WorldWideScience

Sample records for flow rule including

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICITY MODEL USING NON ASSOCIATED FLOW RULE FOR HCP MATERIALS INCLUDING ZIRCONIUM FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Jeong-Whan Yoon

    2013-08-01

    In this report (prepared in collaboration with Prof. Jeong Whan Yoon, Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia) a research effort was made to develop a non associated flow rule for zirconium. Since Zr is a hexagonally close packed (hcp) material, it is impossible to describe its plastic response under arbitrary loading conditions with any associated flow rule (e.g. von Mises). As a result of strong tension compression asymmetry of the yield stress and anisotropy, zirconium displays plastic behavior that requires a more sophisticated approach. Consequently, a new general asymmetric yield function has been developed which accommodates mathematically the four directional anisotropies along 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and biaxial, under tension and compression. Stress anisotropy has been completely decoupled from the r value by using non associated flow plasticity, where yield function and plastic potential have been treated separately to take care of stress and r value directionalities, respectively. This theoretical development has been verified using Zr alloys at room temperature as an example as these materials have very strong SD (Strength Differential) effect. The proposed yield function reasonably well models the evolution of yield surfaces for a zirconium clock rolled plate during in plane and through thickness compression. It has been found that this function can predict both tension and compression asymmetry mathematically without any numerical tolerance and shows the significant improvement compared to any reported functions. Finally, in the end of the report, a program of further research is outlined aimed at constructing tensorial relationships for the temperature and fluence dependent creep surfaces for Zr, Zircaloy 2, and Zircaloy 4.

  2. Associative Flow Rule Used to Include Hydrostatic Stress Effects in Analysis of Strain-Rate-Dependent Deformation of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2004-01-01

    designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. The nonlinearity and the strain-rate dependence of the composite response are due primarily to the matrix constituent. Therefore, in developing material models to be used in the design of impact-resistant composite engine cases, the deformation of the polymer matrix must be correctly analyzed. However, unlike in metals, the nonlinear response of polymers depends on the hydrostatic stresses, which must be accounted for within an analytical model. By applying micromechanics techniques along with given fiber properties, one can also determine the effects of the hydrostatic stresses in the polymer on the overall composite deformation response. First efforts to account for the hydrostatic stress effects in the composite deformation applied purely empirical methods that relied on composite-level data. In later efforts, to allow polymer properties to be characterized solely on the basis of polymer data, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center developed equations to model the polymers that were based on a non-associative flow rule, and efforts to use these equations to simulate the deformation of representative polymer materials were reasonably successful. However, these equations were found to have difficulty in correctly analyzing the multiaxial stress states found in the polymer matrix constituent of a composite material. To correct these difficulties, and to allow for the accurate simulation of the nonlinear strain-rate-dependent deformation analysis of polymer matrix composites, in the efforts reported here Glenn researchers reformulated the polymer constitutive equations from basic principles using the concept of an associative flow rule. These revised equations were characterized and validated in an

  3. Wind farm power optimization including flow variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herp, Jürgen; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    an optimized wind-farm control strategy, derived from a fixed wake parameter, is facing this flow variability, the potential gain reduces to 0.3–0.5%. An omnipotent control strategy, which has real-time knowledge of the actual wake flow, would be able to increase the gain in wind-farm power to 4.9%.......A model-based optimisation approach is used to investigate the potential gain of wind-farm power with a cooperative control strategy between the wind turbines. Based on the Jensen wake model with the Katic wake superposition rule, the potential gain for the Nysted offshore wind farm is calculated...... to be 1.4–5.4% for standard choices 0.4 ≥ k ≥ 0.25 of the wake expansion parameter. Wake model fits based on short time intervals of length 15sec ≤ T ≤ 10 min within three months of data reveal a strong wake flow variability, resulting in rather broad distributions for the wake expansion parameter. When...

  4. About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available About meanings as a rule not included in dictionaries The article discusses the problem of ambiguity of the exponents of logical existential quantification occurring in the verbal group of Bulgarian, Polish and Russian sentences: Bulg. отвреме навреме, понякога, Pol. od czasu do czasu, czasem, czasami, Rus. время от времени, иногда. This ambiguity can be explained by strong and weak existential quantification. Lexical semantics did not distinguish between these two types of existentiality. Here we present a description of selected exponents of logical existential quantification in Bulgarian, Polish and Russian.

  5. Simulation of Containment Jet Flows Including Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    HEITSCH Matthias; Baraldi, Daniele; WILKENING Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The validation of a CFD code for light-water reactor containment applications requires among others the presence of steam in the different flow types like jets or buoyant plumes and leads to the need to simulate condensation phenomena. In this context the paper addresses the simulation of two ¿HYJET¿ experiments from the former Battelle Model Containment by the CFD code CFX. These experiments involve jet releases into the multicompartment geometry of the test facility accompani...

  6. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  7. Understanding heat transfer in 2D channel flows including recirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkse, M.H.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Stigter, J.D.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Inviscid, irrotational two-dimensional flows can be modelled using the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral. Although bounded flows including boundary layer separation and recirculation are not irrotational, a model is presented that uses the Schwarz¿Christoffel integral to model these flows. The model sepa

  8. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  9. Fusion rules for the logarithmic $N=1$ superconformal minimal models II: including the Ramond sector

    CERN Document Server

    Canagasabey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Virasoro logarithmic minimal models were intensively studied by several groups over the last ten years with much attention paid to the fusion rules and the structures of the indecomposable representations that fusion generates. The analogous study of the fusion rules of the $N=1$ superconformal logarithmic minimal models was initiated in arXiv:1504.03155 as a continuum counterpart to the lattice explorations of arXiv:1312.6763. These works restricted fusion considerations to Neveu-Schwarz representations. Here, this is extended to include the Ramond sector. Technical advances that make this possible include a fermionic Verlinde formula applicable to logarithmic conformal field theories and a twisted version of the fusion algorithm of Nahm and Gaberdiel-Kausch. The results include the first construction and detailed analysis of logarithmic structures in the Ramond sector.

  10. A dual active-restrictive approach to incorporating environmental flow targets into existing reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Environmental flow schemes may be implemented through active or restrictive strategies. The former may be applied via reservoir releases, and the latter can be executed by reducing water demands. We present a dual active-restrictive approach to devising the optimal reservoir operation rules that aim to secure off-stream water supplies while maximizing environmental benefits. For the active part, a multicomponent environmental flow target (including the minimum and monthly flows) is incorporated in the operation rules. For the restrictive counterpart, we use a novel demands partitioning and prioritizing (DPP) approach to reallocating the demands of various sectors. The DPP approach partitions the existing off-stream demand and newly incorporated environmental demand and reassembles the two as the first- and second-priority demands. Water is reallocated to each demand according to the ratios derived from the prioritized demands. The proposed approach is coupled with a multicriteria optimization framework to seek the optimal operation rules for the existing Feitsui Reservoir system (Taiwan) under various scenarios. The best overall performance is achieved by an optimal dual strategy whose operational parameters are all determined by optimization. The optimal environmental flow target may well be a top-priority constant base flow rather than the variable quantities. The active strategy would outperform the restrictive one. For the former, a top-priority base flow target is essential; for the latter, the off-stream demand can become vanishingly small in compensation for the eliminated base flow target, thus promoting the monthly flow target as nearly the top-priority demand. For either the active or restrictive strategy, a prioritized environmental flow demand would provide a path toward the optimal overall performance. A significantly improved overall performance over the existing operation rules is unlikely if the active and restrictive parameters are both favorable

  11. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  12. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-10-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space {H} must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of {H} and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  13. Holographic RG flows, entanglement entropy and the sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Casini, Horacio; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the two-point function of the trace of the stress tensor in holographic renormalization group flows between pairs of conformal field theories. We show that the term proportional to the momentum squared in this correlator gives the change of the central charge between fixed points in d=2 and in d>2 it gives the holographic entanglement entropy for a planar region. This can also be seen as a holographic realization of the Adler-Zee formula for the renormalization of Newton's constant. Holographic regularization is found to provide a perfect match of the finite and divergent terms of the sum rule, and it is analogous to the regularization of the entropy in terms of mutual information. Finally, we provide a general proof of reflection positivity in terms of stability of the dual bulk action, and discuss the relation between unitarity constraints, the null energy condition and regularity in the interior of the gravity solution.

  14. The study of slip line field and upper bound method based on associated flow and non-associated flow rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Deng Chujian; Wang Jinglin

    2010-01-01

    At present,associated flow rule of traditional plastic theory is adopted in the slip line field theory and upper bound method of geotechnical materials.So the stress characteristic line conforms to the velocity line.It is proved that geotechnical materials do not abide by the associated flow rule.It is impossible for the stress characteristic line to conform to the velocity line.Generalized plastic mechanics theoretically proved that plastic potential surface intersects the Mohr-Coulomb yield surface with an angle,so that the velocity line must be studied by non-associated flow rule.According to limit analysis theory,the theory of slip line field is put forward in this paper,and then the ultimate boating capacity of strip footing is obtained based on the associated flow rule and the non-associated flow rule individually.These two results are identical since the ultimate bearing capacity is independent of flow rule.On the contrary,the velocity fields of associated and non-associated flow rules are different which shows the velocity field based on the associated flow rule is incorrect.

  15. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eSiqueira Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore and afrotherian brains has shown that nonneuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share nonneuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are however distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  16. Cellular scaling rules for the brain of Artiodactyla include a highly folded cortex with few neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazu, Rodrigo S; Maldonado, José; Mota, Bruno; Manger, Paul R; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the cellular composition of rodent, primate, insectivore, and afrotherian brains has shown that non-neuronal scaling rules are similar across these mammalian orders that diverged about 95 million years ago, and therefore appear to be conserved in evolution, while neuronal scaling rules appear to be free to vary in a clade-specific manner. Here we analyze the cellular scaling rules that apply to the brain of artiodactyls, a group within the order Cetartiodactyla, believed to be a relatively recent radiation from the common Eutherian ancestor. We find that artiodactyls share non-neuronal scaling rules with all groups analyzed previously. Artiodactyls share with afrotherians and rodents, but not with primates, the neuronal scaling rules that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The neuronal scaling rules that apply to the remaining brain areas are, however, distinct in artiodactyls. Importantly, we show that the folding index of the cerebral cortex scales with the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex in distinct fashions across artiodactyls, afrotherians, rodents, and primates, such that the artiodactyl cerebral cortex is more convoluted than primate cortices of similar numbers of neurons. Our findings suggest that the scaling rules found to be shared across modern afrotherians, glires, and artiodactyls applied to the common Eutherian ancestor, such as the relationship between the mass of the cerebral cortex as a whole and its number of neurons. In turn, the distribution of neurons along the surface of the cerebral cortex, which is related to its degree of gyrification, appears to be a clade-specific characteristic. If the neuronal scaling rules for artiodactyls extend to all cetartiodactyls, we predict that the large cerebral cortex of cetaceans will still have fewer neurons than the human cerebral cortex.

  17. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bloch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  18. Robust and Adaptive OMR System Including Fuzzy Modeling, Fusion of Musical Rules, and Possible Error Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossant, Florence; Bloch, Isabelle

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR) in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.

  19. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  20. New scheduling rules for a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Hamidreza; Ghodsypour, Seyed Hassan; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, the application of multi-objective dynamic scheduling problem and simple priority rules are widely studied. Although these rules are not efficient enough due to simplicity and lack of general insight, composite dispatching rules have a very suitable performance because they result from experiments. In this paper, a dynamic flexible flow line problem with sequence-dependent setup times is studied. The objective of the problem is minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness. A 0-1 mixed integer model of the problem is formulated. Since the problem is NP-hard, four new composite dispatching rules are proposed to solve it by applying genetic programming framework and choosing proper operators. Furthermore, a discrete-event simulation model is made to examine the performances of scheduling rules considering four new heuristic rules and the six adapted heuristic rules from the literature. It is clear from the experimental results that composite dispatching rules that are formed from genetic programming have a better performance in minimization of mean flow time and mean tardiness than others.

  1. Medicaid program; clarification of outpatient hospital facility (including outpatient hospital clinic) services definition. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-07

    Outpatient hospital services are a mandatory part of the standard Medicaid benefit package. This final rule aligns the Medicaid definition of outpatient hospital services more closely to the Medicare definition in order to: Improve the functionality of the applicable upper payment limits (which are based on a comparison to Medicare payments for the same services), provide more transparency in determining available hospital coverage in any State, and generally clarify the scope of services for which Federal financial participation (FFP) is available under the outpatient hospital services benefit category.

  2. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  3. Effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Li, Ming; Li, Qi-Lang; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2012-09-01

    This paper studies the effect of violating the traffic light rule in the Biham-Middleton-Levine (BML) traffic flow model. It is assumed that there are two kinds of drivers: normal drivers obey the traffic light rule and violators disobey it. Simulation results show that although the existence of violators increases the average velocity in the free-flowing phase, it decreases the threshold from free-flowing phase to jam. With the presence of violators, a new kind of configuration with stripe slopes -2 and -1/2 has been found in the free-flowing phase. We have developed an analytical investigation which successfully predicts the average velocity in the free-flowing phase. A phase separation phenomenon, where jams and freely flowing traffic coexist, has been found in the intermediate car density range. The mechanism of the phase separation has been illustrated.

  4. Cellular Automaton Rule 184++C A Simple Model for the Complex Dynamics of Various Particles Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Awazu, A

    1999-01-01

    A cellular automaton named Rule 184++C is proposed as a meta-model to investigate the flow of various complex particles. In this model, unlike the granular pipe flow and the traffic flow, not only the free-jam phase transition but also the free-intermediate, the intermediate-jam, and the dilute-dense phase transitions appear. Moreover, the freezing phenomena appear if the system contains two types of different particles.

  5. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  6. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging ...

  7. SIMULATION OF STRONG TURBULENCE FLOW WITH FREE SURFACE INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF STREAMLINE CURVATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui-chao; LIU Yu-ling; WEI Wen-li

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a mathematical model for two-dimensional strong turbulence flow with free surface including the effects of streamline curvature in orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system, with which the characteristics of the turbulence flow field on the ogee spillway was numerical simulated. In the numerical simulation, the flow control equations in orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discretized by the finite volume method, the physical parameters( P, U,V,K,ε,γt,etc.) were arranged on a staggered grid, the discretized equations were solved with the SIMPLEC method, and the complex free surface was dealt with VOF method. The computed results show that the velocity fields, pressure field, shear stress distribution and kinetic energy of turbulent flow on the ogee spillway are in agreement with experimental data. This confirms that the model can be used for numerical simulation of the turbulence flow on ogee spillway.

  8. A laboratory model of the aortic root flow including the coronary arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querzoli, Giorgio; Fortini, Stefania; Espa, Stefania; Melchionna, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular flows have been extensively investigated by means of in vitro models to assess the prosthetic valve performances and to provide insight into the fluid dynamics of the heart and proximal aorta. In particular, the models for the study of the flow past the aortic valve have been continuously improved by including, among other things, the compliance of the vessel and more realistic geometries. The flow within the sinuses of Valsalva is known to play a fundamental role in the dynamics of the aortic valve since they host a recirculation region that interacts with the leaflets. The coronary arteries originate from the ostia located within two of the three sinuses, and their presence may significantly affect the fluid dynamics of the aortic root. In spite of their importance, to the extent of the authors' knowledge, coronary arteries were not included so far when modeling in vitro the transvalvular aortic flow. We present a pulse duplicator consisting of a passively pulsing ventricle, a compliant proximal aorta, and coronary arteries connected to the sinuses of Valsalva. The coronary flow is modulated by a self-regulating device mimicking the physiological mechanism, which is based on the contraction and relaxation of the heart muscle during the cardiac cycle. Results show that the model reproduces satisfyingly the coronary flow. The analysis of the time evolution of the velocity and vorticity fields within the aortic root reveals the main characteristics of the backflow generated through the aorta in order to feed the coronaries during the diastole. Experiments without coronary flow have been run for comparison. Interestingly, the lifetime of the vortex forming in the sinus of Valsalva during the systole is reduced by the presence of the coronaries. As a matter of fact, at the end of the systole, that vortex is washed out because of the suction generated by the coronary flow. Correspondingly, the valve closure is delayed and faster compared to the case with

  9. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jungreuthmayer

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle.

  10. Medicare program; conditions for payment of power mobility devices, including power wheelchairs and power-operated vehicles. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-05

    This final rule conforms our regulations to section 302(a)(2)(E)(iv) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. This rule defines the term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters). It sets forth revised conditions for Medicare payment of PMDs and defines who may prescribe PMDs. This rule also requires a face-to-face examination of the beneficiary by the physician or treating practitioner, a written prescription, and receipt of pertinent parts of the medical record by the supplier within 45 days after the face-to-face examination that the durable medical equipment suppliers maintain in their records and make available to CMS or its agents upon request. Finally, this rule discusses CMS' policy on documentation that may be requested by CMS or its agents to support a Medicare claim for payment, as well as the elimination of the Certificate of Medical Necessity (CMN) for PMDs.

  11. EXACT SOLUTIONS FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT FLOW MODEL INCLUDING A QUADRATIC GRADIENT TERM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹绪龙; 同登科; 王瑞和

    2004-01-01

    The models of the nonlinear radial flow for the infinite and finite reservoirs including a quadratic gradient term were presented. The exact solution was given in real space for flow equation including quadratic gradiet term for both constant-rate and constant pressure production cases in an infinite system by using generalized Weber transform. Analytical solutions for flow equation including quadratic gradient term were also obtained by using the Hankel transform for a finite circular reservoir case. Both closed and constant pressure outer boundary conditions are considered. Moreover, both constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions are considered. The difference between the nonlinear pressure solution and linear pressure solution is analyzed. The difference may be reached about 8% in the long time. The effect of the quadratic gradient term in the large time well test is considered.

  12. A differential equation for the flow rate during silo discharge: Beyond the Beverloo rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Marcos A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a differential equation for the flow rate of granular materials during the discharge of a silo. This is based in the energy balance of the variable mass system in contrast with the traditional derivations based on heuristic postulates such as the free fall arch. We show that this new equation is consistent with the well known Beverloo rule, providing an independent estimate for the universal Beverloo prefactor. We also find an analytic expression for the pressure under discharging conditions.

  13. Plastic flow rule for sands with friction, dilation, density and stress state coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a flow rule and failure criterion for sands in plane strain conditions based on Drucker-Prager formulation and enhanced with empirical Houlsby formula, which couples friction, dilation, density and stress state in the material. The resulting elasto-plastic, non-associated, shear hardening material model is implemented as a numerical procedure in the frame of finite element method and a simple compression example is presented. Because of the empirical nature of Houlsby formula, it is believed that results of numerical simulations will be more realistic both in deformation and shear strength estimation of sands.

  14. Sum rules and spectral density flow in QCD and in superconformal theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the signature of the anomalous breaking of the superconformal symmetry in N${\\cal N}$ = 1 super Yang Mills theory and its manifestation in the form of anomaly poles. Moreover, we describe the massive deformations of the N${\\cal N}$ = 1 theory and the spectral densities of the corresponding anomaly form factors. These are characterized by spectral densities which flow with the mass deformation and turn the continuum contributions from the two-particle cuts of the intermediate states into poles, with a single sum rule satisfied by each component. The poles can be interpreted as signaling the exchange of a composite axion/dilaton/dilatino (ADD multiplet in the effective Lagrangian. We conclude that global anomalous currents characterized by a single flow in the perturbative picture always predict the existence of composite interpolating fields.

  15. CFD simulation of a screw compressor including leakage flows and rotor heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spille-Kohoff, Andreas, Dr.; Hesse, Jan; El Shorbagy, Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have promising potential to become an important part in the development process of positive displacement (PD) machines. CFD delivers deep insights into the flow and thermodynamic behaviour of PD machines. However, the numerical simulation of such machines is more complex compared to dynamic pumps like turbines or fans. The fluid transport in size-changing chambers with very small clearances between the rotors, and between rotors and casing, demands complex meshes that change with each time step. Additionally, the losses due to leakage flows and the heat transfer to the rotors need high-quality meshes so that automatic remeshing is almost impossible. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a dry screw compressor are shown. The rotating parts are meshed with TwinMesh, a special hexahedral meshing program for gear pumps, gerotors, lobe pumps and screw compressors. In particular, these meshes include axial and radial clearances between housing and rotors, and beside the fluid volume the rotor solids are also meshed. The CFD simulation accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, heat transfer between gas and rotors, and leakage flows through the clearances. We show time- resolved results for torques, forces, interlobe pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and rotors, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, temperature etc. for different discharge ports and working points of the screw compressor. These results are also used as thermal loads for deformation simulations of the rotors.

  16. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  17. Analysis of dispatching rules application on scheduling problem in flexible-flow shop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakićević Zoran M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed a group of simple heuristic methods, which are used for solving the scheduling problem in manufacturing and services. The analysis was performed on the scheduling problem in a flexible-flow shop production, which is known by the English term - Flexible-Flow Shop (FFS. The task is to determine the schedule of processing multiple products on multiple machines, where all the products have the same sequence of processing and for each process there are multiple machines available. For this FFS problem we present the corresponding mathematical model of mixed integer programming. Among potential methods for solving the set task, we consider simple heuristics because the original scheduling problem is NP-hard and finding the exact optimal solution would require unacceptably long computing time. Heuristic methods are based on priority rules that are performed based on the relations of importance between products and their processing time on individual machines. Heuristic methods are widely used for solving practical problems, which was the motivation for the analysis performed in this paper. The aim of the analysis is to identify those priority rules, from a set of considered, which provide a good solution to a hypothetical scheduling problem example, where the evaluation of solution is performed using different criteria functions. The analysis that is presented in the paper was obtained by using the computer program LEKIN. The main results of the analysis indicated that priority rules give different solutions to the problem of FFS and that each of these solutions is a significantly good result in terms of some of the considered criteria functions.

  18. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing... regulation the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Final Rule... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  19. Numerical Analysis of Mold Deformation Including Plastic Melt Flow During Injection Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon Tae; Lee, Bong-Kee [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, a numerical analysis of an injection molding process was conducted for predicting the mold deformation considering non-Newtonian flow, heat transfer, and structural behavior. The accurate prediction of mold deformation during the filling stage is important to successfully design and manufacture a precision injection mold. While the local mold deformation can be caused by various factors, a pressure induced by the polymer melt is considered to be one of the most significant ones. In this regard, the numerical simulation considering both the melt filling and the mold deformation was carried out. A mold core for a 2D axisymmetric center-gated disk was used for the demonstration of the present study. The flow behavior inside the mold cavity and temperature distribution were analyzed along with the core displacement. Also, a Taguchi method was employed to investigate the influence of the relevant parameters including flow velocity, mold core temperature, and melt temperature.

  20. A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Zanchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.

  1. Study of Power Flow Algorithm of AC/DC Distribution System including VSC-MTDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, distributed generation and a large number of sensitive AC and DC loads have been connected to distribution networks, which introduce a series of challenges to distribution network operators (DNOs. In addition, the advantages of DC distribution networks, such as the energy conservation and emission reduction, mean that the voltage source converter based multi-terminal direct current (VSC-MTDC for AC/DC distribution systems demonstrates a great potential, hence drawing growing research interest. In this paper, considering losses of the reactor, the filter and the converter, a mathematical model of VSC-HVDC for the load flow analysis is derived. An AC/DC distribution network architecture has been built, based on which the differences in modified equations of the VSC-MTDC-based network under different control modes are analyzed. In addition, corresponding interface functions under five control modes are provided, and a back/forward iterative algorithm which is applied to power flow calculation of the AC/DC distribution system including VSC-MTDC is proposed. Finally, by calculating the power flow of the modified IEEE14 AC/DC distribution network, the efficiency and validity of the model and algorithm are evaluated. With various distributed generations connected to the network at appropriate locations, power flow results show that network losses and utilization of transmission networks are effectively reduced.

  2. Prediction of the Hot Flow Stress Behavior of AA6063 Including Mg2Si Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Daniel; Mahmoodkhani, Yahya; Whitney, Mark; Wells, Mary

    2017-03-01

    A constitutive model that includes the effect of Mg2Si dissolution during pre-deformation heating and holding has been developed for the prediction of the hot flow stress behavior of AA6063 aluminum alloy. The deformation behavior of homogenized AA6063 aluminum alloy was studied by performing compression tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator at temperatures ranging from 400 to 550 °C and strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s-1. A one-dimensional model of particle dissolution in spherical coordinate system was developed to determine the Mg-Si solute content during pre-deformation heating and holding. Using the Mg solute content determined from the particle dissolution model, the flow stress during the deformation of AA6063 aluminum alloy at specific temperatures and strain rates was predicted using a modified hyperbolic sine equation. The constitutive model developed was found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements in this study as well as other experimental and model results published in the literature. A 14% increase in flow stress of the alloy was observed for an increase in hold time from 60 to 1500 s at 450 °C. This is due to increased deformation resistance of the alloy as the Mg-Si solute content increases. The modified hyperbolic sine equation developed in this study clearly shows that accounting for Mg-Si solute content improves the ability to accurately predict the flow stress behavior of AA6063 aluminum alloy.

  3. Prediction of the Hot Flow Stress Behavior of AA6063 Including Mg2Si Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Daniel; Mahmoodkhani, Yahya; Whitney, Mark; Wells, Mary

    2017-02-01

    A constitutive model that includes the effect of Mg2Si dissolution during pre-deformation heating and holding has been developed for the prediction of the hot flow stress behavior of AA6063 aluminum alloy. The deformation behavior of homogenized AA6063 aluminum alloy was studied by performing compression tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator at temperatures ranging from 400 to 550 °C and strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s-1. A one-dimensional model of particle dissolution in spherical coordinate system was developed to determine the Mg-Si solute content during pre-deformation heating and holding. Using the Mg solute content determined from the particle dissolution model, the flow stress during the deformation of AA6063 aluminum alloy at specific temperatures and strain rates was predicted using a modified hyperbolic sine equation. The constitutive model developed was found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements in this study as well as other experimental and model results published in the literature. A 14% increase in flow stress of the alloy was observed for an increase in hold time from 60 to 1500 s at 450 °C. This is due to increased deformation resistance of the alloy as the Mg-Si solute content increases. The modified hyperbolic sine equation developed in this study clearly shows that accounting for Mg-Si solute content improves the ability to accurately predict the flow stress behavior of AA6063 aluminum alloy.

  4. A model for heterogeneous traffic flows including non-motorized vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oketch, T.G.

    2001-07-01

    This study is concerned with developing a traffic flow and emissions model suitable for heterogeneous traffic streams containing motorised and non-motorised vehicles. Such streams contain vehicle types such as private cars, buses and trucks as well as bicycles, motorcycles and other vehicular forms. The model covers the different vehicle types and allows for peculiar behaviours prevalent in such streams. In addition to an existing deterministic car following rule, the model incorporates detailed lateral movement algorithm with gradual lane change manoeuvres, the decisions of which are governed by fuzzy logic rules. For determination of pollutant emissions, the travel lane was divided into finite elements and total emissions aggregated for each element depending on the vehicle speeds and types. A methodology for estimation of emission rates, based on vehicle maintenance history, for countries without reliable inventories was proposed and used to obtain emission coefficients of CO, HC, NOx and Pb emissions in Kenya. In conclusion, the model has demonstrated that heterogeneous traffic can be effectively analysed by approaches that take their peculiar characteristics into consideration. In addition, it has also provided new insight in the performance and emission patterns of heterogeneous traffic streams which can be used to formulate regulatory directives governing the usage of lanes or provision of auxiliary carriageways for slower vehicles. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde ein Verkehrsfluss- und Emissions-Model fuer heterogene Verkehrsstroeme entwickelt. Solche Verkehrsstroeme enthalten nicht nur motorisierte Fahrzeuge wie Pkw, Lkw, Omnibus, Motorrad usw. sondern auch nicht-motorisierte Fahrzeuge wie Fahrrad und auch besondere Fahrzeugtypen, die auf Motorraedern oder Fahrraedern basieren. Im Modell wurden auch die entsprechenden besonderen Verhaeltnisse dieser Fahrzeugtypen beruecksichtigt. Die Bewegung von Fahrzeugen wurde in zwei Dimensionen modelliert. Auf

  5. Seismic failure mechanisms for loaded slopes with associated and nonassociated flow rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-li; SUI Zhi-rong

    2008-01-01

    Seismic failure mechanisms were investigated for soil slopes subjected to strip load with upper bound method of limit analysis and finite difference method of numerical simulation, considering the influence of associated and nonassociated flow rules. Quasi-static representation of soil inertia effects using a seismic coefficient concept was adopted for seismic failure analysis. Numerical study was conducted to investigate the influences of dilative angle and earthquake on the seismic failure mechanisms for the loaded slope, and the failure mechanisms for different dilation angles were compared. The results show that dilation angle has influences on the seismic failure surfaces, that seismic maximum displacement vector decreases as the dilation angle increases, and that seismic maximum shear strain rate decreases as the dilation angle increases.

  6. Temperature-flow regulation rule in indirect connection heating system and its energy-saving contrast analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Primary and secondary networks are treated as a whole in indirect heating systems, and an advanced new temperature-flow regulation method is presented whose flow ratio is greater than 60% in a secondary network and 30% in a primary network when under a partial load. Through deducing and optimizing an exponential function flow regulation rule, the formulae of flow regulation and the supply and return water temperatures are obtained, and their relevant curves are plotted. After comparison, it is found that this control method has a huge energy conservation space, and it should therefore be generalized soon.

  7. Similarity transformation for equilibrium flows, including effects of blowing and suction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    A similarity transformation for the mean velocity profiles is obtained in sink flow turbulent boundary layers (TBL), including effects of blowing and suction. It is based on symmetry analysis which transforms the governing partial differential equations (for mean mass and momentum) into an ordinary differential equation and yields a new result including an exact, linear relation between the mean normal ($V$) and streamwise ($U$) velocities. A characteristic length is further introduced which, under a first order expansion in wall blowing/suction velocity, leads to the similarity transformation for $U$. This transformation is shown to be a group invariant under a generalized symmetry analysis and maps different $U$ profiles under different blowing/suction conditions into a (universal) profile under no blowing/suction. Its inverse transformation enables predictions of all mean quantities in the mean mass and momentum equations - $U$, $V$ and the Reynolds shear stress - in good agreement with direct numerical si...

  8. Data for The flow and flow-induced noise behaviour of a simplified high-speed train bogie in a cavity and including a fairing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jianyue; Hu, Zhiwei; Thompson, David

    2017-01-01

    Dataset for the main results of paper entitled 'The flow and flow-induced noise behaviour of a simplified high-speed train bogie in a cavity and including a fairing' published in Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit.

  9. Influences of nonassociated flow rules on seismic bearing capacity factors of strip footing on soil slope by energy dissipation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seismic bearing capacity factors of a strip footing placed on soil slope were determined with both associated and nonassociated flow rules. Quasi-static representation of earthquake effects using a seismic coefficient concept was adopted for seismic bearing capacity calculations. A multi-wedge translational failure mechanism was used to obtain the seismic bearing capacity factors for different seismic coefficients and various inclined angles. Employing the associated flow rule, numerical results were compared with the published solutions. For bearing capacity factors related to cohesion and equivalent surcharge load, the maximum difference approximates 0.1%. However, the difference of bearing capacity factor related to unit weight is larger. With the two flow rules, the seismic bearing capacity factors were presented in the form of design charts for practical use. The results show that seismic bearing capacity factors related to the cohesion, the equivalent surcharge load and the unit weight increase greatly as the dilatancy angle increases, and that the nonassociated flow rule has important influences on the seismic bearing capacity.

  10. A comparative study of applying Mason’s Rule in the case of flow-graphs and bond-graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grava

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two methods to analyzethe electric circuits using the flow-graphs and thebond-graphs studying the differences between thesemethods.As it can be noticed, the two methods are totallydifferent; their common point being Mason’s rule thatis applied in both cases but it is applied differently foreach type of graphs.

  11. Relativistic thermodynamics, a Lagrangian field theory for general flows including rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Christian

    Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, Lagrangian field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier approach to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to phenomenology, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.

  12. Violations of the 12/23 rule at the mouse immunoglobulin kappa locus, including V kappa-V kappa rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Fesnak, Andrew D; Liu, Yang; Charan, Deepshikha; Prak, Eline T Luning

    2009-07-01

    Classically, recombination between immunoglobulin gene segments uses a pair of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) with dissimilar spacers (the "12/23 rule"). Using a series of different genotyping assays, four different kinds of atypical rearrangements were identified at the murine kappa locus: (1) V kappa to V kappa, (2) J kappa to J kappa, (3) V kappa to iRS, a heptameric sequence found in the J kappa C kappa intron, and (4) a possible by-product of a rearrangement between a V kappa and the hypothetical 12-RSS side of a pre-existing signal joint. The novel V kappa-V kappa structure prompted further characterization. Sequence analysis of 14 different V kappa-V kappa rearrangements cloned from murine splenocytes and hybridomas revealed a V kappa 4 family member as one participant in 13 rearrangements, but no rearrangements contained two V kappa 4 genes. The V kappa 4 partner in the V kappa-V kappa rearrangement exhibited more trimming of nucleotides at the V kappa-V kappa junction. A signal joint derived from the inversional rearrangement of two neighboring V kappas was also recovered. These data suggest that the V kappa-V kappa structures arise via RAG-mediated, intrachromosomal recombination.

  13. Numerical Treatment of Two-phase Flow in Porous Media Including Specific Interfacial Area

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a numerical treatment for the model of two-phase flow in porous media including specific interfacial area. For numerical discretization we use the cell-centered finite difference (CCFD) method based on the shifting-matrices method which can reduce the time-consuming operations. A new iterative implicit algorithm has been developed to solve the problem under consideration. All advection and advection-like terms that appear in saturation equation and interfacial area equation are treated using upwind schemes. Selected simulation results such as pc–Sw–awn surface, capillary pressure, saturation and specific interfacial area with various values of model parameters have been introduced. The simulation results show a good agreement with those in the literature using either pore network modeling or Darcy scale modeling.

  14. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  15. Electromagnetic Flow Meter Having a Driver Circuit Including a Current Transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, David M. (Inventor); Cushing, Vincent (Inventor); Patel, Sandeep K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM) accurately measures both the complete flow rate and the dynamically fluctuating flow rate of a fluid by applying a unipolar DC voltage to excitation coils for a predetermined period of time, measuring the electric potential at a pair of electrodes, determining a complete flow rate and independently measuring the dynamic flow rate during the "on" cycle of the DC excitation, and correcting the measurements for errors resulting from galvanic drift and other effects on the electric potential. The EMFM can also correct for effects from the excitation circuit induced during operation of the EMFM.

  16. Simulation of 3D Flow in Turbine Blade Rows including the Effects of Coolant Ejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jun LIU; Bai-Tao AN; Yun-Tao ZENG

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the numerical simulation of three-dimensional viscous flows in air-cooled turbine blade rows with the effects of coolant ejection. A TVD Navier-Stokes flow solver incorporated with Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and multi-grid convergence acceleration algorithm are used for the simulation. The influences of coolant ejection on the main flow are accounted by volumetric coolant source terms. Numerical results for a four-stage turbine are presented and discussed.

  17. Theoretical and Empirical Studies of the Basic Structure of Turbulent Shear Flows, Including Separated Flows and Effects of Wall Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    in I newly’% f’ahri cated water test. Iaci ifY built expressly for this program. Heat Transfer Sfudy onI C’, neave Su.rfne Good progress has been made...TO A. LYRIO FOR FRASER B FLOW. (NOTE THI’S FLOW WAS NOT PREDICTED WELL BY ANY METHOD IN THE 19b8 AFOSR-4FP STANFORD CONFERENCE) FIGuRE t-2 --- _f0.O Hz

  18. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  19. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen, Xuxian Kan, Fengrui Sun, Feng Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate and the utilization factor (COP for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  20. Impact of polymer film thickness and cavity size on polymer flow during embossing : towards process design rules for nanoimprint lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents continuum simulations of polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The simulations capture the underlying physics of polymer flow from the nanometer to millimeter length scale and examine geometry and thermophysical process quantities affecting cavity filling. Variations in embossing tool geometry and polymer film thickness during viscous flow distinguish different flow driving mechanisms. Three parameters can predict polymer deformation mode: cavity width to polymer thickness ratio, polymer supply ratio, and Capillary number. The ratio of cavity width to initial polymer film thickness determines vertically or laterally dominant deformation. The ratio of indenter width to residual film thickness measures polymer supply beneath the indenter which determines Stokes or squeeze flow. The local geometry ratios can predict a fill time based on laminar flow between plates, Stokes flow, or squeeze flow. Characteristic NIL capillary number based on geometry-dependent fill time distinguishes between capillary or viscous driven flows. The three parameters predict filling modes observed in published studies of NIL deformation over nanometer to millimeter length scales. The work seeks to establish process design rules for NIL and to provide tools for the rational design of NIL master templates, resist polymers, and process parameters.

  1. Energy analysis of stability on shallow tunnels based on non-associated flow rule and non-linear failure criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳华; 王成洋

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of upper bound theorem, non-associated flow rule and non-linear failure criterion were considered together. The modified shear strength parameters of materials were obtained with the help of the tangent method. Employing the virtual power principle and strength reduction technique, the effects of dilatancy of materials, non-linear failure criterion, pore water pressure, surface loads and buried depth, on the stability of shallow tunnel were studied. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the solutions in the present work agree well with the existing results when the non-associated flow rule is reduced to the associated flow rule and the non-linear failure criterion is degenerated to the linear failure criterion. Compared with dilatancy of materials, the non-linear failure criterion exerts greater impact on the stability of shallow tunnels. The safety factor of shallow tunnels decreases and the failure surface expands outward when the dilatancy coefficient decreases. While the increase of nonlinear coefficient, the pore water pressure coefficient, the surface load and the buried depth results in the small safety factor. Therefore, the dilatancy as well as non-linear failure criterion should be taken into account in the design of shallow tunnel supporting structure. The supporting structure must be reinforced promptly to prevent potential mud from gushing or collapse accident in the areas with abundant pore water, large surface load or buried depth.

  2. Simulation of soil water regimes including pedotransfer functions and land-use related preferential flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Backx, M.A.H.M.; Bouma, J.

    2003-01-01

    Differences in land use history among taxonomically identical soils often result in different hydraulic properties, derived from either laboratory measurements or pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Additionally, flow mechanisms in sandy soils may also change through differences in water repellency

  3. Linking accretion flow and particle acceleration in jets. I. New relativistic magnetohydrodynamical jet solutions including gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Polko, Peter; Markoff, Sera

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, approximate method for modelling the acceleration and collimation of relativistic jets in the presence of gravity. This method is self-similar throughout the computational domain where gravitational effects are negligible and, where significant, self-similar within a flux tube. These solutions are applicable to jets launched from a small region (e.g., near the inner edge of an accretion disk). As implied by earlier work, the flow can converge onto the rotation axis, potentially creating a collimation shock. In this first version of the method, we derive the gravitational contribution to the relativistic equations by analogy with non-relativistic flow. This approach captures the relativistic kinetic gravitational mass of the flowing plasma, but not that due to internal thermal and magnetic energies. A more sophisticated treatment, derived from the basic general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical equations, is currently being developed. Here we present an initial exploration of parameter space...

  4. N-S/DSMC hybrid simulation of hypersonic flow over blunt body including wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonghua; Li, Zhihui; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yanguang; Jiang, Xinyu

    2014-12-01

    A hybrid N-S/DSMC method is presented and applied to solve the three-dimensional hypersonic transitional flows by employing the MPC (modular Particle-Continuum) technique based on the N-S and the DSMC method. A sub-relax technique is adopted to deal with information transfer between the N-S and the DSMC. The hypersonic flows over a 70-deg spherically blunted cone under different Kn numbers are simulated using the CFD, DSMC and hybrid N-S/DSMC method. The present computations are found in good agreement with DSMC and experimental results. The present method provides an efficient way to predict the hypersonic aerodynamics in near-continuum transitional flow regime.

  5. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2016-04-01

    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To

  6. Investigation of Helical Cross-Flow Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin

    2011-11-01

    A new test bed for hydrokinetic turbines was used to evaluate different cross-flow axis turbines, and investigate effects of waves and turbulence. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power were measured in a tow tank with cross section 3.7 x 2.4m at speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical helical turbine (LST). GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in a cylinder wake. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law, or kinetic exergy efficiency, defined as the fraction of kinetic energy removed from the flow that is converted to usable shaft work, was measured. The distribution of energy into shaft work and turbulent kinetic energy in the wake can affect environmental transport processes and performance of turbines arrays. Progressive waves generally enhance performance of the GHT, but can lead to stall at higher tip speed ratios compared to the steady case. Grid turbulence delays dynamic stall and enables operation at lower tip speed ratios, while not decreasing maximum power coefficient. Performance in a cylinder wake is highly dependent on the cylinder's cross-stream location, ranging from benign to detrimental. The experimental observations provide insight into the physical principles of operation of cross-flow axis turbines.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  8. Multi-hypothesis Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding including Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Luong, Huynh Van

    2011-01-01

    Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding is an efficient Distributed Video coding solution providing new features such as low complexity encoding, by mainly exploiting the source statistics at the decoder based on the availability of decoder side information. The accuracy of the decoder side...... information has a major impact on the performance of TDWZ. In this paper, a novel multi-hypothesis based TDWZ video coding is presented to exploit the redundancy between multiple side information and the source information. The decoder used optical flow for side information calculation. Compared with the best...

  9. Multi-hypothesis Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video Coding including Optical Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xin; Rakêt, Lars Lau; Luong, Huynh Van;

    2011-01-01

    information has a major impact on the performance of TDWZ. In this paper, a novel multi-hypothesis based TDWZ video coding is presented to exploit the redundancy between multiple side information and the source information. The decoder used optical flow for side information calculation. Compared with the best...... available single estimation mode TDWZ, the proposed multi-hypothesis based TDWZ achieves robustly better Rate-Distortion (RD) performance and the overall improvement is up to 0.6 dB at high bitrate and up to 2 dB compared with the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  10. A time accurate prediction of the viscous flow in a turbine stage including a rotor in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavalikul, Akamol

    in the relative frame of reference; the boundary conditions for the computations were obtained from inlet flow measurements performed in the AFTRF. A complete turbine stage, including an NGV and a rotor row was simulated using the RANS solver with the SST kappa -- o turbulence model, with two different computational models for the interface between the rotating component and the stationary component. The first interface model, the circumferentially averaged mixing plane model, was solved for a fixed position of the rotor blades relative to the NGV in the stationary frame of reference. The information transferred between the NGV and rotor domains is obtained by averaging across the entire interface. The quasi-steady state flow characteristics of the AFTRF can be obtained from this interface model. After the model was validated with the existing experimental data, this model was not only used to investigate the flow characteristics in the turbine stage but also the effects of using pressure side rotor tip extensions. The tip leakage flow fields simulated from this model and from the linear cascade model show similar trends. More detailed understanding of unsteady characteristics of a turbine flow field can be obtained using the second type of interface model, the time accurate sliding mesh model. The potential flow interactions, wake characteristics, their effects on secondary flow formation, and the wake mixing process in a rotor passage were examined using this model. Furthermore, turbine stage efficiency and effects of tip clearance height on the turbine stage efficiency were also investigated. A comparison between the results from the circumferential average model and the time accurate flow model results is presented. It was found that the circumferential average model cannot accurately simulate flow interaction characteristics on the interface plane between the NGV trailing edge and the rotor leading edge. However, the circumferential average model does give

  11. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

  12. Thermo-mechanical modeling of turbulent heat transfer in gas-solid flows including particle collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, Zohreh; Saffar-Avval, Majid; Basirat-Tabrizi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Lain, Santiago

    2002-12-01

    A thermo-mechanical turbulence model is developed and used for predicting heat transfer in a gas-solid flow through a vertical pipe with constant wall heat flux. The new four-way interaction model makes use of the thermal k{sub {theta}}-{tau}{sub {theta}} equations, in addition to the hydrodynamic k-{tau} transport, and accounts for the particle-particle and particle-wall collisions through a Eulerian/Lagrangian formulation. The simulation results indicate that the level of thermal turbulence intensity and the heat transfer are strongly affected by the particle collisions. Inter-particle collisions attenuate the thermal turbulence intensity near the wall but somewhat amplify the temperature fluctuations in the pipe core region. The hydrodynamic-to-thermal times-scale ratio and the turbulent Prandtl number in the region near the wall increase due to the inter-particle collisions. The results also show that the use of a constant or the single-phase gas turbulent Prandtl number produces error in the thermal eddy diffusivity and thermal turbulent intensity fields. Simulation results also indicate that the inter-particle contact heat conduction during collision has no significant effect in the range of Reynolds number and particle diameter studied.

  13. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyhlík Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  14. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  15. Screening performance for trisomy 21 comparing first trimester combined screening and a first trimester contingent screening protocol including ductus venosus and tricuspid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Sundberg, Karin Milner

    2012-01-01

    To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow.......To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow....

  16. Medicare program; conditions for payment of power mobility devices, including power wheelchairs and power-operated vehicles. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    This interim final rule conforms our regulations to section 302(a)(2)(E)(iv) of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Pub. L. 108-173). This rule defines the term power mobility devices (PMDs) as power wheelchairs and power operated vehicles (POVs or scooters). It sets forth revised conditions for Medicare payment of PMDs and defines who may prescribe PMDs. This rule also requires a face-to-face examination of the beneficiary by the physician or treating practitioner and a PMD prescription and pertinent parts of the medical record that the durable medical equipment supplier maintains in records and makes available to CMS or its agents upon request. Finally, this rule discusses CMS' policy on documentation that may be requested by CMS or its agents to support a Medicare claim for payment, as well as the elimination for the Certificate of Medical Necessity for PMDs.

  17. Influence analysis of flow rule in mine fire during injecting inert gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Hui-yong; WANG Hai-qiao

    2011-01-01

    According to the action law of gas flow during injecting inert gases as the research main line,and hydromechanics and thermodynamics theories,the characteristic of gas delamination that was caused by injecting inert gases to closed fire zone was analyzed.The criterion was brought forward,which could scale disappearing probability of turbulent state.Formation mechanism of gas layer in turbulent state was discussed primarily.Simultaneously,the condition was pointed out,which could make the gas in turbulent state by injecting different gases.The mathematical model about dynamic changes of oxygen and methane concentration in the process of injecting gases was erected.The mixture mechanism about injecting different flow inert gases and flammable gas layer in closed fire zone was revealed.

  18. Two-point estimate method for probabilistic optimal power flow computation including wind farms with correlated parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Cao, Jia; Du, Dajun [Shanghai Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Power Station Automation Technology

    2013-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) calculation including wind farms with correlated parameters which contains nodal injections. The two-point estimate method (2PEM) is employed to solve the POPF. Moreover, the correlation samples between nodal injections and line parameters are generated by Cholesky Factorization method. Simulation results show that 2PEM is feasible and effective to solve the POPF including wind farms with correlated parameters, while the 2PEM has higher computation precision and consume less CPU time than Monte Carlo Simulation.

  19. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of one-dimensional and two-dimensional traffic flows: Comparison of two look-ahead rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Timofeyev, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    We employ an efficient list-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to study traffic flow models on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) lattices based on the exclusion principle and Arrhenius microscopic dynamics. This model implements stochastic rules for cars' movements based on the configuration of the traffic ahead of each car. In particular, we compare two different look-ahead rules: one is based on the distance from the car under consideration to the car in front of it, and the other one is based on the density of cars ahead. The 1D numerical results of these two rules suggest different coarse-grained macroscopic limits in the form of integro-differential Burgers equations. The 2D results of both rules exhibit a sharp phase transition from freely flowing to fully jammed, as a function of the initial density of cars. However, the look-ahead rule based on the density of the traffic produces more realistic results. The KMC simulations reported in this paper are compared with those from other well-known traffic flow models and the corresponding empirical results from real traffic.

  20. Effect of overpasses in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model with random and parallel update rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zi-You; Wang, Bing-Hong; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-08-01

    The effect of overpasses in the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic flow model with random and parallel update rules has been studied. An overpass is a site that can be occupied simultaneously by an eastbound car and a northbound one. Under periodic boundary conditions, both self-organized and random patterns are observed in the free-flowing phase of the parallel update model, while only the random pattern is observed in the random update model. We have developed mean-field analysis for the moving phase of the random update model, which agrees with the simulation results well. An intermediate phase is observed in which some cars could pass through the jamming cluster due to the existence of free paths in the random update model. Two intermediate states are observed in the parallel update model, which have been ignored in previous studies. The intermediate phases in which the jamming skeleton is only oriented along the diagonal line in both models have been analyzed, with the analyses agreeing well with the simulation results. With the increase of overpass ratio, the jamming phase and the intermediate phases disappear in succession for both models. Under open boundary conditions, the system exhibits only two phases when the ratio of overpasses is below a threshold in the random update model. When the ratio of the overpass is close to 1, three phases could be observed, similar to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process model. The dependence of the average velocity, the density, and the flow rate on the injection probability in the moving phase has also been obtained through mean-field analysis. The results of the parallel model under open boundary conditions are similar to that of the random update model.

  1. Rules for confidence intervals of permeability coefficients for water flow in over-broken rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Weiqun; Fei Xiaodong; Fang Jingnian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the steady-state seepage method,we used the Mechanical Testing and Simulation 815.02 System and a self-designed seepage instrument for over-broken stone to measure seepage properties of water flows in three types of crushed rock samples.Three methods of confidence interval in describing permeability coefficients are presented:the secure interval,the calculated interval and the systemic interval.The lower bound of the secure interval can be applied to water-inrush and the upper bound can solve the problem of connectivity.For the calculated interval,as the axial pressure increases,the length of confidence interval is shortened and the upper and lower bounds are reduced.For the systemic interval,the length of its confidence interval,as well as the upper and lower bounds,clearly vary under low axial pressure but are fairly similar under high axial pressure.These three methods provide useful information and references for analyzing the permeability coefficient of over-broken rock.

  2. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  3. Multiphase Binary Mixture Flows in Porous Media in a Wide Pressure and Temperature Range Including Critical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Multiphase flows in porous media with a transition between sub- and supercritical thermodynamic conditions occur in many natural and technological processes (e.g. in deep regions of geothermal reservoirs where temperature reaches critical point of water or in gas-condensate fields where subject to critical conditions retrograde condensation occurs and even in underground carbon dioxide sequestration processes at high formation pressure). Simulation of these processes is complicated due to degeneration of conservation laws under critical conditions and requires non-classical mathematical models and methods. A new mathematical model is proposed for efficient simulation of binary mixture flows in a wide range of pressures and temperatures that includes critical conditions. The distinctive feature of the model lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy law are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. Such approach allows determination not only single-phase states and two-phase states of liquid-gas type as in classical models but also two-phase states of liquid-liquid type and three-phase states. The proposed mixture model was implemented in MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) code for hydrodynamic simulations. As opposed to classical approaches pressure, enthalpy and composition variables together with fully implicit method and cascade procedure are used. The code is capable of unstructured grids, heterogeneous porous media, relative permeability and capillary pressure dependence on temperature and pressure, multiphase diffusion, optional number of sink and sources, etc. There is an additional module for mixture properties specification. The starting point for the simulation is a cubic equation of state that is

  4. Requirements for Foreign and Domestic Establishment Registration and Listing for Human Drugs, Including Drugs That Are Regulated Under a Biologics License Application, and Animal Drugs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations governing drug establishment registration and drug listing. These amendments reorganize, modify, and clarify current regulations concerning who must register establishments and list human drugs, human drugs that are also biological products, and animal drugs. The final rule requires electronic submission, unless waived in certain circumstances, of registration and listing information. This rulemaking pertains to finished drug products and to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) alone or together with one or more other ingredients. The final rule describes how and when owners or operators of establishments at which drugs are manufactured or processed must register their establishments with FDA and list the drugs they manufacture or process. In addition, the rule makes certain changes to the National Drug Code (NDC) system. We are taking this action to improve management of drug establishment registration and drug listing requirements and make these processes more efficient and effective for industry and for us. This action also supports implementation of the electronic prescribing provisions of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) and the availability of current drug labeling information through DailyMed, a computerized repository of drug information maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

  5. 交通流数据清洗规则研究%Research on Traffic Flow Data Cleaning Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓原; 张敬磊; 吴芳

    2011-01-01

    交通检测器获得的数据存在无效、冗余、错误、时间点漂移及丢失等质量问题.为此,在分析影响数据质量问题原因的基础上,给出交通流数据清洗的概念,研究“脏数据”的清洗规则与清洗步骤,并对环形线圈检测器检测到的数据进行验证.结果表明,该清洗规则对错误、丢失、冗余等“脏数据”的识别率均在90%以上.%Aiming at that many quality problems are existed inevitably in detected data, including inefficacy, redundancy, error, missing, time dot excursion etc, the definition of data cleaning is proposed on the basis of sufficient study and analysis for the influence reasons of data quality, the cleaning rules and cleaning steps of "dirty data" are studied at the same time. And the proposed cleaning rules are calibrated with the detected data of loop vehicle detector. Results show that the recognition rates of "dirty data" is up to 90%.

  6. Well-balanced bicharacteristic-based scheme for multilayer shallow water flows including wet/dry fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, M.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, M.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new well-balanced finite volume scheme for two-dimensional multilayer shallow water flows including wet/dry fronts. The ideas, presented here for the two-layer model, can be generalized to a multilayer case in a straightforward way. The method developed here is constructed in the framework of the Finite Volume Evolution Galerkin (FVEG) schemes. The FVEG methods couple a finite volume formulation with evolution operators. The latter are constructed using the bicharacteristics of multidimensional hyperbolic systems. However, in the case of multilayer shallow water flows the required eigenstructure of the underlying equations is not readily available. Thus we approximate the evolution operators numerically. This approximation procedure can be used for arbitrary hyperbolic systems. We derive a well-balanced approximation of the evolution operators and prove that the FVEG scheme is well-balanced for the multilayer lake at rest states even in the presence of wet/dry fronts. Several numerical experiments confirm the reliability and efficiency of the new well-balanced FVEG scheme.

  7. Numerical simulation for horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: A short review including geothermal effects and solution bounding in biodegradation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liolios, K.; Tsihrintzis, V.; Angelidis, P.; Georgiev, K.; Georgiev, I.

    2016-10-01

    Current developments on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and removal in the porous media of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSF CWs) are first reviewed in a short way. The two usual environmental engineering approaches, the black-box and the process-based one, are briefly presented. Next, recent research results obtained by using these two approaches are briefly discussed as application examples, where emphasis is given to the evaluation of the optimal design and operation parameters concerning HSF CWs. For the black-box approach, the use of Artificial Neural Networks is discussed for the formulation of models, which predict the removal performance of HSF CWs. A novel mathematical prove is presented, which concerns the dependence of the first-order removal coefficient on the Temperature and the Hydraulic Residence Time. For the process-based approach, an application example is first discussed which concerns procedures to evaluate the optimal range of values for the removal coefficient, dependent on either the Temperature or the Hydraulic Residence Time. This evaluation is based on simulating available experimental results of pilot-scale units operated in Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. Further, in a second example, a novel enlargement of the system of Partial Differential Equations is presented, in order to include geothermal effects. Finally, in a third example, the case of parameters uncertainty concerning biodegradation procedures is considered and the use of upper and a novel approach is presented, which concerns the upper and the lower solution bound for the practical draft design of HSF CWs.

  8. Research on the Spatial Distribution and Flow Rules of Chinese Inbound Business Tourist Flows%中国入境商务旅游流空间分布特征及流动规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐澜; 吴晋峰; 王金莹; 杨新菊

    2012-01-01

    通过构建中国入境商务旅游流网络,运用社会网络分析法定量分析中国入境商务旅游流的空间分布特征及流动规律。研究表明:①中国入境商务旅游流地理分布不均衡,在空间上形成"四点"(广州、北京、上海、香港)、"两面"(长江三角洲、珠江三角洲)的地理分布格局。②广州是入境商务旅游流最重要的集散中心,入境商务旅游流主要在北京、上海、广州、香港之间转移流动。③中国入境商务旅游流网络中节点由四个层次城市组成,分别是一级核心城市(广州、北京、上海、香港);二级核心城市(苏州、桂林、杭州);三级核心城市(义乌、西安、黄山、深圳、无锡、厦门、澳门)及边缘城市(网络中其他节点城市)。%Through building the inbound business tourist flow network of China,this research analyzed the geographical distribution and flowing rules of inbound business tourist flows in China with the methodologies derived from the social network analysis.The study results are:1.The geographical distribution of the inbound business tourist flows on China is unbalanced and the concentrating distribution destinaiton cities and regions are: Guangzhou,Beijing,Shanghai,Hongkong,the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta.2.Guangzhou is the centre of the inbound business tourist network in China and is the most important gathering and distributing centre of inbound business tourist flows.3.The nodes in the inbound business tourist flow network can be classified into four levels: the first level including Guangzhou,Beijing,Shanghai,Hongkong,which are the first-order core cities in the inbound business tourist flow network,the second level including Suzhou,Guilin,Hangzhou,which are the secondary core cities in the inbound business tourist flow network,the third level including Yiwu,Xi’an,Huangshan,Shenzhen,Macao,Wuxi,Xiamen,which are the third core cities in the

  9. In vitro flow assessment: from PC-MRI to computational fluid dynamics including fluid-structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Jonas; Rengier, Fabian; Weis, Christian; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Initiation and development of cardiovascular diseases can be highly correlated to specific biomechanical parameters. To examine and assess biomechanical parameters, numerical simulation of cardiovascular dynamics has the potential to complement and enhance medical measurement and imaging techniques. As such, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have shown to be suitable to evaluate blood velocity and pressure in scenarios, where vessel wall deformation plays a minor role. However, there is a need for further validation studies and the inclusion of vessel wall elasticity for morphologies being subject to large displacement. In this work, we consider a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model including the full elasticity equation to take the deformability of aortic wall soft tissue into account. We present a numerical framework, in which either a CFD study can be performed for less deformable aortic segments or an FSI simulation for regions of large displacement such as the aortic root and arch. Both of the methods are validated by means of an aortic phantom experiment. The computational results are in good agreement with 2D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) velocity measurements as well as catheter-based pressure measurements. The FSI simulation shows a characteristic vessel compliance effect on the flow field induced by the elasticity of the vessel wall, which the CFD model is not capable of. The in vitro validated FSI simulation framework can enable the computation of complementary biomechanical parameters such as the stress distribution within the vessel wall.

  10. Anthocyanin and flavonoid production from Perilla frutescens: pilot plant scale processing including cross-flow microfiltration and reverse osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Linghua; Lozano, Yves; Bombarda, Isabelle; Gaydou, Emile; Li, Bin

    2006-06-14

    Extraction and concentration at a pilot plant scale of anthocyanins and flavonoids from Perilla frutescens var. frutescens harvested in the Guangzhou area of China were investigated. The study of extraction efficiency using mineral acids and organic acids showed that 0.01 mol/L nitric acid was the most suitable to extract flavonoids from this slightly red leaf cultivar. The red extract contained 12 mg/L (as cyanidin equivalent) anthocyanins and other flavones. The multistep process included cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) with a ceramic type membrane, reverse osmosis (RO), and rotating evaporation (RE). The filtration fluxes were high and constant for CFM (150 L/h/m2 at 0.6 b) and for RO (22 L/h/m2 at 40 b). The red extract was concentrated 9.4 times by RO and then 5.4 times by RE. It contained 422 mg/L anthocyanins, representing 77% of the total extracted anthocyanin. The proportion of flavonoids was found unchanged during processing. The concentrated extract showed a pH of 2.7, and its free acidity was found to be 46% of the acidity added for extraction, because of the buffering capacity of the extract. At the concentration level reached, a crystallized deposit occurred and was identified as tartrate.

  11. Power Flow Analysis Algorithm for Islanded LV Microgrids Including Distributed Generator Units with Droop Control and Virtual Impedance Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    ) consideration of virtual impedance parameters and (ii) higher accuracy in reactive power flow calculation. The improved power flow analysis algorithm proposed in this paper is validated by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. Case studies have been carried out...

  12. Solution of Strain-Softening Surrounding Rock in Deep Tunnel Incorporating 3D Hoek-Brown Failure Criterion and Flow Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-feng Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of the intermediate principal stress on the stress and displacement of surrounding rock, a novel approach based on 3D Hoek-Brown (H-B failure criterion was proposed. Taking the strain-softening characteristic of rock mass into account, the potential plastic zone is subdivided into a finite number of concentric annulus and a numerical procedure for calculating the stress and displacement of each annulus was presented. Strains were obtained based on the nonassociated and associated flow rule and 3D plastic potential function. Stresses were achieved by the stress equilibrium equation and generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Using the proposed approach, we can get the solutions of the stress and displacement of the surrounding rock considering the intermediate principal stress. Moreover, the proposed approach was validated with the published results. Compared with the results based on generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion, it is shown that the plastic radius calculated by 3D Hoek-Brown failure criterion is smaller than those solved by generalized H-B failure criterion, and the influences of dilatancy effect on the results based on the generalized H-B failure criterion are greater than those based on 3D H-B failure criterion. The displacements considering the nonassociated flow rule are smaller than those considering associated flow rules.

  13. Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

  14. Phase-domain power flows in the rectangular co-ordinates frame of reference including VSC-based FACTS controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles-Camacho, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ingenieria, Edif. Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Acha, E. [Electronics and Electrical Engineering, The University of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    This paper presents a method for systematic modelling of VSC-based FACTS controllers within three-phase power flows in rectangular co-ordinates. Among the FACTS controllers modelled are the STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC and HVDC-VSC. The approach taken is to represent the fundamental frequency operation of each power converter as a three-phase voltage source behind a leakage reactance, where one or two of them may be connected in either series or parallel depending on the FACTS controller being modelled. Active and reactive power flow equations are developed for each voltage source circuit together with constraint equations to account for co-ordinated operation of two converters, such as in modelling of UPFC and HVDC-VSC. The power flow equations representing the VSC-based FACTS controllers are combined with the nodal power equations of the power network for a combined iterative solution using a Newton-Raphson three-phase power flow algorithm in rectangular co-ordinates enabling robust and efficient solutions of three-phase power networks with any number and kind of VSC-based controllers. (author)

  15. Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

  16. TRICARE; Changes included in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007; authorization of anesthesia and other costs for dental care for children and certain other patients. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-25

    This final rule implements section 702 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, Public Law 109-364. The rule provides coverage of contracted medical care with respect to dental care beyond that care required as a necessary adjunct to medical or surgical treatment. The entitlement of institutional and anesthesia services is authorized in conjunction with non-covered dental treatment for patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities or for pediatric patients age 5 or under. This final rule does not eliminate any contracted medical care that is currently covered for spouses and children. The entitlement of anesthesia services includes general anesthesia services only. Institutional services include institutional benefits associated with both hospital and in-out surgery settings. Patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities are those patients with conditions that prohibit dental treatment in a safe and effective manner. Therefore, it is medically or psychologically necessary for these patients to require general anesthesia for dental treatment.

  17. Combining dual-continuum approach with diffusion wave model to include a preferential flow component in hillslope scale modeling of shallow subsurface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; Dohnal, Michal; Gerke, Horst H.

    2012-08-01

    In the absence of overland flow, shallow subsurface runoff is one of the most important mechanisms determining hydrological responses of headwater catchments to rainstorms. Subsurface runoff can be triggered by preferential flow of infiltrating water frequently occurring in heterogeneous and structured soils as a basically one-dimensional (1D) vertical process. Any attempt to include effects of preferential flow in hydrological hillslope studies is limited by the fact that the thickness of the permeable soil is mostly small compared to the length of the hillslope. The objective of this study is to describe preferential flow effects on hillslope-scale subsurface runoff by combining a 1D vertical dual-continuum approach with a 1D lateral flow equation. The 1D vertical flow of water in a variably saturated soil is described by a coupled set of Richards' equations and the 1D saturated lateral flow of water on less permeable bedrock by the diffusion wave equation. The numerical solution of the combined model was used to study rainfall-runoff events on the Tomsovska hillslope by comparing simulated runoff with observed trench discharge data. The dual-continuum model generated the observed rapid runoff response, which served as an input for the lateral flow model. The diffusion wave model parameters (i.e., length of the contributing hillslope, effective porosity, and effective hydraulic conductivity) indicate that the hillslope length that contributed to subsurface drainage is relatively short (in the range of 25-50 m). Significant transformation of the 1D vertical inflow signal by lateral flow is expected for longer hillslopes, smaller effective conductivities, and larger effective porosities. The physically-based combined modeling approach allows for a consistent description of both preferential flow in a 1D vertical soil profile and lateral subsurface hillslope flow in the simplest way.

  18. Video documentation of experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume 1992–2006 (amended to include 2007-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Matthew; Iverson, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    This set of videos presents about 15 hours of footage documenting the 141 experiments conducted at the USGS debris-flow flume from 1992 to 2012. Owing to improvements in video technology over the years, the quality of footage from recent experiments generally exceeds that from earlier experiments. Use the list below to access the individual videos, which are grouped by year and listed by date and subject matter. When an experiment is selected from the list, multiple video sequences are automatically shown in succession, beginning with a far-field overview and proceeding to close-up views and post-experiment documentation. Interpretations and data from experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume are not provided here but can be found in published reports, many of which are available online at: https://profile.usgs.gov/riverson/ A brief introduction to the flume facility is also available online in USGS Open-File Report 92–483 [http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/usgspubs/ofr/ofr92483].

  19. The potential impacts of migratory difficulty, including warmer waters and altered flow conditions, on the reproductive success of salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkes, Miriam; Shiels, Holly A; Fitzpatrick, John L; Nudds, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change and urbanisation of watercourses affect water temperatures and current flow velocities in river systems on a global scale. This represents a particularly critical issue for migratory fish species with complex life histories that use rivers to reproduce. Salmonids are migratory keystone species that provide substantial economical value to ecosystems and human societies. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of environmental stressors on their reproductive success is critical in order to ensure their continued abundance during future climatic change. Salmonids are capital breeders, relying entirely on endogenous energy stores to fuel return migration to their natal spawning sites and reproduction upon arrival. Metabolic rates and cost of transport en-route increase with temperature and at extreme temperatures, swimming is increasingly fuelled anaerobically, resulting in an oxygen debt and reduced capacity to recover from exhaustive exercise. Thermally challenged salmonids also produce less viable gametes, which themselves are affected by water temperature after release. Passage through hydrological barriers and temperature changes both affect energy expenditure. As a result, important energetic tradeoffs emerge between extra energy used during migration and that available for other facets of the reproductive cycle, such as reproductive competition and gamete production. However, studies identifying these tradeoffs are extremely sparse. This review focuses on the specific locomotor responses of salmonids to thermal and hydrological challenges, identifying gaps in our knowledge and highlighting the potential implications for key aspects of their reproduction.

  20. A Priority Rule-Based Heuristic for Resource Investment Project Scheduling Problem with Discounted Cash Flows and Tardiness Penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas Najafi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource investment problem with discounted cash flows (RIPDCFs is a class of project scheduling problem. In RIPDCF, the availability levels of the resources are considered decision variables, and the goal is to find a schedule such that the net present value of the project cash flows optimizes. In this paper, we consider a new RIPDCF in which tardiness of project is permitted with defined penalty. We mathematically formulated the problem and developed a heuristic method to solve it. The results of the performance analysis of the proposed method show an effective solution approach to the problem.

  1. Implementation of an Associative Flow Rule Including Hydrostatic Stress Effects Into the High Strain Rate Deformation Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.; Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    A previously developed analytical formulation has been modified in order to more accurately account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses on the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. State variable constitutive equations originally developed for metals have been modified in order to model the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymeric materials. To account for the effects of hydrostatic stresses, which are significant in polymers, the classical J2 plasticity theory definitions of effective stress and effective inelastic strain, along with the equations used to compute the components of the inelastic strain rate tensor, are appropriately modified. To verify the revised formulation, the shear and tensile deformation of two representative polymers are computed across a wide range of strain rates. Results computed using the developed constitutive equations correlate well with experimental data. The polymer constitutive equations are implemented within a strength of materials based micromechanics method to predict the nonlinear, strain rate dependent deformation of polymer matrix composites. The composite mechanics are verified by analyzing the deformation of a representative polymer matrix composite for several fiber orientation angles across a variety of strain rates. The computed values compare well to experimentally obtained results.

  2. 2D design rule and layout analysis using novel large-area first-principles-based simulation flow incorporating lithographic and stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Steven L.; Blatchford, James; Olubuyide, Oluwamuyiwa; Riley, Deborah; Chang, Simon; Hong, Qi-Zhong; Kim, T. S.; Borges, Ricardo; Lin, Li

    2009-03-01

    As design rules and corresponding logic standard cell layouts continue to shrink node-on-node in accordance with Moore's law, complex 2D interactions, both intra-cell and between cells, become much more prominent. For example, in lithography, lack of scaling of λ/NA implies aggressive use of resolution enhancement techniques to meet logic scaling requirements-resulting in adverse effects such as 'forbidden pitches'-and also implies an increasing range of optical influence relative to cell size. These adverse effects are therefore expected to extend well beyond the cell boundary, leading to lithographic marginalities that occur only when a given cell is placed "in context" with other neighboring cells in a variable design environment [1]. This context dependence is greatly exacerbated by increased use of strain engineering techniques such as SiGe and dual-stress liners (DSL) to enhance transistor performance, both of which also have interaction lengths on the order of microns. The use of these techniques also breaks the formerly straightforward connection between lithographic 'shapes' and end-of-line electrical performance, thus making the formulation of design rules that are robust to process variations and complex 2D interactions more difficult. To address these issues, we have developed a first-principles-based simulation flow to study contextdependent electrical effects in layout, arising not only from lithography, but also from stress and interconnect parasitic effects. This flow is novel in that it can be applied to relatively large layout clips- required for context-dependent analysis-without relying on semi-empirical or 'black-box' models for the fundamental electrical effects. The first-principles-based approach is ideal for understanding contextdependent effects early in the design phase, so that they can be mitigated through restrictive design rules. The lithographic simulations have been discussed elsewhere [1] and will not be presented in detail. The

  3. Research on spatial association rules mining in two-direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Li-xia; WANG Zuo-cheng

    2007-01-01

    In data mining from transaction DB, the relationships between the attributes have been focused, but the relationships between the tuples have not been taken into account. In spatial database, there are relationships between the attributes and the tuples, and most of the associations occur between the tuples, such as adjacent, intersection, overlap and other topological relationships. So the tasks of spatial data association rules mining include mining the relationships between attributes of spatial objects, which are called as vertical direction DM, and the relationships between the tuples, which are called as horizontal direction DM. This paper analyzes the storage models of spatial data, uses for reference the technologies of data mining in transaction DB, defines the spatial data association rule, including vertical direction association rule, horizontal direction association rule and two-direction association rule, discusses the measurement of spatial association rule interestingness, and puts forward the work flows of spatial association rule data mining. During two-direction spatial association rules mining, an algorithm is proposed to get non-spatial itemsets. By virtue of spatial analysis, the spatial relations were transferred into non-spatial associations and the non-spatial itemsets were gotten. Based on the non-spatial itemsets, the Apriori algorithm or other algorithms could be used to get the frequent itemsets and then the spatial association rules come into being. Using spatial DB, the spatial association rules were gotten to validate the algorithm, and the test results show that this algorithm is efficient and can mine the interesting spatial rules.

  4. Dodgson's Rule Approximations and Absurdity

    CERN Document Server

    McCabe-Dansted, John C

    2010-01-01

    With the Dodgson rule, cloning the electorate can change the winner, which Young (1977) considers an "absurdity". Removing this absurdity results in a new rule (Fishburn, 1977) for which we can compute the winner in polynomial time (Rothe et al., 2003), unlike the traditional Dodgson rule. We call this rule DC and introduce two new related rules (DR and D&). Dodgson did not explicitly propose the "Dodgson rule" (Tideman, 1987); we argue that DC and DR are better realizations of the principle behind the Dodgson rule than the traditional Dodgson rule. These rules, especially D&, are also effective approximations to the traditional Dodgson's rule. We show that, unlike the rules we have considered previously, the DC, DR and D& scores differ from the Dodgson score by no more than a fixed amount given a fixed number of alternatives, and thus these new rules converge to Dodgson under any reasonable assumption on voter behaviour, including the Impartial Anonymous Culture assumption.

  5. ASEAN Single Market: Revisiting Rules and Strategies on the Enforcement of Free Flow of Goods in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Febrian Anwar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether we are ready or not, people in Indonesia and the rest of Southeastern Asia will soon welcome the ASEAN Economic Communities (AEC by the end 2015. Therefore, there are needs to evaluate the progress in ASEAN rules and strategies thus far. By employing normative study, this paper finds and further recommends the following: Firstly, ASEAN almost reached its peak points in eliminating the tariff barriers, yet to come are the elimination on ‘sensitive’ and ‘highly sensitive list’ tariffs on imported agriculture commodities; Secondly, Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB remain to be one of the major problems in intra-ASEAN trades; Thirdly, Member States reluctances to invoke the ASEAN dispute settlement mechanism for their trading disputes may potentially hinder the effectiveness of AEC in the future; and Finally, the protection of intellectual property remains low in the region as the ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights (IPR Action plan 2011-2015 is still deemed ineffective to reforms the IP regulations within Member States.

  6. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  7. The role of traffic rules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Experienced road users seem to have their own set of traffic rules (including rules about when to violate the official rules). The number of violations is enormous, causing great concern for the authorities. The situation could be improved by separating a set of rules with the aim of deterring road

  8. A curve shortening flow rule for closed embedded plane curves with a prescribed rate of change in enclosed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael C; McCue, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a problem from fluid mechanics, we consider a generalization of the standard curve shortening flow problem for a closed embedded plane curve such that the area enclosed by the curve is forced to decrease at a prescribed rate. Using formal asymptotic and numerical techniques, we derive possible extinction shapes as the curve contracts to a point, dependent on the rate of decreasing area; we find there is a wider class of extinction shapes than for standard curve shortening, for which initially simple closed curves are always asymptotically circular. We also provide numerical evidence that self-intersection is possible for non-convex initial conditions, distinguishing between pinch-off and coalescence of the curve interior.

  9. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  10. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  11. Extended dynamic model for ion diffusion in all-vanadium redox flow battery including the effects of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrinarayanan, Rajagopalan; Zhao, Jiyun; Tseng, K. J.; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2014-12-01

    As with all redox flow batteries, the Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB) can suffer from capacity loss as the vanadium ions diffuse at different rates leading to a build-up on one half-cell and dilution on the other. In this paper an extended dynamic model of the vanadium ion transfer is developed including the effect of temperature and bulk electrolyte transfer. The model is used to simulate capacity decay for a range of different ion exchange membranes that are being used in the VRB. The simulations show that Selemion CMV and Nafion 115 membranes have similar behavior where the impact of temperature on capacity loss is highest within the first 100 cycles. The results for Selemion AMV membrane however are seen to be very different where the capacity loss at different temperatures observed to increase linearly with increasing charging/discharging cycles. The model is made more comprehensive by including the effect of bulk electrolyte transfer. A volume change of 19% is observed in each half-cell for Nafion 115 membrane based on the simulation parameters. The effect of this change in volume directly affects concentration, and the characteristics are analyzed for each vanadium species as well as the overall concentration in the half-cells.

  12. Evaluation of the SediMax automated microscopy sediment analyzer and the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer as screening tools to rule out negative urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Carrasco, María; Marcó, Clara; Fernández, Anabel; Casamajor, Teresa; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent in nosocomial and community settings, and their diagnosis is costly and time-consuming. Screening methods represent an important advance towards the final UTI diagnosis, diminishing inappropriate treatment or clinical complications. Automated analyzers have been developed and commercialized to screen and rule out negative urine samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate two of these automated analyzers (SediMax, an automatic sediment analyzer and UF-1000i a flow cytometer) to predict negative urine cultures. A total of 1934 urine samples were analyzed. A very strong correlation for white blood cells (WBC) (rs: 0.928) and a strong correlation for bacteria (BAC) (rs: 0.693) were obtained. We also calculated optimal cut-off points for both autoanalyzers: 18 WBC/μL and 97 BAC/μL for SediMax (sensitivity=96.25%, specificity=63.04%, negative predictive value=97.97%), and 40 WBC/μL and 460 BAC/μL for UF-1000i (sensitivity=98.13%, specificity=79.16%, negative predictive value=99.18%). The use of SediMax and UF-1000i resulted in a 46.33% and 57.19% reduction of all samples cultured, respectively. In conclusion, both analyzers are good UTI screening tools in our setting.

  13. TANF Rules Data Base

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Single source providing information on Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program rules among States and across years (currently 1996-2010), including...

  14. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Fuks, H; Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    1997-01-01

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parametrized by the speed limit $m$ and another parameter $k$ that represents a ``degree of aggressiveness'' in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: ``conservative'' driving with high speed limit and ``aggressive'' driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  15. Lithofacies classification and development rule of gravity flows deposits%重力流沉积岩相划分及其发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 李振海; 张学娟; 刘敏; 申家年

    2015-01-01

    在Tailling等分类的基础上建立基于沉积过程中的流变学特征和沉积物支撑机制的滑塌流-浊流-碎屑流三分(滑塌岩相、碎屑流岩相和浊积岩相)14个序列的重力流岩相划分体系;结合鄂尔多斯盆地合水地区长7段大量的岩心资料,并借助于测井曲线和录井数据,对合水地区长7段重力流沉积的岩相及岩相组合进行识别。结果表明:合水地区主要发育5类重力流沉积岩相组合类型,即低密度浊流组合、高密度浊流组合、黏滞性碎屑流组合、弱黏滞性碎屑流组合以及滑塌岩组合;对比合水地区重力流沉积空间发现,滑塌岩相发育范围相对局限,主要发育于三角洲前缘失稳区,碎屑流沉积主要发育于斜坡带-坡折带处,浊流沉积的分布范围最广;“浅水凸形”坡折带位于三角洲前缘或三角洲平原附近,是重力流重要的触发区,主要控制正常牵引流三角洲前缘中松散的水下分流河道砂体沉积;“深水凹形”坡折带位于前三角洲深水区,是深水重力流砂体主要的卸载沉积区。%Building upon prior investigations of Talling and others, a three-fold classification of gravity flow lithofacies was es-tablished based primarily on fluid rheological characteristics and sediment-support mechanisms of depositional processes. The new classification mainly contains slumps lithofacies, debris flow lithofacies and turbidite lithofacies, corresponding to the de-posits of slump, debris flow and turbidity current respectively, and can be further subdivided into 14 lithofacies. Using the a-bundant core data and logging data, lithofacies and lithofacies associations of gravity flows deposits were identified in Chang 7 Member of Heshui region, Ordos Basin. The results show that there are five types of lithofacies associations developed in Hes-hui region, including the low density turbidite association, the high density turbidite

  16. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy: II. Numerical predictions and experimental tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new depth-averaged mathematical model that is designed to simulate all stages of debris-flow motion, from initiation to deposition. A companion paper shows how the model’s five governing equations describe simultaneous evolution of flow thickness, solid volume fraction, basal pore-fluid pressure, and two components of flow momentum. Each equation contains a source term that represents the influence of state-dependent granular dilatancy. Here we recapitulate the equations and analyze their eigenstructure to show that they form a hyperbolic system with desirable stability properties. To solve the equations we use a shock-capturing numerical scheme with adaptive mesh refinement, implemented in an open-source software package we call D-Claw. As tests of D-Claw, we compare model output with results from two sets of large-scale debris-flow experiments. One set focuses on flow initiation from landslides triggered by rising pore-water pressures, and the other focuses on downstream flow dynamics, runout, and deposition. D-Claw performs well in predicting evolution of flow speeds, thicknesses, and basal pore-fluid pressures measured in each type of experiment. Computational results illustrate the critical role of dilatancy in linking coevolution of the solid volume fraction and pore-fluid pressure, which mediates basal Coulomb friction and thereby regulates debris-flow dynamics.

  17. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a category of strong and electromagnetic interaction selection rules for the two-body connected decay and production of exotic J^{PC} = 0^{+-}, 1^{-+}, 2^{+-}, 3^{-+}, ... hybrid and four-quark mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in addition to Bose symmetry and CP invariance. Examples include various decays to \\eta'\\eta, \\eta\\pi, \\eta'\\pi and four-quark interpretations of a 1^{-+} signal.

  18. A computer program for the calculation of the flow field including boundary layer effects for mixed-compression inlets at angle of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadyak, J.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program was developed which is capable of calculating the flow field in the supersonic portion of a mixed compression aircraft inlet operating at angle of attack. The supersonic core flow is computed using a second-order three dimensional method-of-characteristics algorithm. The bow shock and the internal shock train are treated discretely using a three dimensional shock fitting procedure. The boundary layer flows are computed using a second-order implicit finite difference method. The shock wave-boundary layer interaction is computed using an integral formulation. The general structure of the computer program is discussed, and a brief description of each subroutine is given. All program input parameters are defined, and a brief discussion on interpretation of the output is provided. A number of sample cases, complete with data listings, are provided.

  19. Flow, simulation and dynamics. Including a contribution of Vienna University (TU Wien); Stroemung, Simulation und Dynamik. Mit einem Beitrag der TU Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauder, K. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This report covers the following topics: Gas-flow through clearances in screw vacuum pumps - part 1, gas flow research at a plane screw type machine model - part 2, two-phase screw-type engine - problems of the filling process, oil as a design parameter in screw-type engines - use of non-newtonian oils, experimental determination of the dynamic properties of screw compressors, hot gas screw-type engine - simulations as a basis for construction - part 3. [Deutsch] Dieser Bericht hat folgende Inhalte: Gasspaltstroemungen in Schraubenspindel-Vakuumpumpen - Teil 1, Gasspaltstroemungen in einem ebenen Schraubenmaschinenmodell - Teil 2, Zweiphasen-Schraubenmotor-Probleme des Fuellungsvorganges, Oel als Konstruktionselement - Einsatz nicht-newtonscher Oele, die experimentelle Bestimmung der dynamischen Eigenschaften von Schraubenkompressoren, die Heissgasschraubenmaschine - simulationsgestuetzte Auslegung - Teil 3

  20. 1983 AFOSR/AFRPL Chemical Rocket Research Meeting, Abstracts and Agenda. Includes: Abstracts on Advanced Diagnostics of Reacting Flow, 28 February - 3 March 1983, Lancaster, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    past year, work continued on the build-up of the new ablation system, which will use a heliostat in conjuction with a solar concentrator to heat the...the velocity profile transitions towards a turbulent flow profile. Measurements with low amplitude pressure oscilla- tirns (0.05%) show heat transfer...FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT SURFACE DC-COMPONENT: ACOUSTIC STREAMING, HEAT TRANSFER (FIRST ORDER), WHEN U, V NOT OUT OF PHASE, NET WITH PHASE RELATIVE TO X

  1. Development and Assessment of CFD Models Including a Supplemental Program Code for Analyzing Buoyancy-Driven Flows Through BWR Fuel Assemblies in SFP Complete LOCA Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnak, Edward Joseph, III

    This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.

  2. Optimized reaction mechanism rate rules for ignition of normal alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming

    2016-08-11

    The increasing demand for cleaner combustion and reduced greenhouse gas emissions motivates research on the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and their surrogates. Accurate detailed chemical kinetic models are an important prerequisite for high fidelity reacting flow simulations capable of improving combustor design and operation. The development of such models for many new fuel components and/or surrogate molecules is greatly facilitated by the application of reaction classes and rate rules. Accurate and versatile rate rules are desirable to improve the predictive accuracy of kinetic models. A major contribution in the literature is the recent work by Bugler et al. (2015), which has significantly improved rate rules and thermochemical parameters used in kinetic modeling of alkanes. In the present study, it is demonstrated that rate rules can be used and consistently optimized for a set of normal alkanes including n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane, thereby improving the predictive accuracy for all the considered fuels. A Bayesian framework is applied in the calibration of the rate rules. The optimized rate rules are subsequently applied to generate a mechanism for n-dodecane, which was not part of the training set for the optimized rate rules. The developed mechanism shows accurate predictions compared with published well-validated mechanisms for a wide range of conditions.

  3. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  4. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    Thomas Arne’s The Masque of Alfred (1740) with a libretto by James Thomson and David Mallet was written and performed in the historical context of George II’s reign where a kind of constitutional monarchy based on the Bill of Rights from 1689 was granting civil rights to the early bourgeoisie...... of the Proms, and this article considers it as a global real-time media event. “Rule, Britannia!” is placed in the contexts of political history, cultural history and experience economy....

  5. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  6. Nonzero Solubility Rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉志武; 周蕊; 刘芸

    2002-01-01

    A solubility-related rule, nonzero solubility rule, is introduced in this paper. It is complementary to the existing rules such as the "like dissolves like" rule and can be understood on the basis of classical chemical thermodynamics.

  7. Ricci flow coupled with harmonic map flow

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Reto

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a new geometric flow which consists of a coupled system of the Ricci flow on a closed manifold M with the harmonic map flow of a map phi from M to some closed target manifold N with a (possibly time-dependent) positive coupling constant alpha. This system can be interpreted as the gradient flow of an energy functional F_alpha which is a modification of Perelman's energy F for the Ricci flow, including the Dirichlet energy for the map phi. Surprisingly, the coupled system may be less singular than the Ricci flow or the harmonic map flow alone. In particular, we can always rule out energy concentration of phi a-priori - without any assumptions on the curvature of the target manifold N - by choosing alpha large enough. Moreover, if alpha is bounded away from zero it suffices to bound the curvature of (M,g(t)) to also obtain control of phi and all its derivatives - a result which is clearly not true for alpha = 0. Besides these new phenomena, the flow shares many good properties with the Ricci flow...

  8. Provide a suitable range to include the thermal creeping effect on slip velocity and temperature jump of an air flow in a nanochannel by lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour, Arash

    2017-01-01

    The thermal creeping effect on slip velocity of air forced convection through a nanochannel is studied for the first time by using a lattice Boltzmann method. The nanochannel side walls are kept hot while the cold inlet air streams along them. The computations are presented for the wide range of Reynolds number, Knudsen number and Eckert number while slip velocity and temperature jump effects are involved. Moreover appropriate validations are performed versus previous works concerned the micro-nanoflows. The achieved results are shown as the velocity and temperature profiles at different cross sections, streamlines and isotherms and also the values of slip velocity and temperature jump along the nanochannel walls. The ability of the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate the thermal creeping effects on hydrodynamic and thermal domains of flow is shown at this study; so that its effects should be involved at lower values of Eckert number and higher values of Reynolds number especially at entrance region where the most temperature gradient exists.

  9. Algorithm Optimally Orders Forward-Chaining Inference Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People typically develop knowledge bases in a somewhat ad hoc manner by incrementally adding rules with no specific organization. This often results in a very inefficient execution of those rules since they are so often order sensitive. This is relevant to tasks like Deep Space Network in that it allows the knowledge base to be incrementally developed and have it automatically ordered for efficiency. Although data flow analysis was first developed for use in compilers for producing optimal code sequences, its usefulness is now recognized in many software systems including knowledge-based systems. However, this approach for exhaustively computing data-flow information cannot directly be applied to inference systems because of the ubiquitous execution of the rules. An algorithm is presented that efficiently performs a complete producer/consumer analysis for each antecedent and consequence clause in a knowledge base to optimally order the rules to minimize inference cycles. An algorithm was developed that optimally orders a knowledge base composed of forwarding chaining inference rules such that independent inference cycle executions are minimized, thus, resulting in significantly faster execution. This algorithm was integrated into the JPL tool Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) for verification and it resulted in a significant reduction in inference cycles for what was previously considered an ordered knowledge base. For a knowledge base that is completely unordered, then the improvement is much greater.

  10. Number-conserving cellular automaton rules

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Boccara, Nino; Fuks, Henryk

    1999-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for a one-dimensional q-state n-input cellular automaton rule to be number-conserving is established. Two different forms of simpler and more visual representations of these rules are given, and their flow diagrams are determined. Various examples are presented and applications to car traffic are indicated. Two nontrivial three-state three-input self-conjugate rules have been found. They can be used to model the dynamics of random walkers.

  11. Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Connaughton

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs.

  12. A numerical approach for the direct computation of flows including fluid-solid interaction: modeling contact angle, film rupture, and dewetting

    CERN Document Server

    Mahady, K; Kondic, L

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient method for including fluid-solid interactions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier--Stokes equations. This method is found to be as powerful as our earlier formulation [J. Comp. Phys., vol. 249: 243 (2015)], while outperforming the earlier method in terms of computational efficiency. The performance and efficacy of the presented method are demonstrated by computing contact angles of droplets at equilibrium. Furthermore, we study the instability of films due to destabilizing fluid-solid interactions, and discuss the influence of contact angle and inertial effects on film breakup. In particular, direct simulation results show an increase in the final characteristic length scales when compared to the predictions of a linear stability analysis, suggesting significant influence of nonlinear effects. Our results also show that emerging length scales differ, depending on a number of physical dimensions considered.

  13. A numerical approach for the direct computation of flows including fluid-solid interaction: Modeling contact angle, film rupture, and dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, K.; Afkhami, S.; Kondic, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient method for including fluid-solid interactions into direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. This method is found to be as powerful as our earlier formulation [K. Mahady et al., "A volume of fluid method for simulating fluid/fluid interfaces in contact with solid boundaries," J. Comput. Phys. 294, 243 (2015)], while outperforming the earlier method in terms of computational efficiency. The performance and efficacy of the presented method are demonstrated by computing contact angles of droplets at equilibrium. Furthermore, we study the instability of films due to destabilizing fluid-solid interactions, and discuss the influence of contact angle and inertial effects on film breakup. In particular, direct simulation results show an increase in the final characteristic length scales when compared to the predictions of a linear stability analysis, suggesting significant influence of nonlinear effects. Our results also show that emerging length scales differ, depending on a number of physical dimensions considered.

  14. Novel Power Flow Problem Solutions Method’s Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Banks Capacitor Compensation Using an Fuzzy Logic Rule Bases for Critical Nodal Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Abdelfatah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm  optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  15. Modified Sandwich-graft Technique Employing Aorfix and Viabahn Stent-grafts to Preserve Hypogastric Flow in Cases of Complex Aortoiliac and Isolated Common Iliac Artery Aneurysms Including the Internal Iliac Artery Ostium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C S; Naji, Y; Hussain, S T; Pleban, E; Wiszniewski, A; Onida, S; Mosquera Arochena, N J; Szopinski, P

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to assess the early and mid-term safety and clinical outcomes of a modified sandwich-graft technique (MSGT) that employed the Aorfix and Viabahn stent-grafts to preserve hypogastric flow in cases of complex aortoiliac and isolated common iliac artery (CIA) aneurysms including internal iliac artery (IIA) ostium who were not suitable for an iliac branch device (IBD). A review of prospective collected data of all consecutive cases of treatment of complex aortoiliac or isolated CIA aneurysms including IIA ostium using the MSGT to preserve the hypogastric flow in three European centres between April 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, was performed. All patients included were unfit for open repair and not suitable for an IBD. During the study period, 21 patients met the study criteria and had 25 MSGTs. The mean follow-up duration was 17.2 months. The technical success rate was 100%, with no perioperative mortality and stent-graft or MSGT-treated IIA occlusions. There were two cases with Type Ib endoleaks and one Type III endoleaks intraoperatively that were successfully managed. There was also no reported early and late pelvic ischaemia. The primary patency rate was 90.5%, and two cases of MGST treated IIA occlusions with no reported symptoms of pelvic ischaemia during follow-up. MSGT was a safe and feasible strategy to preserve hypogastric flow in cases of complex aortoiliac and isolated CIA aneurysms including IIA ostium and who were not suitable for IBD, with encouraging early and mid-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  17. Study on the Flow Rules of Highway Rainwater Runoff Pollutants%高速公路路面雨水径流污染物出流规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 李贺; 傅大放

    2012-01-01

    Based on the monitoring data of rainwater runoff at Lukou viaduct of Nanjing airport highway, as well as the research achievements both at home and abroad, the flow rules of highway rainwater runoff pollutants were discussed, the event mean concentration ( EMC) and influential factors of the highway runoff were studied. The results showed that the flow rules of COD and SS were similar, when the precipitation a-mount and intensity were large, the concentrations of COD and SS were high, then gradually decreased and finally became stable, the primary runoff effect was significant; but when the precipitation amount and intensity became small, the concentrations of COD and SS experienced small fluctuations without significant primary effect. The rainwater runoff of road surface was seriously polluted, the EMCs of each pollutants were 238, 196, 3. 86, 11. 93 and 0. 89 mg/L for SS, COD, NH3-N and TP. The pollutants were influenced by the factors in this order; number of previous sunny days > precipitation intensity > rainfall amount and rainfall duration.%基于南京机场高速公路禄口高架桥降雨径流监测资料,结合国内外的研究成果,探讨了高速公路路面降雨径流污染物的出流规律,路面径流事件平均浓度及其影响因素.研究表明,COD与SS的出流规律基本类似,当降雨量和降雨强度较大时初期浓度较高,随后逐渐减小,最终趋于稳定,径流初期效应显著;当降雨量和降雨历时较小时,COD与SS浓度波动较小,初期效应不明显.路面降雨径流污染严重,各污染物EMC平均值分别为:SS 238 mg/L、COD 196 mg/L、NH3-N 3.86 mg/L、TN 11.93 mg/L、TPO.89 mg/L.降雨特性对各污染物影响权重为:前期晴天数>降雨强度>降雨量、降雨历时.

  18. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  19. Service dogs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  20. Pair Triplet Association Rule Generation in Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Thool

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many applications involve the generation and analysis of a new kind of data, called stream data, where data flows in and out of an observation platform or window dynamically. Such data streams have the unique features such as huge or possibly infinite volume, dynamically changing, flowing in or out in a fixed order, allowing only one or a small number of scans. An important problem in data stream mining is that of finding frequent items in the stream. This problem finds application across several domains such as financial systems, web traffic monitoring, internet advertising, retail and e-business. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining technique for stream data. The Space-Saving algorithm reports both frequent and top-k elements with tight guarantees on errors. We also develop the notion of association rules in streams of elements. The Streaming-Rules algorithm is integrated with Space-Saving algorithm to report 1-1 association rules with tight guarantees on errors, using minimal space, and limited processing per element and we are using Apriori algorithm for static datasets and generation of association rules and implement Streaming-Rules algorithm for pair, triplet association rules. We compare the top- rules of static datasets with output of stream datasets and find percentage of error.

  1. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  2. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  3. Bonnet Ruled Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Filiz KANBAY

    2005-01-01

    We consider the Bonnet ruled surfaces which admit only one non-trivial isometry that preserves the principal curvatures. We determine the Bonnet ruled surfaces whose generators and orthogonal trajectories form a special net called an A-net.

  4. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  5. Cosmological diagrammatic rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.

  6. RGANN: An Efficient Algorithm to Extract Rules from ANNs

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient rule generation algorithm, called rule generation from artificial neural networks (RGANN) to generate symbolic rules from ANNs. Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. A standard three-layer feedforward ANN is the basis of the algorithm. A four-phase training algorithm is proposed for backpropagation learning. Comparing them to the symbolic rules generated by other methods supports explicitness of the generated rules. Generated rules are comparable with other methods in terms of number of rules, average number of conditions for a rule, and predictive accuracy. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmarks classification problems, including breast cancer, wine, season, golf-playing, and ...

  7. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  8. Stochastic cycle selection in active flow networks

    CERN Document Server

    Woodhouse, Francis G; Fawcett, Joanna B; Dunkel, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Active biological flow networks pervade nature and span a wide range of scales, from arterial blood vessels and bronchial mucus transport in humans to bacterial flow through porous media or plasmodial shuttle streaming in slime molds. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the self-organization principles that govern flow statistics in such non-equilibrium networks. Here we connect concepts from lattice field theory, graph theory, and transition rate theory to understand how topology controls dynamics in a generic model for actively driven flow on a network. Our combined theoretical and numerical analysis identifies symmetry-based rules that make it possible to classify and predict the selection statistics of complex flow cycles from the network topology. The conceptual framework developed here is applicable to a broad class of non-biological far-from-equilibrium networks, including actively controlled information flows, and establishes a new correspondence between active flow networks and generalized ...

  9. Stochastic cycle selection in active flow networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Francis; Forrow, Aden; Fawcett, Joanna; Dunkel, Jorn

    2016-11-01

    Active biological flow networks pervade nature and span a wide range of scales, from arterial blood vessels and bronchial mucus transport in humans to bacterial flow through porous media or plasmodial shuttle streaming in slime molds. Despite their ubiquity, little is known about the self-organization principles that govern flow statistics in such non-equilibrium networks. By connecting concepts from lattice field theory, graph theory and transition rate theory, we show how topology controls dynamics in a generic model for actively driven flow on a network. Through theoretical and numerical analysis we identify symmetry-based rules to classify and predict the selection statistics of complex flow cycles from the network topology. Our conceptual framework is applicable to a broad class of biological and non-biological far-from-equilibrium networks, including actively controlled information flows, and establishes a new correspondence between active flow networks and generalized ice-type models.

  10. Parton model sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hinchliffe, Ian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Kwiatkowski, Axel

    1996-01-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of various Parton Model sum rules. The basis of the sum rules in perturbative QCD is discussed. Their use in extracting the value of the strong coupling constant is evaluated and the failure of the naive version of some of these rules is assessed.

  11. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  12. 31 CFR 205.9 - What is included in a Treasury-State agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR EFFICIENT FEDERAL-STATE FUNDS TRANSFERS Rules Applicable to Federal Assistance Programs Included in...

  13. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  14. Analysis of transient stability of power system including large scale wind power based on the extended equal area rule%基于扩展等面积定则的含大规模风电场电力系统暂态稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俐; 杨以涵

    2012-01-01

    When wind farms are connected into the grid with high capacity and multi-point, and they are centralized and located far away from load centers, the electrical connection between wind farms and the grid is usually weak. So the impact of large scale wind power on the grid is extended from local issues to the issue of system stability. Unlike conventional power plants, grid-connected wind farms have their inherent characteristics which make the power system transient stability become more complex. In the paper, the power system transient stability including large scale wind farms is analyzed theoretically based on extended equal area rule. The value of wind turbines power is equaled to the mechanical power of the equivalent synchronous generators. The effect of the control of wind farms on the equivalent mechanical power of synchronous machine is also considered. Then according to the method, the power system transient stability including large scale wind farms is discussed. At last, the effectiveness of the mechanism is verified by simulation. In this paper, the equal area rule is extended to analyze the power system transient stability including wind farm. This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51190103) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2011AA05A104).%当风电大容量、集中、多点并入电网,且远离负荷区域,导致机网间联系薄弱,使得风电对电网的影响由局部问题扩展到系统稳定性问题.由于风电机组不同于常规电源的特性,使得含大规模风电场的电网暂态稳定性分析成为一个亟待解决课题.基于扩展等面积定则从理论上分析含风电场的电力系统暂态稳定性,将风电场功率等值为同步发电机的机械功率,考虑了风电场控制作用对同步发电机等值机械功率的影响,据此分析了风电场并网运行对系统暂态稳定影响的机理.最后通过仿真验证

  15. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    is binary if it is rationalized by an acyclic binary relation. The foregoing result motivates our definition of a binary effectivity rule as the effectivity rule of some binary SCR. A binary SCR is regular if it satisfies unanimity, monotonicity, and independence of infeasible alternatives. A binary...... effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  16. Coordinating monetary and fiscal policies: a role for rules?

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Ashima

    2002-01-01

    The chapter argues for rules to coordinate monetary and fiscal policies. But the rules are rule like only in imposing forward-looking behaviour, while they allow the discretion to respond to shocks. They would serve to anchor expectations, and align private sector actions with desired outcomes. Many countries have used rules, but credible rules have to be suited to a country’s circumstances, which include both structure and political economy. These aspects help to explain past policy choices ...

  17. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  18. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  19. Production mask composition checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Wang, Alice; Lin, Roger; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    The mask composition checking flow is an evolution of the traditional mask rule check (MRC). In order to differentiate the flow from MRC, we call it Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC). The mask house does MRC only to identify process limitations including writing, etching, metrology, etc. There still exist many potential errors that could occur when the frame, main circuit and dummies all together form a whole reticle. The MDCC flow combines the design rule check (DRC) and MRC concepts to adapt to the complex patterns in today's wafer production technologies. Although photomask data has unique characteristics, the MRC tool in Calibre® MDP can easily achieve mask composition by using the Extended MEBES job deck (EJB) format. In EJB format, we can customize the combination of any input layers in an IC design layout format, such as OASIS. Calibre MDP provides section-based processing for many standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands that support DRC-like checks on mask data. Integrating DRC-like checking with EJB for layer composition, we actually perform reticle-level DRC, which is the essence of MDCC. The flow also provides an early review environment before the photomask pattern files are available. Furthermore, to incorporate the MDCC in our production flow, runtime is one of the most important indexes we consider. When the MDCC is included in the tape-out flow, the runtime impact is very limited. Calibre, with its multi-threaded processes and good scalability, is the key to achieving acceptable runtime. In this paper, we present real case runtime data for 28nm and 14nm technology nodes, and prove the practicability of placing MDCC into mass production.

  20. Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling by Using Ant Colony System Combined with Dispatching Rules%蚁群系统结合指派规则求解HFS调度问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈国强; 李俊芳; 侯东亮

    2012-01-01

    以NP-难的最小化时间表长为目标的混合流水车间调度问题为研究对象.把工件在第1阶段开始加工的排序问题转化为旅行商问题,采用蚁群系统求得初始排序;在第1阶段后各阶段采用工件先到先服务规则选择工件、最先空闲机器优先规则选择机器以构建初始工件的机器指派与排序;充分利用已知的机器布局和工件加工时间特点,确定工件加工瓶颈阶段,并以此为基础对工件的机器指派与排序进行改进.用Carlier和Neron设计的Benchmark算例仿真后与著名的NEH算法比较,表明这种算法是有效的.%The scheduling problem of hybrid flow shop with makespan as objective is discussed. In a hybrid flow shop, there are multiple machines at each stage and its scheduling problem is known to be NP-hard. A new method is proposed in this paper. By the proposed method, for the first stage, the job sequencing is formulated as a traveling salesman problem and the ant colony method is used to solve it. For the following stages, dispatching rules, such as first come first served and first available machine first, are used to obtain an initial solution. Then, the initial solution is improved by identifying the bottleneck stage in taking the advantage of knowledge about job processing times and machine configurations. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, it is tested by using the Carlier and Neron's benchmark problems. It is shown that proposed method is effective and outperforms the well-known Nawaz-Enscore-Ham (NEH) heuristic.

  1. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  2. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  3. Measuring interesting rules in Characteristic rule

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits

    2010-01-01

    Finding interesting rule in the sixth strategy step about threshold control on generalized relations in attribute oriented induction, there is possibility to select candidate attribute for further generalization and merging of identical tuples until the number of tuples is no greater than the threshold value, as implemented in basic attribute oriented induction algorithm. At this strategy step there is possibility the number of tuples in final generalization result still greater than threshold value. In order to get the final generalization result which only small number of tuples and can be easy to transfer into simple logical formula, the seventh strategy step about rule transformation is evolved where there will be simplification by unioning or grouping the identical attribute. Our approach to measure interesting rule is opposite with heuristic measurement approach by Fudger and Hamilton where the more complex concept hierarchies, more interesting results are likely to be found, but our approach the simple...

  4. Symmetrization Selection Rules, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Page, P R

    1996-01-01

    We introduce strong interaction selection rules for the two-body decay and production of hybrid and conventional mesons coupling to two S-wave hybrid or conventional mesons. The rules arise from symmetrization in states in the limit of non-relativistically moving quarks. The conditions under which hybrid coupling to S-wave states is suppressed are determined by the rules, and the nature of their breaking is indicated.

  5. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  6. The Role of Phonological Rules in Speech Understanding Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshika, Beatrice T.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents phonological rules describing systematic pronunciation variation in natural continuous speech. It is argued that a speech unders tanding system must explain such variation by incorporating phonological rules. Spectrographic findings are included. (C K)

  7. Total Coliform Rule Distribution System Advisory Committee (TCRDSAC) Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provide information about the TCRDSAC, including its charter, processes and recommendations. The Agency used the Advisory Committee recommendations to develop proposed and final rules that revised the Total Coliform Rule.

  8. Madelung rule violation statistics and superheavy elements electron shell prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Loza, E

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents tetrahedron periodic table to conveniently include superheavy elements. Madelung rule violation statistics is discussed and a model for Madelung rule violation probability calculation is proposed. On its basis superheavy elements probable electron shell structure is determined.

  9. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  10. Organisational Rules in Schools: Teachers' Opinions about Functions of Rules, Rule-Following and Breaking Behaviours in Relation to Their Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkasimoglu, Nihan; Aydin, Inayet; Erdogan, Cetin; Akin, Ugur

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to examine teachers' opinions about functions of school rules, reasons for rule-breaking and results of rule-breaking in relation to their locus of control, gender, age, seniority and branch. 350 public elementary school teachers in Ankara are included in the correlational survey model study. According to the…

  11. Stable canonical rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iemhoff, R.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stable canonical rules and prove that each normal modal multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by stable canonical rules. We apply these results to construct finite refutation patterns for modal formulas, and prove that each normal modal logic is axiomatizable by stable

  12. Branes and wrapping rules

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IIA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IIA/IIB string theory contains a whole class of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles.

  13. Branes and Wrapping Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Riccioni, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that the branes of ten-dimensional IA/IIB string theory must satisfy, upon toroidal compactification, specific wrapping rules in order to reproduce the number of supersymmetric branes that follows from a supergravity analysis. The realization of these wrapping rules suggests that IA/IIB stri

  14. Scoped Dynamic Rewrite Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Eelco

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of term rewriting to program transformation is limited by the lack of control over rule application and by the context-free nature of rewrite rules. The first problem is addressed by languages supporting user-definable rewriting strategies. This paper addresses the second problem b

  15. Botanical Files on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). On the chance for gene flow between wild and cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. including L. serriola L., Compositae) and the generalized implications for risk-assessments on genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frietema de Vries, F.T.; Meijden, van der R.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Botanical Files, a study of the real chances for gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild a system of dispersal codes (Dpdf) was introduced (see text box Dpdf).³7 They are indications of already occurring gene flow from cultivated plants to the wild flora, as can be deduced from herbarium col

  16. Representing object oriented specifications and designs with extended data flow notations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Jon Franklin; Ward, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of using extended data flow notations to document object oriented designs and specifications is discussed. Extended data flow notations, for the purposes here, refer to notations that are based on the rules of Yourdon/DeMarco data flow analysis. The extensions include additional notation for representing real-time systems as well as some proposed extensions specific to object oriented development. Some advantages of data flow notations are stated. How data flow diagrams are used to represent software objects are investigated. Some problem areas with regard to using data flow notations for object oriented development are noted. Some initial solutions to these problems are proposed.

  17. Total Coliform Rule (TCR) Federal Register Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides the FR notice to 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Drinking Water: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Total Coliforms (Including Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli); Final Rule (26 pp, 5 M).

  18. a Heterosynaptic Learning Rule for Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    In this article we introduce a novel stochastic Hebb-like learning rule for neural networks that is neurobiologically motivated. This learning rule combines features of unsupervised (Hebbian) and supervised (reinforcement) learning and is stochastic with respect to the selection of the time points when a synapse is modified. Moreover, the learning rule does not only affect the synapse between pre- and postsynaptic neuron, which is called homosynaptic plasticity, but effects also further remote synapses of the pre- and postsynaptic neuron. This more complex form of synaptic plasticity has recently come under investigations in neurobiology and is called heterosynaptic plasticity. We demonstrate that this learning rule is useful in training neural networks by learning parity functions including the exclusive-or (XOR) mapping in a multilayer feed-forward network. We find, that our stochastic learning rule works well, even in the presence of noise. Importantly, the mean learning time increases with the number of patterns to be learned polynomially, indicating efficient learning.

  19. Rules on Paper, Rules in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dahdah, Edouard; Corduneanu-Huci, Cristina; Raballand, Gael; Sergenti, Ernest; Ababsa, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    The primary focus of this book is on a specific outcome of the rule of law: the practical enforcement of laws and policies, and the determinants of this enforcement, or lack thereof. Are there significant and persistent differences in implementation across countries? Why are some laws and policies more systematically enforced than others? Are “good” laws likely to be enacted, and if not, what stands in the way? We answer these questions using a theoretical framework and detailed empirical...

  20. An improvement of tree-Rule firewall for a large network: supporting large rule size and low delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Firewalls are important network devices which provide first hand defense against network threat. This level of defense is depended on firewall rules. Traditional firewalls, i.e., Cisco ACL, IPTABLES, Check Point and Juniper NetScreen firewall use listed rule to regulate packet flows. However, the li

  1. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 1999......, the central government imposed fiscal rules on municipal governments, and in 2001 relaxed them below 5,000 inhabitants. We exploit the before/after and discontinuous policy variation, and show that relaxing fiscal rules increases deficits and lowers taxes. The effect is larger if the mayor can be reelected...

  2. 47 CFR 90.5 - Other applicable rule parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .../business pool. (2) Private paging; (3) Land mobile service on 220-222 MHz; (4) Specialized Mobile Radio... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Information § 90.5 Other applicable rule parts. Other Commission rule parts... Offices. (b) Part 1 includes rules of practice and procedure for the filing of applications for...

  3. NAGWS Volleyball Guide 1990: Official Rules & Interpretations/Officiating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, Reston, VA. National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

    This guide presents the 1990 update of the National Association for Girls & Women in Sport (NAGWS) interscholastic and collegiate volleyball rules. It includes the official U.S. volleyball rules and a summary of rule changes, definitions of skills and fouls, and a summary of penalties. Officiating techniques and mechanics are covered with a…

  4. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Transport - Supergranules Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Rightmire-Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's photosphere show that active region magnetic flux is carried far from its origin by a combination of flows. These flows have previously been identified and modeled as separate axisymmetric processes: differential rotation, meridional flow, and supergranule diffusion. Experiments with a surface convective flow model reveal that the true nature of this transport is advection by the non-axisymmetric cellular flows themselves - supergranules. Magnetic elements are transported to the boundaries of the cells and then follow the evolving boundaries. The convective flows in supergranules have peak velocities near 500 m/s. These flows completely overpower the superimposed 20 m/s meridional flow and 100 m/s differential rotation. The magnetic elements remain pinned at the supergranule boundaries. Experiments with and without the superimposed axisymmetric photospheric flows show that the axisymmetric transport of magnetic flux is controlled by the advection of the cellular pattern by underlying flows representative of deeper layers. The magnetic elements follow the differential rotation and meridional flow associated with the convection cells themselves -- supergranules rule!

  5. The Formal Approach to Computer Game Rule Development Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, A

    2009-01-01

    Computer game rules development is one of the weakly automated tasks in game development. This paper gives an overview of the ongoing research project which deals with automation of rules development for turn-based strategy computer games. Rules are the basic elements of these games. This paper proposes a new approach to automation including visual formal rules model creation, model verification and modelbased code generation.

  6. General Quantization Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Maiz, F

    2012-01-01

    A general quantization rule for bound states of the Schrodinger equation is presented. Like fundamental theory of integral, our idea is mainly based on dividing the potential into many pieces, solving the Schr\\"odinger equation, and deriving the general quantization rule. For both exactly and non-exactly solvable systems, the energy levels of all the bound states can be easily calculated from the general quantization rule. Using this new general quantization rule, we re-calculate the energy levels for the one-dimensional system, with an infinite square well, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the Morse Potential, with the symmetric and asymmetric Rosen-Morse potentials, with the first P\\"oschl-Teller potential, with the Coulomb Potential, with the V-shape Potential, and the ax^4 potential, and for the three dimensions systems, with the harmonic oscillator potential, with the ordinary Coulomb potential, and for the hydrogen atom.

  7. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  8. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  9. Generalized Multidimensional Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周傲英; 周水庚; 金文; 田增平

    2000-01-01

    The problem of association rule mining has gained considerable prominence in the data mining community for its use as an important tool of knowl-edge discovery from large-scale databases. And there has been a spurt of research activities around this problem. Traditional association rule mining is limited to intra-transaction. Only recently the concept of N-dimensional inter-transaction as-sociation rule (NDITAR) was proposed by H.J. Lu. This paper modifies and extends Lu's definition of NDITAR based on the analysis of its limitations, and the general-ized multidimensional association rule (GMDAR) is subsequently introduced, which is more general, flexible and reasonable than NDITAR.

  10. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  11. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  12. News and Trading Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    indexes or small groups of forex series. Although I use a shorter time period – five years for the work on technical analysis and machine learning, only...I start with practitioner-developed technical analysis constructs, sys- tematically examining their ability to generate trading rules profitable on...a large universe of stocks. Then, I use these technical analysis constructs as the underlying representation for a simple trading rule leaner, with

  13. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  14. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...... between climate-friendly products or services and alternatives that are potentially damaging to the climate but less expensive? The answer may well depend on the default rule. Indeed, climate-friendly default rules may well be a more effective tool for altering outcomes than large economic incentives...... climate-friendly defaults, choice architects (subject to legal constraints) should consider both consumer welfare and a wide range of other costs and benefits. Sometimes that assessment will argue strongly in favor of climate-friendly defaults, particularly when both economic and environmental...

  15. Class Association Rule Pada Metode Associative Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Karyawati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequent patterns (itemsets discovery is an important problem in associative classification rule mining.  Differents approaches have been proposed such as the Apriori-like, Frequent Pattern (FP-growth, and Transaction Data Location (Tid-list Intersection algorithm. This paper focuses on surveying and comparing the state of the art associative classification techniques with regards to the rule generation phase of associative classification algorithms.  This phase includes frequent itemsets discovery and rules mining/extracting methods to generate the set of class association rules (CARs.  There are some techniques proposed to improve the rule generation method.  A technique by utilizing the concepts of discriminative power of itemsets can reduce the size of frequent itemset.  It can prune the useless frequent itemsets. The closed frequent itemset concept can be utilized to compress the rules to be compact rules.  This technique may reduce the size of generated rules.  Other technique is in determining the support threshold value of the itemset. Specifying not single but multiple support threshold values with regard to the class label frequencies can give more appropriate support threshold value.  This technique may generate more accurate rules. Alternative technique to generate rule is utilizing the vertical layout to represent dataset.  This method is very effective because it only needs one scan over dataset, compare with other techniques that need multiple scan over dataset.   However, one problem with these approaches is that the initial set of tid-lists may be too large to fit into main memory. It requires more sophisticated techniques to compress the tid-lists.

  16. RG Flows and Bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting RG flows as dynamical systems in the space of couplings we produce a variety of constraints, global (topological) as well as local. These constraints, in turn, rule out some of the proposed RG flows and also predict new phases and fixed points, surprisingly, even in familiar theories such as O(N) model, QED-3, or QCD-4.

  17. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use.

  18. Learning by Augmenting Rules and Accumulating Censors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    ideas about learning from precedents and exercises, ideas about learning using near misses , ideas about generalizing if-then rules and ideas about...precedent and exercise and by near miss . Finally, I describe precedents for this work itself, including ideas that stimulated what I have done, such as...may be by direct telling, or it may be by precedent and exercise, or it may be by near - miss . Augmented Rules can be Learned by Precedent and Exerise

  19. Medicaid program: rescission of School-Based Administration/Transportation final rule, Outpatient Hospital Services final rule, and partial rescission of Case Management Interim final rule. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    This rule finalizes our proposal to rescind the December 28, 2007 final rule entitled, "Elimination of Reimbursement under Medicaid for School Administration Expenditures and Costs Related to Transportation of School-Age Children Between Home and School;" the November 7, 2008 final rule entitled, "Clarification of Outpatient Hospital Facility (Including Outpatient Hospital Clinic) Services Definition;" and certain provisions of the December 4, 2007 interim final rule entitled, "Optional State Plan Case Management Services." These regulations have been the subject of Congressional moratoria and have not yet been implemented (or, with respect to the case management interim final rule, have only been partially implemented) by CMS. In light of concerns raised about the adverse effects that could result from these regulations, in particular, the potential restrictions on services available to beneficiaries and the lack of clear evidence demonstrating that the approaches taken in the regulations are warranted, CMS is rescinding the two final rules in full, and partially rescinding the interim final rule. Rescinding these provisions will permit further opportunity to determine the best approach to further the objectives of the Medicaid program in providing necessary health benefits coverage to needy individuals.

  20. Nature and Function of Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  1. 分壁塔与常规重整生成油分离工艺流程模拟比较%SIMULATIVE COMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS FOR THE SEPARATION OF REFORMATE INCLUDING DIVIDING WALL COLUMN AND CONVENTIONAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘传强; 邵文; 李小娜; 何勇

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of reformate data from a CCR-aromatics complex unit, two process flows in cluding a dividing wall column(DWC) configuration and a conventional two-column configuration for the separation of reformate are simulated by PRO Ⅱ software and compared under obtaining the same quali ties of products.It is concluded that compared with the conventional two-column process flow for DWC process flow the reductions of energy consumption,equipment investment cost and area occupation are approximately 31.2% ,20.3% and 38.3%,respectively.%利用PROⅡ流程模拟软件分别对采用常规两塔工艺流程和分壁塔工艺流程的两种重整生成油分离方案进行模拟,以连续重整-芳烃联合装置的重整生成油为原料,在保证分离产品质量一致的情况下,从能耗、设备投资和占地的角度分析对比两种方案的优劣.结果表明,与常规两塔工艺流程相比,分壁塔流程的能耗降低31.2%,设备投资节省20.3%,占地面积减少38.3%.

  2. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  3. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  4. Classification rules for Indian Rice diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nithya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many techniques have been developed for learning rules and relationships automatically from diverse data sets, to simplify the often tedious and error-prone process of acquiring knowledge from empirical data. Decision tree is one of learning algorithm which posses certain advantages that make it suitable for discovering the classification rule for data mining applications. Normally Decision trees widely used learning method and do not require any prior knowledge of data distribution, works well on noisy data .It has been applied to classify Rice disease based on the symptoms. This paper intended to discover classification rules for the Indian rice diseases using the c4.5 decision trees algorithm. Expert systems have been used in agriculture since the early 1980s. Several systems have been developed in different countries including the USA, Europe, and Egypt for plant-disorder diagnosis, management and other production aspects. This paper explores what Classification rule can do in the agricultural domain.

  5. The Rules of the Game—The Rules of the Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a critical view of the concept of rules in game studies on the basis of a case study of role-playing across media. Role-playing in its traditional form is a complex activity including a game system and a number of communicative conventions where one player takes the role...... of the game manager in order to implement the rules and provide a world for the other players. In online role-playing games, a programmed system simulates the rule system as well as part of the game manager’s tasks, while the rest of the activity is up to the players to define. Some aspects may translate more...... or less unproblematically across media, others are transformed by the introduction of the programmed system. This reveals some important perspectives on the sort of rules that can be simulated in a programmed system and what this means to the concept of rules in game studies....

  6. The Rules of the Game—The Rules of the Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    of the game manager in order to implement the rules and provide a world for the other players. In online role-playing games, a programmed system simulates the rule system as well as part of the game manager’s tasks, while the rest of the activity is up to the players to define. Some aspects may translate more......This article presents a critical view of the concept of rules in game studies on the basis of a case study of role-playing across media. Role-playing in its traditional form is a complex activity including a game system and a number of communicative conventions where one player takes the role...... or less unproblematically across media, others are transformed by the introduction of the programmed system. This reveals some important perspectives on the sort of rules that can be simulated in a programmed system and what this means to the concept of rules in game studies....

  7. Adler sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    The Adler sum rule states that the integral over energy of a difference of neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon structure functions is a constant, independent of the four-momentum transfer squared. This constancy is a consequence of the local commutation relations of the time components of the hadronic weak current, which follow from the underlying quark structure of the standard model.

  8. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  9. 13 Rules That Expire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Karen S.; Bush, Sarah B.; Dougherty, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Overgeneralizing commonly accepted strategies, using imprecise vocabulary, and relying on tips and tricks that do not promote conceptual mathematical understanding can lead to misunderstanding later in students' math careers. In this article, the authors present thirteen pervasive mathematics rules that "expire." With the…

  10. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  11. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  12. Comment concerning Leonardo's rule

    CERN Document Server

    Sotolongo-Costa, O; Oseguera-Manzanilla, T; Díaz-Guerrero, D S

    2016-01-01

    In this comment we propose a novel explanation for the Leonardo's rule concerning the tree branching. According to Leonardo's notebooks he observed that if one observes the branches of a tree, the squared radius of the principal branch is equal to the sum of the squared radius of the branch daughters.

  13. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  14. Investigations on the use of pneumatic cross-flow nebulizers with dual solution loading including the correction of matrix effects in elemental determinations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Mathieu [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2007-02-15

    The use of a so-called trihedral and a T-shaped cross-flow pneumatic nebulizer with dual solution loading for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been studied. By these devices analyte clouds from two solutions can be mixed during the aerosol generation step. For both nebulizers the correction of matrix effects using internal standardization and standard addition calibration in an on-line way was investigated and compared to elemental determinations using a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and calibration with synthetic standard solutions without matrix matching. A significant improvement of accuracy, both for calibration with internal standardization and standard addition, was obtained in the case of four synthetic solutions containing each 40 mmol L{sup -1} Na, K, Rb and Ba as matrix elements and 300 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb as analytes. Calibration by standard addition in the case of dual solution loading has been shown to be very useful in the determination of elements at minor and trace levels in steel and alumina reference materials. The results of analysis for minor concentrations of Cr, Cu and Ni in steel as well as for Ca, Fe, Ga, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Si and Zn in alumina powder certified reference materials subsequent to sample dissolution were found to be in good agreement with the certificates. Limits of detection were found to be only slightly above those for a conventional cross-flow nebulizer and a precision better than 3% was realized with both novel nebulizers.

  15. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  16. Measuring acceptability of clinical decision rules: validation of the Ottawa acceptability of decision rules instrument (OADRI) in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehaut, Jamie C; Graham, Ian D; Wood, Timothy J; Taljaard, Monica; Eagles, Debra; Lott, Alison; Clement, Catherine; Kelly, Anne-Maree; Mason, Suzanne; Stiell, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical decision rules can benefit clinicians, patients, and health systems, but they involve considerable up-front development costs and must be acceptable to the target audience. No existing instrument measures the acceptability of a rule. The current study validated such an instrument. The authors administered the Ottawa Acceptability of Decision Rules Instrument (OADRI) via postal survey to emergency physicians from 4 regions (Australasia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States), in the context of 2 recently developed rules, the Canadian C-Spine Rule (C-Spine) and the Canadian CT Head Rule (CT-Head). Construct validity of the 12-item instrument was evaluated by hypothesis testing. As predicted by a priori hypotheses, OADRI scores were 1) higher among rule users than nonusers, 2) higher among those using the rule ''all of the time'' v. ''most of the time'' v. ''some of the time,'' and 3) higher among rule nonusers who would consider using a rule v. those who would not. We also examined explicit reasons given by respondents who said they would not use these rules. Items in the OADRI accounted for 85.5% (C- Spine) and 90.2% (CT-Head) of the reasons given for not considering a rule acceptable. The OADRI is a simple, 12-item instrument that evaluates rule acceptability among clinicians. Potential uses include comparing multiple ''protorules'' during development, examining acceptability of a rule to a new audience prior to implementation, indicating barriers to rule use addressable by knowledge translation interventions, and potentially serving as a proxy measure for future rule use.

  17. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  18. A Mathematical Analysis of Air Traffic Priority Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes priority rules, such as those in Part 91.113 of the Federal Aviation Regulations. Such rules determine which of two aircraft should maneuver in a given conflict scenario. While the rules in 91.113 are well accepted, other concepts of operation for NextGen, such as self separation, may allow for different priority rules. A mathematical framework is presented that can be used to analyze a general set of priority rules and enables proofs of important properties. Specific properties considered in this paper include safety, effectiveness, and stability. A set of rules is said to be safe if it ensures that it is never the case that both aircraft have priority. They are effective if exactly one aircraft has priority in every situation. Finally, a set of rules is called stable if it produces compatible results even under small changes to input data.

  19. 26 CFR 1.451-1 - General rule for taxable year of inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rule for taxable year of inclusion. 1... General rule for taxable year of inclusion. (a) General rule. Gains, profits, and income are to be... received during such year shall be included. (For rules relating to the inclusion of partnership income in...

  20. Development Rules of Debris Flow Under the Influence of Climate Change in Nyingchi%气候变化影响下林芝地区泥石流发育规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宁生; 周海波; 胡桂胜

    2011-01-01

    从气候变化出发,介绍减东南林芝地区泥石流类型、分布及活动特征,确定泥石流形成条件和临界指标,揭示林芝地区泥石流发育规律.温度和降水波动性变化以及不同水热组合影响林芝地区泥石流发育.冰川泥石流在温度升高或降雨增大情况下都有可能被激发.日降雨量<5mm时,主要为温度激发的冰雪消融型泥石流;日降雨量5~10mm时,主要为冰川降雨型泥石流;日降雨量> l0mm时,为降雨型泥石流.冰川泥石流在升温条件下发生次数占80%以上,降温条件下约占20%;降雨型泥石流在升温条件下发生次数占60%,降温条件下占40%.从激发泥石流的规模、次数和灾害大小看,高温多雨年代和低温多雨年代都有利于泥石流发生.%Based on the typical debris flows in Nyingchi, this paper presents the basic type, distribution and movement of debris flows, analyzes the initiation condition and critical threshold, and discloses the incubation law of debris flows, and also the impact of temperature and rainfall changes on debris flow initiation. Glaciers debris flow may be inspired during temperature or rainfall increasing. If daily precipitation 10 mm, rainfall debris flow is in dominate. Glacier debris flows under temperature increasing and decreasing account for 80% and 20%, respectively, while the rainfall debris flows account for 60% and 40%, repectively. Much rainfall are benefit for the initiation of debris flows.

  1. Testing the reduction rule

    CERN Document Server

    Hegerfeldt, G C

    2011-01-01

    The reduction rule, also known as the projection postulate, specifies the state after an ideal measurement. There are two forms, the original rule of von Neumann and a nowadays mostly used modification thereof due to L\\"uders, but sometimes also attributed to von Neumann. However, which form applies depends on the details of the measuring apparatus. Here we therefore consider the following problem: Given an ensemble of systems in an unknown pure or mixed state, an observable $\\hat A$ and an apparatus which performs a measurement of $\\hat A$ on the ensemble, but whose detailed working is unknown ('black box'), how can one test whether the apparatus performs a L\\"uders or von Neumann measurement?

  2. Chaos Rules Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Murphy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of my PhD research, I mused over proposed titles for my thesis. I was pretty pleased with myself when I came up with Chaos Rules (the implied double meaning was deliberate, or more completely, Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education. I used the then-emerging theories of chaos and complexity to underpin my analysis. So it was with more than a little excitement that I read the call for contributions to this special issue of IRRODL. What follows is a walk-through of my thesis with an emphasis on the contribution of chaos and complexity theory.

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. The Applicability of the Density Rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the Rule Based on Linear Isopiestic Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉峰

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of the density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is studied by comparison with experimental density data in the literature. Predicted and measured values for 18 electrolyte mixtures are compared. The two rules are good for mixtures with and without common ions, including those containing associating ions. The deviations of the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation are slightly higher for the mixtures involving very strong ion complexes, but the predictions are still quite satisfactory.The density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer is more accurate for these mixtures. However, it is not applicable for mixtures containing non-electrolytes. The rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is extended to mixtures involving non-electrolytes. The predictions for the mixtures containing both electrolytes and non-electrolytes and the non-electrolyte mixtures are accurate. All these results indicate that this rule is a widely avvlicable approach.

  5. The Applicability of the Density Rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the Rule Based on Linear Isopiestic Relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The applicability of the density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer and the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is studied by comparison with experimental density data in the literature. Predicted and measured values for 18 electrolyte mixtures are compared. The two rules are good for mixtures with and without common ions, including those containing associating ions. The deviations of the rule based on the linear isopiestic relation are slightly higher for the mixtures involving very strong ion complexes, but the predictions are still quite satisfactory. The density rule of Pathwardhan and Kumer is more accurate for these mixtures. However, it is not applicable for mixtures containing non-electrolytes. The rule based on the linear isopiestic relation is extended to mixtures involving non-electrolytes. The predictions for the mixtures containing both electrolytes and non-electrolytes and the non-electrolyte mixtures are accurate. All these results indicate that this rule is a widely applicable approach.

  6. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    , the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... the wider social and institutional context of longstanding data practices and the significance they carry for management and organizations....

  7. Real Rules of Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Robert Nozick’s acceptance rule [Noz81], Acc(h) iff Prob(K I h) > = I- e and Prob(K I -h) <= e and Prob(h) > Prob(K I -h), for small e: and I.J. Good and...Solving," IJCAI 1983. [Noz8ll Nozick , R. Philosophical Explanations, Harvard, 1981. (Nut84] Nute, D. "Logical Relations," Philosophical Studies 46, 1984

  8. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha

    2005-01-01

    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  9. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  10. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  11. REx: An Efficient Rule Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm REx for generating symbolic rules from artificial neural network (ANN). Classification rules are sought in many areas from automatic knowledge acquisition to data mining and ANN rule extraction. This is because classification rules possess some attractive features. They are explicit, understandable and verifiable by domain experts, and can be modified, extended and passed on as modular knowledge. REx exploits the first order information in the data and finds shortest sufficient conditions for a rule of a class that can differentiate it from patterns of other classes. It can generate concise and perfect rules in the sense that the error rate of the rules is not worse than the inconsistency rate found in the original data. An important feature of rule extraction algorithm, REx, is its recursive nature. They are concise, comprehensible, order insensitive and do not involve any weight values. Extensive experimental studies on several benchmark classification problems, s...

  12. Designing adaptive operating rules for a large multi-purpose reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Reservoirs whose live storage capacity is large compared with annual inflow have "memory", i.e., their storage levels contain information about past inflows and reservoir operations. Such "long-memory" reservoirs can be found in basins in dry regions such as the Nile River Basin in Africa, the Colorado River Basin in the US, or river basins in Western and Central Asia. There the effects of a dry year have the potential to impact reservoir levels and downstream releases for several subsequent years, prompting tensions in transboundary basins. Yet, current reservoir operation rules in those reservoirs do not reflect this by integrating past climate history and release decisions among the factors that influence operating decisions. This work proposes and demonstrates an adaptive reservoir operating rule that explicitly accounts for the recent history of release decisions, and not only current storage level and near-term inflow forecasts. This implies adding long-term (e.g., multiyear) objectives to the existing short-term (e.g., annual) ones. We apply these operating rules to the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, a large reservoir under construction on the Blue Nile River. Energy generation has to be balanced with the imperative of releasing enough water in low flow years (e.g., the minimum 1, 2 or 3 year cumulative flow) to avoid tensions with downstream countries, Sudan and Egypt. Maximizing the minimum multi-year releases could be of interest for the Nile problem to minimize the impact on performance of the large High Aswan Dam in Egypt. Objectives include maximizing the average and minimum annual energy generation and maximizing the minimum annual, two year and three year cumulative releases. The system model is tested using 30 stochastically generated streamflow series. One can then derive adaptive release rules depending on the value of one- and two-year total releases with respect to thresholds. Then, there are 3 sets of release rules for the reservoir depending

  13. The effects of different nano particles of Al2O3 and Ag on the MHD nano fluid flow and heat transfer in a microchannel including slip velocity and temperature jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimipour, Arash; D'Orazio, Annunziata; Shadloo, Mostafa Safdari

    2017-02-01

    The forced convection of nanofluid flow in a long microchannel is studied numerically according to the finite volume approach and by using a developed computer code. Microchannel domain is under the influence of a magnetic field with uniform strength. The hot inlet nanofluid is cooled by the heat exchange with the cold microchannel walls. Different types of nanoparticles such as Al2O3 and Ag are examined while the base fluid is considered as water. Reynolds number are chosen as Re=10 and Re=100. Slip velocity and temperature jump boundary conditions are simulated along the microchannel walls at different values of slip coefficient for different amounts of Hartmann number. The investigation of magnetic field effect on slip velocity and temperature jump of nanofluid is presented for the first time. The results are shown as streamlines and isotherms; moreover the profiles of slip velocity and temperature jump are drawn. It is observed that more slip coefficient corresponds to less Nusselt number and more slip velocity especially at larger Hartmann number. It is recommended to use Al2O3-water nanofluid instead of Ag-water to increase the heat transfer rate from the microchannel walls at low values of Re. However at larger amounts of Re, the nanofluid composed of nanoparticles with higher thermal conductivity works better.

  14. Finite Temperature QCD Sum Rules: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ayala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of QCD sum rules at finite temperature is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results. These include predictions for the survival of charmonium and bottonium states, at and beyond the critical temperature for deconfinement, as later confirmed by lattice QCD simulations. Also included are determinations in the light-quark vector and axial-vector channels, allowing analysing the Weinberg sum rules and predicting the dimuon spectrum in heavy-ion collisions in the region of the rho-meson. Also, in this sector, the determination of the temperature behaviour of the up-down quark mass, together with the pion decay constant, will be described. Finally, an extension of the QCD sum rule method to incorporate finite baryon chemical potential is reviewed.

  15. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  16. China Drafting Rules to Govern Foreign Participation in CBM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China is drafting rules for coal bed methane (CBM) exploration involving participation by foreign partners in a bid to regulate the nascent industry. The rules will include the required qualifications for foreign companies, as well as the minimum annual exploration areas and investment amounts. The rules are expected to be sent to the National Energy Administration by the end of the year for approval.

  17. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  18. Shaping Polaritons to Reshape Selection Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Francisco; Buljan, Hrvoje; Soljačić, Marin; Kaminer, Ido

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of orbital angular momentum (OAM) in photonics established a new degree of freedom by which to control not only the flow of light but also its interaction with matter. Here, we show that it is possible to use OAM carrying plasmon and phonon polaritons to engineer new selection rules in electronic systems, such as atoms, molecules, and artificial atoms (e.g. quantum dots), thus introducing a new degree of freedom for controlling once-forbidden transitions. This arises by granting OAM to polaritons whose short wavelength enables access to conventionally forbidden electronic transitions. We show that these selection rules can be robust to displacements of the electronic system relative to the vortex center. We also show that the position of the absorber provides a surprisingly rich parameter for controlling which absorption processes dominate over others. The same effect can be achieved by altering the plasmonic properties of a material, for example by tuning the carrier density in graphene. Our fi...

  19. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified corre...

  20. Rule-Based Optimization of Reversible Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Arabzadeh, Mona; Zamani, Morteza Saheb

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has applications in various research areas including low-power design and quantum computation. In this paper, a rule-based optimization approach for reversible circuits is proposed which uses both negative and positive control Toffoli gates during the optimization. To this end, a set of rules for removing NOT gates and optimizing sub-circuits with common-target gates are proposed. To evaluate the proposed approach, the best-reported synthesized circuits and the results of a recent synthesis algorithm which uses both negative and positive controls are used. Our experiments reveal the potential of the proposed approach in optimizing synthesized circuits.

  1. Optimal decision fusion given sensor rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunmin ZHU; Xiaorong LI

    2005-01-01

    When all the rules of sensor decision are known,the optimal distributed decision fusion,which relies only on the joint conditional probability densities,can be derived for very general decision systems.They include those systems with interdependent sensor observations and any network structure.It is also valid for m-ary Bayesian decision problems and binary problems under the Neyman-Pearson criterion.Local decision rules of a sensor with communication from other sensors that are optimal for the sensor itself are also presented,which take the form of a generalized likelihood ratio test.Numerical examples are given to reveal some interesting phenomena that communication between sensors can improve performance of a senor decision,but cannot guarantee to improve the global fusion performance when sensor rules were given before fusing.

  2. A "Sweet 16" of Rules About Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The following "Sweet 16" rules included in this paper derive from a longer paper by APPL Director Dr. Edward Hoffman and myself entitled " 99 Rules for Managing Faster, Better, Cheaper Projects." Our sources consisted mainly of "war stories" told by master project managers in my book Simultaneous Management: Managing Projects in a Dynamic Environment (AMACOM, The American Management Association, 1996). The Simultaneous Management model was a result of 10 years of intensive research and testing conducted with the active participation of master project managers from leading private organizations such as AT&T, DuPont, Exxon, General Motors, IBM, Motorola and Procter & Gamble. In a more recent study, led by Dr. Hoffman, we learned that master project managers in leading public organizations employ most of these rules as well. Both studies, in private and public organizations, found that a dynamic environment calls for dynamic management, and that is especially clear in how successful project managers think about their teams.

  3. Optical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Loudon, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule is a fundamental consequence of the position-momentum commutation relation for an atomic electron and it provides an important constraint on the transition matrix elements for an atom. Analogously, the commutation relations for the electromagnetic field operators in a magnetodielectric medium constrain the properties of the dispersion relations for the medium through four sum rules for the allowed phase and group velocities for polaritons propagating through the medium. These rules apply to all bulk media including the metamaterials designed to provide negative refractive indices. An immediate consequence of this is that it is not possible to construct a medium in which all the polariton modes for a given wavelength lie in the negative-index region.

  4. Superposition rules and second-order Riccati equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cariñena, J F

    2010-01-01

    The concept of superposition rule for second-order differential equations is stated and conditions ensuring the existence of such superposition rules are analysed. In this way, second-order differential equations become formally included within the theory of Lie systems. The theory is illustrated by analysing the properties of a family of second-order differential equations with applications to Physics and we obtain a superposition rule common for all its members. Finally, time-dependent superposition rules for second-order differential equations are defined and we derive a particular instance for a family of second-order Riccati equations by means of the theory of quasi-Lie schemes.

  5. Identifying Granularity Differences between Large Biomedical Ontologies through Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengfei; Zhang, Songmao

    2010-11-13

    The objective of this study is to identify the granularity differences as well as similarity between large biomedical ontologies through rules. Two anatomical ontologies were selected, and based on a set of concept mappings obtained through simple string matching techniques, we constructed rules to distinguish among different types of subclasses and classifications. 82% of the concept mappings have exactly the same classification in subclasses between the two ontologies. Other mappings are classified in different granularity, including additional subclasses, detailed classification, and different intermediate classification concepts. Using rules and the rule inference engine enables an automatic and scalable investigation of the structural incompatibility among biomedical ontologies.

  6. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  7. Rules of Thumb for Up-and-Down Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Reports that economist Paul Krugman identifies three types of economic writing. Asserts that the major principles of macroeconomics can be synthesized into "Five Rules of Thumb" which can help to interpret economic news. Presents and discusses these five rules and includes a survey summary of journalists and economists on this issue.…

  8. Increasing Supply-Chain Visibility with Rule-Based RFID Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, A.; Andersen, Thomas; Michahelles, F.

    2009-01-01

    , the Supply Chain Visualizer increases supply-chain visibility by analyzing RFID data, using a mix of automated analysis techniques and human effort. The tool's core concepts include rule-based analysis techniques and a map-based representation interface. With these features, it lets users visualize......RFID technology tracks the flow of physical items and goods in supply chains to help users detect inefficiencies, such as shipment delays, theft, or inventory problems. An inevitable consequence, however, is that it generates huge numbers of events. To exploit these large amounts of data...

  9. Comparison of some classification algorithms based on deterministic and nondeterministic decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Delimata, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    We discuss two, in a sense extreme, kinds of nondeterministic rules in decision tables. The first kind of rules, called as inhibitory rules, are blocking only one decision value (i.e., they have all but one decisions from all possible decisions on their right hand sides). Contrary to this, any rule of the second kind, called as a bounded nondeterministic rule, can have on the right hand side only a few decisions. We show that both kinds of rules can be used for improving the quality of classification. In the paper, two lazy classification algorithms of polynomial time complexity are considered. These algorithms are based on deterministic and inhibitory decision rules, but the direct generation of rules is not required. Instead of this, for any new object the considered algorithms extract from a given decision table efficiently some information about the set of rules. Next, this information is used by a decision-making procedure. The reported results of experiments show that the algorithms based on inhibitory decision rules are often better than those based on deterministic decision rules. We also present an application of bounded nondeterministic rules in construction of rule based classifiers. We include the results of experiments showing that by combining rule based classifiers based on minimal decision rules with bounded nondeterministic rules having confidence close to 1 and sufficiently large support, it is possible to improve the classification quality. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Unanimity rule on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  11. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  13. First-order formative rules

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhs, Carsten; Kop, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the method of formative rules for first-order term rewriting, which was previously defined for a higher-order setting. Dual to the well-known usable rules, formative rules allow dropping some of the term constraints that need to be solved during a termination proof. Compared to the higher-order definition, the first-order setting allows for significant improvements of the technique.

  14. Remarks on kernel Bayes' rule

    OpenAIRE

    Johno, Hisashi; Nakamoto, Kazunori; Saigo, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Kernel Bayes' rule has been proposed as a nonparametric kernel-based method to realize Bayesian inference in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. However, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the prediction result by kernel Bayes' rule is in some cases unnatural. We consider that this phenomenon is in part due to the fact that the assumptions in kernel Bayes' rule do not hold in general.

  15. Rule-Based Semantic Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Woznowski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Rule-Based Systems have been in use for decades to solve a variety of problems but not in the sensor informatics domain. Rules aid the aggregation of low-level sensor readings to form a more complete picture of the real world and help to address 10 identified challenges for sensor network middleware. This paper presents the reader with an overview of a system architecture and a pilot application to demonstrate the usefulness of a system integrating rules with sensor middleware.

  16. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  17. Fluctuations in classical sum rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, John R; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  18. An Automatic KANSEI Fuzzy Rule Creating System Using Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Hajime; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose an automatic Kansei fuzzy rule creating system using thesaurus. In general, there are a lot of words that express impressions. However, conventional approaches of Kansei engineering are not suitable to use many impression words because it is difficult to collect enough data. The proposed system is an enhanced algorithm of the conventional method that the authors proposed before. The proposed system extracts fuzzy rules for many words defined in the thesaurus dictionary while the conventional one can extract rules of specified words which user defined. The flow of the system consists of 3 steps: (1) construction of thesaurus networks; (2) data collection by web questionnaire sheets; (3) Extraction of fuzzy rules. In order to extract Kansei fuzzy rules, the system employs enhanced GRNN(general regression neural network) which can treat relative words of the thesaurus network. Using a Japanese thesaurus dictionary in the experiments, the sets of fuzzy rules for 1,195 impression words are extracted, and the fuzzy rules extracted by the proposed system obtained higher accuracy than those extracted by the conventional one.

  19. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.;

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  20. Generalisation of the Ostwald's rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Petrova-Bogdanova, O. O.

    2013-05-01

    More than century ago, Ostwald (1897) [1] manifested a rule, which, according his assumption, was a general principle for any process in nature. The rule was formulated by Ostwald and named as a rule of stages with is giving a formation sequence of different phases. Schmelzer et al. [2] generalized this rule of stages for nucleation. In the present research the dynamics of phase transformations is considered using the recent idea (Anisimov et al. [3]) for a semiempirical design of the nucleation rate surfaces. The current generalization of the Ostwald's rule for the formation sequences of phases is proved on the basis of common results on nucleation studies. It is very natural to think that any new phase formation (not prohibited by thermodynamic constrains) can be realized for each channel of phase transformation even the probability of some kind of the new phases is low. The relative efficiency of each channel can be dramatically changed when parameters of process are varied.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  2. Rule Based Shallow Parser for Arabic Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of language processing approaches that compute a basic analysis of sentence structure rather than attempting full syntactic analysis is shallow syntactic parsing. It is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verb groups, prepositional groups, but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence. The only technique used for Arabic shallow parser is Support Vector Machine (SVM based approach. The problem faced by shallow parser developers is the boundary identification which is applied to ensure the generation of high accuracy system performance. Approach: The specific objective of the research was to identify the entire Noun Phrases (NPs, Verb Phrases (VPs and Prepositional Phrases (PPs boundaries in the Arabic language. This study discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. New rules were proposed to the shallow parser features up to the generation of two levels from full parse-tree. We described an implementation and evaluate the rule-based shallow parser that handles chunking of Arabic sentences. This research was based on a critical analysis of the Arabic sentences architecture. It discussed various idiosyncrasies of Arabic sentences to derive more accurate rules to detect the start and the end boundaries of each clause in an Arabic sentence. Results: The system was tested manually on 70 Arabic sentences which composed of 1776 words, with the length of the sentences between 4-50 words. The result obtained was significantly better than state of the art Arabic published results, which achieved F-scores of 97%. Conclusion: The main achievement includes the development of Arabic shallow parser based on rule-based approaches. Chunking which constitutes the main contribution is achieved on two successive stages that include grouped sequences of

  3. 4 CFR 22.10 - Sanctions [Rule 10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards include the rules of professional conduct and ethics of the jurisdictions in which an attorney is... submitting the discovery request; (ii) Forbidding challenge of the accuracy of any evidence; (iii)...

  4. Aircraft Drinking Water Rule Public Meetings and Summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In developing the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule, EPA used a collaborative process to obtain a broad range of views including the airlines, flight attendants, passengers, pilots, airports, laboratories, public health officials and environmental organizations

  5. Frequent Questions about the Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAQs including What are the benefits of these revisions to the generator regulations? What changed in the final regulations since proposal? How and why will the hazardous waste generator regulations be reorganized? When will this rule become effective?

  6. New developments in FeynRules

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Degrande, Celine; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The program FeynRules is a Mathematica package developed to facilitate the implementation of new physics theories into high-energy physics tools. Starting from a minimal set of information such as the model gauge symmetries, its particle content, parameters and Lagrangian, FeynRules provides all necessary routines to extract automatically from the Lagrangian (that can also be computed semi-automatically for supersymmetric theories) the associated Feynman rules. These can be further exported to several Monte Carlo event generators through dedicated interfaces, as well as translated into a Python library, under the so-called UFO model format, agnostic of the model complexity, especially in terms of Lorentz and/or color structures appearing in the vertices or of number of external legs. In this work, we briefly report on the most recent new features that have been added to FeynRules, including full support for spin-3/2 fermions, a new module allowing for the automated diagonalization of the particle spectrum and...

  7. Amphibians do not follow Bergmann's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dean C; Church, James O

    2008-02-01

    The tendency for organisms to be larger in cooler climates (Bergmann's rule) is widely observed in endotherms, and has been reputed to apply to some ectotherms including amphibians. However, recent reports provide conflicting support for the pattern, questioning whether Bergmann's clines are generally present in amphibians. In this study, we measured 96,996 adult Plethodon from 3974 populations to test for the presence of Bergmann's clines in these salamanders. Only three Plethodon species exhibited a significant negative correlation between body size and temperature consistent with Bergmann's rule, whereas 37 of 40 species did not display a pattern consistent with this prediction. Further, a phylogenetic comparative analysis found no relationship between body size and temperature among species. A meta-analysis combining our data with the available data for other amphibian species revealed no support for Bergmann's rule at the genus (Plethodon), order (Caudata), or class (Amphibia) levels. Our findings strongly suggest that negative thermal body size clines are not common in amphibians, and we conclude that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to these taxa. Thus, evolutionary explanations of Bergmann's clines in other tetrapods need not account for unique life-history attributes of amphibians.

  8. The rule of rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, John; Richardson, Jeff

    2003-06-01

    Jonsen coined the term "Rule of Rescue"(RR) to describe the imperative people feel to rescue identifiable individuals facing avoidable death. In this paper we attempt to draw a more detailed picture of the RR, identifying its conflict with cost-effectiveness analysis, the preference it entails for identifiable over statistical lives, the shock-horror response it elicits, the preference it entails for lifesaving over non-lifesaving measures, its extension to non-life-threatening conditions, and whether it is motivated by duty or sympathy. We also consider the measurement problems it raises, and argue that quantifying the RR would probably require a two-stage procedure. In the first stage the size of the individual utility gain from a health intervention would be assessed using a technique such as the Standard Gamble or the Time Trade-Off, and in the second the social benefits arising from the RR would be quantified employing the Person Trade-Off. We also consider the normative status of the RR. We argue that it can be defended from a utilitarian point of view, on the ground that rescues increase well-being by reinforcing people's belief that they live in a community that places great value upon life. However, utilitarianism has long been criticised for failing to take sufficient account of fairness, and the case is no different here: fairness requires that we do not discriminate between individuals on morally irrelevant grounds, whereas being "identifiable" does not seem to be a morally relevant ground for discrimination.

  9. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  10. Gas flow measurement using laminar flow elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, J. [Meriam Instrument, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An instrument that measures gas volumetric flow rate using a capillary tube laminar-flow principle is described. Irs construction, operation, accuracy, and rangeability are presented. Discussion includes integrating the differential-pressure-producing flowmeter with appropriate temperature find pressure devices to produce a digital flowmeter system capable of measuring volumetric and mass flow rates. Typical applications are described.

  11. Legitimacy in the Governance of Rule-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    The international business environment is highly regulated by rules such as norms, standards and directives.The legitimacy for rule-makers is understood to be kernel to the rules’ proper implementation and diffusion. Contrary to the typical analysis of rule-making, this paper includes two...... governance modes, public and a private, in the analysis of how legitimacy is created and interspersed. Thus, this paper embarks upon a comparative analysis of the legitimacy in the rule-making of sustainable agriculture from a new institutional perspective. By means of a case analysis, the paper compares...... the two approaches, which are viable options to the governance of organic agricultural rule-making within the EU....

  12. Extraction of Robot Primitive Control Rules from Natural Language Instructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Hong Wang; Ping Jiang; Zu-Ren Feng

    2006-01-01

    A support vector rule based method is investigated for the construction of motion controllers via natural language training. It is a two-phase process including motion control information collection from natural language instructions, and motion information condensation with the aid of support vector machine (SVM) theory. Self-organizing fuzzy neural networks are utilized for the collection of control rules, from which support vector rules are extracted to form a final controller to achieve any given control accuracy. In this way, the number of control rules is reduced, and the structure of the controller tidied, making a controller constructed using natural language training more appropriate in practice, and providing a fundamental rule base for high-level robot behavior control. Simulations and experiments on a wheeled robot are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  13. 钒电池负极电解液V2(SO4)3溶解性规律%Solubility Rules of Negative Electrolyte V2(SO4)3 of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建新; 武增华; 席靖宇; 邱新平

    2012-01-01

    对钒电池负极电解液中活性物质V(Ⅲ)在不同硫酸浓度、不同温度条件下的溶解性规律进行了深入研究,同时对V(Ⅲ)-H2SO4体系电化学性能进行了初步探讨.结果表明:V(Ⅲ)的溶解是一个放热过程,在15~40℃范围内,V(Ⅲ)的溶解度随着温度升高而逐渐降低;并且溶液中V(Ⅲ)会以V-O-V形式形成二聚体,在低硫酸浓度下,V(Ⅲ)可以高浓度长时间稳定存在,随硫酸浓度的增大,V(Ⅲ)溶解度逐渐降低,其中30℃、1 mol/L H2SO4条件下V(Ⅲ)浓度可高达2.730 mol/L;进一步通过电化学测试,发现V(Ⅲ)-H2SO4体系是不可逆体系,H2SO4浓度的增大有益于提高V(Ⅲ)/V(Ⅱ)氧化还原反应的可逆性.%The solubility of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) species in negative electrolyte of all vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) was studied and the solubility parameters of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) species at various concentrations of H2SO4 and different temperatures were preliminarily obtained. The results showed that dissolution of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) was an exothermic process. The solubility of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) decreased with temperature (15-40℃). Also, the presence of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) in the solution was a V-O-V dimmer. The solubility of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) decreased with the increasing of H2SO4 and low concentration of H2SO4 would keep high concentration of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) stable for a long time. Especially, concentration of Ⅴ(Ⅲ) could reach 2.730 mol/L with 1 mol/L H2SO4 at 30 ℃ . Electrochemical properties was further investigated by experiment, the results revealed that Ⅴ(Ⅲ)-H2SO4 solution was an irreversible system for Ⅴ(Ⅲ)/Ⅴ(Ⅱ) redox reaction. Increasing of concentration of H2SO4 had great benefit to improve the reversibility of Ⅴ(Ⅲ)/Ⅴ(Ⅱ) redox reaction.

  14. Pattern Discovery Using Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms Kiruthika M,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of Internet has given rise to many websites which maintain large amount of user information. To utilize this information, identifying usage pattern of users is very important. Web usage mining is one of the processes of finding out this usage pattern and has many practical applications. Our paper discusses how association rules can be used to discover patterns in web usage mining. Our discussion starts with preprocessing of the given weblog, followed by clustering them and finding association rules. These rules provide knowledge that helps to improve website design, in advertising, web personalization etc.

  15. Lubrication Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Tasos C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses fluid mechanics for undergraduates including the differential Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis and simplified dimensionless numbers, control volume principles, the Reynolds lubrication equation for confined and free surface flows, capillary pressure, and simplified perturbation techniques. Provides a vertical dip coating…

  16. Cellular scaling rules of insectivore brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons, but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically. Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores, however, offer a noteworthy exception in that neuronal density increases linearly with increasing structure mass. This implies that the average neuronal cell size decreases with increasing olfactory bulb mass in order to accommodate greater neuronal density, and represents the first documentation of a brain structure gaining neurons at a greater rate than mass. This might allow insectivore brains to concentrate more neurons within the olfactory bulbs without a prohibitively large and metabolically costly increase in structure mass.

  17. The N-end rule pathway and regulation by proteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshavsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The N-end rule relates the regulation of the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. Degradation signals (degrons) that are targeted by the N-end rule pathway include a set called N-degrons. The main determinant of an N-degron is a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a protein. In eukaryotes, the N-end rule pathway is a part of the ubiquitin system and consists of two branches, the Ac/N-end rule and the Arg/N-end rule pathways. The Ac/N-end rule pathway targets proteins containing Nα-terminally acetylated (Nt-acetylated) residues. The Arg/N-end rule pathway recognizes unacetylated N-terminal residues and involves N-terminal arginylation. Together, these branches target for degradation a majority of cellular proteins. For example, more than 80% of human proteins are cotranslationally Nt-acetylated. Thus, most proteins harbor a specific degradation signal, termed AcN-degron, from the moment of their birth. Specific N-end rule pathways are also present in prokaryotes and in mitochondria. Enzymes that produce N-degrons include methionine-aminopeptidases, caspases, calpains, Nt-acetylases, Nt-amidases, arginyl-transferases, and leucyl-transferases. Regulated degradation of specific proteins by the N-end rule pathway mediates a legion of physiological functions, including the sensing of heme, oxygen, and nitric oxide; selective elimination of misfolded proteins; the regulation of DNA repair, segregation, and condensation; the signaling by G proteins; the regulation of peptide import, fat metabolism, viral and bacterial infections, apoptosis, meiosis, spermatogenesis, neurogenesis, and cardiovascular development; and the functioning of adult organs, including the pancreas and the brain. Discovered 25 years ago, this pathway continues to be a fount of biological insights. PMID:21633985

  18. Dominance rules for single machine schedule with sequence dependent setup and due date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochuan LUO; Xiao LIU; Chengen WANG; Zhen LIU

    2005-01-01

    Some dominance rules are proposed for the problems of scheduling N jobs on a single machine with due dates,sequence dependent setup times and no preemption. Two algorithms based on Ragatz's branch and bound scheme are developed including the dominance rules where the objective is to minimize the maximum tardiness or the total tardiness. Computational experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the dominance rules.

  19. 78 FR 44771 - Eliminating the Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... general advertising, including advertisements published in newspapers and magazines, communications... Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and Rule 144A Offerings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... advertising in offering and selling securities pursuant to Rule 506, provided that all purchasers of...

  20. 78 FR 8550 - Relocation of Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... change in office location. SUMMARY: Regulations and Rulings, in the Office of International Trade, of the... correspondence directed to the Regulations and Rulings, Office of International Trade, including mailed comments... International Trade, (202) 325-0118. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Regulations and Rulings, Office of...

  1. 77 FR 54464 - Eliminating the Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... advertising, including advertisements published in newspapers and magazines, communications broadcast over... Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and Rule 144A Offerings AGENCY... against general solicitation and general advertising contained in Rule 502(c) of Regulation D would not...

  2. Rules, Praise, and self-esteem%规则、赞美与自尊

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小波

    2004-01-01

    @@ I couldn't follow a single rule. I was attending a one-day writing seminar1 with short writing assignments. The rules included no crossing out, no stopping to reread what you've written, and no commenting when others read their work except to say, "Thank you. "There were other rules, but this final one stumped2 me.

  3. 78 FR 5281 - Revisions to Procedural Rules To Clarify Practices and Procedures Applicable in Permit Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... limit for fluoride). The Board's extension of review to include challenges broader than ones specific to... with the Environmental Appeals Board. This type of action is exempt from review under Executive Orders... following types of rules (1) rules of particular applicability; (2) rules relating to agency management or...

  4. Bimodal Stimuli Do Not Always Facilitate Infants' Rule Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Mei Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven-month-old infants possess the ability to extract and generalize abstract rules from unimodal sequences of auditory syllables such as ABA and ABB whereas five-month-old infants are facilitated in their learning of these rules by bimodal sequences. In the current study, we investigated whether bimodal stimuli could also help infants acquire what we consider a more difficult abstract rule: AAB. Nineteen 8- to 9-month-old infants were habituated to the AAB rule with simultaneous visual shapes and speech sounds. They were later tested on their ability to discriminate this sequence from ABA and ABB with their looking times measured after each stimulus presentation at test periods. There was no significant difference in looking times amongst the different sequences, suggesting infants were not able to formulate an AAB rule different from those for ABA and ABB. Older infants' inability to utilize extra sensory information to acquire an abstract rule in which younger ones were ready to learn from unimodal stimulus (speech was unexpected. It is unclear what leads to the failure of rule learning from bimodal stimuli, but possible explanations including perceptual narrowing in the inter-sensory integration and the difference in sensory representation of abstract rules with different difficulties are discussed.

  5. The Rule of Four, Executive Function and Neural Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jay Hendel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Hughes-Hallet has made many significant contributions to Calculus pedagogy. Among the tools she has introduced is the rule of four, which requires successful pedagogy to simultaneously address four approaches to each course concept, verbal, graphical, algebraic and numeric. We explore examples of this rule of X approach in other disciplines: i Literary analysis is enhanced through the rule of two, a simultaneous approach of grammar and literary analysis; ii Actuarial mathematics requires a rule of six, a simultaneous approach of verbal, graphical, algebraic, calculator, modules, and English conventions; (iii Masters of Tic-Tac-Toe and Chess use a rule of two, simultaneously approaching the game positionally and combinatorically. We offer a unified and deep analysis of the rule of X approach by relating it to executive function, the area of the brain responsible for organizing and synthesizing multiple brain areas. We conclude the paper with an illustration of classroom activities that strengthen executive function and improve pedagogy. Our results are content independent, depending exclusively on paths of information flow, and consequently, our analysis is cybernetic in flavor [1]. [1] American Society of Cybernetics, www.asc-cybernetics.org/

  6. Simplification Rules for Birdtrack Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Alckock-Zeilinger, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper derives a set of easy-to-use tools designed to simplify calculations with birdtrack op- erators comprised of symmetrizers and antisymmetrizers. In particular, we present cancellation rules allowing one to shorten the birdtrack expressions of operators, and propagation rules identifying the circumstances under which it is possible to propagate symmetrizers past antisymmetrizers and vice versa. We exhibit the power of these simplification rules by means of a short example in which we apply the tools derived in this paper on a typical operator that can be encountered in the representation theory of SU(N) over the product space $V^{\\otimes m}$ . These rules form the basis for the construction of compact Hermitian Young projection operators and their transition operators addressed in companion papers.

  7. A Novel Rule Induction Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jianguo; LIU Fang; WANG Lei; JIAO Licheng

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases is concerned with extracting useful information from databases, and the immune algorithm is a biological theory-based and globally searching algorithm. A specific immune algorithm is designed for discovering a few interesting, high-level prediction rules from databases, rather than discovering classification knowledge as usual in the literatures. Simulations show that this novel algorithm is able to improve the stability of the population, increase the holistic performance and make the rules extracted have higher precision.

  8. Probability Theory without Bayes' Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriques, Samuel G.

    2014-01-01

    Within the Kolmogorov theory of probability, Bayes' rule allows one to perform statistical inference by relating conditional probabilities to unconditional probabilities. As we show here, however, there is a continuous set of alternative inference rules that yield the same results, and that may have computational or practical advantages for certain problems. We formulate generalized axioms for probability theory, according to which the reverse conditional probability distribution P(B|A) is no...

  9. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  10. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  11. Properties of train traffic flow in a moving block system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Zeng Jun-Wei; Qian Yong-Sheng; Li Wen-Jun; Yang Fang; Jia Xin-Xin

    2012-01-01

    The development direction of railways is toward the improvement of capacity and service quality,where the service quality includes safety,schedule,high speed,and comfort.In light of the existing cellular automaton models,in this paper,we develop a model to analyze the mixed running processes of trains with maximal speeds of 500 km/h and 350 km/h respectively in the moving block system.In the proposed model,we establish some sound rules to control the running processes of a train,where the rules include the departure rules in the intermediate stations,the overtaking rules,and the conditions of speed limitation for a train stopping at a station or passing through a station.With the consideration of the mixed ratio and the distance between two adjacent stations,the properties of the train traffic flow (including capacity and average speed) are simulated.The numerical results show that the interactions among different trains will affect the capacity,and a proper increase of the spatial distance between two adjacent stations can enhance the capacity and the average speed under the moving block.

  12. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  13. Why Ritalin Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the increased use of Ritalin in the United States and offers some reasons for its growing use. These include public misconceptions about the benign nature of the drug, the political and medical clout of organizations promoting its use, unclear concepts of attention-deficit disorder, and a desire to have children behave compliantly in…

  14. Aussie rules OK!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A.

    1999-01-01

    Mining equipment produced by the Australian export marketing organization Austmine is reviewed. The technology described includes Security Systems, electrical supply; ore processing plant; pipe conveyors; excavations; image processing equipment; jigs; CAD software; management software; safety monitoring systems; loaders; on-line analysis systems and pumps. 8 photos.

  15. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  16. Technology safeguards needed as security rule audits loom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Deborah; Hoey, Laura G; McCrystal, Timothy M; Tolley, David C

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services will conduct security rule audits that will involve on-site visits and include: Compliance-focused interviews with key organizational leaders. Scrutiny of physical operations controls, especially regarding storage, maintenance, and use of protected health information. Assessment of organizational policies and procedures to ensure compliance with privacy and security rules. Identification of regulatory compliance areas of concern.

  17. Basic rules for rheologic forging process of semisolid alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuming Xing; Lizhong Zhang; Jianbo Tan; Chuanlin Zheng; Hanwu Liu; Peng Zhang; Yunhui Du

    2004-01-01

    Semisolid mold forging is a major type of semisolid processing, which is different from neither traditional mold forging nor traditional permanent casting. However, processing defects are often seen in work pieces because of lacking available rules for the process design and control. Some basic rules for the process design and control, simply named the shortest flowing length, pressure filling and the minimum uplifting mold pressure, are advanced in the paper based on amount of researches and experiments. The equations to determine the major process parameters are given out such as the filling pressure, forming pressure and locking mold pressure for the process design and control. The rules and equations are experimentally proved available and applicable by several actual work pieces produced by the semisolid forging process.

  18. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer......'s true type. On the other hand, when the risk of unintentional misrepresentation is small, when verification is costly, and when the Buyer is sufficiently risk averse, the Buyer conceivably may be more effectively deterred from intentional misrepresentation under the causality rule. It is argued...

  19. Aging, rule-violation checking strategies, and strategy combination: An EEG study in arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, Thomas; Lemaire, Patrick

    2017-07-12

    In arithmetic, rule-violation checking strategies are used while participants solve problems that violate arithmetic rules, like the five rule (i.e., products of problems including five as an operand end with either five or zero; e.g., 5×14=70) or the parity rule (i.e., when at least one of the two operands is even, the product is also even; otherwise the product is odd; e.g., 4×13=52). When problems violate both rules, participants use strategy combination and have better performance on both-rule than on one-rule violation problems (i.e., five or parity rule). Aging studies found that older adults efficiently use one-rule violation checking strategies but have difficulties to combine two strategies. To better understand these aging effects, we used EEG and found important age-related changes while participants used rule-violation checking strategies. We compared participants' performance while they verified arithmetic problems that differ in number and type of violated rule. More specifically, both-rule violation problems elicited larger negativity than one-rule violation problems between 600 and 800ms. Five-rule violation problems differed from parity-rule violation problems between 1100 and 1200ms. Moreover, rule-violation checking strategies and strategy combination involved delta, theta, and lower alpha frequencies. Age-related changes in ERPs and frequency were associated with less efficient strategy combination. Moreover, efficient use of one-rule violation checking strategies in older adults was associated with changes in ERPs and frequency. These findings contribute to further our understanding of age-related changes and invariance in arithmetic strategies, and in combination of arithmetic strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanics rules cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang James HC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cells in the musculoskeletal system are subjected to various mechanical forces in vivo. Years of research have shown that these mechanical forces, including tension and compression, greatly influence various cellular functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation and differentiation, and secretion of matrix proteins. Cells also use mechanotransduction mechanisms to convert mechanical signals into a cascade of cellular and molecular events. This mini-review provides an overview of cell mechanobiology to highlight the notion that mechanics, mainly in the form of mechanical forces, dictates cell behaviors in terms of both cellular mechanobiological responses and mechanotransduction.

  1. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  2. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  3. 76 FR 76815 - Business Opportunity Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... ``Amended Franchise Rule'' refers to the amended Franchise Rule published at 72 FR 15444 (Mar. 30, 2007) and... Disclosure Form, available at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/workshops/bizopps/disclosure-form-report.pdf . ``Original Franchise Rule'' refers to the original Franchise Rule published at 43 FR 59614 (Dec. 21,...

  4. Inferring comprehensible business/ICT alignment rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumps, B.; Martens, D.; De Backer, M.; Haesen, R.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Baesens, B.; Snoeck, M.

    2009-01-01

    We inferred business rules for business/ICT alignment by applying a novel rule induction algorithm on a data set containing rich alignment information polled from 641 organisations in 7 European countries. The alignment rule set was created using AntMiner+, a rule induction technique with a reputati

  5. A Pieri rule for skew shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami; Lam, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew shape.

  6. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  7. Integration Rules for Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any M\\"obius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  8. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  9. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  10. Bilinearity, rules, and prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function.

  11. Medicare Program; FY 2017 Hospice Wage Index and Payment Rate Update and Hospice Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    This final rule will update the hospice wage index, payment rates, and cap amount for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, this rule changes the hospice quality reporting program, including adopting new quality measures. Finally, this final rule includes information regarding the Medicare Care Choices Model (MCCM).

  12. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  13. Medicare Program; FY 2018 Hospice Wage Index and Payment Rate Update and Hospice Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-04

    This final rule will update the hospice wage index, payment rates, and cap amount for fiscal year (FY) 2018. Additionally, this rule includes new quality measures and provides an update on the hospice quality reporting program.

  14. Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danyang; Hawley, Zackary; Schnier, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program. PMID:24135615

  15. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  16. Avaliação de regras de sequenciamento da produção em ambientes Job shop e Flow shop por meio de simulação computacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Barbosa da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the computational simulation is employed to study the effects of production sequencing rules in the performance of Job shop and Flow shop manufacturing environments. Eight sequencing rules were considered: SIPT (Shortest Imminent Processing Time, EDD (Earliest Due Date, DLS (Dynamic Least Slack, LWQ (Least Work in next Queue, FIFO (First In First Out, LIFO (Last In Last Out, CR (Critical Ratio and LS (Least Slack. These different sequencing rules were evaluated in relation to the makespan, total tardiness and number of tardy jobs, considering an experimental scenario which includes two configurations with eight machines (processes and ten different types of orders. A simulation model was developed with Arena software, incorporating randomness of order arrivals and the production times in such environments. The results show that the EDD and SIPT rules presented the best performances in the Job shop and in the Flow shop environments, respectively.

  17. From tacit knowledge to a shared rule book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Jensen, Gry Sandholm

    , Hanrahan & Isaacs, 2001) and unsure about what is expected of them. We suggest reconceptualizing the peer feedback process as a board game to overcome some of these difficulties. By drawing on the game metaphor and well-known elements of games (turn taking, time taking, rules and sanctions, Salen...... & Zimmermann, 2006), the rules for engaging in the activity becomes explicit as expectations and tasks are clearly described in every “players” rule book. By including guided meta reflections on the groups expectations, strengths and weaknesses, the board game also offers a structure that supports the group...... members collaboration and learning process. Test with Danish peer feedback groups with cross disciplinary members shows that the text feedback board game does support the groups peer feedback process partly because the game metaphor allows for the rule book format which offers an acceptable genre...

  18. Structure Function Sum rules for Systems with Large Scattering Lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberger, Walter D

    2010-01-01

    We use a dispersion relation in conjunction with the operator product expansion (OPE) to derive model independent sum rules for the dynamic structure functions of systems with large scattering lengths. We present an explicit sum rule for the structure functions that control the density and spin response of the many-body ground state. Our methods are general, and apply to either fermions or bosons which interact through two-body contact interactions with large scattering lengths. By employing a Borel transform of the OPE, the relevant integrals are weighted towards infrared frequencies, thus allowing for greater overlap low energy data. Similar sum rules can be derived for other response functions. The sum rules can be used to extract the contact parameter introduced by Tan, including universality violating corrections at finite scattering lengths.

  19. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  20. Electrochemical cell structure including an ionomeric barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Hibbs, Michael

    2017-06-20

    An apparatus includes an electrochemical half-cell comprising: an electrolyte, an anode; and an ionomeric barrier positioned between the electrolyte and the anode. The anode may comprise a multi-electron vanadium phosphorous alloy, such as VP.sub.x, wherein x is 1-5. The electrochemical half-cell is configured to oxidize the vanadium and phosphorous alloy to release electrons. A method of mitigating corrosion in an electrochemical cell includes disposing an ionomeric barrier in a path of electrolyte or ion flow to an anode and mitigating anion accumulation on the surface of the anode.

  1. 信息动态%Study on Flow Characteristics of Jingjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Yangtze River Flood Protection Physical Model is employed to comprehensively measure the hydraulic elements for different flow discharges of Jingjiang river. Furthermore, the water sediment and topography data since the impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir were taken to analyse the general laws and characteristics of flow movement. Based on the above analysis, different river regulation programs are studied and detailed solutions for different river regimes are offered. The study reveals the flow movement rules for Jingjiang River by clearly presenting the inherent laws of hydraulic elements variation including that of the water level, water surface longitudinal slope, breadth to depth ratio of cross section, flow velocity distribution and dynamicaxis of flow, and consequently provides scientific basis for river regulation.

  2. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  3. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  4. Ten rules for asset protection planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkisson, Jay D; Keller, Lawrence B

    2013-12-01

    Asset protection planning is a highly technical area of legal planning. Because of the fraudulent transfer laws, asset protection planning must be done in advance of any claim, be technically sound, not rely upon secrecy, and avoid any number of critical mistakes including keeping personal and business assets separate. Physicians who engage in asset protection planning must avoid critical mistakes, and not count on bankruptcy to provide relief from creditors. General rules and cautions for those who are considering the creation of an asset protection plan for their personal assets.

  5. All Things Out of Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  6. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  7. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  8. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard econo

  9. Controlling False Positives in Association Rule Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guimei; Wong, Limsoon

    2011-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important problem in the data mining area. It enumerates and tests a large number of rules on a dataset and outputs rules that satisfy user-specified constraints. Due to the large number of rules being tested, rules that do not represent real systematic effect in the data can satisfy the given constraints purely by random chance. Hence association rule mining often suffers from a high risk of false positive errors. There is a lack of comprehensive study on controlling false positives in association rule mining. In this paper, we adopt three multiple testing correction approaches---the direct adjustment approach, the permutation-based approach and the holdout approach---to control false positives in association rule mining, and conduct extensive experiments to study their performance. Our results show that (1) Numerous spurious rules are generated if no correction is made. (2) The three approaches can control false positives effectively. Among the three approaches, the permutation...

  10. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  11. Gas-kinetic unified algorithm for hypersonic flows covering various flow regimes solving Boltzmann model equation in nonequilibrium effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihui; Wu, Junlin; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-12-01

    Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.

  12. Gas-kinetic unified algorithm for hypersonic flows covering various flow regimes solving Boltzmann model equation in nonequilibrium effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang [Hypervelocity Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, P.O.Box 211, Mianyang 621000, China and National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu [Hypervelocity Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, P.O.Box 211, Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Hanxin [National Laboratory for Computational Fluid Dynamics, No.37 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-12-09

    Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body.

  13. Fuel cell repeater unit including frame and separator plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanis, Jean; Hawkes, Justin R; Chiapetta, Jr., Louis; Bird, Connie E; Sun, Ellen Y; Croteau, Paul F

    2013-11-05

    An example fuel cell repeater includes a separator plate and a frame establishing at least a portion of a flow path that is operative to communicate fuel to or from at least one fuel cell held by the frame relative to the separator plate. The flow path has a perimeter and any fuel within the perimeter flow across the at least one fuel cell in a first direction. The separator plate, the frame, or both establish at least one conduit positioned outside the flow path perimeter. The conduit is outside of the flow path perimeter and is configured to direct flow in a second, different direction. The conduit is fluidly coupled with the flow path.

  14. A General Thermal Equilibrium Discharge Flow Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Min-fu; ZHANG; Dong-xu; LV; Yu-feng

    2015-01-01

    In isentropic and thermal equilibrium assumptions,a discharge flow model was derived,which unified the rules of normal temperature water discharge,high temperature and high pressure water discharge,two-phase critical flow,saturated steam and superheated steam critical

  15. An Efficient Algorithm to Automated Discovery of Interesting Positive and Negative Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-WahabAl-Opahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Association Rule mining is very efficient technique for finding strong relation between correlated data. The correlation of data gives meaning full extraction process. For the discovering frequent items and the mining of positive rules, a variety of algorithms are used such as Apriori algorithm and tree based algorithm. But these algorithms do not consider negation occurrence of the attribute in them and also these rules are not in infrequent form. The discovery of infrequent itemsets is far more difficult than their counterparts, that is, frequent itemsets. These problems include infrequent itemsets discovery and generation of interest negative association rules, and their huge number as compared with positive association rules. The interesting discovery of association rules is an important and active area within data mining research. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for discovering interesting positive and negative association rules from frequent and infrequent items. The experimental results show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Robert C.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.

    2017-01-01

    The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method to better discriminate among interaction rules, we propose to follow the slow birth of a rule of interaction during animal development. Specifically, we followed the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and found that larvae turn toward each other from 7 days postfertilization and increase the intensity of interactions until 3 weeks. This developmental dataset allows testing the parameter-free predictions of a simple rule in which animals attract each other part of the time, with attraction defined as turning toward another animal chosen at random. This rule makes each individual likely move to a high density of conspecifics, and moving groups naturally emerge. Development of attraction strength corresponds to an increase in the time spent in attraction behavior. Adults were found to follow the same attraction rule, suggesting a potential significance for adults of other species. PMID:28193864

  17. Ontogeny of collective behavior reveals a simple attraction rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Robert C; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2017-02-13

    The striking patterns of collective animal behavior, including ant trails, bird flocks, and fish schools, can result from local interactions among animals without centralized control. Several of these rules of interaction have been proposed, but it has proven difficult to discriminate which ones are implemented in nature. As a method to better discriminate among interaction rules, we propose to follow the slow birth of a rule of interaction during animal development. Specifically, we followed the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, and found that larvae turn toward each other from 7 days postfertilization and increase the intensity of interactions until 3 weeks. This developmental dataset allows testing the parameter-free predictions of a simple rule in which animals attract each other part of the time, with attraction defined as turning toward another animal chosen at random. This rule makes each individual likely move to a high density of conspecifics, and moving groups naturally emerge. Development of attraction strength corresponds to an increase in the time spent in attraction behavior. Adults were found to follow the same attraction rule, suggesting a potential significance for adults of other species.

  18. Decision and Inhibitory Rule Optimization for Decision Tables with Many-valued Decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2016-04-25

    ‘If-then’ rule sets are one of the most expressive and human-readable knowledge representations. This thesis deals with optimization and analysis of decision and inhibitory rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. The most important areas of applications are knowledge extraction and representation. The benefit of considering inhibitory rules is connected with the fact that in some situations they can describe more knowledge than the decision ones. Decision tables with many-valued decisions arise in combinatorial optimization, computational geometry, fault diagnosis, and especially under the processing of data sets. In this thesis, various examples of real-life problems are considered which help to understand the motivation of the investigation. We extend relatively simple results obtained earlier for decision rules over decision tables with many-valued decisions to the case of inhibitory rules. The behavior of Shannon functions (which characterize complexity of rule systems) is studied for finite and infinite information systems, for global and local approaches, and for decision and inhibitory rules. The extensions of dynamic programming for the study of decision rules over decision tables with single-valued decisions are generalized to the case of decision tables with many-valued decisions. These results are also extended to the case of inhibitory rules. As a result, we have algorithms (i) for multi-stage optimization of rules relative to such criteria as length or coverage, (ii) for counting the number of optimal rules, (iii) for construction of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems, (iv) for construction of graphs describing relationships between two cost functions, and (v) for construction of graphs describing relationships between cost and accuracy of rules. The applications of created tools include comparison (based on information about Pareto optimal points) of greedy heuristics for bi-criteria optimization of rules

  19. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds.

  20. Bowling-Fencing Guide with Official Rules. January 1973 - January 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Ethel, Ed.; Curry, Nancy L., Ed.

    Rules for women's bowling and fencing from January 1973 to January 1975 are discussed. Standards in sports for girls and women are detailed along with the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with bowling skills, norms, and rules for women are included. Articles are also included on the…

  1. Risk management. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Interim rule adopted as final with changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-22

    This is a final rule amending the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to emphasize considerations of risk management, including safety, security (including information technology security), health, export control, and damage to the environment, within the acquisition process. This final rule addresses risk management within the context of acquisition planning, selecting sources, choosing contract type, structuring award fee incentives, administering contracts, and conducting contractor surveillance.

  2. Decision Rules for Enhanced Breakout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-20

    347AD-A18 2753 DECISION RULES FOR ENHANCED GRERICOUT(U) MODERN TECNOLOGIES CORP DAYTON 0ON T MI MCCANN 20 MAR 87 MTC-TR-8883-02 BRMC-85-564-i F33615... information to develop a priori estimates of the cost to break-out specific spare parts. In addition, some recommendations were to be developed...implementing directives. Applicable AF and AFLC Regulations and Pamphlets were also reviewed to obtain information on costs and their estimated

  3. On the Fermi Golden Rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Arne; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    We review and further develop the framework in [9] of the stationary theory of resonances, arising by perturbation of either threshold, or embedded in the continuum, eigenvalues. While in [9] only non/degenerate eigenvalues were considered, here we add some results for the degenerate case. [9] A........ Jensen and G. Nenciu, The Fermi Golden Rule and its form at thresholds in odd dimensions. Comm. Math. Phys 261 (2006), 693-727...

  4. THE EFFECTS OF PRELIMINARY RULINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana-Mădălina LARION

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the effects of the preliminary rulings rendered by the Court of Justice for the judicial body that made the reference and for other bodies dealing with similar cases, for the member states, for the European Union’ s institutions and for EU legal order. Starting from the binding effect of the preliminary judgment for national judicial bodies, which requires them to follow the ruling or make a new reference, to the lack of precedent doctrine in EU law, continuing with the possibility to indirectly verify the compatibility of national law of the member states with EU law and ending with the administrative or legislative measures that can or must be taken by the member states, the study intends to highlight the limits, nuances and consequences of the binding effect. It mentions the contribution of the national courts and of the Court of Justice of the European Union to the development of EU law, such as clarifying autonomous notions and it emphasizes the preliminary procedure's attributes of being a form of judicial protection of individual rights, as well as a means to review the legality of acts of EU institutions. The paper is meant to be a useful instrument for practitioners. Therefor, it also deals with the possibility and limits of asking new questions, in order to obtain reconsideration or a refinement of the legal issue and with the problem of judicial control over the interpretation and application of the preliminary ruling by the lower court.

  5. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  6. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  7. Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the Octet Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses major events leading to the development of the octet rule. Three conclusions based on the work of Mendeleev, Abegg, Thompson, Kossel, Lewis, and Langmuir are considered as is the debate over the rule's validity. (JN)

  8. Statistical inference of static analysis rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  9. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sudeep Marwaha; Alka Aroa; Satma M C; Rajni Jain; R C Goyal

    2013-01-01

    .... The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation...

  10. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  11. Bodychecking rules and concussion in elite hockey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Donaldson

    Full Text Available Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion. We determined whether recent rule changes regulating contact to the head introduced in 2010-11 and 2011-12 have been effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League (NHL. A league with a longstanding ban on hits contacting the head, the Ontario Hockey League (OHL, was also studied. A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the 2009-10 to 2011-12 seasons was performed using official game records and team injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3 seasons analyzed was 5.23 per 100 NHL regular season games and 5.05 per 100 OHL regular season games (IRR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50. When injuries described as concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8.8 and 7.1 per 100 games respectively (IRR 1.23; 95% CI 0.81, 1.32. The number of NHL concussions or suspected concussions was lower in 2009-10 than in 2010-11 (IRR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83, but did not increase from 2010-11 to 2011-12 (IRR 1.05; 95% CI 0.80, 1.38. 64.2% of NHL concussions were caused by bodychecking, and only 28.4% of concussions and 36.8% of suspected concussions were caused by illegal incidents. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the risk of players suffering these injuries.

  12. Optimization of CHR propagation rules: extended report

    OpenAIRE

    Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is an elegant, high-level programming language based on multi-headed, forward chaining rules. To ensure CHR propagation rules are applied at most once with the same combination of constraints, CHR implementations maintain a so-called propagation history. The performance impact of this history can be significant. We introduce several optimizations that, for the majority of CHR rules, eliminate this overhead. We formally prove their correctness, and evaluate thei...

  13. Refinements of some new efficient quadrature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, A.; Shoaib, M.; Faye, I.; Kashif, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    In the field of Engineering and Applied Mathematical Sciences, minimizing approximation error is very important task and therefore quadrature rules are investigated regularly. In this paper, using some standard results of theoretical inequalities, e.g. Ostrowski type inequality, some new efficient quadrature rules are introduced for n-times differentiable mappings. These quadrature rules are expected to give better results comparing to the conventional quadrature rules.

  14. Religionsfrihed i Kina & The Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law......Artiklen redegør for aktuel kinesisk religionsret, sammenstiller den med internationale religionsretlige grundbegreber og anvender dette empiriske materiale til en reflektion over begreberne Rule of Law vs Rule by Law...

  15. Industrial flow of lead in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian-su; YANG Zhi-feng; LU Zhong-wu

    2007-01-01

    The rules on industrial flow of lead were studied for theoretical foundation of nonrenewable resource conservation and environmental improvement. A model of lead flow in lead product life cycle was developed through lead flow analysis and was used to analyze the relationship between lead product system and its environment, thus the rules on industrial flow of lead were obtained. The results show that increasing eco-efficiency will favor both resource conservation and environmental improvement. Several indices were proposed to evaluate the lead flow. As for application, the lead-flow for China in 1999 was analyzed and the reasons for low eco-efficiency were identified. In the end, some countermeasures were proposed to improve eco-efficiency, and the future lead ore consumption and environment quality were forecasted.

  16. Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; McPartland, James C; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-02-01

    Social exclusion inherently involves an element of expectancy violation, in that we expect other people to follow the unwritten rule to include us in social interactions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a unique modification of an interactive virtual ball-tossing game called "Cyberball" (Williams et al., 2000) and a novel paradigm called "Cybershape," in which rules are broken in the absence of social exclusion, to dissociate brain regions that process social exclusion from rule violations more generally. Our Cyberball game employed an alternating block design and removed evoked responses to events when the participant was throwing the ball in inclusion to make this condition comparable to exclusion, where participants did not throw. With these modifications, we replicated prior findings of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), insula, and posterior cingulate cortex activity evoked by social exclusion relative to inclusion. We also identified exclusion-evoked activity in the hippocampi, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and left middle temporal gyrus. Comparing social exclusion and rule violation revealed a functional dissociation in the active neural systems as well as differential functional connectivity with vACC. Some overlap was observed in regions differentially modulated by social exclusion and rule violation, including the vACC and lateral parietal cortex. These overlapping brain regions showed different activation during social exclusion compared to rule violation, each relative to fair play. Comparing activation patterns to social exclusion and rule violation allowed for the dissociation of brain regions involved in the experience of exclusion versus expectancy violation.

  17. QCD Sum Rules at Finite Temperature: a Review

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Loewe, M

    2016-01-01

    The method of QCD sum rules at finite temperature is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results. These include predictions for the survival of charmonium and bottonium states, at and beyond the critical temperature for de-confinement, as later confirmed by lattice QCD simulations. Also included are determinations in the light-quark vector and axial-vector channels, allowing to analyse the Weinberg sum rules, and predict the dimuon spectrum in heavy ion collisions in the region of the rho-meson. Also in this sector, the determination of the temperature behaviour of the up-down quark mass, together with the pion decay constant, will be described. Finally, an extension of the QCD sum rule method to incorporate finite baryon chemical potential is reviewed.

  18. 78 FR 19790 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... single- name constituents of the Emerging Markets Index, and High Yield single names). ICC proposes to... included conforming changes to the chapters of the ICC Rules referencing iTraxx Europe index CDS and...), Eligible SES Reference Obligations (Rule 26D-102), Eligible iTraxx Europe Untranched Index (Rule...

  19. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  20. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  1. 16 CFR 410.1 - The Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Rule. 410.1 Section 410.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING AS TO SIZES OF VIEWABLE PICTURES SHOWN BY TELEVISION RECEIVING SETS § 410.1 The Rule. In connection with the sale of...

  2. 78 FR 54566 - Energy Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission published a final rule on July 23, 2013 revising its...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2622 - Rule 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 6. 29.2622 Section 29.2622 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2622 Rule 6. A lot of tobacco on the marginal line between two colors shall...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1112 - Rule 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 6. 29.1112 Section 29.1112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1112 Rule 6. A lot of tobacco on the marginal line between two colors shall...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3607 - Rule 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 6. 29.3607 Section 29.3607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3607 Rule 6. A lot of tobacco on the marginal line between two colors shall...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3108 - Rule 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 5. 29.3108 Section 29.3108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3108 Rule 5. A lot of tobacco on the marginal line between two colors shall...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2397 - Rule 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 6. 29.2397 Section 29.2397 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2397 Rule 6. A lot of tobacco on the marginal line between two colors shall...

  8. Error Analysis of Quadrature Rules. Classroom Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2004-01-01

    Approaches to the determination of the error in numerical quadrature rules are discussed and compared. This article considers the problem of the determination of errors in numerical quadrature rules, taking Simpson's rule as the principal example. It suggests an approach based on truncation error analysis of numerical schemes for differential…

  9. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  10. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuing rulings. 103.85 Section 103.85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The...

  11. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71....

  12. Product and Quotient Rules from Logarithmic Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo

    2012-01-01

    A new application of logarithmic differentiation is presented, which provides an alternative elegant proof of two basic rules of differentiation: the product rule and the quotient rule. The proof can intrigue students, help promote their critical thinking and rigorous reasoning and deepen their understanding of previously encountered concepts. The…

  13. 7 CFR 29.3618 - Rule 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 17. 29.3618 Section 29.3618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3618 Rule 17. Any lot of tobacco which is not green but contains over...

  14. The Orbital Angular Momentum Sum Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Fatma; Burkardt, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    As an alternative to the Ji sum rule for the quark angular momentum, a sum rule for the quark orbital angular momentum, based on a twist-3 generalized parton distribution, has been suggested. We study the validity of this sum rule in the context of scalar Yukawa interactions as well as in QED for an electron.

  15. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  16. Will Rule based BPM obliterate Process Models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.; Joosten, H.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Business rules can be used directly for controlling business processes, without reference to a business process model. In this paper we propose to use business rules to specify both business processes and the software that supports them. Business rules expressed in smart mathematical notations bring

  17. NCAA Rule 48: Origins and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    1986-01-01

    National Collegiate Athletic Association Rule 48 sets academic standards for high school which incoming freshmen must have met in order to receive a grant-in-aid and play intercollegiate athletics. The author discusses why tougher standards are needed, how Rule 48 operates, what problems are, and why there is opposition to the rule. (MT)

  18. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  19. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Harmer, Russ

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  20. Formal Semantics of Dynamic Rules in ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balsters, Herman; Halpin, Terry; Meersman, R; Tari, Z; Herrero, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides formal semantics for an extension of the Object-Role Modeling approach that supports declaration of dynamic rules. Dynamic rules differ from static rules by pertaining to properties of state transitions, rather than to the states themselves. In this paper we restrict application

  1. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  2. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  3. Flow Analysis: A Novel Approach For Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakh, Christina; Falkova, Marina; Timofeeva, Irina; Moskvin, Alexey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a novel approach for classification of flow analysis methods according to the conditions under which the mass transfer processes and chemical reactions take place in the flow mode: dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods. The first group includes continuous flow analysis, flow injection analysis, all injection analysis, sequential injection analysis, sequential injection chromatography, cross injection analysis, multi-commutated flow analysis, multi-syringe flow injection analysis, multi-pumping flow systems, loop flow analysis, and simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis. The second group includes segmented flow analysis, zone fluidics, flow batch analysis, sequential injection analysis with a mixing chamber, stepwise injection analysis, and multi-commutated stepwise injection analysis. The offered classification allows systematizing a large number of flow analysis methods. Recent developments and applications of dispersion-convection flow methods and forced-convection flow methods are presented.

  4. Cutkosky Rules from Outer Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    We overview recent results on the mathematical foundations of Cutkosky rules. We emphasize that the two operations of shrinking an internal edge or putting internal lines on the mass-shell are natural operation on the cubical chain complex studied in the context of geometric group theory. This together with Cutkosky's theorem regarded as a theorem which informs us about variations connected to the monodromy of Feynman amplitudes allows for a systematic approach to normal and anomalous thresholds, dispersion relations and the optical theorem. In this report we follow [1] closely.

  5. Membership Rules - LHCRRB Scrutiny Group

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The LHC Resources Scrutiny Group was created in 2001 to review and scrutinize the M&O cost estimates of the LHC Collaborations. The Scrutiny Group first met on 23 August 2001 and reported to the RRBs at its 13th Plenary meeting, in October 2001 (RRB-D-2001-8). The Scrutiny Group operates according to the procedures set out in Annex 12 of the MoUs for the M&O of the LHC experiments. This document lists the Rules of Procedure that apply to the M&O Scrutiny Group

  6. Managing Knowledge as Business Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Ioana ANDREESCU; Mircea, Marinela

    2009-01-01

    In today’s business environment, it is a certainty that will manage to survive especially those organizations which are striving to adapt quickly and with low costs to the new demands of market competition. Knowledge represented by internal business rules of an organization can help crystallize their orientation in order to ensure a competitive advantage in the market. In this context and in a relatively short time, a new trend in software development has arisen, ex-tending current methods ...

  7. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology) around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective ...

  8. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  9. Optimization of European call options considering physical delivery network and reservoir operation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei-Chen; Hsu, Nien-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Ming; Yeh, William W.-G.

    2011-10-01

    This paper develops alternative strategies for European call options for water purchase under hydrological uncertainties that can be used by water resources managers for decision making. Each alternative strategy maximizes its own objective over a selected sequence of future hydrology that is characterized by exceedance probability. Water trade provides flexibility and enhances water distribution system reliability. However, water trade between two parties in a regional water distribution system involves many issues, such as delivery network, reservoir operation rules, storage space, demand, water availability, uncertainty, and any existing contracts. An option is a security giving the right to buy or sell an asset; in our case, the asset is water. We extend a flow path-based water distribution model to include reservoir operation rules. The model simultaneously considers both the physical distribution network as well as the relationships between water sellers and buyers. We first test the model extension. Then we apply the proposed optimization model for European call options to the Tainan water distribution system in southern Taiwan. The formulation lends itself to a mixed integer linear programming model. We use the weighing method to formulate a composite function for a multiobjective problem. The proposed methodology provides water resources managers with an overall picture of water trade strategies and the consequence of each strategy. The results from the case study indicate that the strategy associated with a streamflow exceedence probability of 50% or smaller should be adopted as the reference strategy for the Tainan water distribution system.

  10. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  11. scoringRules - A software package for probabilistic model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Jordan, Alexander; Krüger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Models in the geosciences are generally surrounded by uncertainty, and being able to quantify this uncertainty is key to good decision making. Accordingly, probabilistic forecasts in the form of predictive distributions have become popular over the last decades. With the proliferation of probabilistic models arises the need for decision theoretically principled tools to evaluate the appropriateness of models and forecasts in a generalized way. Various scoring rules have been developed over the past decades to address this demand. Proper scoring rules are functions S(F,y) which evaluate the accuracy of a forecast distribution F , given that an outcome y was observed. As such, they allow to compare alternative models, a crucial ability given the variety of theories, data sources and statistical specifications that is available in many situations. This poster presents the software package scoringRules for the statistical programming language R, which contains functions to compute popular scoring rules such as the continuous ranked probability score for a variety of distributions F that come up in applied work. Two main classes are parametric distributions like normal, t, or gamma distributions, and distributions that are not known analytically, but are indirectly described through a sample of simulation draws. For example, Bayesian forecasts produced via Markov Chain Monte Carlo take this form. Thereby, the scoringRules package provides a framework for generalized model evaluation that both includes Bayesian as well as classical parametric models. The scoringRules package aims to be a convenient dictionary-like reference for computing scoring rules. We offer state of the art implementations of several known (but not routinely applied) formulas, and implement closed-form expressions that were previously unavailable. Whenever more than one implementation variant exists, we offer statistically principled default choices.

  12. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vijaya Prakash; Dr. A. Govardhan3; Prof. SSVN. Sarma

    2012-01-01

    Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  13. Changing the Rules? RDA and cataloguing in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Danskin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of plans to implement RDA: Resource Description & Access in Europe to replace existing cataloguing rules.  It is based on survey information gathered by EURIG and CILIP CIG.  It includes background on the development of RDA as a replacement for AACR2.

  14. On Inference Rules of Logic-Based Information Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Patrick Shicheng

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of relevance and the needs of the users in information retrieval focuses on a deductive object-oriented approach and suggests eight inference rules for the deduction. Highlights include characteristics of a deductive object-oriented system, database and data modeling language, implementation, and user interface. (Contains 24…

  15. Archery - Golf Guide with Official Rules. June 1972 - June 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Margaret L., Ed.; Michalson, Doddy, Ed.

    This guide for women's archery and golf dated June 1972 - June 1974 details rules and standards as well as the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Articles on archery nomenclature, archery interest builders, and archery golf are included in the section on archery. Articles dealing with golf take up such topics as…

  16. Volleyball Guide with Official Rules. July 1971 - July 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Jackie, Ed.

    This guide for playing women's volleyball dated July 1971 - July 1973 details rules and standards as well as the Division for Girls and Women's Sports (DGWS) statement of beliefs. Specific articles dealing with teamwork, basic fundamentals, suggestions for beginners, a volleyball mini unit, and volleyball visual aids are included. The booklet…

  17. Rules-based object-relational databases ontology construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jia; Wu Yue

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problems of sharing and reusing information in the information system, a rules-based ontology constructing approach from object-relational databases is proposed. A 3-tuple ontology constructing model is proposed first. Then, four types of ontology constructing rules including class, property, property characteristics, and property restrictions axe formalized affording to the model. Experiment results described in Web ontology language prove that our proposed approach is feasible for applying in the semantic objects project of semantic computing laboratory in UC Irvine. Our approach reduces about twenty percent constructing time compared with the ontology construction from relational databases.

  18. Interpretation of Hund's multiplicity rule for the carbon atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Towler, M D; Needs, R J

    2004-10-15

    Hund's multiplicity rule is investigated for the carbon atom using quantum Monte Carlo methods. Our calculations give an accurate account of electronic correlation and obey the virial theorem to high accuracy. This allows us to obtain accurate values for each of the energy terms and therefore to give a convincing explanation of the mechanism by which Hund's rule operates in carbon. We find that the energy gain in the triplet with respect to the singlet state is due to the greater electron-nucleus attraction in the higher spin state, in accordance with Hartree-Fock calculations and studies including correlation. The method used here can easily be extended to heavier atoms.

  19. An International Rule System to Avoid Financial Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Horst

    2008-01-01

    In a series of summits, leading countries of the world will meet to draw up an in¬ternational arrangement for financial stability. Such a rule system should prevent a financial crisis as we have seen it in 2007 and 2008. It should include appropriate principles of mone¬tary policy, rules for financial soundness and agreements on the role of prudent regulation. The paper discusses the lessons from the subprime crisis, failures of regulation, crisis man¬agement in the US and in the EU and consi...

  20. Clinton asks court to rule against assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-29

    The U.S. Supreme Court has been urged by the Clinton Administration to overturn two appeals court rulings that bar States from enforcing laws that prohibit doctor-assisted suicide. Solicitor General Walter Dellinger asked the court to reverse rulings by the 2nd and 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals blocking New York and Washington States from arresting doctors who hasten the death of patients. In both cases, the plaintiff included people with AIDS and their caregivers. President Clinton previously stated that he opposes euthanasia. AIDS policy advocates generally support legalizing assisted suicide and were disappointed in the administration's involvement in these cases.

  1. Database Reverse Engineering based on Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Pannurat

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a legacy database is a difficult task especially when system documentation is poor written or even missing. Database reverse engineering is an attempt to recover high-level conceptual design from the existing database instances. In this paper, we propose a technique to discover conceptual schema using the association mining technique. The discovered schema corresponds to the normalization at the third normal form, which is a common practice in many business organizations. Our algorithm also includes the rule filtering heuristic to solve the problem of exponential growth of discovered rules inherited with the association mining technique.

  2. Software Security Rules: SDLC Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software has become an integral part of everyday life. Everyday, millions of people perform transaction through internet, ATM, mobile phone, they send email & e-greetings, and use word processing and spreadsheet for various purpose. People use software bearing in mind that it is reliable and can be trust upon and the operation they perform is secured. Now, if these software have exploitable security hole then how can they be safe for use. Security brings value to software in terms of people’s trust. The value provided by secure software is of vital importance because many critical functions are entirely dependent on the software. That is why security is a serious topic which should be given proper attention during the entire SDLC, ‘right from the beginning’. For the proper implementation of security in the software, twenty one security rules are proposed in this paper along with validation results. It is found that by applying these rules as per given implementation mechanism, most of the vulnerabilities are eliminated in the software and a more secure software can be built.

  3. International rules on maritime delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with international rules which are applicable in the cases of maritime delimitation. The importance of sea and its resources incited the states to regulate their boundaries in international agreements. In the situations when it is impossible to reach an agreement on delimitation it is necessary to resolve the dispute. Among other issues, there can be differences regarding the delimitation of territorial sea, continental shelf and exclusive economic zone. The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which comprehensively regulates this field contains also certain rules on maritime delimitation. Besides diplomatic means, states concerned can try to resolve the dispute by using the arbitration or judicial means of dispute settlement. The jurisdiction for the dispute settlement have the International Court of Justice and the Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. They usually apply the principle of equidistance but it can be complemented or replaced with additional criteria if there are some special circumstances related to the concrete case. The basic aim in the process of decision making is the achievement of equitable and acceptable solution.

  4. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  5. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  6. Corporate Litigation and the Majority Rule: Retreating from the Precipice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderibigbe , O. I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate litigation is one of the methods of resolving both internal and external corporate disputes; however Company Laws all over the world establishe a number of different forums for the resolution of internal corporate disputes that occur between directors inter se, shareholders inter se, or between shareholders and directors. However the Majority rule seems to undermine the rights of the minority share holders to seek redress for wrongs committed against the company. Thus the need to protect the minority members of the company and retreat from the precipice of the Majority rule. To enhance the protection of the minority, the Supreme Court's decision in Edokpolo & Company Ltd v. Sem - Edo Wire Industries Ltd1, which added an exception to the list of exceptions to the majority rule stating that the rule in Foss v. Harbottle will not apply when the interest of justice requires it, should be included to the statutory exceptions under CAMA. Consequently, judicial authorities suggest that the law is closing gradually on the rule in Foss v. Harbottle with a demolishing hammer; therefore I would recommend in line with the tide of informed opinion, that sections like section 2992 should be reviewed appropriately to meet the changing faces of law because "the reason of law is the soul of law; ratio legis est anima legis".

  7. The information content of rules and rule sets and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Dan; LI HongXing; YU XianChuan

    2008-01-01

    The information content of rules is categorized into inner mutual information content and outer impartation information content. Actually, the conventional objective interestingness measures based on information theory are all inner mutual informarion, which represent the confidence of rules and the mutual information between the antecedent and consequent. Moreover, almost all of these measures lose sight of the outer impartation information, which is conveyed to the user and help the user to make decisions. We put forward the viewpoint that the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets can be represented by the relations from input universe to output universe. By binary relations, the interaction of rules in a rule set can be easily represented by operators: union and intersection. Based on the entropy of relations, the outer impartation information content of rules and rule sets are well measured. Then, the conditional information content of rules and rule sets, the independence of rules and rule sets and the inconsistent knowledge of rule sets are defined and measured. The properties of these new measures are discussed and some interesting results are proven, such as the information content of a rule set may be bigger than the sum of the information content of rules in the rule set, and the conditional information content of rules may be negative. At last, the applications of these new measures are discussed. The new method for the appraisement of .rule mining algorithm, and two rule pruning algorithms, λ-choice and RPCIC, are put forward. These new methods and algorithms havepredominance in satisfying the need of more efficient decision information.

  8. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  9. Nonlocal Condensate Model for QCD Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2009-01-01

    We include effects of nonlocal quark condensates into QCD sum rules (QSR) via the K$\\ddot{\\mathrm{a}}$ll$\\acute{\\mathrm{e}}$n-Lehmann representation for a dressed fermion propagator, in which a negative spectral density function manifests their nonperturbative nature. Applying our formalism to the pion form factor as an example, QSR results are in good agreement with data for momentum transfer squared up to $Q^2 \\approx 10 $ GeV$^2$. It is observed that the nonlocal quark-condensate contribution descends like $1/Q^4$, different from the exponential decrease in $Q^2$ obtained in the literature, and contrary to the linear rise in the local-condensate approximation.

  10. QCD Sum Rules Study of X(4350)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zeng; Cui, Chun-Yu; Liu, Yong-Lu; Huang, Ming-Qiu

    2014-04-01

    The QCD sum rule approach is used to analyze the nature of the recently observed new resonance X(4350), which is assumed to be a diquark-antidiquark state [cs][bar cbar s] with JPC = 1-+. The interpolating current representing this state is proposed. In the calculation, contributions of operators up to dimension six are included in the operator product expansion (OPE), as well as terms which are linear in the strange quark mass ms. We find m1-+ = (4.82 ± 0.19) GeV, which is not compatible with the X(4350) structure as a 1-+ tetraquark state. Finally, we also discuss the difference of a four-quark state's mass whether the state's interpolating current has a definite charge conjugation.

  11. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka;

    2009-01-01

    health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented...... as an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  12. Recommendation System Based On Association Rules For Distributed E-Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Gabroveanu

    2015-09-01

    Traditional Learning Management Systems are installed on a single server where learning materials and user data are kept. To increase its performance, the Learning Management System can be installed on multiple servers; learning materials and user data could be distributed across these servers obtaining a Distributed Learning Management System. In this paper is proposed the prototype of a recommendation system based on association rules for Distributed Learning Management System. Information from LMS databases is analyzed using distributed data mining algorithms in order to extract the association rules. Then the extracted rules are used as inference rules to provide personalized recommendations. The quality of provided recommendations is improved because the rules used to make the inferences are more accurate, since these rules aggregate knowledge from all e-Learning systems included in Distributed Learning Management System.

  13. Rough Set Based K-Exception Approach to Approximate Rule Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; ZHANG Xianfeng; QIN Zhiguang; LIU Jinde

    2003-01-01

    There are rules refering to infrequent instances after the procession of attribute reduction and value reduction with traditional methods. A rough set RS based k-exception approach (RSKEA) to rule reduction is presented. Its main idea lies in a two-phase RS based rule reduction. An ordinary decision table is attained through general method of RS knowledge reduction in the first phase. Then a kexception candidate set is nominated according to the decision table. RS rule reduction is employed for the reformed source data set, which remove all the instances included in the k-exception set. We apply the approach to the automobile database. Results show that it can reduce the number and complexity of rules with adjustable conflict rate, which contributes to approximate rule reduction.

  14. Clustering Association Rules with Fuzzy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Matthias; Kruse, Rudolf

    Association rules constitute a widely accepted technique to identify frequent patterns inside huge volumes of data. Practitioners prefer the straightforward interpretability of rules, however, depending on the nature of the underlying data the number of induced rules can be intractable large. Even reasonably sized result sets may contain a large amount of rules that are uninteresting to the user because they are too general, are already known or do not match other user-related intuitive criteria. We allow the user to model his conception of interestingness by means of linguistic expressions on rule evaluation measures and compound propositions of higher order (i.e., temporal changes of rule properties). Multiple such linguistic concepts can be considered a set of fuzzy patterns (Fuzzy Sets and Systems 28(3):313-331, 1988) and allow for the partition of the initial rule set into fuzzy fragments that contain rules of similar membership to a user’s concept (Höppner et al., Fuzzy Clustering, Wiley, Chichester, 1999; Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 51(1):192-214, 2006; Advances in Fuzzy Clustering and Its Applications, chap. 1, pp. 3-30, Wiley, New York, 2007). With appropriate visualization methods that extent previous rule set visualizations (Foundations of Fuzzy Logic and Soft Computing, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4529, pp. 295-303, Springer, Berlin, 2007) we allow the user to instantly assess the matching of his concepts against the rule set.

  15. Rule-Based Network Service Provisioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Deca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unprecedented development of networks, manual network service provisioning is becoming increasingly risky, error-prone, expensive, and time-consuming. To solve this problem,rule-based methods can provide adequate leverage for automating various network management tasks. This paper presents a rule-based solution for automated network service provisioning. The proposed approach captures configuration data interdependencies using high-level, service-specific, user-configurable rules. We focus on the service validation task, which is illustrated by means of a case study.Based on numerical results, we analyse the influence of the network-level complexity factors and rule descriptive features on the rule efficiency. This analysis shows the operators how to increase rule efficiency while keeping the rules simple and the rule set compact. We present a technique that allows operators to increase the error coverage, and we show that high error coverage scales well when the complexity of networks and services increases.We reassess the correlation function between specific rule efficiency and rule complexity metrics found in previous work, and show that this correlation function holds for various sizes, types, and complexities of networks and services.

  16. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    Recent papers mention ideas on the topics of biodiversity conservation strategies and priorities (Redford et al. 2003; Lamoreux et al. 2006; Rodrı´guez et al. 2006), the current status of biodiversity (Loreau et al. 2006), the obligations of conservation biologists regarding management policies...... (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture...

  17. Performance of thirteen clinical rules to distinguish bacterial and presumed viral meningitis in Vietnamese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tien Huy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Successful outcomes from bacterial meningitis require rapid antibiotic treatment; however, unnecessary treatment of viral meningitis may lead to increased toxicities and expense. Thus, improved diagnostics are required to maximize treatment and minimize side effects and cost. Thirteen clinical decision rules have been reported to identify bacterial from viral meningitis. However, few rules have been tested and compared in a single study, while several rules are yet to be tested by independent researchers or in pediatric populations. Thus, simultaneous test and comparison of these rules are required to enable clinicians to select an optimal diagnostic rule for bacterial meningitis in settings and populations similar to ours. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Infectious Department of Pediatric Hospital Number 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The performance of the clinical rules was evaluated by area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC using the method of DeLong and McNemar test for specificity comparison. RESULTS: Our study included 129 patients, of whom 80 had bacterial meningitis and 49 had presumed viral meningitis. Spanos's rule had the highest AUC at 0.938 but was not significantly greater than other rules. No rule provided 100% sensitivity with a specificity higher than 50%. Based on our calculation of theoretical sensitivity and specificity, we suggest that a perfect rule requires at least four independent variables that posses both sensitivity and specificity higher than 85-90%. CONCLUSIONS: No clinical decision rules provided an acceptable specificity (>50% with 100% sensitivity when applying our data set in children. More studies in Vietnam and developing countries are required to develop and/or validate clinical rules and more very good biomarkers are required to develop such a perfect rule.

  18. Sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation of New World dragonflies follows Rensch's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E S A; Machado, G

    2016-07-01

    Many animal taxa that display sexual size dimorphism (SSD) exhibit a positive allometric relationship in which the degree of dimorphism increases with body size. This macroevolutionary pattern is known as Rensch's rule. Although sexual selection is hypothesized to be the main mechanism causing this pattern, body size is influenced by several selective forces, including natural and sexual selection. Therefore, by focusing exclusively on SSD one cannot ascertain which of these selective forces drives Rensch's rule. If sexual selection is indeed the main mechanism underlying Rensch's rule, we predict that other sexually selected traits, including coloration-based ornaments, will also exhibit interspecific allometric scaling consistent with Rensch's rule. We tested this prediction using wing pigmentation of 89 species of dragonflies. Studies show that male wing pigmentation is generally under strong intra- and intersexual selection, so that sexual dichromatism in this trait should follow Rensch's rule. Conversely, the available evidence suggests that male body size is usually not sexually selected in dragonflies, so we do not expect SSD to follow Rensch's rule. First, we found that sexual dichromatism in wing pigmentation was consistent with Rensch's rule. The phylogenetic major axis regression slope was significantly greater than one. We also showed that the allometric slope for SSD was not different from unity, providing no support for Rensch's rule. Our results provide the first evidence that a trait which appears to be under strong sexual selection exhibits a pattern consistent with Rensch's rule.

  19. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  20. 26 CFR 1.921-2 - Foreign Sales Corporation-general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corporation—general rules. (a) Definition of a FSC and the Effect of a FSC Election. Q-1. What is the definition of a Foreign Sales Corporation (hereinafter referred to as a “FSC” (All references to FSCs include... to use the administrative pricing rules under section 925(a), a small FSC must satisfy the...

  1. International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science Fairs. June 1995-May 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Service, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the international rules for precollege science research. Sections include: (1) Quick Rules Reference; (2) Highlights for 1995-96; (3) International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) Category Descriptions; (4) Display and Safety Regulations; (5) Eligibility; (6) Requirements; (7) Limitations; (8) Continuation of Projects;…

  2. 78 FR 36677 - Radio Experimentation and Market Trials-Streamlining Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... conventional experimental license. The Commission also proposed to amend the language of Sec. 5.79 of the Commission's rules regarding ERS license transfers. The proposed language modified the title of the rule to... compliance testing. The Commission also adopted the body of proposed Sec. 5.79, but included the three...

  3. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  4. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  5. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  6. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN CHUNYING

    2011-01-01

    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  7. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  8. Ruled Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four

    CERN Document Server

    Ionel, Marianty

    2010-01-01

    We classify 4-dimensional austere submanifolds in Euclidean space ruled by 2-planes. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of an austere 4-fold M were classified by Bryant, falling into three types which we label A, B, and C. We show that if M is 2-ruled of Type A, then the ruling map from M into the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^n is holomorphic, and we give a construction for M starting with a holomorphic curve in an appropriate twistor space. If M is 2-ruled of Type B, then M is either a generalized helicoid in R^6 or the product of two classical helicoids in R^3. If M is 2-ruled of Type C, then M is either a one of the above, or a generalized helicoid in R^7. We also construct examples of 2-ruled austere hypersurfaces in R^5 with degenerate Gauss map.

  9. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......, contrary to the predictions in previous research, companies sometimes move back and forth between different generations of rules. Companies that have moved to a more flexible third generation of rules might revert to their second generation rules, or supplement their flexibility with an increased level...... indicate that many factors influence the modification of rules, and that there is no simple linear progression from one generation to another. Organizational learning is one among several other factors that influences the dynamics of rules for managing product development. Further research is needed...

  10. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  11. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  12. Image segmentation using association rule features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, John A; Ranganath, Heggere; Hinke, Thomas H; Graves, Sara J

    2002-01-01

    A new type of texture feature based on association rules is described. Association rules have been used in applications such as market basket analysis to capture relationships present among items in large data sets. It is shown that association rules can be adapted to capture frequently occurring local structures in images. The frequency of occurrence of these structures can be used to characterize texture. Methods for segmentation of textured images based on association rule features are described. Simulation results using images consisting of man made and natural textures show that association rule features perform well compared to other widely used texture features. Association rule features are used to detect cumulus cloud fields in GOES satellite images and are found to achieve higher accuracy than other statistical texture features for this problem.

  13. Asymmetric flow networks

    OpenAIRE

    Olaizola Ortega, María Norma; Valenciano Llovera, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a new model of network formation that bridges the gap between the two benchmark models by Bala and Goyal, the one-way flow model, and the two-way flow model, and includes both as particular extreme cases. As in both benchmark models, in what we call an "asymmetric flow" network a link can be initiated unilaterally by any player with any other, and the flow through a link towards the player who supports it is perfect. Unlike those models, in the opposite direction there is ...

  14. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  15. A Quick Algorithm for Mining Exceptional Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Exceptional rules are often ignored because of their small support. However, they have high confidence, so they are useful sometimes. A new algorithm for mining exceptional rules is presented, which creates a large itemset from a relatively small database and scans the whole database only one time to generate all exceptional rules. This algorithm is proved to be quick and effective through its application in a mushroom database.

  16. Association Rules Applied to Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the basic intrusion detection techniques, and focus on how to apply association rules to intrusion detection. Begin with analyzing some close relations between user's behaviors, we discuss the mining algorithm of association rules and apply to detect anomaly in IDS. Moreover, according to the characteristic of intrusion detection, we optimize the mining algorithm of association rules, and use fuzzy logic to improve the system performance.

  17. CABARET: Rule Interpretation in a Hybrid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    home office deduction is unresolved"l. Suppose further that this creates a " near miss " situation: the unresolved statutory predicate ("regular- use...reasoning to determine if the same conclusion is derived. RBR Near - Miss : [fall but one antecedent to a rule can be estabhished, then use CBR to broaden...the application of the rule with respect i, the missed antecedent. Broaden Missing Antecedent: To broaden a near - miss rule, use CBR on the missing

  18. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  19. Including Magnetostriction in Micromagnetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Fabian, Karl; Nagy, Lesleis

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic anomalies that identify crustal spreading are predominantly recorded by basalts formed at the mid-ocean ridges, whose magnetic signals are dominated by iron-titanium-oxides (Fe3-xTixO4), so called "titanomagnetites", of which the Fe2.4Ti0.6O4 (TM60) phase is the most common. With sufficient quantities of titanium present, these minerals exhibit strong magnetostriction. To date, models of these grains in the pseudo-single domain (PSD) range have failed to accurately account for this effect. In particular, a popular analytic treatment provided by Kittel (1949) for describing the magnetostrictive energy as an effective increase of the anisotropy constant can produce unphysical strains for non-uniform magnetizations. I will present a rigorous approach based on work by Brown (1966) and by Kroner (1958) for including magnetostriction in micromagnetic codes which is suitable for modelling hysteresis loops and finding remanent states in the PSD regime. Preliminary results suggest the more rigorously defined micromagnetic models exhibit higher coercivities and extended single domain ranges when compared to more simplistic approaches.

  20. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  1. Do Rules and Patterns Affect Design Maintainability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Garzás; Félix García; Mario Piattini

    2009-01-01

    At the present time, best rules and patterns have reached a zenith in popularity and diffusion, thanks to the software community's efforts to discover, classify and spread knowledge concerning all types of rules and patterns. Rules and patterns are useful elements, but many features remain to be studied if we wish to apply them in a rational manner.The improvement in quality that rules and patterns can inject into design is a key issue to be analyzed, so a complete body of empirical knowledge dealing with this is therefore necessary. This paper tackles the question of whether design rules and patterns can help to improve the extent to which designs are easy to understand and modify. An empirical study, composed of one experiment and a replica, was conducted with the aim of validating our conjecture. The results suggest that the use of rules and patterns affect the understandability and modifiability of the design, as the diagrams with rules and patterns are more difficult to understand than non-rule/pattern versions and more effort is required to carry out modifications to designs with rules and patterns.

  2. a Reliability Evaluation System of Association Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangping; Feng, Wanshu; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    In mining association rules, the evaluation of the rules is a highly important work because it directly affects the usability and applicability of the output results of mining. In this paper, the concept of reliability was imported into the association rule evaluation. The reliability of association rules was defined as the accordance degree that reflects the rules of the mining data set. Such degree contains three levels of measurement, namely, accuracy, completeness, and consistency of rules. To show its effectiveness, the "accuracy-completeness-consistency" reliability evaluation system was applied to two extremely different data sets, namely, a basket simulation data set and a multi-source lightning data fusion. Results show that the reliability evaluation system works well in both simulation data set and the actual problem. The three-dimensional reliability evaluation can effectively detect the useless rules to be screened out and add the missing rules thereby improving the reliability of mining results. Furthermore, the proposed reliability evaluation system is applicable to many research fields; using the system in the analysis can facilitate obtainment of more accurate, complete, and consistent association rules.

  3. Online Rule Generation Software Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Marwaha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For production systems like expert systems, a rule generation software can facilitate the faster deployment. The software process model for rule generation using decision tree classifier refers to the various steps required to be executed for the development of a web based software model for decision rule generation. The Royce’s final waterfall model has been used in this paper to explain the software development process. The paper presents the specific output of various steps of modified waterfall model for decision rules generation.

  4. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available min- imal rule set. 3. Implementation We illustrate the above approach using a simple 3-word exam- ple, consisting of the words ?test?,?tea? and ?west? and consider the steps required to extract a rule set for the letter ?e?. As the software... ? t i ? Word patterns #t-e-st# ? eh #t-e-st# ? e #w-e-st# ? eh #w-e-st# ? e #t-e-a# ? iy #t-e-a# ? i the more general rules later in the graph (closer to the root), and more specialised rule earlier (higher up in the graph). Initially...

  5. Rule Changes Passed at the NCAA Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Recent changes in National Collegiate Athletic Association rules concerning academics, recruiting, amateurism, membership and classification, championships, playing and practice seasons, general policies, and eligibility are summarized. (MSE)

  6. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  7. Application of classification rules to Italian ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Lupi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the existing rules commonly used for port traffic comparison are described. These rules provide weighting factors for each freight category in order to make them comparable and exploitable for port ranking. These rules are based on the value added concept related to port activities. Two new rules are proposed. The first is again based on the value added concept. The second rule is based on the assumption that ports not only create labour directly, through activities related to port operations, but they also play the role of “gates” for the existing economic activities of a region or a country, as a consistent quota of the overall international trade takes place by sea. This rule is based on the relationship among the trend of traffic volume of each freight category and the trend of the national GDP. The rules existing in the literature and the proposed new rules have been applied in ranking Italian ports; the results are discussed. The sensitivity of the ranking of Italian ports, to the different weighting rules, has been analysed.

  8. Skew quantum Murnaghan-Nakayama rule

    CERN Document Server

    Konvalinka, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we extend recent results of Assaf and McNamara on skew Pieri rule and skew Murnaghan-Nakayama rule to a more general identity, which gives an elegant expansion of the product of a skew Schur function with a quantum power sum function in terms of skew Schur functions. We give two proofs, one completely bijective in the spirit of Assaf-McNamara's original proof, and one via Lam-Lauve-Sotille's skew Littlewood-Richardson rule. We end with some conjectures for skew rules for Hall-Littlewood polynomials.

  9. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  10. Sobre os nomes dos elementos químicos, inclusive dos transférmios About the names of the chemical elements, including the transfermium elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu C. Rocha-Filho

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The names of the chemical elements in Brazilian portuguese are presented, including a discussion of corresponding Brazilian nomenclature rules and translation of some parts of the pertinent IUPAC rules. The rules for naming groups of elements in the periodic table, as well as those for the symbolic indication of atomic number, mass number and electric charge of atoms, are also presented.

  11. On learning dynamics underlying the evolution of learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Slimane; Lehmann, Laurent

    2014-02-01

    In order to understand the development of non-genetically encoded actions during an animal's lifespan, it is necessary to analyze the dynamics and evolution of learning rules producing behavior. Owing to the intrinsic stochastic and frequency-dependent nature of learning dynamics, these rules are often studied in evolutionary biology via agent-based computer simulations. In this paper, we show that stochastic approximation theory can help to qualitatively understand learning dynamics and formulate analytical models for the evolution of learning rules. We consider a population of individuals repeatedly interacting during their lifespan, and where the stage game faced by the individuals fluctuates according to an environmental stochastic process. Individuals adjust their behavioral actions according to learning rules belonging to the class of experience-weighted attraction learning mechanisms, which includes standard reinforcement and Bayesian learning as special cases. We use stochastic approximation theory in order to derive differential equations governing action play probabilities, which turn out to have qualitative features of mutator-selection equations. We then perform agent-based simulations to find the conditions where the deterministic approximation is closest to the original stochastic learning process for standard 2-action 2-player fluctuating games, where interaction between learning rules and preference reversal may occur. Finally, we analyze a simplified model for the evolution of learning in a producer-scrounger game, which shows that the exploration rate can interact in a non-intuitive way with other features of co-evolving learning rules. Overall, our analyses illustrate the usefulness of applying stochastic approximation theory in the study of animal learning.

  12. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  13. RSPOP: rough set-based pseudo outer-product fuzzy rule identification algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kai Keng; Quek, Chai

    2005-01-01

    System modeling with neuro-fuzzy systems involves two contradictory requirements: interpretability verses accuracy. The pseudo outer-product (POP) rule identification algorithm used in the family of pseudo outer-product-based fuzzy neural networks (POPFNN) suffered from an exponential increase in the number of identified fuzzy rules and computational complexity arising from high-dimensional data. This decreases the interpretability of the POPFNN in linguistic fuzzy modeling. This article proposes a novel rough set-based pseudo outer-product (RSPOP) algorithm that integrates the sound concept of knowledge reduction from rough set theory with the POP algorithm. The proposed algorithm not only performs feature selection through the reduction of attributes but also extends the reduction to rules without redundant attributes. As many possible reducts exist in a given rule set, an objective measure is developed for POPFNN to correctly identify the reducts that improve the inferred consequence. Experimental results are presented using published data sets and real-world application involving highway traffic flow prediction to evaluate the effectiveness of using the proposed algorithm to identify fuzzy rules in the POPFNN using compositional rule of inference and singleton fuzzifier (POPFNN-CRI(S)) architecture. Results showed that the proposed rough set-based pseudo outer-product algorithm reduces computational complexity, improves the interpretability of neuro-fuzzy systems by identifying significantly fewer fuzzy rules, and improves the accuracy of the POPFNN.

  14. Effect of traffic rule breaking behavior on pedestrian counterflow in a channel with a partition line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y. F.; Song, W. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper a partition line is used in the counterflow system to present the default (conventional) traffic rule: pedestrians prefer to walk on a certain side on the road during movement, e.g., the right-hand side in China or the left-hand side in Japan. Based on the counterflow model of Takimoto (model A), we introduced two modified models, i.e., model B and C, to study the effects of a partition line in the consideration of people who do not obey the default traffic rule. Model B represents that factor in time scale, while model C in space scale. In model B, there are pedestrians who cross the partition line but choose not to obey the default traffic rule with a probability pnor , while in model C, if a pedestrian crosses the partition line and goes away from it further than a certain nonobeying-rule threshold distance dt , he will not obey the traffic rule. It is found that the behavior of traffic rule breaking influences much the counterflow when it is at the choking flow state rather than at the free moving or stopped state. Furthermore, it is shown that the default traffic rule is not always positive to the counterflow in all situations. It depends on the game result of these two opposite sides: to use the channel width as much as possible and to avoid the interference from the other group as far as possible.

  15. Choosing goals, not rules: deciding among rule-based action plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaes, Christian; Westendorff, Stephanie; Chakrabarti, Shubhodeep; Gail, Alexander

    2011-05-12

    In natural situations, movements are often directed toward locations different from that of the evoking sensory stimulus. Movement goals must then be inferred from the sensory cue based on rules. When there is uncertainty about the rule that applies for a given cue, planning a movement involves both choosing the relevant rule and computing the movement goal based on that rule. Under these conditions, it is not clear whether primates compute multiple movement goals based on all possible rules before choosing an action, or whether they first choose a rule and then only represent the movement goal associated with that rule. Supporting the former hypothesis, we show that neurons in the frontoparietal reach areas of monkeys simultaneously represent two different rule-based movement goals, which are biased by the monkeys' choice preferences. Apparently, primates choose between multiple behavioral options by weighing against each other the movement goals associated with each option.

  16. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  17. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: Noninvasive Identification of Inspiratory Flow Limitation in Sleep Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamidi, Sushmita; Redline, Susan; Rapoport, David; Ayappa, Indu; Palombini, Luciana; Farre, Ramon; Kirkness, Jason; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Polo, Olli; Wellman, Andrew; Kimoff, R John

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the American Thoracic Society Workshop on the Noninvasive Identification of Inspiratory Flow Limitation in Sleep Studies held on May 16, 2015, in Denver, Colorado. The goal of the workshop was to discuss methods for standardizing the scoring of flow limitation from nasal cannula pressure tracings. The workshop began with presentations on the physiology underlying flow limitation, existing methods of scoring flow limitation, the effects of signal acquisition and filtering on flow shapes, and a review of the literature examining the adverse outcomes related to flow limitation. After these presentations, the results from online scoring exercises, which were crowdsourced to workshop participants in advance of the workshop, were reviewed and discussed. Break-out sessions were then held to discuss potential algorithms for scoring flow limitation. Based on these discussions, subsequent online scoring exercises, and webinars after the workshop, a consensus-based set of recommendations for a scoring algorithm for flow limitation was developed. Key conclusions from the workshop were: (1) a standardized and automated approach to scoring flow limitation is needed to provide a metric of nonepisodic elevated upper airway resistance, which can then be related to clinical outcomes in large cohorts and patient groups; (2) at this time, the most feasible method for standardization is by proposing a consensus-based framework, which includes scoring rules, developed by experts (3) hardware and software settings of acquisition devices, including filter settings, affect the shape of the flow curve, and should be clearly specified; and (4) a priority for future research is the generation of an open-source, expert-derived training set to encourage and support validation of automated flow limitation scoring algorithms.

  18. Optimizing environmental flows for multiple reaches affected by a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan: Restoring natural flow regimes at multiple temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2013-01-01

    For reservoirs that are operated for multiple purposes such as water supply, flood control, and power generation, any attempts to incorporate environmental flow targets in the reservoir operation rules need to take into account both the human and ecosystem demands. To date, however, none of the reservoir operation schemes that consider environmental flow requirements includes subdaily flow regimes and is able to optimize for multiple reaches. Here, we address the temporal and spatial issues associated with the optimal environmental flow and operation strategies for a multipurpose reservoir system in Taiwan. We propose an environmental flow proportion strategy and three-period release approach, and multireach operation scenarios that simultaneously optimize reservoir performances and environmental flow objectives at subdaily to interannual timescales for a maximum of three connected reaches. Our results imply that taking into account the environmental flow objectives does not necessarily degrade the overall reservoir performance due to the positive effect on flood control, which in turn would compensate for the adverse effects on domestic water supply and hydropower generation. The three-period release approach benefits mainly the subdaily flow regime, while the environmental flow proportion strategy benefits primarily the daily flow regime. Spatially, a mutual exclusion is observed between the reaches above and below a diversion weir, a fact that revises the conventional perception that restoring the flow regimes of a downstream reach would automatically restore those of upstream reaches. An overall evaluation reveals that the three-reach scenario outperforms the two-reach scenarios, which then outperform the one-reach scenarios. The one- or two-reach scenario that incorporates the midstream reach may be taken as an alternative because such scenario would benefit the upstream or downstream reach in addition to the midstream reach.

  19. Unsteady flow about a circulation control airfoil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶昌; 孙茂; 吴礼义

    1996-01-01

    The unsteady flow around a circulation control (CC) airfoil was investigated with Navier-Stokes method,which includes the flow around CC airfoil with pulsating jet,the flow around oscillating CC airfoil,and the flow around oscillating CC airfoil with pulsating jet.Dynamic properties of the flow and the aerodynamic forces were rewaled.

  20. The New Role of the Constitutive Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Searle used to analyze institutional facts in terms of the constitutive rule. In his more elaborate account in The Construction of Social Reality he introduces the notion of a status function. The “counts as” locution is central to both the constitutive rule and the status function. The main questio

  1. Brainstorming, Brainstorming Rules and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Vicky L.; Paulus, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All…

  2. 7 CFR 29.3121 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3121 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined, shall...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2409 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2409 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall be...

  4. 7 CFR 29.1125 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1125 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green tobacco, or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2634 - Rule 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.2634 Rule 18. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3620 - Rule 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.3620 Rule 19. Any lot of tobacco containing 20 percent or more of green leaves or any lot which is not crude but contains 20 percent or more of green and crude combined shall be...

  7. 42 CFR 410.80 - Applicable rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable rules. 410.80 Section 410.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Home Health Services Under SMI § 410.80 Applicable rules....

  8. Magnetic Dipole Sum Rules for Odd Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Ginocchio, J N

    1997-01-01

    Sum rules for the total- and scissors-mode M1 strength in odd-A nuclei are derived within the single-j interacting boson-fermion model. We discuss the physical content and geometric interpretation of these sum rules and apply them to ^{167}Er and ^{161}Dy. We find consistency with the former measurements but not with the latter.

  9. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  10. Brainstorming, Brainstorming Rules and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Vicky L.; Paulus, Paul B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of brainstorming experience on the ability of groups to subsequently select the best ideas for implementation. Participants generated ideas either alone or in interactive groups and with either the regular brainstorming rules or with additional rules designed to further increase the number of ideas generated. All…

  11. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate, firstcl

  12. The Author Replies: Regarding Campbell's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2004-01-01

    A reply in relation to Campbell's rule is presented where the issues of discrepancies in the average value between the two values is discussed and the graphical analysis which had uncovered an aspect of selecting a numerical value for Campbell's rule that was earlier overlooked is appreciated. The cause of the discrepancies in the average value…

  13. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  14. Implicit and explicit instruction of spelling rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, M.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-interventio

  15. The Author Replies: Regarding Campbell's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2004-01-01

    A reply in relation to Campbell's rule is presented where the issues of discrepancies in the average value between the two values is discussed and the graphical analysis which had uncovered an aspect of selecting a numerical value for Campbell's rule that was earlier overlooked is appreciated. The cause of the discrepancies in the average value…

  16. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two month...

  17. Textbook Forum: The Misuse of Markovnikov's Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the continued misuse of Markovnikov's Rule in organic chemistry texts. Claims that the results of several studies that show the reaction to be more complex than it appears at first. Criticizes authors of new texts who have perpetrated the rule based on reading older texts. (TW)

  18. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Honingh; T. Weyde; D. Conklin

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  19. 76 FR 4066 - Rules of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ...: Final rule. SUMMARY: Section 916 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act... satisfaction of this requirement, the Commission is adopting new Rules of Practice to formalize the process it... have ``consult with other regulatory agencies.'' Id. In satisfaction of this requirement,...

  20. Rule - Governed Behavior as a Psychological Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Erwin M.; Stacy, E. Webb, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some descriptive criteria for identifying rule-governed behavior are identified from the perspective of cognitive psychology. It is suggested that the concept of explanation in psychology be modified from a specification in terms of physical properties of the antecedent events in a causal sequence to a mapping of rules onto behavior or behavior…

  1. The Filtering Effect of Sharing Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari Mattiacci, G.; de Geest, G.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Sharing rules have a filtering effect on violations: they prevent the most harmful violations and let the least harmful ones occur. We show under what conditions the filtering effect improves social welfare and argue that this may explain why, in most areas of the law, sharing rules are, in general,

  2. 14 CFR 437.71 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.71 Section 437.71... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.71 Flight rules. (a) Before initiating rocket-powered flight, a permittee must confirm that all systems and operations necessary to ensure...

  3. 12 CFR 23.12 - Transition rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., that renewal of the lease is necessary to avoid financial loss and to recover its investment in, and... Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LEASING CEBA Leases § 23.12 Transition rule. (a) General rule. A CEBA Lease entered into prior to July 22, 1991, may continue to...

  4. Supersymmetry Projection Rules on Exotic Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    We study the supersymmetry projection rules on exotic branes in type II string theories and M-theory. They justify the validity of the exotic duality between standard branes and exotic branes of codimension two. By virtue of the supersymmetry projection rules on various branes, we can apply the exotic duality to a system which involves multiple non-parallel branes.

  5. Sequential association rules in atonal music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honingh, A.; Weyde, T.; Conklin, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study on the structure of atonal music. In the same way as sequential association rules of chords can be found in tonal music, sequential association rules of pitch class set categories can be found in atonal music. It has been noted before that certain pitch class

  6. Rules: Both Stepping Stones and Stumbling Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Wright, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Provides guidelines for Head Start teachers and administrators to determine the utility of classroom rules. Notes that, although some rules are necessary to maintain classroom discipline and a healthy learning environment, others may serve no useful purpose and actually hinder learning opportunities. Lists 10 points to consider when evaluating a…

  7. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  8. Time Series Rule Discovery: Tough, not Meaningless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struzik, Z.R.

    2003-01-01

    `Model free' rule discovery from data has recently been subject to considerable criticism, which has cast a shadow over the emerging discipline of time series data mining. However, other than in data mining, rule discovery has long been the subject of research in statistical physics of complex pheno

  9. Human Dignity and the Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The rule of law denotes an expectation of non-arbitrary governance.  It also invokes law’s distinctive characteristics: formality, institutional independence, and authority.  Taken together with a basic conception of the person, the rule of law can be treated as ‘good governance consistent with huma

  10. Performance Indicators for Business Rule Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoet, Martijn; Smit, Koen; Haan, Eline de

    2016-01-01

    From the article: With increasing investments in business rules management (BRM), organizations are searching for ways to value and benchmark their processes to elicitate, design, accept, deploy and execute business rules. To realize valuation and benchmarking of previously mentioned processes, orga

  11. 77 FR 51697 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 310 Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  12. 78 FR 53642 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... 3084-AA98 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call.... List of Subjects in 16 CFR Part 310 Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  13. 76 FR 53636 - Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... CFR Part 310 RIN 3084-AA98 Telemarketing Sales Rule Fees AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION... Telemarketing Sales Rule (``TSR'') by updating the fees ] charged to entities accessing the National Do Not Call... Advertising, Consumer protection, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Telephone, Trade practices...

  14. Best Practice Rules about Conflict of Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1.Study and describe the Best Practice Rules of the Dutch Corporate Governance Code concerning conflict of Interest Best Practice Rules coIne from the UK corporate governance,which could prevent the worst cases of abuse of rights in company law.

  15. Static Analysis Alert Audits: Lexicon and Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A] This material has been approved for public release and unlimited distribution. REV-03.18.2016.0 Static Analysis Alert Audits...unlimited distribution. Background: Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule...Automatic Alert Classification Static Analysis Tool(s) Alerts Alert Consolidation (SCALe) Potential Rule Violations Auditing Determinations ML

  16. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  17. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  18. 38 CFR 4.68 - Amputation rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amputation rule. 4.68... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.68 Amputation rule. The combined rating for disabilities of an extremity shall not exceed the rating for the amputation at the elective level, were...

  19. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  20. Defining collaborative business rules management solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Johan Versendaal

    2014-01-01

    From the publishers' website: The goal of this research is to define a method for configuring a collaborative business rules management solution from a value proposition perspective. In an earlier published study (Business rules management solutions: added value by means of business