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Sample records for flour reduced cardiovascular

  1. Peanuts, Peanut Oil and Fat Free Peanut Flour Reduced Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Syrian Golden Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular protective properties of peanuts and peanut oil in decreasing total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol without reducing high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The cardiovascular effects of the non-lipid portion of peanuts has...

  2. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-01-01

    .... The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize...

  3. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Luciana Tavares; da Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira; Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; de Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chia supplementation (Salvia hispanica L.) on blood pressure (BP) and its associated cardiometabolic factors in treated and untreated hypertensive individuals. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: the hypertensive-drug treated (CHIA-MD, n = 10), hypertensive untreated (CHIA-NM, n = 9) and placebo (PLA-MD, n = 7) groups. The subjects consumed 35 g/day of either chia flour or a placebo for 12 weeks. The clinical and ambulatory BP, inflammation, oxidative stress and markers for nitric oxide were measured. While the PLA-MD group showed no changes in BP, there was a reduction in the mean clinical blood pressure (MBP) in the CHIA (111.5 ± 1.9 to 102.7 ± 1.5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and CHIA-MD (111.3 ± 2.2 to 100.1 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001) groups. The CHIA-NM group showed no reduction in the MBP but did show a decreased systolic BP (146.8 ± 3.8 to 137.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, p < 0.05). The clinical BP reduction was demonstrated by a 24 h ambulatory systolic reduction in all of the supplemented groups. However, the mean ambulatory BP was reduced only in the CHIA (98.1 ± 2.4 to 92.8 ± 2.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) group, and there was no change in the diastolic component in either of the CHIA groups. The lipid peroxidation was reduced in the CHIA (p = 0.04) and CHIA-NM (p = 0.02) groups compared with the PLA-MD group. A reduction in the plasma nitrite levels was observed only in the CHIA group (p = 0.02). Chia flour has the ability to reduce ambulatory and clinical BP in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals.

  4. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  5. An autoclave treatment reduces the solubility and antigenicity of an allergenic protein found in buckwheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Rikio; Yamato, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    The effects of an autoclave treatment of buckwheat flour on a 24-kDa allergenic protein were investigated by measuring reduction in solubility and antibody binding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed that the intensity of the major bands, including that of the 24-kDa allergen, was reduced by the autoclave treatment. The protein solubility in buckwheat flour was variably decreased by the autoclave treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis using a monoclonal antibody specific for buckwheat 24-kDa protein showed that the reactivity of protein extracts (10 μg/ml) from buckwheat flour was lowered by the autoclave treatment. The autoclave treatment may reduce the major allergen content of buckwheat. Future studies will determine if autoclaving treatments affect the allergenicity of the 24-kDa buckwheat protein.

  6. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce flour dust exposures in supermarket bakeries in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, Roslynn; Meijster, Tim; Heederik, Dick; Sander, Ingrid; Jeebhay, Mohamed F.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: A recent study of supermarket bakery workers in South Africa demonstrated that 25% of workers were sensitised to flour allergens and 13% had baker's asthma. Evidence on exposure reduction strategies using specifically designed interventions aimed at reducing the risk of baker's asthma is

  7. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  8. Reducing cardiovascular risk : protecting the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), measured by a reduced glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), most

  9. The potential of papain and alcalase enzymes and process optimizations to reduce allergenic gliadins in wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yu, Jianmei; Goktepe, Ipek; Ahmedna, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to select effective enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of allergenic proteins, gliadins, in wheat flour and to optimize the enzymatic treatment conditions. Six proteases were tested. Hydrolyzed samples were tested for residual gliadin concentrations and in vitro allergenicity. The hydrolysis conditions of wheat protein by the effective enzymes were optimized by central composite design. Results showed that alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis, and papain from latex of papaya fruit had greater ability to reduce gliadin content of wheat flour than flavourzyme, pepsin, trypsin or α-chymotrypsin. The sequential-treatment of wheat flour by alcalase-papain was more effective in reducing gliadin content than single enzyme treatment. Under the optimal conditions of sequential enzymatic treatment, gliadin was almost completely removed, resulting in the flour extract showing lowest IgE-binding. Therefore, this could be a promising biotechnology for preparing low allergenic wheat products.

  10. Heat-treatment reduces anti-nutritional phytochemicals and maintains protein quality in genetically improved hulled soybean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Werneck de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a protein source of high biological value. However, the presence of anti-nutritional factors affects its protein quality and limits the bioavailability of other nutrients. The effect of heat-treatment, 150 ºC for 30 minutes, on hulled and hull-less soybean flour from the cultivar UFVTN 105AP on urease, trypsin inhibitor activity, protein solubility, amino acid profile, and in vivo protein quality was investigated. The treatment reduced the trypsin inhibitor activity and urease, but it did not affect protein solubility. Protein Efficiency Coefficient (PER values of the flours were similar, and the PER of the hull-less soybean flour did not differ from casein. The Net Protein Ratio (NPR did not differ between the experimental groups. The True Digestibility (TD of the flours did not differ, but both were lower in casein and the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCCAS was lower than the TD, due to limited valine determined by the chemical score. Therefore, the flours showed reduced anti-nutritional phytochemicals and similar protein quality, and therefore the whole flours can be used as a source of high quality protein.

  11. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Gláucia Ferreira; de Almeida, Crislaine das Graças; Espeschit, Ana Cristina Rocha; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Benjamin, Laércio dos Anjos; Ribeiro, Sonia Machado Rocha; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2013-10-11

    Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets.

  12. Prolonged flaxseed flour intake decreased the thickness of the aorta and modulates some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Ludmila Ferreira Medeiros de França; Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Brant, Lívia Hipólito Cardozo; Mafra, Denise; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major public health problem. Different risk factors have been recognized as the main causes of the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed is a source of dietary fiber, lignans, and alpha-linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of prolonged supplementation with flaxseed flour as preventive therapy on cardiovascular risk parameters in healthy Wistar rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into two groups after giving birth and during lactation period: the control group was fed with diet based on casein and the flaxseed group was fed with diet based on casein containing 25% of flaxseed flour. At weaning, 10 male offspring from each group continued to receive the same diets from their mothers during 250 days. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta were analyzed. The body weight, visceral fat mass, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, VLDL, glucose and thickness of the aorta values were statistically lower when compared to control group. The data suggest that flaxseed flour supplementation in healthy wistar rats for a prolonged period may decrease the thickness of the aorta and may be used as a preventive measure in modulating some modifiable risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: effective management reduces cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with diabetes are at significantly increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD); even those patients without a history of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) have as high a risk of a fatal or nonfatal MI as nondiabetic patients with a history of previous MI. As a result it is now generally recommended that cardiovascular risk factors be treated as aggressively in patients with diabetes as in nondiabetic patients with a history of CHD. Results from the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) and meta-analysis of primary and secondary interventions trials confirm that there is a uniform relative risk reduction across a wide range of high-risk patients including diabetes patients without established CHD. A highly significant 22-24% reduction in risk of future vascular events is evident when patients with diabetes are treated with statins in trials. Current guidelines, including the recently updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, endorse aggressive, early intervention in very-high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes plus cardiovascular disease (CVD), regardless of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in order to achieve an LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). However, despite increasing evidence and knowledge of the value of lipid lowering, a recent survey of diabetes specialists indicates that many patients with diabetes remain untreated or undertreated. The availability of more effective statins should help to close this "action gap", in concert with other measures such as initiatives to improve patient compliance.

  14. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen J; Smith, George Davey

    2016-04-01

    Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomized with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04, 71,790 participants) or cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to

  15. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  16. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  17. Global Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Reduced GFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bernadette; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Ärnlöv, Johan; Asayama, Kei; Atkins, Robert; Badawi, Alaa; Ballew, Shoshana H; Banerjee, Amitava; Barregård, Lars; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Basu, Sanjay; Bello, Aminu K; Bensenor, Isabela; Bergstrom, Jaclyn; Bikbov, Boris; Blosser, Christopher; Brenner, Hermann; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Chadban, Steve; Cirillo, Massimo; Cortinovis, Monica; Courville, Karen; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Estep, Kara; Fernandes, João; Fischer, Florian; Fox, Caroline; Gansevoort, Ron T; Gona, Philimon N; Gutierrez, Orlando M; Hamidi, Samer; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jha, Vivekanand; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jonas, Jost B; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Yun Jin; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Lee, Kristine; Levey, Andrew S; Li, Yongmei; Lotufo, Paulo; El Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd; Mendoza, Walter; Metoki, Hirohito; Mok, Yejin; Muraki, Isao; Muntner, Paul M; Noda, Hiroyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ortiz, Alberto; Perico, Norberto; Polkinghorne, Kevan; Al-Radaddi, Rajaa; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Roth, Gregory; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Satoh, Michihiro; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Sawhney, Monika; Schöttker, Ben; Shankar, Anoop; Shlipak, Michael; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Ukwaja, Kingsley; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Vollset, Stein Emil; Warnock, David G; Werdecker, Andrea; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Yano, Yuichiro; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Naghavi, Mohsen; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Murray, Christopher J L; Coresh, Josef; Vos, Theo

    2017-07-01

    The burden of premature death and health loss from ESRD is well described. Less is known regarding the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to reduced GFR. We estimated the prevalence of reduced GFR categories 3, 4, and 5 (not on RRT) for 188 countries at six time points from 1990 to 2013. Relative risks of cardiovascular outcomes by three categories of reduced GFR were calculated by pooled random effects meta-analysis. Results are presented as deaths for outcomes of cardiovascular disease and ESRD and as disability-adjusted life years for outcomes of cardiovascular disease, GFR categories 3, 4, and 5, and ESRD. In 2013, reduced GFR was associated with 4% of deaths worldwide, or 2.2 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 2.0 to 2.4 million). More than half of these attributable deaths were cardiovascular deaths (1.2 million; 95% UI, 1.1 to 1.4 million), whereas 0.96 million (95% UI, 0.81 to 1.0 million) were ESRD-related deaths. Compared with metabolic risk factors, reduced GFR ranked below high systolic BP, high body mass index, and high fasting plasma glucose, and similarly with high total cholesterol as a risk factor for disability-adjusted life years in both developed and developing world regions. In conclusion, by 2013, cardiovascular deaths attributed to reduced GFR outnumbered ESRD deaths throughout the world. Studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of early detection of CKD and treatment to decrease these deaths. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Overuse of Phosphorus Fertilizer Reduces the Grain and Flour Protein Contents and Zinc Bioavailability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-03-01

    To supplement human dietary nutrition, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application on grain and flour protein contents and especially on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn). A field experiment of winter wheat with six P application rates (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 kg/ha) was conducted from 2013 to 2015. The grain yield increased with P application but was not further enhanced when P rates exceeded 50 kg/ha. As P application increased, the protein concentration in grain and standard flour and the viscosity of standard flour decreased. Phosphorus and phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours increased and then plateaued, whereas Zn concentration decreased and then plateaued as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha. Estimated Zn bioavailability in grain and flours decreased as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha and then plateaued. Estimated Zn bioavailability was greater in standard flour, bread flour, and refined flour than in grain or coarse flour. Phosphorus supply in the intensive cropping of wheat can be optimized to simultaneously obtain high grain yields, high grain and flour protein contents, and high Zn bioavailability.

  19. Social support reduces resting cardiovascular function in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brian M; Howard, Siobhan

    2009-10-01

    Social support is believed to benefit cardiovascular health in part by buffering recipients from life stress. Classically, this has been investigated by exploring the relationship between support and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress. Such research customarily emphasizes stress responses and downplays the relevance of resting cardiovascular levels. However, it is now appreciated that resting cardiovascular function is associated with disease risk independently of reactivity. Moreover, such mechanisms are known to be relevant to female members of the population, despite the fact that much previous research has focused on males. Reactivity research rests on the assumption that stress promotes gradual hypertension over time. As such, it is important to establish the relationship between psychosocial factors and resting blood pressure. In a cross-sectional biopsychosocial screening study, we examined resting cardiovascular levels in 211 healthy non-smoking women, using regression to assess associations with psychometric indices of social support (namely, perceived network size and perceived satisfaction with support) while controlling for a range of potential biometric and psychometric confounds. Overall, social support was found to be associated with reduced resting cardiovascular function independently of, and to a greater extent than, biometric variables, anxiety, and depression. Benchmarking these effects against the differences in cardiovascular function between the present sample and a group of 92 similarly aged males revealed that social support accounted for as much variance as gender, which is widely assumed to be an important biomedical determinant of blood pressure. Such findings corroborate assertions that social support influences disease risk in ways that involve direct psychosomatic mechanisms.

  20. Cactus pear peel flour as a fiber source and its effect on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat-sodium reduced-sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Olalde, Raul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the higher fiber content of fiber and antioxidant compounds cactus pear peel can be employed as a functional ingredient in meat products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cactus pear peel flour as fiber source in the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low fat sodium reduced cooked sausages. There different formulations were employed, two with 2.5 and 5% of cactus pear peel flour, respectively, and control with no cactus pear peel flour. Sausages were vacuum packed and stored at 4°C and analyzed (moisture, total moisture, expressible moisture, CIE-Lab color, and texture at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. Sensory evaluation was performed at day 1. Results shown that when more cactus pear peel flour was employed, color differences were more marked between treatments, also reflected during sensory evaluation. The other parameters evaluated were not significantly different. As conclusion, cactus pear peel flour can be employed at 2.5% with no effect on sensory characteristics of cooked sausages.

  1. Effect of reducing agents on wheat gluten and quality characteristics of flour and cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of reducing agents (Lcystine, glutathione and proteases on wheat gluten recovery and quality characteristics of dough and cookies. PBW-343 and RAJ-3765 wheat varieties were analysed for physico-chemical properties which indicated that wheat variety RAJ-3765 had superior quality characteristics in comparison to PBW-343. Wet gluten and dry gluten %yields were reduced with addition of reducing agents. As the concentration of reducing agents increased gluten, yield decreased further. The dough strength (resistance to extension decreased, whereas extension of dough increased significantly with the addition of reducing agents. Upon addition of reducing agents, spread factor increased, whereas hardness decreased. Glutathione was found to be the most effective reducing agent out of the three reducing agents used in this study.

  2. Grape seed flour is a viable ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce lipid oxidation of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2011-05-01

    In this study, grape seed flour (GSF) obtained from wine by-products was incorporated into frankfurters at seven concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) and the effects occurred on physical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the products were investigated. The colour values (L*, a* and b*) of frankfurters generally decreased (p flour also led to a decline in the oxidation level of the products (p Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rod S; Ashton, Kate E; Moxham, Tiffany; Hooper, Lee; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Background An earlier Cochrane review of dietary advice identified insufficient evidence to assess effects of reduced salt intake on mortality or cardiovascular events. Objectives To assess the long term effects of interventions aimed at reducing dietary salt on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. To investigate whether blood pressure reduction is an explanatory factor in any effect of such dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Search methods The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect (DARE)), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched through to October 2008. References of included studies and reviews were also checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: (1) randomised with follow up of at least six-months, (2) intervention was reduced dietary salt (restricted salt dietary intervention or advice to reduce salt intake), (3) adults, (4) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data was available. Two reviewers independently assessed whether studies met these criteria. Data collection and analysis Data extraction and study validity were compiled by a single reviewer, and checked by a second. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Events were extracted and relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs calculated. Main results Six studies (including 6,489 participants) met the inclusion criteria - three in normotensives (n=3518), two in hypertensives (n=758), and one in a mixed population of normo- and hypertensives (n=1981) with end of trial follow-up of seven to 36 months and longest observational follow up (after trial end) to 12.7 yrs. Relative risks for all cause mortality in normotensives (end of trial RR 0.67, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.12, 60 deaths; longest follow up RR 0.90, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.40, 79 deaths) and hypertensives (end of trial RR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.13, 513 deaths

  4. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  5. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Campbell, Norm R C; MacGregor, Graham A

    2012-10-01

    There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP) and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of effect and there needs to be ongoing consideration of lower targets for population salt intake. Cohort studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective measures to improve public health worldwide. In the Americas, a salt intake of > 9 g/day is highly prevalent. Sources of salt in the diet vary hugely among countries; in developed countries, 75% of salt comes from processed foods, whereas in developing countries such as parts of Brazil, 70% comes from salt added during cooking or at the table. To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. In developing countries, a public health campaign plays a more important role in encouraging consumers to use less salt coupled with widespread replacement of salt with substitutes that are low in sodium and high in potassium. Numerous countries in the Americas have started salt reduction programs. The challenge now is to engage other countries. A reduction in population salt intake will result in a major improvement in public health along with major health-related cost savings.

  6. Override of spontaneous respiratory pattern generator reduces cardiovascular parasympathetic influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Vallurupalli, S.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effects of voluntary control of breathing on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation. Variability in heart rate was compared between 5 min of spontaneous and controlled breathing. During controlled breathing, for 5 min, subjects voluntarily reproduced their own spontaneous breathing pattern (both rate and volume on a breath-by-breath basis). With the use of this experimental design, we could unmask the effects of voluntary override of the spontaneous respiratory pattern generator on autonomic function in cardiovascular regulation without the confounding effects of altered respiratory pattern. Results from 10 subjects showed that during voluntary control of breathing, mean values of heart rate and blood pressure increased, whereas fractal and spectral powers in heart rate in the respiratory frequency region decreased. End-tidal PCO2 was similar during spontaneous and controlled breathing. These results indicate that the act of voluntary control of breathing decreases the influence of the vagal component, which is the principal parasympathetic influence in cardiovascular regulation.

  7. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...... of cardiovascular overload....

  8. Iron fortification of whole wheat flour reduces iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia and increases body iron stores in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Thankachan, Prashanth; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Amalrajan, Vani; Thomas, Tinku; Lubree, Himangi; Agarwal, Dhiraj; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Hurrell, Richard F; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Kurpad, Anura V

    2012-11-01

    Wheat is the primary staple food for nearly one-third of the world's population. NaFeEDTA is the only iron (Fe) compound suitable for fortifying high extraction flours. We tested the hypothesis that NaFeEDTA-fortified, whole wheat flour reduces Fe deficiency (ID) and improves body Fe stores (BIS) and cognitive performance in Indian children. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, school feeding trial, 6- to 15-y-old, Fe-depleted children (n = 401) were randomly assigned to either a daily wheat-based lunch meal fortified with 6 mg of Fe as NaFeEDTA or an otherwise identical unfortified control meal. Hemoglobin (Hb) and Fe status were measured at baseline, 3.5 mo, and 7 mo. Cognitive performance was evaluated at baseline and 7 mo in children (n = 170) at one of the study sites. After 7 mo, the prevalence of ID and ID anemia in the treatment group significantly decreased from 62 to 21% and 18 to 9%, respectively. There was a time x treatment interaction for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc protoporphyrin, and BIS (all P children. It may be recommended for wider use in national school feeding programs.

  9. Use of the wetting method on cassava flour in three konzo villages in Mozambique reduces cyanide intake and may prevent konzo in future droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhassico, Dulce; Bradbury, James Howard; Cliff, Julie; Majonda, Rita; Cuambe, Constantino; Denton, Ian C; Foster, Matthew P; Martins, Arlinda; Cumbane, Adelaide; Sitoe, Luis; Pedro, Joao; Muquingue, Humberto

    2016-07-01

    Konzo is an irreversible paralysis of the legs that occurs mainly in children and young women associated with large cyanide intake from bitter cassava coupled with malnutrition. In East Africa outbreaks occur during drought, when cassava plants produce much more cyanogens than normal. A wetting method that removes cyanogens from cassava flour was taught to the women of three konzo villages in Mozambique, to prevent sporadic konzo and konzo outbreaks in the next drought. The intervention was in three villages with 72 konzo cases and mean konzo prevalence of 1.2%. The percentage of children with high (>350 μmol/L) urinary thiocyanate content and at risk of contracting konzo in Cava, Acordos de Lusaka, and Mujocojo reduced from 52, 10, and 6 at baseline to 17, 0, and 4 at conclusion of the intervention. Cassava flour showed large reductions in total cyanide over the intervention. The percentage of households using the wetting method was 30-40% in Acordos de Lusaka and Mujocojo and less in Cava. If the wetting method is used extensively by households during drought it should prevent konzo outbreaks and chronic cyanide intoxication. We recommend that the wetting method be taught in all konzo areas in East Africa.

  10. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  11. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  12. Baseline Characteristics in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Marc A.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ivanovich, Peter; Kewalramani, Reshma; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet; McMurray, John J. V.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Singh, Ajay K.; Solomon, Scott D.; Toto, Robert; Uno, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia augments the already high rates of fatal and major nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In 2004, we initiated the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). This report presents the baseline characteristics and ther

  13. Nutritional interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk factors: an Iranian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Sharifi,1 Reza Amani2 1Department of Nutrition, 2Health Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Paramedicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death not only in industrialized and developed countries but also in developing societies. Changes in lifestyle of the population living in developing countries, which is due to the socioeconomic and cultural transition, are important reasons for increase in the rate of CVD. This observation has led to extensive body of researches on CVD prevention. In Iran, as a developing country in the Middle East, the increasing incidence of CVD has prompted the health policy-makers to emphasize on nutritional interventions as a part of the main strategies to alleviate the condition. Hence, in this article, we aimed to review the nutritional interventions on preventing CVDs from the perspectives of Iranian lifestyles and dietary patterns using data search sources such as Medline, Google scholar, and Iran doc. Keywords: nutrition, intervention, cardiovascular disease, Iran

  14. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  15. Effect of an intervention aimed at reducing the risk of allergic respiratory disease in bakers: change in flour dust and fungal alpha-amylase levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijster, T.; Tielemans, E.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the effect on exposure of an intervention programme, which focused on risk education and providing information on good work practices. This intervention programme was enrolled as part of a Dutch covenant in the flour processing industry (industrial bakeries, flour mills, i

  16. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  17. Molecular mechanisms explaining the possible effects of phenolic compounds on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aubets-Fusté

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to evaluate the possible association between phenolic compounds and cardiovascular disease, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease. An extensive research of scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, Web of Science, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, to establish the effect of polyphenols in the prevention and development of cardiovascular disease was conducted. The in vitro, animal and human studies show the potential ability of polyphenols to act against cardiovascular disease as a result of their antioxidant effect and vasodilatation and their capacity to improve lipid profile while reducing the concentration of low-density lipoproteins. Polyphenols consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease.

  18. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF PROTEIN-ENRICHED PEA FLOUR AGAINST TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE IN WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pretheep-Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term efficacy of the protein-enriched flour of pea (Pisum sativum L. var. Bonneville in its toxicity, progeny reduction and organoleptic properties was evaluated by combining it with wheat flour and testing the admixture against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. The toxicity and progeny-reducing effects of the wheat flour treated with protein-enriched pea flour were stable for a period of 5 months when stored at 28°C with 75% r.h. Heat treatment destroyed the biological activity of the protein-enriched pea flour containing the active ingredient due to the denaturation of proteins. The organoleptic properties of stored wheat flour were not affected by the treatment with protein-enriched pea flour.

  19. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  20. Baseline characteristics in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Chen, Chao-Yin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anemia augments the already high rates of fatal and major nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In 2004, we initiated the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). This report presents the baseline characteristics......: the composite end point of death or cardiovascular morbidity (nonfatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or hospitalization for myocardial ischemia). The composite end point of death or need for long-term renal replacement therapy also is a primary end point. CONCLUSIONS: With several......-fold more patient-years and a placebo arm, TREAT will provide a robust estimate of the safety and efficacy of darbepoetin alfa and generate prospective data regarding the risks of major cardiovascular and renal events in a contemporarily managed cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, CKD, and anemia....

  1. Reducing cardiovascular risk in spouses of cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Rowland, Sheri; Mancuso, Kerry; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Norman, Joseph F; Shurmur, Scott; Tesina, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reducing interventions in spouses of coronary artery bypass patients. This study examined the effects of the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) intervention versus usual care on cardiovascular risk factors. Spouses in the experimental group (n = 17/group) attended cardiac rehabilitation with patients and made the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the usual care group attended educational classes with patients. Spouses' 30-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Lifetime Risk Scale before and after cardiac rehabilitation (3 months), and at 6 months. Spouses in both groups significantly reduced 30-year risk scores at 3 and 6 months. Exercise was the key ingredient in lowering risk. There was a trend toward reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. Although there were no group differences, having spouses participate in cardiac rehabilitation with the patient was effective for reducing spouses' cardiovascular risk.

  2. Target intervention against multiple-risk markers to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    The risk of cardiovascular disease is markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes with a prevalence twice as high compared to the background population. With the recognition of multiple concomitant risk factors for both microvascular as well as cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic pa...... factors for cardiovascular disease is capable of reducing the risk for a combined endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, coronary interventions, revascularisation to legs, and amputations by 50%....

  3. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  4. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  5. Iron bioavailability and utilization in rats are lower from lime-treated corn flour than from wheat flour when they are fortified with different sources of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya

    2003-01-01

    Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.

  6. Reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Vinther; Hjorth, Peter; Kristiansen, Christina Blanner;

    2016-01-01

    glucose, serum lipids, and information on smoking and alcohol were obtained. Results: On average, small significant increases in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumferences were observed while small non-significant improvements in other cardiovascular risk factors were seen. Patients with high baseline......Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of premature death in patients with schizophrenia. We aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk factors in non-selected outpatients with schizophrenia using methods proven effective in short-term trials. Furthermore, we examined whether any...... motivated to participate in the interventions, and it was difficult to monitor the recommended metabolic risk measures in the patient group. Future research should focus on simple strategies in health promotion that can be integrated into routine care....

  7. PENGGUNAN GUM XANTHAN PADA SUBSTITUSI PARSIAL TERIGU DENGAN TEPUNG JAGUNG DALAM PEMBUATAN ROTI [Use of Xanthan Gum in Partial Substitusion of Corn Flour for Wheat Flour in Breadmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posman Sibuea

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine the capabilities of composite flour (i.e. corn flour and wheat flour and xanthan gum in breadmaking. Breads were produced using mixture of wheat and corn flour at varios ratio with addition of xanthan gum at different level (0.0% to 0.75%. The result showed that the composite flour had significant effect on all measured parameters. As the wheat flour descreaseed down to 65% the dought length, texture, reducing sugar content increased, but the sensory values descresed, xanthan gum had significant effect on the texture, reducing sugar content, the sensory values and the dough length. As the xanthan gum increased, the dough length, the reducing sugar content increased, whereas the texture increased at 0.50% the descreased at 0.75%. the bread of good acceptability was produced from the floaur mixture of wheat flour (70% and corn flour (30% using 0.75% of xanthan gum.

  8. Motivational interviewing to reduce cardiovascular risk in African American and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.

  9. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  10. The Role of Health Education in Reducing Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world and the first leading cause of death in Iran. Controlling the risk factors for these diseases can reduce more than 50% of disabilities resulted from these illnesses. In this regard, it is important to consider the behaviors associated with individuals’ lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational interventions in order to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of intervention on reducing risk factors. Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID, Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012. Results: Interventions to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 19 articles reviewed, 9 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education,and 10 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: The results indicate that training based on theories and models of health education and using the standardized programs have a greater impact on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Time, place and length of intervention, the characteristics of the individuals and use of modern methods of training are important for some of the audience with regard to the effectiveness of the training in order to reduce risk factors.

  11. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Insights and perspectives on dietary modifications to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, David J; Rice Bradley, Beth H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Mente, Andrew; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes presentations from “Insights and Perspectives on Dietary Modifications to Reduce the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease,” a symposium held at the ASN Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions in conjunction with Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA on 26 April 2014. Presenters reviewed historic and current evidence on the relation between diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) to identify gaps in knowledge, discuss the promises and pitfalls of macronutrient replacement strategies in the diet, and suggest various options for issuing dietary guidance aimed at reducing the burden of CVD morbidity and mortality. Observational studies and clinical trials indicate that overall diet quality have a marked impact on health benefits, which is shifting the emphasis on recommending healthful dietary patterns to focusing only on single nutrients or foods.

  13. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  14. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  15. Maternal exposure to diets containing flaxseed flour or flaxseed oil during pregnancy and lactation protects the aortic remodeling in adult male offspring of diabetic rat dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Gabriela Câmara; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; Suzuki, Akemi; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Chagas, Maurício Alves; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular complications in the fetus and extends into adulthood. Therapeutic applications of flaxseed have been studied in cardiovascular disorders, because its oilseed is the best plant source of omega-3 fatty acid, which is currently considered by researchers to be an essential protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of flaxseed flour and oil on cardiovascular biochemical parameters and the histoarchitecture of the aorta in adult rats which were offspring of diabetic mothers. At 100 days of age in offspring it was observed that maternal consumption of a high-fat diet containing flaxseed oil (FOG) and flaxseed flour (FFG) did not affect the serum concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density-, low-density- or very-low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the thickness of the intima media layer of the aorta was significantly smaller in FOG and FFG groups; the lumen area was similar among the groups; and a higher percentage of elastic fiber was found in FOG and FFG groups. These data suggest that the use of both flaxseed flour and its oil reduces the remodeling of the aorta; however; it has not been possible to modify the cardiovascular biochemical parameters. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Reducing the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Non-selected Outpatients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Juel, Anette; Hansen, Mette Vinther

    2017-01-01

    Background: The most common cause of premature death in people with schizophrenia is cardiovascular disease, partially explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. We aimed to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Method: Naturalistic follow-up study with 54 long...... increased their waist circumference by 3.3. cm (P = 0.590). Patients' consumption of fast food was reduced from 1.2 to 0.8 times/week (P = 0.016), just as their consumption of soft drinks was reduced from 0.7 to 0.1. l/day (P = 0.006). Their consumption of coffee increased from 1.6 to 2.5 cups/day (P = 0.......086). The time women spent on light physical activity increased from 134 to 469. min/week (P = 0.055). The number of daily cigarettes smoked was reduced by 25.7% for all smokers. Conclusions: Our program showed that it is possible for women but not for men to reduce their risk factors for developing...

  17. Health behavior segmentation and campaign planning to reduce cardiovascular disease risk among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J E; Flora, J A

    1995-02-01

    Using the social marketing principle of audience segmentation, a Hispanic audience was disaggregated to examine heterogeneous behaviors and lifestyles that could guide planning for public information campaigns designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Signal detection analysis resulted in six mutually exclusive subgroups, based on self-reported behavioral changes to improve health. Subgroups differed significantly in communication, behavioral, psychological, and demographic dimensions, indicating they may require unique campaign planning strategies. To determine whether subgroups were meaningful relative to external health-related criteria, they were compared as to health knowledge and status on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The results showed significant differences among audience subgroups in plasma high-density lipoprotein levels and hypertensive status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for campaign planning and the need for public health campaigns to diversify strategies when targeting Hispanic audiences.

  18. Beneficial cardiovascular effects of reducing exposure to particulate air pollution with a simple facemask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.

  19. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia; Norma Güemes Vera

    2010-01-01

    Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour) and samples with this functional ingredient. ...

  20. The Substitution of Wheat Flour with Mixed-Cassava (Manihot utilissima and Red Beans-Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Toward The Characteristics of Instant Noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelina Novelina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instant noodles are defined as dry food products made of wheat flour with the addition of other foodstuffs. Cassava flour can be used together with wheat flour as a basic ingredient for the noodles, in order to reduce the use of wheat flour. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of substitution of cassava flour to the wheat flour which was enriched with red bean flour toward the quality of instant noodles that had been produced. The treatment in this study was done by mixing 70% of wheat flour with 30% of cassava and red beans flour mixture at various levels. The observations was carried out on raw materials and the instant noodle products, including moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content and carbohydrate content as well as by different organoleptic test of the flavour, aroma, texture and colour. The results showed that the noodles product that was the most qualified and preferred was the product with the treatment D (a mixture of 70% of wheat flour; 20% of cassava flour and 10% of red bean flour, with the test results of 2.24% of moisture content, 1.07% of ash content, 9.36% of protein content, 17.77% of fat content, carbohydrate content by different of 69.95%, and 71.53% of yield.

  1. Reduced Subendocardial Viability Ratio Is Associated With Unfavorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile in Women With Short Duration of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Høyem, Pernille; Fleischer, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    .2-5.0) years) and 86 sex- and age-matched control subjects in a cross-sectional study. SEVR was noninvasively assessed by tonometry and markers of cardiovascular risk by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), C-reactive protein, urinary albumin......: SEVR is reduced in women with short duration of T2DM and associated with cardiovascular risk markers. The latter association seems to be at least partly mediated via heart rate. We hypothesize that reduced SEVR may contribute to the unfavorable cardiovascular prognosis in women with diabetes....

  2. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  3. Effectiveness of physical exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in youths: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesa, Claudia Ciceri; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Petkowicz, Rosemary de Oliveira; Martins, Carla Correa; Marques, Renata das Virgens; Andreolla, Allana Abreu Martins; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a physical activity and exercise-based program in a clinical context to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric preventive outpatient clinic. Intervention was 14 weeks of exercise for the intervention group or general health advice for the control group. The primary and the secondary outcomes were reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and the feasibility and the effectiveness of clinical advice plan to practice physical exercises at home. A total of 134 children were screened; 26 met eligibility criteria. Of these, 10 were allocated in the exercise intervention group and nine were included in the control group until the end of the intervention. Those patients who discontinued the intervention had the lowest scores of z-BMI (P = 0.033) and subscapular skin fold (P = 0.048). After 14 weeks of intervention, no statistical differences were found between the groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher in the exercise group, with a mild tendency to be significant (P = 0.066). Patients who adhere to treatment had diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline to the end of the follow-up period in the control group (P = 0.013). Regardless of this result, the other comparisons within the group were not statistically different between T0 and T14. A low-cost physical activity advice intervention presented many barriers for implementation in routine clinical care, limiting its feasibility and evaluation of effectiveness to reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  5. Impact of fortification of flours with iron to reduce the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among schoolchildren in Caracas, Venezuela: a follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layrisse, Miguel; García-Casal, María Nieves; Méndez-Castellano, Hernán; Jiménez, Maritza; Henry, Olavarría; Chávez, José E; González, Eglis

    2002-12-01

    In Venezuela, a severe economic crisis starting in 1983 provoked a progressive reduction in the quantity and quality of food consumed by people from the low socioeconomic strata of the population. This situation resulted in a continuous increase in the prevalence of iron deficiency in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1993, an iron-fortification program was started, in which precooked corn and white wheat flours were enriched with iron, vitamin A, thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin. White wheat flour was enriched with the same nutrients, except for vitamin A. In 1996 we published the results of the impact of fortification of precooked corn and white wheat flours on the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency in the population. A survey carried out in Caracas in 307 children aged 7, 11, and 15 years showed that the prevalence of iron deficiency measured by serum ferritin concentration dropped from 37% in 1992 to 16% in 1994, only one year after the iron-fortification program began. The prevalence of anemia, as measured by the hemoglobin concentration, diminished from 19% to 10% during the same period. This article reports the results of three other surveys carried out in 1997, 1998, and 1999 on children of the same age and socioeconomic groups that were evaluated in 1990, 1992, and 1994. There were no significant differences in anemia or iron deficiency among the last three surveys. The prevalence results from the last seven years seem to indicate that, after a dramatic reduction in 1994, iron deficiency tended to stabilize, while the prevalence of anemia increased to the same level found in 1992, before the fortification program started.

  6. Does atorvastatin work more effectively than biguanides in reducing cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, Afshan; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Baig, Sadia Ghousia

    2011-04-01

    Increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetic persons is associated with increased level of lipoproteins. Usually, such risks are reverted with glycemic control by antidiabetic medicines in Type I diabetes millitus. However, in Type II diabetes mellitus lipid values can be improved using antidiabetics but still the risk of coronary artery disease remains. The initial approach for reducing lipid contents in diabetic patients should include glycemic control, diet, weight loss, and exercise. But if it fails then lipid-lowering agents like fibrate and HMG CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) inhibitors should work effectively. In the present study results of atorvastatin compared with biguanides proved atorvastatin as a more effective lipid-lowering agent along with antidiabetic activity so it can effectively help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  7. Does atorvastatin work more effectively than biguanides in reducing cardiovascular risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Siddiq

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetic persons is associated with increased level of lipoproteins. Usually, such risks are reverted with glycemic control by antidiabetic medicines in Type I diabetes millitus. However, in Type II diabetes mellitus lipid values can be improved using antidiabetics but still the risk of coronary artery disease remains. The initial approach for reducing lipid contents in diabetic patients should include glycemic control, diet, weight loss, and exercise. But if it fails then lipid-lowering agents like fibrate and HMG CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors should work effectively. In the present study results of atorvastatin compared with biguanides proved atorvastatin as a more effective lipid-lowering agent along with antidiabetic activity so it can effectively help in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD.

  8. The Possible Improving Effects of γ-Irradiated and/or Extruded Soy Flour on Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat G. HAMZA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is serious conditions that can cause fatal complications without careful management. Among the dietary supplementation with functional food, soybeans possess variety of antioxidant compounds that may lower incidence of hypercholesterolemia and degenerative cardiovascular disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of gammairradiated and/or extruded soy flour on hypercholesterolemic rats. Processing of soy flour by γ-irradiation and/or extrusion reduced the amount of antinutritional factors such as tannin and trypsin inhibitor and resulted in different changes in the total amino acids and fatty acid contents. The animals maintained on the HCD showed remarkable decrease in the level of HDL-C associated with significant increase in the values of serum total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, vLDL-C and the risk ratio in addition to serum concentration of urea, creatinine and uric acid in comparison with those of the control group. However, dietary supplementation of raw and treated soy flour resulted in reduction in the bad changes induced by HCD in the above mentioned parameters. In conclusion, treated soy flour supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to its hypocholesterolemic effect and its ability to improve lipid profile and kidney function of hypercholesterolemic rats.

  9. In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

    2001-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties.

  10. Effectiveness of a volunteer-delivered lifestyle modification program for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Paul; Morton, Darren P; Diehl, Hans; Gobble, John; Morey, Peter; Chang, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Lifestyle modification has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but there is a perception that it is costly to administer and resource. The present study examined the results achieved by a 30-day lifestyle modification program (Coronary Health Improvement Project) delivered by volunteers in a community setting. Changes in selected biometric measures of 5,070 participants in the Coronary Health Improvement Project programs delivered throughout North America (January 2006 to October 2009), were assessed. Overall, significant reductions (p fasting plasma glucose (-6.1%). Stratification of the data revealed more dramatic responses in those presenting with the greatest risk factor levels. Those presenting with cholesterol levels >280 mg/dl recorded an average reduction of 19.8%. A mean decrease of 16.1% in low-density lipoprotein levels was observed among those who entered the program with a low-density lipoprotein level >190 mg/dl. Individuals who presented with triglycerides >500 mg/dl recorded a mean reduction of 44.1%. The Framingham assessment forecast that approximately 70 cardiac events would be averted during the subsequent decade in the cohort because of the program. In conclusion, significant reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors can be achieved in a 30-day lifestyle intervention delivered by volunteers, providing a cost-effective mode of administering lifestyle medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. OSLER and ODYSSEY LONG TERM: PCSK9 inhibitors on the right track of reducing cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a novel treatment option in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Evolocumab and alirocumab have achieved consistent and significant (around 60%) reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when added to statin therapy in short term studies. The Open-Label Study of Long-term Evaluation Against LDL-C (OSLER), and The Long-term Safety and Tolerability of Alirocumab in High Cardiovascular Risk Patients with Hypercholesterolemia Not Adequately Controlled with Their Lipid Modifying Therapy (ODYSSEY LONG TERM) studies are two phase 3, multicentre, randomized, placebo controlled studies that were conducted to evaluate the long term efficacy and safety of evolocumab and alirocumab respectively in reducing lipids and cardiovascular (CV) events. Both studies demonstrated additional 48-53% reduction of CV events when added to statin therapy. Most adverse events occurred with similar frequency in the two groups; however the rate of neurocognitive adverse events was higher with evolocumab and alirocumab than with placebo. These data provide strong support for the notion that lower LDL-C goal is better, and may confirm the role of PCSK9 inhibitors as a new frontier in lipid management. The results of larger long-term outcome studies are still awaited.

  12. Triglyceride-lowering therapies reduce cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Guyton, John R; Orringer, Carl E; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Alexander, Dominik D; Davidson, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C. Publications were identified using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Internet Stroke Center. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to generate summary relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ(2) and I(2) statistics, and the impact of each trial was assessed in one study-removed sensitivity analyses. Six trials of fibrates, 2 of niacin, 1 of fibrate + niacin, and 1 of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters were identified. For the prespecified primary cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease end point used in each trial, the summary relative risk estimate (95% confidence interval) for subjects with elevated TG was 0.82 (0.73-0.91), p-heterogeneity = 0.13, I(2) = 36.2, and for subjects with elevated TG and low-HDL-C, it was 0.71 (0.63-0.81), p-heterogeneity = 0.52, I(2) = 0.0. There was no evidence of publication bias, and the results remained statistically significant when each individual trial was removed. Drugs that substantially, but not exclusively, lower TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol may have cardiovascular benefits in individuals with elevated TG, particularly if accompanied by low HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Does early intensive multifactorial treatment reduce total cardiovascular burden in individuals with screen-detected diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, R K; Sharp, S J; Sandbaek, A

    2012-01-01

    Aims  To describe the total cardiovascular burden (cardiovascular morbidity or mortality, revascularization or non-traumatic amputation) in individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the ADDITION-Europe trial and to quantify the impact of the intervention on multiple cardiovascular events over ...

  14. Use of indigenous technology for the production of High Quality Cassava Flour with similar food qualities as wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Chinedum Eleazu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the paper was to compare the food qualities of 2 varieties (SME 1 and 2 of high quality cassava flour (HQCF produced from indigenous technology and that of some commercially sold wheat/HQCF samples. Material and methods. The pH, proximate, phytochemical, antioxidant, functional properties and starch yield of the flours were carried out using standard techniques. Results. The wheat flours had higher bulk densities and lipids than the HQCF samples while the oil absorption capacity of the HQCF (SME 2 was higher than other fl our samples investigated. The antioxidant assays of the flours showed that they contained considerable levels of antioxidants with the HQCF sample from DAT having higher antioxidants than other flour samples studied. The HQCF (SME 1 had signifi cantly higher (P < 0.05 starch content among the flour samples. The bacteria counts of the HQCF samples ranged from 0 to 1.4 × 104 cfu/ml while the fungal count ranged from 0 to 2 × 10-3 with the unbranded wheat fl our having the highest microbial load compared with other flour samples studied. Conclusion. The use of this indigenous technology produces HQCF with lower lipids, microbial contamination but higher flavour retaining ability, flavonoids and starch contents than wheat flour. The signifi cant positive correlation (R2 = 0.872 between reducing power of the samples and their DPPH antioxidant activity indicate that either could be used to assay for the total antioxidant activity of cassava and wheat flour. The study underscores the need to buy flour from branded companies to reduce the risks of microbial contamination.

  15. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesleem Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour. The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05, protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05 as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05 from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05 (10 to 20. The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

  16. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  17. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  18. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of the Diabetes Care Protocol, a Multifaceted Computerized Decision Support Diabetes Management Intervention That Reduces Cardiovascular Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleveringa, Frits G. W.; Welsing, Paco M. J.; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J.; Niessen, Louis W.; Rutten, Guy E. H. M.; Redekop, William K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted Computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk Of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -

  20. Cost-effectiveness of the diabetes care protocol, a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention that reduces cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.W. Cleveringa (Frits G.); P.M.J. Welsing (Paco); M. van den Donk (Maureen); K.J. Gorter; L.W. Niessen (Louis Wilhelmus); G.E.H.M. Rutten (Guy); W.K. Redekop (Ken)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE- The Diabetes Care Protocol (DCP), a multifaceted computerized decision support diabetes management intervention, reduces cardiovascular risk of type 2 diabetic patients. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of DCP from a Dutch health care perspective. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  1. Numerical Simulation of cardiovascular deconditioning in different reduced gravity exposure scenarios. Parabolic flight validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni; Gonzalez, Daniel

    Numerical models and simulations are an emerging area of research in human physiology. As complex numerical models are available, along with high-speed computing technologies, it is possible to produce more accurate predictions of the long-term effects of reduced gravity on the human body. NELME (Numerical Emulation of Long-Term Microgravity Effects) has been developed as an electrical-like control system model of the pysiological changes that may arise when gravity changes are applied to the cardiovascular system. Validation of the model has been carried out in parabolic flights at UPC BarcelonaTech Platform. A number of parabolas of up to 8 seconds were performed at Sabadell Airport with an aerobatic single-engine CAP10B plane capable of performing such maneuvres. Heart rate, arterial pressure, and gravity data was collected and compared to the output obtained from the model in order to optimize its parameters. The model is then able to perform simulations for long-term periods of exposure to microgravity, and then the risk for a major malfunction is evaluated. Vascular resistance is known to be impaired during a long-term mission. This effects are not fully understood, and the model is capable of providing a continuous thread of simulated scenarios, while varying gravity in a nearly-continuous way. Aerobic exercise as countermeasure has been simulated as a periodic perturbation into the simulated physiological system. Results are discussed in terms of the validaty and reliability of the outcomes from the model, that have been found compatible with the available data in the literature. Different gender sensitivities to microgravity exposure are discussed. Also thermal stress along with exercise, as it happens in the case of Extravehicular activity is smulated. Results show that vascular resistance is significantly impared (p<0,05) at gravity levels less than 0,4g, when exposed for a period of time longer than 16 days. This degree of impairement is comparable with

  2. Reducing US cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan; Bandosz, Piotr; Rehm, Colin D; Penalvo, Jose; Whitsel, Laurie; Gaziano, Tom; Conrad, Zach; Wilde, Parke; Micha, Renata; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Capewell, Simon; Mozaffarian, Dariush; O'Flaherty, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Large socio-economic disparities exist in US dietary habits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. While economic incentives have demonstrated success in improving dietary choices, the quantitative impact of different dietary policies on CVD disparities is not well established. We aimed to quantify and compare the potential effects on total CVD mortality and disparities of specific dietary policies to increase fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in the US. Using the US IMPACT Food Policy Model and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, we estimated and compared the reductions in CVD mortality and socio-economic disparities in the US population potentially achievable from 2015 to 2030 with specific dietary policy scenarios: (a) a national mass media campaign (MMC) aimed to increase consumption of F&Vs and reduce consumption of SSBs, (b) a national fiscal policy to tax SSBs to increase prices by 10%, (c) a national fiscal policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 10%, and (d) a targeted policy to subsidise F&Vs to reduce prices by 30% among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants only. We also evaluated a combined policy approach, combining all of the above policies. Data sources included the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, National Vital Statistics System, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and published meta-analyses. Among the individual policy scenarios, a national 10% F&V subsidy was projected to be most beneficial, potentially resulting in approximately 150,500 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 141,400-158,500) CVD deaths prevented or postponed (DPPs) by 2030 in the US. This far exceeds the approximately 35,100 (95% UI 31,700-37,500) DPPs potentially attributable to a 30% F&V subsidy targeting SNAP participants, the approximately 25,800 (95% UI 24,300-28,500) DPPs for a 1-y MMC, or the approximately 31,000 (95% UI 26,800-35,300) DPPs for a 10% SSB

  3. Reduced levels of potential circulating biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in apparently healthy vegetarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Julio Acosta; de Gouveia, Luiza Antoniazzi; Rocha-Penha, Lilliam; Cinegaglia, Naiara; Belo, Vanessa; Castro, Michele Mazzaron de; Sandrim, Valeria Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Several evidences report that a vegetarian diet is protector against cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have demonstrated the circulating profile of cardiovascular biomarkers in vegetarians. Therefore, the aims of the current study were compared the plasma concentrations of myeloperoxidase (MPO), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 between healthy vegetarian (Veg) and healthy omnivorous (Omn). Using ELISA and multiplexed bead immunoassay, we measured in plasma from 43 Veg and 41 Omn the cardiovascular biomarkers concentrations cited above. We found significant lower concentrations of MPO, MMP-9, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in Veg compared to Omn (all Pvegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sociocultural tailoring of a healthy lifestyle intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd-Martin, Gia; Martinez, Maria C; Rayens, Mary Kay; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Meininger, Janet C

    2013-11-27

    Suboptimal lifestyle factors in combination with genetic susceptibility contribute to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. We describe a community-academic collaboration that developed and explored the feasibility of implementing a socioculturally tailored, healthy lifestyle intervention integrating genomics and family history education to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The community-based participatory research was conducted with communities in Kentucky, which has a rapidly growing Latino population. This growth underscores the need for socioculturally appropriate health resources. Su Corazon, Su Vida (Your Heart, Your Life) is a Spanish-language, healthy lifestyle educational program to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk among Latinos. Twenty natural leaders from an urban Latino community in Kentucky participated in sociocultural tailoring of the program and development of a genomics and family history module. The tailored program was presented to 22 participants to explore implementation feasibility and assess appropriateness for community use. Preintervention and postintervention assessments of genomic knowledge and lifestyle behaviors and qualitative postintervention evaluations were conducted. Postintervention improvements in health-promoting lifestyle choices and genomic knowledge specific to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes suggested that the program may be effective in reducing risk. Feedback indicated the program was socioculturally acceptable and responsive to community needs. These findings indicated that a tailored healthy lifestyle program integrating genomics and family history education was socioculturally appropriate and may feasibly be implemented to reduce cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in a Latino community with limited health care resources. The project highlights contributions of community-based processes in tailoring

  5. Patients receiving lithium therapy have a reduced prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, James M; Fieve, Ronald R

    2016-11-03

    A variety of evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that lithium has neurotrophic and cytoprotective properties, and may ameliorate or prevent some disease states. We investigated whether such a protective effect can be observed in human psychiatric patients receiving lithium therapy. We carried out a retrospective chart review of 1028 adult psychiatric male and female outpatients attending four lithium clinics in metropolitan New York City. Patients were divided into two groups based on lithium usage, and the prevalence of neurological and cardiovascular disorders was compared. The main outcome measures were the occurrence in the two patient groups of a variety of neurological disorders and myocardial infarction. Odds ratios were calculated to assess the risk of having a disorder for patients receiving lithium compared to patients not receiving lithium: for seizures, the odds ratio was 0.097; for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the odds ratio was 0.112; for dementia not otherwise specified, the odds ratio was 0.112; and for myocardial infarction, the odds ratio was 0.30. Logistical regression analysis showed that lithium treatment is a significant negative predictive factor in the prevalence of each of these disease states, when age, duration of clinic attendance, and use of anti-psychotic medications are taken into account. Our results show that patients receiving regular lithium treatment have a reduced prevalence of some neurological disorders and myocardial infarctions. One possible explanation of these results is that a protective effect of lithium observed in laboratory and animal studies may also be present in human patients receiving regular lithium therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients. METHODS: Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed. RESULTS: There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  7. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  9. Anaphylactic reaction to lupine flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Sabine; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard; Lepp, Ute; Jappe, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Roasted lupine seeds have been used as snack food in Mediterranean countries for years. Since the 1990s, lupine flour has been used as a substitute for or additive to other flours in countries of the European Union; usually the amount is so low that no declaration is required. Since 1994, a number of cases of immediate-type allergy to lupine flour-containing products have been published. A 52-year-old woman developed facial and mucosal edema, followed by dizziness and shortness of breath a few minutes after ingestion of a nut croissant containing lupine flour; she required emergency care. Allergy diagnostic tests revealed a total IgE of 116 kU/l, a highly elevated concentration of IgE specific for lupine seed (42.9 kU/l) and birch pollen IgE of 2.57 kU/l. Skin prick test with native lupine flour was strongly positive. Allergy against lupine seeds may develop de novo or via cross-reactivity to legumes, particularly peanuts, the latter being detectable in up to 88% of cases, founded on a strong sequence similarity between lupine and peanut allergens. In our patient, no cross-reactivity could be detected via immunoblotting, indicating a rare monovalent sensitization to lupine flour. Treatment consists of avoidance of lupine flour-containing products. Patients with proven peanut allergy should also avoid lupine flour because of the major risk of cross-reaction.

  10. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  11. Characteristics and oil absorption in deep-fat fried batter prepared from ball-milled wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanatuksorn, Pariya; Kajiwara, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Toru

    2010-01-15

    The porous structure generated during frying influences oil absorption and textural qualities. The alteration in physical properties of wheat flour is suspected to affect the structure formation. The present study investigated the effect of physicochemical changes in wheat flour by the ball-milling process on structure formation and consequently oil absorption of a fried wheat flour batter model. Batter models containing 600 g kg(-1) moisture were made of 0-10 h ball-milled wheat flour and then fried in frying oil at 150 degrees C for 1-7 min. The samples made of milled flour possess larger pores and exhibit lower oil absorption than sample made of 0 h milled flour. The fracture force of a fried sample prepared from 5 and 10 h milled flour is lower than that of a sample prepared from 0 h milled flour. The decrease in glass transition temperature (T(g)) and melting temperature (T(m)) of milled flour affect the microstructure formation in the fried wheat flour batter. The microstructure is responsible for oil absorption and fracturability in fried food. The samples made of flour of longer ball-milling time have lower oil absorption and higher crispness. Ball-milling may be a tool to produce mechanically modified wheat flour which can reduce oil absorption for fried batter. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effect of Processing on the Chemical, Pasting and Anti-Nutritional Composition of Bambara Nut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Abiodun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of processing on the chemical, pasting and anti-nutritional composition of bambara nut flour. Bambara nut seeds were divided into two portions. Portion A was milled into raw flour while portion B was boiled for 10 min. The coats were removed and the dehulled nuts were dried in the oven at 50oC for 18 h. They were milled and sealed in polythene bags. Proximate, mineral and antinutritional compositions of the samples were carried out on the flour samples. Raw flour had the highest ash content (3.26% while the least value was in the coat. Protein content ranged from 3.49-19.94%. Dehulled bambara nut had higher protein content than the raw sample. The coat was high in fibre content when compared to the raw and dehulled flour samples. The mineral composition of raw bambara nut flour were higher than the dehulled flour. Tannin contents ranged from 0.16 mg/100 g in dehulled flour to 0.32 mg/100 g in raw flour. Raw bambara nut flour had higher phytate content while the dehulled flour had lower value. The value of oxalate ranged from 0.10-1.34 mg/100 g. Boiling and dehulling drastically reduced the mineral and the antinutritional composition of the flour.

  13. Orange peel flour effect on physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of cooked sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Hernandez Garcia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel flours as a source of fiber, protein, and flavonoids as antioxidants was added to meat batters in order to improve nutritional quality and physicochemical, textural and sensory properties. Orange peel flour in meat batters improved yield and reduced expressible moisture. Hardness in orange peel flour samples was higher, but less resilient and cohesive. Warner-Bratzler shear force was not different between control (no orange peel flour and samples with this functional ingredient. A no trained panel determinate that there was no difference between control and orange peel flour added sausages at a 5% (w/w level. In this view, orange peel flour can be employed to improve yield and texture of cooked meat products.

  14. A BIODEGRADABLE FILM FROM JACKFRUIT (ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS AND DURIAN (DURIO ZIBETHINUS SEED FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah S. Retnowati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus and durian (Durio zibethinus seeds contain high portion of amylose, which makes them potential materials for biodegradable films. The objective of this study is to develop biodegradable films composed of jackfruit and durian seed flours and glycerol as plasticizer. The films were prepared by dispersing flours in water, adding glycerol, heating the mixture, casting the solution on an acrylic plate, and drying the films at 50 ºC for 20 hours. Glycerol contributes to the flexibility of the film, while reduces the strength of the film. The Young’s modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break increase as the ratio of jackfruit to durian seed flour increases. The films made from jackfruit and durian seed flours in this work are stronger than the film made from rice flour obtained by other researcher. Therefore, jackfruit and durian seed flours are potential raw material for biodegradable films.

  15. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  16. Human microbiome as therapeutic intervention target to reduce cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, Annefleur M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases

  17. Community-Responsive Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Jared B.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T.; Walters, Karina L.

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in…

  18. Human microbiome as therapeutic intervention target to reduce cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, Annefleur M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases

  19. Cardiac involvement in primary systemic vasculitis and potential drug therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Shenoy, Sajjan N

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is common in primary systemic vasculitides and may be due to direct effect of the disease on the heart or due to therapy. We shall review involvement of the heart in the various forms of primary systemic vasculitis. Among anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis most commonly involves the heart. Involvement of the heart confers poorer prognosis in AAV, which is also complicated by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Kawasaki's disease (KD) is the most common form of medium-vessel vasculitis to affect the heart, with coronary artery aneurysms being the most common manifestation. These predispose patients with KD to develop premature ischemic heart disease. Takayasu's arteritis is the most common large-vessel vasculitis to involve the heart and can result in aortic incompetence, myocarditis, or coronary heart disease. Involvement of the heart in Behcet's disease is usually in the form of intracardiac mass lesions, thrombosis, or endomyocardial fibrosis. Drugs used in the treatment of systemic vasculitis influence the risk of developing cardiovascular events. Corticosteroid therapy has been shown to increase the risk of myocardial infarction, whereas methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, rituximab, and anti-tumor necrosis alpha agents favorably modulate the risk of cardiovascular events, predominantly by dampening systemic inflammation. Awareness of cardiac involvement in vasculitis and accelerated cardiovascular risk in these patients should help clinicians to maximize the modulation of modifiable risk factors for heart disease in these individuals.

  20. Variability of antinutritive compounds in flaxseed flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Russo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flaxseed flours in the diets of poultry and broilers may be limited by the presence of antinutritive compounds. The content of cyanogenic glycosides, phytic acid, condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors was evaluated in seven varieties of Linum usitatissimum. Phytic acid, condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors showed significant differences among varieties. Only the concentration of cyanogenic glycosides and phytic acid in the flour deserves attention, while the content of condensed tannins and trypsin inhibitors are to acceptable levels. Since the flax meal is an important source of omega-3 for poultry and broilers, the cyanogenic glycoside and phytic acid contents in linseed has to be reduced to increase the ration to be included in the diet.

  1. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  2. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    with cardiovascular diseases and renal insufficiency. According to the chosen efficient method of adding buckwheat bran flour in the dough for no-salt bread, we have found out that the method when enricher is added in the sponge provides the best physical and chemical, and structure mechanical properties of the bakery product and can be recommended for baking bread for mass production at the bakery plant.

  3. Using a respiratory navigator significantly reduces variability when quantifying left ventricular torsion with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Sean M; Haggerty, Christopher M; Suever, Jonathan D; Wehner, Gregory J; Andres, Kristin N; Powell, David K; Charnigo, Richard J; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2017-03-01

    Left ventricular (LV) torsion is an important indicator of cardiac function that is limited by high inter-test variability (50% of the mean value). We hypothesized that this high inter-test variability is partly due to inconsistent breath-hold positions during serial image acquisitions, which could be significantly improved by using a respiratory navigator for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) based quantification of LV torsion. We assessed respiratory-related variability in measured LV torsion with two distinct experimental protocols. First, 17 volunteers were recruited for CMR with cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) in which a respiratory navigator was used to measure and then enforce variability in end-expiratory position between all LV basal and apical acquisitions. From these data, we quantified the inter-test variability of torsion in the absence and presence of enforced end-expiratory position variability, which established an upper bound for the expected torsion variability. For the second experiment (in 20 new, healthy volunteers), 10 pairs of cine DENSE basal and apical images were each acquired from consecutive breath-holds and consecutive navigator-gated scans (with a single acceptance position). Inter-test variability of torsion was compared between the breath-hold and navigator-gated scans to quantify the variability due to natural breath-hold variation. To demonstrate the importance of these variability reductions, we quantified the reduction in sample size required to detect a clinically meaningful change in LV torsion with the use of a respiratory navigator. The mean torsion was 3.4 ± 0.2°/cm. From the first experiment, enforced variability in end-expiratory position translated to considerable variability in measured torsion (0.56 ± 0.34°/cm), whereas inter-test variability with consistent end-expiratory position was 57% lower (0.24 ± 0.16°/cm, p < 0.001). From the second experiment, natural

  4. Does regular lipid apheresis in patients with isolated elevated lipoprotein(a) levels reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosada, Adrian; Kassner, Ursula; Vogt, Anja; Willhauck, Michael; Parhofer, Klaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-02-01

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is known as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Regular lipid apheresis decreases elevated Lp(a) concentrations. However, there is a lack of reliable data regarding the effect of lipid apheresis on cardiovascular endpoints. To assess the effects of apheresis, we compared the occurrence of cardiovascular events in 37 patients treated regularly with lipid apheresis at the time periods of preinitiation of apheresis and during apheresis treatment. A retrospective analysis of 37 patients (35 men and two women; aged 58 years ± 11 [mean ± standard deviation]; body mass index 26 kg/m(2)  ± 3; low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol before apheresis 84 mg/dL ± 21; Lp(a) before apheresis 112 mg/dL ± 34) treated regularly with lipid apheresis was performed. Patients' medical records were screened for cardiovascular events at the preapheresis and during apheresis periods. Apheresis led to a significant reduction of lipid levels (LDL cholesterol -60%; Lp(a) -68%) measured after apheresis. The event-free survival rate after 1 year in the preapheresis period was 38% (22-54%, 95% confidence interval [CI]) vs. 75% (61-89%, 95% CI) in the during-apheresis period with a statistically significant difference (P Apheresis seems to lower the progression of atherosclerosis leading to a reduced number of cardiovascular events in hyperlipoproteinemia(a). Because prospective and controlled trials are lacking, the therapeutic effectiveness of lipid apheresis can only be estimated.

  5. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mesías

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety.

  6. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. PMID:28231092

  7. High-Dose Menaquinone-7 Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Calcification in a Murine Model of Extraosseous Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheiber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular calcification is prevalent in the aging population and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and diabetes mellitus, giving rise to substantial morbidity and mortality. Vitamin K-dependent matrix Gla-protein (MGP is an important inhibitor of calcification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of high-dose menaquinone-7 (MK-7 supplementation (100 µg/g diet on the development of extraosseous calcification in a murine model. Calcification was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy combined with high phosphate diet in rats. Sham operated animals served as controls. Animals received high or low MK-7 diets for 12 weeks. We assessed vital parameters, serum chemistry, creatinine clearance, and cardiac function. CKD provoked increased aortic (1.3 fold; p < 0.05 and myocardial (2.4 fold; p < 0.05 calcification in line with increased alkaline phosphatase levels (2.2 fold; p < 0.01. MK-7 supplementation inhibited cardiovascular calcification and decreased aortic alkaline phosphatase tissue concentrations. Furthermore, MK-7 supplementation increased aortic MGP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression (10-fold; p < 0.05. CKD-induced arterial hypertension with secondary myocardial hypertrophy and increased elastic fiber breaking points in the arterial tunica media did not change with MK-7 supplementation. Our results show that high-dose MK-7 supplementation inhibits the development of cardiovascular calcification. The protective effect of MK-7 may be related to the inhibition of secondary mineralization of damaged vascular structures.

  8. Effect of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the antinutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, Olufunmilola Adunni; Akinoso, Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Effects of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the anti-nutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour were examined. Trifoliate yam tubers were washed, peeled, sliced and subjected to pre-treatment methods, such as soaking, pre-cooking and blanching/soaking. The phenols, phytate, oxalate, tannin and alkaloid profiles of the flours were evaluated and the values of phenols, tannin, oxalate and phytate contents were 0.02-0.32, 0.04-0.53, 0.11-4.32 and 0.20-1.05mg/100g, respectively. The predominant alkaloids in trifoliate yam flour were dioscorine and dihydrodioscorine. The white trifoliate yam flour had higher levels of anti-nutrients than the yellow trifoliate yam flour. Alkaloid contents of trifoliate yam flour increased slightly with delayed harvesting periods. Blanching/soaking method drastically reduced the anti-nutrient contents of trifoliate yam flour than other methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular techniques for detection of confused flour beetle infestations in stored products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle) is a stored-product pest which contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although a number of methods for detection of stored-produc...

  10. Effect of konjac flour incorporated with soy protein isolate on quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... flour on physical, chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ... konjac flour and SPI tended to be darker, juicy, sweet and flavour, but less hard than the control; ..... The Maillard reaction involves the reaction between ...

  11. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doo-Jee; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yookyung

    2013-11-01

    For the development of healthful gluten-free soy bread acceptable to consumers, we evaluated the effects of various processing procedures for soy flour on bread quality, in terms of beany flavour and texture. We pretreated soy flour by both non-heating (raw:NS and germinated:GS) and heating (steamed:SS and roasted:RS) methods. In addition, to improve the loaf volume, we added 1% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) to RS flour. Lipoxygenase activity was retained in the non-heat-treated flours (279 U/g for NS and 255 U/g for GS), but was significantly reduced in the heat-treated flours (106U/g for SS and 69 U/g for RS). Moreover, heat-treated flour had higher isoflavone and ferric reducing antioxidant power than had non-heat-treated flour. However, RS flour had the lowest moisture content and lowest L value. The GS bread had the highest specific loaf volume (3.53 cm(3)/g), followed by NS (2.96 cm(3)/g), RS (2.25c m(3)/g), and SS (1.81 cm(3)/g) bread. GS bread had the lowest hardness (1.53N), followed by NS (1.65 N), RS (2.00 N), and SS (3.75 N) bread. The addition of 1% HPMC to RS increased the loaf volume (2.44 cm(3)/g), but decreased the bread's hardness (1.80N). As to the sensory properties, the bread with heat-treated flour was perceived to have a less beany odour and taste than was the bread with non-heat-treated flour. However, the latter had a better appearance than the former. These results indicated that soy flour pretreatment could enhance the loaf volume and reduce the beany flavour of whole soy bread.

  12. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER males, and may be useful for mitigating heat stress in all workers.

  13. Six physical education lessons a week can reduce cardiovascular risk in school children aged 6-13 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Klakk; Andersen, Lars B; Heidemann, Malene Søborg

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates during childhood and adolescence. Schools are potentially effective settings for early public health prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six physical education (PE) lessons on children's CVD risk. Methods.......01). Six PE lessons per week had a beneficial effect on triglycerides (TG) levels (-0.18 SD, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.00), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.22 SD, 95% CI: -0.42 to -0.02) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.17 SD, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.01). Conclusions: Six PE lessons at school can reduce children...

  14. Acetylation of Chinese bamboo flour and thermoplasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-fang; CHEN Qin-hui; LIN Jin-huo; ZHUO Dong-xian; WU Xiu-ling

    2008-01-01

    Chinese bamboo flour was chemically modified by acetylation with acetic anhydride by using trichloroacetic acid as an activation agent and the optimized condition for acetylation of bamboo flour was determined as the trichloroacetic acid amount 6.0 g per 1.5-g bamboo flour, ultrasosonication duration 40 min and the reaction time 1 h at 65℃. The composition, microstructure and thermal behavior of acetylated bamboo flour were preliminarily characterized by FT-IR, DSC and SEM etc. The acetylated bamboo flour can be molded into sheets at 130℃ and 10 MPa, indicating the modified bamboo flour possesses thermalplastic performance.

  15. The antioxidant acetylcysteine reduces cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal failure: a randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; van der Giet, Markus; Statz, Mario;

    2003-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal failure have increased oxidative stress and show elevated cardiovascular mortality. Whether increased cardiovascular events can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown.......Patients with end-stage renal failure have increased oxidative stress and show elevated cardiovascular mortality. Whether increased cardiovascular events can be prevented by the administration of antioxidants is unknown....

  16. Telmisartan to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Older HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons are at increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but traditional CVD therapies are understudied in this population. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist that improves endothelial function and cardiovascular mortality in HIV-uninfected populations. We assessed the effects of telmisartan on endothelial function in older HIV-infected persons at risk for CVD in a small pilot study. Methods HIV-infected individuals ≥50 years old on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with ≥1 traditional CVD risk factor received open label telmisartan 80 mg daily for six weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measured endothelial function. The primary endpoint was six-week change in maximum relative FMD. Results Seventeen participants enrolled; 16 completed all evaluations (88% men, 65% non-White, median age 60 years, CD4+ T lymphocyte count 625 cells/mm3). ART included 71% PI, 29% NNRTI, 29% integrase inhibitor, 65% tenofovir and 29% abacavir. CVD risk factor prevalence included 76% hyperlipidemia, 65% hypertension, 18% smoking and 12% diabetes mellitus. After six weeks, statistically significant blood pressure changes were observed (systolic −16.0 mmHg, diastolic −6.0 mmHg) without significant changes in FMD. In subset analyses, FMD increased more among abacavir-treated, PI-treated and non-smoking participants. Conclusions No significant FMD changes were observed after six weeks of telmisartan therapy; however, abacavir- and PI-treated participants and non-smokers showed greater FMD increases. Additional studies are needed to explore the effects of telmisartan on endothelial function among HIV-infected individuals with traditional CVD and/or ART-specific risk factors. PMID:26360501

  17. Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Kijak, K.; Grbesa, D.; Martinez, E.; Spruijt, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at roo

  18. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  19. Optimización de los Niveles de los Agentes Oxidante/Reductor en la Panificación de Harina de Trigo Optimization of the Levels Oxidant/Reducer Agents in the Baking of Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibia M Alasino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue optimizar los niveles del par oxidante/reductor para mejorar el comportamiento tecnológico de harinas. Para este fin se utilizaron las combinaciones: azodicarbonamida-bisulfito de sodio y ácido ascórbico-bisulfito de sodio. Se realizaron ensayos de panificación, determinando consistencia de la masa al final del amasado, volumen específico de pan y asignación de puntaje al pan y a la textura de miga a través de evaluación sensorial. Los resultados indicaron que el uso simultáneo de azodicarbonamida y un bajo nivel de bisulfito de sodio producen un ablandamiento de la masa con disminución de volumen específico del pan. Esto no ocurre, sin embargo, cuando el agente reductor se agrega en niveles cercanos a 100ppm. El uso simultáneo de ácido ascórbico y bisulfito de sodio, en niveles intermedios, produce un efecto benéfico muy importante por lo que su uso resulta altamente recomendable.The objective of this work was to optimize the levels of oxidant/reducer substances to improve the technological behaviour of flours. Combinations of azodicarbonamide and ascorbic acid with a reducing agent as sodium bisulfite were used. Experiences in bread-making were made determining the dough consistency at the end of mixing and the specific volume of bread. Also, the bread score and the texture score were obtained trough sensorial evaluation. The results indicated that in the case of simultaneous use of azodicarbonamide and low levels of sodium bisulfite produce a softening of the dough with a decrease in specific volume of bread. This does not occur when the reducing agent is added at levels close to 100ppm. The simultaneous use of ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite, at intermediate levels, produces a very significant beneficial effect, so its use is highly recommended.

  20. A Multifactorial Approach to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Now More Than Ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Jan N

    2016-01-01

    Managing cardiovascular (CV) risk is an important part of caring for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as the disease itself confers CV risk. Many CV risk factors (such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity) have been found to be more common among individuals with diabetes than in the general population. A growing body of evidence provides guidance for clinicians on how to balance control of hyperglycemia with management of these risk factors. Newer classes of antihyperglycemic agents have been associated with beneficial effects on several CV risk factors; several studies evaluating the effect of these newer diabetic medications on CV outcomes have been published, and several more are in progress. While evidence continues to unfold about the benefits of risk factor control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, this article reviews evidence related to risk-factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as recent findings on the effect of newer drug classes on CV risk factors and outcomes. Favorably altering CV risk factors appears to improve outcomes, and is more important now than ever before.

  1. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W T; Reeds, D N; Mondy, K E; Overton, E T; Grassino, J; Tucker, S; Bopp, C; Laciny, E; Hubert, S; Lassa-Claxton, S; Yarasheski, K E

    2010-07-01

    People living with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV infection are high priorities. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virological or immunological status, or quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected adults relative to standard of care treatment in a matched control group. Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 weeks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were: 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4 T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 health-related QOL inventory. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved more (P=0.04) in the yoga group (-5 +/- 2 and -3 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively) than in the standard of care group (+1 +/- 2 and+2 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass or proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall QOL after yoga. Immune and virological status was not adversely affected. Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low-cost, simple to administer, nonpharmacological, popular behavioural intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors.

  2. Prediction of cardiovascular disease mortality by proteinuria and reduced kidney function: pooled analysis of 39,000 individuals from 7 cohort studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masaharu; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    There are limited studies addressing whether proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are independently associated with cardiovascular disease in Asia. Using data from 7 prospective cohorts recruited between 1980 and 1994 in Japan, we assessed the influence of proteinuria (≥1+ on dipstick) and reduced eGFR on the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in 39,405 participants (40-89 years) without kidney failure. During a 10.1-year follow-up, 1,927 subjects died from cardiovascular disease. Proteinuria was associated with a 1.75-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44, 2.11) increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Additionally, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of cardiovascular disease mortality increased linearly with lower eGFR levels (P(trend) cardiovascular disease mortality than those with eGFR of ≥90 mL/minute/1.73 m². Subjects with both proteinuria and eGFR of cardiovascular disease mortality compared with those with neither of these risk factors. There was no evidence of interaction in the relationship between proteinuria and lower eGFR (P(interaction) = 0.77). The present results suggest that proteinuria and lower eGFR are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease mortality in the Japanese population.

  3. Early start of combination therapy with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis prolongs survival and reduces cardiovascular events in male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi; Hoshi, Hitosi; Inoue, Tsutomu; Kikuta, Tomohiro; Tsuda, Masahiro; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been recommended for initial dialysis therapy, a larger proportion of patients with end-stage renal disease choose hemodialysis (HD) instead. Several previous studies comparing the outcomes of these two therapies, including survival rates and cardiovascular events, have not clearly demonstrated the superiority of one over the other. Our recent study indicated that, compared with HD or PD alone, renal replacement therapy with HD and PD in combination prolongs survival and reduces cardiovascular events. However, the use of combination dialysis therapy is not widely accepted. We set out to analyze the efficacy of combination dialysis therapy with PD and HD in patients who started with PD as initial dialysis therapy. Our single-center retrospective cohort study included 401 patients (165 women, 236 men; 61 +/- 12 and 62 +/- 9 years of age respectively) who started PD during 1995-2005. Chart and electronic databases were used to obtain information on the course of dialysis therapy, including mortality and cardiovascular events. Treatment with HD and PD in combination was used in 103 patients. During 5 years of follow-up after the start of PD, 80 patients died. We observed no differences in cumulative mortality between the men (49, 200%) and women (31, 18%) and no difference in the cumulative incidence of catheter removal for various reasons (35% vs. 31%). There was a significant difference (p dialysis patient population, women on PD experience mortality similar to that in men. The reasons for those findings have not been fully explained. The present analysis suggests that an early start to HD therapy will prolong the survival of patients on PD, especially men.

  4. SY 09-4 PUBLIC POLICIES TO REDUCE SALT IN PROCESSED FOODS: HOW THEY MAY CORRELATE WITH IMPROVEMENT IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL AND REDUCED CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is the second leading global risk for death and disability after unhealthy diets. Amongst dietary risks, excess dietary salt (sodium) is the leading risk. As dietary sodium increases, blood pressure increases linearly. In meta-analyses of higher quality cohort studies and in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, higher dietary sodium is linearly associated with increased cardiovascular disease. There are an estimated xxxx deaths and xxx DALYs in 2013 from excess dietary sodium. The World Health Organization has a recommended sodium (salt) intake of less than 2000 mg (5 g)/day with the World Health Assembly setting a voluntary target of a 30% reduction by 2025. In high income countries, the vast majority of dietary salt comes from additives during commercial food processing. In low income countries the vast majority of salt is 'discretionary' being added at home in cooking and at the table, often as condiments (e.g. soya/fish sauce or bouillon). Many highly populated countries are in nutritional transition and have the highest salt intakes with both commercial and discretionary sources. Notably diets of natural foods without added salt contain 500-800 mg sodium/day. Policies to reduce commercial sources of salt have had demonstrated efficacy at reducing salt intake, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Use of salt replacers (potassium partly replacing sodium) hold promise to reduce discretionary salt and in randomized controlled trials reduce blood pressure. There is renewed 'scientific' controversy about reducing dietary salt. The controversy is largely based on a small number of individuals many of whom have had associations with the food and salt industry and/or have conducted research using methods highly prone to erroneous findings. Sadly several of those dissenting have made false or misleading statements about the science supporting salt reduction, altered scientific formula to make their controversial data appear more

  5. Long-term low dose dietary resveratrol supplement reduces cardiovascular structural and functional deterioration in chronic heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lakatta, Edward G; Talan, Mark

    2017-03-01

    A short-term exposure to resveratrol at high dosages exerts a remarkable cardioprotective effect. Whether a long-term exposure to resveratrol at low dosages that can be obtained through consumption of a resveratrol-rich diet is beneficial to heart diseases is unknown. We tested the effects of a resveratrol-enriched diet on cardiovascular remodeling of chronic heart failure (CHF) in rats resulting from permanent ligation of left coronary artery. Two weeks after surgery, rats were started on either a resveratrol-enriched (R; 5 mg/kg per day; n = 23) or normal (Control; n = 23) diet for next 10 months. Serial echocardiography in Control showed a significant decline in LV ejection fraction, increases in LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and expansion in myocardial infarct from pre-treatment values. In R, compared with Control, there were substantial improvements in those parameters. End-point LV pressure-volume loop analysis showed a significantly improved LV systolic function and AV-coupling, an index of energy transfer efficacy between the heart and aortic tree, in R compared with Control (p resveratrol supplement reduces cardiovascular structural and functional deterioration in CHF.

  6. The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram reduces acute cardiovascular and vegetative effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, M E; Vollenweider, F X

    2000-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 'Ecstasy' is a widely used recreational drug that produces a state of heightened mood but also cardiovascular and vegetative side-effects. In animals, MDMA releases serotonin and, to a lesser extent, dopamine and norepinephrine. The release of serotonin can be blocked by serotonin uptake inhibitors such as citalopram. It is unknown to what extent this mechanism is also responsible for the physiological side-effects of MDMA seen in humans. We investigated the effect of citalopram pretreatment (40 mg i.v.) on vegetative and cardiovascular effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg p.o.) in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in 16 healthy volunteers. MDMA moderately increased blood pressure and heart rate, slightly elevated body temperature and produced a broad range of acute and short-term side-effects. Citalopram reduced all these MDMA-induced physiological changes except for body temperature. These findings suggest that physiological effects of MDMA in humans are partially due to an interaction of MDMA with the serotonin carrier and a subsequent release of serotonin.

  7. [Improved Blood Pressure Control to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity and Mortality: The Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pragna; Ordunez, Pedro; DiPette, Donald; Escobar, María Cristina; Hassell, Trevor; Wyss, Fernando; Hennis, Anselm; Asma, Samira; Angell, Sonia

    2017-06-08

    Hypertension is the leading remediable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, affecting more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is responsible for more than 10 million preventable deaths globally each year. While hypertension can be successfully diagnosed and treated, only one in seven persons with hypertension have controlled blood pressure. To meet the challenge of improving the control of hypertension, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, the authors developed the Standardized Hypertension Treatment and Prevention Project, which involves a health systems-strengthening approach that advocates for standardized hypertension management using evidence-based interventions. These interventions include the use of standardized treatment protocols, a core set of medications along with improved procurement mechanisms to increase the availability and affordability of these medications, registries for cohort monitoring and evaluation, patient empowerment, team-based care (task shifting), and community engagement. With political will and strong partnerships, this approach provides the groundwork to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. The coalition to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease outcomes (credo): why credo matters to cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, Clyde W; Wang, Tracy Y; Ventura, Hector O; Piña, Ileana L; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Ferdinand, Keith C; Hall, Laura Lee

    2011-01-18

    This report reviews the rationale for the American College of Cardiology's Coalition to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes (credo) and the tools that will be made available to cardiologists and others treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) to better meet the needs of their diverse patient populations. Even as the patient population with CVD grows increasingly diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, age, and sex, many cardiologists and other health care providers are unaware of the negative influence of disparate care on CVD outcomes and do not have the tools needed to improve care and outcomes for patients from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Reviewed published reports assessed the need for redressing CVD disparities and the evidence concerning interventions that can assist cardiology care providers in improving care and outcomes for diverse CVD patient populations. Evidence points to the effectiveness of performance measure-based quality improvement, provider cultural competency training, team-based care, and patient education as strategies to promote the elimination of disparate CVD care and in turn might lead to better outcomes. credo has launched several initiatives built on these evidence-based principles and will be expanding these tools along with research. credo will provide the CVD treatment community with greater awareness of disparities and tools to help close the gap in care and outcomes for all patient subpopulations.

  9. Estratégias para redução do uso de hemoderivados em cirurgia cardiovascular Strategies to reduce the use of blood components in cardiovascular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmgton José Brito de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar as estratégias adotadas por nossa equipe para reduzir o uso de hemoderivados em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Entre outubro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram operados 101 pacientes. Destes, 51 (50,5% eram do sexo masculino e 50 (49,5% do feminino. A idade variou de 13 a 80 anos (média de 50,76 anos. A estratégia utilizada consiste em uso de antifibrinolíticos, hemodiluição normovolêmica e reposição total do perfusato. RESULTADOS: A média de utilização de hemoderivados por paciente foi de 1,45 UI de CH; 0,75 UI de PF; 0,89 UI de crioprecipitados e 1,43 UI de plaquetas. Em 59 (58,4% pacientes, não foram usados hemoderivados e somente 12 (11,9% pacientes necessitaram mais de quatro UI de CH. Dentre os 27 (26,7% pacientes cujo tempo de circulação extracorpórea (CEC excedeu os 120 minutos, 17 (63% necessitaram de hemotransfusão. Apenas três (2,97% pacientes desenvolveram coagulopatia, sendo dois (1,98% reoperados por sangramento. Dos três pacientes que desenvolveram coagulopatia, dois pertenciam ao subgrupo de idosos. CONCLUSÃO: Na série apresentada, as medidas adotadas conseguiram reduzir a necessidade de hemotransfusão no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Pacientes com tempo de CEC maior que 120 minutos tenderam a necessitar de hemotransfusão. A associação de cirurgia em pacientes idosos e tempo de CEC superior a 120 minutos resultou em maior utilização de sangue e hemoderivados no período pós-operatório.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategies adopted by our team to reduce the use of bloods components in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgical procedures. METHODS: Between October 2005 and January 2007, 101 patients were operated. Fifty-one (50.5% were male and 50 (49.5% female. Patients' age ranged from 13 to 80 years (mean of 50.76 years. The strategy consisted in using antifibrinolytics and normovolemic

  10. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  11. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  12. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  13. Influence of jet milling and particle size on the composition, physicochemical and mechanical properties of barley and rye flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Antonios; Kyriakakis, Georgios; Evageliou, Vasiliki; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Ritzoulis, Christos

    2017-01-15

    Finer barley and rye flours were produced by jet milling at two feed rates. The effect of reduced particle size on composition and several physicochemical and mechanical properties of all flours were evaluated. Moisture content decreased as the size of the granules decreased. Differences on ash and protein contents were observed. Jet milling increased the amount of damaged starch in both rye and barley flours. True density increased with decreased particle size whereas porosity and bulk density increased. The solvent retention capacity profile was also affected by jet milling. Barley was richer in phenolics and had greater antioxidant activity than rye. Regarding colour, both rye and barley flours when subjected to jet milling became brighter, whereas their yellowness was not altered significantly. The minimum gelation concentration for all flours was 16%w/v. Barley flour gels were stronger, firmer and more elastic than the rye ones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Farnier, Michel; Krempf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9), has been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in patients who are receiving statin therapy. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to establish safety ...

  15. Family-centered brief intervention for reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Scott; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; McPhee, Julia

    2016-01-01

    a cluster randomized controlled trial design with two treatment conditions: a CVD risk assessment and one-time consultation ("usual care" control) and a CVD risk assessment and up to five home sessions that aimed to reduce obesity by encouraging physical activity and healthy eating (intervention). Three...

  16. Genetically reduced soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and risk of stroke and other cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Grande, Peer;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of stroke has been linked to lowered levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cerebral microvasculature. These substances are metabolized by the enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by the EPHX2 gene. We tested whether genetically reduced soluble...

  17. Statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation in diabetic patients without cardiovascular events: the RATIONAL trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Macchia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The systematic use of aspirin and statins in patients with diabetes and no previous cardiovascular events is controversial. We sought to assess the effects of aspirin and statins on the thrombotic risk assessed by thrombin generation (TG among patients with type II diabetes mellitus and no previous cardiovascular events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective, randomized, open, blinded to events evaluation, controlled, 2×2 factorial clinical trial including 30 patients randomly allocated to aspirin 100 mg/d, atorvastatin 40 mg/d, both or none. Outcome measurements included changes in TG levels after treatment (8 to 10 weeks, assessed by a calibrated automated thrombogram. At baseline all groups had similar clinical and biochemical profiles, including TG levels. There was no interaction between aspirin and atorvastatin. Atorvastatin significantly reduced TG measured as peak TG with saline (85.09±55.34 nmol vs 153.26±75.55 nmol for atorvastatin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.018. On the other hand, aspirin had no effect on TG (121.51±81.83 nmol vs 116.85±67.66 nmol, for aspirin and control groups, respectively; p = 0.716. The effects of treatments on measurements of TG using other agonists were consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While waiting for data from ongoing large clinical randomized trials to definitively outline the role of aspirin in primary prevention, our study shows that among diabetic patients without previous vascular events, statins but not aspirin reduce thrombotic risk assessed by TG. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00793754.

  18. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  19. Sabiporide improves cardiovascular function, decreases the inflammatory response and reduces mortality in acute metabolic acidosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute metabolic acidosis impairs cardiovascular function and increases the mortality of critically ill patients. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these effects remain unclear. We hypothesized that targeting pH-regulatory protein, Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE1 could be a novel approach for the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a novel NHE1 inhibitor, sabiporide, on cardiovascular function, blood oxygen transportation, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of metabolic acidosis produced by hemorrhage-induced hypovolemia followed by an infusion of lactic acid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized pigs were subjected to hypovolemia for 30 minutes. The animals then received a bolus infusion of sabiporide (3 mg/kg or vehicle, followed by an infusion of lactic acid for 2 hours. The animals were continuously monitored for additional 3 hours. Hypovolemia followed by a lactic acid infusion resulted in a severe metabolic acidosis with blood pH falling to 6.8. In association with production of the acidemia, there was an excessive increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Treatment with sabiporide significantly attenuated the increase in PAP by 38% and PVR by 67%, as well as significantly improved cardiac output by 51%. Sabiporide treatment also improved mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (55% in sabiporide group vs. 28% in control group, and improved systemic blood oxygen delivery by 36%. In addition, sabiporide treatment reduced plasma levels of TNF-α (by 33%, IL-6 (by 63%, troponin-I (by 54%, ALT (by 34%, AST (by 35%, and urea (by 40%. CONCLUSION: These findings support the possible beneficial effects of sabiporide in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis and could have implications for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in man.

  20. A common missense variant in the ATP receptor P2X7 is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Gidlöf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates inflammatory cells by activation of the P2X(7 receptor. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in P2RX7 influence the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD, ischemic stroke (IS and cardiovascular risk factors and tested this hypothesis using genetic association studies. METHODS: Two loss-of-function SNPs in P2RX7 were genotyped in 1244 IHD cases and 2488 controls as well as 5969 individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. Eleven SNPs in a 250 kb region on chromosome 12 spanning P2RX7 as well as neighboring genes OASL, P2RX4 and CAMKK2 were genotyped in 4138 individuals with IS and 2528 controls. Association was examined using linear and logistic regression models with an additive genetic model. RESULTS: The common loss-of-function variant rs3751143 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of IHD in smokers (P = 0.03 as well as decreased risk of IS (OR 0.89; 95% CI = 0.81-0.97; P = 0.012. In addition, an intronic SNP in CAMKK2, rs2686342, were associated with a decreased risk of IS (OR 0.89; 95% CI = 0.82-0.97; P = 0.011. In subgroup analyses, both SNPs were associated with decreased risk of IS in individuals with hypertension (P = 0.045 and 0.015, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A common loss-of-function missense variant in the gene encoding the P2X(7 receptor is associated with reduced risk of IS and with IHD in smokers. These findings might implicate a role of purinergic signaling in atherogenesis or atherothrombosis.

  1. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H.; Amarenco, P.; Hennerici, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    no heterogeneity in the treatment effect for the SPARCL primary (fatal and nonfatal stroke) and secondary end points between the group with and without carotid stenosis. The group with carotid artery stenosis had greater benefit when all cerebro- and cardiovascular events were combined. In the group with carotid...... was reduced by 56% (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24, 0.79; P=0.006) in the group randomized to atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the overall results of the SPARCL intention to treat population, intense lipid lowering with atorvastatin reduced the risk of cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients...

  2. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  3. Functional characterization of steam jet-cooked buckwheat flour as a fat replacer in cake-baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy buckwheat flour was thermo-mechanically modified by steam jet-cooking and the resulting product was evaluated as a fat replacer for the use in cakes with reduced-fat content. Steam jet-cooking caused the integrity of buckwheat flour components to be disrupted, significantly changing the physi...

  4. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiting; Chen, Songting; Zhang, Guanrong; Lin, Aihua

    2015-12-17

    With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD) interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (-1.05%, p = 0.096). However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047) for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was -2.83% (p = 0.001). In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (-5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p fasting plasma glucose (-0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001), BMI (-0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m²; p < 0.001), and waist hip ratio (-0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001). Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  5. Myocardial feature tracking reduces observer-dependence in low-dose dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schuster

    Full Text Available To determine whether quantitative wall motion assessment by CMR myocardial feature tracking (CMR-FT would reduce the impact of observer experience as compared to visual analysis in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM.15 consecutive patients with ICM referred for assessment of hibernating myocardium were studied at 3 Tesla using SSFP cine images at rest and during low dose dobutamine stress (5 and 10 μg/kg/min of dobutamine. Conventional visual, qualitative analysis was performed independently and blinded by an experienced and an inexperienced reader, followed by post-processing of the same images by CMR-FT to quantify subendocardial and subepicardial circumferential (Eccendo and Eccepi and radial (Err strain. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC were assessed for each strain parameter and operator to detect the presence of inotropic reserve as visually defined by the experienced observer.141 segments with wall motion abnormalities at rest were eligible for the analysis. Visual scoring of wall motion at rest and during dobutamine was significantly different between the experienced and the inexperienced observer (p0.05. Eccendo was the most accurate (AUC of 0.76, 10 μg/kg/min of dobutamine parameter. Diagnostic accuracy was worse for resting strain with differences between operators for Eccendo and Eccepi (p0.05.Whilst visual analysis remains highly dependent on operator experience, quantitative CMR-FT analysis of myocardial wall mechanics during DS-CMR provides diagnostic accuracy for the detection of inotropic reserve regardless of operator experience and hence may improve diagnostic robustness of low-dose DS-CMR in clinical practice.

  6. Characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Huerta, Katira da Mota; Monteiro, Sabrina Sauthier; da Rosa, Claudia Severo; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (Bruno and Monty) of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. The flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. The flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the Bruno variety had higher DPPH values and levels of phenolic compounds (1262.34 mg GAE/100g flour), while the Monty variety showed higher FRAP values, vitamin C (189.06 mg/100g flour), flavonoids (486.47 mg/100g flour), chlorophylls (12.13 mg/100g flour) and carotenoids (246.91 μg/100g flour). Flour made from kiwi fruit bagasse can be used to reduce agro-industrial waste. This flour is a promising ingredient which can be used to enrich products providing dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant action.

  7. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    coupled with exercise training; such regimens also tend to markedly improve diabetic control and lower elevated blood pressure. Risk of many other degenerative disorders may be decreased in vegans, although reduced growth factor activity may be responsible for an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. By altering the glucagon/insulin balance, it is conceivable that supplemental intakes of key non-essential amino acids could enable omnivores to enjoy some of the health advantages of a vegan diet. An unnecessarily high intake of essential amino acids--either in the absolute sense or relative to total dietary protein--may prove to be as grave a risk factor for 'Western' degenerative diseases as is excessive fat intake.

  8. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  9. Inclusion of Atlantic salmon in the Chinese diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Frøyland, Livar

    2010-07-01

    Although the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on several physiologic functions have been widely reported, information about the effects of oily fish in the Asian diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is diminutive. We hypothesize that daily inclusion of oily fish for 8 weeks in the Chinese diet will elevate serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels and reduce CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men, comparable with the effects generally observed by inclusion of oily fish in the Western diet. In this 8-week randomized, parallel-arm, food-based intervention study, lunches were prepared with 500 g pork/chicken/beef, typically consumed fish (hairtail and freshwater carp), or oily fish (salmon). Male subjects aged between 35 and 70 years with hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to eat lunches with pork/chicken/beef (n = 30 subjects at 8 weeks), freshwater fish (n = 30), or oily fish (n = 32). Circulating markers were measured at baseline and at 8 weeks. In the oily fish diet, dietary EPA and DHA levels were significantly increased as compared with other diets; and the n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was decreased (P < .05). Thus, the oily fish diet significantly elevated serum EPA and DHA concentrations (P < .01) and lowered serum n-6:n-3 ratio at 8 weeks (P < .05). Furthermore, oily fish intake significantly reduced serum levels of triglycerides (P < .05) and interleukin-6 (P < .01) and increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .01). In conclusion, daily inclusion of oily fish as part of the Chinese diet for 8 weeks is sufficient to significantly increase the serum content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and reduce levels of CVD risk markers in dyslipidemic adult men.

  10. Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in healthy postmenopausal women: A 2-year, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-de Roo, G.W. de; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Meijer, P.; Mijatovic, V.; Kluft, C.; Kenemans, P.; Cohen, F.; Watts, S.; Netelenbos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Currently raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is being investigated as a potential alternative for postmenopausal hormone replacement to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. We compared the 2-year effects of raloxifene on a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors with

  11. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  12. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Anhong; Pan Chongdao; Xiao Deyan; Hou Hong

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking. It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly, accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment, which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  13. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  14. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  15. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy). From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%. PMID:28081164

  16. Treatment with Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Inhibitors to Reduce Cardiovascular Inflammation and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberale, Luca; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Camici, Giovanni G; Dallegri, Franco; Vecchie, Alessandra; Carbone, Federico; Bonaventura, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a serine protease involved in cholesterol homeostasis. After binding to the complex low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor, PCSK9 induces its intracellular degradation, thus reducing serum LDL clearance. PCSK9 is mainly secreted by the liver, but it is also expressed to a lesser extent in other organs. Apart from the well-known activity concerning hepatic LDL receptor-mediated pathway, PCSK9 has been supposed to potentially interfere with vascular inflammation in atherogenesis. Vascular smooth muscle cells have been demonstrated to produce higher amounts of PCSK9 as compared to endothelial cells especially in an inflammatory microenvironment. Low shear stress regions increase PCSK9 expression within SMCs, while higher shear stress gradually reduced PCSK9 expression. Moreover, a crosstalk between PCSK9 and reactive oxygen species has been also described. Oxidized LDL was shown to up regulate the expression of PCKS9 by influencing dose-dependently the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After the identification of gene loss-of-function mutations and no detectable circulating protein levels, PCSK9 has attracted a great interest as an effective target for cholesterol-lowering therapies. Different strategies have been implemented to block the effects of both intracellular and circulating PCSK9. In particular, monoclonal antibodies represent the most promising approach and two of these, alirocumab and evolocumab, have been approved for clinical use in patients affected by familial hypercholesterolemia with encouraging results. In the next future, the improvement of the knowledge of the "pleiotropic" effects of PCSK9 inhibitors might unveil therapeutic potential on cardiovascular outcome independently on the cholesterol lowering activity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiting Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096. However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047 for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001. In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001, diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001, total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005, fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001, BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001, and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001. Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  18. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multiple-Lifestyle Intervention for People Interested in Reducing their Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Vera; Dörenkämper, Julia; Reinwand, Dominique A; Wienert, Julian; de Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can improve the strength of behavior habits in people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption to date. Objective The study aim was to test an 8-week Web-based computer-tailored intervention designed to improve habit strength for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among people who want to reduce their cardiovascula...

  19. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Liu, I-Jung; Chen, Hua-Wei; Chuang, Kai-Jen

    2013-10-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with cardiovascular effects, however, little is known about the effects of improving indoor air quality on cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to explore whether improving indoor air quality through air conditioning can improve cardiovascular health in human subjects. We recruited a panel of 300 healthy subjects from Taipei, aged 20 and over, to participate in six home visits each, to measure a variety of cardiovascular endpoints, including high sensitivity-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), fibrinogen in plasma and heart rate variability (HRV). Indoor particles and total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured simultaneously at the participant's home during each visit. Three exposure conditions were investigated in this study: participants were requested to keep their windows open during the first two visits, close their windows during the next two visits, and close the windows and turn on their air conditioners during the last two visits. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate the cardiovascular endpoints with individual indoor air pollutants. The results showed that increases in hs-CRP, 8-OHdG and fibrinogen, and decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of indoor particles and total VOCs in single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. The effects of indoor particles and total VOCs on cardiovascular endpoints were greatest during visits with the windows open. During visits with the air conditioners turned on, no significant changes in cardiovascular endpoints were observed. In conclusion, indoor air pollution is associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood coagulation and autonomic dysfunction. Reductions in indoor air pollution and subsequent improvements in cardiovascular health can be achieved by closing windows and turning on air conditioners at home. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DEFATTED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM, L. FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Claret Fernandes de Aguiar VALIM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Defatted chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L flour was submitted to thermoplastic extrusion at three feed moisture levels (13%, 18% and 27%. The functional properties of raw and extruded flours were investigated. The nitrogen solubility index of raw chickpea flour was minimum at pH 4.0 but increased at both lower and higher pHs. Extrusion reduced nitrogen solubility drastically for all feed moisture levels. Water and oil absorption capacity were significantly (p O < 05 increased after extrusion treatment. Foam stability could be improved by extrusion and was positively influenced by alkaline pH. It was also verified that extrusion cooking increased significantly (p O < 05 the emulsifying capacity of the extruded flour with 13% moisture level in water.

  1. Rheological properties of the wheat flour supplemented with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA STOENESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.

  2. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis of a package of interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souto Alberto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic diseases, represented mainly by cardiovascular disease (CVD and cancer, are increasing in developing countries and account for 53% of chronic diseases in Argentina. There is strong evidence that a reduction of 50% of the deaths due to CVD can be attributed to a reduction in smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Generalized cost-effectiveness analysis (GCE is a methodology designed by WHO to inform decision makers about the extent to which current or new interventions represent an efficient use of resources. We aimed to use GCE analysis to identify the most efficient interventions to decrease CVD. Methods Six individual interventions (treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking cessation and combined clinical strategies to reduce the 10 year CVD Risk and two population-based interventions (cooperation between government, consumer associations and bakery chambers to reduce salt in bread, and mass education strategies to reduce hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were selected for analysis. Estimates of effectiveness were entered into age and sex specific models to predict their impact in terms of age-weighted and discounted DALYs saved (disability-adjusted life years. To translate the age- and sex-adjusted incidence of CVD events into health changes, we used risk model software developed by WHO (PopMod. Costs of services were measured in Argentine pesos, and discounted at an annual rate of 3%. Different budgetary impact scenarios were explored. Results The average cost-effectiveness ratio in argentine pesos (ARS$ per DALY for the different interventions were: (i less salt in bread $151; (ii mass media campaign $547; (iii combination drug therapy provided to subjects with a 20%, 10% and 5% global CVD risk, $3,599, $4,113 and $4,533, respectively; (iv high blood pressure (HBP lowering therapy $7,716; (v tobacco cessation with bupropion $ 33,563; and (iv high-cholesterol lowering therapy

  3. Reduced memory in fat mass and obesity-associated allele carriers among older adults with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; McCaffery, Jeanne M; McGeary, John E; Poppas, Athena; Paul, Robert H; Sweet, Lawrence H; Cohen, Ronald A

    2013-03-01

    Much attention has been paid to the prevalence and predisposition of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene to obesity, although only a few studies have characterized the extent to which this affects cognitive function. This study examined differences between risk allele carriers (i.e. FTO-AC/AA) and non-carriers (i.e. FTO-CC) on indices of attention/executive function/psychomotor speed, memory, language, and visual-spatial ability in a sample of older patients with cardiovascular disease. We recruited 120 older adults from an outpatient cardiology clinic who underwent blood draw and completed neuropsychological testing. Participants were classified into two groups: one for those who were homozygous for the non-risk-conferring allele (i.e. FTO-CC) (n= 49) and the other for those who had at least one copy of the obesity risk-conferring A allele (i.e. FTO-AC/AA) (n= 71). Mancova analyses adjusting for age and years of education revealed the FTO-AC/AA group performed significantly worse on indices of memory (λ= 0.94, F(2, 115) = 3.58, P= 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.06). Follow-up tests revealed a significant effect for the FTO-AC/AA group, relative to the non-carrier group, on encoding (i.e. California Verbal Learning Test Total Learning) and California Verbal Learning Test long-delay free recall (P 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that the FTO risk allele is associated with reduced memory performance, particularly on aspects of memory encoding and delayed recall. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, these findings will need to be replicated in larger samples that utilize neuroimaging. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang; Li; Dongyun; Ma; Dexiang; Sun; Chenyang; Wang; Jian; Zhang; Yingxin; Xie; Tiancai; Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content(659.8 μg gallic acid equivalents g-1), total flavonoid content(319.3 μg rutin equivalents g-1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content(236.2 μg rutin equivalents g-1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour(P < 0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities(by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  6. Total phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of flour, noodles, and steamed bread made from different colored wheat grains by three milling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoguang Li; Dongyun Ma; Dexiang Sun; Chenyang Wang; Jian Zhang; Yingxin Xie; Tiancai Guo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of wheat variety, food processing, and milling method on antioxidant properties. Black wheat variety Heibaoshi 1 had the highest total phenolic content (659.8μg gallic acid equivalents g−1), total flavonoid content (319.3μg rutin equivalents g−1), and antioxidant activity, whereas light purple wheat variety Shandongzimai 1 had the lowest total flavonoid content (236.2μg rutin equivalents g−1) and antioxidant activity. Whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour had significantly higher total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity than refined flour (P<0.05). Compared with flour, total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity decreased in noodles and steamed bread, whereas noodles had slightly higher total phenolic and flavonoid content than steamed bread. Antioxidant activities (by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay) of steamed bread made from whole wheat flour, partially debranned grain flour, and refined flour were 23.5%, 21.1%, and 31.6% lower, respectively, than the corresponding values of flour. These results suggested that black whole wheat flour and partially debranned grain flour are beneficial to human health.

  7. Proteolytic modification of selected legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Baraniak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pepsin (EC 3.4.1.1 and trypsin (EC 3.4.4.4 action on the chemical composition of legume flours was the aim of this study. The level of proteins and lipids in hydrolysed flours was changed significantly. In comparison to the raw flours also fatty acid composition in treated flours was altered. In the lentil flours both trypsin and pepsin digestion conditions have decreased the level of unsaturated fatty acid. It is noteworthy that in all investigated, hydrolysed flours ratio linoleic: oleic fatty acid was significantly decreased in comparison to unhydrolysed flours (about 40%-pea; 60%- -lentil. Our investigations were also focused on the potential implementations of IMAC method in the separation and purification of peptides. Generally, peptides separation profiles, performed on immobilized Zn (II, were dependent on the kind of flour and enzyme used in the hydrolysis process. In the lights of our results is clearly visible that investigated peptides had a weak affinity to the chelated metal ions. It is noteworthy, that in some cases the influences of chelating factor on separation profiles were noticeable.

  8. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey A. Mahawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. On the otherhand, the taste of the biscuits prepared with 0% Avocado seed flour was moderate like, in 25% proportion of Avocado seed flour were slight like and in 50% proportion was neither liked nor disliked. The overall acceptability results for 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was moderate like and slight like for 25% and 50% proportions of Avocado seed flour. Furthermore, the computed p values for the comparison of the level of acceptability in terms of color, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability of biscuits using 0%, 25%, and 50% avocado seed flour were lower than 0.05. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected.

  9. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry ... coaster or wood flour dish (see figure 1), toys, tool handles, toilet seats, trays, core doors ... They lack natural resin and to use their flour or.

  10. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  11. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  12. The Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program to reduce events and risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease: study protocol (The BALANCE Program Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernardete; Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Torreglosa, Camila Ragne; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Galante, Andrea Polo; Lara, Enilda de Sousa; Costa, Rosana Perim; Soares, Rafael Marques; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Moriguchi, Emilio H; Bruscato, Neide M; Kesties; Vivian, Lilian; Schumacher, Marina; de Carli, Waldemar; Backes, Luciano M; Reolão, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Milena P; Baldissera, Dúnnia M B; Tres, Glaucia S; Lisbôa, Hugo R K; Bem, João B J; Reolão, Jose B C; Deucher, Keyla L A L; Cantarelli, Maiara; Lucion, Aline; Rampazzo, Daniela; Bertoni, Vanessa; Torres, Rosileide S; Verríssimo, Adriana O L; Guterres, Aldair S; Cardos, Andrea F R; Coutinho, Dalva B S; Negrão, Mayara G; Alencar, Mônica F A; Pinho, Priscila M; Barbosa, Socorro N A A; Carvalho, Ana P P F; Taboada, Maria I S; Pereira, Sheila A; Heyde, Raul V; Nagano, Francisca E Z; Baumgartner, Rebecca; Resende, Fernanda P; Tabalipa, Ranata; Zanini, Ana C; Machado, Michael J R; Araujo, Hevila; Teixeira, Maria L V; Souza, Gabriela C; Zuchinali, Priccila; Fracasso, Bianca M; Ulliam, Karen; Schumacher, Marina; Pierotto, Moara; Hilário, Thamires; Carlos, Daniele M O; Cordeiro, Cintia G N C; Carvalho, Daniele A; Gonçalves, Marília S; Vasconcelos, Valdiana B; Bosquetti, Rosa; Pagano, Raira; Romano, Marcelo L P; Jardim, César A; de Abreu, Bernardo N A; Marcadenti, Aline; Schmitt, Alessandra R; Tavares, Angela M V; Faria, Christiane C; Silva, Flávia M; Fink, Jaqueline S; El Kik, Raquel M; Prates, Clarice F; Vieira, Cristiane S; Adorne, Elaine F; Magedanz, Ellen H; Chieza, Fernanda L; Silva, Ingrid S; Teixeira, Joise M; Trescastro, Eduardo P; Pellegrini, Lívia A; Pinto, Jéssika C; Telles, Cristina T; Sousa, Antonio C S; Almeida, Andreza S; Costa, Ariane A; Carmo, José A C; Silva, Juliana T; Alves, Luciana V S; Sales, Saulo O C; Ramos, Maria E M; Lucas, Marilia C S; Damiani, Monica; Cardoso, Patricia C; Ramos, Salvador S; Dantas, Clenise F; Lopes, Amanda G; Cabral, Ana M P; Lucena, Ana C A; Medeiros, Auriene L; Terceiro, Bernardino B; Leda, Neuma M F S; Baía, Sandra R D; Pinheiro, Josilene M F; Cassiano, Alexandra N; Melo, Andressa N L; Cavalcanti, Anny K O; Souza, Camila V S; Queiroz, Dayanna J M; Farias, Hercilla N C F; Souza, Larissa C F; Santos, Letícia S; Lima, Luana R M; Hoffmann, Meg S; Ribeiro, Átala S Silva; Vasconcelos, Daniel F; Dutra, Eliane S; Ito, Marina K; Neto, José A F; Santos, Alexsandro F; Sousa, Rosângela M L; Dias, Luciana Pereira P; Lima, Maria T M A; Modanesi, Victor G; Teixeira, Adriana F; Estrada, Luciana C N C D; Modanesi, Paulo V G; Gomes, Adriana B L; Rocha, Bárbara R S; Teti, Cristina; David, Marta M; Palácio, Bruna M; Junior, Délcio G S; Faria, Érica H S; Oliveira, Michelle C F; Uehara, Rose M; Sasso, Sandramara; Moreira, Annie S B; Cadinha, Ana C A H; Pinto, Carla W M; Castilhos, Mariana P; Costa, Mariana; Kovacs, Cristiane; Magnoni, Daniel; Silva, Quênia; Germini, Michele F C A; da Silva, Renata A; Monteiro, Aline S; dos Santos, Karina G; Moreira, Priscila; Amparo, Fernanda C; Paiva, Catharina C J; Poloni, Soraia; Russo, Diana S; Silveira, Izabele V; Moraes, Maria A; Boklis, Mirena; Cardoso, Quinto I; Moreira, Annie S B; Damaceno, Aline M S; Santos, Elisa M; Dias, Glauber M; Pinho, Cláudia P S; Cavalcanti, Adrilene C; Bezerra, Amanda S; Queiroga, Andrey V; Rodrigues, Isa G; Leal, Tallita V; Sahade, Viviane; Amaral, Daniele A; Souza, Diana S; Araújo, Givaldo A; Curvello, Karine; Heine, Manuella; Barretto, Marília M S; Reis, Nailson A; Vasconcelos, Sandra M L; Vieira, Danielly C; Costa, Francisco A; Fontes, Jessica M S; Neto, Juvenal G C; Navarro, Laís N P; Ferreira, Raphaela C; Marinho, Patrícia M; Abib, Renata Torres; Longo, Aline; Bertoldi, Eduardo G; Ferreira, Lauren S; Borges, Lúcia R; Azevedo, Norlai A; Martins, Celma M; Kato, Juliana T; Izar, Maria C O; Asoo, Marina T; de Capitani, Mariana D; Machado, Valéria A; Fonzar, Waléria T; Pinto, Sônia L; Silva, Kellen C; Gratão, Lúcia H A; Machado, Sheila D; de Oliveira, Susane R U; Bressan, Josefina; Caldas, Ana P S; Lima, Hatanne C F M; Hermsdorff, Helen H M; Saldanha, Tânia M; Priore, Sílvia E; Feres, Naoel H; Neves, Adila de Queiroz; Cheim, Loanda M G; Silva, Nilma F; Reis, Silvia R L; Penafort, Andreza M; de Queirós, Ana Paula O; Farias, Geysa M N; de los Santos, Mônica L P; Ambrozio, Cíntia L; Camejo, Cirília N; dos Santos, Cristiano P; Schirmann, Gabriela S; Boemo, Jorge L; Oliveira, Rosane E C; Lima, Súsi M B; Bortolini, Vera M S

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the rationale for the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE Program) Trial. This pragmatic, multicenter, nationwide, randomized, concealed, controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of the BALANCE Program in reducing cardiovascular events. The BALANCE Program consists of a prescribed diet guided by nutritional content recommendations from Brazilian national guidelines using a unique nutritional education strategy, which includes suggestions of affordable foods. In addition, the Program focuses on intensive follow-up through one-on-one visits, group sessions, and phone calls. In this trial, participants 45 years or older with any evidence of established cardiovascular disease will be randomized to the BALANCE or control groups. Those in the BALANCE group will receive the afore mentioned program interventions, while controls will be given generic advice on how to follow a low-fat, low-energy, low-sodium, and low-cholesterol diet, with a view to achieving Brazilian nutritional guideline recommendations. The primary outcome is a composite of death (any cause), cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, myocardial revascularization, amputation for peripheral arterial disease, or hospitalization for unstable angina. A total of 2468 patients will be enrolled in 34 sites and followed up for up to 48 months. If the BALANCE Program is found to decrease cardiovascular events and reduce risk factors, this may represent an advance in the care of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  13. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  14. [EMPA-REG OUTCOME: Empagliflozin reduces mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-11-01

    EMPA-REG OUTCOME is an international, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular outcomes of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and known cardiovascular disease. The trial succeeded in reaching the primary objective of non-inferiority and, in addition, showed, after a median follow up of 3.1 years, a superiority of empagliflozin (10 or 25 mg/day) versus placebo as regards the primary composite cardiovascular endpoint (hasard ratio or HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.74-0.99; P = 0.04), hospitalisations for heart failure (-35%), cardiovascular mortality (-38%) and all-cause mortality (-32%, each p < 0.001). The reductionin mortality appeared early (< 6 months) and concerned all subgroups, without any obvious heterogeneity. This reduction in mortality does not seem to be fully explained by the concomitant slight reductions in HbA1c, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum uric acid levels in the empagliflozin groups versus the placebo group. Finally, the tolerance and safety profile of empagliflozin was good, with only a moderate increase in benign mycotic genital infections, a well-known adverse event with SGLT2 inhibitors. The remarkable effects of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, especially on mortality, should modify the management of patients with type 2 diabetes and a high cardiovascular risk in a near future.

  15. Carob flour and sugar beet fiber as functional additives in bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoronja-Simović Dragana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of functional additives (carob flour and sugar beet fiber on empirical rheological dough performance and bread quality was examined. Also the microbiological quality of bread was investigated during 16 days of storage. The study included 5 samples: control (CON, with preservative calcium propionate (CONP, with carob flour (CON-CAR, with sugar beet fiber (CON-SBF and with a combination of carob flour and sugar beet fibers (CON-SBF-CAR. Samples with functional additives had a higher water holding capacity (2-10% and extended dough development time due to the presence of dietary fiber. Dough resistance of these samples was significantly increased, especially in CON-CAR, in which the time of final fermentation is remarkably prolonged (20% in comparison to CON. The addition of the functional ingredients (due to hydration properties of dietary fiber improved texture and sensory characteristics of bread. In sample CON-SBF crumb firmness was significantly reduced (by 70% while elasticity was increased by 25% compared to CON. Positive effect of addition of sugar beet fiber was proved by improving the elasticity of the crumb and finer crumb structure (sample CON-SBF in comparison with the addition of carob flour (sample CON-CAR. In bread sample with carob flour there was no microbiological contamination for 16 days of examination, which confirms the fact that carob flour can be used as a natural preservative.

  16. Adding pharmacists to primary care teams reduces predicted long-term risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients without established cardiovascular disease: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, N N; Majumdar, S R; Johnson, J A; Tsuyuki, R T; Lewanczuk, R Z; Spooner, R; Simpson, S H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact of adding pharmacists to primary care teams on predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease. This was a pre-specified secondary analysis of randomized trial data. The main study found that, compared with usual care, addition of a pharmacist resulted in improvements in blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia for primary care patients with Type 2 diabetes. In this sub-study, predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events at baseline and 1 year were calculated for patients free of cardiovascular disease at enrolment. The primary outcome was change in UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk score; change in Framingham risk score was a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 102 intervention patients and 93 control subjects: 59% women, median (interquartile range) age 57 (50-64) years, diabetes duration 3 (1-6.5) years, systolic blood pressure 128 (120-140) mmHg, total cholesterol 4.34 (3.75-5.04) mmol/l and HbA(1c) 54 mmol/mol (48-64 mmol/mol) [7.1% (6.5-8.0%)]. Median baseline UKPDS risk score was 10.2% (6.0-16.7%) for intervention patients and 9.5% (5.8-15.1%) for control subjects (P = 0.80). One-year post-randomization, the median absolute reduction in UKPDS risk score was 1.0% greater for intervention patients compared with control subjects (P = 0.032). Similar changes were seen with the Framingham risk score (median reduction 1.2% greater for intervention patients compared with control subjects, P = 0.048). The two risk scores were highly correlated (rho = 0.83; P primary care teams for 1 year significantly reduced the predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events for patients with Type 2 diabetes without established cardiovascular disease. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  17. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (

  18. Lifestyle-focused interventions at the workplace to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, I.F.; Proper, K.I.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Mechelen, W.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this review was to summarize the evidence for an effect of lifestyle-targeted interventions at the workplace on the main biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: We performed an extensive systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials

  19. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. Methods and re

  20. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Aims High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. Methods and

  1. Allopurinol Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Ovine Fetal Cardiovascular System After Repeated Episodes of Ischemia-Reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jan B.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Torrance, Helen L.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; Benders, Manon J.; Rosen, Karl G.; Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Burton, Graham J.; van Bel, Frank; Giussani, Dino A.

    2010-01-01

    In complicated labor, neonatal outcome may depend not only on the extent of fetal asphyxia and acidosis but also on the effects on the fetal cardiovascular system of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) associated with repeated compressions of the umbilical c

  2. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  3. Kinetics of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Sweet Cassava Starch and Bitter Cassava Flour and Gadung (Dioscorea hispida Dennst Flour at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargono Hargono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a potential substrate for this purpose, but the extra cost is needed to hydrolyze it into reducing sugar. As an alternative to the expensive and energy demanding conventional hydrolysis process, the low-temperature hydrolysis is being studied. Granular Starch Hydrolysing Enzyme (GSHE was used in the process to degrade starch into reducing sugar at 30°C and pH 4. The substrates included bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour. Starch concentrations studied were 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 g/L, respectively, while concentration of enzyme was 1.5 % (w/w. The optimum condition of the process was hydrolysis using 200 g/L of substrate concentration and enzyme  concentration of 1.5% for 12 h. It was found that the reducing sugar was  49.3  g/L and the productivity of reducing sugar (Qrs was 4.11 (gL-1 h-1.   Lineweaver-Burk plot of Michaelis-Menten equation was used to study the inhibition kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten constants (Km  for these three substrates were determined as 141.64 g/L, 137,64 g/L and 140.84 g/L for bitter cassava flour, sweet cassava starch, and gadung flour, respectively. The value of  Vm/Km, which denotes the affinity of the enzyme to the substrate, were determined and compared, and the result showed that the affinity (Vm to the enzyme to this substrate followed  the order of sweet cassava starch˃ bitter cassava flour˃ gadung flour, and all are non-competitive inhibitor, while the  Ki value was 0.022 h -1.

  4. Combination of near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati; Rohaeti, E.; Rafi, M.

    2017-05-01

    Taro flour on the market is usually sold at higher price than wheat and sago flour. This situation could be a cause for adulteration of taro flour from wheat and sago flour. For this reason, we will need an identification and authentication. Combination of near infrared (NIR) spectrum with multivariate analysis was used in this study to identify and authenticate taro flour from wheat and sago flour. The authentication model of taro flour was developed by using a mixture of 5%, 25%, and 50% of adulterated taro flour from wheat and sago flour. Before subjected to multivariate analysis, an initial preprocessing signal was used namely normalization and standard normal variate to the NIR spectrum. We used principal component analysis followed by discriminant analysis to make an identification and authentication model of taro flour. From the result obtained, about 90.48% of the taro flour mixed with wheat flour and 85% of taro flour mixed with sago flour were successfully classified into their groups. So the combination of NIR spectrum with chemometrics could be used for identification and authentication of taro flour from wheat and sago flour.

  5. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Elwood, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic...... substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed...

  6. Microwave Irradiation Treatment of Wood Flour and Its Application in PVC-Wood Flour Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shengfei; CHEN Wen; LIU Weihua; LI Huaxing

    2007-01-01

    The technique of microwave irradiation induced free radical bulk- polyaddition reactions in porous wood flour was used to modify wood flour. The behaviors of the modified wood flour under microwave irradiation, such as thermal stability and moisture sorption properties, were studied. A kind of semiinterpenetrating polymer network wood four (Semi-IPN-WF) can be formed through polymerization of MMA in the porous wood flour by microwave irradiation, and the thermal decomposition temperature of the semi-IPN-WF is considerably increased. PVC/Semi-IPN-WF composites were prepared by melt mixing in double rolls,which exhibit improved rheological properties, lower water sorption properties and outstanding mechanical performances.

  7. Incorporation of carrot pomace powder in wheat flour: effect on flour, dough and cookie characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Adil

    2016-10-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1.39)] than those containing 72 mesh. Water solvent retention capacity and sucrose solvent retention capacity increased while lactic acid solvent retention capacity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity decreased with blending of CPP. Water absorption, dough development time and degree of softening increased whereas, dough stability and mixing tolerance decreased with increasing CPP. The highest decrease in pasting was observed flour containing 72 mesh CPP. Rheology of dough containing 120 mesh CPP closely resembled the control. Color of flour and cookies increased with blending of CPP irrespective of mesh size. Antioxidant activity of cookies was higher than the flour blends. The cookies containing CPP of 72 mesh showed the lowest hardness. However, cookies containing CPP of 120 mesh showed the best sensory properties. Incorporation of 120 mesh CPP produced low gluten cookies with manageable flour and dough characteristics and better antioxidant and sensory properties.

  8. Analysis of the effectiveness of moderate levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, A Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Martin Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: a. The determination of the efficacy of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease; b. The Analysis of the relative changes in the levels of cardiovascular disease risk according to different intensities of physical activity (low-moderate. Methodology: The search was performed for studies with PUBMED data base. Then, the mean effect size of the studies included in the meta-analysis was calculated and Egger's test was applied to rule out any possible publication bias. Upon detection of heterogeneity, we proceeded to an analysis of the moderating variables. Results: A mean effect size of 0.762 (95% confidence interval 0678-0857 was obtained. Then The Egger test was applied which yielded a p-value of 0.67 (CI 0.95, such that the absence of publication bias was confirmed. The analysis of the moderating variables determined that the ensuing years (p = 0.000, 95% CI and the countries of study (p = 0.0096; 95% CI in part explain the heterogeneity detected. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the practice of physical activity at moderate intensities provides a protective effect on the individuals who make physical activity by reducing the risk these individuals to cardiovascular diseases.

  9. TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambad, Shitalkumar P; Tuli, Davinder; Mathur, Anoop; Ghalsasi, Sameer A; Chaudhary, Anita R; Deshpande, Shailesh; Gupta, Ramesh C; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity. Methods A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenoxy)-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a) pyrimidine-3-carboxamide), was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor activation potential of TRC210258 was assessed by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay and cAMP-responsive element reporter assay using cells overexpressing the human TGR5 receptor. The effect of TRC210258 on glucagon-like peptide-1 release was evaluated in vitro using a human enteroendocrine cell line. The effect of TRC210258 on energy expenditure and glycemic control was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Additionally, the effect of TRC210258 on dyslipidemic parameters was determined in high fat-fed hamsters. Results TRC210258 demonstrated potent TGR5 agonist activity, with enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 release and energy expenditure. Treatment with TRC210258 resulted in better glycemic control and improved parameters of dyslipidemia such as plasma triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Treatment with TRC210258 also improved emerging dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk parameters, including remnant cholesterol and triglyceride clearance. Conclusion This study highlights the potential of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, to improve dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk beyond glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24379686

  10. Reduced Antiplatelet Effect of Aspirin Does Not Predict Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Sanne Bøjet; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Neergaard-Petersen, Søs; Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Kristensen, Steen Dalby

    2017-08-05

    Increased platelet aggregation during antiplatelet therapy may predict cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. The majority of these patients receive aspirin monotherapy. We aimed to investigate whether high platelet-aggregation levels predict cardiovascular events in stable coronary artery disease patients treated with aspirin. We included 900 stable coronary artery disease patients with either previous myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or both. All patients received single antithrombotic therapy with 75 mg aspirin daily. Platelet aggregation was evaluated 1 hour after aspirin intake using the VerifyNow Aspirin Assay (Accriva Diagnostics) and Multiplate Analyzer (Roche; agonists: arachidonic acid and collagen). Adherence to aspirin was confirmed by serum thromboxane B2. The primary end point was the composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death. At 3-year follow-up, 78 primary end points were registered. The primary end point did not occur more frequently in patients with high platelet-aggregation levels (first versus fourth quartile) assessed by VerifyNow (hazard ratio: 0.5 [95% CI, 0.3-1.1], P=0.08) or Multiplate using arachidonic acid (hazard ratio: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.5-2.1], P=0.92) or collagen (hazard ratio: 1.4 [95% CI, 0.7-2.8], P=0.38). Similar results were found for the composite secondary end point (nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, stent thrombosis, and all-cause death) and the single end points. Thromboxane B2 levels did not predict any end points. Renal insufficiency was the only clinical risk factor predicting the primary and secondary end points. This study is the largest to investigate platelet aggregation in stable coronary artery disease patients receiving aspirin as single antithrombotic therapy. We found that high platelet-aggregation levels did not predict cardiovascular events. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  11. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15 V and 20 V) for 60 or 120 s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  12. Reduced brachial flow-mediated vasodilation in young adult ex extremely low birth weight preterm: a condition predictive of increased cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Demuru, P; Cadeddu, F; Balzarini, M; Mercuro, G

    2010-10-01

    Sporadic data present in literature report how preterm birth and low birth weight constitute the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in later life. To assess the presence of potential alterations to endothelial function in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (Cesarea, Israel). Endothelial function was significantly reduced in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C (1.94 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.68 +/- 0.41, p < 0.0001). Moreover, this function correlated significantly with gestational age (r = 0.56, p < 0.0009) and birth weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). The results obtained reveal a significant decrease in endothelial function of ex-ELBW subjects compared to controls, underlining a probable correlation with preterm birth and low birth weight. Taken together, these results suggest that an ELBW may underlie the onset of early circulatory dysfunction predictive of increased cardiovascular risk.

  13. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; Galvão, Daniel A; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42-89 years) with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280.

  14. TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, reduces glycemic and dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk in animal models of diabesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambad SP

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Shitalkumar P Zambad, Davinder Tuli, Anoop Mathur, Sameer A Ghalsasi, Anita R Chaudhary, Shailesh Deshpande, Ramesh C Gupta, Vijay Chauthaiwale, Chaitanya DuttTorrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gujarat, IndiaBackground: Patients with diabesity have a significantly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, therapy addressing the multiple metabolic abnormalities linked with diabesity and leading to further reduction of cardiovascular risk is highly desirable. Activation of the TGR5 receptor holds therapeutic potential for diabesity. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of TRC210258, a novel TGR5 agonist, in clinically relevant animal models of diabesity.Methods: A novel small molecule, TRC210258 (N-(4-chlorophenyl-2-(4-fluoro phenoxy-N-methylimidazo (1, 2-a pyrimidine-3-carboxamide, was synthesized. The in vitro TGR5 receptor activation potential of TRC210258 was assessed by cyclic adinosine monophosphate (cAMP assay and cAMP-responsive element reporter assay using cells overexpressing the human TGR5 receptor. The effect of TRC210258 on glucagon-like peptide-1 release was evaluated in vitro using a human enteroendocrine cell line. The effect of TRC210258 on energy expenditure and glycemic control was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Additionally, the effect of TRC210258 on dyslipidemic parameters was determined in high fat-fed hamsters.Results: TRC210258 demonstrated potent TGR5 agonist activity, with enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 release and energy expenditure. Treatment with TRC210258 resulted in better glycemic control and improved parameters of dyslipidemia such as plasma triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Treatment with TRC210258 also improved emerging dyslipidemic cardiovascular risk parameters, including remnant cholesterol and triglyceride clearance.Conclusion: This study highlights the potential of TRC

  15. a Fermented Milk-Based-Sorghum-Flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying Kinetics, Physico-chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of ... methods on the drying behaviour, functional and nutritional quality of such a food ..... Table 2: Proximate composition of sorghum and of milk-sorghum flours. .... J. of Human.

  16. Influence of added bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on some physical and nutritional properties of wheat flour tortillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Alex A; Ross, Kelly A; Lukow, Odean M; Fulcher, R Gary; Arntfield, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    Composite flours containing 15%, 25%, or 35% of small red, black, pinto, or navy bean flours (BF) and wheat were made into tortillas. Dough rheology, firmness, cohesiveness, rollability, and some physical properties of tortillas were negatively affected as BF concentration increased regardless of bean cultivar. Nutritionally, all bean tortillas had significantly higher levels of crude protein, total phenols, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) and antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and trypsin inhibitors (TI) than the wheat control. Tortillas to which 35% of small red, pinto and black BF was added had the highest levels of phenols, which were significantly correlated with both DPPH (r=0.99) and ABTS(+) (r=0.99) AA. Compared to raw flours, PA and TI were reduced from 37.37% to 43.78% and from 50% to 66%, respectively, in the tortillas. Overall analysis indicated that tortillas with acceptable texture and improved nutritional profile were produced at 25% substitution.

  17. Control of konzo in DRC using the wetting method on cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, J P; Nahimana, G; Mandombi, C; Bradbury, J Howard; Denton, Ian C; Kuwa, N

    2012-05-01

    Fifty konzo cases were identified in four villages in Popokabaka Health Zone, DRC. One third of people had only one meal per day, mainly of cassava flour consumed as a thick porridge (fufu) and pounded, boiled cassava leaves. Retention of cyanogens in flour resulted from short soaking of cassava roots. A 1.5 years intervention was made in the largest village Kay Kalenge, where the wetting method was taught to all women of the village, who accepted it willingly. The total cyanide content of cassava flour was reduced to below 10 ppm. Fufu from treated flour tasted and stored better than fufu from untreated flour. The mean urinary thiocyanate content of 100 school children reduced from 332 to 130 μmole/L and the number of samples exceeding 350 μmole/L decreased from 26 to 0 during the intervention. No new konzo cases occurred, which included two dry seasons when konzo peaks. Konzo was first identified by Dr. Trolli in 1938 in Popokabaka Health Zone and it has now been prevented for the first time in the same area. The methodology is now in use in Boko Health Zone and we believe it is the most effective way to control konzo in tropical Africa.

  18. Gazpacho consumption is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced hypertension in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. Cross-sectional study of the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, A; Vallverdú-Queralt, A; Arranz, S; Ros, E; Martínez-González, M A; Sacanella, E; Covas, M I; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Gómez-Gracia, E; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Lapetra, J; García-Valdueza, M; Arós, F; Saez, G T; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Vinyoles, E; Estruch, R; Lamuela-Raventos, R M

    2013-10-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem and a leading cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries, affecting one-quarter of the world's adult population. Our aim was to evaluate whether the consumption of gazpacho, a Mediterranean vegetable-based cold soup rich in phytochemicals, is associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and/or reduced prevalence of hypertension in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We selected 3995 individuals (58% women, mean age 67 y) at high cardiovascular risk (81% hypertensive) recruited into the PREDIMED study. BP, weight, and dietary and physical activity data were collected. In multivariate linear regression analyses, after adjustment, moderate and high gazpacho consumption categories were associated with reduced mean systolic BP of -1.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.4; -0.6] and -2.6 mm Hg (CI: -4.2; -1.0), respectively, and reduced diastolic BP of -1.5 mm Hg (CI: -2.3; -0.6) and -1.9 mm Hg (CI: -2.8; -1.1). By multiple-adjusted logistic regression analysis, gazpacho consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, with OR = 0.85 (CI: 0.73; 0.99) for each 250 g/week increase and OR = 0.73 (CI: 0.55; 0.98) for high gazpacho consumption groups compared to the no-consumption group. Gazpacho consumption was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP and prevalence of hypertension in a cross-sectional Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. The association between gazpacho intake and reduction of BP is probably due to synergy among several bioactive compounds present in the vegetable ingredients used to make the recipe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.

  20. Inverse problems in reduced order models of cardiovascular haemodynamics: aspects of data assimilation and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sanjay; Corsini, Chiara; Baker, Catriona; Hsia, Tain-Yen; Pennati, Giancarlo; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2017-01-01

    Inverse problems in cardiovascular modelling have become increasingly important to assess each patient individually. These problems entail estimation of patient-specific model parameters from uncertain measurements acquired in the clinic. In recent years, the method of data assimilation, especially the unscented Kalman filter, has gained popularity to address computational efficiency and uncertainty consideration in such problems. This work highlights and presents solutions to several challenges of this method pertinent to models of cardiovascular haemodynamics. These include methods to (i) avoid ill-conditioning of the covariance matrix, (ii) handle a variety of measurement types, (iii) include a variety of prior knowledge in the method, and (iv) incorporate measurements acquired at different heart rates, a common situation in the clinic where the patient state differs according to the clinical situation. Results are presented for two patient-specific cases of congenital heart disease. To illustrate and validate data assimilation with measurements at different heart rates, the results are presented on a synthetic dataset and on a patient-specific case with heart valve regurgitation. It is shown that the new method significantly improves the agreement between model predictions and measurements. The developed methods can be readily applied to other pathophysiologies and extended to dynamical systems which exhibit different responses under different sets of known parameters or different sets of inputs (such as forcing/excitation frequencies).

  1. Low carbohydrate versus isoenergetic balanced diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste E Naude

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some popular weight loss diets restricting carbohydrates (CHO claim to be more effective, and have additional health benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease compared to balanced weight loss diets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the effects of low CHO and isoenergetic balanced weight loss diets in overweight and obese adults assessed in randomised controlled trials (minimum follow-up of 12 weeks, and summarised the effects on weight, as well as cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Dietary criteria were derived from existing macronutrient recommendations. We searched Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL (19 March 2014. Analysis was stratified by outcomes at 3-6 months and 1-2 years, and participants with diabetes were analysed separately. We evaluated dietary adherence and used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We calculated mean differences (MD and performed random-effects meta-analysis. Nineteen trials were included (n = 3209; 3 had adequate allocation concealment. In non-diabetic participants, our analysis showed little or no difference in mean weight loss in the two groups at 3-6 months (MD 0.74 kg, 95%CI -1.49 to 0.01 kg; I2 = 53%; n = 1745, 14 trials; moderate quality evidence and 1-2 years (MD 0.48 kg, 95%CI -1.44 kg to 0.49 kg; I2 = 12%; n = 1025; 7 trials, moderate quality evidence. Furthermore, little or no difference was detected at 3-6 months and 1-2 years for blood pressure, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose (>914 participants. In diabetic participants, findings showed a similar pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Trials show weight loss in the short-term irrespective of whether the diet is low CHO or balanced. There is probably little or no difference in weight loss and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years of follow-up when overweight and obese adults, with or without type 2 diabetes, are randomised to low CHO diets and isoenergetic balanced weight loss

  2. Strategies for reducing body fat mass: effects of liposuction and exercise on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benatti FB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fabiana Braga Benatti1, Fábio Santos Lira2, Lila Missae Oyama2, Cláudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento2, Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior11School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physiology, Division of Nutrition Physiology, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Liposuction is the most popular aesthetic surgery performed in Brazil and worldwide. Evidence showing that adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue has led to the suggestion that liposuction could be a viable method for improving metabolic profile through the immediate loss of adipose tissue. However, the immediate liposuction-induced increase in the proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue could be detrimental to metabolism, because a high proportion of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of studies investigating the effects of liposuction on the metabolic profile are inconsistent, however, with most studies reporting either no change or improvements in one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated a compensatory growth of intact adipose tissue in response to lipectomy, although studies with humans have reported inconsistent results. Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, inflammatory balance, lipid oxidation, and adipose tissue distribution; increases or preserves the fat-free mass; and increases total energy expenditure. Thus, liposuction and exercise appear to directly affect metabolism in similar ways, which suggests a possible interaction between these two strategies. To our knowledge, no studies have reported the associated effects of liposuction and exercise in humans. Nonetheless, one could suggest that exercise training associated with liposuction could attenuate or even block the possible compensatory fat deposition in intact depots or regrowth of the

  3. Low Carbohydrate versus Isoenergetic Balanced Diets for Reducing Weight and Cardiovascular Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E.; Schoonees, Anel; Senekal, Marjanne; Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul; Volmink, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background Some popular weight loss diets restricting carbohydrates (CHO) claim to be more effective, and have additional health benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease compared to balanced weight loss diets. Methods and Findings We compared the effects of low CHO and isoenergetic balanced weight loss diets in overweight and obese adults assessed in randomised controlled trials (minimum follow-up of 12 weeks), and summarised the effects on weight, as well as cardiovascular and diabetes risk. Dietary criteria were derived from existing macronutrient recommendations. We searched Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL (19 March 2014). Analysis was stratified by outcomes at 3–6 months and 1–2 years, and participants with diabetes were analysed separately. We evaluated dietary adherence and used GRADE to assess the quality of evidence. We calculated mean differences (MD) and performed random-effects meta-analysis. Nineteen trials were included (n = 3209); 3 had adequate allocation concealment. In non-diabetic participants, our analysis showed little or no difference in mean weight loss in the two groups at 3–6 months (MD 0.74 kg, 95%CI −1.49 to 0.01 kg; I2 = 53%; n = 1745, 14 trials; moderate quality evidence) and 1–2 years (MD 0.48 kg, 95%CI −1.44 kg to 0.49 kg; I2 = 12%; n = 1025; 7 trials, moderate quality evidence). Furthermore, little or no difference was detected at 3–6 months and 1–2 years for blood pressure, LDL, HDL and total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting blood glucose (>914 participants). In diabetic participants, findings showed a similar pattern. Conclusions Trials show weight loss in the short-term irrespective of whether the diet is low CHO or balanced. There is probably little or no difference in weight loss and changes in cardiovascular risk factors up to two years of follow-up when overweight and obese adults, with or without type 2 diabetes, are randomised to low CHO diets and isoenergetic balanced weight loss

  4. Nutritional Properties of Enriched Local Complementary Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Compaoré

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the nutritional, functional, sensory and microbiological profile of experimental nutritional flours, produced with local products in Burkina Faso. The raw materials included maize (Zea mays, millet (Pennisetum glaucum and rice (Oryza sativa. Local ingredients were pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa and seeds of Cucurbita maxima and Moringa oleifera. Three formula were developed, the first (F1 with maize, the second (F2 with rice and the last (F3 with millet. Each of these cereals was mixed with predetermined portions of seeds and pulps in order to obtain enriched flour. Nutritional, microbiological and functional analysis and the acceptability criteria of these enriched flours were assessed and compared to Misola (F4, the existing local complementary flour. The fat content of experimental flours were respectively in the first (F1, second (F2 and third formula (F3 15.91±0.01%, 11.82±0.02% and 17.02±0.02%. The carbohydrate range was 65.46±0.06%, 70.81±0.01% and 64.51±0.01% for F1, F2 and F3, while the energetic value is higher than recommended (453.07±0.05, 424.56±0.03 and 458.96±0.05 kcal respectively for F1, F2 and F3. Functional characteristics indicated the good viscosity (117, 119 and 121 mm/30 sec for F1, F2 and F3 least gelation (9, 6 and 7% and water absorption capacity (2, 4 and 1 g/g. Trained sensory evaluation panellists gore the enriched flour porridge a score of acceptable. These enriched flours have great potential as a weaning food in resource-poor and technologically under-developed countries.

  5. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors from around the world: focus on cardiac rehabilitation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Trimer, Renata; Cipriano, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a program composed of structured exercise training, comprehensive education and counseling to positively impact functional, psychological, social, and quality of life aspects in these patients. However, the delivery of formal CR programs is limited to major metropolitan centers in Brazil and does not exist in much of the national territory, specifically in the North and Northeast regions. Barriers to the inclusion of qualified patients are lack of referral by the health professionals, as well as transportation difficulties, low income, lack of insurance coverage, and low educational level. Government efforts to implement CR programs on a broader scale, to reach a larger portion of the CVD population, are imperative. Additional research must be focused on the assessment of CR referral and adherence patterns as well as the effectiveness of different CR delivery models.

  6. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in the United States: focus on worksite health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard; Briggs, Paige; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Health care in the United States (US) is changing with a broad provision of health care services to every American due to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) slated to begin in January of 2014. An important aspect of the ACA is that US companies may begin to offer health insurance incentives to employees for participating in health and wellness initiatives. Moreover, since US employers directly absorb many of the financial costs associated with the high degree of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors present in their personnel, employers may be financially vested in improving employee health. However, employers must also consider the costs of developing and maintaining programs to improve employee health and their return on investment (ROI). This review will identify key risk factors to address in a worksite health and wellness program and to examine the performance of such programs in improving CV risk factors and their ROI.

  7. The effect of lowering salt intake on ambulatory blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (LowSALT CKD study: protocol of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Emma J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence implicating dietary sodium in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease (CKD, quality intervention trials in CKD patients are lacking. This study aims to investigate the effect of reducing sodium intake on blood pressure, risk factors for progression of CKD and other cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Methods/design The LowSALT CKD study is a six week randomized-crossover trial assessing the effect of a moderate (180 mmol/day compared with a low (60 mmol/day sodium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and risk factors for kidney function decline in mild-moderate CKD (stage III-IV. The primary outcome of interest is 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, with secondary outcomes including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, proteinuria and fluid status. The randomized crossover trial (Phase 1 is supported by an ancillary trial (Phase 2 of longitudinal-observational design to assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction. Phase 2 will continue measurement of outcomes as per Phase 1, with the addition of patient-centered outcomes, such as dietary adherence to sodium restriction (degree of adherence and barriers/enablers, quality of life and taste assessment. Discussion The LowSALT CKD study is an investigator-initiated study specifically designed to assess the proof-of-concept and efficacy of sodium restriction in patients with established CKD. Phase 2 will assess the longer term effectiveness of sodium restriction in the same participants, enhancing the translation of Phase 1 results into practice. This trial will provide much-needed insight into sodium restriction as a treatment option to reduce risk of CVD and CKD progression in CKD patients. Trial registration Universal Trial Number: U1111-1125-2149. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12611001097932

  8. Pumpkin Fruit Flour as a Source for Food Enrichment in Dietary Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita ČERNIAUSKIENĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that fiber-rich diet reduces the risk of certain cancers, coronary heart and other diseases. Dietary fiber (DF is not only used for its nutritional properties, but also for its functional and technological properties. Thus, to supplement daily diet, dietary fiber should be incorporated into frequently consumed foods. Pumpkins are a good source of carotenoids, mineral salts, vitamins, and other bioactive substances, such as phenol compounds. Also the pumpkin flour could be used for food enriching as fiber supplement. In the study standard methods were applied to determine and compare the neutral dietary fiber (NDF, acid dietary fiber (ADF, acid detergent lignin (ADL and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC contents in pumpkins fruits flour obtained from different species and cultivars. The results imply that pumpkin fruit flour should be recommended as the component suitable for food production with high content of DF. The fiber content in the pumpkin fruit flour depends on the cultivar. The maximum insoluble fiber content (NDF, ADF, ADL was accumulated in C. maxima ‘Kroshka’ pumpkin flour: 26.50%, 24.65% and 14.35%, respectively, and this cultivar is the most suitable one for enriching food with dietary fiber.

  9. The Effect of Arrowroot Flour (Maranta Arrundinaceae on Physical And Sensoric Qualitiy of Rabbit Nugget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfi Noor Hakim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to observe the effect of addition level of arrowroot flour (Maranta arrundinaceae on physical and sensoric quality of rabbit nugget. Rabbit meat and arrowroot flour were used in current experiment. There were four treatments with three repetations in current experiment, addition level of arrowroot flour 0 % (P0, 10 % (P1, 20 % (P2, and 30 % (P3 in rabbit nugget. The variables measured in experiment were physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, and texture and sensory quality (color, flavor, odour, and texture. This experiment was statisically analyzed by using Completelly Randomized Design (CRD. The difference between means was analyzed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. This experiment showed that pH, water holding capacity, and sensoric quality (color, flavor, odour, and texture were significantly affected (P 0.05 in physical texture. The addition level 20 % of arrowroot flour (P2 gave the highest value on physyical and organoleptic quality of rabbit nugget. The conclusion of this experiment was the increase of addition level of arrowroot flour in rabbit nugget improved the phyical texture, but it reduced pH, water holding capacity, and sensoric palatability (color, flavor, odour, and texture.

  10. Functional and physicochemical properties of flours of six Mucuna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical and functional characteristics were carried out on full fat and ... Defatted flours have higher water and oil absorption capacities compared with full fat ... Emulsion capacity ranged between 78-90% in full fat flours and 56-68% in

  11. Effect of water yam (Dioscoreaalata) flour fortified with distiller's spent grain on nutritional, chemical, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyale, Wasiu; Maziya-Dixon, Busie; Sanni, Lateef Oladimeji; Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi

    2016-01-01

    It was envisaged that the inclusion of treated distiller's spent grain (DSG) to yam flour might increase its nutritional value, with the aim of reducing nutritional diseases in communities consuming yam as a staple. Hence, yam flour was fortified with DSG at 5-35%. The effects of this fortification on the nutritional, chemical, and functional properties of yam flour were investigated. The result showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.001) in fat, ash, protein, total amino acids, total dietary fiber, and insoluble dietary fiber contents of the blends as DSG increased except for starch and soluble dietary fiber contents, which decreased. The functional properties showed a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction with DSG inclusion. The inclusion of DSG increased both the tryptophan and methionine contents of the blends. Therefore, the DSG fortified yam flour could contribute to quality protein intake in populations consuming yam as a staple, due to its indispensible amino acid content.

  12. Gamma irradiation of sorghum flour: Effects on microbial inactivation, amylase activity, fermentability, viscosity and starch granule structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukisa, Ivan M.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Schüller, Reidar B.; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-03-01

    Malted and un-malted sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) flour was gamma irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy and then re-irradiated with 25 kGy. The effects of irradiation on microbial decontamination, amylase activity, fermentability (using an amylolytic L. plantarum MNC 21 strain), starch granule structure and viscosity were determined. Standard methods were used during determinations. The 10 kGy dose had no effect on microbial load of un-malted flour but reduced that of malted flour by 3 log cycles. Re-irradiation resulted in complete decontamination. Irradiation of malt caused a significant ( pgelatinization. Production of high dry matter density porridge (200 g dry matter/L) with a viscosity of 3500 cP was achieved by irradiation of un-malted flout at 10 kGy. Gamma irradiation can be used to decontaminate flours and could be utilized to produce weaning porridge from sorghum.

  13. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathwa...

  14. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    OpenAIRE

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution...

  15. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: grand rounds discussion from the beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleman, Murray A; Taylor, William C; Smetana, Gerald; Burns, Risa B

    2015-08-18

    In November 2013, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association released a clinical practice guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk in adults. The recommendation identifies 4 patient groups with strong evidence that the benefits of reduction in ASCVD events from statin therapy exceed adverse events. For these patients, initiating statin therapy of an appropriate intensity to reduce ASCVD risk and minimize adverse effects is recommended. A new risk estimator based on a pooled cohort equation is presented for estimating 10-year ASCVD risk. There is also a recommendation to engage in a clinician-patient discussion before initiating a statin, especially for primary prevention of ASCVD. This paper summarizes a discussion between a cardiologist and an internist about how each clinician would balance these factors and what treatment they would suggest for an individual patient.

  16. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  17. Effect of quinoa and potato flours on the thermomechanical and breadmaking properties ofwheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rodriguez-Sandoval

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermomechanical properties of dough and the physical characteristics of bread from quinoa-wheat and potato-wheat composite flours at 10 and 20% substitution level were evaluated. The functional properties of flours were measured by the water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI and swelling power (SP. The thermomechanical properties of wheat and composite flours were assessed using a Mixolab and the baking quality characteristics of breads were weight, height, width, and specific volume. The results showed that the higher values of WAI (4.48, WSI (7.45%, and SP (4.84 were for potato flour. The quinoa-wheat composite flour presented lower setback and cooking stability data, which are a good indicator of shelf life of bread. On the other hand, the potato-wheat composite flour showed lower stability, minimum torque and peak torque, and higher water absorption. Weight, height, width, and specific volume of wheat bread were most similar to samples of potato-wheat composite flour at 10% substitution level.

  18. Mediterranean Diet Reduces the Adverse Effect of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 Polymorphism on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Stroke Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Dolores; Carrasco, Paula; Sorlí, Jose V.; Estruch, Ramón; Rico-Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, M. Isabel; Coltell, Oscar; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Warnberg, Julia; Fiol, Miquel; Pintó, Xavier; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; González, José I.; Ros, Emilio; Ordovás, José M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, but controversially with plasma lipids and cardiovascular disease. Interactions of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on these associations are unknown. We investigated whether the TCF7L2-rs7903146 (C>T) polymorphism associations with type 2 diabetes, glucose, lipids, and cardiovascular disease incidence were modulated by MedDiet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized trial (two MedDiet intervention groups and a control group) with 7,018 participants in the PREvención con DIetaMEDiterránea study was undertaken and major cardiovascular events assessed. Data were analyzed at baseline and after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiovascular events. RESULTS The TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism was associated with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.87 [95% CI 1.62–2.17] for TT compared with CC). MedDiet interacted significantly with rs7903146 on fasting glucose at baseline (P interaction = 0.004). When adherence to the MedDiet was low, TT had higher fasting glucose concentrations (132.3 ± 3.5 mg/dL) than CC+CT (127.3 ± 3.2 mg/dL) individuals (P = 0.001). Nevertheless, when adherence was high, this increase was not observed (P = 0.605). This modulation was also detected for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (P interaction < 0.05 for all). Likewise, in the randomized trial, TT subjects had a higher stroke incidence in the control group (adjusted HR 2.91 [95% CI 1.36–6.19]; P = 0.006 compared with CC), whereas dietary intervention with MedDiet reduced stroke incidence in TT homozygotes (adjusted HR 0.96 [95% CI 0.49–1.87]; P = 0.892 for TT compared with CC). CONCLUSIONS Our novel results suggest that MedDiet may not only reduce increased fasting glucose and lipids in TT individuals, but also stroke incidence. PMID:23942586

  19. Reduced peak oxygen uptake and implications for cardiovascular health and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heggelund Jørn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality, but is inadequately described in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate treadmill VO2peak, CVD risk factors and quality of life (QOL in patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10, F20-29. Methods 33 patients, 22 men (33.7 ± 10.4 years and 11 women (35.9 ± 11.5 years, were included. Patients VO2peak were compared with normative VO2peak in healthy individuals from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT. Risk factors were compared above and below the VO2peak thresholds; 44.2 and 35.1 ml·kg-1·min-1 in men and women, respectively. Results VO2peak was 37.1 ± 9.2 ml·kg-1·min-1 in men with schizophrenia; 74 ± 19% of normative healthy men (p 2peak was 35.6 ± 10.7 ml·kg-1·min-1 in women with schizophrenia; 89 ± 25% of normative healthy women (n.s.. Based on odds ratio patients were 28.3 (95% CI = 1.6-505.6 times more likely to have one or more CVD risk factors if they were below the VO2peak thresholds. VO2peak correlated with the SF-36 physical functioning (r = 0.58, general health (r = 0.53, vitality (r = 0.47, social function (r = 0.41 and physical component score (r = 0.51. Conclusion Men with schizophrenia have lower VO2peak than the general population. Patients with the lowest VO2peak have higher odds of having one or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease. VO2peak should be regarded as least as important as the conventional risk factors for CVD and evaluation of VO2peak should be incorporated in clinical practice.

  20. Research of Evaluating Flour Quality by Experiment of Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAnhong; PanChongdao; 等

    2000-01-01

    An experiment of flour quality was carried out by means of cooking.It was proven that the flour quality could be evaluated directly,accurately and raliablely by cooking experiment,which should be able to guide reasonble processing and utilizing flour.

  1. Occupational versus leisure-time physical activity in reducing cardiovascular risks and mortality among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gwo-Chi; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Hsieh, Shiau-Fu; Chen, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Wen-Hsiang; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of occupational physical activity (OPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Physical activity data from the Baeck questionnaire was available for 1706 participants. During a follow-up period, there were 215 cases of CVD and 438 deaths. With the lowest tertile as the reference, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD and mortality in the highest tertiles of LTPA were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.46-0.92) and 0.73 (95% CI = 0.58-0.92). In contrast, the HRs for CVD and mortality in the highest tertiles of OPA were 1.75 (95% CI = 1.10-2.80) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.06-2.22). The association between OPA and the risk of CVD and mortality was significant in men but not in women. Our findings suggest that high OPA imposes harmful effects on the risk of CVD and mortality, particularly among men.

  2. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  3. Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle, rice flour beetle)--an occupational allergen in bakers: demonstration of IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Zachgo, W; Rotermund, H; Wiewrodt, R; Merget, R; Wahl, R; Burow, G; zur Strassen, R

    1991-01-01

    Specific IgE to proteins from Tribolium confusum (TC), a flour beetle, was detected in 9/125 sera of subjects exposed to rye and wheat flour. TC RAST was not inhibited by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, rye or wheat flour. Immunoblot experiments showed specific binding to three proteins from adult TC or pupae, not present in rye or wheat flour. These findings suggest that TC might act as an occupational allergen in a proportion of bakers.

  4. Substituting Wheat Flour with Banana Skin Flour from Mixture Various Skin Types of Banana on Making Donuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renny Futeri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forest plants is a very rich source of chemical compounds or bioactive efficacious . Many of the compounds potential as a source of raw materials in food processing . One is the banana plant , West Sumatra Padang and Bukittinggi is one area in Indonesia with banana . Generally people in West Sumatra just consume or eat the fruit and throw banana skin just because it is considered as waste ( waste banana peel . When the banana peel waste is left alone so do not rule out the possibility for the accumulation of garbage or waste banana peels , especially in the West Sumatra city of Padang and sekitarnya.Salah one solution that can be done is to harness and cultivate the banana peel waste into a material more useful for example in the manufacture of foodstuffs.Banana peel flour with all the treatments can produce flour banana peel . However, the manufacture of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour of soaking to get the best flour . Having obtained done banana peel flour donut -making flour substitute banana peel . The use of banana peel flour with different concentrations turned out to affect the organoleptic properties of the donut . Of hedonic organoleptic test , the results of the average value of the ratio between wheat flour with flour banana skin that gives the best results for color , aroma , and flavor that is a donut with banana peel flour ratio of 0 % to 100 % wheat flour and donuts with banana peel flour ratio 10 % with 90 % wheat flour , but the texture will be best results are donuts of banana peels can be made by substituting wheat flour with flour banana skin at 10 %. Carbohydrate content of flour banana skin with the use of sodium metabisulfite 1% at 1 hour soaking of 16.60 grams.

  5. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND THE ENERGETIC VALUE OF WHEAT FLOUR SUBSTITUTED BY DIFFERENT SHARES OF WHITE AND BROWN RICE FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce dough with a lower gluten content, more enriched with rice components and satisfactory rheological properties, the rheological properties, energetic value and cake baking properties of wheat and white or brown rice flour in shares from 3 to 30% (w/w were investigated in this paper. The water absorption in wheat-rice flour mixtures was lower and decreased to 53.5% and 54.0% along with the increase of the white and the brown rice flour share, respectively, than in wheat flour, where it was 58.8%. In the dough made from rice flour, a gluten network had thinner filaments, about 2 and 1 μm in width for white and brown rice flour, respectively, compared to those in the dough from wheat flour only, where it was about 7 μm. The dough from rice flour had almost twice higher gelatinization maximum than the gelatinization maximum of the wheat flour only. The energetic values of the dough from rice flour were smaller than the energetic value of the wheat flour, for only 1.32%. Based on Cluster analysis, the white or brown rice flour share of 20% was pointed out.

  6. Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Macey A. Mahawan; Ma. Francia N. Tenorio; Jaycel A. Gomez; Rosenda A. Bronce

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on the Characterization of Flour from Avocado Seed Kernel. Based on the findings of the study the percentages of crude protein, crude fiber, crude fat, total carbohydrates, ash and moisture were 7.75, 4.91, 0.71, 74.65, 2.83 and 14.05 respectively. On the other hand the falling number was 495 seconds while gluten was below the detection limit of the method used. Moreover, the sensory evaluation in terms of color, texture and aroma in 0% proportion of Avocado seed flour was m...

  7. Different modalities of exercise to reduce visceral fat mass and cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: the RESOLVE randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frédéric; Lac, Gérard; Lesourd, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Walther, Guillaume; Vinet, Agnès; Sapin, Vincent; Verney, Julien; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Duclos, Martine; Obert, Philippe; Courteix, Daniel

    2013-10-09

    Opinions differ over the exercise modalities that best limit cardiovascular risk (CVR) resulting from visceral obesity in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). As little is known about the combined effects of resistance and endurance training at high volumes under sound nutritional conditions, we aimed to analyze the impact of various intensities of physical activity on visceral fat and CVR in individuals with MetS. 100 participants, aged 50-70 years, underwent a diet restriction (protein intake 1.2g/kg/day) with a high exercise volume (15-20 h/week). They were randomized to three training groups: moderate-resistance-moderate-endurance (re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance (Re), or moderate-resistance-high-endurance (rE). A one-year at-home follow-up (M12) commenced with a three-week residential program (Day 0 to Day 21). We measured the change in visceral fat and body composition by DXA, MetS parameters, fitness, the Framingham score and carotid-intima-media-thickness. 78 participants completed the program. At D21, visceral fat loss was highest in Re (-18%, p-13.0% (re) at M12 (p<.001). CVR, MetS parameters and fitness improved in all groups. Visceral fat loss correlated with changes in MetS parameters. Increased intensity in high volume training is efficient in improving visceral fat loss and carotid-intima-media-thickness, and is realistic in community dwelling, moderately obese individuals. High-intensity-resistance training induced a faster visceral fat loss, and thus the potential of resistance training should not be undervalued (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00917917). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MASTERPLAN: study of the role of nurse practitioners in a multifactorial intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zuilen, Arjan D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Bots, Michiel L; Van Blankestijn, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Usually nephrologists are primarily responsible for the care of CKD patients. However, in many cases treatment goals, as formulated in guidelines, are not met. The addition of a nurse practitioner might improve the quality of care. The Multifactorial Approach and Superior Treatment Efficacy in Renal Patients with the Aid of Nurse Practitioners (MASTERPLAN) study is a randomized controlled multicenter trial, aimed at investigating whether a multifactorial approach in patients with moderate to severe CKD (stage 3 and 4) to achieving treatment goals using both a polydrug strategy and lifestyle treatment either with or without the addition of a nurse practitioner will reduce cardiovascular risk and slow the decline of kidney function. Patients (n=793) have been randomized to nurse care or physician care. In the nurse-care arm of the study, nurse practitioners use flowcharts to address risk factors requiring drug and/or lifestyle modification. They have been trained to coach patients by motivational interviewing with the aim of improving patient self-management. At baseline, both treatment groups show equal distributions with regard to key variables in the study. Moreover, in only 1 patient were all risk factors within the limits as defined in various guidelines, which underscores the relevance of our initiative.

  9. Reduced Cardiovascular Capacity and Resting Metabolic Rate in Men with Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation: A Comprehensive Cross-Sectional Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A. Wall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate if androgen deprivation therapy exposure is associated with additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic treatment-related toxicities. Methods. One hundred and seven men (42–89 years with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy completed a maximal graded objective exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, assessments for resting metabolic rate, body composition, blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and blood biomarker analysis. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to investigate the potential impact of therapy exposure with participants stratified into two groups according to duration of androgen deprivation therapy (<3 months and ≥3 months. Results. Maximal oxygen uptake (26.1 ± 6.0 mL/kg/min versus 23.2 ± 5.8 mL/kg/min, p=0.020 and resting metabolic rate (1795 ± 256 kcal/d versus 1647 ± 236 kcal/d, p=0.005 were significantly higher in those with shorter exposure to androgen deprivation. There were no differences between groups for peripheral and central blood pressure, arterial stiffness, or metabolic profile. Conclusion. Three months or longer exposure to androgen deprivation therapy was associated with reduced cardiorespiratory capacity and resting metabolic rate, but not in a range of blood biomarkers. These findings suggest that prolonged exposure to androgen deprivation therapy is associated with negative alterations in cardiovascular outcomes. Trial registry is: ACTRN12609000200280.

  10. Effects of soybean flour on the pancreas of rats.

    OpenAIRE

    McGuinness, E E; Morgan, R. G.; Wormsley, K G

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the growth-promoting and carcinogenic effects of feeding raw soya flour to rats. If the raw soya flour-containing diets are fed for more than a year, about 10% of the animals develop pancreatic cancer. In addition, feeding raw soya flour markedly potentiates the action of even subthreshold amounts of pancreatic carcinogens. The raw soya flour therefore acts as a potent promoter, as well as a weak carcinogen. In view of this promotion, the rat fed raw soya flour is a sensitive...

  11. Study the effect of non-traditional type of flour on the quality of pasta products made of soft wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Malyutina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasta products are very popular among different population groups. Therefore they are promising objects for their enrichment with functional ingredients. As the enriching raw materials for the manufacture of pasta products spelt wheat flour was used. Spelt is characterized by a high content complete protein, which is composed of essential amino acids. Spelt flour exceeds the wheat one greatly in the content of unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, iron, B vitamins. The effect of different doses of spelt flour on the properties of pasta dough, semifinished and finished products was studied. Short-cut macaroni products such as vermicelli were produced on a laboratory pasta press of the type AML-2. Soft type of dough, in which the mass fraction of moisture of all samples was 32.5%, was adopted in the work due to the design of the laboratory pasta press. An increasing number of wet gluten, washed from pasta dough samples with the addition of flour from spelt due to further introduced protein was defined. The quality of all of the gluten samples was characterized as good and elastic. Increased hydration of gluten ability and reducing of the critical moisture values upon drying at introduction of 20% spelt flour was found. The low temperature mode for convective drying of pasta semi-finished products with the proposed flour additive was recommended because of its high content of active enzymes that may cause browning of products during drying. Finished products had solid flat color with a touch of milk, without dark inclusions and traces of underkneading. Boiling properties of the samples of flour from spelt were characterized as good, all the samples retained their form at 100%, the rate of dry matter loss during cooking was maintained within the regulatory documentation requirements. The studies proved the feasibility of grain spelt flour application in manufacturing of pasta products.

  12. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  13. Reduction of phytate content in unfermented whole grain wheat flour dough using permeabilized phytase active Candida versatilis mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Sadanandan*

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available High phytic acid (PA content in whole wheat flour products reduces the bioavailability of nutrients, especially dietary minerals. Monogastric animals cannot breakdown PA, an organophosphorus compound as they do not produce the enzyme phytase. Hence phytate gets excreted from the system leading to phosphorus deficiency and accumulates in the environment. Accumulation of PA also causes serious soil and water pollution during animal husbandry. In non-fermented food products the benefit of activation of innate grain phytases or microbial phytases cannot be exploited. In the present study the use of freeze-thaw permeabilized phytase active mutant yeast cells to reduce PA content in unfermented foods has been successfully tested.  Candida versatilis mutants, UVY 505 and EMY 505 used in this process were able to bring about phytate reduction of 24.32 to 45%. The substantial but not complete removal of PA here also helps to derive the cardiovascular and other health benefits of PA acknowledged of late. The method developed is simple, rapid, chemical free, nontoxic, economical and ideal for food applications.

  14. Development of Wet Noodles Based on Cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Z. Abidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is one of Indonesia’s original commodities and contains good nutrition and has high productivity and a relatively low price. Cassava flour has a high potential as a substitute for imported wheat flour that is widely used in noodle production. The main purpose of this research was to develop wet noodles from cassava flour that can compete with wet noodles from wheat flour. The research consisted of experiments with several variations of composition and production method for producing cassava flour-based wet noodles. The best result was then examined for its nutritional value, economical value, and market response, and also a comparison was made between the prepared wet noodles and the standard noodles made from wheat flour. The analysis was based on five characteristics: taste, texture, chewiness, aroma, and appearance. Relations between these characteristics with composition, materials used, and methods applied are discussed. The developed cassava flour-based wet noodle meets physical, nutritional, and economical standards. Raw materials of the noodle were cassava flour and a wheat flour composite with a 5:1 ratio, egg, gluten, soda-ash, water, and vegetable oil, while the process was completed in multiple stages. Market response showed that the cassava flour-based wet noodles were 80% similar to wheat-flour noodles.

  15. Use of Carob Flour in the Production of Tarhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herken Emine Nur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of carob flour incorporation on some physical, chemical, technological, sensory and functional properties of tarhana was investigated. Carob flour was replaced with wheat flour at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels in tarhana dough. Dietary fibre, raw fibre, ash, Ca, K, Cu, total phenolic compound contents and total antioxidant capacity of dry tarhana samples as well as the acidity values during fermentation of the wet tarhana samples increased with carob flour substitution. Samples with supplementation had lower lightness and higher Hunter a and b values. Carob flour addition decreased the viscosity and yield stress of tarhana soup samples. The results showed that carob flour addition affected all the parameters measured to various extents including sensory properties. Overall acceptability scores were most highly correlated with taste. According to the sensory analysis results, carob flour can be used successfully up to the amount of 15%.

  16. Impact of Quince Flour on Gluten-free Muffins Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain gluten free muffins, with increased nutritional and sensorial value by adding quince flour into a composite flour. To optimize the recipe, four experimental variants using rice, soy, quince flours and starch in different proportions have been proposed. Quince is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, polyphenolic compounds and fibres. The quince flour addition led to muffins with increased content in minerals and very good sensorial properties in terms of taste, flavour, texture and general acceptance. It could be concluded that quince flour is a suitable source for obtaining gluten free muffins. Quince flour addition in aglutenic muffin composite flour up to 10% did not affect negatively their phisico-chemical and sensorial  properties.

  17. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  18. Low dose and short-term therapy of tibolone reduces the cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Bi-lu; Cheng Jing; Ye Lian

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of low dose tibolone short-term therapy on clinic, endocrine and markers of cardiovascular disease in healthy postmenopausal women.Methods: A prospective study involved a total of 42 eligible postmenopausal women. 22 cases as group A and 20 cases as group B. Complete baseline work-up including Kupperman score,body mass index (BMI), gonadotropin (FSH, LH), estrogen (E2), testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), high-sensitivity C-response protein (hs-CRP), nitrogen oxide (NO)and fasting lipid, glucose(FPG), insulin(FINS) were performed in all subjects. Postmenopausal women in group A were treated with 1.25 mg tibolone daily. Women in group B were treated with 0. 625 mg tibolone daily. Women both in group A and group B were given calcium 600 mg with vitamin D 125IU per day. At the end of the 12-weeks therapy, subjects were re-evaluated and above parameters were measured.Results:No significant differences between group A and group B were found at baseline.Twenty-eight cases (fourteen cases in each group) completed the study. Kupperman score decreased from (22.1±8.0) and (25.4±7.5) to (7.7±4.5) and (5.2±4.5) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 decreased from (95.8±32.4)μg/L and (102.9±42.6)μg/L to (72.2±39.6)μg/L and (79.9±30. 1) μg/L significantly in group A and group B respectively after treatment. In group A, Blood pressure decreased significantly from (120 ± 10)/(83 ± 6) mmHg to (110±14)/(77± 9) mmHg (P<0.05), testosterone increased significantly from (0. 6 ±0. 4)nmol/L to (1.3 ± 1.1) nmol/L (P<0. 05), free testosterone increased from (0. 001 ±0. 002)nmol/L to (0. 003±0. 003) nmol/L significantly (P<0.01), SHBG decreased from (7.6±4. 9)nmol/L to (4. 3±2.9) nmol/L significantly (P<0.05), total cholesterol decreased from (5.4±0. 8) mmol/L to (5.0±0.8) mmol/L significantly (P<0.01), Apo

  19. Maize Porridge Enriched with a Micronutrient Powder Containing Low-Dose Iron as NaFeEDTA but Not Amaranth Grain Flour Reduces Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kenyan Preschool Children1-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catherine W Macharia-Mutie; Diego Moretti; Natalie Van den Briel; Agnes M Omusundi; Alice M Mwangi; Frans J Kok; Michael B Zimmermann; Inge D Brouwer

    2012-01-01

    ...) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children...

  20. Ionizing radiation effect on different types of flours used in bakery technology; Efeito da radiacao ionizante em diferentes tipos de farinhas utilizadas em tecnologia de panificacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Christian Alexandre Heinz Melsheimer

    2011-07-01

    In this work, an evaluation of the changes caused by ionizing radiation in different types and quantities of products rich in starch (wheat flour, cassava, rye, whole wheat, green banana pulp and maize) on rheological, technological, physical and texture characteristics was studied. The samples were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source with doses up to 10kGy, and dose rate about 2kGy/h. It was studied the force and the extensibility of strong and weak wheat flours and the rheological behavior was observed for one, five and thirty days after irradiation. The technological characteristic studied for up to 1 month after irradiation, was the enzymatic activity of the irradiated, weak and strong flours. The physical characteristics: height, weight and moisture loss and texture of loaves made with a partial replacement (30%) of wheat flour by different irradiated flours was established. The results showed that with the increase of radiation dose there was an increase of enzymatic activity, especially for higher doses (9kGy). These results corroborate for the understanding that there would be no need of addition of enzymatic improvers for the bread confection. The height, weight, and loss of moisture from the products developed with different substitutions of flours used in the formulations, showed different behaviors. With an increasing of the radiation dose applied, there was an increase in the height of the loaves, as well as a reduced loss of moisture on the products developed with substitution of 30% of the wheat flour with irradiated wheat flour and pulp of green banana flour. From a technological standpoint, the enzymatic activity was not adversely affected by radiation. Considering the characteristics studied, the dose of 9kGy would be recommended seeking the production of loaves. Although the irradiation process is generally applied in the preservation of hygienic quality of food products, its use on different kinds of flours used in bread production may induce some

  1. The isolation and identification of Pantoea dispersa strain JFS as a non-pathogenic surrogate for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 42 in flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, James; Dunn, Michael; Pike, Oscar; Robison, Richard; Steele, Frost

    2016-02-16

    Salmonella is a common pathogen which has been the cause of foodborne illness outbreaks implicating a variety of commodities, including low-moisture foods such as flour. Salmonella costs more than any other pathogen in the United States in terms of health care expenses and time of lost work. Heat treatment can be used to reduce Salmonella and other pathogens in flour to safe levels. However, in low-moisture foods, process times must be increased to achieve adequate lethality, possibly resulting in changes in the flour's functionality such as changes in the gluten quality, vitamin content, and the level of starch gelatinization. There is a need to determine the minimal heat treatment required to achieve desired lethality in flour and other low-moisture foods, with the goal of retaining the flour's functionality. Currently there is no published data about a nonpathogenic bacterial surrogate for Salmonella in flour. In this study, a surrogate, which closely matches the thermal death rate of Salmonella in flour, has been isolated. The surrogate was identified following an evaluation of thermal death curves of ten different strains of bacteria isolated from heat-treated flour and two nonpathogenic surrogates used in other commodities. Flour samples were inoculated with Salmonella or one of the twelve bacterial isolates, and then subjected to heat (70, 75, and 80 °C) for 12-60 min. The heat tolerance for each organism was determined by plating out at least four different time points for each temperature and comparing the death curve to those from Salmonella. The death curve from Pantoea dispersa was not statistically different (p<0.05) than the death curve of Salmonella. This strain of P. dispersa (strain JFS) can be used as a conservative, slightly more heat resistant, surrogate for Salmonella. It can be used to verify the combination of heat and time necessary to kill Salmonella in flour using a commercial heat-treatment process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Evaluation of replacing wheat flour with chia flour (Salvia hispanica L. in pasta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Rodrigues Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chia (Salvia hispanica L. has become increasingly more prevalent in the Brazilian diet and has triggered the interests of many researchers due to its functional properties and associated health benefits. The objective of this study was to develop pasta with different percentages of chia flour in lieu of wheat flour, and to evaluate the impact of chia on the nutritional, technological, and sensory properties of pasta. Pastas were prepared by replacing 7.5% (T1, 15% (T2, and 30% (T3 of wheat flour with chia flour relative to the control formulation (C. The quality of the pastas were evaluated through cooking tests (increase in weight and volume, cooking time, and loss of solids in the cooking water, chemical composition (moisture, fat, fiber, protein, ash, and carbohydrates, and color, using a Minolta colorimeter and sensory analysis by means of acceptance testing. Pasta made with chia flour had higher nutritional value and superior technological characteristics than did the control. Sensory analysis results showed that pasta with 7.5% chia flour had higher rates of acceptability in terms of the flavor, while the control pasta prevailed in terms of color and texture.

  3. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR) [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour)

    OpenAIRE

    Anni Faridah*; Simon Bambang Widjanarko

    2014-01-01

    Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf) substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour) to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie ...

  4. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  5. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... riboflavin, 24 milligrams of niacin, 0.7 milligrams of folic acid, and 20 milligrams of iron. (b) It may... calcium or wheat germ is excluded in calculating ash content. (f) All ingredients from which the food is... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched flour. 137.165 Section 137.165 Food...

  6. Multigrain bread processing with extruded flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Crosa Balestra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect in bread quality of a new bread making process and two replacement levels (20%, 36% of refined wheat flour by extrusion precooked prepared based on combination of oats, soybeans and wheat bran was studied. Composite flour was characterized according to its functional properties (water absorption index, grain size and nutritional properties (protein, total fiber, soluble fiber, ash, fat. The volume, whiteness index, rheological measurements (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness of the bread were monitored. No significant changes were recorded in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread according to the level of substitution of composite flour; bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume bread with 20% substitution. The process conditions caused greatest impact on the quality of bread. The new process resulted in a 37% increase in volume, 6% elasticity, 15% of cohesiveness and 44% decrease in hardness and 34% in chewiness, compared to the traditional process. This trend continued in the four days following the date of processing. The substitution level of composite flour did not cause significant changes in hardness, elasticity and chewiness of bread, but changes were observed in cohesiveness and volume. Bread with 36% substitution was 7% less cohesive, with 27% less volume than the 20% substitution.

  7. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  8. Stability of cassava flour-based food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Caroline da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of Brazilian cassava has been reduced due to a lack of adjustment to the modern lifestyle. To reverse this trend, new products could be developed specifically targeted to high-value niche markets. Cereal bars stand out as fast food high in nutritional value. A bar formula mimicking cereal bars was prepared using a mixture of Brazilian cassava flour, hydrogenated vegetable fat, dried bananas, ground cashew nuts, and glucose syrup. After being pressed, the bars were dried for 1 hour at 65 °C, packaged in films, and stored under ambient conditions. Its stability was continuously monitored for 210 days in order to ensure its safety and enable its introduction to the market. Texture loss was observed in the packed bars after 90 days of storage, but the sensory characteristics allowed the testers to perceive this tendency after only 30 days of storage. However, chemical, physical, and microbial analyses confirmed that the bars were safe for consumption for 180 days. The results showed that a 45 g cassava flour-based bar enriched with nuts and dried fruits can meet 6% of the recommended daily fiber intake with a caloric value between that of the common cereal bar and that of an energy bar. Adapting the formula with ingredients (fruits, nuts from different regions of Brazil may add value to this traditional product as a fast food.

  9. Creep Behaviour of Wood Flour/Poly(vinyl chloride) Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Mingyin; XUE Ping; ZHAO Yongsheng; WANG Kejian

    2009-01-01

    The experimental creep data were focused on wood-flour(WF)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC)composites with the variations in additive concentrations of wood flour,silane coupling agent, organomodified montmorillonite(OMMT)and nano-cacium carbonate(nano-CaCO_3).Their effects were analyzed using the Four-element Burger Model incorporating microscopic mechanisms.Total creep strain was low with increasing WF while elastic strain was high and plastic flow strain was low in modeling.Modification of WF with silane was beneficial to creep resistance,so did adding low ratio of OMMT(1.5 wt%)and nano-CaCO_3 in composites.Thus,it was effective in reducing creep either by stiffening the PVC matrix using rigid nano-particles or by improving their adhesion with resin.However,superfluous quantity of any additament did not benefit the improvement owing to either earlier destruction of their agglomerates or stress-concentrated cracks in the over-incrassated interface.

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk for Patients with Bipolar Disorder: the Self-Management Addressing Heart Risk Trial (SMAHRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; Lai, Zongshan; Post, Edward P.; Schumacher, Karen; Nord, Kristina M.; Bramlet, Margretta; Chermack, Stephen; Bialy, David; Bauer, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Persons with bipolar disorder experience a disproportionate burden of medical conditions, notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to impaired functioning and premature mortality. The study objective was to determine whether the Life Goals Collaborative Care (LGCC) intervention compared to enhanced usual care, reduced CVD risk factors and improved physical and mental health outcomes in VA patients with bipolar disorder. Method Patients with ICD-9 diagnosis of bipolar disorder and >=1 CVD risk factor (n=118) enrolled in the Self-Management Addressing Heart Risk Trial conducted April 2008–May 2010, were randomized to LGCC (N=58) or enhanced usual care (N=60). LGCC included four weekly self-management sessions followed by tailored contacts combining health behavior change strategies, medical care management, registry tracking, and provider guideline support. Enhanced usual care included quarterly wellness newsletters sent over a 12-month period in addition to standard treatment. Results Out of the 180 eligible patients identified for study participation, 134 were enrolled (74%) and 118 completed outcomes assessments (mean age = 53, 17% female, 5% African American). Mixed effects analyses comparing changes in 24-month outcomes among patients in LGCC (N=57) versus enhanced usual care (N=59) groups revealed that patients receiving LGCC had reduced systolic (Beta=−3.1, P=.04) and diastolic blood pressure (Beta=−2.1, P=.04) as well as reduced manic symptoms (Beta=−23.9, P=.01). LGCC had no significant impact on other primary outcomes (total cholesterol, physical health-related quality of life). Conclusions LGCC compared to enhanced usual care may lead to reduced CVD risk factors, notably through decreased blood pressure, as well as reduced manic symptoms. PMID:23945460

  11. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  12. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  13. Reduced radiation dose and improved image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography by automated attenuation-based tube voltage selection: intra-individual comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krazinski, Aleksander W.; Silverman, Justin R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Meinel, Felix G.; Geyer, Lucas L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Canstein, Christian [Siemens Healthcare, CT Division, Malvern, PA (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of automated tube voltage selection on radiation dose and image quality at cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA). We retrospectively analysed paired studies in 72 patients (41 male, 60.5 ± 16.5 years), who had undergone CTA acquisitions of the heart or aorta both before and after the implementation of an automated x-ray tube voltage selection algorithm (ATVS). All other parameters were kept identical between the two acquisitions. Subjective image quality (IQ) was rated and objective IQ was measured by image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM). Image quality parameters and effective dose were compared between acquisitions. Overall subjective image quality improved with the percentage of cases scored as adequate or higher increasing from 79 % to 92 % after implementation of ATVS (P = 0.03). SNR (14.1 ± 5.9, 15.7 ± 6.1, P = 0.009), CNR (11.6 ± 5.3, 13.2 ± 5.6, P = 0.011), and FOM (19.9 ± 23.3, 43.8 ± 51.1, P < 0.001) were significantly higher after implementation of ATVS. Mean image noise (24.1 ± 8.4 HU, 22.7 ± 7.1 HU, P = 0.048) and mean effective dose (10.6 ± 5.9 mSv, 8.8 ± 5.0 mSv, P = 0.003) were significantly lower after implementation of ATVS. Automated tube voltage selection can operator-independently optimize cardiovascular CTA image acquisition parameters with improved image quality at reduced dose. (orig.)

  14. Reduced cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics during sustained affective stimulation in young women with chronic low blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Nicola; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Covassin, Naima; Gallicchio, Germano; Stegagno, Luciano; Sarlo, Michela

    2015-05-01

    Although low blood pressure has been associated with lower affect and higher depressive symptoms in the elderly, the presence of possible impairment in emotional reactivity in chronic hypotensive individuals in early adulthood remains largely unexplored. Using a combination of transcranial Doppler sonography, beat-to-beat blood pressure recording and impedance cardiography we assessed central and peripheral hemodynamic changes in 15 undergraduate women with chronic hypotension (Age: 23.9 ± 2.7 years) and 15 normotensive controls (Age: 23.7 ± 3.1 years) during sustained exposure to pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures. Overall, systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in normotensives and decreased in hypotensives during picture viewing as compared to baseline. Also, compared to normotensives, in hypotensives mean cerebral blood flow velocity increased to a lesser extent during the viewing of pleasant pictures and the magnitude of this increase was negatively associated with subjective emotional arousal. In addition, in hypotensives screening SBP was positively associated with valence rating of pleasant contents. These findings indicate a close association between chronic low blood pressure and reduced processing of pleasant stimuli in young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Condensed Tannin Profile on Wheat Flour Dough Rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Audrey L; Castell-Perez, M Elena; Bean, Scott R; Adrianos, Sherry L; Awika, Joseph M

    2016-10-05

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) cross-link proteins and could expand wheat gluten functionality; however, how the PA MW or gluten profile affect these interactions is unknown. Effect of PA MW profile (sorghum versus grape seed PA) on dough rheology of high versus low insoluble polymeric protein (IPP) wheat flour was evaluated using mixograph, large (TA.XT2i) and small (HAAKE Rheostress 6000) deformation rheometry. Sorghum PA (93% polymeric) more effectively (p dough elasticity by 82%, and peak angle by 17° versus control. Grape seed PA increased IPP by 75% and elasticity by 36%, but reduced peak angle by 15°, indicating reduced mixing tolerance. Sorghum PA, but not grape seed PA, increased (p dough. Polymeric PA more effectively strengthened gluten than oligomeric PA, likely via more efficient protein cross-linking to overcome strong antioxidant effect of PA. High MW PA may be useful natural gluten strengtheners for diverse applications.

  16. Maize porridge enriched with a micronutrient powder containing low-dose iron as NaFeEDTA but not amaranth grain flour reduces anemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Moretti, Diego; Van den Briel, Natalie; Omusundi, Agnes M; Mwangi, Alice M; Kok, Frans J; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children. In a 16-wk intervention trial, children (n = 279; 12-59 mo) were randomly assigned to: unrefined maize porridge (control; 4.1 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 5:1); unrefined maize (30%) and amaranth grain (70%) porridge (amaranth group; 23 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 3:1); or unrefined maize porridge with MNP (MNP group; 6.6 mg iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 2.6:1; 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA). Primary outcomes were anemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control. At baseline, 38% were anemic and 30% iron deficient. Consumption of MNP reduced the prevalence of anemia [-46% (95% CI: -67, -12)], iron deficiency [-70% (95% CI: -89, -16)], and IDA [-75% (95% CI: -92, -20)]. The soluble transferrin receptor [-10% (95% CI: -16, -4)] concentration was lower, whereas the hemoglobin (Hb) [2.7 g/L (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1)] and plasma ferritin [40% (95% CI: 10, 95)] concentrations increased in the MNP group. There was no significant change in Hb or iron status in the amaranth group. Consumption of maize porridge fortified with low-dose, highly bioavailable iron MNP can reduce the prevalence of IDA in preschool children. In contrast, fortification with amaranth grain did not improve iron status despite a large increase in iron intake, likely due to high ratio of phytic acid:iron in the meal.

  17. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Ranomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aileen W K; Sit, Janet W H; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y P; Lee, Diana T F; Wong, Eliza M L; Fung, Lawrence C W

    2016-07-05

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors.

  18. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Aileen W. K.; Sit, Janet W. H.; Chair, Sek Ying; Leung, Doris Y. P.; Lee, Diana T. F.; Wong, Eliza M. L.; Fung, Lawrence C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c); body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. PMID:27399735

  19. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Tai Chi versus Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen W. K. Chan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is one of the major modifiable lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This protocol aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tai Chi versus brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors. This is a randomized controlled trial with three arms, namely, Tai Chi group, walking group, and control group. The Tai Chi group will receive Tai Chi training, which consists of two 60-min sessions each week for three months, and self-practice for 30 min every day. The walking group will perform brisk walking for 30 min every day. The control group will receive their usual care. 246 subjects with CVD risk factors will be recruited from two outpatient clinics. The primary outcome is blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include fasting blood for lipid profile, sugar and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percentage; perceived stress level and quality of life. Data collections will be conducted at baseline, 3-month, 6-month and 9-month. Generalized estimating equations model will be used to compare the changes in outcomes across time between groups. It is expected that both the Tai Chi and walking groups could maintain better health and have improved quality of life, and that Tai Chi will be more effective than brisk walking in reducing CVD risk factors.

  20. Reducing the intensity and volume of interval training diminishes cardiovascular adaptation but not mitochondrial biogenesis in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J Colin; Simpson, Craig A; Jung, Mary E; Gurd, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if the adaptations to high intensity interval training (HIT) are mitigated when both intensity and training volume (i.e. exercise energy expenditure) are reduced. 19 overweight/obese, sedentary males (Age: 22.7±3.9 yrs, Body Mass Index: 31.4±2.6 kg/m(2), Waist Circumference: 106.5±6.6 cm) performed 9 sessions of interval training using a 1-min on, 1-min off protocol on a cycle ergometer over three weeks at either 70% (LO) or 100% (HI) peak work rate. Cytochrome oxidase I protein content, cytochrome oxidase IV protein content, and citrate synthase maximal activity all demonstrated similar increases between groups with a significant effect of training for each. β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity tended to increase with training but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α and silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 protein contents also increased significantly (p = 0.047), while AMP-activated protein kinase protein content decreased following the intervention (p = 0.019). VO2peak increased by 11.0±7.4% and 27.7±4.4% in the LO and HI groups respectively with significant effects of both training (ptraining and a significant difference in the improvement between groups. There were no differences in perceived enjoyment or self-efficacy between groups despite significantly lower affect scores during training in the HI group. While improvements in aerobic capacity and exercise performance were different between groups, changes in oxidative capacity were similar despite reductions in both training intensity and volume.

  1. Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Alehagen

    Full Text Available Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluate if mortality differed in subgroups differentiated by gender, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and functional class.Four-hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included from a rural municipality in Sweden. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results mortality was registered.Significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality could be seen in those on selenium and coenzyme Q10 intervention. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced cardiovascular mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.36-0.74; P = 0.0003. The reduced mortality could be seen to persist during the 10-year period. Subgroup analysis showed positive effects in both genders. An equally positive risk reduction could be seen in those with ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.27-0.97; P = 0.04, but also in the different functional classes.In a 10-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants given four years of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10, significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality was observed. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanism explaining the persistency remains to be elucidated. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  3. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  4. Reducing the intensity and volume of interval training diminishes cardiovascular adaptation but not mitochondrial biogenesis in overweight/obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Colin Boyd

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to determine if the adaptations to high intensity interval training (HIT are mitigated when both intensity and training volume (i.e. exercise energy expenditure are reduced. METHODS: 19 overweight/obese, sedentary males (Age: 22.7±3.9 yrs, Body Mass Index: 31.4±2.6 kg/m(2, Waist Circumference: 106.5±6.6 cm performed 9 sessions of interval training using a 1-min on, 1-min off protocol on a cycle ergometer over three weeks at either 70% (LO or 100% (HI peak work rate. RESULTS: Cytochrome oxidase I protein content, cytochrome oxidase IV protein content, and citrate synthase maximal activity all demonstrated similar increases between groups with a significant effect of training for each. β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity tended to increase with training but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α and silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 protein contents also increased significantly (p = 0.047, while AMP-activated protein kinase protein content decreased following the intervention (p = 0.019. VO2peak increased by 11.0±7.4% and 27.7±4.4% in the LO and HI groups respectively with significant effects of both training (p<0.001 and interaction (p = 0.027. Exercise performance improved by 8.6±7.6% in the LO group and 14.1±4.3% in the HI group with a significant effect of training and a significant difference in the improvement between groups. There were no differences in perceived enjoyment or self-efficacy between groups despite significantly lower affect scores during training in the HI group. CONCLUSIONS: While improvements in aerobic capacity and exercise performance were different between groups, changes in oxidative capacity were similar despite reductions in both training intensity and volume.

  5. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morreale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  6. Mechanical, Thermomechanical and Reprocessing Behavior of Green Composites from Biodegradable Polymer and Wood Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Marco; Liga, Antonio; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Ascione, Laura; Mantia, Francesco Paolo La

    2015-11-11

    The rising concerns in terms of environmental protection and the search for more versatile polymer-based materials have led to an increasing interest in the use of polymer composites filled with natural organic fillers (biodegradable and/or coming from renewable resources) as a replacement for traditional mineral inorganic fillers. At the same time, the recycling of polymers is still of fundamental importance in order to optimize the utilization of available resources, reducing the environmental impact related to the life cycle of polymer-based items. Green composites from biopolymer matrix and wood flour were prepared and the investigation focused on several issues, such as the effect of reprocessing on the matrix properties, wood flour loading effects on virgin and reprocessed biopolymer, and wood flour effects on material reprocessability. Tensile, Dynamic-mechanical thermal (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and creep tests were performed, pointing out that wood flour leads to an improvement of rigidity and creep resistance in comparison to the pristine polymer, without compromising other properties such as the tensile strength. The biopolymer also showed a good resistance to multiple reprocessing; the latter even allowed for improving some properties of the obtained green composites.

  7. Inventory Management Practices and Operational Performance of Flour Milling Firms in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikan Efiok John

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines inventory management practices of flour milling manufacturing firms and their effects on operational performance. Five flour milling manufacturing firms in Lagos were used for this study. Structured questionnaire was the major instrument for the collection of relevant primary data while descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was deployed to analyzing the data gathered. The results obtained showed that exception of the large manufacturing companies, most of the medium-sized flour milling firms adopts different inventory management strategies from the scientific and best practice models. Their inventory management strategies and policies were rather based on factors such as changing level of customer demand, prevailing industry practices, forecast estimates and guesses, and available production capacity. Findings also revealed significant differences between the effective management of inventory and optimal operating performance. For instance, while firms that adopt best practice inventory management approaches reported efficiency in capacity utilization, increased service level, and reduced lead time, others with different strategies had minimal utilization of material resources. There is need for flour manufacturing firms to implement scientific inventory management models to adequately handle material shortages, product stock outs situations, component pile up and their associated penalties.

  8. Effect of the storage time and temperature on phenolic compounds of sorghum grain and flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kênia Grasielle de; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Carlos, Lanamar de Almeida; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Menezes, Cícero Beserra de; Silva, Ernani Clarete da; Barros, Frederico

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature (4, 25 and 40°C) and time on the color and contents of 3-deoxyanthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenols and tannins of sorghum stored for 180days. Two genotypes SC319 (grain and flour) and TX430 (bran and flour) were analyzed. The SC319 flour showed luteolinidin and apigeninidin contents higher than the grain and the TX430 bran had the levels of all compounds higher than the flour. The storage temperature did not affect most of the analyzed variables. The content of most of the compounds reduced during the first 60days when they became stable. At day 180, the retention of the compounds in the genotypes SC319 and TX430 ranged from 56.1-77.9% and 67.3-80.1% (3-deoxyanthocyanins), 88.4-93.8% and 84.6-96.8% (total anthocyanins) and 86.7-86.8 and 89.4-100% (phenols) respectively. The retention of tannins ranged from 56.6 to 85.3%. The color of samples remained stable for 120days.

  9. Simulated Gastrointestinal pH Condition Improves Antioxidant Properties of Wheat and Rice Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. H. Khong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical cation (ABTS•+ scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, beta-carotene bleaching (BCB and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05 were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.

  10. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  11. Some physicochemical properties of flour from germinated sorghum grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhalifa, Abd Elmoneim O; Bernhardt, Rita

    2013-02-01

    A Sudanese sorghum cultivar (Fetarita) was germinated for 3 days. Stability and clarity of sorghum pastes, freeze-thaw stability, gel consistency, and swelling power were measured every 24 h. There is no substantial difference in stability and clarity between flour samples from germinated and ungerminated sorghum, but a different behavior was observed between samples stored at room temperature and at 4 °C. Cooked paste derived from germinated sorghum flour presented higher syneresis than that derived from ungerminated sorghum flour over the first three cycles but when the cycle number increased, both flours showed zero syneresis value. For the gel consistency the flours derived from germinated sorghum produced thinnest gels. The neutral and acid gel consistency increased when the germination time increased. Germination had not much effect on the swelling power of sorghum flour.

  12. L-CYSTEINE INFLUENCE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD FROM HIGH EXTRACTION FLOURS WITH NORMAL GLUTEN

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    Alexandru Stoica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing agents like L-cysteine are used in bread baking of strong flours, with short gluten to reduce mixing andfermentation time. The aim of this study is to determine if L-cysteine may be an improving agent for the quality of breadobtained from high extraction flours with normal gluten.The tested high extraction flour was analyzed by determination of several quality indicators such as wet gluten content,gluten deformation index, moisture, ash, Falling Number index and alveogram parameters of dough. The resultsindicate that flour has a normal gluten network, is “good” for bread making and has a normal α-amylase activity.After its addition to dough, L-cysteine improves the physical properties of bread made with high extraction flour. Theobserved increase for bread volume was maximum 10%, for porosity maximum 5,75% and for elasticity maximum2,58%, comparing with reference bread.The proposed solution can be assimilated into pan bread making technology.

  13. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multiple-Lifestyle Intervention for People Interested in Reducing their Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörenkämper, Julia; Reinwand, Dominique Alexandra; Wienert, Julian; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can improve the strength of behavior habits in people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption to date. Objective The study aim was to test an 8-week Web-based computer-tailored intervention designed to improve habit strength for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. In a randomized controlled design, self-reported changes in perceived habit strength, self-efficacy, and planning across different domains of physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable consumption were evaluated. Methods This study was a randomized controlled trial involving an intervention group (n=403) and a waiting control group (n=387). Web-based data collection was performed in Germany and the Netherlands during 2013-2015. The intervention content was based on the Health Action Process Approach and involved personalized feedback on lifestyle behaviors, which indicated whether participants complied with behavioral guidelines for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. There were three Web-based assessments: baseline (T0, N=790), a posttest 8 weeks after the baseline (T1, n=206), and a follow-up 3 months after the baseline (T2, n=121). Data analysis was conducted by analyzing variances and structural equation analysis. Results Significant group by time interactions revealed superior treatment effects for the intervention group, with substantially higher increases in self-reported habit strength for physical activity (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen’s d=0.37) and fruit and vegetable consumption (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen’s d=0.30) at posttest T1 for the intervention group. Mediation analyses yielded behavior-specific sequential mediator effects for T1 planning and T1 self-efficacy between the intervention and habit strength at follow-up T2 (fruit

  14. Effect of Microwave Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Maize Flour

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Relatively little work has been reported about flour changes during microwave irradiation. For this reason, maize flours were treated by microwave radiation at 400 W for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 min, and their microstructure and physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry and pasting properties) were analysed. Micrographs showed that maize flour treated by microwave radiation displayed less compacted particl...

  15. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Elwood, Peter; Hermansen, Kjeld; Hu, Frank B; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kok, Frans J; Krauss, Ronald M; Lecerf, Jean Michel; LeGrand, Philippe; Nestel, Paul; Risérus, Ulf; Sanders, Tom; Sinclair, Andrew; Stender, Steen; Tholstrup, Tine; Willett, Walter C

    2011-04-01

    Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of ≥2-3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical endpoints could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives.

  16. Timed Bromocriptine-QR Therapy Reduces Progression of Cardiovascular Disease and Dysglycemia in Subjects with Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Bindu Chamarthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients, including those in good glycemic control, have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Maintaining good glycemic control may reduce long-term CVD risk. However, other risk factors such as elevated vascular sympathetic tone and/or endothelial dysfunction may be stronger potentiators of CVD. This study evaluated the impact of bromocriptine-QR, a sympatholytic dopamine D2 receptor agonist, on progression of metabolic disease and CVD in T2DM subjects in good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤7.0%. Methods. 1834 subjects (1219 bromocriptine-QR; 615 placebo with baseline HbA1c ≤7.0% derived from the Cycloset Safety Trial (this trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00377676, a 12-month, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in T2DM, were evaluated. Treatment impact upon a prespecified composite CVD endpoint (first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina/congestive heart failure and the odds of losing glycemic control (HbA1c >7.0% after 52 weeks of therapy were determined. Results. Bromocriptine-QR reduced the CVD endpoint by 48% (intention-to-treat; HR: 0.52 [0.28−0.98] and 52% (on-treatment analysis; HR: 0.48 [0.24−0.95]. Bromocriptine-QR also reduced the odds of both losing glycemic control (OR: 0.63 (0.47−0.85, p=0.002 and requiring treatment intensification to maintain HbA1c ≤7.0% (OR: 0.46 (0.31−0.69, p=0.0002. Conclusions. Bromocriptine-QR therapy slowed the progression of CVD and metabolic disease in T2DM subjects in good glycemic control.

  17. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

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    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  18. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC), FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na2CO3 (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay. PMID:28335393

  19. Use of mustard flour to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef under nitrogen flushed packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, D; Han, J H; Holley, R A

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the glucosinolates naturally present in non-deheated mustard flour could serve as a source of allyl and other isothiocyanates in sufficient quantity to kill Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated in ground beef at three different levels, during refrigerated storage of the meat under nitrogen. Mustard flour was mixed at 5%, 10% or 20% (w/w) with freshly ground beef, then the beef was inoculated with a cocktail of five strains of E. coli O157:H7 at either 3, 6 or gas liquid chromatography. By 21 days, the levels present in treatments were not significantly different. After 21 days storage, there were 0.5, 3 and 5.4 log10 decreases in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 from the initial levels of 6 log10 cfu/g in meat containing 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When inoculated at 3 log10 cfu/g, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced to undetectable levels after 18, 12 and 3 days with 5%, 10% and 20% mustard flour, respectively. When immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was used for E. coli recovery following its inoculation at vacuum packages was unaffected by the addition of 5% mustard flour but some inhibition was found at higher concentrations. Sensory evaluation of the cooked ground beef showed that there were no significant differences in the acceptability of meat treated with 5 or 10% mustard flour. However, panelists could distinguish untreated controls from mustard treatments, but considered the mustard-treated meat to be acceptable. These results showed that it is possible to use mustard flour at levels of >5-10% to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 from fresh ground beef.

  20. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah,; Yusraini, Era

    2016-01-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours ...

  1. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  2. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  3. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

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    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  4. Niacin-a critical component to the management of atherosclerosis: contemporary management of dyslipidemia to prevent, reduce, or reverse atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Carol M; Doneen, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Niacin (nicotinic acid) is the most effective agent for raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and can improve the entire lipid panel in patients with dyslipidemia. Niacin-containing regimens are among the few treatments studied for dyslipidemia that have both elicited significant reductions in atherosclerotic progression (by angiography or imaging) and also significantly reduced (by approximately 90% vs control) the incidence of cardiovascular events in a single clinical trial. However, cutaneous flushing-an uncomfortable but typically transient adverse effect of niacin-often results in patient nonadherence with this potentially life-saving therapy. Effective counseling regarding the highly favorable benefit-risk ratio for niacin and management strategies such as careful dose escalation, follow-up monitoring, regimen adjustments, and the use of treatment adjuncts (eg, aspirin) can improve patient adherence with niacin therapy. Clinicians are uniquely positioned to provide such counseling to appropriate patients for niacin treatment and hence encourage wider use of this important and necessary cardioprotective medication.

  5. Moderate Weight Reduction in an Outpatient Obesity Intervention Program Significantly Reduces Insulin Resistance and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Grulich-Henn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metabolic risk factors like insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are frequently observed in severly obese children. We investigated the hypothesis that moderate weight reduction by a low-threshold intervention is already able to reduce insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children. Methods. A group of 58 severely obese children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years participating in a six-month-long outpatient program was studied before and after treatment. The program included behavioral treatment, dietary education and specific physical training. Metabolic parameters were measured in the fasting state, insulin resistance was evaluated in an oral glucose tolerance test. Results. Mean standard deviation score of the body mass index (SDS-BMI in the study group dropped significantly from +2.5 ± 0.5 to 2.3 ± 0.6 (P<0.0001 after participation in the program. A significant decrease was observed in HOMA (6.3 ± 4.2 versus 4.9 ± 2.4, P<0.03, and in peak insulin levels (232.7 ± 132.4 versus 179.2 ± 73.3 μU/mL, P<0.006. Significant reductions were also observed in mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that already moderate weight reduction is able to decrease insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in severely obese children and adolescents.

  6. Treatment with 17β-Estradiol Reduced Body Weight and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a High-Fat Diet-Induced Animal Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Huang, Chih-Yang; Jiang, Chong-He; Lin, Yueh-Min; Chung, Li-Chin; Shen, Chia-Yao; Pai, Peiying; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2017-03-14

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) play important roles in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Recently, these estrogen receptors were reconsidered as an important treatment target of obesity leading to CVD. In this study, 17β-estradiol (17β-E) replacement therapy applied to high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice and ovariectomized (OVX) rats were evaluated, and the protective effects against high-fat diet-induced obesity were assessed in C57B mouse hearts. The results showed that 17β-E treatment activated both ERα and ERβ, and ERβ levels increased in a dose-dependent manner in high-fat diet C57B mouse cardiomyocytes following 17β-E treatment. Notably, an almost 16% reduction in body weight was observed in the 17β-E-treated (12 μg/kg/day for 60 days) high-fat diet-induced obese C57B male mice. These results suggested that 17β-E supplements may reduce CVD risk due to obesity.

  7. Effect of yeast storage temperature and flour composition on fermentative activities of baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast is a set of living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It contains around 70-72% of water, 42-45% of proteins, around 40% of carbohydrates, around 7.5% of lipids (based on dry matter, and vitamin B-complex. On the basis of yeast cell analysis it can be concluded that yeast is a complex biological system which changes in time. The intensity of the changes depends on temperature. Yeast sample was stored at 4°C i 24°C for 12 days. During storage at 4°C, the content of total carbohydrates decreased from 48.81% to 37.50% (dry matter, whereas carbohydrate loss ranged from 40.81% to 29.28% at 24°C. The content of trehalose was 12.33% in the yeast sample stored at 4°C and 0.24% at 24°C. Loss of fermentative activity was 81.76% in the sample stored at 24°C for 12 days. The composition of five samples of 1st category flour was investigated. It was found that flours containing more reducing sugars and maltose enable higher fermentation activities. The flours with higher ash content (in the range 0.5-0.94% had higher contents of phytic acid. Higher ash and phytic contents in flour increased the yeast fermentative efficiency. In bakery industry, a range of ingredients has been applied to improve the product's quality such as surface active substances (emulsifiers, enzymes, sugars and fats. In the paper, the effect of some ingredients added to dough (margarine, saccharose, sodium chloride and malted barley on the yeast fermentative activity was studied. The mentioned ingredients were added to dough at different doses: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, flour basis. It was found that the investigated ingredients affected the fermentative activity of yeast and improved the bread quality.

  8. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  9. Evaluation of sorghum flour functionality and quality characteristics of gluten-free bread and cake as influenced by ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Kathryn; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi

    2015-12-01

    Commercially milled food-grade sorghum flour was subjected to ozone at the rate of 0.06 L/min for 15, 30, and 45 min. The pH of ozone-treated flour decreased as exposure time increased. The L* (lightness) values of sorghum flour significantly increased (p ozone exposure time increased. Peak viscosity significantly increased as time of ozonation increased from 0 to 45 min. Results showed that gluten-free cake volume significantly increased as ozonation time increased. Additionally, longer ozonation exposure times increased cells per slice area, lightness, and slice brightness values in gluten-free cakes while reducing crumb firmness. Despite improving lightness and slice brightness values, ozonation did not significantly increase the specific volume of gluten-free batter-based bread. While ozonation improved the volume and texture in cakes, it did not have the same positive effects on gluten-free bread. Bread made from ozonated sorghum flour had an open ragged structure with equivalent volume to the control flour. In both applications, the increased brightness and lightness values due to ozone exposure is recommended to increase the acceptability of sorghum products.

  10. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruet, Andréa Costa; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2012-05-04

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ(2) tests. We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as prednisolone, and no synergistic

  11. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruet Andréa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.; an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was

  12. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  13. Effect of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flour on the antioxidant potential, nutritional quality, and sensory characteristics of fortified durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carob flour addition from 1% to 5% (w/w) on phenolics content, antioxidant activity, nutritional quality, and sensory attributes of wheat pasta. An increase of about 2-folds, 18-folds and 3-folds in phenolics content, antiradical activity and reducing power for pasta fortified with 5% of carob flour was observed, respectively, compared to the control. Expected glycemic index (eGI) was increased proportionally to the substitution level and ranged between 72.2 and 83.9 for 1-5% of supplement, respectively. Furthermore, pasta fortification affected the in vitro bioaccessibility of nutrients. In case of 5% supplemented pasta, the digestibility of starch and protein decreased by about 9% compared to the control. The replacement of semolina with carob flour from 1% to 5% had no significant effect on pasta sensory attributes. In conclusion, carob flour seems to be a promising functional ingredient for pasta fortification.

  14. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  15. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white

  16. Mediterranean diet reduces the adverse effect of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism on cardiovascular risk factors and stroke incidence: a randomized controlled trial in a high-cardiovascular-risk population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) polymorphisms are strongly associated with type 2 diabetes, but controversially with plasma lipids and cardiovascular disease. Interactions of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on these associations are unknown. We investigated whether the TCF7L2-rs7903146 (C>T)...

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adding pharmacists to primary care teams to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, S H; Lier, D A; Majumdar, S R; Tsuyuki, R T; Lewanczuk, R Z; Spooner, R; Johnson, J A

    2015-07-01

    Adding pharmacists to primary care teams significantly improved blood pressure control and reduced predicted 10-year cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This pre-specified sub-study evaluated the economic implications of this cardiovascular risk reduction strategy. One-year outcomes and healthcare utilization data from the trial were used to determine cost-effectiveness from the public payer perspective. Costs were expressed in 2014 Canadian dollars and effectiveness was based on annualized risk of cardiovascular events derived from the UKPDS Risk Engine. The 123 evaluable trial patients included in this analysis had a mean age of 62 ( ± 11) years, 38% were men, and mean diabetes duration was 6 ( ± 7) years. Pharmacists provided 3.0 ( ± 1.9) hours of additional service to each intervention patient, which cost $226 ( ± $1143) per patient. The overall one-year per-patient costs for healthcare utilization were $190 lower in the intervention group compared with usual care [95% confidence interval (CI): -$1040, $668). Intervention patients had a significant 0.3% greater reduction in the annualized risk of a cardiovascular event (95% CI: 0.08%, 0.6%) compared with usual care. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the intervention dominated usual care in 66% of 10,000 bootstrap replications. At a societal willingness-to-pay of $4000 per 1% reduction in annual cardiovascular risk, the probability that the intervention was cost-effective compared with usual care reached 95%. A sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation to replace missing data produced similar results. Within a randomized trial, adding pharmacists to primary care teams was a cost-effective strategy for reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In most circumstances, this intervention may also be cost saving. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  18. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  19. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference.

  20. Sensitization to lupine flour : is it clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, N. W.; van Maaren, M. S.; Vlieg-Boersta, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.; de Groot, H.; van Wijk, R. Gerth

    2010-01-01

    Background Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. Objective The aim of our

  1. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  2. The effect of apricot kernel flour incorporation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... noodles were examined by adding apricot kernel flour (AKF) to the noodle formulation at the .... Moisture and protein content (N%x5.7) of wheat flour was deter- .... relatively low level of hydrophilic compounds (Manthey et.

  3. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  4. Fractionation of cottonseed flour for improving its adhesive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    As early as the 1950's, cottonseed flour (i. e. meal) was tested for use as wood adhesives. Recently, renewed interest exists in the use of plant proteins as wood adhesives, as these materials are renewable and biodegradable. In this research, we separated cottonseed flour into several fractions wit...

  5. KAJIAN FORMULASI BISKUIT JAGUNG DALAM RANGKA SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG TERIGU [Study on Corn Biscuit Formulation to Subtitute of wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gracia C.L1*

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the formulation of substitute by corn flour. The flour used roasted corn flour and unroasted corn flour. Results showed that biscuit’s made of 80 gr corn flour and 20 gr wheat flour were accepted by panelist’s and the best formulation was 80 gr corn flour, 20 gr wheat flour, 50 gr margarine, 50 gr sugar and 10 gr yellow egg both of two corn flour. Roasting treatment of corn flour significantly affected fat content, carbohydrate content and digestibility of protein of the biskuit.

  6. Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Sebastián

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Argentina representing 34.2% of deaths and 12.6% of potential years of life lost (PYLL. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of acute coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke and the cost-effectiveness of preventative population-based and clinical interventions. Methods An epidemiological model was built incorporating prevalence and distribution of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity, obtained from the Argentine Survey of Risk Factors dataset. Population Attributable Fraction (PAF of each risk factor was estimated using relative risks from international sources. Total fatal and non-fatal events, PYLL and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY were estimated. Costs of event were calculated from local utilization databases and expressed in international dollars (I$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER were estimated for six interventions: reducing salt in bread, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation, pharmacological therapy of high blood pressure, pharmacological therapy of high cholesterol, tobacco cessation therapy with bupropion, and a multidrug strategy for people with an estimated absolute risk > 20% in 10 years. Results An estimated total of 611,635 DALY was lost due to acute CHD and stroke for 2005. Modifiable risk factors explained 71.1% of DALY and more than 80% of events. Two interventions were cost-saving: lowering salt intake in the population through reducing salt in bread and multidrug therapy targeted to persons with an absolute risk above 20% in 10 years; three interventions had very acceptable ICERs: drug therapy for high blood pressure in hypertensive patients not yet undergoing treatment (I$ 2,908 per DALY saved, mass media campaign to promote tobacco cessation amongst smokers (I$ 3,186 per DALY saved, and lowering cholesterol with

  7. A simplified prevention bundle with dual hand hygiene audit reduces early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in cardiovascular surgery units: An interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kang-Cheng; Kou, Yu Ru; Lin, Fang-Chi; Wu, Chieh-Hung; Feng, Jia-Yih; Huang, Shiang-Fen; Shiung, Tao-Fen; Chung, Kwei-Chun; Tung, Yu-Hsiu; Yang, Kuang-Yao; Chang, Shi-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a simplified prevention bundle with alcohol-based, dual hand hygiene (HH) audit on the incidence of early-onset ventilation-associated pneumonia (VAP). This 3-year, quasi-experimental study with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted in two cardiovascular surgery intensive care units in a medical center. Unaware external HH audit (eHH) performed by non-unit-based observers was a routine task before and after bundle implementation. Based on the realistic ICU settings, we implemented a 3-component bundle, which included: a compulsory education program, a knowing internal HH audit (iHH) performed by unit-based observers, and a standardized oral care (OC) protocol with 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate. The study periods comprised 4 phases: 12-month pre-implementation phase 1 (eHH+/education-/iHH-/OC-), 3-month run-in phase 2 (eHH+/education+/iHH+/OC+), 15-month implementation phase 3 (eHH+/education+/iHH+/OC+), and 6-month post-implementation phase 4 (eHH+/education-/iHH+/OC-). A total of 2553 ventilator-days were observed. VAP incidences (events/1000 ventilator days) in phase 1-4 were 39.1, 40.5, 15.9, and 20.4, respectively. VAP was significantly reduced by 59% in phase 3 (vs. phase 1, incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.41, P = 0.002), but rebounded in phase 4. Moreover, VAP incidence was inversely correlated to compliance of OC (r2 = 0.531, P = 0.001) and eHH (r2 = 0.878, P audit provides better improvement in HH practice. Accordingly, we suggest dual HH audit and consistent bundle performance does matter in quality-of-care VAP prevention.

  8. Effect of enzymatic treatments on the rheological and oil-resisting properties of wheat flour-based frying batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new enzymatic approach was introduced to reduce the oil uptake of batter-coated fried foods. Cross-linking (transglutaminase) and cell wall-degrading (viscozyme) enzymes were incorporated into the formulation of wheat flour-based frying batters and their rheological/oil-resisting effects were eva...

  9. Nutritional characterisation and bioactive components of commercial carobs flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Alessandra; Turfani, Valeria; Narducci, Valentina; Azzini, Elena; Maiani, Giuseppe; Carcea, Marina

    2014-06-15

    Food industry is interested in the utilisation of legume flours for the improvement the nutritional quality of cereal based foods. In this context, this research aimed at investigating the beneficial properties of different commercial carob seed flours -Ceratonia siliqua L.-. In particular, we determined chemical parameters (protein, fat, ash, soluble and insoluble fibre) by standard AOAC methods, lignans (secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, pinoresinol) by HPLC methods, the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) by the Folin Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant properties by the FRAP assay. The carob germ flour and the raw carob seed flour reached the highest insoluble fibre, lignan and total polyphenols content and these results were matched by their antioxidant properties. Different carob flours showed a different distribution of the various lignans.

  10. Chilean Prosopis Mesocarp Flour: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Schmeda-Hirschmann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82–2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  11. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  12. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  13. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  14. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth) Hulls, Brans and Flours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hua; YUAN Ya; YANG Xiao-lan; TAO Shu-ying; MING Jian

    2013-01-01

    The extracts from hulls, brans and flours of Fagopyrum esculentum M?ench (FEM, three varieties) and Fagopyrum tartaricum L. Gaerth (FTG, seven varieties) were screened for free and bound phenolic content or total phenolic content (TPC), as well as 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Free phenolics were predominant in buckwheat hulls, brans and flours. FEM hulls extract exhibited the highest reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity with the average EC50 84.54μg mL-1 and IC50 11.54μg mL-1 respectively, FTG brans extract had the highest average TPC (24.87 mg GAE g-1 DW), and FEM flours extract showed the lowest TPC, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the correlations among TPC, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of all the samples were investigated. The rank correlation coefficient (rs) between reducing power and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat hulls, between TPC and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of buckwheat flours were 0.76 and 0.79, respectively (P<0.05). However, there is no significant correlation between the remaining indexes of hulls and flours, as well as the ten buckwheat brans. This result indicated that some non-phenolic compounds also contributed to the total antioxidant activity in hulls, brans and flours of buckwheats. This study demonstrated that buckwheat hulls and brans, rather than flours, are good source of antioxidants.

  15. The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological analysis on commercial functional Brazilian green banana flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Santos, Josefina S.; Silva Junior, Eneo A. da [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Balian, Simone C., E-mail: balian@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia

    2011-07-01

    In Brazil, although it is qualified as a major world producers, however, the production losses are high. Nevertheless, these losses can be reduced by processing the fruit 'unsuitable' for consumption into products based on green banana (pulp, rind and flour). The green banana flour shows enhanced nutrition value, with higher contents of mineral, dietary fiber, resistant starch, and total phenolics, for use in Brazilian irradiated ready - to eat foods, such as bread, macaroni, among others. Food irradiation has been identified as safe technology to reduce risk of foodborne illness as part of high-quality food production, processing, handling and preparation. Food irradiation utilizes a source of ionizing energy that passes through food to destroy harmful bacteria and other organisms. Often referred to as 'cold pasteurization', food irradiation offers negligible loss of nutrients or sensory qualities in food as it does not substantially raise the temperature of the food during processing. The object of this work was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological analyses of the: the number of mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliforms at 45 deg C, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp of the green banana flour, commercially found in the Brazilian market. The microbiological analyses were carried out in conformity with the methodologies described at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, according to the current legislation. Irradiation was performed in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 (AECL) source, with dose of 3kGy at IPEN/CNEN-SP. In samples of Brazilian green banana flour, irradiated at 3 kGy, the growth of all microorganisms (mesophiles, total coliforms at 35 deg C, coliform at 45 deg C and Staphylococcus coagulase positive) were reduced. As a result, the application of the irradiation technique may be recommended to enhance the food safety. (author)

  16. The CHANGE trial: no superiority of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual compared to treatment as usual alone in reducing risk of cardiovascular disease in adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Helene; Christian Brix Nørgaard, Hans; Birk, Merete; Karlsen, Mette; Storch Jakobsen, Ane; Pedersen, Kamilla; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Pisinger, Charlotta; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Life expectancy in patients with schizophrenia is reduced by 20 years for men and 15 years for women compared to the general population. About 60% of the excess mortality is due to physical illnesses, with cardiovascular disease being dominant. CHANGE was a randomized, parallel-group, superiority, multi-centre trial with blinded outcome assessment, testing the efficacy of an intervention aimed to improve cardiovascular risk profile and hereby potentially reduce mortality. A total of 428 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity were recruited and centrally randomized 1:1:1 to 12 months of lifestyle coaching plus care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=138), or care coordination plus treatment as usual (N=142), or treatment as usual alone (N=148). The primary outcome was 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease assessed post-treatment and standardized to age 60. At follow-up, the mean 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease was 8.4 ± 6.7% in the group receiving lifestyle coaching, 8.5 ± 7.5% in the care coordination group, and 8.0 ± 6.5% in the treatment as usual group (p=0.41). We found no intervention effects for any secondary or exploratory outcomes, including cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, weight, diet and smoking. In conclusion, the CHANGE trial did not support superiority of individual lifestyle coaching or care coordination compared to treatment as usual in reducing cardiovascular risk in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and abdominal obesity.

  17. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  18. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    1996-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four dif

  19. Quality of ω-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Chatli, Manish K; Biswas, Ashim K; Sahoo, Jhari

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional, processing and sensory characteristics of low-fat ω-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T1), 2% canola flour (T2), 3% linseed oil (T3), and 4% canola oil (T4) and to estimate their cost of production. The total fat and crude fiber content was increased (P flour. The emulsion stability and cooking yield was greater (P flours. The colour and appearance and flavour scores were lower (P flour than canola oil incorporated CMP. The texture scores were not influenced (P flour.

  20. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.

  1. Simulated gastrointestinal pH condition improves antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.

  2. Sensory analysis and chemical characterization of cereal enriched with grape peel and seed flour - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13176

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalany Menezes Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes a breakfast cereal with partial replacement of corn grits by the flour of grape seeds and peels from the residues of the wine industry. Residues (peels and seeds of grape varieties ‘Isabel’ and ‘Bordô’ were dried in an air circulation oven at 85°C for 6 hours to obtain the flour. Three formulations of breakfast extruded cereals were prepared with 10, 15 and 20% of grape flour to replace corn grits. The formulas were analyzed with regard to their phenolic compounds, fibers, instrumental texture and sensory evaluation so that the samples’ general acceptance could be verified. Breakfast cereals with higher phenolic content were those made with 20% of seed and peel flour; fibers rates were similar and the most accepted were those containing 15 and 20% residue flour. The use of residues from the wine industry is an alternative to reduce the risk of pollution by inadequate disposal. The flour produced in this study is rich in fibers and bioactive compounds and represents an alternative source of human food.  

  3. Hypolipidemic, antiobesity and cardioprotective effects of sardinelle meat flour and its hydrolysates in high-fat and fructose diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antiobesity, hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of fermented sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) produced with two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6). Wistar rats were fed during 10weeks a standard laboratory diet, a high caloric diet (HCD) and a HCD coupled with the oral administration of sardinelle meat flour (SMF) or FSPHs. HCD caused hyperlipidemia and increased body weight (BW). The daily oral administration of FSPHs or SMF reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) serum levels, and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless, FSPHs were found to be more efficient than SMF. FSPHs also lowered hepatic TC and TG content and decreased the pancreatic lipase activity. Further, the administration of FSPHs or SMF decreased the BW gain, the food intake and the relative epididymal adipose tissue weight. FSPHs exhibited a potent cardioprotective effect against heart attack, which was demonstrated by returning atherogenic indexes to their normal levels and the conservation of standard histological structure of the heart and aorta. The overall results indicate that FSPHs contained bioactive peptides which significantly attenuated hyperlipidemia, and might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rats fed HCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Deproteinase Effect of Hydrocolloid Flour Made of “Gembili Tuber” (Dioscorea esculenta L. on Chemical and Technical Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Herlina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloid flour extracted of gembili tuber studied in this research to know the chemical and technical functional properties. Hydrocolloid flour extracted directly with distilled water (HFC and hydrocolloid flour which has reduced protein (deproteinase by hydrolysis with 0.05% protease of Aspergillus oryzae (HFD. Compared to the chemical properties and technical functional properties covering proximate test, total sugars, solubility, power and emulsion stability, power and  foaming stability, water holding capacity (WHC, oil holding capacity (OHC, viscosity to changes in temperature and viscosity to changes in pH. The results showed that different test t-test (α = 0.05 moisture content, ash content and fat content between HFC and HFD not significant, while the levels of protein and carbohydrates are significant. Deproteinase the process of hydrocolloid  flour made of  gembili tuber with 0.05% protease enzyme use in the extraction able to lower protein content by 49.57% and increase of carbohydrates by 11.39%.   In addition, the process deproteinase effect the technical functional properties of hydrocolloid flour increase solubility, emulsion stability, foam stability, WHC and OHC. Increasing in the temperature by  10-90 °C lower the viscosity by 70%  (56.33 ± 0.19mp to 17.05 ± 0.03 mp of HFC and  73% (26.16 ± 1.28 mp to 7 , 08 ± 0.79 mp of HFD. The highest viscosity hydrocolloids flour (HFC and HFD contained at pH 7 and decrease with acidic or alkaline conditions.

  5. Combination of recreational soccer and caloric restricted diet reduces markers of protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa, M Vieira; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2......D) patients. Objective: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Design, setting and subjects: Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated...

  6. Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population.

  7. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  8. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  9. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  10. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  11. Pasta added with chickpea flour: chemical composition, In vitro starchdigestibility and predicted glycemic index

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pasta was prepared with of durum wheat flour mixed with chickpea flour at two different levels and its chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index were assessed. Protein, ash, lipid, and dietary fiber content increased while total starch decreased with the chickpea flour level in the composite pasta, all in accordance to the composition of the legume flour. Potentially available starch decreased and resistant starch (RS) increased by adding chickpea flour ...

  12. Technological and nutritional aspect of different hemp types addition: Comparison of flour and wholemeal effect

    OpenAIRE

    Švec, I.; Hrušková, Marie; Jurinová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Addition of non-traditional raw-materials and flours into wheat flour follows contemporary trend of manufacturing nutritionally healthier fermented bakery products. Aim of the study follows this tendency, evaluating nutritional improvement of composite flour and baking potential of prepared wheat-hemp flour composites. Hemp products addition significantly increased both protein and dietary fibre contents. Between five types of hemp flour, differences were observed according to incorporated am...

  13. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado

  14. The Polymeal: a more natural, safer, and probably tastier (than the Polypill) strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 75%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Anna); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Although the Polypill concept (proposed in 2003) is promising in terms of benefits for cardiovascular risk management, the potential costs and adverse effects are its main pitfalls. The objective of this study was to identify a tastier and safer alternative t

  15. The Polymeal: a more natural, safer, and probably tastier (than the Polypill) strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 75%

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Anna); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Although the Polypill concept (proposed in 2003) is promising in terms of benefits for cardiovascular risk management, the potential costs and adverse effects are its main pitfalls. The objective of this study was to identify a tastier and safer

  16. Treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk in adults: Synopsis of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is the leading U.S. cause of death, lost quality of life and medical costs. Nearly one in three Americans die from heart disease and stroke. Most ASCVD is preventable through a healthy lifestyle and effective treatment of cholesterol and blood pressure...

  17. National dissemination of StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...

  18. [Branch retinal vein occlusion: high time for cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk management is common in patients suffering from manifest cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. It is generally accepted that medication is the most effective treatment for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. Re

  19. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Simone de Souza Montes; Laís Maciel Rodrigues; Ryzia de Cássia Vieira Cardoso; Geany Peruch Camilloto; Renato Souza Cruz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioc...

  20. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  2. Pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Bas J.M.; Olaf H Klungel; de Boer, Anthonius; Ch Stricker, Bruno H; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2009-01-01

    In developed countries cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death. Cardiovascular drugs such as platelet aggregation inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, antihypertensives and cholesterol lowering drugs are abundantly prescribed to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. Notable interindividual variation exists in the response to these pharmacotherapeutic interventions, which can be partially explained by factors such as gender, age, diet, concomitant drug use and environmental f...

  3. Pulse pressure is not an independent predictor of outcome in type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia--the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilade, S; Claggett, B; Hansen, T W; Skali, H; Lewis, E F; Solomon, S D; Parving, H-H; Pfeffer, M; McMurray, J J; Rossing, P

    2016-01-01

    Pulse pressure (PP) remains an elusive cardiovascular risk factor with inconsistent findings. We clarified the prognostic value in patients with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and anemia in the Trial to Reduce cardiovascular Events with Aranesp (darbepoetin alfa) Therapy. In 4038 type 2 diabetes patients, darbepoetin alfa treatment did not affect the primary outcome. Risk related to PP at randomization was evaluated in a multivariable model including age, gender, kidney function, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other conventional risk factors. End points were myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, end stage renal disease (ESRD) and the composite of cardiovascular death, MI or hospitalization for myocardial ischemia, heart failure or stroke (CVD composite). Median (interquartile range) age, gender, eGFR and PP was 68 (60-75) years, 57.3% women, 33 (27-42) ml min(-1) per 1.73 m2 and 60 (50-74) mm Hg. During 29.1 months (median) follow-up, the number of events for composite CVD, MI, stroke and ESRD was 1010, 253, 154 and 668. In unadjusted analyses, higher quartiles of PP were associated with higher rates per 100 years of follow-up of all end points (P⩽0.04), except stroke (P=0.52). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) per one quartile increase in PP were 1.06 (0.99-1.26) for MI, 0.96 (0.83-1.11) for stroke, 1.01 (0.94-1.09) for ESRD and 1.01 (0.96-1.07) for CVD composite. Results were similar in continuous analyses of PP (per 10 mm Hg). In patients with type 2 diabetes, CKD and anemia, PP did not independently predict cardiovascular events or ESRD. This may reflect confounding by aggressive antihypertensive treatment, or PP may be too rough a risk marker in these high-risk patients.

  4. Cheese bread enriched with biofortified cowpea flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barbosa Monteiro Cavalcante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development and enrichment of food are of great importance not only for the industry but also to improve the population's nutrition, where you can create new products or optimize existing ones. The consumption of fortified products in the diet is an option for the control of deficiency diseases. This study aimed to develop enriched cheese bread with whole biofortified cowpea flour and evaluate their acceptance and chemical composition. Two formulations, F1 and F2, were prepared containing 5.6 and 8% of cowpea flour as a substitute for starch, respectively. To check acceptance, three sensory tests were used (Hedonic Scale, Purchase Intent, and Paired Comparison, F1 being sensory viable according to assessors, being chemically analyzed. Minerals were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source. The moisture was determined by drying at 105 °C, ash by calcination in muffle at 550 °C, proteins by the macro-Kjeldahl method, and lipids by hot extraction in a Soxhlet extractor. Carbohydrates were obtained by difference and the calories were calculated. The addition of cowpea increased the amounts of copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, as well as protein and carbohydrate values. On the other hand, there was a reduction of the moisture concerning lipids and the total caloric value compared to the standard formulation. It was concluded , therefore, that the cowpea, a regional raw material in market expansion is presented as an option for the enrichment of baked foods that do not contain gluten, such as cheese bread.

  5. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-08-16

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence as to whether lowering triglycerides reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn.

  7. Metals in wheat flour; comparative study and safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Raquel L; Luis, G; González-Weller, Dailos; Caballero, José M; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements) and to the PTWI (toxic elements) has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. CASSAVA FLOUR AS A DIRECT SUBSTITUTE OF MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Live-weight, feed intake and mortality were recorded and feed conversion ... Increased proportion of cassava flour in the diet resulted in a decrease in weight gain, feed ... imports maize grain to overcome shortages. ..... Unfermented whole root.

  9. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  10. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, J M; Sahi, S S; García-Alvarez, J; Turó, A; Chávez, J A; García, M J; Salazar, J

    2007-06-01

    Within the baking industry, the control of dough properties is required to achieve final product quality and consistency. Traditional methods for dough testing are slow and off-line and do not provide fundamental rheological information. There is therefore a need for the development of fast and on-line instruments capable of providing relevant data for baking. Ultrasonics provide a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. In this work, the water content of dough is investigated using ultrasonic techniques. The capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes is also studied. Doughs from more than 30 flours were characterised rheologically using a Chopin Alveograph and a Brabender Extensograph. Ultrasound measurements on the doughs prepared from these flours were also performed. The measurements were correlated, showing that ultrasound was an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  11. Metals in wheat flour: comparative study and safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Tejera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements and to the PTWI (toxic elements has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals.

  12. The lysyl oxidase inhibitor (β-aminopropionitrile) reduces leptin profibrotic effects and ameliorates cardiovascular remodeling in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Rodríguez, Cristina; Galán, María; Miana, María; Jurado-López, Raquel; Bartolomé, María Visitación; Luaces, María; Islas, Fabián; Martínez-González, José; López-Andrés, Natalia; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is an extracellular matrix (ECM)-modifying enzyme that has been involved in cardiovascular remodeling. We explore the impact of LOX inhibition in ECM alterations induced by obesity in the cardiovascular system. LOX is overexpressed in the heart and aorta from rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). β-Aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an inhibitor of LOX activity, significantly attenuated the increase in body weight and cardiac hypertrophy observed in HFD rats. No significant differences were found in cardiac function or blood pressure among any group. However, HFD rats showed cardiac and vascular fibrosis and enhanced levels of superoxide anion (O2(-)), collagen I and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in heart and aorta and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in aorta, effects that were attenuated by LOX inhibition. Interestingly, BAPN also prevented the increase in circulating leptin levels detected in HFD fed animals. Leptin increased protein levels of collagen I, TGF-β and CTGF, Akt phosphorylation and O2(-) production in both cardiac myofibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells in culture, while LOX inhibition ameliorated these alterations. LOX knockdown also attenuated leptin-induced collagen I production in cardiovascular cells. Our findings indicate that LOX inhibition attenuates the fibrosis and the oxidative stress induced by a HFD on the cardiovascular system. The reduction of leptin levels by BAPN in vivo and the ability of this compound to inhibit leptin-induced profibrotic mediators and ROS production in cardiac and vascular cells suggest that interactions between leptin and LOX regulate downstream events responsible for myocardial and vascular fibrosis in obesity.

  13. Sensitization to lupine flour: is it clinically relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; van Maaren, M S; Vlieg-Boersta, B J; Dubois, A E J; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2010-10-01

    Lupinus angustifolius (blue lupine) is used for human and animal consumption. Currently, the lupine content in bread varies from 0% to 10% and from 0.5% to 3% in pastry. Although lupine flour is present in many products, anaphylaxis on lupine flour is rarely seen. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical relevance of sensitization to lupine flour. From October 2004 until October 2005, we performed skin prick tests (SPT) with lupine flour, peanut and soy extracts in consecutive patients attending our allergy clinic with a suspected food allergy. In patients sensitized to lupine flour, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) were performed and specific IgE was measured. We tested 372 patients. SPTs with peanut, soy and lupine flour were positive in 135, 58 and 22 patients, respectively. Nine patients with sensitization to lupine flour underwent DBPCFC, which was negative in eight cases. In contrast, one patient experienced significant symptoms. Four of these nine patients suspected lupine by history. Two other patients with a positive history to lupine declined from challenges. In these patients, a 3-day dietary record showed that they could consume lupine without symptoms. Specific IgE in the serum was positive for L. angustifolius, peanut and soy in all nine patients. These results demonstrate that clinical lupine allergy is very uncommon, even in the presence of sensitization to lupine flour. The estimated prevalence of lupine allergy, among patients with a suspected food allergy, referred to a tertiary allergy centre in the Netherlands is 0.27-0.81%. In most, although not all cases, sensitization is not clinically relevant and is most likely caused by cross-sensitization to peanut. In selected cases, eliciting doses are low, making significant reactions possible. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  15. Development of Gluten Free Cookies From Rice And Coconut Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PAUCEAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the addition of rice and coconut flour blends on cookies formulation, composition and acceptability. For the cookie formulations the following ratios between coconut flour and rice flour were used: 100:0, 50:50, 30:70. Moisture, ash, fat, protein, total carbohydrates of raw flours and cookies were determined by AACC (2000 methods, while sensorial evaluation was carried out using a 9 points hedonic test. Coconut flour was characterized by a high content of ash (5.09% and proteins (17.2% comparatively to rice flour. Blending coconut and rice flours at different proportions led to cookies with enhanced protein, ash and fat content. Sensory analysis revealed that blends of rice and coconut flour can be successfully incorporated into gluten free cookies, resulting in products with pleasant flavor and taste. Coconut flour possesses good nutritional properties which could be utilized for value addition of baked goods.

  16. BIOFILMS BASED ON CANIHUA FLOUR (Chenopodium Pallidicaule: DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady M. Salas-Valero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to (1 produce and characterize the flour obtained from two varieties of canihua, cupi and illpa-inia, and (2 evaluate the ability of these flours to form biofilms. The flours produced contain proteins, starches, lipids, organic substances containing phenol groups, and high percentages of unsaturated fatty acids. Films produced from the illpa variety presented lower water vapor permeability and larger Young’s modulus values than the films formed from the cupi variety. Both films were yellowish and displayed a high light blocking ability (as compared with polyethylene films, which can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds. Furthermore, they showed lesser solubility and water permeability than other polysaccharide films, which may be the result of the higher protein (12%–13.8% and lipid (11% contents in canihua flours, as well as the formation of a larger number of S–S bonds. On the other hand, these films presented a single vitreous transition temperature at low temperatures (< 0 °C, crystallization of the A and Vh types, and an additional diffraction peak at 2 = 7.5º, ascribed to the presence of essential fatty acids in canihua flour. Canihua flour can form films with adequate properties and shows promise for potential applications in food packaging, because it acts as a good barrier to incident ultraviolet light.

  17. Taro Tube Flour Modification via Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Sri Budiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Colocasia esculentum (L Schott known as “Talas bogor” in Indonesian language is easily grown in every island in Indonesia. It proved to have high content of carbohydrate as it can be utilize for wheat flour replacement in addition to prior modification using hydrogen peroxide. The objective of this research was to improve the quality of taro flour by assessing the effect of several parameter such as ratio of slurry, oxidation agent concentration, oxidation time and temperature. The result shows that using ratio of slurry 20% with 2% of H2O2 concentration in temperature of oxidation process 30oC and 60 min operation time can produced good quality of modified taro tube flour in terms of swelling power and water solubility with 7.2 g/g and 6.93% respectively. This condition has chosen by taking the technical and economic feasibility as consideration. This result also can be used as proof of evidence that using H2O2 as an oxidizing agent in the process of taro tube flour modification can improve the functional properties of the flour. As the swelling power and water solubility of original taro tube flour were 3.7 g/g and 1.8% respectively.

  18. Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process:Relation of Flour Yield,Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend%Study of Commercial Wheat Flour Milling Process: Relation of Flour Yield, Ash and Protein Contents of Flour Mill and Characteristics of Wheat Blend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y S Kim; C W Deyoe; O K Chung; E Haque

    2006-01-01

    The profit margin in the flour milling industry is quite narrow, so high-quality raw materials and efficiency of milling operations are crucial for every company. Many flour mills, especially those which import wheat from other countries and have limited storage space for the different varieties or classes of wheat, can not afford to buy low quality wheat. Consequently, a mathematical model which can test the impact and interactions of raw materials, in technical point of view, would be a useful decision-making tool for the milling industry. A flour miller tests wheat for physical and chemical characteristics, cleanness and soundness. The miller also performs experimental milling, if available, to have some idea how the given wheat will behave during commercial milling. Based on these test results, the miller can only guess the commercial milling results such as flour yields and flour ash and protein contents. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop empirical equations to estimate commercial milling results, using the physical, chemical and experimental milling data of the given wheat blend and also, additionally, flour ash and protein specifications of the end-user. This was done by using the actual commercial milling procedures and their wheat physical, chemical, experimental milling data, and other vital data. Data were collected from a commercial mill located in East Asia that had four production lines and used wheat blend combinations from five different wheat classes, i.e. Hard Red Winter (HRW),Dark Northern Spring (DNS), Soft White (SW), Australian Soft (AS), and Australian Standard White (ASW) wheat to produce over 40 different products. The wheat physical and chemical characteristics included test weight, thousand kernel weight, ash and protein contents. The experimental milling data were straight-grade and patent flour yields, along with patent flour ash and protein contents from a Buhler experimental mill. The commercial milling results included

  19. The determination of zearalenone levels in wheat flour of bakeries in Khorramabad city by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gholamreza Houshmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species and is of particular interest because of its widespread occurrence and strong estrogenic effects. Wheat and its flour is amongst the most important food and feeds sources that may become contaminated with zearalenone. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the zearalenone concentration in wheat flour. Materials and Methods: After extraction of zearalenone from wheat flour samples with extraction solvent acetonitrile - water, toxin purification step was conducted using immunoaffinity columns. Samples were analyzed by HPLC using C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm ID, 5µm with a fluorescence detector, mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (3:2 v/v at flow rate of 1ml/min. Results: Results of the study showed that the level of found zearalenone in 5% of the samples was higher than maximum level of 200 μg/kg. The mean concentration of zearalenone in samples was 54 µg/kg. LOD and LOQ of this method were 3.5 and 10 ng/g respectively. Conclusion: Although the mean concentration of zearalenone in investigated wheat flour samples was lower than the maximum level recommended by the Codex Alimentations, but high incidence of zearalenone in these samples indicates the need for improving storage conditions in order to reduce the incidence and level of zearalenone contamination in samples

  20. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  1. The effects of lentil and chickpea flours as the breading materials on some properties of chicken meatballs during frozen storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Hepsağ, Fatma; Kurt, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential values of yellow lentil flour (Y) and chickpea flour (C) as breading materials the effects of yellow lentil and chickpea flours on the quality of fresh and frozen chicken meatballs were studied...

  2. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on α-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Kaufman, Rhett C; Bean, Scott R; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S; Rose, Devin J

    2013-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tannins on starch digestion in tannin-containing sorghum extracts and wholegrain flours from 12 sorghum varieties. Extracts reduced amylase activity in a tannin concentration-dependent manner when the extract was mixed with the enzyme before substrate (amylopectin) addition, with higher molecular weight tannins showing greater reduction. Conversely, when the extract and substrate were combined before enzyme addition an enhancement in amylase activity was experienced. In uncooked, cooked, and cooked and stored wholegrain sorghum flours, rapidly digestible, slowly digestible, and resistant starches were not correlated with tannin content or molecular weight distribution. Resistant starch increased from 6.5% to 22-26% when tannins were added to starch up to 50% (starch weight). Tannin extracts both reduced and enhanced amylase activity depending on conditions, and, while these trends were clear in extracts, the effects on starch digestion in wholegrain flours was more complex.

  3. EFFECT OF CHICKPEA AND PEA FLOUR ADDITION ON THE QUALITATIVE AND SENSORY PARAMETERS OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kuchtová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine chemical composition and functional properties of legume flours (chickpea, pea and fine wheat flour. The effect of chickpea and pea flour incorporation at different levels (10, 20, 30 % w/w on the qualitative parameters and sensory characteristics of bakery product was also investigated. It can be concluded, that incorporation of leguminous flours led to changes of the investigated qualitative and sensory parameters, especially in samples with higher amount of leguminous flour (20 and 30 %. Results showed, that a proper alternative to standard bakery products  are products with 10 % portion of leguminous flour.doi:10.5219/185

  4. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG PORANG PADA PEMBUATAN MI DENGAN SUBSTITUSI TEPUNG MOCAF (Modified cassava FLOUR [Addition of Porang Flour in Noodle as Mocaf Substitution (Modified cassava Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Faridah*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Noodle is one of the staple foods that are widely consumed and preferred by the Asian. However, wet noodles with modified cassava flour (mocaf substitution resulted in lower quality compared to 100% wheat noodle. Addition of a certain amount of konjac glucomannan (Amorphophallus oncophyllus flour to wet noodle is strongly recommended due to the fact that the food additive has a health benefit. Porang or konjac flour, which was used in the research, has soluble fiber properties, low calorie content, and highly viscous. It forms a heat stable gel with a mild alkali, interacts with starch, and has a synergistic interaction with kappa carrageenan. In this research, konjac flour was added to study the optimum combination between konjac and water. As much as 2, 4 and 6% (w/w of konjac flour were combined with 35, 40, 45% (v/w of water. The results showed that treatments with combinations of konjac flour and water were significantly contributing to characteristics of cooking time, cooking loss, color brightness index, tensile strength, swelling volume and water absorption. The best treatment was at a combination of 4% konjac (w/w and 35% water (v/w. The best porang noodles have the characteristics of cooking time at 2.13 minutes, cooking loss of 35%, tensile strength of 0.14 N, water absorption of 201.58%, color brightness index of 51.41, swelling volume of 103.63%, moisture content of 31.77%, protein content of 5.87%, fat content of 2.13%, ash content of 0.85% and crude dietary fiber of 4.58%.

  5. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Avais; Pingitore, Alessandro; Pearce, Simon H S; Zaman, Azfar; Iervasi, Giorgio; Razvi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial and vascular endothelial tissues have receptors for thyroid hormones and are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The importance of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis can be deduced from clinical and experimental data showing that even subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations - such as those observed in subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome - adversely influence the cardiovascular system. Some potential mechanisms linking the two conditions are dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure changes, and direct effects of thyroid hormones on the myocardium. Several interventional trials showed that treatment of subclinical thyroid diseases improves cardiovascular risk factors, which implies potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular events. Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence supports the association between abnormal thyroid function at the time of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones can have an important therapeutic role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial function after acute MI. In this Review, we summarize the literature on thyroid function in cardiovascular diseases, both as a risk factor as well as in the setting of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure or acute MI, and outline the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  7. Cocoa and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Flammer, Andreas J; Hollenberg, Norman K; Lüscher, Thomas F

    2009-03-17

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been proposed, including activation of nitric oxide and antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects. This review summarizes the available data on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa, outlines potential mechanisms involved in the response to cocoa, and highlights the potential clinical implications associated with its consumption.

  8. Variables influencing cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, L; Shively, M; Verderber, A

    1991-07-01

    Two studies are reviewed, one regarding the effects of music therapy on psychophysiologic stress in coronary care unit patients and one regarding the effects of age and gender on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adults. Music therapy is determined to be safe for coronary care unit patients and effective in modulating the psychophysiologic manifestations of stress. The second study suggests that age--gender interactions may influence autonomic cardiovascular responsiveness. It is suggested that older adults be taught methods to reduce straining, so that rapid transient changes in blood pressure are avoided.

  9. [Preparation of cookies with a flour mixture of wheat and green plantain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, R; Pacheco de Delahaye, E

    2000-12-01

    With the purpose of diversifying the use of green plantain flour, a functional evaluation was performed by substituting 7% of chocolate cookie wheat flour by dehydrated green plantain flour; thus allowing to obtain a product with good physical and organoleptic qualities, as well as a better nutritional quality, as for dietary fibre and resistant starch. As a result of the use of this dehydrated green plantain flour (G-HT/HPV), the values of some chemical components increased significantly (P 0.05 Pound) in comparison to the standard cookies (GP): ash (2.46 to 2.69%), proteins (8.93 to 9.69%), dietary fiber (4.97 to 5.40%), resistant starch (0.19 to 0.23%) and total sugar (25.26 to 30.55). The G-HT/HPV complies with the industrial requirements as for moisture (2.7300%), ph (8.43), aw (0.205) and color (L = 31.78; a = 7.95 and b = 10.51). Besides, thanks to the use of G-HT/HPV the flours scattering during the kneaded process was diminished, thus reducing the cookie diameter and increasing the resistance to breaking (1.48 to 2.06 Kgf), in comparison to the GP. While evaluating the shelf life for G-HT/HPV, it was demonstrated that was affected by moisture, pH, aw and acidity after the first month of storage. In the preference comparison test between the G-HT/HPV and a trademark cookie (GC), no significant differences were founded. Both were accepted and qualified between good and very good, as for sensorial features like colour, fragrance and taste. However, significant differences were detected in relation to texture, and they were corroborated in the texture profile analysis. In this test the panel staff, while evaluating both types of cookies demonstrated that there are 8 features that can be used to describe them: firm, crumble, crisp, mealy, soft, lumpy, particle size and chewy.

  10. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  11. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  12. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Renier; Hochfeld, Warren E; Dodgen, Tyren M; Ker, James; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    Human genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as more complex structural variations such as insertions, deletions and copy number variants, is partially responsible for the clinical variation seen in response to pharmacotherapeutic drugs. This affects the likelihood of experiencing adverse drug reactions and also of achieving therapeutic success. In this paper, we review key studies in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics that reveal genetic variations underlying the outcomes of drug treatment in cardiovascular disease. Examples of genetic associations with drug efficacy and toxicity are described, including the roles of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics (e.g. drug metabolizing enzymes) and pharmacodynamics (e.g. drug targets). These findings have functional implications that could lead to the development of genetic tests aimed at minimizing drug toxicity and optimizing drug efficacy in cardiovascular medicine.

  13. [HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL EXERCISE THERAPY TO REDUCE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PEOPLE WITH THE METABOLIC SYNDROME; SYSTEMATIC REVIEW WITH META-ANALYSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Vergara Miranda, Camila; Quezada Donoso, Romina; Sepúlveda Silva, Mabel; Coccio, Nicol; Cortés, Patricio; Delarze, Carlos; Flores, Cherie

    2015-12-01

    El síndrome metabólico es una agrupación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular que incluyen obesidad central, presión sanguínea elevada, resistencia a la insulina y dislipidemias. Objetivo: determinar el efecto del ejercicio intervalado de alta intensidad sobre los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en personas con síndrome metabólico. Materiales y métodos: se buscó en la base de datos WOS, Medline, Lilacs, PEDro y en los metabuscadores Epistemonikos y Trip Database. Se realizó una búsqueda manual, se hizo seguimiento de referencias relevantes, se buscaron protocolos de ECAs y se contactó con expertos en esta área. Resultados: la búsqueda preliminar arrojó un total de 239 artículos potencialmente elegibles; según los criterios de elegibilidad solo incluimos tres revisiones sistemáticas. Conclusión: no hay grandes diferencias en relación al índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de cintura, glucosa en ayunas, lipoproteínas de alta densidad y triglicéridos. En relación a la presión arterial, fue superior el ejercicio continuo de moderada intensidad. Al comparar el ejercicio intervalado de alta intensidad versus control, el primero resultó ser superior en todos los resultados analizados.

  14. Mitochondria and Cardiovascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    Old age is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Several lines of evidence in experimental animal models have indicated the central role of mitochondria both in lifespan determination and cardiovascular aging. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and biogenesis as well as the crosstalk between mitochondria and cellular signaling in cardiac and vascular aging. Intrinsic cardiac aging in the murine model closely recapitulates age-related cardiac changes in humans (left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction), while the phenotype of vascular aging include endothelial dysfunction, reduced vascular elasticity and chronic vascular inflammation. Both cardiac and vascular aging involve neurohormonal signaling (e.g. renin-angiotensin, adrenergic, insulin-IGF1 signaling) and cell-autonomous mechanisms. The potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and cardiovascular diseases are also discussed, with a focus on mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, calorie restriction, calorie restriction mimetics and exercise training. PMID:22499901

  15. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  16. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Nochera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar, test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis, was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of passion fruit peel flour (Passiflora edulis fo. flavicarpa on metabolic changes in HIV patients with lipodystrophy syndrome secondary to antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone do Socorro Fernandes Marques

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effects of using passion fruit peel flour together with diet therapy and counseling in 36 patients with HIV lipodystrophy who were in an ambulatory clinic in a university hospital. The patients were divided into two groups. One received 30 g of passion fruit peel flour daily for 90 days and diet therapy counseling. The other group received only diet therapy counseling. The metabolic changes were analyzed before and after the intervention, with a significance level predetermined at p ≤ 0.05. The use of passion fruit peel flour was effective in reducing total cholesterol and triacylglycerides after 30 days. The concentrations of LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased in the blood of lipodystrophy patients after 90 days passion fruit peel flour treatment. No significant differences in food consumption were seen between groups. The use of 30 g of passion fruit peel flour for 90 days together with diet therapy counseling was effective in improving plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triacylglycerides.

  18. Evaluation of cookies produced from blends of wheat, cassava and cowpea flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Adekunle Olapade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp were processed into flours and used to substitute wheat flour for preparation of cookies. The chemical, including proximate composition and anti-nutritional factors, and functional and pasting properties of the blends were determined. Cookies were produced from the blends with 100% wheat flour as a control. The anti-nutritional factors, physical properties and organoleptic attributes of the cookies were evaluated. An increase in the level of cassava flour substitution resulted in a decrease in the protein content of the composite flour. However, addition of cowpea flour resulted in an increase in the protein content. There were significant (p<0.05 reductions in the studied anti-nutritional factors after baking. Cookies from composite flours were not significantly (p>0.05 different from the control in overall acceptability. This indicates the feasibility of producing nutritious cookies with desirable organoleptic qualities from cassava, wheat and cowpea composite flour.

  19. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  1. EFFECT OF THE INDUSTRIAL MILLING PROCESS ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Ionescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the milling process a large number of milling streams are obtained. These fractions are usually combined into a single composite product, but it is possible to select for blending certain fractions to obtaining different types of flours. In this work the rheological behavior, of the industrial flours obtained in different extraction levels was analyzed using Mixolab and Alveograph devices. Our results showed that the flour extraction rate is an important factor influencing rheological behavior. When by the milling process were obtained two types of flour, the flour with high ash content presented higher values of C3, C4 and C5 torques compared to flour with lower ash content. Therefore, the quality of the white flour obtained from wheat milling at different extraction levels highly depends on the flour fractions that are selected for blending.

  2. Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing Cissus rotundifolia flour on lipid profile of rats and ... CR flour was processed using traditional Nigerian method of processing. ... Analysis of variance and repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to ...

  3. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J

    2013-09-01

    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage.

  4. One size does not fit all: the role of vasodilating beta-blockers in controlling hypertension as a means of reducing cardiovascular and stroke risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Jan N

    2010-07-01

    Beta-blockers have played a key role in the management of hypertension-related cardiovascular disease for decades, and continue to be recommended as a mainstay of therapy in national guidelines statements. Recent data have shown less optimal reductions in total mortality, CVD mortality, and CVD events with beta-blockers compared with renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents or calcium channel blockers. The beta-blocker class, however, spans a wide range of agents, and the growing concern about the risk-benefit profile of beta-blockers should not be generalized to later-generation vasodilating beta-blockers such as carvedilol and nebivolol. A growing database from hypertension studies confirms the clinical efficacy and safety of vasodilating beta-blockers, and outcome studies indicate that these agents can play an important role in global CVD reduction in patients with hypertensive or ischemic heart failure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES ON THE CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM DUVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Royal N.

    1924-01-01

    The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) was chosen for this study because it lives in a food which ordinarily contains no living organisms. The death rates are greater in cultures which are handled daily than in those which are not handled but when all are handled alike the results are comparable. The results from experiments with individual beetles in various kinds of flour were plotted with instars (larval stages) on the ordinate and time in days on the abscissa, using the results from control experiments in wheat flour to determine the length of the various instars from an "x = y" formula. The curves of development were found to be straight lines throughout all but the last instar. The curve for the last instar during which the larva transformed deviated from the straight line in certain foods, notably rice flour. When mass cultures were used the death and transformation curves were plotted for each synthetic food. A comparison of the curves from wheat flour and the synthetic foods shows that the first parts of the curves are very much alike in all cases and that a few resemble the control in every respect except that the transformation curve has been moved back for a considerable time. The death curves for the mass cultures are not smooth but show sudden increase in death at approximately the times of molting. These curves may therefore be compared with the records from individual beetles. PMID:19872096

  6. Thermal Diffusivity of Sweet Potato Flour Measured Using Dickerson Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Tastra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipmoea batatas I. is one the carbohydrate sources in indonesia that can be used both for food and industry purposes. To support the utilization of sweet potato as flour, it is imperative to develop a drying system that can improve its quality. A preliminary study using an improved variety, namely Sari, was conducted to determine its floure thermal diffusivity ( , an imprortant parameter in developing drying process. The experiment was run according to Dickerson method using sweet potato flour at different levels of moisture content (5.05-5.97% wet basis and temperatures (23.7 -40.9 oC this method used an apparatus based on transient heat transfer condition requiring only a time- temperature data. At the levels of moisture and temperature studied, the thermal diffusivity of sweet potato flour could be expressed using a linear regression model, = 10-9 M.T + 9X 10-9( R2=0.9779. the average value of the thermal diffusivity sweet potato flour was 1.72 x 10-7 m2/s at a moisture level of 5.51 % wet basis and temperature of 29.58 oC. Similar studies are needed for different varieties or cultivars of sweet potato as well at a wide range of moisture content and temperature content and temperature levels.

  7. TEKNOLOGI MODIFIKASI TEPUNG KASAVA Modified Cassava Flour Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryadi Haryadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cassava productivity is very potential to support food security. Processing of cassava into flour makes the food more durable, less voluminous and easier to handle, and flexible to cook. To extend the use of cassava flour, it is necessary to develop technology to produce quality cassava flour suitable for various food purposes. A certain flour finess is desired to free the starch granules and to allow the granule’s cooking characteristics to express significantly. Modification of cassava flour technology may involve physical, biological, chemical aspects, as well as combination of the aspects. ABSTRAK Potensi produksi kasava sangat besar untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pendukung ketahanan pangan. Pengolahannya men­ jadi tepung memungkinkan lebih awet, lebih ringkas dan lebih mudah diangkut, serta lebih luwes untuk diolah. Untuk memperluas penggunaan tepung kasava, perlu pengembangan teknologi produksi tepung bermutu yang dapat diman­ faatkan dalam berbagai olahan makanan. Tepung dikehendaki pada kelembutan tertentu, sehingga granula-granula pati terlepas dari jaringan awalnya, dan selanjutnya ciri-ciri granula dalam pemasakan menjadi nyata. Modifikasi pembuatan tepung kasava dapat dilakukan secara fisik, biologis maupun kimiawi, ataupun gabungan dari aspek-aspek tersebut.

  8. The effect of mung bean powder, and/or low fat soy flour as meat extender on the chemical, physical, and sensory quality of buffalo meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Kenawi M.A.; Abdelsalam R.R.; El-Sherif S.A.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation of buffalo meat patties was evaluated in order to study the effect of adding low fat soy flour and/or mung bean powder as meat extenders. The results indicated that using low fat soy flour or mung bean powder as meat extenders at a level of 10% reduced the moisture and fat content, whereas increased the fiber and protein contents in the cooked samples. The reduction was greatest in the control (100% buffalo meat), and lowest in the sample contain...

  9. INFLUENCE OF IMPACT MODIFIER AND COUPLING AGENT ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF WOOD FLOUR / RECYCLED PLASTIC COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Saman GHAHRI; Saeed KAZEMI NAJAFI; Mohebby, Behbood

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the improvement of impact strength of wood flour/recycled polypropylene (PP) composites was investigated. The PP (virgin and recycled polypropylene) and wood flour (WF) were compounded at 50% by weight wood flour loading in a counter-rotating twin-screw extruder in the presence MAPP and two types of impact modifiers (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer (EPDM)), to produce wood flour-PP composites specimen. The results showed t...

  10. Evaluation of Textural and Sensory Properties on Typical Spanish Small Cakes Designed Using Alternative Flours

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Moreno, María del Mar; Barreto Palacios, Vivian Janeth; González Carrascosa, Rebeca; Iborra Bernad, María del Consuelo; Andrés Bello, María Desamparados; Martínez Monzó, Javier; García-Segovia, Purificación

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheat flour substitution with toasted corn, quinoa, and sorghum flours on the overall perception and texture of typical Spanish small cakes named madeleine. In order to evaluate these characteristics, a texture profile analysis (TPA) and a sensory analysis were carried out. TPA showed that the replacement of wheat flour by sorghum flour did not affect significantly texture parameters of cakes. Hedonic sensory tests were al...

  11. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bußler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the species, edible insects are highly nutritious and thus represent a noteworthy alternative food and feed source. The current work investigates the protein extractability and techno-functionality of insect flour fractions recovered from Tenebrio molitor and Hermetia illucens. T. molitor and H. illucens flours contained about 20% crude fat and 60% and 36 % crude protein, respectively. Defatting reduced the crude fat content to 2.8% (T. molitor and 8.8% (H. illucens and increased the crude protein content to 68% and 47%, respectively. To isolate proteins from the flours, protein solubility was optimized by varying the pH, the ionic strength, and the extraction temperature of the solvent. All products and by-products accumulated in the protein production process were characterized by composition, selected techno-functional properties, protein solubility, composition and structure as well as their microbial load.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  13. Acceptability and Amino Acid Score of Snack bar of Mixed Whole-Wheat Varieties SO₁₀ Flour with Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Yenrina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Engineering and Processing Technology of Agricultural Products, Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry of Agricultural Products and Laboratory of Microbiology and Biotechnology of Agricultural Products, Department of Agricultural Technology, Andalas University. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of mixing whole-wheat SO₁₀ flour and soy flour towards the acceptability by panelists in organoleptic, amino acid score of the snack bar that produced. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 3 replications. Data were analyzed statistically used ANOVA and continued by Duncan's New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT at 5% level. The treatments in this study are mixing wheat flour SO₁₀ and soy flour with treatment A (100% wheat SO₁₀ : 0% soy flour, treatment B (80% wheat SO₁₀ : 20% soy flour, treatment C (60% wheat SO₁₀ : 40% soy flour, treatment D (50% wheat SO₁₀ : 50% soy flour and treatment E (40% wheat SO₁₀ : 60% soy flour. Based on the results of sensory analysis, the best products is treatment D (mixing 50% wheat SO₁₀ : 50% soy flour with the level of acceptance by panelists of color (3.7, aroma (3.1, texture (3.3 and taste ( 3.2. Water content (22.36%, protein content (17.30%, amino acid score (64.28 with the limiting amino acid methionine.

  14. Physical Characteristics of White Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), Rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Tapioca (Manihot esculenta) Flours - Based Seasoning Composite Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfani, NNA; Ishartani, D.; Anam, C.; Praseptiangga, D.; Manuhara, G. J.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physical characteristics of seasoning composite flour that made from white sweet potato, rice, and tapioca flours, and determined the best formula of seasoning composite flour. A completely randomized design (CRD) with formula as the single factor was used. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA method and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significance 5% if there was a significant difference. The best formula of seasoning composite flour was 30% tapioca flour, 30% rice flour, and 40% white sweet potato flour. The physical characteristics of the best formula were 5.689 ml/g of swelling power, 2.681 g/g of water absorption capacity, 0.887 ml/g of oil absorption capacity, and 22.03% cooking loss. Physical characteristics of the best seasoning composite flour were significantly different from the commercial seasoning flour and showed a better cooking loss, oil absorption capacity, and swelling power than commercial seasoning flour.

  15. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  16. The case for water activity as a specification for wheat tempering and flour production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture plays an important role in processing wheat grain into flour, from proper grain tempering to the stability of the flour. Moisture properties of dry grain, tempered grain, and finished flour are currently tracked using moisture content. However, stability factors such as microbial growth and...

  17. NOTE: Measuring oxidative gelation of aqueous flour suspensions using the Rapid Visco Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was investigated as a tool to measure oxidative gelation capacity (OGC) of aqueous wheat-flour suspensions. One, club-wheat patent flour was used to determine optimal hydration time and 33 straight-grade flours (representing 12 hard and 31 soft varieties) were used to ...

  18. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  19. Physical properties of snacks made from cassava leaf flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Ferrari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continually growing with new products becoming available every year. Extrusion combines a number of unit operations in one energy efficient rapid continuous process and can be used to produce a wide variety of snacks foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, and amount of cassava leaf flour mixed with cassava starch on the physical properties of extruded snacks processed using a single screw extruder. A central composite rotational design, including three factors with 20 treatments, was used in the experimental design. Dependent variables included the expansion index, specific volume, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index. Among the parameters examined, the amount of cassava leaf flour and extrusion temperature showed significant effects on extruded snack characteristics. Mixtures containing 10% of cassava leaf flour extruded at 100°C and 255 rpm shows favorable levels of expansion, color, water absorption index, and water solubility index.

  20. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  1. Milked flours in Spain (I: 1865-1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an historical review of the origin of milked flours, and their introduction in Spain. Commercial products are described and a list of main factories producing and distributing them (until 1965 is included. Product composition shows a high level of variability, mainly due to the quick evolution in the use of different ingredients (increase of soluble carbohydrates and blended flours, fortification with minerals and vitamins, etc.. Ingredients and composition were changing along the years according to the increasing knowledge in nutrition sciences and food technology. Regarding the factories producing milked flours, we can observe a concentration trend during 20’s and 30’s. In contrast, in further decades new producers appeared in the market and some of them are still actives at this moment.

  2. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  3. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  4. Improvements in processing characteristics and engineering properties of wood flour-filled high density polyethylene composite sheeting in the presence of hollow glass microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baris Yalcin; Steve E Amos; Andrew S D Souza; Craig M Clemons; I Sedat Gunes; Troy K Ista

    2012-01-01

    Hollow glass microspheres were introduced into wood flour/high density polyethylene composites by melt compounding in a twin-screw extruder. The prepared composites were subsequently converted to extruded profiles in order to obtain composite sheeting. The presence of hollow glass microspheres highly reduced the density of the extruded sheets down to 0.9 g/cc, while...

  5. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  6. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R.; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N.K.; Lüscher, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  7. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  8. ACIDIC SOAKING AND STEAM BLANCHING RETAIN ANTHOCYANINS AND POLYPHENOLS IN PURPLE Dioscorea alata FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelis Imanningsih*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purple Dioscorea alata (DA tuber has health benefits due to its bioactive anthocyanins, which belong to polyphenolic group. Tuber is commonly made into flour to optimize its uses, however, the anthocyanins undergo significant degradation during processing because of the endogenous polyphenol oxidase activities. This research investigated factors that retain anthocyanins and polyphenols in the purple DA flour as well as its antioxidant capacity. The types of treatments during milling process should be taken into account; for instance, soaking in citric acid and blanching in order to preserve the bioactive compounds. To examine the inhibitory effects of acidic soaking and steam blanching on polyphenol oxidase activities, these experiments used four levels of citric acid (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% and two levels of steam blanching time course (5 and 10 minutes. It was found that steam blanching for 5 or 10 minutes could reduce the activity of polyphenol oxidase, and consequently, retard the oxidation process and retain the polyphenolic compounds. Soaking the purple DA slices into a 1% citric acid solution followed by steam blanching for 10 min resulted in the highest total anthocyanins (104.36 mg/100 g, polyphenols (198.52 mg equivalent gallic acid/100 g, with an antioxidant capacity of 1.300 mg trolox equivalent/100 g. This study showed that the retention of bioactive compounds of DA tuber through soaking the tuber slices in solution containing inexpensive chemicals like citric acid at low concentrations, combined with 10 minutes of steam blanching resulted in flour containing total anthocyanins and phenolic as high as 44.51 and 62.58% of fresh tuber, respectively.

  9. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  10. Transamidation of wheat flour inhibits the response to gliadin of intestinal T cells in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfrani, Carmen; Siciliano, Rosa A; Facchiano, Angelo M; Camarca, Alessandra; Mazzeo, Maria F; Costantini, Susan; Salvati, Virginia M; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Bergamo, Paolo; Rossi, Mauro

    2007-09-01

    Celiac disease is characterized by activation of HLA-DQ2/DQ8-restricted intestinal gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells. In particular, gluten becomes a better T-cell antigen following deamidation catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase. To date, the only available therapy is represented by adherence to a gluten-free diet. Here, we examined a new enzyme strategy to preventively abolish gluten activity. Enzyme modifications of the immunodominant alpha-gliadin peptide p56-68 were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and peptide binding to HLA-DQ2 was simulated by modeling studies. Wheat flour was treated with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methyl ester; gliadin was subsequently extracted, digested, and deamidated. Gliadin-specific intestinal T-cell lines (iTCLs) were generated from biopsy specimens from 12 adult patients with celiac disease and challenged in vitro with different antigen preparations. Tissue transglutaminase-mediated transamidation with lysine or lysine methyl ester of p56-68 or gliadin in alkaline conditions inhibited the interferon gamma expression in iTCLs; also, binding to DQ2 was reduced but not abolished, as suggested by in silico analysis. Lysine methyl ester was particularly effective in abrogating the activity of gliadin. Notably, a block in the response was observed when iTCLs were challenged with gliadin extracted from flour pretreated with microbial transglutaminase and lysine methyl ester. Transamidation of wheat flour with a food-grade enzyme and an appropriate amine donor can be used to block the T cell-mediated gliadin activity. Considering the crucial role of adaptive immunity in celiac disease, our findings highlight the potential of the proposed treatment to prevent cereal toxicity.

  11. Aflatoxin Contamination in Wheat Flour Samples from Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghasemi Kebria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high toxicity of aflatoxin and its effects on public health, determination of aflatoxin level in Wheat flour samples in the Golestan province, north of Iran was investigated. To examine the effect of seasonal changes, summer and winter sampling was performed with standard sampling methods. Methods: A total of 200 flour samples were collected from 25 factories. HPLC method with immunoaffinity chromatography was used to measure aflatoxin types (G2, G1, B2 and B1. Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test, One-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Mean total aflatoxin levels of samples were 0.82 and 1.99 ng/g in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 levels were detected in 3.1%, 7.4% over permissible limits by worldwide regulations in samples collected in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxins in winter were higher than summer. The highest frequency of aflatoxin contamination in winter was B2 (98% and in summer G1 (51%. The relationship between humidity and rate of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin was significant in winter. Results of multivariate regression were showed the strongest relationship with humidity and aflatoxin level. Despite the contamination of flour samples, there was no contamination higher than the standard limit of Iran Standard Institute. But it was significantly higher than similar studies from other regions. Conclusions: Therefore, with regard to negative impacts of aflatoxin on health, aflatoxin contamination should be considered in future programs. Decrease of aflatoxin contamination may be made practical through reducing wheat storage duration and controlling humidity.

  12. Fracture mechanics and statistical modeling of ternary blends of polylactide/ethylene-acrylate copolymer /wood-flour composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifah, Kojo Agyapong

    amorphous grade. The semicrystalline blends showed decreased tensile strength and modulus with increased impact modifier content. In contrast, the ductility, elongation at break, and energy to break increased significantly. Mechanisms of toughening of PLA with EAC included impact modifier debonding, fibrillization, crack bridging and matrix shear yielding resulting in a ductile behavior. Increasing the EAC content in PLA/wood-flour composites enhanced the impact strength and elongation at break, but reduced the tensile modulus and strength of the composites. Composites with fine wood particles showed greater improvement in elongation at break than those with coarse particles; an opposite trend was observed for impact strength, tensile modulus and tensile strength. Numerical optimization produced two scenarios based on materials compositions to produce composites with similar mechanical properties as unfilled PLA. These optimization solutions were successfully validated experimentally. The crack initiation (Jin) and complete fracture (Jf) energies of unmodified PLA/wood-flour composites showed the deleterious effect of wood fiber incorporation into the plastic matrix by significantly decreasing the fracture toughness of PLA as the wood flour content increased. By contrast, impact modification of wood plastic composites with EAC significantly increased both the resistance to crack initiation (Jin) and complete fracture (Jf). Microscopic morphological studies revealed that the major mechanisms of toughening was through the EAC existing as separate domains in the bulk matrix of the composites which tended to act as stress concentrators that initiated local yielding of the matrix around crack tips and enhanced the toughness of the composites.

  13. Technological properties of precooked flour containing coffee powder and rice by thermoplastic extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil is a country of tradition in both the production and consumption of coffee, the most of the coffee is consumed as a beverage, which reduces greatly the competitiveness on international market, for reducing the chances of supplying the product under other forms of consumption. Owing to that, the aim of this study was developing a precooked mixed flour containing coffee powder and rice for use in coffee flavored products. Mixtures of rice and coffee in the proportions of 900:100, 850:150 and 800:200 g, respectively, were processed in a single screw extruder (Brabender DS-20, Duisburg, German and the effect of the extrusion process on the variables moisture content (16%, 18% and 20% and temperature in the third extruding zone (140 °C, 160 °C and 180 °C was studied. The results for expansion index ranged from 2.91 to 11.11 mm in diameter; the water absorption index from 4.59 to 6.33 g gel/g sample and the water solubility index varied from 4.05% to 8.57%. These results showed that, despite coffee powder influenced the variables studied, the expanded product after milling resulted in a extruded mixture with good absorption and water solubility indices, which favors the use of the precooked mixed flour for human consumption.

  14. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability.

  15. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: Partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L.; Bello-Pérez, Luis A. [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico); Yee-Madeira, Hernani [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-IPN, Edificio 9, U.P., ‘Adolfo López Mateos’ Col. Lindavista, C.P. 07738, México, D. F. (Mexico); Zhong, Qixin [Department of Food science and Technology, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); González-Soto, Rosalía A., E-mail: rsoto@ipn.mx [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Km 6 carr Yautepec-Jojutla, Calle Ceprobi No. 8, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, C.P 62731, Yautepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. - Highlights: • Flour films presented adequate mechanical and barrier properties. • Addition of montmorillonite modified the mechanical and barrier properties of flour films. • The mechanical properties of the films were influenced by the different components of the flours. • The fiber of the banana flour improved the mechanical properties of the films.

  16. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  17. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  18. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Cristina Garcia; Lígia Araújo Martini

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been observed worldwide at all stages of life. It has been characterized as a public health problem, since low concentrations of this vitamin have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Several studies have suggested that vitamin D is involved in cardiovascular diseases and have provided evidence that it has a role in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. It may be involved in regulation of gene expression through the presence of vi...

  19. PREPARATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED (ACETYLATED GADUNG (DIOSCOREA HISPIDA DENNST FLOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRI C. KUMORO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation is one of methods to alter the physicochemical properties of starch. This work aimed to investigate the effect of reaction time, glacial acetic acid/gadung flour (GAA/GF mass ratio and pH on gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennst flour acetylation at ambient temperature. The acetylation was carried out by reacting gadung flour slurry with GAA under alkaline condition. The results show that degree of substitution and swelling power of the acetylated flours increased with reaction time, while the solubility was not affected by reaction time after 10 minutes acetylation. The GAA/GF mass ratio inversely affected the solubility of acetylated flour, but did not affect the swelling power and degree of substitution. Acetylation changed the structure, morphology and crystallinity of gadung flour starch granules. The swelling power and solubility of all acetylated flours obtained in this work were higher than the native one.

  20. Is dimethyldecanal a common aggregation pheromone of Tribolium flour beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Ludovic; Lognay, Georges; Verscheure, Marjolaine; Leenaers, Lionel; Gaspar, Charles; Haubruge, Eric

    2002-03-01

    Flour beetles are cosmopolitan and common pests in grain stores and flour mills. Their ability to exploit a wide variety of stored products has contributed to their status as major pests of stored food. Although it was previously reported that the same aggregation pheromone, 4,8-dimethyldecanal (DMD), is shared by three flour beetles species (Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, and T. freemani), the volatiles released by the other Tribolium species associated with stored products have not yet been examined. In the present study, the volatiles produced by males and females of eight Tribolium species were examined by solid phase microextraction (SPME). SPME samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experiments were conducted to identify volatiles emitted by the adults of different Tribolium species and to determine whether DMD is a common aggregation pheromone. We observed that DMD is not a common pheromone of the eight species tested, but is common to T. castaneum, T. confusum, T. freemani, and T. madens. Two other volatiles were detected, 1-pentadecene, which is shown here to be a common semiochemical of flour beetles, and 1,6-pentadecadiene, which was detected in five species (T. audax, T. brevicornis, T. destructor, T. freemani, and T. madens).

  1. Instrumental methods for analysis of some elements in flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrodzki, P.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Malec, P. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Krosniak, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Cracow (Poland); Knap, W. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Wiertniczo-Naftowy; Bichonski, A. [Instytut Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, Radzikow (Poland)

    1993-10-01

    For ten various brands of flour contents of chosen (heavy) elements were determined by means of ICP, GF-AAS, PIXE and ASV/CSV methods. General performance of participating laboratories as well as pros and cons of different analytical methods were compared and discussed. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs, 7 tabs.

  2. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  3. Seed treatments affect functional and antinutritional properties of amaranth flours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping germination and flour air classification, on the functional properties and antinutritional factors of Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds were studied. Thermal treatments increased the water absorption with a maximum value of 5

  4. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin ... amino acid and available vitamins with modified functional properties .... Proximate composition of unsprouted and sprouted soybean flours.1. Proximate ..... similar to that of purified soyabean protein in human subjects: a study using ...

  5. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  6. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  7. Nutritional evaluation and functional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenle, H N

    2003-03-01

    The proximate analysis, evaluation of nutritionally valuable minerals, sugars, chemical properties of the oil and functional properties of the seed flour of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were studied. The results showed that the quinoa flour contained 11.2% moisture, 13.5% crude protein, 6.3% ether extract, 9.5% crude fibre, 1.2% total ash and 58.3% carbohydrate. The quinoa has a high proportion of D-xylose (120.0 mg in 100 g sample) and maltose (101.0 mg in 100 g sample), and a low content of glucose (19.0 mg in 100 g sample) and fructose (19.6 mg in 100 g sample), suggesting that it would be useful in malted drink formulations. The values for the chemical properties of the oil extracted were: acid value, 0.50%; iodine value, 54.0%; peroxide value, 2.44%; and saponification value, 192.0%. Quinoa has a high water absorption capacity (147.0%) and low foaming capacity and stability (9.0%, 2.0%). The flour has a least gelation concentration of 16% w/v. Protein solubility of the flour was also evaluated and found to be pH dependent, with minimum solubility at about pH 6.0.

  8. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  9. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  10. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

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    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  11. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway

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    Luz T. Padró-Martínez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic-generated ultrafine particles (UFP; particles <100 nm is likely a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We conducted a trial of high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA filtration in public housing near a highway. Twenty residents in 19 apartments living <200 m from the highway participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover trial. A HEPA filter unit and a particle counter (measuring particle number concentration (PNC, a proxy for UFP were installed in living rooms. Participants were exposed to filtered air for 21 days and unfiltered air for 21 days. Blood samples were collected and blood pressure measured at days 0, 21 and 42 after a 12-hour fasting period. Plasma was analyzed for high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha-receptor II (TNF-RII and fibrinogen. PNC reductions ranging from 21% to 68% were recorded in 15 of the apartments. We observed no significant differences in blood pressure or three of the four biomarkers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, and TNF-RII measured in participants after 21-day exposure to HEPA-filtered air compared to measurements after 21-day exposure to sham-filtered air. In contrast, IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher following HEPA filtration (0.668 pg/mL; CI = 0.465–0.959 compared to sham filtration. Likewise, PNC adjusted for time activity were associated with increasing IL-6 in 14- and 21-day moving averages, and PNC was associated with decreasing blood pressure in Lags 0, 1 and 2, and in a 3-day moving average. These negative associations were unexpected and could be due to a combination of factors including exposure misclassification, unsuccessful randomization (i.e., IL-6 and use of anti-inflammatory medicines, or uncontrolled confounding. Studies with greater reduction in UFP levels and larger sample sizes are needed. There also needs to be more complete assessment of resident time activity and of outdoor vs. indoor source

  12. Cost-effectiveness of medical primary prevention strategies to reduce absolute risk of cardiovascular disease in Tanzania: a Markov modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngalesoni, Frida N; Ruhago, George M; Mori, Amani T; Robberstad, Bjarne; Norheim, Ole F

    2016-05-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a growing cause of mortality and morbidity in Tanzania, but contextualized evidence on cost-effective medical strategies to prevent it is scarce. We aim to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of medical interventions for primary prevention of CVD using the World Health Organization's (WHO) absolute risk approach for four risk levels. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from a societal perspective using two Markov decision models: CVD risk without diabetes and CVD risk with diabetes. Primary provider and patient costs were estimated using the ingredients approach and step-down methodologies. Epidemiological data and efficacy inputs were derived from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We used disability- adjusted life years (DALYs) averted as the outcome measure. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the model results. For CVD low-risk patients without diabetes, medical management is not cost-effective unless willingness to pay (WTP) is higher than US$1327 per DALY averted. For moderate-risk patients, WTP must exceed US$164 per DALY before a combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and diuretic (Diu) becomes cost-effective, while for high-risk and very high-risk patients the thresholds are US$349 (ACEI, calcium channel blocker (CCB) and Diu) and US$498 per DALY (ACEI, CCB, Diu and Aspirin (ASA)) respectively. For patients with CVD risk with diabetes, a combination of sulfonylureas (Sulf), ACEI and CCB for low and moderate risk (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) US$608 and US$115 per DALY respectively), is the most cost-effective, while adding biguanide (Big) to this combination yielded the most favourable ICERs of US$309 and US$350 per DALY for high and very high risk respectively. For the latter, ASA is also part of the combination. Medical preventive cardiology is very cost-effective for all risk levels except low CVD risk. Budget impact analyses and

  13. TAPIOCA AND RICE FLOUR COOKIES: TECHNOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

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    Simone de Souza Montes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTapioca flour is derived from the starch extracted from manioc and is a widely used food product in Brazil. Rice flour is produced from grains of rice and is used in the production of bread, porridge, cakes and cookies, which are recommended for people with celiac disease. The goal of this work was to add value to the aforementioned products by developing cookies based on tapioca and rice flours. Five formulations were prepared: A 100:0, B 75:25, C 50:50, D 25:75 and E 0:100 to tapioca and rice flour respectively, with the addition of brown sugar, and analyses its technological, nutritional and sensory properties. The following physical, physicochemical and nutritional properties were analyzed: dough texture profile, cookie weight, diameter and volume, acidity, water activity, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, dietary fiber, ash content and moisture. A sensory evaluation was held using an affective test with 90 judges and a structured nine-point hedonic scale ranging from 'like extremely' to 'dislike extremely' for the attributes scent, color, texture, taste and overall impression in addition to purchase intent. The results indicate that cookies made of tapioca and rice flours with the addition of brown sugar have technological, physicochemical and nutritional profiles within legal standards; however, the fiber contents were below recommendations. The sensory evaluation showed good acceptance of the cookies, with average scores above 7.0. This study is part of an attempt to raise further discussions regarding the production of new low-cost bakery products that are nutritionally enriched, viable and easily accessible to all, including to people with celiac disease.

  14. Research on carbohydrate in pea flour residue%豌豆粉渣中碳水化合物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚杰; 杨艳; 孟庆军; 张利群; 史建国

    2011-01-01

    豌豆粉渣是粉丝厂的主要残渣废弃物,为解决其回收再利用的问题,本文测定了豌豆粉渣中粗蛋白、纤维素、淀粉的含量,同时对其进行酸水解,并采用还原糖测定仪法测定水解液中的还原糖含量。测定结果蛋白质含量9.936%±0.0483%,纤维素含量21.78%±0.523%,DE值11.35±0.296,酸水解获得还原糖浓度约38mg/dL。%Pea flour residue is the main waste of pea bean starch-made noodle factory. We determined crude protein, cellulose and starch content in pea flour residue, performed acid hydrolysis for pea flour residue and determined reducing sugar content in acid hydrolysis with automatic analyzer to recycle the pea flour residue. Determination results are crude protein content of 9. 936% ± 0. 0483 %, cellulose content of 21. 78% ± 0.52.3 %, DE value of 11.35 ±0. 296 and reducing sugar content of approximate 38 mg/dL.

  15. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

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    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  16. Nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory evaluation of cookies prepared from wheat flour and pitaya (Hylocereus undatus peel flour blends

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    Lee-Hoon Ho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food waste produced from fruits and vegetables processing plants possesses an important natural and valuable material in producing less expensive functional food due to the presence of several bioactive substances. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the nutritional composition, physical properties, and sensory quality of the control, wheat flour cookies substituted with 5, 10, and 15% pitaya peel flour (PPF. The proximate analyses results demonstrated that PPF-containing cookies had significantly higher ash, fiber, and carbohydrate content but lower moisture and protein than the control. Physical analyses results showed that cookies incorporated with PPF had higher diameter and spread ratio but lower crumb height than the control. Sensory evaluation results indicated that wheat flour partially substituted with PPF up to 15% level did not affect to the overall acceptability ratings of cookies by panelists. Thus it can be concluded that PPF can be partially substituted for wheat flour in cookies to improve the nutritional quality without affecting the sensory acceptability of composite cookies.

  17. Stability of porridge pre-mixture made with Brazil nut flour and green banana flour with and without milk powder

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    Clarissa Reschke Da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of Brazil nut flour and green banana flour can improve the nutritional value of school meals, allowing for the use of regional ingredients derived from family agriculture. This study aimed to assess the stability of porridge pre-mixtures made with Brazil nut flour and green banana flour during six months of storage. Two types of pre-mixture were evaluated: with and without milk powder. These mixtures were packed in polyethylene/metallized polyester film, vacuum-sealed, and stored at room temperature. The products were evaluated for physicochemical composition, and every 30 days for moisture content, water activity, titratable acidity, pH, peroxide value and acidity of the lipid phase, total and thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and molds, and sensory acceptance. There was no difference between the mixtures for the parameters evaluated. Moisture content, water activity, acidity of the lipid phase, and the yeast and mold count increased with storage time. The growth of yeasts and molds was more pronounced after 90 days of storage, when water activity reached the limit of 0.60. Although both products had good sensory acceptance throughout the period of study, it is recommended that the shelf life does not exceed 90 days.

  18. Reintroduction of gluten following flour transamidation in adult celiac patients: a randomized, controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Salvati, Virginia M; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Stefanile, Rosita; Capobianco, Federica; Luongo, Diomira; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Giardullo, Nicola; Malamisura, Basilio; Rossi, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is mandatory for celiac disease (CD) but has poor compliance, justifying novel strategies. We found that wheat flour transamidation inhibited IFN-γ secretion by intestinal T cells from CD patients. Herein, the primary endpoint was to evaluate the ability of transamidated gluten to maintain GFD CD patients in clinical remission. Secondary endpoints were efficacy in prevention of the inflammatory response and safety at the kidney level, where reaction products are metabolized. In a randomized single blinded, controlled 90-day trial, 47 GFD CD patients received 3.7 g/day of gluten from nontransamidated (12) or transamidated (35) flour. On day 15, 75% and 37% of patients in the control and experimental groups, respectively, showed clinical relapse (P = 0.04) whereas intestinal permeability was mainly altered in the control group (50% versus 20%, P = 0.06). On day 90, 0 controls and 14 patients in the experimental group completed the challenge with no variation of antitransglutaminase IgA (P = 0.63), Marsh-Oberhuber grading (P = 0.08), or intestinal IFN-γ mRNA (P > 0.05). Creatinine clearance did not vary after 90 days of treatment (P = 0.46). In conclusion, transamidated gluten reduced the number of clinical relapses in challenged patients with no changes of baseline values for serological/mucosal CD markers and an unaltered kidney function.

  19. Elaboração de bolo com farinha de Yacon Cake developed with Yacon flour

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    Claudia Severo da Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A batata Yacon apresenta carboidratos na forma de frutooligossacarídeos (FOS. Estudos comprovam que os FOS aumentam a saciedade e reduzem o índice glicêmico. Os produtos da fermentação podem minimizar a resposta glicêmica, além de estimular a glicólise, e ainda resultam em uma porção reduzida de energia. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram elaborar a farinha de Yacon, avaliar a composição química de diferentes concentrações de farinha de Yacon na elaboração de bolos e analisar sensorialmente as preparações elaboradas. A farinha de Yacon apresentou potencial como ingrediente na formulação de bolos, uma vez que teve boa aceitabilidade.The Yacon potatoes present carbohydrates in the form of fructo oligosaccharides (FOS. There are studies proving that the FOS delays the gastric emptying, increase the alimentary fiber,have prebiotic and hypoglycemic effects. They stimulate glycolysis, resulting in a reduced amount of energy. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition of cakes formulated with different concentrations of Yacon flour and to evaluate their sensory characteristics. The Yacon flour presented potential to be a cake ingredient.

  20. Effect of low temperature plasma on the functional properties of basmati rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumdas, Rohit; Deshmukh, R R; Annapure, U S

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the application of low temperature plasma on basmati rice flour and its effect on functional properties such as gel hydrations properties, flour hydration properties, gelatinization temperatures and antioxidant properties. The water holding capacity and water binding capacity were observed to be increased with increase in plasma power and time of treatment as the air plasma is known to make the surface more hydrophilic. XRD analysis revealed there is no significance difference in the crystalline structure after the plasma treatment. DSC shows a decrease in peak temperatures (Tp) after the treatment. Hot paste viscosities were observed to be decease from 692 to 591 BU was corresponded to decrease in peak temperature. The total polyphenolic content and reducing power was observed to be increased. The effects of plasma treatment on functional groups of polyphenols were observed by changes in absorption intensities using FTIR. This study demonstrates that the low temperature plasma treatmentis capable of improving the functional properties of basmati rice.

  1. A new alkalophilic isolate of Bacillus as a producer of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase using cassava flour

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    Sheila Lorena de Araújo Coelho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase catalyzes the conversion of starch into non-reducing cyclic sugars, cyclodextrins, which have several industrial applications. This study aimed to establish optimal culture conditions for β-CGTase production by Bacillus sp. SM-02, isolated from soil of cassava industries waste water lake. The optimization was performed by Central Composite Design (CCD 2, using cassava flour and corn steep liquor as substrates. The maximum production of 1087.9 U mL−1 was obtained with 25.0 g L−1 of cassava flour and 3.5 g L−1 of corn steep after 72 h by submerged fermentation. The enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C, and maintained thermal stability at 55 °C for 3 h. The enzymatic activity was stimulated in the presence of Mg+2, Ca+2, EDTA, K+, Ba+2 and Na+ and inhibited in the presence of Hg+2, Cu+2, Fe+2 and Zn+2. The results showed that Bacillus sp. SM-02 have good potential for β-CGTase production.

  2. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. peel flour

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    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%, protein (28.3% and dietary fibber (31%, while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1. The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%. Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.

  3. Influence of high-dose gamma radiation and particle size on antioxidant properties of Maize ( Zea mays L.) flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawaz, Haq; Shad, Muhammad Aslam; Rehman, Tanzila; Ramzan, Ayesha, E-mail: haqnawaz@bzu.edu.pk [Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    Influence of high-dose gamma radiation and particle size on antioxidant properties of maize (Zea mays L.) flour was studied using response surface methodology. A central composite design based on three levels of each of particle size, in terms of mesh number (40, 60 and 80 meshes), and gamma radiation dose (25, 50 and 75 kGy) was constructed. A statistically significant dose-dependent decrease (p<0.05) in antioxidant properties of gamma irradiated flour was observed. However, an increase in the mesh number (decrease in particle size of flour) resulted in an increase in antioxidant properties. The optimum level of radiation dose to achieve maximum value of responses was found to be 50 kGy for Trolox equivalent total antioxidant activity (TETAOA), 25 kGy for iron chelating ability (ICA), 25 kGy for reducing power (RP) and 75 kGy for linoleic acid reduction capacity (LARC). However, the optimum level of mesh number to achieve desired levels of TETAOA, ICA, RP and LARC was found to be 80 meshes. (author)

  4. Biochemical Characteristics of Flours from Ivorian Taro (Colocasia Esculenta, Cv Yatan Corm as Affected by Boiling Time

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    Anon Simplice Amon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flour from Ivorian taro (Colocasia esculenta, cv yatan corm as affected by boiling time. The change in boiling time led to a significant (p<0.05 reduction in the iodine affinity of starch, total carbohydrate, total phenolic compound, reducing and total sugars contents, whereas the moisture content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p<0.05. The crude fat, crude fibre, crude protein and total ash contents were not affected by the change in boiling time. The flour of Ivorian taro corm is a good source of carbohydrate, fiber and ash. It contained a fair amount of crude protein and showed a high water absorption capacity and iodine affinity of starch. Within this flour, calcium, iron, sodium, zinc and copper had the lowest values while phosphorus, potassium and magnesium had the highest values. Significant correlations were observed between such constituents and physico-functional properties as moisture and water solubility index; crude fat and iodine affinity starch; total carbohydrate and paste clarity; total phenolic compound and forming capacity. PCA showed that FRTC was located at the left of the score plot, while FBTC20, FBTC35 and FBTC50 had a positive score in the first principal component.

  5. Effect of gelatinized flour fraction on thermal and rheological properties of wheat-based dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Guadarrama-Lezama, A Y; Vernon-Carter, E J; García-Díaz, S; Reyes, I; Alvarez-Ramírez, J

    2016-11-01

    This work considered gelatinized wheat flour fraction with properties similar to hydrocolloid to enhance the strength of dough network by improving water retention and rheological characteristics. The gelatinized (90 °C) fraction of the wheat flour was incorporated in the dough formulation at different levels (5, 10, and 20% w/w). The effects of the gelatinized flour (GF) fraction on the dough rheology and thermal properties were studied. The incorporation of GF induced a moderate increase of dough viscoelasticity and reduced the freezing and melting enthalpies. On the other hand, the changes in bread textural properties brought by incorporation of GF were insignificant, indicating that the gelatinized fraction acted as a binder that enhanced water trapping in the structure. SEM images showed a more heterogeneous crumb microstructure (e.g., gas cells, porous, etc.) bread prepared using GF. Drying kinetics obtained from TGA indicated that the water diffusivity decreased with the incorporation of GF, which suggested that the bread had a compact microstructure.

  6. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread).

  7. Assessment of home-based processing methods to reduce the phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio of white maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, C; Gibson, R S

    2001-02-01

    Various methods of processing maize suitable for household use in rural Malawi, Central Africa, were investigated for their ability to reduce its phytate content and phytate/zinc molar ratio. These methods included fermentation, germination, and soaking. Penta- and hexainositol phosphates were measured by HPLC, and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Natural lactic fermentation of maize flour slurries resulted in 88% phytate retention compared to unprocessed, unrefined maize flour porridges, whereas lower phytate retention was observed when a starter culture (61%) or germinated flour (71%) was also used. Fermentation of cooked maize flour porridges with germinated flour added resulted in 54-85% retention of phytate compared to controls. Soaking maize flour or pounded maize and decanting excess water resulted in 43 and 49% retention of phytate, respectively. The latter soaking procedures were simple and effective and were suitable for household use in rural Malawian communities.

  8. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  9. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Enhancement of the nutritional status of beef patties by adding flaxseed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif Bilek, A; Turhan, Sadettin

    2009-08-01

    Flaxseed flour was used as a functional ingredient in the production of beef patties. Beef patties were produced with five different formulations; the addition of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% flaxseed flour. Control samples were formulated with 10% and 20% fat addition. Raw and cooked beef patties were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, ash, pH, color parameters and fatty acid profiles. Beef patties were evaluated for cooking loss and sensory properties. Fat and ash content of raw patties increased, while moisture and protein content decreased with increased flaxseed flour. The same trend (except fat content) was also observed after cooking. The addition of flaxseed flour did not affect pH values of raw and cooked beef patties. The addition of flaxseed flour improved the cooking loss but, increased the energy value (as kcal/100g). L and a values of raw beef patties containing flaxseed flour were close to controls with 10% fat. α-linolenic acid content of raw and cooked beef patties increased as the level of flaxseed flour increased. The PUFA/SFA ratio increased from 0.04 in the control with 10% fat to 0.62 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased from 5.76 in the control with 10% fat to 0.36 in the raw beef patties with 15% flaxseed flour. The nutritional status of beef patties was enhanced with minimal composition and sensory changes with 3% or 6% flaxseed flour addition.

  11. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  12. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours, run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours. The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU. Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU, trough (442 RVU, breakdown viscosity (20 RVU, final viscosity (975 RVU, setback (533 RVU, peak time (5.47 min and pasting temperature (89.60 °C. These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  13. Technological Properties of Wheat/Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumetorum Hardened Tubers Composite Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Josette Essa’a

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of trifoliate hardened-yam flours to partially substitute wheat flour in food formulations was assessed. Three varieties of hardened-yam flour were incorporated in wheat flour in proportions of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% (w/w. Samples were evaluated for protein content, Zeleny sedimentation index, Hagberg falling number, functional properties (WAC, WSI, and OAC, and some rheological properties including dough rupture pressure (P, extensibility (L, stability (P/L, and deformation energy (W. Results showed that trifoliate hardened-yam flours do not have acceptable baking properties as pictured by the low Zeleny sedimentation index and the low Hagberg falling number. Protein quality (Zeleny index, 31 of wheat flour helped to compensate gluten deficit of yam flours, but the amylasic activity determined by the Hagberg falling number could not be adjusted, which resulted in a loss of extensibility (L of the paste at 10% substitution. Multivariate analysis of experimental data regrouped wheat flour and all wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours in one homogeneous cluster. Although wheat/hardened-yam treated with kanwa composite flours had physicochemical and functional properties similar to wheat, the inadequate diastasic activity makes them inappropriate for bread making, marking the strongest influence of that parameter.

  14. Several techniques for the preparation of flour from carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Regina Takeuchi FERNANDES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFlour prepared via current assay methodologies from the carcasses of the Pantanal alligator (Caiman crocodilus yacare was analyzed for its chemical composition, minerals, fatty acids, and sensorial profile. Carcasses of the Pantanal alligator, originating from the Coocrijapan scientific zoo, Cáceres MT Brazil, were utilized. The carcasses were cooked for 60 minutes in a pressure cooker with water containing 2% salt and 5% chimichurri. The cooked carcasses were then ground and the mass was used for the manufacture of flour via three techniques: non-smoked, hot-smoked, and liquid-smoked. After each technique, the carcasses were dehydrated at 60ºC for 3h and were ground. Alligator flour was then produced. The moisture of liquid-smoked flour (10.97% was higher than that of non-smoked flour (3.78% and hot-smoked flour (4.43%. The flours provided high protein (57.11% - 58.27% and ash (23.45 – 26.42% rates, and were predominantly calcium (6.77% - 7.69%, phosphorus (3.67% - 4.05%, and iron (73.13 – 273.73 ppm/100 mg. Smoked-flour had a better acceptance rate by tasters when compared to non-smoked flour. Results show that flours produced from alligator carcasses had high protein, ash, and mineral rates and a reasonable acceptability by most tasters.

  15. Development and characterization of ice cream enriched with different formulations flour jabuticaba bark (Myrciaria cauliflora

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    Marina Leopoldina Lamounier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to perform the physicochemical characterization of the flour from the bark of jabuticaba, as well as developing three ice cream formulations (enriched with 0, 5 and 10% of this flour and evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fruits were pulped, the peels were dehydrated, dried, crushed and sieved to obtain the flour that was analyzed for physicochemical levels. Then, three ice cream formulations were developed (with 0%, 5% and 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, considering the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics. The results showed that the flour from the bark of jabuticaba showed high ash and fiber. The ice creams showed differences (p < 0.05 for pH, titratable acidity, moisture and ash due to the incorporation of flour from the bark of jabuticaba. The only attribute that did not differ (p > 0.05 was soluble solid. The overrun was ecreasing with increasing addition of flour. In the sensory evaluation, only attributes that differ (p < 0.05 were flavor, texture and overall appearance of the formulation with 10% flour from the bark of jabuticaba, which represents that incorporation of 5% flour from the bark of jabuticaba did not affect the cceptability of ice creams. It can be concluded that the enrichment of blemish bark flour provides edible ice increase in nutritional value without affecting the sensory characteristics at the level of 5% added.

  16. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of reproductive age found to be high. These results show that processing methods enhanced nutritional value of biofortified bean flour and that processed biofortified bean flour can be used to prepare nutrient and energy-dense gruel to improve on nutritional status of children under 5 years and women of reproductive age.

  17. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  18. Quality of [omega]-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripudaman Singh; Manish K Chatli; Ashim K Biswas; Jhari Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    ...]-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T^sub 1^), 2% canola flour (T^sub 2^), 3% linseed oil (T^sub 3^), and 4% canola oil (T^sub 4...

  19. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  20. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  1. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  2. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  3. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoumpos, Sokratis; Jardine, Alan G.; Mark, Patrick B.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) who would otherwise require dialysis. Patients with ESRD are at dramatically increased cardiovascular (CV) risk compared to the general population. As well as improving quality of life, successful transplantation accords major benefits by reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients. Worldwide, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death with a functioning graft and therefore is a ...

  4. Preventive Effects of Catechins on Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are polyphenolic phytochemicals with many important physiological activities that play a multifaceted health care function in the human body, especially in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, various experimental and clinical studies have revealed the role of catechins in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders, and we review the preventive effects of catechins on cardiovascular disease from the following aspects: Regulating lipid metabolism, regulating blood lipid metabolism, vascular endothelial protection, and reducing blood pressure.

  5. BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizabal, Jose Fernando

    2007-01-01

      It was considered that physical inactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease independent (1), for this reason today is given much importance to the activityPhysics for this concept becomes protective factor against coronary heart disease. In relation to physical activity and cardiovascular disease, applying the concept ofprimary cardiovascular prevention, authors like Paffenbarger, Morris, have stated that this is beneficial in terms of reducing risk of coronary heart disease (2-3...

  6. Effect of process and machine parameters on physical properties of extrudate during extrusion cooking of sorghum, horse gram and defatted soy flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basediya, A L; Pandey, Sheela; Shrivastava, S P; Khan, Khursheed Alam; Nema, Anura

    2013-02-01

    Extrusion cooking of sorghum (Sorghum vulgaris), horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) and defatted soy (Glycine max) flour blends was done to prepare snacks by using a Brabender single-screw laboratory extruder. The combined effect of moisture content, blend ratio of feed, barrel temperature and screw speed of extruder on physical parameters of extrudate was studied. It was observed that 15% moisture content of feed, 80:10:10 (sorghum flour: horse gram flour: defatted soy flour) of blend ratio, 130 °C barrel temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed gave the highest sectional expansion index and longitudinal expansion index of extrudate, while 12% moisture content, 75:15:10 of blend ratio of feed, 135 °C of barrel temperature and 135 rpm of screw speed gave lowest bulk density of extrudate. A central composite rotable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology was used to develop prediction model. Second order quadratic regression model fitted adequately in the variation. The significance was established at p ≤ 0.05. It was also observed that increasing feed moisture content results in a higher density and lower expansion of extrudate. Increasing barrel temperature and screw speed reduced density but increased expansion of extrudate.

  7. Effect of air classification and fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-133328 on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) flour nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Melama, Leena; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Pulkkinen, Marjo; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-16

    The effects of air classification and lactic acid bacteria fermentation on the reduction of anti-nutritional factors (vicine and convicine, trypsin inhibitor activity, condensed tannins and phytic acid) and in vitro protein and starch digestibility of faba bean flour were studied. Free amino acid (FAA) profile analysis was also carried out. Air classification allowed the separation of the flour into protein and starch rich fractions, showing different chemical compositions and microstructures. Lactobacillus plantarum growth and acidification in faba bean flour and its fractions were assessed. The anti-nutritional compounds were separated mostly to the fine protein-rich fraction. Fermentation caused the decrease of vicine and convicine contents by more than 91% and significantly reduced trypsin inhibitor activity and condensed tannins (by more than 40% in the protein-rich fraction). No significant (P>0.05) variation was observed for total phenols and phytic acid content. Fermentation increased the amount of FAA, especially of the essential amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, enhanced the in vitro protein digestibility and significantly lowered the hydrolysis index. This work showed that the combination of air classification and fermentation improved nutritional functionality of faba bean flour which could be utilized in various food applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Concentrations of blood folate in Brazilian studies prior to and after fortification of wheat and cornmeal (maize flour) with folic acid: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Jéssica Carrilho; Cançado, Rodolfo; Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira Maria

    2014-01-01

    In July 2004, the Brazilian Ministry of Health through the National Health Surveillance Agency made the fortification of wheat flour and cornmeal (maize flour) with iron and folic acid mandatory, with the intention of reducing the rate of diseases such as neural tube defects. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of the folic acid fortified wheat flour and cornmeal on serum and red blood cell folate levels and on the reduction of neural tube defects in different Brazilian studies. In order to compare folate concentrations in the Brazilian population prior to and following the implementation of mandatory fortification of wheat and cornmeal, studies that involved blood draws between January 1997 and May 2004 (pre-fortification period), and from June 2004 to the present (post-fortification period) were chosen. The data search included PubMed and Scopus databases as well as the Brazilian Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations. The following keywords were employed for the query: folate, folic acid, fortification, Brazil, healthy population, the elderly, children and pregnant women. A total of 47 Brazilian studies were selected; 26 from the pre-fortification period and 22 after the fortification implementation. The studies were classified according to the cohort investigated (pregnant women, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly). After the implementation of flour fortification with folic acid in Brazil, serum folate concentrations increased in healthy populations (57% in children and adolescents and 174% in adults), and the incidence of neural tube defects dropped. Folic acid fortification of wheat flour and cornmeal increased the blood folate concentrations and reduced the incidence of neural tube defects. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  10. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  11. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  12. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  13. Preparation of Desirable Porous Cell Structure Polylactide/Wood Flour Composite Foams Assisted by Chain Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA/wood flour composite foam were prepared through a batch foaming process. The effect of the chain extender on the crystallization behavior and dynamic rheological properties of the PLA/wood flour composites were investigated as well as the crystal structure and cell morphology of the composite foams. The incorporation of the chain extender enhanced the complex viscosity and storage modulus of PLA/wood flour composites, indicating the improved melt elasticity. The chain extender also led to a decreased crystallization rate and final crystallinity of PLA/wood flour composites. With an increasing chain extender content, a finer and more uniform cell structure was formed, and the expansion ratio of PLA/wood flour composite foams was much higher than without the chain extender. Compared to the unfoamed composites, the crystallinity of the foamed PLA/wood flour composites was improved and the crystal was loosely packed. However, the new crystalline form was not evident.

  14. Qualitative analysis of hexane flour extract of spelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Đura N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for performing a qualitative analysis of the hexane flour extract of three samples of spelt. All the three samples were first treated with hexane and the obtained extracts were used for the analysis of the fatty acid lipid components. The transesterification reaction was performed using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide, 0.2M in methanol, and the fatty acids were esterified from acylglycerol to methyl-esters. In all analyzed extracts, the predominant component was methyl linoleate, followed by methyl oleate and methyl palmitate. The subsequent tests, performed by cluster analysis, were used to compare the hexane flour extracts of different types of spelt. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46005 i br. TR 31066

  15. Mycological and mycotoxicological quality of wheat and flour fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Tatjana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed infection is a result of complex factors influence: weather conditions, health conditions of used seed, quantity of infective potentila in soil, etc. By visual evaluation, initial wheat sample has been divided in four fractions: healthy, dark germed, slightly and very fusarious. Three varietes from two localities 1 and 2 have been included in analyses. Beside the wheat, the mycotoxicological contamination of flour produced by grounding of given samples was monitored, too. The representatives of genera Fusarium were dominating, and the most frequent was F. oxysporum. The wheat and flour samples have also been analysed on presence of aflatoxin B1 "AB1" and G1 "AG1", ochratoxin A "OA" and zearalenone "F-2" toxin. AG1 had the lowest representation (2,3 g/kg and the highest representation was of F-2 toxin (even 500 g/kg.

  16. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  17. Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, A K; Reynoso-Camacho, R; Mendoza-Díaz, S; Loarca-Piña, G

    2014-10-15

    The effect of cooking followed by dehydration was evaluated on the bioactive composition, antioxidant activity and technological properties of two varieties (Negro 8025 and Bayo Madero) of common beans. Quercetin, rutin, and phenolic acids were the most abundant phenolics found. Cooking processes resulted in decreased values of some phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. A subsequent dehydration increased TEAC values, resistant starch content and decreased starch digestibility. Oligosaccharides and dietary fibre were preserved in both treatments. Variety had a strong impact on phytochemical profile, being Negro 8025 that exhibited the highest content of most of the compounds assessed. Water absorption index (WAI) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were determined in order to measure technological suitability. Dehydration produced flours with stable WAI and low oil pick up. The results suggest that the flours of Negro 8025 beans have a good potential to be considered as functional ingredient for healthy food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba-wheat flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M J; Salinas, M V; Carbas, B; Ferrero, C; Brites, C; Puppo, M C

    2017-06-01

    Algarroba flour is used to supplement lysine-limiting systems such as wheat flour due to its amino acidic composition. The effects of adding up to 30% of this flour to wheat flour (W-A30) on dough characteristics and breadmaking performance were studied. Dough rheology was tested by farinograph, oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analyses. Molecular mobility was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and viscoamylograph studies. Besides, different bread quality parameters were evaluated. Incorporation of algarroba flour resulted into increase in water absorption, development time and degree of softening, and decrease in stability of wheat flour, leading to softer, less adhesive and elastic dough, although at intermediate replacement levels cohesiveness improved. At the molecular level, a reduction of water activity and limited proton motion were observed in W-A30 samples, suggesting that protons were highly bound to the dough matrix. Dough samples with algarroba flour showed lower G' and G″ values than the control, although with the formation of a more elastic structure for W-A30. In addition, algarroba flour produced a protective effect on starch granule disruption and interfered with amylose-amylose association during cooling. The specific volume of breads decreased with the increase in algarroba level, W-A30 reaching the highest decrease (15%). Bread crumbs with algarroba flour exhibited higher values of hardness and resilience. The use of algarroba flour resulted in lower quality when compared to the control. However, algarroba flour at 20% level can be added to wheat flour to obtain bakery products of similar technological quality and with improved nutritional components.

  19. Soy Flour Adhesive Strength Compared with That of Purified Soy Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Lorenz; Michael Birkeland; Chera Daurio; Charles R. Frihart

    2015-01-01

    Except for the substitution of soy flour in phenolic resins (Frihart et al. 2013) and the use of soy flour at high pHs (Lambuth 2003), the literature on soy protein properties for adhesives has mainly focused on soy protein isolate and specific protein fractions (Sun 2005b). The assumption is that proteins are the main portion of soy flour giving bond strength and the...

  20. Occupational IgE-mediated allergy to Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, K; Tuomi, T; Vanhanen, M; Pajari-Backas, M; Kanerva, L; Havu, K; Saarinen, K; Bruynzeel, D P

    2000-09-01

    We report on IgE-mediated allergy in a worker caused by Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle). These beetles lived in the "old" flour to which he was exposed in his work. A 35-year-old, nonatopic mechanic in a rye crispbread factory developed rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms, as well as urticaria on his wrists, lower arms, hands, neck, and face, during the maintenance and repair of machines contaminated by flour. This flour had been in and on the machines for a long time, and it contained small beetles. The patient did not suffer any symptoms when handling fresh, clean flour. Skin prick tests with standard environmental allergens, storage mites, enzymes, flours, and molds were negative. A prick test with flour from the machines gave a 10-mm reaction. An open application of the same flour caused urticarial whealing on the exposed skin. Prick tests with fresh flour from the factory were negative. A prick test with minced T. confusum from the flour in the machines gave a 7-mm reaction. Histamine hydrochloride 10 mg/ml gave a 7-mm reaction. Specific serum IgE antibodies to T. confusum were elevated at 17.2 kU/l. Prick tests with the flour from the machines were negative in five control patients. The patient had occupational contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthmatic symptoms from exposure to flour. His symptoms were caused by immediate allergy to the beetle T. confusum. Immediate allergy to this beetle has rarely been reported in connection with respiratory symptoms, but it may be more common. Contact urticaria from this source has not been reported before.

  1. Changes in Characteristics of Kithul (Caryota urens) Flour Prepared by Different Modification Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Flour has been an ample source of research and most abundant material for a number of food applications. The aim of this study is to introduce modified Kithul flour for certain industrial requirements. Several physical and chemical treatments were employed to modify Kithul (Caryota urens) flour. The effects of pregelatinization (PG-I and II), acid modification (AC), and dextrinization (DX) on their swelling power, solubility, granular morphology, viscosity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern...

  2. A novel laboratory scale method for studying heat treatment of cake flour

    OpenAIRE

    Chesterton, A. K. S.; Wilson, D I; Sadd, P. I.; Moggridge, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. The final version is available from Elsevier at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0260877414003112. A lab-scale method for replicating the time–temperature history experienced by cake flours undergoing heat treatment was developed based on a packed bed configuration. The performance of heat-treated flours was compared with untreated and commercially heat-treated flour by test baking a high ratio cake formulation. Both cake volume and...

  3. [Chemical composition and biological quality of defatted hazelnut flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Schneeberger, R; Ballester, D; Santibáñez, S

    1989-06-01

    The results of the chemical composition and biological quality of deffated hazel nut flour are shown. The samples analyzed contained significant amounts of proteins (19%) comparable to legume flour, higher than cereals and lower than deffated oleaginous flours. The oil extracted from the seed was analyzed and the average results obtained were the following: Refraction index, 1.47; saponification No. 184.8; iodine No. 85.0. The average composition of the fatty acids obtained by gas liquid chromatography was: Palmitic acid 2.3% Palmitoleic acid 37.0% Stearic acid 0.5% Oleic acid 39.5% Linoleic acid 6.9% Linolenic acid 1.1% Eicosanoic acid 2.3% Eicosaenoic acid 4.6% Docosenoic acid 3.4% Tetraeicosanoic acid 0.3% These results indicate a good-quality oil due to the low content of linolenic acid. The nutritive value of the deffated meal measured in the rats gave a net protein ratio (NPR) of 3.58, lower than the corresponding casein value (4.10). The true protein digestibility measured in the rat gave a value of 7.3%, compared to 95% for casein. The amounts of iron and phosphorous are comparatively lower than those reported for rape-seed meal and sunflower meal.

  4. Estabilidade de farinha de batata-doce biofortificada Stability of biofortified sweet potato flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Vercelino Alves

    2012-03-01

    -doce biofortificada.Sweet potato flour, when made from roots with high β-carotene contents, is a source of pro-vitamin A, presenting beneficial effects for human health. Thus aiming at contributing to the supply of vitamin A in the diet of more needy populations, EMBRAPA has selected and improved some crops via biofortification, such as the sweet potato, and developed products with the biofortified raw material. Complementing these developments, the purpose of this study was to correlate the effect of the type of package and packaging system on the product, in the preservation of the carotenoids in the biofortified sweet potato flour. The flour was packed with and without vacuum in packs with different oxygen, water vapour and light barriers (PET/Al/LDPE, PETmet/LDPE, LDPE/PA/LDPE and LDPE and stored at 25 °C/75%RH with and without exposure to light. Losses of 50% of the total carotenoids and β-carotene occurred in the flour packed in PETmet/LDPE and LDPE without vacuum after 50 days of storage, due to the residual oxygen in the headspace and the high oxygen transmission rate in the case of LDPE, where the internal atmosphere showed the composition of air throughout the study. Losses of 50% carotenoids occurred after 90 days with and without exposure to light in the flour packed in LDPE/PA/LDPE with vacuum, indicating that in the presence of light, the carotenoid oxidation reaction is restricted to flour in contact with the surface of the package. Under vacuum and packed in PETmet/LDPE, the carotenoid contents of the flour reduced slightly, but were preserved for up to 360 days of storage when packed in PET/Al/LDPE. The results indicate that the key factors to preserve carotenoids in biofortified sweet potato flour are the reduction of the oxygen level in the headspace of the package by the application of vacuum, together with the use of packaging materials with an oxygen barrier as good as that of PET with a metalized barrier.

  5. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  6. Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Gallo, Antonio; Cerioli, Carla; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The use of rice/leguminous blend may be nutritionally convenient in gluten free product manufacturing. Gluten free spaghetti was prepared with rice flour and different concentrations of bean flour (included at levels of 0%, 20% and 40%, w/w) derived from a new developed white-seeded low phytic acid and lectin free (ws+lpa+lf) bean cultivar. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased linearly (Presistant starch content, while decreasing quadratically (Pglycemic index. The partial replacement of rice flour with bean flour can favourably be used in gluten free spaghetti formulation.

  7. Effect of harvesting periods on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of delayed harvesting on the chemical and pasting properties of trifoliate yam flour were studied. The tubers were harvested at 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11months after maturity and were processed into flours. Chemical and pasting properties of the flours were determined. White trifoliate yam flour at 11months was significantly different (p0.05) from yellow trifoliate yam flour at 11months. Amylose and starch contents decreased while the sugar contents increased with harvesting periods. Yellow trifoliate yam flour had higher amylose at 10months while the white trifoliate yam flour had higher starch at 9months and sugar contents at 11months. Potassium and sodium were the major minerals found in the yam with higher values in yellow trifoliate yam flours. Peak viscosity and breakdown decreased while the holding strength and final viscosities increased with harvesting periods. Harvesting trifoliate yam tubers at 7-9months produced flour with high quality and prevents post harvest losses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical Characteristics of Coleus tuberosus Flour and Noodle in Various Arenga Starch Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftakhussolikhah; Ariani, D.; Angwar, M.; Kevin, J.

    2017-04-01

    Coleus tuberosus is one of local commodities in Indonesia which contains high carbohydrate. However, its utilization does note maximally. Therefore, C. tuberosus made into flour by grater method, and then used for noodle making with arenga strach as substituting material. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of C. tuberosus flour substitution in noodle preparation from arenga starch on its textural and sensory properties. In this study, noodle was made in some variations which were 100% arenga starch; 75% arenga starch:25% C. tuberosus flour; 50% arenga starch:50% C. tuberosus flour; 25% arenga starch:75% C. tuberosus flour and 100% C. tuberosus flour. Characterization of noodle were investigated including water content, strength, tensile strength, strain at break and stickiness. Sensory evaluation was conducted to analyse consumers acceptance. Noodle was compared with two commercial products. The result showed that arenga starch substitution in C. tuberosus noodle affect textural properties of noodle. The higher concentration of C. tuberosus flour caused tensile strength and strain at break getting low. The water content and stickiness were increased as the C. tuberosus flour substitution ratio increase. None of the noodle resulted from C. tuberosus flour and arenga starch mixture was exactly as same as maize and rice commercial noodles. However 25% of C.tuberosus noodle has better characteristics than other C.tuberosus noodles.

  9. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G.; Mársico, Eliane T.; Soares, Manoel S.; Magalhães, Amanda O.; Canto, Anna Carolina V. C. S.; Costa-Lima, Bruno R. C.; Alvares, Thiago S.; Conte, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p tilapia flour decreased (p tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C. PMID:27973565

  10. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  12. Effect of drying temperatures on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Astuti, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Different drying temperatures produce different starch structure, while the remains of lactic acid in sorghum grain might continue starch modification during drying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drying temperatures (40, 50, 60° C) on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid. Higher drying temperatures produced sorghum flour, with higher viscosity and swelling power, but lower whiteness and solubility. Modified sorghum flour showed higher value than the unmodified flour at all characteristics. Infrared spectroscopy showed that modification shifted absorption peak from 1,334 cm-1 to 1,373 cm-1, but there was no difference between samples dried at different temperatures.

  13. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  14. Hypertension, the kidney, and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, N.G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension and chronic kidney disease are both independent risk factors for first or subsequent cardiovascular events. Blood pressure-lowering therapy is recommended in patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease, in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.

  15. Physicochemical, Phytochemical and Nutrimental Impact of Fortified Cereal Based Extrudate Snacks: Effect of Jackfruit Seed Flour Addition and Extrusion Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of present study was to estimate quantitative changes in nutrimental, physicochemical and phytochemical properties of rice-jackfruit seed flour blend extrudates. Rice-jackfruit seed flour blend was prepared at 70:30 proportions and was subjected to extrusion cooking. Effect of barrel temperature (140-180°C and screw speed (100-300 rpm on nutrimental, physicochemical (expansion, density, WSI, WAI and hardness and phytochemical (TPC and TFC properties were studied. Rice flour extrudate was found to have 6.63% protein and 0.17% fiber which were further increased to about 8.44 and 0.8%, respectively after addition of jackfruit seed flour at 180°C with 300 rpm. Extrusion cooking at lower barrel temperature resulted in increase in TPC and TFC. Rice-jackfruit seed flour blend extrudate at 180°C with 100 rpm resulted in highest antioxidant capacity and reducing power (208.56 µmol of TE/g and 0.26 mg of AAE/g of dry powder respectively. Practical applications: Although there is increased use of extrusion processing, but still there is no fully developed theory to predict the effects of process variables on various raw materials and their mixtures. Any change in feed composition and process variables can influence extrusion performance as well as product quality. Therefore, it is crucial to study the effect of extrusion process parameters (barrel temperature and screw speed on extrudate characteristics. Also, the researchers, so far, tried lots of combinations for nutraceutical enrichment of extrudate snacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report on extrusion cooking of RF fortified with JFSF. In future, this data could be useful for food processing industries. Originality of this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing value added extrudates with improved nutrimental and nutraceutical appeal. Present study shows potential for utilization of jackfruit seed which is part of the waste generated in large quantities when the

  16. Psoriasis: an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, D G; Shelling, M; Prodanovich, S; Gunderson, C G; Kirsner, R S

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is highly prevalent and is associated with skin-associated complaints as well as arthritis, depression and a lower quality of life. Recently, it has been demonstrated that not only do patients with psoriasis have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction, and for those with severe disease, increased mortality. Dermatologists and other health professionals need to be cognizant of this association and ensure that cardiovascular risk factors are evaluated and treated appropriately in those patients with psoriasis. We review the association between psoriasis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, as well as some treatable cardiovascular risk factors that may prove beneficial in reducing a patient's cardiovascular risk.

  17. Double-blind cluster randomised controlled trial of wheat flour chapatti fortified with micronutrients on the status of vitamin A and iron in school-aged children in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmed S; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, Faiz; Alam, Mohammad S; Wahed, Mohammad A; Sack, David A

    2015-12-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to prevent or correct micronutrient deficiencies. A double-blind cluster (bari) randomised controlled trial was conducted in a rural community in Bangladesh to evaluate the impact of consumption of chapatti made of micronutrient-fortified wheat flour for 6 months by school-aged children on their vitamin A, haemoglobin and iron status. A total of 43 baris (group of households) were randomly selected. The baris were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group received wheat flour fortified with added micronutrients (including 66 mg hydrogen-reduced elemental iron and 3030 μg retinol equivalent as retinyl palmitate per kilogram of flour), while the control group received wheat flour without added micronutrients. A total of 352 children were enrolled in the trial, 203 in the intervention group and 149 in the control group. Analyses were carried out on children who completed the study (191 in the intervention group and 143 in the control group). Micronutrient-fortified wheat flour chapatti significantly increased serum retinol concentration at 6 months by 0.12 μmol L(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.19; P levels or anaemia was observed. Consumption of fortified chapattis demonstrated a significant improvement in the vitamin A status, but not in iron, haemoglobin or anaemia status.

  18. RVA and Farinograph Properties Study on Blends of Resistant Starch and Wheat Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Lei; TIAN Ji-chun; SUN Cai-ling; LI Chun

    2008-01-01

    Resistant starch (RS) is the undigested starch that passes through the small intestine to the large intestine. As a functional low calorie additive, it has special applications in the food industry. Rapid visco analysis (RVA) and the Brabender farinograph were used to study the pasting properties and the viscoelasticity of blends of RS (RS3 and RS2) and three wheat flours. The wheat flours represented strong gluten wheat (SGW), intermediate gluten wheat (IGW), and weak gluten wheat (WGW) flours, at different levels of RS substitution (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%). The influence of RS3 on the control wheat flours and RS-wheat flour blends were consistent with those of RS2. The peak, trough, and final viscosities of RS3-wheat flour blends were higher than those of the corresponding RS2-wheat flour blends. The peak, trough, breakdown, final, and setback viscosities of wheat-RS blends decreased with an increase in resistant starch contents from 0 to 20% in the blends. The 0-20% RS-wheat flour blends were all able to form doughs. The dough development times, dough stabilities, dough breakdown times, and farinograph quality numbers for the RS-wheat flour blends decreased as the RS proportion in the blends increased. The values for RS-SGW flour blends were the highest, followed by RS-IGW and then RS-WGW flour blends. The water absorption values for RS-wheat flour blends and the mixing tolerance index for RS-WGW flour blends were found to increase significantly with an increasing proportion of RS from 0 to 20%, but the mixing tolerance index for RS-SGW and RS-IGW flour blends showed no significant differences amongst the different ratios. Correlation analysis showed that the Farinograph quality number was highly positively correlated with dough breakdown time, dough stability, and dough development time (r= 1.000, 0.958, 0.894), and highly negatively correlated with the mixing tolerance index (r=-0.890). Data from this study can be used for the development of dough

  19. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John; Su, Lan; Moore, Jeffrey; Cheng, Zhihong; Luther, Marla; Rao, Jaladanki N; Wang, Jian-Ying; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2006-05-31

    Seed flours from black raspberry, red raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, pinot noir grape, and chardonnay grape were