type of flow-accelerated corrosion. In order to understand the hydrodynamics of the coolant in the outlet feeders by flow visualization, a full-scale transparent test section simulating the geometry and orientation of an outlet feeder bend with its upstream components was fabricated. The feeder consisted of a 54 mm diameter acrylic pipe with a 73 degree bend. This was connected to the upstream component with an acrylic simulation of a Grayloc flanged fitting. A test loop supplied room temperature water to the test section at flow rates up to 0.019 m3/s. Air could be injected into the water to give a mean volume fraction of up to 0.56. In this preliminary investigation, the size and velocity of air bubbles at different flow conditions and their distribution within the pipe bend were studied. Particular attention was paid to the flow pattern at the inside of the bend, where a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) code - Fluent 6.1-had failed to predict a liquid film in an earlier study. A high-speed digital video camera was used to determine the relation between bubble size and velocity. Such a relation should help to explain the discrepancy in the CFD modelling and provide the basis for accurate predictions of phase distribution in complex geometries at high flow rates. (authors)

  8. Flow Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The twelve principles of Green Chemistry presented by Anastas and Warner provide the philosophical basis and identify potential areas to increase the level of greenness in designing or implementing chemical reactions in the pharmaceutical industry. With these efforts in mind, the...

  9. Novel “open-sorption pipe” reactor for solar thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Devrim; Casey, Sean P.; Chen, Xiangjie; Riffat, Saffa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ‘open sorption pipe’ heat storage was experimentally investigated. • Effect of absolute moisture levels on heat storage performance was analyzed. • Hygrothermal-cyclic performances of Zeolite 13X and vermiculite–calcium chloride were compared. • Vermiculite–calcium chloride has more durable performance than Zeolite at 80 °C regeneration temperature. • Sorption pipe system using vermiculite–calcium chloride provides energy storage density of 290 kW h/m"3. - Abstract: In the last decade sorption heat storage systems are gaining attention due to their high energy storage density and long term heat storage potential. Sorption reactor development is vital for future progress of these systems however little has done on this topic. In this study, a novel sorption pipe reactor for solar thermal energy storage is developed and experimentally investigated to fulfill this gap. The modular heat storage system consists of sorption pipe units with an internal perforated diffuser pipe network and the sorption material filled in between. Vermiculite–calcium chloride composite material was employed as the sorbent in the reactor and its thermal performance was investigated under different inlet air humidity levels. It was found that, a fourfold increase of absolute humidity difference of air led to approximately 2.3 times boost in average power output from 313 W to 730 W and an 8.8 times boost of average exergy from 4.8 W to 42.3 W. According to the testing results, each of three sorption pipes can provide an average air temperature lift of 24.1 °C over 20 h corresponding to a system total energy storage capacity of 25.5 kW h and energy storage density of 290 kW h/m"3. Within the study, vermiculite–calcium chloride performance was also compared with the widely investigated Zeolite 13X. Vermiculite–calcium chloride showed a good cyclic ability at regeneration temperature of 80 °C with a steadier thermal performance than Zeolite

  10. Observations of Reconnection Flows in a Flare on the Solar Disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Fletcher, L.; Wright, P. J.; Hannah, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a well-accepted part of the theory of solar eruptive events, though the evidence is still circumstantial. Intrinsic to the reconnection picture of a solar eruptive event, particularly in the standard model for two-ribbon flares (CSHKP model), are an advective flow of magnetized plasma into the reconnection region, expansion of field above the reconnection region as a flux rope erupts, retraction of heated post-reconnection loops, and downflows of cooling plasma along those loops. We report on a unique set of Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imaging and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopic observations of the disk flare SOL2016-03-23T03:54 in which all four flows are present simultaneously. This includes spectroscopic evidence for a plasma upflow in association with large-scale expanding closed inflow field. The reconnection inflows are symmetric, and consistent with fast reconnection, and the post-reconnection loops show a clear cooling and deceleration as they retract. Observations of coronal reconnection flows are still rare, and most events are observed at the solar limb, obscured by complex foregrounds, making their relationship to the flare ribbons, cusp field, and arcades formed in the lower atmosphere difficult to interpret. The disk location and favorable perspective of this event have removed these ambiguities giving a clear picture of the reconnection dynamics.

  11. Observations of Reconnection Flows in a Flare on the Solar Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Jeffrey, N. L. S.; Fletcher, L.; Wright, P. J.; Hannah, I. G., E-mail: j.wang.4@research.gla.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-20

    Magnetic reconnection is a well-accepted part of the theory of solar eruptive events, though the evidence is still circumstantial. Intrinsic to the reconnection picture of a solar eruptive event, particularly in the standard model for two-ribbon flares (CSHKP model), are an advective flow of magnetized plasma into the reconnection region, expansion of field above the reconnection region as a flux rope erupts, retraction of heated post-reconnection loops, and downflows of cooling plasma along those loops. We report on a unique set of Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly imaging and Hinode /EUV Imaging Spectrometer spectroscopic observations of the disk flare SOL2016-03-23T03:54 in which all four flows are present simultaneously. This includes spectroscopic evidence for a plasma upflow in association with large-scale expanding closed inflow field. The reconnection inflows are symmetric, and consistent with fast reconnection, and the post-reconnection loops show a clear cooling and deceleration as they retract. Observations of coronal reconnection flows are still rare, and most events are observed at the solar limb, obscured by complex foregrounds, making their relationship to the flare ribbons, cusp field, and arcades formed in the lower atmosphere difficult to interpret. The disk location and favorable perspective of this event have removed these ambiguities giving a clear picture of the reconnection dynamics.

  12. FINE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF COUNTER-STREAMING MASS FLOWS IN A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends

  13. Numerical study on coolant flow distribution at the core inlet for an integral pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lin; Peng, Min Jun; Xia, Genglei; Lv, Xing; Li, Ren [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2017-02-15

    When an integral pressurized water reactor is operated under low power conditions, once-through steam generator group operation strategy is applied. However, group operation strategy will cause nonuniform coolant flow distribution at the core inlet and lower plenum. To help coolant flow mix more uniformly, a flow mixing chamber (FMC) has been designed. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics methods have been used to investigate the coolant distribution by the effect of FMC. Velocity and temperature characteristics under different low power conditions and optimized FMC configuration have been analyzed. The results illustrate that the FMC can help improve the nonuniform coolant temperature distribution at the core inlet effectively; at the same time, the FMC will induce more resistance in the downcomer and lower plenum.

  14. Jet flow analysis of liquid poison injection in a CANDU reactor using source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2001-01-01

    For the performance analysis of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor shutdown system number 2 (SDS2), a computational fluid dynamics model of poison jet flow has been developed to estimate the flow field and poison concentration formed inside the CANDU reactor calandria. As the ratio of calandria shell radius over injection nozzle hole diameter is so large (1055), it is impractical to develop a full-size model encompassing the whole calandria shell. In order to reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of one-pitch length segment of the shell was modeled using symmetric nature of the jet; and the injected jet was treated as a source term to avoid the modeling difficulty caused by the big difference of the hole sizes. For the analysis of an actual CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection, the grid structure was determined based on the results of two-dimensional real- and source-jet simulations. The maximum injection velocity of the liquid poison is 27.8 m/s and the mass fraction of the poison is 8000 ppm (mg/kg). The simulation results have shown well-established jet flow field. In general, the jet develops narrowly at first but stretches rapidly. Then, the flow recirculates a little in r-x plane, while it recirculates largely in r-θ plane. As the time goes on, the adjacent jets contact each other and form a wavy front such that the whole jet develops in a plate form. his study has shown that the source term model can be effectively used for the analysis of the poison injection and the simulation result of the CANDU reactor is consistent with the model currently being used for the safety analysis. In the future, it is strongly recommended to analyze the transient (from helium tank to injection nozzle hole) of the poison injection by applying Bernoulli equation with real boundary conditions

  15. Characteristics of a novel nanosecond DBD microplasma reactor for flow applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkholy, A.; Nijdam, S.; van Veldhuizen, E.; Dam, N.; van Oijen, J.; Ebert, U.; de Goey, L. Philip H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel microplasma flow reactor using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by repetitive nanosecond high-voltage pulses. Our DBD-based geometry can generate a non-thermal plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure and below in a regular pattern of micro-channels. This reactor can work continuously up to about 100 min in air, depending on the pulse repetition rate and operating pressure. We here present the geometry and main characteristics of the reactor. Pulse energies of 1.46 and 1.3 μJ per channel at atmospheric pressure and 50 mbar, respectively, have been determined by time-resolved measurements of current and voltage. Time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy measurements have been performed to calculate the relative species concentrations and temperatures (vibrational and rotational) of the discharge. The effects of the operating pressure and flow velocity on the discharge intensity have been investigated. In addition, the effective reduced electric field strength {(E/N)}eff} has been obtained from the intensity ratio of vibronic emission bands of molecular nitrogen at different operating pressures and different locations. The derived {(E/N)}eff} increases gradually from about 550 to 4600 Td when decreasing the pressure from 1 bar to 100 mbar. Below 100 mbar, further pressure reduction results in a significant increase in {(E/N)}eff} up to about 10000 Td at 50 mbar.

  16. Secondary organic aerosol from VOC mixtures in an oxidation flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Erik; Falk, John; Eriksson, Axel; Holst, Thomas; Brune, William H.; Kristensson, Adam; Roldin, Pontus; Svenningsson, Birgitta

    2017-07-01

    The atmospheric organic aerosol is a tremendously complex system in terms of chemical content. Models generally treat the mixtures as ideal, something which has been questioned owing to model-measurement discrepancies. We used an oxidation flow reactor to produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mixtures containing oxidation products of biogenic (α-pinene, myrcene and isoprene) and anthropogenic (m-xylene) volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The resulting volume concentration and chemical composition was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), respectively. The SOA mass yield of the mixtures was compared to a partitioning model constructed from single VOC experiments. The single VOC SOA mass yields with no wall-loss correction applied are comparable to previous experiments. In the mixtures containing myrcene a higher yield than expected was produced. We attribute this to an increased condensation sink, arising from myrcene producing a significantly higher number of nucleation particles compared to the other precursors. Isoprene did not produce much mass in single VOC experiments but contributed to the mass of the mixtures. The effect of high concentrations of isoprene on the OH exposure was found to be small, even at OH reactivities that previously have been reported to significantly suppress OH exposures in oxidation flow reactors. Furthermore, isoprene shifted the particle size distribution of mixtures towards larger sizes, which could be due to a change in oxidant dynamics inside the reactor.

  17. Calculation of gas-flow in plasma reactor for carbon partial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespala, Evgeny; Myshkin, Vyacheslav; Novoselov, Ivan; Pavliuk, Alexander; Makarevich, Semen; Bespala, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses isotopic effects at carbon oxidation in low temperature non-equilibrium plasma at constant magnetic field. There is described routine of experiment and defined optimal parameters ensuring maximum enrichment factor at given electrophysical, gas-dynamic, and thermodymanical parameters. It has been demonstrated that at high-frequency generator capacity of 4 kW, supply frequency of 27 MHz and field density of 44 mT the concentration of paramagnetic heavy nuclei 13C in gaseous phase increases up to 1.78 % compared to 1.11 % for natural concentration. Authors explain isotopic effect decrease during plasmachemical separation induced by mixing gas flows enriched in different isotopes at the lack of product quench. With the help of modeling the motion of gas flows inside the plasma-chemical reactor based on numerical calculation of Navier-Stokes equation authors determine zones of gas mixing and cooling speed. To increase isotopic effects and proportion of 13C in gaseous phase it has been proposed to use quench in the form of Laval nozzle of refractory steel. The article represents results on calculation of optimal Laval Nozzle parameters for plasma-chemical reactor of chosen geometry of. There are also given dependences of quench time of products on pressure at the diffuser output and on critical section diameter. Authors determine the location of quench inside the plasma-chemical reactor in the paper.

  18. A flow reactor setup for photochemistry of biphasic gas/liquid reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Schachtner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A home-built microreactor system for light-mediated biphasic gas/liquid reactions was assembled from simple commercial components. This paper describes in full detail the nature and function of the required building elements, the assembly of parts, and the tuning and interdependencies of the most important reactor and reaction parameters. Unlike many commercial thin-film and microchannel reactors, the described set-up operates residence times of up to 30 min which cover the typical rates of many organic reactions. The tubular microreactor was successfully applied to the photooxygenation of hydrocarbons (Schenck ene reaction. Major emphasis was laid on the realization of a constant and highly reproducible gas/liquid slug flow and the effective illumination by an appropriate light source. The optimized set of conditions enabled the shortening of reaction times by more than 99% with equal chemoselectivities. The modular home-made flow reactor can serve as a prototype model for the continuous operation of various other reactions at light/liquid/gas interfaces in student, research, and industrial laboratories.

  19. Partial nitrification using aerobic granules in continuous-flow reactor: rapid startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunli; Sun, Supu; Lee, Duu-Jong; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Li; Yang, Xue; Pan, Xiangliang

    2013-08-01

    This study applied a novel strategy to rapid startup of partial nitrification in continuous-flow reactor using aerobic granules. Mature aerobic granules were first cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor at high chemical oxygen demand in 16 days. The strains including the Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana strain were enriched in cultivated granules to enhance their structural stability. Then the cultivated granules were incubated in a continuous-flow reactor with influent chemical oxygen deamnad being stepped decreased from 1,500 ± 100 (0-19 days) to 750 ± 50 (20-30 days), and then to 350 ± 50 mg l(-1) (31-50 days); while in the final stage 350 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was also supplied. Using this strategy the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was enriched in the incubated granules to achieve partial nitrification efficiency of 85-90% since 36 days and onwards. The partial nitrification granules were successfully harvested after 52 days, a period much shorter than those reported in literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Finite element analysis of turbulent flow in fast reactor fuel subassembly elementary flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, P.

    1987-03-01

    The method is described of calculating fully developed longitudinal steady-state turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid through an infinite bundle of parallel smooth rods, based on the finite element method and one-equation turbulence model. Theoretical calculation results are compared with experimental results. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  1. Phenylboronic acid immunoaffinity reactor coupled with flow injection chemiluminescence for determination of {alpha}-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yafeng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Biomaterials and Biodevices, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zhuang Yafeng [Department of Chemistry, Changzhou Institute of Technology, Changzhou 213022 (China); Liu Songqin [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Biomaterials and Biodevices, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)], E-mail: liusq@seu.edu.cn; He Lin [Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8204 (United States)

    2008-12-23

    A reusable and sensitive immunoassay based on phenylboronic acid immunoaffinity reactor in combination with flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) for determination of glycoprotein was described. The reactor was fabricated by immobilizing 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) on glass microbeads with {gamma}-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPMS) as linkage. The {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) could be easily immobilized on the APBA coated beads through sugar-boronic interaction. After an off-line incubation, the mixture of the analyte AFP with horseradish peroxidase-labeled AFP antibody (HRP-anti-AFP) was injected into the reactor. This led the trapping of free HRP-anti-AFP by the surface coated AFP on glass beads. The trapped HRP-anti-AFP was detected by chemiluminescence due to its sensitizing effect on the reaction of luminol and hydrogen peroxide. Under optimal conditions, the chemiluminescent signal was proportional to AFP concentration in the range of 10-100 ng mL{sup -1}. The whole assay process including regeneration of the reactor could be completed within 31 min. The proposed system showed acceptable detection and fabrication reproducibility, and the results obtained with the present method were in acceptable agreement with those from parallel single-analyte test of practical clinical sera. The described method enabled a low-cost, time saving and was potential to detect the serum AFP level in clinical diagnosis.

  2. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency

  3. Two-component HLMC-gas flow instability and inhomogeneity phenomena in open-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergey I Shcherbakov

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Consideration is being given to two-component gas-liquid flows with inhomogeneous gas content. The inhomogeneity of gas content over flow space can be caused by local mixing of gas and liquid, gas injection, gas-containing liquid jet penetration into the bulk of liquid without gas. The paper presents the computational results obtained using the direct non-stationary calculation with the TURBO-FLOW computer code. The results refer to flows near the liquid level, flows in downcomer gaps, collectors, elements with varying geometry (jet outlet into space, flow turn) for the pool-type reactors and experimental models. The following processes have been shown and discussed: formation of new liquid levels, entrainment of gas from the level, change in density composition of gas, flow stratification, effect of gas emergence rate and density convection on flow pattern. At gas phase transfer by liquid, two phenomena governing this transfer proceed: gas slip in liquid and density convection of non-uniformly aerated liquid. In horizontal flows, a vertical stratification of gas content always occurs. If the flow changes its direction to an upward one (collector at core inlet), the gas content maximum would be observed in channels nearest to the inlet. At the liquid level, the processes of gas separation from liquid and gas entrainment take place. The separation is a self-sustained process due to circulations arising near the level. The rate of gas entrainment is proportional to the rate of overflow and inversely proportional to the height of liquid level. At the downcomer region in case of its expansion, there occurs the instability of flow resulting in formation of liquid level and falling jet. The level is lower the more the gas content at inlet. The accumulation of gas occurs at sharp turns, encumbered regions (tube bundle), at all regions with upper (ceiling) constraints of flow. The flow instability being often observed in gas-liquid flows

  4. CFD flow pattern analysis on primaryside of IHX for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahito; Mochizuki, Hiroyasu

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the CFD analysis on the primary-side of an intermediate heat exchange (IHX) which has the similar configurations as the IHX for the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The IHX is precisely modeled based on the discussion about meshing system. The present model is used for the heat transfer analysis under low-flowrate and natural circulation conditions. The IHX is a shell-and-tube type and counter-flow heat exchanger which has more than 3000 heat transfer tubes on the secondary side. Therefore, the flow pattern on the primary side gets complex. Measurement of flow pattern and temperature distribution on the primary-side of the real IHX are almost impossible. Since the heat transfer tubes of approximately 5 m in length are fixed at 7 plates with many flow holes and placed on the 23 circles with an appropriate lattice pitch, the number of meshes becomes enormous size. In order to overcome these problems, a separate model is discussed. In the present study, two models are discussed. The first one is a precise full-sector model with one flow entrance, 6 windows on the primary-side. The flow distributions are calculated changing inlet flow rate from 100% to 0.1% which is equivalent to 10 6 to 10 3 in the Reynolds numbers. The other model is a sector model with 8 chamber separated by 7 flow-rectifying plats. Pressure losses at each plate and chamber are calculated using this model. As a result of the analysis, since there is only a small flow deviation between the flow from the 6 windows under turbulent flow and laminar flow conditions, the sector model with one window is possible model in the calculation. The small radial velocity gradient is calculated from 23rd layer (outer heat transfer tube) to 10th layer. The distribution is not dependent on the flow rate. Axial flow distributions through the rectifying plates are unified from the entrance to the down-stream. The sector model is applicable to calculate the primary-side flow distributions

  5. Evaluation method for core thermohydraulics during natural circulation in fast reactors numerical predictions of inter-wrapper flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, H.; Kimura, N.; Miyakoshi, H.; Nagasawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    Decay heat removal using natural circulation is one of the important functions for the safety of fast reactors. As a decay heat removal system, direct reactor auxiliary cooling system has been selected in current designs of fast reactors. In this design, dumped heat exchanger provides cold sodium and it covers the reactor core outlet. The cold sodium can penetrate into the gap region between the subassemblies. This gap flow is referred as inter-wrapper flow (IWF). A numerical estimation method for such natural circulation phenomena in a reactor core has been developed, which models each subassembly as a rectangular duct with gap region between the subassemblies and also the upper plenum in a reactor vessel. This numerical simulation method was verified based on experimental data of a sodium test using 7- subassembly core model and also a water test which simulates IWF using the 1/12 sector model of a reactor core. We applied the estimation method to the natural circulation in a 600 MW class fast reactor. The temperature in the core strongly depended on IWF, flow redistribution in the core, and inter-subassembly heat transfer. It is desired for prediction methods on the natural circulation to simulate these phenomena. (author)

  6. Photocatalytic degradation of aniline using an autonomous rotating drum reactor with both solar and UV-C artificial radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; San Martín, I; Merino, S

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a novel self-autonomous reactor technology (capable of working with solar irradiation and artificial UV light) for water treatment using aniline as model compound. This new reactor design overcomes the problems of the external mass transfer effect and the accessibility to photons occurring in traditional reaction systems. The UV-light source is located inside the rotating quartz drums (where TiO 2 is immobilized), allowing light to easily reach the water and the TiO 2 surface. Several processes (UV, H 2 O 2 , Solar, TiO 2 , Solar/TiO 2 , Solar/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 and UV/Solar/H 2 O 2 /TiO 2 ) were tested. The synergy between Solar/H 2 O 2 and Solar/TiO 2 processes was quantified to be 40.3% using the pseudo-first-order degradation rate. The apparent photonic efficiency, ζ, was also determined for evaluating light utilization. For the Solar/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 process, the efficiency was found to be practically constant (0.638-0.681%) when the film thickness is in the range of 1.67-3.87 μm. However, the efficiency increases up to 2.67% when artificial UV light was used in combination, confirming the efficient design of this installation. Thus, if needed, lamps can be switched on during cloudy days to improve the degradation rate of aniline and its mineralization. Under the optimal conditions selected for the Solar/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 process ([H 2 O 2 ] = 250 mg/L; pH = 4, [TiO 2 ] = 0.65-1.25 mg/cm 2 ), 89.6% of aniline is degraded in 120 min. If the lamps are switched on, aniline is completely degraded in 10 min, reaching 85% of mineralization in 120 min. TiO 2 was re-used during 5 reaction cycles without apparent loss in activity (Solar/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 process was found to have lower operation costs than other systems described in literature (0.67 €/m 3 ). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of an ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement system for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.W.; Lubnow, T.; Baumgart, G.; Ravetti, D.

    1996-01-01

    In U.S. nuclear plants, primary coolant flow and reactor thermal power are calculated from a measurement of feedwater flow to the steam generator combined with knowledge of steam generator heat transfer characteristics nd measurement of hot leg temperature by resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The calculation of plant thermal output is complicated by an indirect measurement of primary coolant mass flow rate and thermal streaming in the region where hot leg temperature is typically measured. Uncertainty in the thermal output calculation results from uncertainties in steam generator characteristics, in the hot leg temperature due to thermal streaming, and in fouling of venturi nozzles used for feedwater flow measurement. This in turn leads to operation of power plants ar lower levels of efficiency. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has on ongoing project to develop a prototype system to directly measure primary coolant flow rate and bulk average temperature using ultrasonic transducers externally mounted on the pipe. The topic of this paper is a summary of the project experience in developing this system. The technology being developed in this project is based in part upon previously existing ultrasonic feedwater flow measurement technology developed by MPR Associates and Caldon, Inc EPRI is a non-profit company performing research for U.S. and international electric power utilities. (authors)

  8. Effect of bed configuration on pebble flow uniformity and stagnation in the pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan; Tu, Jiyuan; Jiang, Shengyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for HTR-PM. • Arc- and brachistochrone-shaped configuration effects are studied by DEM simulation. • Best bed configurations with uniform flow and no stagnated pebbles are suggested. • Detailed quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects are shown for explanation. - Abstract: Pebble flow uniformity and stagnation characteristics are very important for the design of pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor. Pebble flows inside some specifically designed contraction configurations of pebble bed are studied by discrete element method. The results show the characteristics of stagnation rates, recycling rates, radial distribution of pebble velocity and residence time. It is demonstrated clearly that the bed with a brachistochrone-shaped configuration achieves optimum levels of flow uniformity and recycling rate concentration, and almost no pebbles are stagnated in the bed. Moreover, the optimum choice among the arc-shaped bed configurations is demonstrated too. Detailed information shows the quantified characteristics of bed configuration effects on flow uniformity. In addition, a good design of the pebble bed configuration is suggested

  9. Expanding and Contracting Coronal Loops as Evidence of Vortex Flows Induced by Solar Eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Zuccarello, F. P.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P., E-mail: jaroslav.dudik@asu.cas.cz [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Psl Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2017-07-20

    Eruptive solar flares were predicted to generate large-scale vortex flows at both sides of the erupting magnetic flux rope. This process is analogous to a well-known hydrodynamic process creating vortex rings. The vortices lead to advection of closed coronal loops located at the peripheries of the flaring active region. Outward flows are expected in the upper part and returning flows in the lower part of the vortex. Here, we examine two eruptive solar flares, the X1.1-class flare SOL2012-03-05T03:20 and the C3.5-class SOL2013-06-19T07:29. In both flares, we find that the coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in its 171 Å, 193 Å, or 211 Å passbands show coexistence of expanding and contracting motions, in accordance with the model prediction. In the X-class flare, multiple expanding and contracting loops coexist for more than 35 minutes, while in the C-class flare, an expanding loop in 193 Å appears to be close by and cotemporal with an apparently imploding loop arcade seen in 171 Å. Later, the 193 Å loop also switches to contraction. These observations are naturally explained by vortex flows present in a model of eruptive solar flares.

  10. SOLAR WAVE-FIELD SIMULATION FOR TESTING PROSPECTS OF HELIOSEISMIC MEASUREMENTS OF DEEP MERIDIONAL FLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartlep, T.; Zhao, J.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.

    2013-01-01

    The meridional flow in the Sun is an axisymmetric flow that is generally directed poleward at the surface, and is presumed to be of fundamental importance in the generation and transport of magnetic fields. Its true shape and strength, however, are debated. We present a numerical simulation of helioseismic wave propagation in the whole solar interior in the presence of a prescribed, stationary, single-cell, deep meridional circulation serving as synthetic data for helioseismic measurement techniques. A deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology technique is applied to the synthetic data, showing that it can in fact be used to measure the effects of the meridional flow very deep in the solar convection zone. It is shown that the ray approximation that is commonly used for interpretation of helioseismology measurements remains a reasonable approximation even for very long distances between 12° and 42° corresponding to depths between 52 and 195 Mm. From the measurement noise, we extrapolate that time-resolved observations on the order of a full solar cycle may be needed to probe the flow all the way to the base of the convection zone.

  11. Nitrite accumulation in continuous-flow partial autotrophic denitrification reactor using sulfide as electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunshuang; Li, Wenfei; Li, Xuechen; Zhao, Dongfeng; Ma, Bin; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Fang; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-11-01

    The nitrite accumulation in handling nitrate and sulfide-laden wastewater in a continuous-flow upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was studied. At sulfide/nitrate-nitrogen ratio of 1:0.76 and loading rates of 1.2kg-Sm -3 d -1 and 0.4kg-Nm -3 d -1 , the elemental sulfur and nitrite accumulation rates peaked at 90% and 70%, respectively, with Acrobacter, Azoarcus and Thauera presenting the functional strains in the studied reactor. The accumulated nitrite was proposed a promising feedstock for anaerobic ammonia oxidation process. An integrated partial autotrophic denitrification-anaerobic ammonia oxidation-aeration process for handling the ammonia and sulfide-laden wastewaters is proposed for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct In Situ Quantification of HO2 from a Flow Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, Brian; Sun, Wenting; Ju, Yiguang; Wysocki, Gerard

    2013-03-21

    The first direct in situ measurements of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) at atmospheric pressure from the exit of a laminar flow reactor have been carried out using mid-infrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy. HO2 was generated by oxidation of dimethyl ether, a potential renewable biofuel with a simple molecular structure but rich low-temperature oxidation chemistry. On the basis of the results of nonlinear fitting of the experimental data to a theoretical spectroscopic model, the technique offers an estimated sensitivity of reactor exit temperature range of 398-673 K. Accurate in situ measurement of this species will aid in quantitative modeling of low-temperature and high-pressure combustion kinetics.

  13. Nonequilibrium chemical instabilities in continuous flow stirred tank reactors: The effect of stirring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsthemke, W.; Hannon, L.

    1984-01-01

    We present a stochastic model for stirred chemical reactors. In the limiting case of practical interest, i.e., fast stirring, we solve for the characteristic function in steady state and derive expressions for the stationary moments through a perturbation expansion. Moments are explicitly calculated for a generic model of bistable behavior. We find that stirring decreases the area of the bistable region essentially by changing the point of transition from the high reaction rate state to the low reaction rate state. This is in remarkable agreement with the experimental findings of Roux, et al. Our results indicate that stirring should not be considered simply as an ''enhanced diffusion'' process and that nucleation plays only a minor role in transitions between multiple steady states in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

  14. Hydrodynamic modelling of flow patterns in a vortex reactor - Application to the mixing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppe, B.; Lebaigue, O.; Ducros, F.; Bertrand, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the fuel reprocessing industry, an un-baffled magnetic rod-stirred multiphase reactor was developed for a precipitation operation. The flow generated in such a reactor is complex and the rotating agitator at the bottom of tank creates a vortex on the liquid surface. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is developed based on a Large Eddy Scale (LES) approach for turbulence effect simulation. The numerical simulations are performed in 3-dimensions using the Trio-U code developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Cea). The vortex study is based on an interface tracking method and the rotating magnetic rod is taken into account through a free IBC immersed boundary. The hydrodynamic modelling is in good agreement with Nagata's theory and will be validated from experimental data obtained by laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements. (authors)

  15. Package Flow Model and its fuzzy implementation for simulating nuclear reactor system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Misako.

    1996-01-01

    A simple intuitive simulation model, which we call 'Package Flow Model', has been developed to evaluate physical processes in nuclear reactor system from a macroscopic point of view. In the previous paper, we showed the physical process of each energy generation and transfer stage in a PWR could be modeled by PFM, and its dynamics could be approximately simulated by fuzzy implementation. In this paper, a PFMs network approach for a total PWR system simulation is proposed and some transients of nuclear ship 'MUTSU' reactor system are evaluated. The simulated results are consistent with those from Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System developed by JAERI. Furthermore, a visual representation method is proposed to intuitively capture the profile of fuel safety transient. Using the PFMs network, we can handily calculate the transient phenomena of the system even by a notebook-type personal computer. In addition, we can easily interpret the results of calculation surveying a small number of parameters. (author)

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Effect of water and air flow on concentric tubular solar water desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Jayaprakash, R.; Ahsan, Amimul; Denkenberger, D.; Okundamiya, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. ► We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. ► The effect of cooling air and water flowing over the cover was studied. -- Abstract: This work reports an innovative design of tubular solar still with a rectangular basin for water desalination with flowing water and air over the cover. The daily distillate output of the system is increased by lowering the temperature of water flowing over it (top cover cooling arrangement). The fresh water production performance of this new still is observed in Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (11° North, 77° East), India. The water production rate with no cooling flow was 2050 ml/day (410 ml/trough). However, with cooling air flow, production increased to 3050 ml/day, and with cooling water flow, it further increased to 5000 ml/day. Despite the increased cost of the water cooling system, the increased output resulted in the cost of distilled water being cut in roughly half. Diurnal variations of a few important parameters are observed during field experiments such as water temperature, cover temperature, air temperature, ambient temperature and distillate output.

  18. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  19. Bioremoval of trivalent chromium using Bacillus biofilms through continuous flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, K.; Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effective bioremoval of Cr(III) using bacterial biofilms. ► Simplified bioreactor was fabricated for the biofilm development and Cr(III) removal. ► Economically feasible substrate like coarse sand and pebbles were used. - Abstract: Present study deals with the applicability of bacterial biofilms for the bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A continuous flow reactor was designed for the development of biofilms on different substrates like glass beads, pebbles and coarse sand. The parameters for the continuous flow reactor were 20 ml/min flow rate at 30 °C, pH4. Biofilm biomass on the substrates was in the following sequence: coarse sand > pebbles > glass beads (4.8 × 10 7 , 4.5 × 10 7 and 3.5 × 10 5 CFU/cm 2 ), which was confirmed by CLSM. Biofilms developed using consortium of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on coarse sand had more surface area and was able to remove 98% of Cr(III), SEM-EDX proved 92.60% Cr(III) adsorption on biofilms supported by coarse sand. Utilization of Bacillus biofilms for effective bioremoval of Cr(III) from chrome tanning effluent could be a better option for tannery industry, especially during post chrome tanning operation.

  20. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvasta, M. G.; Kolemen, E.; Fisher, A. E.; Ji, H.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-facing components (PFC’s) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC’s, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC’s can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. These results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC’s and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.

  1. Analyses of fluid flow and heat transfer inside calandria vessel of CANDU-6 reactor using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Kim, Man Woong; Kim, Hho Jung

    2005-01-01

    In a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor, fuel channel integrity depends on the coolability of the moderator as an ultimate heat sink under transient conditions such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with coincident Loss Of Emergency Core Cooling (LOECC). as well as normal operating conditions. This study presents assessments of moderator thermal-hydraulic characteristics in the normal operating conditions and one transient condition for CANDU-6 reactors, using a general purpose three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code. First, an optimized calculation scheme is obtained by many-sided comparisons of the predicted results with the related experimental data, and by evaluating the fluid flow and temperature distributions. Then, using the optimized scheme, analyses of real CANDU-6 in normal operating conditions and the transition condition have been performed. The present model successfully predicted the experimental results and also reasonably assessed the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a real CANDU-6 with 380 fuel channels. A flow regime map with major parameters representing the flow pattern inside a calandria vessel has also proposed to be used as operational and/or regulatory guidelines

  2. Bioremoval of trivalent chromium using Bacillus biofilms through continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundar, K.; Sadiq, I. Mohammed; Mukherjee, Amitava [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India); Chandrasekaran, N., E-mail: nchandrasekaran@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, Nano Bio-Medicine Laboratory School of Bio Sciences and Technology VIT University, Vellore - 632014 (India)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective bioremoval of Cr(III) using bacterial biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simplified bioreactor was fabricated for the biofilm development and Cr(III) removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Economically feasible substrate like coarse sand and pebbles were used. - Abstract: Present study deals with the applicability of bacterial biofilms for the bioremoval of trivalent chromium from tannery effluents. A continuous flow reactor was designed for the development of biofilms on different substrates like glass beads, pebbles and coarse sand. The parameters for the continuous flow reactor were 20 ml/min flow rate at 30 Degree-Sign C, pH4. Biofilm biomass on the substrates was in the following sequence: coarse sand > pebbles > glass beads (4.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}, 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} and 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} CFU/cm{sup 2}), which was confirmed by CLSM. Biofilms developed using consortium of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus on coarse sand had more surface area and was able to remove 98% of Cr(III), SEM-EDX proved 92.60% Cr(III) adsorption on biofilms supported by coarse sand. Utilization of Bacillus biofilms for effective bioremoval of Cr(III) from chrome tanning effluent could be a better option for tannery industry, especially during post chrome tanning operation.

  3. UV reactor flow visualization and mixing quantification using three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Varun; Roberts, Philip J W; Stoesser, Thorsten; Wright, Harold; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2011-07-01

    Three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF) was applied to visualize and quantitatively analyze mixing in a lab-scale UV reactor consisting of one lamp sleeve placed perpendicular to flow. The recirculation zone and the von Karman vortex shedding that commonly occur in flows around bluff bodies were successfully visualized. Multiple flow paths were analyzed by injecting the dye at various heights with respect to the lamp sleeve. A major difference in these pathways was the amount of dye that traveled close to the sleeve, i.e., a zone of higher residence time and higher UV exposure. Paths away from the center height had higher velocities and hence minimal influence by the presence of sleeve. Approach length was also characterized in order to increase the probability of microbes entering the region around the UV lamp. The 3DLIF technique developed in this study is expected to provide new insight on UV dose delivery useful for the design and optimization of UV reactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On natural circulation in High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors and pebble bed reactors for different flow regimes and various coolant gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melesed'Hospital, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of CO 2 or N 2 (heavy gas) instead of helium during natural circulation leads to improved performance in both High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and in Pebble Bed Reactors (PBR). For instance, the coolant temperature rise corresponding to a coolant pressure level and a rate of afterheat removal could be only 18% with CO 2 as compared to He, for laminar flow in HTGR; this value would be 40% in PBR. There is less difference between HTGR and PBR for turbulent flows; CO 2 is found to be always better than N 2 . These types of results derived from relationships between coolant properties, coolant flow, temperature rise, pressure, afterheat levels and core geometry, are obtained for HTGR and PBR for various flow regimes, both within the core and in the primary loop

  5. Titer plate formatted continuous flow thermal reactors for high throughput applications: fabrication and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Chen, Pin-Chuan; You, Byoung Hee; Kim, Namwon; Park, Taehyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Soper, Steven A; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E; Murphy, Michael C; Datta, Proyag; Desta, Yohannes

    2010-01-01

    A high throughput, multi-well (96) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) platform, based on a continuous flow (CF) mode of operation, was developed. Each CFPCR device was confined to a footprint of 8 × 8 mm 2 , matching the footprint of a well on a standard micro-titer plate. While several CFPCR devices have been demonstrated, this is the first example of a high-throughput multi-well continuous flow thermal reactor configuration. Verification of the feasibility of the multi-well CFPCR device was carried out at each stage of development from manufacturing to demonstrating sample amplification. The multi-well CFPCR devices were fabricated by micro-replication in polymers, polycarbonate to accommodate the peak temperatures during thermal cycling in this case, using double-sided hot embossing. One side of the substrate contained the thermal reactors and the opposite side was patterned with structures to enhance thermal isolation of the closely packed constant temperature zones. A 99 bp target from a λ-DNA template was successfully amplified in a prototype multi-well CFPCR device with a total reaction time as low as ∼5 min at a flow velocity of 3 mm s −1 (15.3 s cycle −1 ) and a relatively low amplification efficiency compared to a bench-top thermal cycler for a 20-cycle device; reducing the flow velocity to 1 mm s −1 (46.2 s cycle −1 ) gave a seven-fold improvement in amplification efficiency. Amplification efficiencies increased at all flow velocities for 25-cycle devices with the same configuration.

  6. Effect of coolant flow rate on the power at onset of nucleate boiling in a swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of flow rate of coolant on power of Onset Nucleate Boiling (ONB) in a reference core of a swimming pool type research reactor has been studied using a as standard computer code PARET. It has been found that the decrease in the coolant flow rate results in a corresponding decrease in power at ONB. (author)

  7. 75 FR 8412 - Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0047] Office of New Reactors: Interim Staff Guidance on Assessing Ground Water Flow and Transport of Accidental Radionuclide Releases; Solicitation of Public... ground water flow and transport of accidental radionuclide releases necessary to demonstrate compliance...

  8. Flow electrochemical biosensors based on enzymatic porous reactor and tubular detector of silver solid amalgam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josypčuk, Bohdan, E-mail: josypcuk@jh-inst.cas.cz [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Barek, Jiří [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Josypčuk, Oksana [J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of AS CR, v.v.i., Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Dolejskova 3, Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, University Center of Excellence UNCE “Supramolecular Chemistry”, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UNESCO Laboratory of Environmental Electrochemistry, Albertov 6, CZ-128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor was constructed. •The biosensor is based on a reactor of a novel material – porous silver solid amalgam. •Tubular amalgam detector was used for determination of decrease of O{sub 2} concentration. •Covalent bonds amalgam−thiol−enzyme contributed to the sensor long-term stability. •LOD of glucose was 0.01 mmol L{sup −1} with RSD = 1.3% (n = 11). -- Abstract: A flow amperometric enzymatic biosensor for the determination of glucose was constructed. The biosensor consists of a flow reactor based on porous silver solid amalgam (AgSA) and a flow tubular detector based on compact AgSA. The preparation of the sensor and the determination of glucose occurred in three steps. First, a self-assembled monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) was formed at the porous surface of the reactor. Second, enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized at MUA-layer using N-ethyl-N′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. Finally, a decrease of oxygen concentration (directly proportional to the concentration of glucose) during enzymatic reaction was amperometrically measured on the tubular detector under flow injection conditions. The following parameters of glucose determination were optimized with respect to amperometric response: composition of the mobile phase, its concentration, the potential of detection and the flow rate. The calibration curve of glucose was linear in the concentration range of 0.02–0.80 mmol L{sup −1} with detection limit of 0.01 mmol L{sup −1}. The content of glucose in the sample of honey was determined as 35.5 ± 1.0 mass % (number of the repeated measurements n = 7; standard deviation SD = 1.2%; relative standard deviation RSD = 3.2%) which corresponds well with the declared values. The tested biosensor proved good long-term stability (77% of the current response of glucose was retained after 35 days)

  9. Computational and Experimental Investigations of the Coolant Flow in the Cassette Fissile Core of a KLT-40S Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. M.; Varentsov, A. V.; Dobrov, A. A.; Doronkov, D. V.; Pronin, A. N.; Sorokin, V. D.; Khrobostov, A. E.

    2017-07-01

    Results of experimental investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of a coolant flowing through the cells in the characteristic zones of a fuel assembly of a KLT-40S reactor plant downstream of a plate-type spacer grid by the method of diffusion of a gas tracer in the coolant flow with measurement of its velocity by a five-channel pneumometric probe are presented. An analysis of the concentration distribution of the tracer in the coolant flow downstream of a plate-type spacer grid in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant and its velocity field made it possible to obtain a detailed pattern of this flow and to determine its main mechanisms and features. Results of measurement of the hydraulic-resistance coefficient of a plate-type spacer grid depending on the Reynolds number are presented. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, recommendations for improvement of the method of calculating the flow rate of a coolant in the cells of the fissile core of a KLT-40S reactor were developed. The results of investigations of the local hydrodynamic and mass-exchange characteristics of the coolant flow in the fuel assembly of the KLT-40S reactor plant were accepted for estimating the thermal and technical reliability of the fissile cores of KLT-40S reactors and were included in the database for verification of computational hydrodynamics programs (CFD codes).

  10. Flow chemistry: intelligent processing of gas-liquid transformations using a tube-in-tube reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, Martin; O'Brien, Matthew; Ley, Steven V; Polyzos, Anastasios

    2015-02-17

    reactive gas in a given reaction mixture. We have developed a tube-in-tube reactor device consisting of a pair of concentric capillaries in which pressurized gas permeates through an inner Teflon AF-2400 tube and reacts with dissolved substrate within a liquid phase that flows within a second gas impermeable tube. This Account examines our efforts toward the development of a simple, unified methodology for the processing of gaseous reagents in flow by way of development of a tube-in-tube reactor device and applications to key C-C, C-N, and C-O bond forming and hydrogenation reactions. We further describe the application to multistep reactions using solid-supported reagents and extend the technology to processes utilizing multiple gas reagents. A key feature of our work is the development of computer-aided imaging techniques to allow automated in-line monitoring of gas concentration and stoichiometry in real time. We anticipate that this Account will illustrate the convenience and benefits of membrane tube-in-tube reactor technology to improve and concomitantly broaden the scope of gas/liquid/solid reactions in organic synthesis.

  11. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaji, Masahiro [City College of New York, NY (United States); Valentin, Francisco I. [City College of New York, NY (United States); Artoun, Narbeh [City College of New York, NY (United States); Banerjee, Sanjoy [City College of New York, NY (United States); Sohal, Manohar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McEligot, Donald M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

  12. Ultrasonic density detector for vessel and reactor core two-phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arave, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    A local ultrasonic density (LUD) detector has been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor vessel and core two-phase flow density measurements. The principle of operating the sensor is the change in propagation time of a torsional ultrasonic wave in a metal transmission line as a function of the density of the surrounding media. A theoretical physics model is presented which represents the total propagation time as a function of the sensor modulus of elasticity and polar moment of inertia

  13. Investigation of Abnormal Heat Transfer and Flow in a VHTR Reactor Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaji, Masahiro; Valentin, Francisco I.; Artoun, Narbeh; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Sohal, Manohar; Schultz, Richard; McEligot, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to identify and characterize the conditions under which abnormal heat transfer phenomena would occur in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a prismatic core. High pressure/high temperature experiments have been conducted to obtain data that could be used for validation of VHTR design and safety analysis codes. The focus of these experiments was on the generation of benchmark data for design and off-design heat transfer for forced, mixed and natural circulation in a VHTR core. In particular, a flow laminarization phenomenon was intensely investigated since it could give rise to hot spots in the VHTR core.

  14. Cadmium removal using Cladophora in batch, semi-batch and flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

  15. Flow patterns in a slurry-bubble-column reactor under reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toselane, B.A.; Brown, D.M.; Zou, B.S.; Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The gas and liquid radioactive tracer response curves obtained in an industrial bubble column reactor of height to diameter ratio of 10 are analyzed and the suitability of the axial dispersion model for interpretation of the results is discussed. The relationship between the tracer concentration distribution and measured detector response of the soluble gas tracer (Ar-41) is possibly dominated by the dissolved gas. The one dimensional axial dispersion model cannot match all the experimental observations well and the flow pattern of the undissolved gas cannot be determined with certainty.

  16. Flow measurements in the core of the FRJ-2 research reactor after the installation of flow regulators in the locating bushes in the grid and investigation of the consequences for the safety of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, J.P.

    1975-04-01

    Early in June, 1974, radial flow regulators were installed in the locating bushes in the grid of the FRJ-2 reactor in order to reduce the flow irregularities in certain positions and thus to mobilize additional safety reserves. The success of these measures was tested by flow measurements in all 25 fuel element positions. The results are presented in this paper, their consequences for safety engineering are analyzed, and a flexible inlet temperature is proposed. (orig./AK) [de

  17. Convex relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Distribution Feeders with embedded solar power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Alexander Niels August; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in using Distributed Energy Resources (DER) directly coupled to end user distribution feeders. This poses an array of challenges because most of today’s distribution feeders are designed for unidirectional power flow. Therefore when installing DERs such as solar...... panels with uncontrolled inverters, the upper limit of installable capacity is quickly reached in many of today’s distribution feeders. This problem can often be mitigated by optimally controlling the voltage angles of inverters. However, the optimal power flow problem in its standard form is a large...... scale non-convex optimization problem, and thus can’t be solved precisely and also is computationally heavy and intractable for large systems. This paper examines the use of a convex relaxation using Semi-definite programming to optimally control solar power inverters in a distribution grid in order...

  18. Evaluation of the solar water disinfection process (SODIS) against Cryptosporidium parvum using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Sainz, María; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2012-02-01

    Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P 10 times).

  19. Blob formation and acceleration in the solar wind: role of converging flows and viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lapenta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity and of converging flows on the formation of blobs in the slow solar wind is analysed by means of resistive MHD simulations. The regions above coronal streamers where blobs are formed (Sheeley et al., 1997 are simulated using a model previously proposed by Einaudi et al. (1999. The result of our investigation is two-fold. First, we demonstrate a new mechanism for enhanced momentum transfer between a forming blob and the fast solar wind surrounding it. The effect is caused by the longer range of the electric field caused by the tearing instability forming the blob. The electric field reaches into the fast solar wind and interacts with it, causing a viscous drag that is global in nature rather than local across fluid layers as it is the case in normal uncharged fluids (like water. Second, the presence of a magnetic cusp at the tip of a coronal helmet streamer causes a converging of the flows on the two sides of the streamer and a direct push of the forming island by the fast solar wind, resulting in a more efficient momentum exchange.

  20. Photocatalytic mineralization of commercial herbicides in a pilot-scale solar CPC reactor: photoreactor modeling and reaction kinetics constants independent of radiation field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina-Márquez, Jose; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-12-01

    The six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM) of the radiation field in the photoreactor, combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models, has proved to be suitable to describe the degradation of water pollutants in heterogeneous photocatalytic reactors, combining simplicity and accuracy. In this study, the above approach was extended to model the photocatalytic mineralization of a commercial herbicides mixture (2,4-D, diuron, and ametryne used in Colombian sugar cane crops) in a solar, pilot-scale, compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using a slurry suspension of TiO(2). The ray-tracing technique was used jointly with the SFM to determine the direction of both the direct and diffuse solar photon fluxes and the spatial profile of the local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the CPC reactor. Herbicides mineralization kinetics with explicit photon absorption effects were utilized to remove the dependence of the observed rate constants from the reactor geometry and radiation field in the photoreactor. The results showed that the overall model fitted the experimental data of herbicides mineralization in the solar CPC reactor satisfactorily for both cloudy and sunny days. Using the above approach kinetic parameters independent of the radiation field in the reactor can be estimated directly from the results of experiments carried out in a solar CPC reactor. The SFM combined with reaction kinetics and fluid-dynamic models proved to be a simple, but reliable model, for solar photocatalytic applications.

  1. Flowing and freezing of molten core materials during unprotected loss of flow accidents in sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Royl, P.

    1988-09-01

    Flowing and freezing of mobile core materials change the fissile material distribution and core-inventory under hypothetical accident conditions and determine the path to permanent shutdown of the neutronic events and the energetic potentials. The report classifies the bondary conditions for such flowing and freezing processes by going through the different situations under which these processes can occur in the scenario of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accident. The classification is based on ULOF-accident simulations for a homogeneous reactor core concept of a 300 MWe LMFBR (e. g. SNR-300), but many boundary conditions are also characteristic for other core designs. A review of the relevant experiments is then made to correlate the available experimental information with these classified boundary conditions and to look at the resulting flowing and freezing processes. Boundary conditions that have been experimentally shown to be important are assigned high priorities. The data are specifically valued in relation to these boundary conditions of high priorities. The review includes the major experimental programs with published results. The discussion shows that the results from most clean condition tests for melt relocations are valuable for a better understanding of basic phenomena and analytical model development, but are not directly applicable to real accident conditions. The database for relevant boundary conditions from the ULOF scenario is limited and largely included in integral sequence tests from which quantitative information for modelling is difficult to obtain. Needs for additional investigations are identified. The suggestions are mainly restricted to investigations of the early phase of fuel removal. They are given with reference to candidate facilities and include relocations in the subassemblies and in the inter-subassembly gaps. Particular emphasis is put on the leading edge properties and possible driving forces to which more attention

  2. Determination of maximum reactor power level consistent with the requirement that flow reversal occurs without fuel damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Darby, J.L.; Ross, S.B.; Clark, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) operated by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) employs forced downflow for heat removal during normal operation. In the event of total loss of forced flow, the reactor will shutdown and the flow reversal valves open. When the downward core flow becomes sufficiently small then the opposing thermal buoyancy induces flow reversal leading to decay heat removal by natural convection. There is some uncertainty as to whether the natural circulation is adequate for decay heat removal after 60 MW operation. BNL- staff carried out a series of calculations to establish the adequacy of flow reversal to remove decay heat. Their calculations are based on a natural convective CHF model. The primary purpose of the present calculations is to review the accuracy and applicability of Fauske's CHF model for the HFBR, and the assumptions and methodology employed by BNL-staff to determine the heat removal limit in the HFBR during a flow reversal and natural convection situation

  3. The Optical Flow Technique on the Research of Solar Non-potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-hong; Zhang, Hong-qi

    2010-06-01

    Several optical flow techniques, which have being applied to the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality recently, have been summarized here. And a few new non-potential parameters which can be derived from them have been discussed, too. The main components of the work are presented as follows: (1) The optical flow techniques refers to a series of new image analyzing techniques arisen recently on the researches of solar magnetic non-potentiality. They mainly include LCT (local correlation tracking), ILCT (inductive equation combining with LCT), MEF (minimum energy effect), DAVE (differential affine velocity estimator) and NAVE (nonlinear affine velocity estimator). Their calculating and applying conditions, merits and deficiencies, all have been discussed detailedly in this work. (2) Benefit from the optical flow techniques, the transverse velocity fields of the magnetic features on the solar surface may be determined by a time sequence of high-quality images currently produced by high-resolution observations either from the ground or in space. Consequently, several new non-potential parameters may be acquired, such as the magnetic helicity flux, the induced electric field in the photosphere, the non-potential magnetic stress (whose area integration is the Lorentz force), etc. Then we can determine the energy flux across the photosphere, and subsequently evaluate the energy budget. Former works on them by small or special samples have shown that they are probably related closely to the erupting events, such as flare, filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections.

  4. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. - Highlights: • Residence time distributions of liquid phase were measured in a trickle bed reactor. • Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. • Mean residence times, holdups and radial distribution of liquid phase were quantified. • Axial dispersion with exchange model was used to simulate the measured data. • The trickle bed reactor behaved as a plug flow reactor.

  5. Estimation on the Flow Phenomena and the Pressure Loss for the Inlet Part of a Research Reactor Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyoung Woo; Oh, Jae Min; Seo, Jae Kwang; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Doo Jeong

    2009-01-01

    For a research reactor, a conceptual primary cooling system (PCS) was designed for an adequate cooling to the reactor core. The developed primary cooling circuit consisted of decay tanks, pumps, heat exchangers, vacuum breakers, some isolation and check valves, connection piping, and instruments. The main function of the primary cooling pumps (PCPs) of the PCS was to circulate the reactor coolant through the fuel core and the heat exchangers during a normal operation. The head according to the design flow rate which was determined by the thermal hydraulic design analysis for the core should be estimated to design the PCPs in the fluid system. The pressure loss in the PCS can be calculated by the dimensional analysis of the pipe flow and the head loss coefficient of the components. However, it is insufficient to estimate the pressure loss for 3-dimensional flow phenomena such as the flow path in the reactor with the theoretical dimensional analysis based on experimental data. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the pressure loss of the part of a research reactor vessel. For evaluating the pressure loss, the commercially available CFD computer model, FLUENT, was employed. First, for validating the application of FLUENT to the pressure loss, a simple case was calculated and compared with the Idelchik empirical correlation. Secondly, several cases for the inlet part of a research reactor vessel were estimated by a FLUENT 3- dimensional calculation

  6. Nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 heat exchanger inlet nozzle flow - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, Gabriel; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Fainer, Gerson; Angelo, Edvaldo

    2009-01-01

    As a computational fluid mechanics training task, a preliminary model was developed. ANSYS-CFX R code was used in order to study the flow at the inlet nozzle of the heat exchanger of the primary circuit of the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1. The geometry of the inlet nozzle is basically compounded by a cylinder and two radial rings which are welded on the shell. When doing so there is an offset between the holes through the shell and the inlet nozzle. Since it is not standardized by TEMA, the inlet nozzle was chosen for a preliminary study of the flow. Results for the proposed model are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Oscillations in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in a stirred flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós

    2013-09-19

    Oscillatory behavior is reported in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in the presence of Na2HPO4 in a stirred flow reactor. In near-neutral solutions, long-period sustained oscillations were recorded in the potential of a Pt electrode and in the light absorbance measured at λ = 418 and 545 nm, characteristic wavelengths for following the evolution of the intermediate [Mn(IV)] and reagent [MnO4(-) ] during the course of the reaction. No evidence of bistability was found. The chemical and physical backgrounds of the oscillatory phenomenon are discussed. In the oscillatory cycle, the positive feedback is attributed to the autocatalytic formation of a soluble Mn(IV) species, whereas the negative feedback arises from its removal from the solution in the form of solid MnO2. A simple model is suggested that qualitatively simulates the experimental observations in batch runs and the dynamics that appears in the flow system.

  8. The study of flow resistance in nuclear reactor Maria under coolant boiling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, P.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes an analysis of experiments carried out in the WIW-300 installation located in the Institute of Atomic Energy (Swierk, Poland). The flow, simulated in the annular gap of test section, was similar to the flow in Maria reactor fuel channel. Experimental character of the work lead to the conclusions related to the physical nature of the hydrodynamic phenomena investigated as well as to the practical aspects of future research. A hypothesis defining a cause of pressure changes was formulated and specific problems related to the mathematical model were defined. The analysis shows that hydrodynamic phenomena studies are of basic significance for the prediction of burnout effects and that heat exchange is very often determined by local phenomena. All described observations are the base for further research on thermodynamic aspects of investigated phenomena. (author)

  9. Method of preventing sodium from flowing when pipes of a fast breeder reactor are injured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Koga, Tomonari.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To inject high pressure sodium into an inlet nozzle portion when fluid pressure in the inlet nozzle portion of a core cooling pipe on the inlet side is in an abnormal condition, to thereby quickly and positively prevent the flow of sodium in a high pressure chamber in a reactor vessel, when pipes are injured. Structure: When the core cooling pipe on the inlet side is injured and as a consequence the pressure gage detects an abnormal condition of fluid pressure in the inlet nozzle, the valve is opened to allow high pressure sodium to inject into the inlet nozzle through a high pressure sodium supply pipe, thereby blocking a back-flow of sodium in the high pressure chamber into the core cooling pipe. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Simple and rapid hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol with aqueous formic acid in catalytic flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat Javaid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inner surface of a metallic tube (i.d. 0.5 mm was coated with a palladium (Pd-based thin metallic layer by flow electroless plating. Simultaneous plating of Pd and silver (Ag from their electroless-plating solution produced a mixed distributed bimetallic layer. Preferential acid leaching of Ag from the Pd–Ag layer produced a porous Pd surface. Hydrogenation of p-nitrophenol was examined in the presence of formic acid simply by passing the reaction solution through the catalytic tubular reactors. p-Aminophenol was the sole product of hydrogenation. No side reaction occurred. Reaction conversion with respect to p-nitrophenol was dependent on the catalyst layer type, the temperature, pH, amount of formic acid, and the residence time. A porous and oxidized Pd (PdO surface gave the best reaction conversion among the catalytic reactors examined. p-Nitrophenol was converted quantitatively to p-aminophenol within 15 s of residence time in the porous PdO reactor at 40 °C. Evolution of carbon dioxide (CO2 was observed during the reaction, although hydrogen (H2 was not found in the gas phase. Dehydrogenation of formic acid did not occur to any practical degree in the absence of p-nitrophenol. Consequently, the nitro group was reduced via hydrogen transfer from formic acid to p-nitrophenol and not by hydrogen generated by dehydrogenation of formic acid.

  11. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion of swine manure in a plug-flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Gilbert, Yan; Saady, N M C; Liu, Charle

    2013-01-01

    A low-temperature (25 degrees C) anaerobic eight-compartment (PF01 to PF08) cascade reactor simulating a plug-flow reactor (PFR) treating pig manure was monitored for a year. The bioreactor was fed at an average loading rate of 2.4 +/- 0.2 g of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) per litre of reactor per day for a theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 67 +/- 7 d. An average of 79% of TCOD was removed from pig manure (converted into biogas and in sediments), whereas specific methane yields ranging from 397 to 482 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS (148.6 to 171.4 NL CH4 kg(-1) TCOD) were obtained. After 150 d, fluctuating performances of the process were observed, associated with solids accumulation in the upstream compartments, preventing the complete anaerobic digestion of swine manure in the compartments PF01 to PF04. Low-temperature anaerobic PFR represents an interesting alternative for the treatment of pig manure and recovery of green energy. Further investigations regarding a modified design, with better accumulating solids management, are needed to optimize the performance of this low-temperature PFR treating pig manure.

  12. Ionospheric cusp flows pulsed by solar wind Alfvén waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prikryl

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed ionospheric flows (PIFs in the cusp foot-print have been observed by the SuperDARN radars with periods between a few minutes and several tens of minutes. PIFs are believed to be a consequence of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF reconnection with the magnetospheric magnetic field on the dayside magnetopause, ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events (FTEs. The quasiperiodic PIFs are correlated with Alfvénic fluctuations observed in the upstream solar wind. It is concluded that on these occasions, the FTEs were driven by Alfvén waves coupling to the day-side magnetosphere. Case studies are presented in which the dawn-dusk component of the Alfvén wave electric field modulates the reconnection rate as evidenced by the radar observations of the ionospheric cusp flows. The arrival of the IMF southward turning at the magnetopause is determined from multipoint solar wind magnetic field and/or plasma measurements, assuming plane phase fronts in solar wind. The cross-correlation lag between the solar wind data and ground magnetograms that were obtained near the cusp footprint exceeded the estimated spacecraft-to-magnetopause propagation time by up to several minutes. The difference can account for and/or exceeds the Alfvén propagation time between the magnetopause and ionosphere. For the case of short period ( < 13 min PIFs, the onset times of the flow transients appear to be further delayed by at most a few more minutes after the IMF southward turning arrived at the magnetopause. For the case of long period (30 – 40 min PIFs, the observed additional delays were 10–20 min. We interpret the excess delay in terms of an intrinsic time scale for reconnection (Russell et al., 1997 which can be explained by the surface-wave induced magnetic reconnection mechanism (Uberoi et al., 1999. Here, surface waves with wavelengths larger than the thickness of the neutral layer induce a tearing-mode instability whose rise time explains the

  13. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: An evacuated flatplate copper collector with a serpentine flow distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given for a flat plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and one coolant flow rate. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  14. Development of the test facilities for the measurement of core flow and pressure distribution of SMART reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Y.J.; Euh, D.J.; Youn, Y.J.; Chu, I.C.; Kwon, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    A design of SMART reactor has been developed, of which the primary system is composed of four internal circulation pumps, a core of 57 fuel assemblies, eight cassettes of steam generators, flow mixing head assemblies, and other internal structures. Since primary design features are very different from conventional reactors, the characteristics of flow and pressure distribution are expected to be different accordingly. In order to analyze the thermal margin and hydraulic design characteristics of SMART reactor, design quantification tests for flow and pressure distribution with a preservation of flow geometry are necessary. In the present study, the design feature of the test facility in order to investigate flow and pressure distribution, named “SCOP” is described. In order to preserve the flow distribution characteristics, the SCOP is linearly reduced with a scaling ratio of 1/5. The core flow rate of each fuel assembly is measured by a venturi meter attached in the lower part of the core simulator having a similarity of pressure drop for nominally scaled flow conditions. All the 57 core simulators and 8 S/G simulators are precisely calibrated in advance of assembling in test facilities. The major parameters in tests are pressures, differential pressures, and core flow distribution. (author)

  15. Numerical simulations of helium flow through prismatic fuel elements of very high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Felipe Lopes; Pinto, Joao Pedro C.T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The 4 th generation Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) most popular concept uses a graphite-moderated and helium cooled core with an outlet gas temperature of approximately 1000 deg C. The high output temperature allows the use of the process heat and the production of hydrogen through the thermochemical iodine-sulfur process as well as highly efficient electricity generation. There are two concepts of VHTR core: the prismatic block and the pebble bed core. The prismatic block core has two popular concepts for the fuel element: multihole and annular. In the multi-hole fuel element, prismatic graphite blocks contain cylindrical flow channels where the helium coolant flows removing heat from cylindrical fuel rods positioned in the graphite. In the other hand, the annular type fuel element has annular channels around the fuel. This paper shows the numerical evaluations of prismatic multi-hole and annular VHTR fuel elements and does a comparison between the results of these assembly reactors. In this study the analysis were performed using the CFD code ANSYS CFX 14.0. The simulations were made in 1/12 fuel element models. A numerical validation was performed through the energy balance, where the theoretical and the numerical generated heat were compared for each model. (author)

  16. A catalytic reactor for the organocatalyzed enantioselective continuous flow alkylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Riccardo; Benaglia, Maurizio; Puglisi, Alessandra; Mandoli, Alessandro; Gualandi, Andrea; Cozzi, Pier Giorgio

    2014-12-01

    The use of immobilized metal-free catalysts offers the unique possibility to develop sustainable processes in flow mode. The challenging intermolecular organocatalyzed enantioselective alkylation of aldehydes was performed for the first time under continuous flow conditions. By using a packed-bed reactor filled with readily available supported enantiopure imidazolidinone, different aldehydes were treated with three distinct cationic electrophiles. In the organocatalyzed α-alkylation of aldehydes with 1,3-benzodithiolylium tetrafluoroborate, excellent enantioselectivities, in some cases even better than those obtained in the flask process (up to 95% ee at 25 °C), and high productivity (more than 3800 h(-1) ) were obtained, which thus shows that a catalytic reactor may continuously produce enantiomerically enriched compounds. Treatment of the alkylated products with Raney-nickel furnished enantiomerically enriched α-methyl derivatives, key intermediates for active pharmaceutical ingredients and natural products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Reactor Development Scenario for the FuZE Sheared-Flow Stabilized Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Harry S.; Higginson, D. P.; Schmidt, A.; Tummel, K. K.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Stepanov, A. D.; Weber, T. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present a conceptual design, scaling calculations, and development path for a pulsed fusion reactor based on a flow-stabilized Z-pinch. Experiments performed on the ZaP and ZaP-HD devices have largely demonstrated the basic physics of sheared-flow stabilization at pinch currents up to 100 kA. Initial experiments on the FuZE device, a high-power upgrade of ZaP, have achieved 20 usec of stability at pinch current 100-200 kA and pinch diameter few mm for a pinch length of 50 cm. Scaling calculations based on a quasi-steady-state power balance show that extending stable duration to 100 usec at a pinch current of 1.5 MA and pinch length of 50 cm, results in a reactor plant Q 5. Future performance milestones are proposed for pinch currents of: 300 kA, where Te and Ti are calculated to exceed 1-2 keV; 700 kA, where DT fusion power would be expected to exceed pinch input power; and 1 MA, where fusion energy per pulse exceeds input energy per pulse. This work funded by USDOE ARPA-E and performed under the auspices of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734770.

  18. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Testino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR, has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1−xNixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO42 nanoparticles (NPs can be obtained with a production rate of about 1–10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  19. Flow reactor studies of non-equilibrium plasma-assisted oxidation of n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolas, Nicholas; Lee, Jong Guen; Yetter, Richard A

    2015-08-13

    The oxidation of n-alkanes (C1-C7) has been studied with and without the effects of a nanosecond, non-equilibrium plasma discharge at 1 atm pressure from 420 to 1250 K. Experiments have been performed under nearly isothermal conditions in a flow reactor, where reactive mixtures are diluted in Ar to minimize temperature changes from chemical reactions. Sample extraction performed at the exit of the reactor captures product and intermediate species and stores them in a multi-position valve for subsequent identification and quantification using gas chromatography. By fixing the flow rate in the reactor and varying the temperature, reactivity maps for the oxidation of fuels are achieved. Considering all the fuels studied, fuel consumption under the effects of the plasma is shown to have been enhanced significantly, particularly for the low-temperature regime (T<800 K). In fact, multiple transitions in the rates of fuel consumption are observed depending on fuel with the emergence of a negative-temperature-coefficient regime. For all fuels, the temperature for the transition into the high-temperature chemistry is lowered as a consequence of the plasma being able to increase the rate of fuel consumption. Using a phenomenological interpretation of the intermediate species formed, it can be shown that the active particles produced from the plasma enhance alkyl radical formation at all temperatures and enable low-temperature chain branching for fuels C3 and greater. The significance of this result demonstrates that the plasma provides an opportunity for low-temperature chain branching to occur at reduced pressures, which is typically observed at elevated pressures in thermal induced systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental investigation on flow behavior during start-up of a heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin; Zhang Youjie

    1997-09-01

    An experimental simulation study on the transition from pressurized to boiling operation of a low-temperature, natural circulation nuclear heating reactor (5 MW) developed by INET of Tsinghua University is presented. The experiment was performed on the test loop (HRTL-5), which simulates the geometry and system design of the 5 MW reactor. The manifestation of different kinds of two-phase flow instabilities, namely geyser instability, flashing instability and low-steam quality density wave instability on the transition from pressurized to boiling operation is described. The mechanism of flashing instability, which has never been studied well on this field, is especially interpreted. It is suggested that the start-up process, from initial condition to boiling operation condition, should consist of three steps: (1) increasing of initial pressure by means of a noncondensable gas (N 2 ), which is a very effective method to eliminate geyser instability and flashing instability at lower pressure. (2)start-up of the reactor at this pressurized condition with a constant heat flux under the limited value of q = 0.15 MW·m -2 , which controls the exit temperature of the heated section below the one of net vapor generation, the low steam quality density wave oscillation can be avoided. (3) transition to a lower pressure, boiling operation. The method of transition with low-heat flux and low-inlet subcooling is proposed: at pressurized operation condition, by reducing the heat flux to its lowest level, releasing the noncondensable gas and increasing the heat flux gradually (dq/dt -2 ·min -1 ), during which the low-steam quality density wave oscillation can be prevented from occurring, then the boiling operation condition can be achieved through adjusting the heat flux and inlet subcooling to their designed value. A stable transition from pressurized to boiling operation of the 5 MW reactor is achieved by careful selection of the thermohydraulic parameters. (7 refs., 7 figs., 1

  1. The reaction environment in a filter-press laboratory reactor: the FM01-LC flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Fernando F.; León, Carlos Ponce de; Walsh, Frank C.; Nava, José L.

    2015-01-01

    A parallel plate cell facilitating controlled flow in a rectangular channel and capable of incorporating a wide range of electrode materials is important in studies of electrode reactions prior to process development and scale-up. The FM01-LC, a versatile laboratory-scale, plane parallel filter-press type electrochemical cell (having a projected electrode area of 64 cm 2 ) which is based on the larger FM21-SP electrolyser (2100 cm 2 area). Many laboratories have used this type of reactor to quantify the importance of reaction environment in fundamental studies and to prepare for industrial applications. A number of papers have concerned the experimental characterization and computational modelling of its reaction environment but the experimental and computational data has become dispersed. The cell has been used in a diverse range of synthesis and processing applications which require controlled flow and known reaction environment. In a previous review, the cell construction and reaction environment was summarised followed by the illustration of its use for a range of applications that include organic and inorganic electrosynthesis, metal ion removal, energy storage, environmental remediation (e.g., metal recycling or anodic destruction of organics) and drinking water treatment. This complementary review considers the characteristics of the FM01-LC electrolyser as an example of a well-engineered flow cell facilitating cell scale-up and provides a rigorous analysis of its reaction environment. Particular aspects include the influence of electrolyte velocity on mass transport rates, flow dispersion and current distribution

  2. Hydrogenotrophic denitrification in a packed bed reactor: effects of hydrogen-to-water flow rate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Maeng, S K

    2010-06-01

    Hydrogen dissolution and hydrogenotrophic denitrification performance were investigated in a lab-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) by varying the hydrogen flow rate and hydraulic retention time (HRT). The denitrification performance was enhanced by increasing the hydrogen flow rate and HRT as a result of high dissolved hydrogen concentration (0.39mg/L) and utilization efficiencies (79%). In this study, the hydrogen-to-water flow rate ratio (Q(g)/Q(w)) was found to be a new operating factor representing the two parameters of hydrogen flow rate and HRT. Hydrogen dissolution and denitrification efficiency were nonlinearly and linearly correlated with the Q(g)/Q(w), respectively. Based on its excellent linear correlation with denitrification efficiency, Q(g)/Q(w) should be greater than 2.3 to meet the WHO's guideline of nitrate nitrogen for drinking water. This study demonstrates that Q(g)/Q(w) is a simple and robust factor to optimize hydrogen-sparged bioreactors for hydrogenotrophic denitrification. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A CFD method to evaluate the integrated influence of leakage and bypass flows on the PBMR Reactor Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janse van Rensburg, J.J.; Kleingeld, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Research and analysis to identify and rank different leakage flow paths in a HTR. → Development of integrated CFD methodology for the prediction of leakage flows. → Development of a methodology to simulate flow resistances in above CFD model. → Validation of predicted flow results against different numerical methodology. → Illustration of the significant improvement achieved through this methodology. - Abstract: An area that has been identified as significantly important in the development of a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is the prediction of leakage and bypass flows through such a reactor. It is therefore essential to understand the causes of bypass flows and to determine the effect on the predicted fuel and component temperatures. This paper discusses the identification of leakage flows that are applicable to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd. (PBMR) design and the ranking of these leakage flows. The modeling methodology and results are also discussed. Similar to previous HTR's, it was found that leakage and bypass flows are important parameters to consider for safe and efficient operation of the PBMR. Through a focused approach, it is shown that PBMR is able to improve the understanding of this phenomenon and quantify the flows and subsequent influence on the operation of the system. This has resulted in a reduction of leakage and bypass from approximately 46% to 20%. The improved understanding of leakage and bypass flows allows PBMR to address this issue during the design phase of the project, which subsequently results in a vast improvement over historical HTR designs. This gives PBMR a distinct advantage over previous High Temperature Reactors.

  4. Transient thermal hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor during Loss of Flow Accident to investigate the flow inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Yahia, Omar S.; Albati, Mohammad A.; Park, Jonghark; Chae, Heetaek; Jo, Daeseong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Transient analyses of a slow and fast LOFA were investigated. • A reactor kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupled model was developed. • Based on force balance, the flow rate during flow inversion was determined. • Flow inversion in a hot channel occurred earlier than in an average channel. • Two temperature peaks were observed during both slow and fast LOFA. - Abstract: Transient analyses of the IAEA 10 MW MTR reactor are investigated during a fast and slow Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA) with a neutron kinetic and thermal hydraulic coupling model. A spatial-dependent thermal hydraulic technique is adopted for analyzing the local thermal hydraulic parameters and hotspot location during a flow inversion. The flow rate through the channel is determined in terms of a balance between driving and preventing forces. Friction and buoyancy forces act as resistance of the flow before a flow inversion while buoyancy force becomes the driving force after a flow inversion. By taking into account the buoyancy effect to determine the flow rate, the difference in the flow inversion time between hot and average channels is investigated: a flow inversion occurs earlier in the hot channel than in an average channel. Furthermore, the movement of the hotspot location before and after a flow inversion is investigated for a slow and fast LOFA. During a flow inversion, two temperature peaks are observed: (1) the first temperature peak is at the initiation of the LOFA, and (2) the second temperature peak is when a flow inversion occurs. The maximum temperature of the cladding is found at the second temperature peak for both LOFA analyses, and is lower than the saturation temperature

  5. Fluid flow distribution optimization for minimizing the peak temperature of a tubular solar receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Min; Fan, Yilin; Luo, Lingai; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High temperature solar receiver is a core component of solar thermal power plants. However, non-uniform solar irradiation on the receiver walls and flow maldistribution of heat transfer fluid inside the tubes may cause the excessive peak temperature, consequently leading to the reduced lifetime. This paper presents an original CFD (computational fluid dynamics)-based evolutionary algorithm to determine the optimal fluid distribution in a tubular solar receiver for the minimization of its peak temperature. A pressurized-air solar receiver comprising of 45 parallel tubes subjected to a Gaussian-shape net heat flux absorbed by the receiver is used for study. Two optimality criteria are used for the algorithm: identical outlet fluid temperatures and identical temperatures on the centerline of the heated surface. The influences of different filling materials and thermal contact resistances on the optimal fluid distribution and on the peak temperature reduction are also evaluated and discussed. Results show that the fluid distribution optimization using the algorithm could minimize the peak temperature of the receiver under the optimality criterion of identical temperatures on the centerline. Different shapes of optimal fluid distribution are determined for various filling materials. Cheap material with low thermal conductivity can also meet the peak temperature threshold through optimizing the fluid distribution. - Highlights: • A 3D pressurized-air solar receiver based on the tube-in-matrix concept is studied. • An original evolutionary algorithm is developed for fluid distribution optimization. • A new optimality criterion is proposed for minimizing the receiver peak temperature. • Different optimal fluid distributions are determined for various filling materials. • Filling material with high thermal conductivity is more favorable in practical use.

  6. Korea advanced liquid metal reactor development - Development of measuring techniques of the sodium two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Cha, Jae Eun [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The technology which models and measures the behavior of bubble in liquid sodium is very important to insure the safety of the liquid metal reactor. In this research, we designed/ manufactured each part and loop of experimental facility for sodium two phase flow, and applied a few possible methods, measured characteristic of two phase flow such as bubbly flow. A air-water loop similar to sodium loop on each measuring condition was designed/manufactured. This air-water loop was utilized to acquire many informations which were necessary in designing the two phase flow of sodium and manufacturing experimental facility. Before the manufacture of a electromagnetic flow meter for sodium, the experiment using each electromagnetic flow mete was developed and the air-water loop was performed to understand flow characteristics. Experiments for observing the signal characteristics of flow were performed by flowing two phase mixture into the electromagnetic flow mete. From these experiments, the electromagnetic flow meter was designed and constructed by virtual electrode, its signal processing circuit and micro electro magnet. It was developed to be applicable to low conductivity fluid very successfully. By this experiment with the electromagnetic flow meter, we observed that the flow signal was very different according to void fraction in two phase flow and that probability density function which was made by statistical signal treatment is also different according to flow patterns. From this result, we confirmed that the electromagnetic flow meter could be used to understand the parameters of two phase flow of sodium. By this study, the experimental facility for two phase flow of sodium was constricted. Also the new electromagnetic flow meter was designed/manufactured, and experimental apparatus for two phase flow of air-water. Finally, this study will be a basic tool for measurement of two phase flow of sodium. As the fundamental technique for the applications of sodium at

  7. A system for the discharge of gas bubbles from the coolant flow of a nuclear reactor cooled by forced circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markfort, D.; Kaiser, A.; Dohmen, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor cooled by forced circulation the gas bubbles carried along with the coolant flow are separated before entering the reactor core or forced away into the external zones. For this purpose the coolant is radially guided into a plenum below the core and deflected to a tangential direction by means of flow guide elements. The flow runs spirally downwards. On the bubbles, during their dwell time in this channel, the buoyant force and a force towards the axis of symmetry of the tank are exerted. The major part of the coolant is directed into a radial direction by means of a guiding apparatus in the lower section of the channel and guided through a chimney in the plenum to the center of the reactor core. This inner chimney is enclosed by an outer chimney for the core edge zones through which coolant with a small share of bubbles is taken away. (RW) [de

  8. POST: a postprocessor computer code for producing three-dimensional movies of two-phase flow in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, K.A.; Liles, D.R.

    1977-08-01

    The development of the TRAC computer code for analysis of LOCAs in light-water reactors involves the use of a three-dimensional (r-theta-z), two-fluid hydrodynamics model to describe the two-phase flow of steam and water through the reactor vessel. One of the major problems involved in interpreting results from this code is the presentation of three-dimensional flow patterns. The purpose of the report is to present a partial solution to this data display problem. A first version of a code which produces three-dimensional movies of flow in the reactor vessel has been written and debugged. This code (POST) is used as a postprocessor in conjunction with a stand alone three-dimensional two-phase hydrodynamics code (CYLTF) which is a test bed for the three-dimensional algorithms to be used in TRAC

  9. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  10. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Koji; Sasanuma, Katsumi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To make it possible to correctly measure the flow rate and temperatures of the coolants flowing through fuel assemblies. Constitution: One or more holes are formed at the side surface of the guide tube of a control rod driving mechanism thereby to reduce the flow path resistance within the guide tube of the control rod driving mechanism and to prevent the outlet coolant of the control rod guide tube from flowing into the guide tube of the mechanism as it is and also from flowing into ambient rectifying lattice guide tubes, so that the quantities and temperatures of the coolants flowing through respective fuel assemblies can be measured correctly. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Reactive turbulent flow CFD study in supercritical water oxidation process: application to a stirred double shell reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussiere, S.

    2006-12-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is an innovative process to treat organic liquid waste which uses supercritical water properties to mix efficiency the oxidant and the organic compounds. The reactor is a stirred double shell reactor. In the step of adaptation to nuclear constraints, the computational fluid dynamic modeling is a good tool to know required temperature field in the reactor for safety analysis. Firstly, the CFD modeling of tubular reactor confirms the hypothesis of an incompressible fluid and the use of k-w turbulence model to represent the hydrodynamic. Moreover, the EDC model is as efficiency as the kinetic to compute the reaction rate in this reactor. Secondly, the study of turbulent flow in the double shell reactor confirms the use of 2D axisymmetric geometry instead of 3D geometry to compute heat transfer. Moreover, this study reports that water-air mixing is not in single phase. The reactive turbulent flow is well represented by EDC model after adaptation of initial conditions. The reaction rate in supercritical water oxidation reactor is mainly controlled by the mixing. (author)

  12. Simulation of the flow obstruction of a jet pump in a BWR reactor with the code RELAP/SCDAPSIM; Simulacion de la obstruccion de flujo de una bomba jet en un reactor BWR con el codigo RELAP/SCDAPSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Filio L, C., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose M. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This work simulates the flow obstruction of a jet pump in one of the recirculation loops of a nuclear power plant with a reactor of type BWR at 100% of operating power, in order to analyze the behavior of the total flow of the refrigerant passing through the reactor core, the total flow in each recirculation loop of the reactor</