WorldWideScience

Sample records for flores population affinities

  1. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  2. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: Population affinities and pathological abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, T.; Indriati, E.; Soejono, R. P.; Hsü, K.; Frayer, D. W.; Eckhardt, R. B.; Kuperavage, A. J.; Thorne, A.; Henneberg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose ...

  3. Genetic affinities between endogamous and inbreeding populations of Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal; Pandey, Atul Kumar; Tripathi, Manorma; Talwar, Sudha; Bisen, Prakash S; Borkar, Minal; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2007-04-07

    India has experienced several waves of migration since the Middle Paleolithic. It is believed that the initial demic movement into India was from Africa along the southern coastal route, approximately 60,000-85,000 years before present (ybp). It has also been reported that there were two other major colonization which included eastward diffusion of Neolithic farmers (Elamo Dravidians) from Middle East sometime between 10,000 and 7,000 ybp and a southern dispersal of Indo Europeans from Central Asia 3,000 ybp. Mongol entry during the thirteenth century A.D. as well as some possible minor incursions from South China 50,000 to 60,000 ybp may have also contributed to cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity in India. Therefore, the genetic affinity and relationship of Indians with other world populations and also within India are often contested. In the present study, we have attempted to offer a fresh and immaculate interpretation on the genetic relationships of different North Indian populations with other Indian and world populations. We have first genotyped 20 tetra-nucleotide STR markers among 1800 north Indian samples of nine endogamous populations belonging to three different socio-cultural strata. Genetic distances (Nei's DA and Reynold's Fst) were calculated among the nine studied populations, Caucasians and East Asians. This analysis was based upon the allelic profile of 20 STR markers to assess the genetic similarity and differences of the north Indian populations. North Indians showed a stronger genetic relationship with the Europeans (DA 0.0341 and Fst 0.0119) as compared to the Asians (DA 0.1694 and Fst - 0.0718). The upper caste Brahmins and Muslims were closest to Caucasians while middle caste populations were closer to Asians. Finally, three phylogenetic assessments based on two different NJ and ML phylogenetic methods and PC plot analysis were carried out using the same panel of 20 STR markers and 20 geo-ethnic populations. The three phylogenetic

  4. Genetic affinities between endogamous and inbreeding populations of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkar Minal

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has experienced several waves of migration since the Middle Paleolithic. It is believed that the initial demic movement into India was from Africa along the southern coastal route, approximately 60,000–85,000 years before present (ybp. It has also been reported that there were two other major colonization which included eastward diffusion of Neolithic farmers (Elamo Dravidians from Middle East sometime between 10,000 and 7,000 ybp and a southern dispersal of Indo Europeans from Central Asia 3,000 ybp. Mongol entry during the thirteenth century A.D. as well as some possible minor incursions from South China 50,000 to 60,000 ybp may have also contributed to cultural, linguistic and genetic diversity in India. Therefore, the genetic affinity and relationship of Indians with other world populations and also within India are often contested. In the present study, we have attempted to offer a fresh and immaculate interpretation on the genetic relationships of different North Indian populations with other Indian and world populations. Results We have first genotyped 20 tetra-nucleotide STR markers among 1800 north Indian samples of nine endogamous populations belonging to three different socio-cultural strata. Genetic distances (Nei's DA and Reynold's Fst were calculated among the nine studied populations, Caucasians and East Asians. This analysis was based upon the allelic profile of 20 STR markers to assess the genetic similarity and differences of the north Indian populations. North Indians showed a stronger genetic relationship with the Europeans (DA 0.0341 and Fst 0.0119 as compared to the Asians (DA 0.1694 and Fst – 0.0718. The upper caste Brahmins and Muslims were closest to Caucasians while middle caste populations were closer to Asians. Finally, three phylogenetic assessments based on two different NJ and ML phylogenetic methods and PC plot analysis were carried out using the same panel of 20 STR markers and 20

  5. First fossil insectivores from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Berch, van der G.; Awe Due, R.

    2006-01-01

    The hominid bearing strata from the Liang Bua cave on Flores have yielded a large amount of microvertebrate remains. Among these are three mandibles of shrews, the first record of fossil insectivores from the island. The fossils, representing two different species, are not referable to any of the

  6. The avifauna of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    The avifauna of the island of Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands) is reviewed. Introductory sections, which include a chapter on the history of ornithological discovery, are followed by the main part, a systematic account in which each species and subspecies known from Flores is treated separately. A

  7. Genetic affinities of north and northeastern populations of India: inference from HLA-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S; Srivastava, S K; Borkar, M; Chaudhuri, T K

    2008-08-01

    India is like a microcosm of the world in terms of its diversity; religion, climate and ethnicity which leads to genetic variations in the populations. As a highly polymorphic marker, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system plays an important role in the genetic differentiation studies. To assess the genetic diversity of HLA class II loci, we studied a total of 1336 individuals from north India using DNA-based techniques. The study included four endogamous castes (Kayastha, Mathurs, Rastogies and Vaishyas), two inbreeding Muslim populations (Shias and Sunnis) from north India and three northeast Indian populations (Lachung, Mech and Rajbanshi). A total of 36 alleles were observed at DRB1 locus in both Hindu castes and Muslims from north, while 21 alleles were seen in northeast Indians. At the DQA1 locus, the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 17 in the studied populations. The total number of alleles at DQB1 was 19, 12 and 20 in the studied castes, Muslims and northeastern populations, respectively. The most frequent haplotypes observed in all the studied populations were DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0201 and DRB1*1501-DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601. Upon comparing our results with other world populations, we observed the presence of Caucasoid element in north Indian population. However, differential admixturing among Sunnis and Shias with the other north Indians was evident. Northeastern populations showed genetic affinity with Mongoloids from southeast Asia. When genetic distances were calculated, we found the north Indians and northeastern populations to be markedly unrelated.

  8. December 1992 Flores Region, Maumere, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On December 12, 1992, a magnitude 7.5 Ms (USGS) earthquake at 05:29 UT occurred in the Flores, Indonesia, region producing a tsunami that reached shore in five...

  9. en flores de ginger (Alpinia purpurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Blanco-Metzler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de 3 condiciones de luz (completa-548,63 W m-2, media luz-280,02 W m-2, sombra-76,38 W m-2, el uso de repelentes (ajo más chile, neem y pichichío y el uso de bolsas de exclusión, en el daño de Cholus pilicauda a las flores de ginger rosado (Alpinia purpurata en una plantación asociada con poró (Erythrina poeppigiana. El embolse de las flores redujo significativamente el número de flores dañadas, independientemente de la intensidad lumínica. No se encontró diferencias entre el número de flores dañadas con el uso de Azatina®flores dañadas. La sombra densa resultó en un mayor número de flores dañadas, seguida por luz completa y la media.

  10. Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brumm, Adam; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Storey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So'a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens...

  11. Age and context of the oldest known hominin fossils from Flores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brumm, A.; van den Bergh, G.D.; Storey, M.; Kurniawan, I.; Alloway, B.V.; Setiawan, R.; Setiyabudi, E.; Grün, R.; Moore, M.; Yurnaldi, D.; Puspaningrum, M.R.; Wibowo, U.P.; Insani, H.; Sutisna, I.; Westgate, J.A.; Pearce, N.J.G.; Duval, M.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Aziz, F.; Sutikna, T.; van der Kaars, S.; Flude, S.; Morwood, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent excavations at the early Middle Pleistocene site of Mata Menge in the So'a Basin of central Flores, Indonesia, have yielded hominin fossils attributed to a population ancestral to Late Pleistocene Homo floresiensis. Here we describe the age and context of the Mata Menge hominin specimens and

  12. CARACTERISATION DE LA FLORE ADVENTICE HYPOGEE DANS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    2Laboratoire de Botanique et de Biologie Végétale, UFR Biosciences, Université d'Abidjan-Cocody,. 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22. 3SUCAF-CI, Ferkessédougou. 4Laboratoire de Physiologie Végétale, UFR Biosciences, Université de Cocody. RESUME. Un inventaire de la flore hypogée potentielle a été réalisé en basse Côte ...

  13. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badro, Danielle A; Douaihy, Bouchra; Haber, Marc; Youhanna, Sonia C; Salloum, Angélique; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Johnsrud, Brian; Khazen, Georges; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Wells, R Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Platt, Daniel E; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2013-01-01

    The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST)'s, R(ST)'s, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  14. Tropical Volcanic Soils From Flores Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils that are developed intropical region with volcanic parent materials have many unique properties, and high potential for agricultural use.The purpose of this study is to characterize the soils developed on volcanic materials from Flores Island, Indonesia,and to examine if the soils meet the requirements for andic soil properties. Selected five soils profiles developed fromandesitic volcanic materials from Flores Island were studied to determine their properties. They were compared intheir physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics according to their parent material, and climatic characteristicdifferent. The soils were developed under humid tropical climate with ustic to udic soil moisture regimes withdifferent annual rainfall. The soils developed from volcanic ash parent materials in Flores Island showed differentproperties compared to the soils derived from volcanic tuff, even though they were developed from the sameintermediary volcanic materials. The silica contents, clay mineralogy and sand fractions, were shown as the differences.The different in climatic conditions developed similar properties such as deep solum, dark color, medium texture, andvery friable soil consistency. The soils have high organic materials, slightly acid to acid, low to medium cationexchange capacity (CEC. The soils in western region have higher clay content and showing more developed than ofthe eastern region. All the profiles meet the requirements for andic soil properties, and classified as Andisols order.The composition of sand mineral was dominated by hornblende, augite, and hypersthenes with high weatherablemineral reserves, while the clay fraction was dominated by disordered kaolinite, and hydrated halloysite. The soilswere classified into subgroup as Thaptic Hapludands, Typic Hapludands, and Dystric Haplustands

  15. A-B-O and Rh affinities between highland and lowland Quechua-speaking Peruvian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, A R; Klayman, J E

    1975-09-01

    According to the accounts of the Spanish chronicles and various historical analyses the Quechua-speaking population inhabiting the Province of Lamas in the Eastern Tropical Lowlands of Peru are descendants of the Chanca Tribes that migrated from the highlands about 500 years ago. The results of the present study indicate that in terms of the A-B-O and Rh systems the lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas and the highland Quechua population from the Province of Junin are more similar to each other than to other tropical tribes. Therefore, it is quite possible that the present lowland Quechua-speaking population from the Province of Lamas may be descendants of Andean populations.

  16. ANALISIS PERIKANAN HUHATE DI PERAIRAN LARANTUKA, FLORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Adha Akbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Informasi mengenai beberapa aspek perikanan huhate sangat diperlukan sebagai bahan untuk perencanaan pengelolaan perikanan yang berkelanjutan. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Larantuka, Flores Timur pada tahun 2014 dengan tujuan untuk menganalisis perikanan huhate sebagai salah satu tulang punggung perikanan TCT. Kegiatan penelitian diprioritaskan pada analisis unit alat tangkap, daerah penangkapan, komposisi hasil tangkapan dan estimasi Total Faktor Produktivitas (TFP perikanan huhate. Basis data pengukuran adalah himpunan  data pendaratan dan observasi lapang. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa karakteristik armada terdiri dari kapal yang terbuat dari fibreglass dengan kisaran bobot kapal 6 - 30 GT. Daerah penangkapan di sekitar perairan Laut Sawu dan Laut Flores. Hasil tangkapan utama didominansi oleh cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis sebanyak 82%, juwana tuna (Thunnus spp. 17% dan tongkol (Auxis spp. 1% serta hasil tangkapan ikutan lemadang (Coryphaena hippurus dan marlin (Makaira spp. < 1%. Hasil analisis tangkapan per unit upaya (CPUE memberikan nilai rata-rata sebesar 1,1 ton/trip (0,4-1,7 ton/trip dengan nilai tertinggi terjadi pada Februari, sedangkan terendah terjadi pada Januari. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara tren bulanan CPUE dan nilai TFP.

  17. Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anjana; Sharma, Swarkar; Bhat, Audesh; Pandit, Awadesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    Four binary polymorphisms and four multiallelic short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the nonrecombining region of the human Y-chromosome were typed in different Indian population groups from Uttar Pradeh (UP), Bihar (BI), Punjab (PUNJ), and Bengal (WB) speaking the Indo-Aryan dialects and from South India (SI) with the root in the Dravidian language. We identified four major haplogroups [(P) 1+, (C and F) 2+, (R1a) 3, (K) 26+] and 114 combinations of Y-STR haplotypes. Analyses of the haplogroups indicated no single origin from any lineage but a result of a conglomeration of different lineages from time to time. The phylogenetic analyses indicate a high degree of population admixture and a greater genetic proximity for the studied population groups when compared with other world populations.

  18. Genetic affinities of the Siddis of South India: an emigrant population of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauniyal, Mansi; Chahal, S M S; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2008-06-01

    Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the African Siddis to Goa, India, as slaves about 500 years ago. Subsequently, the Siddis moved into the interior regions of the state of Karnataka, India, and have remained there ever since. Over time the Siddis have experienced considerable cultural changes because of their proximity to neighboring population groups. To understand the biological consequences of these changes, we studied the Siddis to determine the extent of genetic variation and the contributions from the African, European, and Indian ancestral populations. In the present study we typed the Siddis for 20 polymorphic serological, red cell, and Alu insertion-deletion loci. The overall pattern of phenotype (and genotype) distribution is in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Considering the ethnohistorical records and the availability of secondary-source genetic data, we used two data sets in the analysis: one comprising eight serological and red cell enzyme markers with eight population groups and another comprising six Alu insertion-deletion markers with seven tribal groups of South India. The dendrograms generated from these two data sets on the basis of genetic distance analysis between the selected populations of African, European, and Indian descent reveals that the Siddis are closer to the Africans than they are to the South Indian populations. Genetic admixture analysis using a dihybrid model (19 loci) and a trihybrid model (10 loci and 8 loci) shows that the predominant influence comes from the Africans, a lesser contribution from the South Indians, and a slight contribution from the Portuguese. Thus the original composition of the African genes among the Siddis has been diluted to some extent by the contribution from southern Indian population groups. There is no nonrandom association of alleles among a set of 10 genetic marker systems considered in the present study. The demonstration of genetic homogeneity of the Siddis

  19. Genetic structure of Rajaka caste and affinities with other caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvatheesam, C; Babu, B V; Babu, M C

    1997-01-01

    The present study gives an account of the genetic structure in terms of distribution of a few genetic markers, viz., A1A2B0, Rh(D), G6PD deficiency and haemoglobin among the Rajaka caste population of Andhra Pradesh, India. The genetic relationships of the Rajaka caste with other Andhra caste populations were investigated in terms of genetic distance, i.e., Sq B (mn) of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi. Relatively lesser distance was established between the Rajaka and two Panchama castes. Also, the pattern of genetic distance corroborates the hierarchical order of the Hindu varna system.

  20. Applications of pooled DNA samples to the assessment of population affinities: short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Banerjee, P; Demarchi, D A; Zlojutro, M; McComb, J; Livshits, G; Henneberg, M; Mosher, M J; Schanfield, M S; Knowles, J A

    2005-12-01

    Pooled DNA samples have been used in association studies of Mendelian disease genes. This method involves combining equal quantities of DNA from patients and control subjects into separate pools and comparing the pools for distributions of genetic markers. In this study identical quantities of DNA from 300 individuals representing 6 populations were pooled and amplified for 296 loci using the touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of pooled DNA markers in the reconstruction of the genetic structure of human populations. The populations sampled included Chuvash, Buryats, Kizhi, Native Americans, South Africans, and New York City whites. To test the accuracy of the allele-frequency distributions, we genotyped the Buryats and New York samples individually for six microsatellite markers and compared their frequencies to the allele frequencies derived from the electropherogram peak heights for the pooled DNA, producing a correlation of 0.9811 with a variance of less than 0.04. Two-dimensional scaling of genetic distances among the six populations produced clusters that reflected known historical relationships. A distance matrix was created using all 296 loci, and matrices based on individual chromosomes were correlated against the total matrix. As expected, the largest chromosomes had the highest correlations with the total matrix, whereas one of the smallest chromosomes, chromosome 22, had the lowest correlation and differed most from the combined STR distance matrix.

  1. KEJADIAN PNEUMONIA BALITA DI MAUMERE FLORES NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Nanny Lia Dewi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the most significant disease to cause death in children compared to any other respiratoy infections, particularly in babies and children under five years old. Objective: This study aimed to investigate several risk factors for pneumonia in children under five years old in Maumere, Flores, NTT. Methods: This sudy employed collaborative qualitative-quantitative design. Data on the occurrence of pneumonia were drawn from the medical record of TC Hillers Maumere hospital, gathering information from January to July 2015. Research also involved direct observation to residents housing and interviews with health care providers and locals. Research population was children under five with a history of pneumonia, consisted of 152 children. Data were alayzed with a univariate method. Results: The majority of respondents with pneumonia were male (53.3%, co-morbid with iron deficiency anemia (20.4%, aged under 12 months (69.1%, well-nourished (56.6%, and waiting for 1-3 days at home before going to the hospital (47.5%. Direct observation suggested that Maumere was a dry and dusty area. The majority of housing roof was zinc, with topsoil floor, house ventilation were not properly adjusted, houses were over-populated, and residents still used wood and gasoline to cook. Residents had strong belief on supernatural powers. Conclusion: Risk factors that increased the occurrence of pneumonia in children under five in Maumere were age, sex, nutritional status, and environment characteristics.

  2. DETERMINAÇÃO DO PONTO DE COLHEITA DE FLORES DE Tropaeolum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Nunes da Silva

    2018-06-01

    trabalho foi determinar o ponto de colheita de flores de T. majus. Os estádios fenológicos das flores foram determinados visualmente. A antocianina, comprimento das flores, carotenoides, flavonoides, massa fresca e teor de sólidos solúveis aumentaram durante o desenvolvimento das flores seguido de uma redução nos estádios correspondentes a senescência. O teor de ácido ascórbico decresceu durante o desenvolvimento. O estádio XII corresponde ao ponto ideal de colheita para as flores de T. majus.

  3. Three new giant prehistoric rats from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1957-01-01

    The specimens described in the present paper have been collected by Dr. Th. L. Verhoeven at Liang Toge, a cave near Warukia, 1 km south of a hamlet called Lepa, in Manggarai, western Flores. This cave, as well as many others explored in the island by Verhoeven (1952, 1953), contains a Mesolithic

  4. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

    2004-01-01

    Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern

  5. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Revathi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was

  6. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, V K

    2004-08-19

    A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them

  7. Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwood, M J; Soejono, R P; Roberts, R G; Sutikna, T; Turney, C S M; Westaway, K E; Rink, W J; Zhao, J-X; van den Bergh, G D; Due, Rokus Awe; Hobbs, D R; Moore, M W; Bird, M I; Fifield, L K

    2004-10-28

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a large limestone cave on the island of Flores in eastern Indonesia, have yielded evidence for a population of tiny hominins, sufficiently distinct anatomically to be assigned to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The finds comprise the cranial and some post-cranial remains of one individual, as well as a premolar from another individual in older deposits. Here we describe their context, implications and the remaining archaeological uncertainties. Dating by radiocarbon (14C), luminescence, uranium-series and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods indicates that H. floresiensis existed from before 38,000 years ago (kyr) until at least 18 kyr. Associated deposits contain stone artefacts and animal remains, including Komodo dragon and an endemic, dwarfed species of Stegodon. H. floresiensis originated from an early dispersal of Homo erectus (including specimens referred to as Homo ergaster and Homo georgicus) that reached Flores, and then survived on this island refuge until relatively recently. It overlapped significantly in time with Homo sapiens in the region, but we do not know if or how the two species interacted.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Mass Dog Vaccination Campaigns against Rabies in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, E; Mourits, M C M; Siko, M M; Hogeveen, H

    2017-12-01

    A dynamic deterministic simulation model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of different mass dog vaccination strategies against rabies in a dog population representative of a typical village on Flores Island. Cost-effectiveness was measured as public cost per averted dog-rabies case. Simulations started with the introduction of one infectious dog into a susceptible dog population of 399 dogs and subsequently ran for a period of 10 years. The base scenario represented a situation without any control intervention. Evaluated vaccination strategies were as follows: annual vaccination campaigns with short-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 52 weeks) (AV_52), annual campaigns with long-acting vaccine (immunity duration of 156 weeks) (AV_156), biannual campaigns with short-acting vaccine (BV_52) and once-in-2-years campaigns with long-acting vaccine (O2V_156). The effectiveness of the vaccination strategies was simulated for vaccination coverages of 50% and 70%. Cumulative results were reported for the 10-year simulation period. The base scenario resulted in three epidemic waves, with a total of 1274 dog-rabies cases. The public cost of applying AV_52 at a coverage of 50% was US$5342 for a village. This strategy was unfavourable compared to other strategies, as it was costly and ineffective in controlling the epidemic. The costs of AV_52 at a coverage of 70% and AV_156 at a coverage of 70% were, respectively, US$3646 and US$3716, equivalent to US$3.00 and US$3.17 per averted dog-rabies case. Increasing the coverage of AV_156 from 50% to 70% reduced the number of cases by 7% and reduced the cost by US$1452, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of US$1.81 per averted dog-rabies case. This simulation model provides an effective tool to explore the public cost-effectiveness of mass dog vaccination strategies in Flores Island. Insights obtained from the simulation results are useful for animal health authorities to support decision-making in rabies

  9. Providing affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guglielmi, Michel; Johannesen, Hl

    2004-01-01

    , Essex, Hertfordshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Research found that there was a lack of identity or sense of belonging and nothing anchoring people to the region as a whole. Common affinity is somehow forced to the people of East England and thereby we came to the conclusion that a single landmark...... and potential situations but also virtual events that calls for an undeterminated process of resolution. This process is activated by the user who co-produces the actualisation as an answer to a virtual reality that we defined at the first place. The potential situations or the possible it is a fantomatic real....... The possible is like the real. It is determinated and it only lakes existence. While the possible is already made, the virtual is like a problematic which needs to be resolved and actualized. Our installations are based on high tech interactivity where we use sensors and remote communication to offer a sense...

  10. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2011-06-15

    The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to estimate the degree of genetic divergence between these major linguistic groups and their internal structure. A large fraction of genetic variation is observed within populations (about 80% and 90% for mtDNA and the Y-chromosome, respectively). The genetic divergence between populations is much higher in Mon-Khmer than in Tai speaking groups, especially at the paternally inherited markers. The two major linguistic groups are genetically distinct, but only for a marginal fraction (1 to 2%) of the total genetic variation. Genetic distances between populations correlate with their linguistic differences, whereas the geographic distance does not explain the genetic divergence pattern. The Mon-Khmer speaking populations in northern Thailand exhibited the genetic divergence among each other and also when compared to Tai speaking peoples. The different drift effects and the post-marital residence patterns between the two linguistic groups are the explanation for a small but significant fraction of the genetic variation pattern within and between them. © 2011 Kutanan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Ritual and reflexes of lost sovereignty in Sikka, a regency of Flores in eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lewis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1993 some among the Sikkanese population of the town of Maumere on the north coast of Flores in eastern Indonesia attended a ritual to reconcile the members of two branches of the family of the rajas of Sikka, a dynasty that had once ruled the district. The two branches had fallen out over differences in opinion about the last succession to the office of raja a few years before the end of the rajadom in the late 1950s. A description of the ritual, which was conducted in an urban rather than a village setting, and an analysis of the performance demonstrate much about the persistence of elements of the old Sikkanese religion in modern Sikkanese society. The contemporary Sikkanese are Christians and the regency of Sikka is part of the modern Indonesian nation-state.

  12. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic structure of the Mon-Khmer speaking groups and their affinity to the neighbouring Tai populations in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Kampuansai, Jatupol; Fuselli, Silvia; Nakbunlung, Supaporn; Seielstad, Mark; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Mon-Khmer speaking peoples inhabited northern Thailand before the arrival of the Tai speaking people from southern China in the thirteenth century A.D. Historical and anthropological evidence suggests a close relationship between the Mon-Khmer groups and the present day majority northern Thai groups. In this study, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms in more than 800 volunteers from eight Mon-Khmer and ten Tai speaking populations were investigated to est...

  14. Flore vasculaire rare et endemique de la peninsule de l'Edough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sous le nom de« biodiversity hotspots» [2]. La flore du bassin mediterraneen est aujourd'hui tres serieusement menacee, en raison de la forte regression des milieux naturels sous l' action de l 'homme, mais aussi parce que cette region serait l'une des plus exposees aux changements climatiques globaux [3-5]. Cette flore ...

  15. On a collection of Birds from the islands of Flores, Sumba and Rotti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1892-01-01

    Dr. H. ten Kate, to whom we are already indepted for previous zoological collections made on his recent travels through the Flores- and Timor-group of Islands ¹), sent, in September and November last, a number of birds from Flores, Sumba (Sandelwood) and Rotti, the latter being a small island near

  16. La pintura de flores de Miguel Parra (1780-1846

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Terrada, María José

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Miguel Parra Abril (Valencia, 1780-Madrid, 1846 is one of the most important Valencian School painters of floral still lifes, this aspect of his work remains little known. The present article addresses this oversight in two ways. First, by offering an overview of his oeuvre as a painter of floral subjects from his student days at the Fine Arts Academy of Valencia through his mature works. Second, by analyzing two heretofore-unpublished floral compositions in relation to his more familiar works, particularly those located in private collections until recent years.Aunque Miguel Parra Abril (Valencia, 1780-Madrid, 1846 es uno de los pintores de flores más importantes de la Escuela valenciana, esta faceta pictórica de su producción es todavía poco conocida. El presente artículo trata de paliar esta situación ofreciendo, en primer lugar, una visión general de su obra como pintor de flores desde su proceso de aprendizaje en la Academia de Bellas Artes valenciana hasta sus composiciones de madurez. En segundo lugar, se presenta el análisis de dos composiciones florales inéditas y su relación con las obras conocidas hasta el momento, especialmente con aquellas que hasta hace pocos años se encontraban en colecciones particulares.

  17. Danko Brncic and the flower-flies Danko Brncic y las moscas de las flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMPTON L. CARSON

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a personal essay commemorating Brncic as a keen naturalist/evolutionist in the best Darwinian sense. His innate curiosity, so important in a scientist, led him to the discovery of cenain unique drosophilid flies in Chile. The life cycle of one species of flower-fly (Drosophila flavopilosa is of special interest. Females oviposit in fresh flowers of a solanaceous plant that is widespread in Chilean valleys. Twenty years of combined ecological and genetic work, carried out on this species, pioneers the use of a highly specialized Drosophila species in the study of population genetics and evolution. Many eco-genetic features are revealed that are important supplements to observations made on the widely-studied generalist species of the genusEs este un ensayo de naturaleza personal, celebrando a Danko Brncic como un natualista y evolucionista de la mejor calidad en la verdadera tradición darwiniana. Su curiosidad inata tan importante para el científico, lo Ilevó a descubrir algunos drosofilideos chilenos con propiedades únicas. Especial interés tiene el ciclo vital de Drosophila flavopilosa, especie adaptada a flores: la hembra deposita sus huevos en las flores de una solanacea ampliamente distribuida en los valles de Chile. Veinte años de investigación geno-ecológica sobre esta especie resultaron en datos pioneros, con el uso de especies altamente especializadas para aclarar cuestiones generales de genética y evolución de poblaciones. Muchos hechos importantes fueron revelados, distintos de aquellos observados en las especies generalistas y ampliamente distribuidas

  18. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  19. Dermatoglyphic traits of six Chibcha-speaking Amerindians of Costa Rica, and an assessment of the genetic affinities among populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Segura-WW Ramiro Barrantes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphic traits have been used to evaluate population structure and microdifferentiation in several populations. For Chibcha-speaking groups of Lower Central America there are few dermatoglyphic studies, but extensive linguistic, anthropological and genetic data support their historical, cultural and biological relationships. The main objectives of this study were to describe new dermatoglyphic data for six Chibcha- speaking Amerindians of Costa Rica, and to assess the relationships between these and other Amerindian and Eskimo groups, at different levels of population differentiation by means of multivariate analyses of quantitative traits. Sexual (2 =227.22, df=33, pLos dermatoglifos se han utilizado para evaluar la estructura poblacional y microdiferenciación de varias poblaciones. Para los grupos chibcha de Baja Centroamérica hay pocos estudios sobre dermatoglifos pero los datos lingüísticos, antropológicos y genéticos muestran la existencia de relaciones históricas, culturales y biológicas. Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron describir nuevos datos de dermatoglifos para seis tribus amerindias chibcha de Costa Rica y evaluar las relaciones entre estas y otros grupos amerindios y esquimales, a diferentes niveles de diferenciación poblacional por medio de análisis multivariados. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos sexos (2=27.22, df=3, p<0.01 y ambas manos (2=54.45, df=3, p<0.01, similar a lo descrito para otras poblaciones. Las tribus estudiadas se caracterizan por presentar alta frecuencia de arcos, baja frecuencia de verticilos y bajo conteo total de líneas. Al nivel más bajo de diferenciación poblacional, se compararon dos subpoblaciones cabécar (Atlántico y Chirripo y no se encontraron diferencias significativas (F=0.001, p=0.72 lo cual sugiere que los dermatoglifos no permiten discriminar entre grupos a este nivel. Las comparaciones entre las tribus chibcha estudiadas por medio de

  20. Report: Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Rodney R.

    1985-01-01

    Supports, affinity ligands, immobilization, elution methods, and a number of applications are among the topics considered in this discussion of affinity chromatography. An outline of the basic principles of affinity chromatography is included. (JN)

  1. a Revision to the Tectonics of the Flores Back-Arc Thrust Zone, Indonesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikku, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Flores and Bali Basins are continental basins in the Flores back-arc thrust zone associated with Eocene subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Sunda plate followed by Miocene to present-day inversion/thrusting. The basins are east of Java and north of the islands of Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa and Flores in the East Java Sea area of Indonesia. The tectonic interpretation of these basins is based on seismic, bathymetry and gravity data and is also supported by present-day GPS measurements that demonstrate subduction is no longer active across the Flores thrust zone. Current thinking about the area is that the Flores Basin (on the east end of the thrust zone) had the most extension in the back-arc thrust and may be a proto-oceanic basin, though the option of a purely continental extensional basin can not be ruled out. The Bali Basin (on the west end of the thrust zone) is thought to be shallower and have experienced less continental thinning and extension than the Flores Basin. Depth to basement estimates from recently collected marine magnetic data indicate the depth of the Bali Basin may be comparable to the depth of the Flores Basin. Analysis of the marine magnetic data and potential implications of relative plate motions will be presented.

  2. Contenido nutricional, propiedades funcionales y conservación de flores comestibles: Revisión

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Baños, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    La florifagia, que es el consumo de flores como alimento es una práctica que, aunque no es nueva no estaba muy difundida entre los consumidores hasta hace algunas décadas. Las flores comestibles contribuyen al mejoramiento de la estética de los alimentos además, aportan sustancias biológicamente activas como vitaminas A, C, riboflavina, niacina, minerales como calcio, fósforo, hierro y potasio beneficiando la salud de quien las consume. Esta revisión incluye algunos ejemplos de flores comesti...

  3. Model of sustainability of vernacular kampongs within Ngadha culture, Flores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susetyarto, M. B.

    2018-01-01

    In the indigenous people of Ngadha, Flores (8°52’40.45”South, 120°59’8.18”East), the phenomenon of sustainability could be seen in its very interesting architectural traces in the setting of local factors. The sustainability phenomenon had a high value in their life and it was clearly indicated in daily activities as well as farmers, weavers, or carpenters. The phenomenon was unique and has been successfully created as a model. The research has been done by qualitative method in inductive paradigm. The data collection and comprehensive analysis have done in the field by occasional discussions with some sources of Ngadha traditional experts, vernacular architecture researchers, sociologists, anthropologists, and others. The result was a model of sustainability of vernacular kampongs within Ngadha culture, namely Tuku nunga lo’a ghera adha Ngadha. The concept of sustainability was a cultural event that synergizes the five factors supporting continuously sustainability until the optimum momentum of sustainability occurred in those synergistic conditions. The five factors were natural environment (one nua), indigenous community (mesu mora), vernacular architecture (sa’o bhaga ngadhu ture), economy (ngo ngani), and Ngadha culture (adha Ngadha). The significance and impact of the research were to provide input for the completeness of sustainability knowledge, especially the vernacular kampongs sustainability model.

  4. Brugia timori INFECTION IN LEKEBAI, FLORES: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengamatan filariasis pada penduduk Nualolo-Lekebai, Pulau Flores telah dilakukan pada bulan Februari 1975. Kampung Nualolo-Lekebai berpenduduk 680 jiwa, pekerjaan bertani dan menganut agama Nasrani. Kebiasaan hidup di antara penduduk di daerah ini adalah menyerahkan pelaksanaan pekerjaan berat pada kaum wanita, baik di rumah ataupun di kebun. Dalam perjalanan jauh baik ke kebun atau ke pasar, kaum wanitanya selalu berjalan kaki sedangkan kaum prianya menunggang kuda. Sejumlah 80% dari penduduk kampung ini telah diperiksa terhadap infeksi parasit filaria dan terhadap gejala filariasis. Dari hasil yang ditemukan ternyata penduduk kampung ini menderita infeksi Brugia timori dengan angka derajat infeksi sebesar 7.0% dan angka derajat elephantiasis sebesar 10.3%. Hal yang menarik yang ditemukan dalam pengamatan ini adalah tingginya angka derajat elephantiasis pada kaum wanita dibandingkan dengan pada kaum pria. Fenomena ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kebiasaan hidup kaum wanita di daerah ini sehari-hari yang bekerja lebih berat dan berjalan kaki lebih sering dan lebih jauh dibandingkan kaum prianya.

  5. Joaquín Herrera Flores e a dignidade da luta / Joaquín Herrera Flores and the dignity of struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O presente trabalho busca analisar a produção teórica recente do jurista Joaquin Herrera Flores, a partir de alguns eixos considerados fundamentais para a sua compreensão: a centralidade das lutas sociais e o aspecto constituinte dos direitos humanos; a produção de subjetividade como processo aberto de produção de diferença; o entrelaçamento necessário entre os direitos de liberdade e de igualdade; as bases materiais dos direitos humanos que apontam para a necessidade de ultrapassarmos a velha fórmula do Estado Social e a reorganização do capitalismo a partir do neoliberalismo. Palavras-chave: Joaquin Herrera Flores, Direitos Humanos, Lutas sociais, Poder Constituinte, Produção de Subjetividade, Estado Social, Neoliberalismo, Direitos do Comum. Abstract The following paper focus on the recent theoretical research of the jurist Joaquin Herrera Flores, from some points that are considered fundamental to it`s understanding: the centrality of social movements and constituent aspect of human rights, the production of subjectivity as open process of production of difference, the relation between the rights of freedom and equality, the material basis of human rights that guides to a necessary change beyond the old formula of the welfare state and the reorganization of capitalism since neoliberalism. Keywords: Joaquin Herrera Flores, Human Rights, Social struggles, Constituent Power, Production of Subjectivity, the Welfare State, Neoliberalism, Common Rights.

  6. LA RIQUEZA DE LAS PLANTAS CON FLORES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ORLANDO RANGEL-CH.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con base en los inventarios florísticos a nivel regional que se adelantan desde 1991 se documentaron los patrones de riqueza (distribución, concentración a nivel de familia de las plantas con flores en Colombia y en sus regiones naturales extra-andinas. En Colombia están representadas 238 de las 414 familias de plantas con flores reconocidas a nivel global, lo cual significa el 57.7% de esta riqueza. De las regiones naturales incluidas en este estudio, la Amazonia es la más rica en número de especies y la de mayor superficie y en el Caribe se alcanzó el mayor número de familias (201. El índice de riqueza a nivel de familia fue mayor en el Caribe (15.6 x 10-4 y el de especies fue mayor en el Chocó (3.4x10-2 y menor en la Orinoquia (1.7x 10-2.. En la Orinoquia están ausentes 65 familias, en la Amazonia 49, en el Chocó 59 y en el Caribe 35 respectivamente. En cuanto a distintividad taxonómica a nivel de familias, en el Caribe se encuentran 19 familias con distribución restringida, en Amazonia cinco, en el Chocó y en la Orinoquia una en cada caso. No se comprobó una relación directa entre superficie del área de la región natural y las expresiones de la riqueza y de la distintividad taxonómica. Se confirma el patrón alto de riqueza en un número reducido de familias, en las 50 familias más ricas en todas las regiones naturales se concentran los valores de riqueza específica por encima del 82%. Entre las familias con mayor concentración de especies en Colombia, en comparación con la situación a nivel del mundo cabe destacar a Metteniusaceae, grupo que presenta siete de las nueve especies registradas en el mundo e igualmente a Brunelliaceae, Siparunaceae, Cyclanthaceae, Heliconiaceae, Myristicaceae, Marcgraviaceae, Gunneraceae, Humiriaceae, Rapateaceae y Tropaeolaceae. Una comparación de los patrones de riqueza a nivel de familia en los países megadiversos de Suramérica, muestra que en Brasil 41 familias tienen mayor n

  7. Incidencia de infecciones quiescentes de Botrytis cinerea en flores y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MolinaG. Gilma Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se aisló Botrytis cinerea de flores y frutos asintomáticos de mora de castilla ( Rubus glaucus Benth. en  seis estados fenológicos desde botón cerrado hasta fruto maduro. Estas infecciones quiescentes ocurrieron raramente en botones florales cerrados, pero cuando éstos abren las estructuras florales aparecen colonizadas. La alta frecuencia de infecciones quiescentes en frutos en desarrollo y frutos maduros es atribuible a infecciones tempranas en estructuras florales. Inoculaciones hechas con conidias de B. cinerea marcadas con calcofluor produjeron infecciones en todos los estados fenológicos; la germinación de conidias en los seis estados fenológicos se inició a las 10 horas después de

  8. Molecular electron affinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Molecular electron affinities have historically been difficult quantities to measure accurately. These difficulties arise from differences in structure between the ion and neutral as well as the existence of excited negative ion states. To circumvent these problems, relative electron affinities were determined in this dissertation by studying equilibrium electron transfer reactions using a pulsed ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) spectrometer. Direct measurement of ion and neutral concentrations for reactions of the general type, A - + B = B - + A, allow calculation of the equilibrium constant and, therefore, the free energy change. The free energy difference is related to the difference in electron affinities between A and B. A relative electron affinity scale covering a range of about 45 kcal/mol was constructed with various substituted p-benzoquinones, nitrobenzenes, anhydrides, and benzophenones. To assign absolute electron affinities, various species with accurately known electron affinities are tied to the scale via ion-cyclotron double resonance bracketing techniques. After the relative scale is anchored to these species with well-known electron affinities, the scale is then used as a check on other electron affinity values as well as generating new electron affinity values. Many discrepancies were found between the electron affinities measured using the ICR technique and previous literature determinations

  9. Raja Servus of Larantuka, Flores, Eastern Indonesia Le raja Servus de Larantuka, à Flores, en Indonésie orientale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Barnes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch deposed Raja Lorenzo II of Larantuka, Flores, in 1904 and exiled him to Java. After his son Servus reached maturity, they appointed him Raja. By then the office had largely been reduced to a principally administrative function at the bottom of the colonial bureaucracy, although the Dutch called the rajas in the Dutch East Indies “self-governors”.Servus seems to have been demoralized by an attack on his life which he survived only after six hours of swimming in the sea. Eventually both the Dutch officials and the local Catholic missionaries became dissatisfied with him and he was forced to resign. Later the Dutch were forced to leave and the Indonesian state completed the job of bureaucratizing local administration by abolishing the office of raja.Les Hollandais ont déposé le raja Lorenzo II de Larantuka en 1904 et l’ont exilé à Java. Lorsque son fils Servus a atteint sa maturité, ils l’ont nommé raja. Alors, le poste avait été largement réduit à une fonction surtout administrative au bas de la bureaucratie coloniale, même si les Hollandais appelaient les rajas des Indes orientales Hollandaises « gouverneurs autonomes ». Servus semble avoir perdu le moral après une agression à laquelle il ne survécut qu’après une nage de six heures dans la mer. Au final, il déçut à la fois les fonctionnaires hollandais et les missionnaires catholiques locaux qui l’obligèrent à démissionner. Par la suite, les Hollandais furent contraints au départ et l’état indonésien termina le travail de bureaucratisation de l’administration locale en mettant fin à la fonction de raja.

  10. The origins and persistence of Homo floresiensis on Flores: biogeographical and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin W.; Louys, Julien; O'Regan, Hannah J.; Wilkinson, David M.

    2014-07-01

    The finding of archaeological evidence predating 1 Ma and a small hominin species (Homo floresiensis) on Flores, Indonesia, has stimulated much research on its origins and ancestry. Here we take a different approach and examine two key questions - 1) how did the ancestors of H. floresiensis reach Flores and 2) what are the possibilities for estimating the likelihood of hominin persistence for over 1 million years on a small island? With regard to the first question, on the basis of the biogeography we conclude that the mammalian, avian, and reptilian fauna on Flores arrived from a number of sources including Java, Sulawesi and Sahul. Many of the terrestrial taxa were able to float or swim (e.g. stegodons, giant tortoises and the Komodo dragon), while the rodents and hominins probably accidentally rafted from Sulawesi, following the prevailing currents. The precise route by which hominins arrived on Flores cannot at present be determined, although a route from South Asia through Indochina, Sulawesi and hence Flores is tentatively supported on the basis of zoogeography. With regards to the second question, we find the archaeological record equivocal. A basic energetics model shows that a greater number of small-bodied hominins could persist on Flores than larger-bodied hominins (whether H. floresiensis is a dwarfed species or a descendent of an early small-bodied ancestor is immaterial here), which may in part explain their apparent long-term success. Yet the frequent tsunamis and volcanic eruptions in the region would certainly have affected all the taxa on the island, and at least one turnover event is recorded, when Stegodon sondaari became extinct. The question of the likelihood of persistence may be unanswerable until we know much more about the biology of H. floresiensis.

  11. JORGE RAMÍREZ ESPINO, PRODUCTOR DE FLORES ARTIFICIALES [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez García, Carlos Félix

    1980-01-01

    JORGE RAMÍREZ ESPINO, ARTESANO TRADICIONAL DE LAS PALMAS DE GRAN CANARIA DEDICADO A LA PRODUCCIÓN DE FLORES ARTIFICIALES CON TIRAS DE PLATANERA, HOJAS DE DRAGO, CAMISA DE MILLO Y LA PIÑA DE LA FLOR DE LA PLATANERA NACIÓ EN LAS PALMAS DE GRAN CANARIA EN EL AÑO 1942. COMIENZA SU ANDADURA DE MANERA AUTODIDACTA, CONFECCIONANDO FLORES, EN EL AÑO 1992, AL TIEMPO QUE REALIZA COLLARES PARA CABRAS CON ANTONIO PERERA HASTA EL AÑO 1995, EN QUE COMIENZA A VENDER SUS PRIMEROS PRODUCTOS DEL CARA AL PÚBL...

  12. A small skull from Flores dated to the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Persson, Liselott; Alexandersen, Verner

    2012-01-01

    A human skull with mandible from the Ngada District on the island of Flores, Indonesia, is described in order to contribute to the knowledge of variation in cranial architecture, which is important in interpretations of evolutionary cerebralisation. The skull was excavated in 1924 and sent...... to the National Museum in Copenhagen. The "Copenhagen Flores" (CF) male skull is radiocarbon-dated and of modern age. The cranium is small, but larger than e.g. Liang Bua skull (LB1) in every measurement. The (CT-scan based) cranial capacity of 1258 ml is normal for modern humans, but somewhat lower than values...

  13. Continuous affine processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Affine processes possess the property that expectations of exponential affine transformations are given by a set of Riccati differential equations, which is the main feature of this popular class of processes. In this paper we generalise these results for expectations of more general transformati...

  14. Socio-economic modelling of rabies control in Flores Island, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, Ewaldus

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can cause encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Since its introduction in Flores Island, Indonesia in 1997, it has been a serious public health threat with significant economic consequences. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns

  15. Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wera, E.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Geong, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies

  16. "Keeping up the Good Fight": The Said and Unsaid in "Flores v. Arizona"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Melinda Hollis; Aletheiani, Dinny Risri; Carlson, David Lee; Ewbank, Ann Dutton

    2014-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this article is to interrogate the mediated and political discourses that emerged alongside the "Flores v. Arizona" case. The authors endeavor to offer another voice, framework and approach that may help sustain a continuous, paramount conversation concerning the educational rights of English language learners and…

  17. Pouzolzia floresiana (Urticaceae), a new species from Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur (Lesser Sunda Islands), Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib

    2012-01-01

    Pouzolzia floresiana Friis & Wilmot-Dear (Urticaceae) is described and illustrated on the basis of a single collection from the western part of the Indonesian island of Flores. The species is a thick-stemmed herb, similar in habit to Pouzolzia thailandica, but differs in having axillary flower...

  18. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  19. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  20. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated…

  1. A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) from Flores, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia (Aves: Accipitridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A new subspecies of Accipiter virgatus (Temminck) is described from Flores (Lesser Sunda Islands). In addition some notes are given on the distribution of A. virgatus in south-eastern Burma and adjacent parts of Thailand, supplementary to an earlier paper (Mees, 1981).

  2. Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les zones hypo et hyper endémiques d'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d'Ivoire. C. Cisse Boni, E. Ehouman, D. Soro, M.W. Kone, A. Bakayoko, F. Dembele, K. Bauthire, M Dosso ...

  3. Helminth infections on Flores Island, Indonesia : associations with communicable and non-communicable diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto Eddy

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we reported our investigations of the relationship between soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and a number of outcomes, in particular malaria, insulin resistance (a marker for type-2 diabetes (T2D)) and atherosclerosis (a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)) on Flores island,

  4. Affinity in electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heegaard, Niels H H

    2009-06-01

    The journal Electrophoresis has greatly influenced my approaches to biomolecular affinity studies. The methods that I have chosen as my main tools to study interacting biomolecules--native gel and later capillary zone electrophoresis--have been the topic of numerous articles in Electrophoresis. Below, the role of the journal in the development and dissemination of these techniques and applications reviewed. Many exhaustive reviews on affinity electrophoresis and affinity CE have been published in the last few years and are not in any way replaced by the present deliberations that are focused on papers published by the journal.

  5. Lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    An interaction or a binding event typically changes the electrophoretic properties of a molecule. Affinity electrophoresis methods detect changes in the electrophoretic pattern of molecules (mainly macromolecules) that occur as a result of biospecific interactions or complex formation. Lectin affinity electrophoresis is a very effective method for the detection and analysis of trace amounts of glycobiological substances. It is particularly useful for isolating and separating the glycoisomers of target molecules. Here, we describe a sensitive technique for the detection of glycoproteins separated by agarose gel-lectin affinity electrophoresis that uses antibody-affinity blotting. The technique is tested using α-fetoprotein with lectin (Lens culinaris agglutinin and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin)-agarose gels.

  6. A Generalized Affine Isoperimetric Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenxiong; Howard, Ralph; Lutwak, Erwin; Yang, Deane; Zhang, Gaoyong

    2004-01-01

    A purely analytic proof is given for an inequality that has as a direct consequence the two most important affine isoperimetric inequalities of plane convex geometry: The Blaschke-Santalo inequality and the affine isoperimetric inequality of affine differential geometry.

  7. Electron affinities: theoretical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief description is given of the conceptual background and formalism of the various ab-initio and semi-ab-initio quantum computational techniques for calculating atomic and molecular electron affinities: Hartree--Fock--Roothaan SCF, configuration interaction (CI), multiconfiguration SCF (MC-SCF), Bethe--Goldstone, superposition of configurations (SOC), ab-initio effective core model potentials, Xα-MS, plus other less common methods. Illustrative and comparative examples of electron affinities calculated by these various methods are presented

  8. Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Rubén Salazar Moya; José Irepan Reyes Olalde; Víctor Manuel Zúñiga Mayo; Stefan de Folter; Nayelli Marsch Martínez

    2012-01-01

    La última fase del desarrollo floral es la fertilización de los óvulos y la formación de los frutos,que son muy importantes tanto biológica como económicamente. Notoriamente, más del 80% de los alimentos que son consumidos por el ser humano proviene de flores y frutos.La obtención de conocimientos acerca de las bases moleculares del desarrollo de frutos en especies modelo es de gran interés científico, y un paso indispensable para poder facilitar investigaciones y de ser factible, aplicacione...

  9. Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: uma espécie do Cerrado polinizada por beija-flores Cuphea melvilla Lindlay (Lythraceae: a Cerrado species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia de Oliveira Melazzo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie peculiar dentro de um gênero majoritariamente melitófilo. Dois agrupamentos de indivíduos, em bordas das matas de galeria do Córrego do Panga, Uberlândia, MG, foram estudados com o objetivo de investigar o sistema de polinização e sistema de reprodução da espécie na região. O estudo foi realizado de janeiro a junho de 1999. Cuphea melvilla é uma espécie arbustiva com características morfológicas e eventos florais que confirmam sua adaptação à polinização por beija-flores. A floração foi longa, com início em Janeiro, em plena estação chuvosa, e término em Julho, no início da seca. O tubo floral formado pelo hipanto é calcarado na base, onde se acumula o néctar produzido por nectário localizado na base do ovário. As flores são marcadamente protândricas, mas flores em diferentes fases podem ser encontradas nos racemos. Os dados mostraram que a espécie é autocompatível e não apomítica, mas devido à dicogamia marcada, necessita polinização ativa para formar frutos. Phaethornis pretrei, Amazilia fimbriata, Thalurania furcata, Eupetomena macroura e Chlorostilbon lucidus (fêmea foram as espécies de beija-flores observadas visitando e polinizando as flores de C. melvilla. Amazilia fimbriata e C. lucidus apresentaram ocasionalmente comportamento territorial, P. pretrei apresentou forrageamento em linhas de captura, e T. furcata e E. macroura apresentaram forrageamento do tipo oportunístico, visitando as populações estudadas esporadicamente. Amazilia fimbriata, C. lucidus e P. pretrei foram considerados os polinizadores mais importantes, dada a sua constância. As características morfológicas das flores de Cuphea melvilla relacionadas a adaptações aos beija-flores parecem ser derivadas no gênero, sendo que a polinização por beija-flores nas distintas seções indica adaptação convergente a este modo de polinização.Cuphea melvilla is a peculiar species of a mostly

  10. Modelling of historical tsunami in Eastern Indonesia: 1674 Ambon and 1992 Flores case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Cummins, Phil; Griffin, Jonathan; Davies, Gareth; Latief, Hamzah

    2017-07-01

    In order to reliably assess tsunami hazard in eastern Indonesia, we need to understand how historical events were generated. Here we consider two such events: the 1674 Ambon and the 1992 Flores tsunamis. Firstly, Ambon Island suffered a devastating earthquake that generated a tsunami with 100 m run-up height on the north coast of the island in 1674. However, there is no known active fault around the island capable of generating such a gigantic wave. Rumphius' report describes that the initial wave was coming from three villages that collapsed immediately after the earthquake with width as far as a musket shot. Moreover, a very high tsunami was only observed locally. We suspect that a submarine landslide was the main cause of the gigantic tsunami on the north side of Ambon Island. Unfortunately, there is no data available to confirm if landslide have occurred in this region. Secondly, several tsunami source models for the 1992 Flores event have been suggested. However, the fault strike is quite different compare to the existing Flores back-arc thrust and has not been well validated against a tide gauge waveform at Palopo, Sulawesi. We considered a tsunami model based on Griffin, et al., 2015, extended with high resolution bathymetry laround Palopo, in order to validate the latest tsunami source model available. In general, the model produces a good agreement with tsunami waveforms, but arrives 10 minutes late compared to observed data. In addition, the source overestimates the tsunami inundation west of Maumere, and does not account for the presumed landslide tsunami on the east side of Flores Island.

  11. Costs of Rabies Control: An Economic Calculation Method Applied to Flores Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Velthuis, Annet G. J.; Geong, Maria; Hogeveen, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Background Rabies is a zoonotic disease that, in most human cases, is fatal once clinical signs appear. The disease transmits to humans through an animal bite. Dogs are the main vector of rabies in humans on Flores Island, Indonesia, resulting in about 19 human deaths each year. Currently, rabies control measures on Flores Island include mass vaccination and culling of dogs, laboratory diagnostics of suspected rabid dogs, putting imported dogs in quarantine, and pre- and post-exposure treatment (PET) of humans. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of the applied rabies control measures on Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A deterministic economic model was developed to calculate the costs of the rabies control measures and their individual cost components from 2000 to 2011. The inputs for the economic model were obtained from (i) relevant literature, (ii) available data on Flores Island, and (iii) experts such as responsible policy makers and veterinarians involved in rabies control measures in the past. As a result, the total costs of rabies control measures were estimated to be US$1.12 million (range: US$0.60–1.47 million) per year. The costs of culling roaming dogs were the highest portion, about 39 percent of the total costs, followed by PET (35 percent), mass vaccination (24 percent), pre-exposure treatment (1.4 percent), and others (1.3 percent) (dog-bite investigation, diagnostic of suspected rabid dogs, trace-back investigation of human contact with rabid dogs, and quarantine of imported dogs). Conclusions/significance This study demonstrates that rabies has a large economic impact on the government and dog owners. Control of rabies by culling dogs is relatively costly for the dog owners in comparison with other measures. Providing PET for humans is an effective way to prevent rabies, but is costly for government and does not provide a permanent solution to rabies in the future. PMID:24386244

  12. Uruguay mining inventory. Geochemical prospecting results of the Las Flores aerial map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, H.; Bonnefoy, D.; Garau, M.; Spangenberg, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the context of the Uruguay mining inventory, the aerial photography map Las Flores had been covered by a specific strategic which included geochemical prospecting elements. The surface covered has the 550 km2, and 1042 samples which they have been analized in Orleans France. 22 elements by plasma spectroscopy and gold by atomic absorption and for uranium laser spectroscopy . They have been evidenced the following anomalies: gold, Pb, Pb-Ba-Cu, Ba and Ni-Cr

  13. O Uso de Imagens Digitais na Classificação de Flores de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLÁUCIA MORAES DIAS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de técnicas de imagem em processo de produção agrícola está se tornando uma ferramenta muito promissora em apoio ao desenvolvimento da padronização, que levam em consideração a forma e o tamanho do produto. A análise dos elementos individuais no processo de classificação ou reconhecimento inicial da espécie, atende aos requisitos de tempo e precisão. O Brasil apresenta um enorme potencial para desenvolver a produção de flores e plantas ornamentais para o mercado interno, bem como para os mercados internacionais. Atualmente a produção de flores proporciona uma renda próxima a EUA $ 1,3 bilhões / ano, reunindo mais de 500 produtores concentrados em uma área de 8500 hectares, gerando uma receita de U $ 35 milhões no ano de 2007. As flores do Brasil e estratégia de exportação de plantas ornamentais tem o objetivo de orientar e dirigir as potencialidades específicas de produção de flores para aproveitar as oportunidades comerciais oferecidas pelo mercado internacional, enfatizando a tecnologia pós-colheita. É possível expressar um produto de qualidade por meio de imagens digitais. Programas de computador geram satisfatoriamente as análises necessárias para os padrões desejados, produzindo um processo rápido e eficiente. É esperado, que no futuro, o mercado brasileiro venha a adotar a classificação automática, reduzindo custos, melhorando a eficiência e a qualidade do produto oferecido ao consumidor.

  14. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  15. Affine stochastic mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing

  16. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.

    2011-01-01

    Pairings on elliptic curves are being used in an increasing number of cryptographic applications on many different devices and platforms, but few performance numbers for cryptographic pairings have been reported on embedded and mobile devices. In this paper we give performance numbers for affine and

  17. Affine pairings on ARM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, T.; Lauter, K.; Naehrig, M.; Shumow, D.; Abdalla, M.; Lange, T.

    2013-01-01

    We report on relative performance numbers for affine and projective pairings on a dual-core Cortex A9 ARM processor. Using a fast inversion in the base field and doing inversion in extension fields by using the norm map to reduce to inversions in smaller fields, we find a very low ratio of

  18. Affine field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadavid, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    The author constructs a non-Abelian field theory by gauging a Kac-Moody algebra, obtaining an infinite tower of interacting vector fields and associated ghosts, that obey slightly modified Feynman rules. She discusses the spontaneous symmetry breaking of such theory via the Higgs mechanism. If the Higgs particle lies in the Cartan subalgebra of the Kac-Moody algebra, the previously massless vectors acquire a mass spectrum that is linear in the Kac-Moody index and has additional fine structure depending on the associated Lie algebra. She proceeds to show that there is no obstacle in implementing the affine extension of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. The result is valid in four, six and ten space-time dimensions. Then the affine extension of supergravity is investigated. She discusses only the loop algebra since the affine extension of the super-Poincare algebra appears inconsistent. The construction of the affine supergravity theory is carried out by the group manifold method and leads to an action describing infinite towers of spin 2 and spin 3/2 fields that interact subject to the symmetries of the loop algebra. The equations of motion satisfy the usual consistency check. Finally, she postulates a theory in which both the vector and scalar fields lie in the loop algebra of SO(3). This theory has an expanded soliton sector, and corresponding to the original 't Hooft-Polyakov solitonic solutions she now finds an infinite family of exact, special solutions of the new equations. She also proposes a perturbation method for obtaining an arbitrary solution of those equations for each level of the affine index

  19. The antiphasic regulatory module comprising CDF5 and its antisense RNA FLORE links the circadian clock to photoperiodic flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rossana; Wang, Huan; Liu, Jun; Boix, Marc; Huang, Li-Fang; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-11-01

    Circadian rhythms of gene expression are generated by the combinatorial action of transcriptional and translational feedback loops as well as chromatin remodelling events. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are natural antisense transcripts (NATs) to transcripts encoding central oscillator components were proposed as modulators of core clock function in mammals (Per) and fungi (frq/qrf). Although oscillating lncRNAs exist in plants, their functional characterization is at an initial stage. By screening an Arabidopsis thaliana lncRNA custom-made array we identified CDF5 LONG NONCODING RNA (FLORE), a circadian-regulated lncRNA that is a NAT of CDF5. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed the circadian regulation of FLORE, whereas GUS-staining and flowering time evaluation were used to determine its biological function. FLORE and CDF5 antiphasic expression reflects mutual inhibition in a similar way to frq/qrf. Moreover, whereas the CDF5 protein delays flowering by directly repressing FT transcription, FLORE promotes it by repressing several CDFs (CDF1, CDF3, CDF5) and increasing FT transcript levels, indicating both cis and trans function. We propose that the CDF5/FLORE NAT pair constitutes an additional circadian regulatory module with conserved (mutual inhibition) and unique (function in trans) features, able to fine-tune its own circadian oscillation, and consequently, adjust the onset of flowering to favourable environmental conditions. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Affine and quasi-affine frames for rational dilations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we extend the investigation of quasi-affine systems, which were originally introduced by Ron and Shen [J. Funct. Anal. 148 (1997), 408-447] for integer, expansive dilations, to the class of rational, expansive dilations. We show that an affine system is a frame if, and only if......, the corresponding family of quasi-affine systems are frames with uniform frame bounds. We also prove a similar equivalence result between pairs of dual affine frames and dual quasi-affine frames. Finally, we uncover some fundamental differences between the integer and rational settings by exhibiting an example...

  1. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  2. Exploration of Ulumbu geothermal field, Flores-east nusa tenggara, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulasdi, Didi

    1996-01-26

    This paper describes the progress made in developing geothermal resources at Ulumbu Flores, Indonesia for utilization mini geothermal power generation. Two deep exploratory wells drilling drilled by PLN confirmed the existence of the resources. The well measurement carried out during drilling and after completion of the well indicated that the major permeable zone at around 680 m depth and that this zone is a steam cap zone, which is likely to produce high enthalpy steam. The above information indicates that well ULB-01 will produce a mass flow at least 40 tonnes per hour, which will ensure a 3 MW (E) Ulumbu mini geothermal power plant.

  3. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  4. De culpable a perseguido: Baudelaire y el proceso de Las Flores del Mal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zapata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo el poeta de Las Flores del Mal pasó de ser un escritor proscrito, y en consecuencia sospechoso, al autor perseguido e incomprendido que ha inmortalizado la historia literaria? ¿Cómo Baudelaire pudo desviar a su favor una circunstancia que, a primera  vista, era desafortunada? Baudelaire supo utilizar el escándalo que provocó la publicación de Las Flores del Mal para promover su figura pública. Un análisis de las posturas discursivas desplegadas por Baudelaire antes, durante y después del proceso nos permitirá comprender mejor la inversión que el poeta hace de su condenación, al transformar la sanción penal y moral, así como la exclusión a la que esta conduce, en un signo de su grandeza y de su gloria póstuma.

  5. Late Pleistocene songbirds of Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia); the first fossil passerine fauna described from Wallacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikna, Thomas; Saptomo, Wahyu; Jatmiko; Wasisto, Sri; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Mayr, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Background Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day). Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. Methods We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8.5 m depth. Although postcranial passerine remains are typically challenging to identify, we found several humeral characters particularly useful in discriminating between groups, and identified 89 skeletal elements of passerines. Results At least eight species from eight families are represented, including the Large-billed Crow (Corvus cf. macrorhynchos), the Australasian Bushlark (Mirafra javanica), a friarbird (Philemon sp.), and the Pechora Pipit (Anthus cf. gustavi). Discussion These remains constitute the first sample of fossil passerines described in Wallacea. Two of the taxa no longer occur on Flores today; a large sturnid (cf. Acridotheres) and a grassbird (Megalurus sp.). Palaeoecologically, the songbird assemblage suggests open grassland and tall forests, which is consistent with conditions inferred from the non-passerine fauna at the site. Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, found in the Homo floresiensis-bearing layers, was likely part of a scavenging guild that fed on carcasses of Stegodon florensis insularis alongside vultures (Trigonoceps sp.), giant storks (Leptoptilos robustus), komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis), and probably H. floresiensis as well. PMID:28828271

  6. Late Pleistocene songbirds of Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia; the first fossil passerine fauna described from Wallacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day. Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. Methods We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8.5 m depth. Although postcranial passerine remains are typically challenging to identify, we found several humeral characters particularly useful in discriminating between groups, and identified 89 skeletal elements of passerines. Results At least eight species from eight families are represented, including the Large-billed Crow (Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, the Australasian Bushlark (Mirafra javanica, a friarbird (Philemon sp., and the Pechora Pipit (Anthus cf. gustavi. Discussion These remains constitute the first sample of fossil passerines described in Wallacea. Two of the taxa no longer occur on Flores today; a large sturnid (cf. Acridotheres and a grassbird (Megalurus sp.. Palaeoecologically, the songbird assemblage suggests open grassland and tall forests, which is consistent with conditions inferred from the non-passerine fauna at the site. Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, found in the Homo floresiensis-bearing layers, was likely part of a scavenging guild that fed on carcasses of Stegodon florensis insularis alongside vultures (Trigonoceps sp., giant storks (Leptoptilos robustus, komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis, and probably H. floresiensis as well.

  7. Consideraciones sobre Botrytis cinerea pers., agente causal de la pudrición de las flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available El "moho gris" de las flores, ocasionado por el hongo
    Botrytis cinerea Pers., es una enfermedad de la cual
    se desconocen muchos aspectos fundamentales. Sin embargo y a pesar de esta carencia de conocimientos, frecuentemente se aplican fungicidas que, muchas veces, no resultan efectivos para el control adecuado de la enfermedad e, incluso, se exagera en uso, lo cual significa un aumento de costos y un efecto en el ambiente. Esta enfermedad es muy común en muchas flores de exportación, como rosa, clavel, crisantemo, estatice y gypsophila. Staby y Naegele (1985 opinan que las plantas pueden ser atacadas en el campo, en el transporte o en el almacenamiento. La penetración del patógeno se realiza directamente a través de heridas causadas por insectos o por medios mecánicos. En condiciones muy favorables, el hongo puede penetrar
    directamente en sus hospedantes a través de la cutícula, mediante la producción de enzimas que degradan los componentes de ésta.

  8. The solutions of affine and conformal affine Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, G.; Spence, B.

    1994-02-01

    We give new formulations of the solutions of the field equations of the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda theories on a cylinder and two-dimensional Minkowski space-time. These solutions are parameterised in terms of initial data and the resulting covariant phase spaces are diffeomorphic to the Hamiltonian ones. We derive the fundamental Poisson brackets of the parameters of the solutions and give the general static solutions for the affine theory. (authors). 10 refs

  9. Flamenco en la Universidad. Rese??a cr??tica a: Delgado Calvo-Flores, Rafael. Poemas Gitanos. Gipsy Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanga, Miguel A.

    2007-01-01

    Descripci??n de las convenciones po??ticas de la l??rica flamenca, su relaci??n y diferencias con las convenciones de la l??rica tradicional. Rese??a cr??tica del libro Poemas Gitanos / Gipsy Poems, de Rafael Delgado Calvo-Flores (Universidad de Granada, 2005)

  10. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Siegel, Erika H.; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and…

  11. Fundamentals of affinity cell separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lyons, Veronica; Pappas, Dimitri

    2018-03-01

    Cell separations using affinity methods continue to be an enabling science for a wide variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the fundamental aspects of affinity separation, including the competing forces for cell capture and elution, cell-surface interactions, and models for cell adhesion. Factors affecting separation performance such as bond affinity, contact area, and temperature are presented. We also discuss and demonstrate the effects of nonspecific binding on separation performance. Metrics for evaluating cell separations are presented, along with methods of comparing separation techniques for cell isolation using affinity capture. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Perda de massa de flores de capuchinha após armazenamento Loss of nasturtium flower mass after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Sangalli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a perda de massa pós-colheita de flores de capuchinha, em experimento conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica da UFMS, em setembro de 2004. Flores das cores vermelha e amarela foram imersas durante trinta minutos em água, ácido ascórbico a 2% e 4%, cloreto de cálcio a 2% e 5% e sacarose a 5% e 10%, e armazenadas com e sem o uso de filme de PVC em câmara fria a 5ºC±2ºC. Foi analisada a perda de massa fresca, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial 2 x 2 x 7, com três repetições (8 flores por bandeja e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de significância. A longevidade média das flores de capuchinha foi de oito dias para as flores acondicionadas na embalagem de PVC e armazenadas em câmara fria, enquanto as flores não acondicionadas apresentaram-se murchas a partir do segundo dia. Os tratamentos químicos, nas concentrações estudadas, não beneficiaram a conservação pós-colheita das flores da capuchinha.The post-harvest behavior of nasturtium flowers was evaluated using sucrose, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride which were associated or not with polyethylene pack and stored under refrigeration. This work was carried out in a biochemical laboratory, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Red and yellow flowers were immersed during thirty minutes in water, ascorbic acid at 2% and 4%, calcium chloride at 2% and 5% and sucrose at 5% and 10%, and then stored with and without package in a refrigerated chamber at 5°C ±2°C. The trial was carried out in a complete randomized experimental design in a 2 x 2 x 7 factorial scheme with three replications (8 flowers/tray. Nasturtium flowers stored with package in refrigerated chamber last for eight days, while flowers kept at environmental conditions withered after the second day. Treatments with ascorbic acid, calcium chloride and sucrose did not benefit post-harvest conservation of nasturtium flowers.

  13. Melhoramento genético da mamona visando incremento de flores femininas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bertozzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar métodos de seleção visando ao aumento de flores femininas na população FCA-UNESP-PB de mamona (Ricinus communis L.. A seleção foi realizada no município de Botucatu (SP, na safrinha de 2007. Por meio de seleção massal, foram selecionadas plantas com racemo primário estritamente feminino. Destas plantas, as que tinham reversão sexual foram autofecundadas. As avaliações foram realizadas na safrinha de 2008 em Botucatu e São Manuel (SP, onde foram comparados os tratamentos: método de seleção massal; método de seleção massal com autofecundação e testemunha (racemos de plantas colhidos ao acaso, sem seleção. Foram avaliados: porcentagem de flores femininas do racemo primário (%, produtividade de grãos (kg ha-1 e teor de óleo das sementes (%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com 30 repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância individual para cada local e conjuntamente para os dois locais, pelo teste F a 1% de probabilidade. Mediante os resultados conclui- se que o método de seleção massal com autofecundação foi aquele que proporcionou maiores valores de porcentagem de flores femininas no racemo primário, com ganho fenotípico realizado de 18% em Botucatu e 29% em São Manuel (SP. Por meio dos métodos de seleção, notou-se comportamento diferencial em relação aos locais para a característica produtividade de grãos, e o método seleção massal com autofecundação proporcionou a menor produtividade. No teor de óleo não houve diferenças significativas entre os métodos e os locais avaliados.

  14. Cytotoxic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from the Rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Minchang; Xu, Min; Wang, Yi; Tang, Haifeng; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-02-18

    Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH extract of the rhizomes of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore led to the isolation of five new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-5, together with five known saponins 6-10. Their structures were determined by the extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments, along with ESIMS analyses and acid hydrolysis. The aglycone of 4 and 5 was determined as 21α-hydroxyoleanolic acid, which was reported in this genus for the first time. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated against four human cancer cell line, including HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma). The monodesmosidic saponins 6-8 exhibited cytotoxic activity toward all tested cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the 7.25-22.38 μM range.

  15. Mary as Mother in the Flores de Mayo in Poblacion, Oslob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marion Y. Lopez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the meanings of the Flores de Mayo ritual as performed in a town on the southeastern coast of Cebu through the examination of Mary as a “semantically open” symbol. The essay illustrates how ideas about Mary are constructed through the discourse of the Church and are in turn, reinforced through a Church-instituted and regulated ritual. An analysis of selected elements of the ritual however, reveals that the symbol of Mary has the potential to hold “other” kinds of meanings that slip in between “official” and “unofficial” discourses, highlighting how Mary continues to be a negotiated field between church authorities and the popular faithful.

  16. Species composition, distribution and abundance of chaetodontidae along reef transects in the Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrim, Mohammad; Hutomo, Malikusworo

    Observations on chaetodontid fishes were made by applying a visual census technique at 13 coral reef locations in the Flores Sea region in October and November 1984. These observations were made along 50 m transect lines, parallel to the shore or the reef edge at depths between 3 to 12 m. Twenty-three species of Chaetodontidae were observed, representing three genera: Chaetodon (20 species), Heniochus (2 species) and Forcipiger (1 species). Chaetodon kleini, C. trifasciatus, C. melannotus and C. baronessa proved to be the most abundant species, and among them C. kleini and C. trifasciatus were the most widely distributed ones. Chaetodon semeion and C. mertensi were the rarest species. The greatest number of individuals (77) was counted at station 4.268 near Tanjung Burung, Sumbawa, while the greatest number of species (14) was observed at station 4.257, north of Komodo. The lowest number of individuals (17) was counted at station 4.175 near P. Bahuluang, Salayer, while station 4.251 near Teluk Slawi, Komodo, was inhabited by the smallest numbver of species (2). Numerical classification by using the Bray Curtis dissimilarity index resulted in three groups of entities. The first group was characterized by predomination of C. kleini and the second by predomination of C. melannotus. The third one was a loose group not characterized by any predominant species. The analyses indicated that the similarities of the chaetodontid communities between locations are not related to the distance between them, but rather to habitat conditions. For example predomination of C. melannotus is strongly related to the predomination of soft coral. Compared to other areas of Indonesia, e.g. Bali, Seribu Islands, Batam, Sunda Strait, and Ambon Bay, the Flores Sea reefs have a more abundant and more diverse chaetodontid fauna.

  17. Characterization of stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, 1998-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2000-01-01

    Stormwater discharges from Las Flores Industrial Park, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico, were characterized from June 1998 to July 1999 by measuring the flow rate at two outfalls, delineating the drainage areas for each outfall, and calculating the volume of the stormwater discharges. Stormwater-discharge samples were collected and analyzed to determine the quality of the discharges. Constituent loads and loads per area were estimated for each drainage area. The studied drainage subareas covered approximately 46 percent of the total area of the Las Flores Industrial Park. Industrial groups represented in the study areas include manufacturers of textile, electronics, paper, fabricated metal, plastic, and chemical products. The concentrations of oil and grease (1 to 6 milligrams per liter), biochemical oxygen demand (4.7 to 16 milligrams per liter), total organic carbon (5.8 to 36 milligrams per liter), total suspended solids (28 to 100 milligrams per liter), and total phosphorous (0.11 to 0.78 milligrams per liter) from all the samples collected were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stormwater benchmark concentrations. Concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (15.8 to 157 milligrams per liter) and nitrate and nitrite (0.06 to 1.75 milligrams per liter) exceeded benchmark concentrations at one of the studied drainage areas. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (1.00 to 3.20 milligrams per liter) exceeded the benchmark concentrations at the two studied drainage areas. Maximum concentrations for oil and grease, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, and total phosphorous were detected in an area where electronics, plastics, and chemical products are currently manufactured. The maximum concentration of total suspended solids was detected at an area where textile, paper, plastic, chemical, and fabricated metal products are manufactured.

  18. Lo andino en los murales de Jesús Flores Walpaq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Leandro Arce De Piero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo exploramos los modos en que lo andino se construye en la producción muralística del artista plástico Jesús Flores Walpq. Nos enfocamos en la definición de rasgos que configuran el centro representacional de lo andino y el proceso de deslizamientos semánticos y retóricos en la enunciación. A medida que el artista fue construyéndose como enunciador autorizado, la construcción del relato en el mural fue variando considerablemente. Si bien no se registran diferencias radicales en el empleo del color, la forma, la línea, etc. sí es significativa la variación en cuanto a la retórica que incorpora al indio en el discurso pictórico. El recorrido parte de la observación de los cambios en la construcción del yo-artista, que parte de la problematización del rol de productor de arte académico hasta plantear rol de “obrero del arte” comprometido con su contexto político, ideológico y artístico. Esto significó para Flores Walpaq adherir a las luchas reivindicatorias por los derechos indígenas. En conjunto, este texto nos lleva a problematizar sobre las condiciones de producción de la pregunta por la identidad en este contexto y las respuestas que los sujetos ensayan y modifican.

  19. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  20. Mapping Affinities in Academic Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Rodighiero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly affinities are one of the most fundamental hidden dynamics that drive scientific development. Some affinities are actual, and consequently can be measured through classical academic metrics such as co-authoring. Other affinities are potential, and therefore do not leave visible traces in information systems; for instance, some peers may share interests without actually knowing it. This article illustrates the development of a map of affinities for academic collectives, designed to be relevant to three audiences: the management, the scholars themselves, and the external public. Our case study involves the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering of EPFL, hereinafter ENAC. The school consists of around 1,000 scholars, 70 laboratories, and 3 institutes. The actual affinities are modeled using the data available from the information systems reporting publications, teaching, and advising scholars, whereas the potential affinities are addressed through text mining of the publications. The major challenge for designing such a map is to represent the multi-dimensionality and multi-scale nature of the information. The affinities are not limited to the computation of heterogeneous sources of information; they also apply at different scales. The map, thus, shows local affinities inside a given laboratory, as well as global affinities among laboratories. This article presents a graphical grammar to represent affinities. Its effectiveness is illustrated by two actualizations of the design proposal: an interactive online system in which the map can be parameterized, and a large-scale carpet of 250 square meters. In both cases, we discuss how the materiality influences the representation of data, in particular the way key questions could be appropriately addressed considering the three target audiences: the insights gained by the management and their consequences in terms of governance, the understanding of the scholars’ own

  1. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  2. 2017 Guralp Affinity Digitizer Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2018-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two Guralp Affinity digitizers. The Affinity digitizers are intended to record sensor output for seismic and infrasound monitoring applications. The purpose of this digitizer evaluation is to measure the performance characteristics in such areas as power consumption, input impedance, sensitivity, full scale, self- noise, dynamic range, system noise, response, passband, and timing. The Affinity digitizers are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  3. The utility of affine variables and affine coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, John R

    2012-01-01

    Affine coherent states are generated by affine kinematical variables much like canonical coherent states are generated by canonical kinematical variables. Although all classical and quantum formalisms normally entail canonical variables, it is shown that affine variables can serve equally well for many classical and quantum studies. This general purpose analysis provides tools to discuss two major applications: (1) the completely successful quantization of a nonrenormalizable scalar quantum field theory by affine techniques, in complete contrast to canonical techniques which only offer triviality; and (2) a formulation of the kinematical portion of quantum gravity that favors affine kinematical variables over canonical kinematical variables, and which generates a framework in which a favorable analysis of the constrained dynamical issues can take place. All this is possible because of the close connection between the affine and the canonical stories, while the few distinctions can be used to advantage when appropriate. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (review)

  4. Uruguay mining inventory. Geochemical prospecting results of the Las Flores aerial map[Study of Uranium geochemical prospection in Uruguay]; Inventario minero del Uruguay. Resultados de la prospeccion geoquimica del fotoplano Las Flores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeegers, H; Bonnefoy, D; Garau, M; Spangenberg, J

    1981-07-01

    In the context of the Uruguay mining inventory, the aerial photography map Las Flores had been covered by a specific strategic which included geochemical prospecting elements. The surface covered has the 550 km2, and 1042 samples which they have been analized in Orleans France. 22 elements by plasma spectroscopy and gold by atomic absorption and for uranium laser spectroscopy . They have been evidenced the following anomalies: gold, Pb, Pb-Ba-Cu, Ba and Ni-Cr.

  5. Representations of affine Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Xi, Nanhua

    1994-01-01

    Kazhdan and Lusztig classified the simple modules of an affine Hecke algebra Hq (q E C*) provided that q is not a root of 1 (Invent. Math. 1987). Ginzburg had some very interesting work on affine Hecke algebras. Combining these results simple Hq-modules can be classified provided that the order of q is not too small. These Lecture Notes of N. Xi show that the classification of simple Hq-modules is essentially different from general cases when q is a root of 1 of certain orders. In addition the based rings of affine Weyl groups are shown to be of interest in understanding irreducible representations of affine Hecke algebras. Basic knowledge of abstract algebra is enough to read one third of the book. Some knowledge of K-theory, algebraic group, and Kazhdan-Lusztig cell of Cexeter group is useful for the rest

  6. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  7. Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos Genómica Funcional de Plantas: Estudio del Desarrollo de Flores y Frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Rubén Salazar Moya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La última fase del desarrollo floral es la fertilización de los óvulos y la formación de los frutos,que son muy importantes tanto biológica como económicamente. Notoriamente, más del 80% de los alimentos que son consumidos por el ser humano proviene de flores y frutos.La obtención de conocimientos acerca de las bases moleculares del desarrollo de frutos en especies modelo es de gran interés científico, y un paso indispensable para poder facilitar investigaciones y de ser factible, aplicaciones en frutos de consumo humano. Especialmente en un país como México, con tal riqueza en la diversidad de frutos, este tipo de estudios es necesario y científicamente muy interesante, y tiene repercusiones económicas potenciales importantes. La meta del laboratorio es descubrir genes nuevos involucrados en el desarrollo de frutos, empleando los recursos que brindan plantas modelo como Arabidopsisthaliana. Se hace un enfoque especial en genes que afectan la identidad celular, morfología y que causan partenocarpia (frutos carentes de semillas, para más tarde estudiarlos enotras especies y hacer ensayos para conocer sus alcances en dichas especies.The last stages of fl oral development are ovule fertilization and fruit formation. Fruits are very important both biologically and economically. Notably, more than 80% of human food is obtained from flowers and fruits. Gathering basic knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of fruit development from model species is of great scientific interest, and is an essential step to facilitate research and, when feasible, applications in fruits consumed by humans. Especially in countries like Mexico, which has such a great diversity of fruits, this kind of research is both necessary and scientifically interesting, and has potentially important economic repercussions. The goal of the lab is to discover new genes that are involved inflower development, making use of the resources provided by model plants like

  8. Environmental And Area Support Capability Analysis For Seaweed Mariculture Development In Hading Bay Of East Flores Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus K. Da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract East Flores regency has adequate marine resources potentials to develop seaweed aquaculture area. Animportant aspect of seaweed aquaculture is the site selection. Site selection is based on the marine area extent and its ecological quality. The objectives of the study were to analyze the water ecology and its support capability and to determine the best site for continuous seaweed mariculture in Hading Bay of East Flores Regency. The study used descriptive method. It was conducted in Hading Bay Lewolema District East Flores Regency in March 2015. Data analysis was done using GIS based on area suitability value and the method applied in the mariculture was long line method. Total Hading Bay water territory was864676 ha. Site Awas135345 ha site B was 474222 ha and site C was 255108 ha. Area with S1 category was 729331 ha extended in Site B and C. Area with S2 category was 135345 ha as extended in Site A. Water territory support capability was 778208 ha. The number of seaweed mariculture units was 194552 units and seaweed territory capacity was 99. Hading Bay waster has the capacity and area support capability for K. alvareziiseaweed mariculture site. Site A was categorized S2 on suitability class and site B and C were categorized S1 on suitability class. The results showed different quality of water territory in those three sites was not significant and still in normal range of K. alvarezii seaweed mariculture development.

  9. Flores de corte y follaje en florerías y mercados de Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tlahuextl-Tlaxcalteca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Puebla, México, la capital del estado, es un consumidor importante de especies de flor de corte y follaje. Se elaboró un cuestionario el cual se aplicó a través de entrevistas con los dueños de florerías o encargados de ventas en seis mercados y 40 florerías. Las florerías de Puebla ofrecen más especies de flores de corte que los mercados. Los precios de flores en los mercados son más bajos, pero la calidad también es menor que en las florerías. Los mercados ofrecen varias especies de flores de corte provenientes de la producción a la intemperie (Celosia cristata, Centaurea cyanus, Gladiolus sp., Matthiola incana, Tagetes erecta. Lo interesante es que tanto las florerías como los mercados tienen amplio surtido de follaje cortado de buena calidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener información sobre la oferta y demanda de especies de flor de corte y follaje en Puebla. Asimismo, las preferencias de los hombres y las mujeres hacia estos productos

  10. Landscape Characteristics of Oriental Honey Buzzards Wintering in Western Part of Flores Island Based on Satellite-Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syartinilia; Farisi, G. H. Al; Higuchi, H.

    2017-10-01

    Oriental Honey Buzzards (OHBs, Pernis ptilorhynchus) are migratory raptor that has been satellite-tracked since 2003. Some islands in Indonesia which are used for wintering habitat are Flores and Borneo. However, both islands have different characteristics of climate and land cover. The objectives of this research were to analyze the landscape characteristic of the OHBs wintering habitat in western Flores, and to subsequently compare landscape characteristic of the OHBs wintering habitat in Borneo. Landscape habitat characteristics were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) combined with GIS and then compared to the previous study in Borneo Island. The result showed that the first of six principal components explained 79.14% and 77.59% of the observed variation in landscape characteristics of both core and edge habitats, subsequently. Habitat selection by OHBs at wintering site was influenced by the availability of thermal wind and food. Savannah was identified as the main landscape characteristic that was different between wintering habitat in Flores and Borneo. Savannah is well-known as a habitat for many species of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals so that it can be a hunting area that provide alternative feed for OHBs.

  11. Flores, Fernández y Oliva: tres azulejeros para las obras reales de Felipe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleguezuelo, Alfonso

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Que las obras de arquitectura promocionadas por Felipe II eran acabadas frecuentemente con revestimientos de azulejos es una idea conocida desde hace tiempo. El ejemplo más frecuentemente aducido es el de los aposentos del mismo rey en el Monasterio de San Lorenzo de El Escorial aunque podrían ser citados muchos más casos conservados y otros conocidos a través de la documentación. Este rasgo de la arquitectura filipina y el personal interés del rey por el asunto debió ser un importante acicate para el desarrollo de la azulejería española en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI. Tres artistas han sido citados desde hace años como autores de los azulejos para Felipe II. Por un lado, el flamenco Juan Flores, del que tan sólo se tenían unas pocas noticias literarias sobre su vida y su obra y que recientemente he tenido la oportunidad de revisar a luz de nuevos documentos y obras.…

  12. Early stone technology on Flores and its implications for Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Aziz, Fachroel; van den Bergh, Gert D; Morwood, Michael J; Moore, Mark W; Kurniawan, Iwan; Hobbs, Douglas R; Fullagar, Richard

    2006-06-01

    In the Soa Basin of central Flores, eastern Indonesia, stratified archaeological sites, including Mata Menge, Boa Lesa and Kobatuwa (Fig. 1), contain stone artefacts associated with the fossilized remains of Stegodon florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and various other taxa. These sites have been dated to 840-700 kyr bp (thousand years before present). The authenticity of the Soa Basin artefacts and their provenance have been demonstrated by previous work, but to quell lingering doubts, here we describe the context, attributes and production modes of 507 artefacts excavated at Mata Menge. We also note specific similarities, and apparent technological continuity, between the Mata Menge stone artefacts and those excavated from Late Pleistocene levels at Liang Bua cave, 50 km to the west. The latter artefacts, dated to between 95-74 and 12 kyr ago, are associated with the remains of a dwarfed descendent of S. florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and a small-bodied hominin species, Homo floresiensis, which had a brain size of about 400 cubic centimetres. The Mata Menge evidence negates claims that stone artefacts associated with H. floresiensis are so complex that they must have been made by modern humans (Homo sapiens).

  13. Upwelling Dynamic Based on Satellite and INDESO Data in the Flores Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Reski; Suriamihardja, D. A.; Hamzah Assegaf, Alimuddin

    2018-03-01

    Upwelling phenomenon is crucial to be forecasted, mainly concerning the information of potential fishery areas. Utilization of calibrated model for recorded upwelling such as INDESO gives benefit for historical result up to the present time. The aim of this study is to estimate areas and seasons of upwelling occurrences in the Flores Sea using data assimilation of satellite and modeling result. This study uses sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a data from level 3 of MODIS image and sea surface height from satellite Jason-2 monthly for three years (2014-2016) and INDESO model data for sea surface temperature, sea surface height, and chlorophyll-a daily for three years (2014-2016). The upwelling is indicated by declining of sea surface temperature, sea surface height and increasing of chlorophyll-a. Verification is conducted by comparing the model result with recorded MODIS satellite image. The result shows that the area of southern Makassar Strait having occurrences of upwelling phenomenon every year starting in June, extended to July and August. The strongest upwelling occurred in 2015 covering more or less the area of 23,000 km2. The relation of monthly data of satellite has significantly correlated with daily data of INDESO model

  14. ASPECTOS DA PRODUÇÃO E CONSUMO DE FLORES E PLANTAS ORNAMENTAIS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AUGUSTO AKI

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo uma análise sobre a constituição do mercado de flores e plantas ornamentais no Brasil, aspectos de marketing envolvidos nessa evolução e a sistematização de informações sobre produção e consumo. Inicialmente, é apresentada a evolução desse mercado, elaborada a partir de estudos de técnicos e consultores da área. Segue-se a apresentação de dados e informações de estudos e pesquisas elaborados sobre a evolução da produção. A maioria das informações apresentada consta da pesquisa de campo “Prospecção de Produtos e Mercados: Cadeia Produtiva Nacional”, levada a efeito pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Floricultura (IBRAFLOR com o apoio da Agência de Promoção de Exportações (APEX, e publicada no início de 2003. Com base na estruturação do mercado, produção e consumo, são sugeridas ações visando à maior eficiência da cadeia.

  15. Fractal Analysis on the Correlation of Coastal Line Geometry and Tsunami Impact in Maumere, Flores, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARI BAHAGIARTI KUSUMAYUDHA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the Indonesian territories are high potential of geologic disaster, such as earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruptions and landslides, because the country belongs to tectonically active areas of the world. There are three big lithosperic plates interacting one with one another and influencing the tectonic setting of Indonesia. The plates are Indo-Australia plate, Eurasia plate and Pacific plate. Indo-Australia plate moves relatively northward by about 9 cm/year, Eurasia plate creeps south eastward with approximately 7 cm/year speed, and Pacific plate moves to the west with around 11 cm/year velocity. In the meeting line of the plates, about 300 km to the south of Indonesian islands, there is the subduction zone that become places, where earthquake focuses are generated. Earthquakes from submarine source with more than 6.5 magnitude have the potential to generate tsunami. Areas situated along the south coast of Indonesia islands are vulnerable to tsunami, because directly facing the boundary lines between Eurasia plate and Indo-Australia plate. This study verified that there is positive correlation between coastal line geometry and the tsunami impact, based on fractal analysis. The case study is Maumere, Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Result of the study is expected to be used for predicting the tsunami impact intensiveness at other areas.

  16. Identifikasi longsoran bawah laut berdasarkan penafsiran seismik pantul di perairan Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20092Submarine sliding frequently cause tsunami or a high velocity big wave around the submarine slid- ing area which enable to reach a long distance. This sliding is not always as a causal factor for hazard and even associate with storm and earthquake. Some of them occur in a narrow area and it’s just formed due to gravitational movement. Different with mechanism of landslide, which is commonly due to water saturated soil, the submarine sliding is a more complex event. The submarine sliding is an important natural process which causes a big volume of sediment mass moves from a shallow area to a much deeper area of seafloor. There are many types and causal factors of seafloor instability, but the sliding terminology is predominantly used for the phenomena. A variety of seafloor materials, environments and sediment masses are some extreme influential factors in creat- ing the types of submarine sliding. The reflector of seismics is usefull to interpret the indications of the occurrence of geological structure and sub-marine slumping In case of the Flores Sea, earthquake is a major causal factor for creating submarine sliding. The bigger magnitude of earthquake, the greater the dimension of submarine sliding. Eventually, it may affect to the more possible occurrence of a potential hazardous tsunami.  

  17. The Structure of Affine Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    In The Structure of Affine Buildings, Richard Weiss gives a detailed presentation of the complete proof of the classification of Bruhat-Tits buildings first completed by Jacques Tits in 1986. The book includes numerous results about automorphisms, completions, and residues of these buildings. It also includes tables correlating the results in the locally finite case with the results of Tits's classification of absolutely simple algebraic groups defined over a local field. A companion to Weiss's The Structure of Spherical Buildings, The Structure of Affine Buildings is organized around the clas

  18. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  19. RELACIONES GENOMICAS ENTRE CUATRO ESPECIES DIPLOIDES DE TURNERA CON FLORES AMARILLAS (SERIE CANALIGERAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Mercedes Fernández

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Los rasgos morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos artificiales entre cuatro especies diploides (2n = 10: T.concinna, T.Krapovickasii, T.scabra y T.subulata han sido estudiados. Los híbridos fueron intermedios en varios caracteres, como el color de las flores, la longitud, la anchura y forma de las semillas, en algunos rasgos se parecían a uno o al otro padre. Todos los híbridos interespecíficos mostraron un alto porcentaje de PMC con cinco bivalentes. La meiosis de T.subulata x T.scabra fue regular (5 II. En los otros híbridos fue hallada una baja frecuencia de trivalentes o cuadrivalentes; estos trivalentes y cuadrivalentes son evidencia de translocaciones recíprocas. Puentes y fragmentos en anafase I y II muestran la presencia de inversiones paracéntricas. Los análisis morfológicos y citogenéticos de los híbridos indican una estrecha relación entre T.scabra y T.subulata y entre T.concinna y T.Krapovickasii respectivamente. Esta última especie tiene un par de cromosomas con satélites grandes. T.scabra y T.concinna están más alejadas. El estudio citogenético de todos los híbridos entre estas especies confirmaría que son taxones independientes. Ellos tienen el mismo genoma básico, que designamos Asu Asu de T. subulata, Asc Asc para T.scabra, Ak Ak para T. Krapovickasii y Ac Ac para T.concinna.

  20. Energy reduction potential from the shift to electric vehicles: The Flores island case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Baptista, Patrícia; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The increase of fossil fuel demand raises concerns on availability of resources for future energy demand and on potential environmental impacts. Electric vehicles (EVs) appear as one alternative to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources. This research work analyzes the benefits of the introduction of EVs in a small energy system, the Flores island, Azores, in terms of primary energy and CO 2 emissions. Four scenarios were designed considering different penetration rates of EVs (Low and High) and different time of recharging strategies (Fixed and Flexible). The high shares of RES in the electricity production system (60–62%) did not guarantee a significant use of RES for the recharging of EVs (10–40%), as the additional electricity required had to be produced mainly from the diesel generators. The flexible recharging strategies allowed doubling the share of RES in the recharging of the EVs when compared to fixed recharging, and consequently double the impact on the reduction of primary energy consumption and fossil fuels imports. While the reduction of primary energy ranged between 0.2% and 1.1%, for CO 2 emissions there was a decrease between 0.3 and 1.7%, proving that EVs can help improve the sustainability of energy systems. - highlights: • High shares of RES in electricity do not guarantee a low energy use by EVs. • The introduction of EVs can help reduce CO 2 emissions by 11% in 2030. • Flexible time of recharging strategies allows a 2.5 times higher share of RES

  1. PENGEMASAN PAKET EKOWISATA DI DESA LIANG NDARA, KECAMATAN MBELILING, KABUPATEN MANGGARAI BARAT, FLORES, NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Bertomi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Liang Ndara village is one of the village in Mbeliling sub-district, West Manggarai regency, Flores of East Nusa Tenggara Province. Liang Ndara village has many tourism potentials specifically regarding to the ecotourism. Free entrance fee in to those tourism places caused by unserious and less attention of the government are becoming problem, as well as Lack of human resources of people is another problem causing the potentials are not well organized yet and even it is not in a good tourism packaging. The research aim to find out the tourism potential that can be made ecotourism packages and packaging them to become an ecotourism in Liang Ndara village. The data collection of this research is by an observation, documentation, interviewing and as well as literature. The data analysis technic used is by analysis technic of qualitative descriptive. The results of this research showed that Liang Ndara village has three kinds of tourism potential which is in a packaging of ecotourism. Those potentials are the natural tourism potentials consist of Mbeliling Mountain, Cunca rami waterfall, Cunca Wae Kantor waterfall and Liang Niki Cave. The cultural tourism potentials are Caci dance, Compang Kafir Stone, Compang Serani statue, Batu Tiga, Hand Weaving of Songke, Farming Activities such as sopi/arak filtration, cultivating of rice field. Man made tourism potentials are information center in the village, guest house, and souvenir shops. The potentials above are packaged in to two kind of ecotourism packages they are Liang Ndara Village Tour and Mbeliling Green Forest Tour. The suggestions are the government is supposed to put their eyes on to develop those potential exist and need to be hand in hand with the tourism actors as well as the society. The travel agencies are expected to make an interesting tourism package like ecotourism and also supposed to be together with the society to take care and survive the tourism potentials existed.

  2. Influence of storage temperature on Epidendrum ibaguense flowers = Influência da temperatura de armazenamento em flores de Epidendrum ibaguense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Mapeli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out to evaluate the influence oftemperature and wet-versus-dry storage on longevity, respiration and ethylene production during storage of E. ibaguense flowers. The inflorescences were harvested and stored at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40oC, in water or dry, until complete senescence. Respiration increased when inflorescences were treated with wet or dry storage. The Q10 factor for this flower, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 40°C, was similar to most fresh horticultural products, varying between 1.2 and 3.31 depending on storage temperature. Production of ethylene by the inflorescence was maximal at 20ºC for flowers maintained in water, and at 35°C for those flowers kept dry, followedby a sharp drop in both treatments. A maximal shelf life for cut flowers was obtained when the inflorescences were stored wet at 10°C. Symptoms of chilling were observed in flowers stored in water after six to seven days at 5°C, showing petal wilting and necrosis of the labellum. At 40°C, flowers stored dry showed severe petal wilting anddarkening of bud petals less than one day after harvest.O presente trabalho avaliou a influência da temperatura e armazenamento úmido e seco sobre a longevidade, respiração e produção de etileno de flores de Epidendrum ibaguense. As hastes foram colhidas, colocadas em vaso e armazenadas em temperatura de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40oC, em água ou a seco, até completa senescência das flores. A respiração aumentou quando as inflorescências foram tratadas com armazenamento úmido ou seco. O fator Q10 para estas flores, na faixa de temperatura de 5 a 40ºC, foi similar a da maioria dos produtos hortícolas, variando de 1,2 a 3,3, dependendo da temperatura de armazenamento. A produção de etileno foi máxima a 20ºC, para as flores mantidas em água, e a 35ºC para aquelasmantidas a seco, e a partir destas temperaturas houve redução em ambos os tratamentos. A longevidade foi m

  3. Projecto - IV Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Flores 1989.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, António M. de Frias; Furtado, Duarte; Brum, João M. M.; Almeida, Luís Mexia de

    1989-01-01

    IV Expedição Científica do Departamento de Biologia - Flores 1989 (Projecto). A zona costeira açoreana é sem dúvida uma verdadeira fronteira entre o mundo terrestre e marinho, representando um dos ecossistemas mais ricos do arquipélago. Mal descrita e pouco conhecida, esta pequena parcela com cerca de cinco a sete milhões de anos de idade é o meio mais transformado por numerosos factores inerentes a presença do homem. São numerosos os pontos do Arquipélago em que o meio marinho é praticame...

  4. O uso do comércio eletrônico no ramo de flores tropicais em Pernambuco.

    OpenAIRE

    Euri Charles Andrade da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Comércio eletrônico (ou e-commerce) refere-se ao uso da Internet para realizar negócios. Mais formalmente, diz respeito às transações comerciais realizadas digitalmente entre organizações e indivíduos ou entre duas ou mais organizações. O estudo de caso desenvolvido nessa pesquisa permitiu o conhecimento da cadeia produtiva de flores tropicais em Pernambuco, que se destaca ocupando o quinto lugar no País na produção e comercialização do setor. A pesquisa é realizada em quatro empresas que neg...

  5. The affine quantum gravity programme

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, J R

    2002-01-01

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix left brace g-hat sub a sub b (x)right brace composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that sti...

  6. Affine invariants of convex polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flusser, Jan

    2002-01-01

    In this correspondence, we prove that the affine invariants, for image registration and object recognition, proposed recently by Yang and Cohen (see ibid., vol.8, no.7, p.934-46, July 1999) are algebraically dependent. We show how to select an independent and complete set of the invariants. The use of this new set leads to a significant reduction of the computing complexity without decreasing the discrimination power.

  7. High affinity hemoglobin and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey; Hobson, Douglas; Ponnampalam, Arjuna

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the midbrain. Oxidative damage in this region has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Human neurons have been discovered to contain hemoglobin, with an increased concentration seen in the neurons of the SN. High affinity hemoglobin is a clinical entity resulting from mutations that create a functional increase in the binding of hemoglobin to oxygen and an inability to efficiently unload it to tissues. This can result in a number of metabolic compensatory changes, including an elevation in circulating hemoglobin and an increase in the molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG). Population based studies have revealed that patients with PD have elevated hemoglobin as well as 2,3-DPG levels. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the oxidative damage seen in PD is related to an underlying high affinity hemoglobin subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Barreiras ao desempenho das propriedades produtoras de flores de corte: uma análise nos municípios e Barbacena e Alfredo Vasconcelos – Minas Gerais

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Francylara Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Barbacena e Alfredo Vasconcelos são dois municípios da região Central de Minas Gerais tradicionais na produção de flores no estado. Apesar da tradição em mais de meio século, nos últimos anos, nota-se a presença de barreiras ao desempenho das propriedades produtoras. Considerando-se o crescimento da demanda interna e a possibilidade dos municípios voltarem a exportar flores e corte, na presente pesquisa buscou-se identificar quais são essas barreiras. Norteados pela Visão Baseada em Recursos,...

  9. Rank Two Affine Manifolds in Genus 3

    OpenAIRE

    Aulicino, David; Nguyen, Duc-Manh

    2016-01-01

    We complete the classification of rank two affine manifolds in the moduli space of translation surfaces in genus three. Combined with a recent result of Mirzakhani and Wright, this completes the classification of higher rank affine manifolds in genus three.

  10. Alternative affinity tools: more attractive than antibodies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, V.J.B.; Levisson, M.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Smidt, H.; Oost, van der J.

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies are the most successful affinity tools used today, in both fundamental and applied research (diagnostics, purification and therapeutics). Nonetheless, antibodies do have their limitations, including high production costs and low stability. Alternative affinity tools based on nucleic acids

  11. Spectral affinity in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-11-29

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to quickly find nodes closest to a queried vertex in any protein

  12. Spectral affinity in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to

  13. Lp-mixed affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Leng, Gangsong

    2007-11-01

    According to the three notions of mixed affine surface area, Lp-affine surface area and Lp-mixed affine surface area proposed by Lutwak, in this article, we give the concept of ith Lp-mixed affine surface area such that the first and second notions of Lutwak are its special cases. Further, some Lutwak's results are extended associated with this concept. Besides, applying this concept, we establish an inequality for the volumes and dual quermassintegrals of a class of star bodies.

  14. SUPPRESSING DIFFRACTION EFFECT USING KIRCHHOFF PRE-STACK TIME MIGRATION ON 2D SEISMIC MULTICHANNEL DATA AT FLORES SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumpal Benhard Nainggolan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 2D seismic multichannel survey has been carried out by Marine Geological Institute of Indonesia to interpret imaging and sub-surface geological information in the Flores Sea. Seismic data processing starts from pre-processing until migration stage. Migration is an important stage in the seismic processing, because at this stage the effects of diffraction and oblique reflectors caused by fault, salt domes, wedging, etc. will be repositioned to the actual points. One example of diffraction effects can be seen on the seismic section of a conventional stacking that have not migrated, i.e. resulting in an apparent bowtie reflector. Geologists find difficulties in interpreting geological information from diffracted seismic section, so it needs further processing to overcome the effects. By using Kirchhoff method and carried out during the Pre-Stack Time Migration (PSTM, this method turns out to produce migrated seismic section which is much better than conventional stacked one. This is due to the Kirchhoff method suppressed the identified diffraction effects, so that the geologist can interpret geological structure of the resulting migrated seismic section of the Flores Sea.

  15. Importancia de los estudios fisiológicos en los cultivos de flores de exportación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco de Amézquita Martha

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available La Fisiologla Vegetal estudia el funcionamiento de las plantas y los procesos vitales que regulan su crecimiento, desarrollo y producción. En últimas, las respuestas de los vegetales dependen de lo que ocurre a nivel molecular, de organelos subcelulares, de células, de tejidos y órganos y de las
    interrelaciones entre ellos, todo ésto modulado por
    las condiciones ambientales. De la anterior definición, se deduce la importancia que tiene la investigación de los procesos fisiológicos en el desarrollo de la floricultura. En la actualidad, el manejo de plantas productoras de flores bajo
    invernadero en la Sabana de Bogotá está basado en el interés de los floricultores por mejorar y aumentar
    la calidad de la producción, lo cual ha originado un importante conocimiento emplrico, acompañado del empleo de técnicas recomendadas por expertos internacionales, que han suplido
    los requerimientos necesarios para la producción. Por lo anterior, Arbeláez (1985 opina que un aspecto de vital importancia en el desarrollo futuro de la industria de flores será el poder contar con investigación suficiente que genere la tecnologla adecuada a las necesidades y condiciones colombianas.

  16. Manifolds with integrable affine shape operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Joaquín

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes the conditions for the existence of vector fields with the property that theirs covariant derivative, with respect to the affine normal connection, be the affine shape operatorS in hypersurfaces. Some results are obtained from this property and, in particular, for some kind of affine decomposable hypersurfaces we explicitely get the actual vector fields.

  17. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  18. Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade’s experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating...

  19. The affine quantum gravity programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, John R

    2002-01-01

    The central principle of affine quantum gravity is securing and maintaining the strict positivity of the matrix { g-hat ab (x)} composed of the spatial components of the local metric operator. On spectral grounds, canonical commutation relations are incompatible with this principle, and they must be replaced by noncanonical, affine commutation relations. Due to the partial second-class nature of the quantum gravitational constraints, it is advantageous to use the recently developed projection operator method, which treats all quantum constraints on an equal footing. Using this method, enforcement of regularized versions of the gravitational operator constraints is formulated quite naturally by means of a novel and relatively well-defined functional integral involving only the same set of variables that appears in the usual classical formulation. It is anticipated that skills and insight to study this formulation can be developed by studying special, reduced-variable models that still retain some basic characteristics of gravity, specifically a partial second-class constraint operator structure. Although perturbatively nonrenormalizable, gravity may possibly be understood nonperturbatively from a hard-core perspective that has proved valuable for specialized models. Finally, developing a procedure to pass to the genuine physical Hilbert space involves several interconnected steps that require careful coordination

  20. Affine-projective field laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    The general topic of geometric unified field theories is discussed in the first section. Some reasons are given for pursuing such theories, and some criticisms are considered. The second section develops the fundamental equations of a purely affine theory which is invariant under projective transformations of the affine connection. This theory is a generalization of that of Schrodinger. Possible identifications for the space-time metric are considered in Sec. III. Sections IV and V deal with the limits of pure gravitation and electrodynamics. In the symmetric limit, Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological term are recovered. The theory also contains a generalized electrodynamic set of equations which is very similar to the Born-Infeld set. In the weak-field approximation, a finite mass must be attributed to the photon. The problem of motion for charges is discussed here, and it is argued that criticisms of unified field theories because of a supposed inability to produce the Lorentz force law are probably not justified. Three more speculative sections deal with possible explanations of nuclear forces, the spin-torsion relation, and particle structure

  1. Variação no número de glândulas e produção de óleo em flores de Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae Variation in the number of glands and oil production in flowers of Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dib de Carvalho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada uma população de Stigmaphyllon paralias (Malpighiaceae em Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil, visando analisar a variação do número de glândulas e sua produção de óleo nas flores. Dos indivíduos analisados, 76% não variaram o número de glândulas entre suas flores, ocorrendo 41% de indivíduos com flores que possuem 10 glândulas, 31% com oito glândulas e 4% com nove glândulas. Nas flores dos morfos que apresentam oito e nove glândulas, as glândulas ausentes são sempre as da sépala inferior. Centris leprieuri e Epicharis sp. (Apidae: Centridini foram as únicas espécies que visitaram S. paralias, coletando óleo como recompensa. A sépala inferior localiza-se sob o abdome do polinizador quando pousado na flor, tornando-se inacessível à coleta de óleo. Sugerimos que a incapacidade de utilização de algumas glândulas pelos polinizadores possa ter possibilitado o aparecimento de morfos nas populações que não apresentam estas glândulas como caráter adaptativo por gerar economia de recursos na produção de recompensa não utilizada pelo polinizador. Todas as glândulas de todos os morfos são funcionais. As flores dos dois morfos principais com oito e 10 glândulas, produzem a mesma quantidade total de óleo. As glândulas das flores com oito glândulas aumentam a produção em cerca de 20%, compensando a produção total de óleo por flor.A population of Stigmaphyllon paralias (Malpighiaceae was studied in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. Variation of the number of oil glands and oil production in the flowers were analized. 76% of the individuals did not present variation on the number of glands among their flowers, 41% presented flowers with 10 glands, 31% with eight glands and 4% with nine glands. In the flowers of the morphs with eight or nine glands, the absent glands were always associated to the inferior sepal. Only Centris leprieuri and Epicharis sp. (Apidae: Centridini visited flowers of S. paralias

  2. A Holocene Record of Monsoon Intensity From Speleothems in Flores, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M. L.; Drysdale, R.; Gagan, M.; Ayliffe, L.; Zhao, J.; St. Pierre, E.; Hantoro, W.; Suwargadi, B.

    2007-12-01

    The Australasian monsoon is among the largest monsoon systems on Earth. The affected region experiences a marked seasonal cycle in winds and precipitation, similar to its Northern Hemisphere counterparts (e.g., Asian monsoons). The Australasian monsoon is the life blood of the millions of people of the Indonesian archipelago. Since the climate is the dominating factor controlling food production, it is of great significance and urgency that we gain a firmer grasp on the parameters that control variations in monsoon intensity. Precise uranium series dating of two actively growing speleothems measuring ~1.25 (LR06-B1) and ~1.61 (LR06-B3) meters in length from Liang Luar cave (Flores, eastern Indonesia), reveal basal ages of ~12,846±103 and 23,605±171 years respectively. In previous studies, stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ13C) and trace element concentrations in speleothems have revealed past environmental change (e.g., Burns et al., 2001; Wang et al., 2001; Fleitmann et al., 2004; Drysdale et al., 2004).In monsoon-affected regions, the δ18O signal recorded in stalagmites seems to be dominated by the amount of precipitation (so-called `amount effect'), whereby more negative (positive) δ18O values indicate enhanced (diminished) precipitation. Preliminary results from LR06-B1 indicate that δ18O values show a general increase in monsoon intensity from the beginning of the record to ~2000 years BP: this more or less follows insolation changes over the Australian continent.Comparison of our record with D4 from Dongge Cave reveals an anticorrelation during the Holocene, further supporting the hypothesis that tropical monsoon intensity is largely controlled by changes in insolation in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. Examination of our δ13C record demonstrates a high-frequency signal superimposed on low- frequency variability which correlates with the reconstructed sunspot cycle: higher (lower) sunspot numbers, and hence increased solar activity

  3. CHAQUIÑÁN DE LLUGSHIRUM (FLORES: REGISTRO DE CAMINOS PEDESTRES EN TERRITORIO PURUHÁ (Chaquiñan de Llugshirum, Flores: A Record of Pedestrian Paths in Puruha Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Carretero Poblete

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2016 realizamos el registro de los chaquiñanes o caminos secundarios prehispánicos de la comunidad de Llugshirum en Flores (Riobamba, Ecuador, así como la prospección arqueológica visual superficial del área aledaña a los mismos. El objetivo del trabajo era registrar los citados chaquiñanes antes de que fueran destruidos por las comunidades en busca de la explotación antrópica intensiva de las tierras de cultivo y determinar si existían materiales arqueológicos asociados en superficie que pudieran señalarnos la presencia puruhá antes de la llegada de los colonizadores. Se recuperaron fragmentos de cerámica puruhá, panzaleo, republicana y contemporánea, que mostraban el uso de los citados caminos al menos durante los últimos mil años. Hoy, una gran parte de los tramos registrados ha sido destruida o modificada de manera irreversible. ENGLISH: In 2016 we registered the chaquiñanes, or secondary pre-Hispanic roads from the community of Llugshirum, in Flores (Riobamba, Ecuador. We also conducted superficial visual archaeological prospecting of the surrounding area. The objective of the work was to record the chaquiñanes before they were destroyed by communities in search of intensive exploitation of farmlands, and to determine if there were associated archaeological materials on the surface that could indicate the Puruha presence before the arrival of colonizers. Fragments of Puruha, Panzaleo, Republican, and Contemporary pottery were recovered, which showed the use of the pre-Hispanic roads over the course of the last thousand years (at minimum. Today, a large part of the registered sections has been irreversibly destroyed or modified.

  4. Determinação da dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense com base em características de flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sigales de Vasconcelos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As pimentas do gênero Capsicum apresentam grande importância para o mercado de condimentos e para o uso ornamental no Brasil. A estimativa da diversidade genética é importante na escolha de progenitores de programa de melhoramento genético. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a eficiência de descritores multicategóricos de flores para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense, do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma Capsicum, da Embrapa Clima Temperado. O experimento foi realizado no período de agosto de 2009 a março de 2010, no campo experimental da Embrapa Clima Temperado, em blocos ao acaso, utilizando-se 22 acessos, com dez plantas por parcela. Para a caracterização morfológica das flores, foram avaliadas cinco flores de cada planta, de dez plantas por acesso. Foram utilizados 15 descritores, sendo cinco quantitativos e dez qualitativos multicategóricos. Foram realizadas análises de comparação de médias, utilizando-se agrupamento pelos métodos UPGMA e de Tocher, para os dados quantitativos, e agrupamento pelo método de Tocher, para os dados qualitativos. Os acessos estudados apresentam ampla diversidade genética em relação a descritores de flores, existindo grande variabilidade entre os acessos avaliados, o que recomenda seu uso em programas de melhoramento genético. O uso de descritores multicategóricos de flores é eficiente para estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre acessos de Capsicum chinense.

  5. Isolation and identification of flavonoids, including flavone rotamers, from the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayyan, S; Fossen, T; Solheim Nateland, H; Andersen, O M

    2005-01-01

    Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.

  6. Antisymmetric tensor generalizations of affine vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Tsuyoshi; Morisawa, Yoshiyuki; Tomoda, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    Tensor generalizations of affine vector fields called symmetric and antisymmetric affine tensor fields are discussed as symmetry of spacetimes. We review the properties of the symmetric ones, which have been studied in earlier works, and investigate the properties of the antisymmetric ones, which are the main theme in this paper. It is shown that antisymmetric affine tensor fields are closely related to one-lower-rank antisymmetric tensor fields which are parallelly transported along geodesics. It is also shown that the number of linear independent rank- p antisymmetric affine tensor fields in n -dimensions is bounded by ( n + 1)!/ p !( n - p )!. We also derive the integrability conditions for antisymmetric affine tensor fields. Using the integrability conditions, we discuss the existence of antisymmetric affine tensor fields on various spacetimes.

  7. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambiente

  8. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência em várias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas orgânico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribuídos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avaliações de incidência de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantificação de frutos caídos com ou sem sintomas da doença foi a cada 15 dias, durante o período de crescimento de frutos até a colheita, relacionada com a produção total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e também após incubação no laboratório. Infecção latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias após a floração. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii é capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em pós-colheita após a incubação.

  9. Affine LIBOR Models with Multiple Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grbac, Zorana; Papapantoleon, Antonis; Schoenmakers, John

    2015-01-01

    are specified following the methodology of the affine LIBOR models and are driven by the wide and flexible class of affine processes. The affine property is preserved under forward measures, which allows us to derive Fourier pricing formulas for caps, swaptions, and basis swaptions. A model specification...... with dependent LIBOR rates is developed that allows for an efficient and accurate calibration to a system of caplet prices....

  10. Selection of imprinted nanoparticles by affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, António R; Chianella, Iva; Piletska, Elena; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-04-15

    Soluble molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were synthesised via iniferter initiated polymerisation and separated by size via gel permeation chromatography. Subsequent fractionation of these particles by affinity chromatography allowed the separation of high affinity fractions from the mixture of nanoparticles. Fractions selected this way possess affinity similar to that of natural antibodies (K(d) 6.6x10(-8)) M and were also able to discriminate between related functional analogues of the template.

  11. Connections between quantized affine algebras and superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, R.B.

    1992-08-01

    Every affine superalgebra with a symmetrizable Cartan matrix is closely related to an ordinary affine algebra with the same Cartan matrix. It is shown that the quantum supergroup associated with the former is essentially isomorphic to the quantum group associated with the latter in an appropriate class of representations. At the classical level, each integrable irreducible highest weight representation of the affine superalgebra has a corresponding irreducible representation of the affine algebra, which has the same weight space decomposition. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  12. A Novel Vertex Affinity for Community Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    We propose a novel vertex affinity measure in this paper. The new vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength and is ideal for such graph analytics applications as community detection. We also developed a framework that combines simple graph searches and resistance circuit formulas to compute the vertex affinity efficiently. We study the properties of the new affinity measure empirically in comparison to those of other popular vertex proximity metrics. Our results show that the existing metrics are ill-suited for community detection due to their lack of fundamental properties that are essential for correctly capturing inter- and intra-cluster vertex proximity.

  13. Decree 343/012. Is regulated the servitude established by Decree-Law 10,383, on several lines of electricity conduction -150 KV to be built in the departments of Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree regulates the establishment of electricity conduction in Florida, Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Flores, San Jose and Tacuarembo towns. These electrical lines are necessary to provide the public service by UTE

  14. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate id...

  15. Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.

  16. Improving image segmentation by learning region affinities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-03

    We utilize the context information of other regions in hierarchical image segmentation to learn new regions affinities. It is well known that a single choice of quantization of an image space is highly unlikely to be a common optimal quantization level for all categories. Each level of quantization has its own benefits. Therefore, we utilize the hierarchical information among different quantizations as well as spatial proximity of their regions. The proposed affinity learning takes into account higher order relations among image regions, both local and long range relations, making it robust to instabilities and errors of the original, pairwise region affinities. Once the learnt affinities are obtained, we use a standard image segmentation algorithm to get the final segmentation. Moreover, the learnt affinities can be naturally unutilized in interactive segmentation. Experimental results on Berkeley Segmentation Dataset and MSRC Object Recognition Dataset are comparable and in some aspects better than the state-of-art methods.

  17. Effets de certaines pratiques oenologiques telles que : pied de cuve, sulfitage et régulation du pH sur la flore de fermentation dans les moûts de Xérès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel José Valcárcel Muñoz

    1990-06-01

    Les résultats mettent en évidence l'efficacité de l'usage correct du pied de cuve contenant des levures sélectionnées, l'influence relativement faible de la régulation du pH sur la flore blastomicète, et enfin la sélection correcte de la flore par un sulfitage adéquat.

  18. Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: An extreme case to preserve Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores 2004 (Coleóptera: Tenebrionidae: Un caso extremo a conservar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Choros Archipelago includes three islands: Choros, Damas and Gaviota and it is part of The Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve. These insular ecosystems are within the Chilean transitional coastal (25°-32° S. Prior researches in the archipelago reported a species of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera endemic to Choros island (29°15' S, 71°32' W described as Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the vulnerability of this species in the archipelago through Conservation Priority Index (CPI, Environmental Ministery of Chile (MMA and Red List of IUCN. We concluded that G. granulipennis is Endangered by CPI index, and Vulnerable by MMA of Chile. Additionally, this species can be classiffied with Deficient Data (DD by IUCN because many of data are impossible or difficult to obtain for insects and can overestimate or underestimate the risk of extinction of this species. We consider important to monitoring the continuity of this species and the protection of habitat, for which we propose not allow access the tourists and eradication of European rabbit.El archipiélago de Los Choros, conformado por las islas Choros, Damas y Gaviota forma parte de la Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt y está situado dentro del desierto costero transicional de Chile (25°-32° S. Estudios recientes realizados en el archipiélago dan cuenta de una especie endémica de Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera de la isla Choros (29°15' S, 71°32' O descripta como Gyriosomus granulipennis Pizarro-Araya & Flores. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la prioridad de conservación de esta especie en el archipiélago mediante el análisis del Índice de Prioridad de Conservación (CPI, clasificación del Ministerio de Medio Ambiente (MMA de Chile y lista roja de la IUCN. Nuestros resultados sostienen que esta especie puede ser catalogada en categoría En peligro por el índice CPI y Vulnerable según el MMA. Según criterios

  19. Influência dos Fatores Ambientais e da Quantidade de Néctar na Atividade de Forrageio de Abelhas em Flores de Adenocalymma bracteatum (Cham.) DC. (Bignoniaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Keila Silva; João Cloves Dutra; Mateus Nucci; Leandro Polatto

    2013-01-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência diária dos fatores ambientais e da quantidade de néctar na frequência de forrageio de abelhas em flores de Adenocalymma bracteatum (Cham.) DC. Para isso, foi demarcada uma área focal e registrada a atividade de forrageio das abelhas em um intervalo de 30 minutos para cada hora, das 6:00 às 17:30 h, nas flores da referida espécie vegetal durante quatro dias não consecutivos. Também foi avaliada a produção acumulativa de néctar e o s...

  20. Análise espectral de flores utilizadas por aves nectarívoras em uma área urbana no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, MCB.; Donatelli, RJ.

    2010-01-01

    Análise espectral de flores utilizada por aves nectarívoras em áreas urbanas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer a característica espectral das flores produtoras de néctar visitadas por nectarívoros em áreas urbanas. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na região central do município de Taubaté, no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. As áreas amostradas incluíram espaços verdes, tais como praças e parques e a vegetação das ruas e avenidas. Foram registradas 12 espécies de plantas utilizadas por c...

  1. Piscadelas de caveiras: a escatologia do Jardim das Flores Skull winks: the eschatology of the Garden of Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Dawsey

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available No Jardim das Flores, na periferia de uma cidade do interior paulista, moradores interpretam o seu mundo por meio de histórias sobre o céu e o inferno, e a destruição e recriação do mundo. Como interpretar essas interpretações? A partir dessa questão a antropologia de Geertz propõe-se a fazer uma "descrição densa" em que seja possível distinguir um piscar de olhos de uma piscadela marota. As histórias que se contam no Jardim das Flores, porém, não são meras interpretações. Nelas se alojam vontades de interromper o próprio curso do mundo. Ao dizerem algo sobre o mundo, elas irrompem como provocações capazes de suscitar um abrir e fechar dos olhos, com efeitos de despertar. Por meio de imagens carregadas de tensões, uma descrição densa também adquire as qualidades de uma descrição tensa, um assombro. Não seriam as elipses, incoerências e emendas suspeitas - onde um texto parece desmanchar - os sinais do "baixo corporal" do texto que chamamos cultura? Talvez nesses lugares, como as histórias do Jardim das Flores revelam, encontrem-se os subsolos mais férteis de um texto, ou, ainda, o seu fundo escatológico.In the Garden of Flowers, a peripheral district of a city of the interior of São Paulo, people interpret their world, among other ways, by telling stories about heaven and earth, and the destruction and recreation of the world. How should one interpret these interpretations? As a way for dealing with this question, Geertz developed the notion of 'thick description,' by which one may distinguish a twitch from a wink. The stories told in the Garden of Flowers are not mere interpretations, however. They emerge from the will to interrupt the very course of the world. As they say something about the world, they also erupt as provocations, with awakening effects, causing one's eyes to close and reopen. By means of tension-filled images, 'thick description' may also acquire the qualities of tense description, provoking

  2. Feeding behavior of hummingbirds and perching birds on Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae flowers in an urban area, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Comportamento alimentar de beija-flores e Passeriformes nas flores de Erytrhina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae em uma área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of birds - seven hummingbirds (Trochilidae and two Passeriformes - were observed visiting the flowers of Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, a hummingbird-pollinated species present on the campus of Londrina State University, Paraná State, Brazil. Nectar in bagged flowers bore little relationship with nectar in flowers opened to foragers either regarding quantity or diurnal pattern of availability. Birds were more frequent early in the morning and their activity on flowers further declined, apparently following the pattern of nectar availability. The manner to which birds probed the flowers and, in consequence, their role on pollination were greatly determined by morphological traits and approaching behavior of birds. E. speciosa seemed best suited for pollination by long-billed hummingbirds but some short to medium-billed species may play some role on its pollination.Nove espécies de aves - sete beija-flores (Trochilidae e duas aves Passeriformes - foram observados visitando as flores de Erythrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae, uma espécie polinizada por beija-flores presente no campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. O néctar em flores ensacadas apresentou pouca relação com aquele em flores expostas aos visitantes, tanto em termos de quantidade como em temos de padrão diurno de disponibilidade. As aves foram mais freqüentes de manhã e sua atividade nas flores diminuiu no transcorrer do dia, coincidindo com o padrão de disponibilidade de néctar. O comportamento de visita das aves e, em conseqüência, sua atuação na polinização da espécie foram em grande parte determinadas por características morfológicas e comportamentais destas. E. speciosa parece ser adaptada para polinização por beija-flores de bicos longos, embora espécies com bicos de comprimento curto a médio possam ter algum papel em sua polinização.

  3. Fenologia do florescimento e características do perfume das flores de Passiflora quadrangularis l. (maracujá-melão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antonio Villamil Montero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Passiflora quadrangularis L. é uma espécie originária do neotrópico, conhecida no Brasil como maracujá-melão devido ao tamanho e formato dos seus frutos. Tem sido amplamente disseminada nas regiões tropicais do mundo onde é produzida em pequena escala para comercialização dos frutos, o que ocorre bem próximo às regiões de cultivo, em função da dificuldade de conservação pós-colheita. As plantas são trepadeiras bastante vigorosas, com flores abundantes, grandes e perfumadas, o que amplia o seu valor e a torna particularmente interessante para caramanchões e cercas-vivas. O uso efetivo de passifloras no mercado de plantas ornamentais depende de estudos da fenologia floral. Neste trabalho foram estudadas algumas características da fenologia floral e o perfume das flores de P. quadrangularis, sob cultivo protegido. São apresentados os dados relativos ao período de floração, picos de florescimento e intensidade relativa das flores, bem como algumas características do perfume floral. Conclui-se que a espécie representa uma nova alternativa de cultivo para fins ornamentais, por apresentar múltiplas flores em antese simultânea, abundantes, grandes, fragrantes e coloridas, com longo período de floração no ano, além de frutos comestíveis, folhas exuberantes e medicinais que oferecem amplo sombreamento para áreas externas de lazer e/ou outras plantas cultivadas.

  4. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years. PMID:28248262

  5. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-03-18

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years.

  6. El extracto etanólico de las flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (pacra-pacra aumenta la fertilidad en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arroyo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar si la administración por vía oral del extracto etanólico de flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (Pacra-pacra en ratas normales aumenta la fertilidad. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Facultad de Medicina y Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Material biológico: Ratas. Intervenciones: Cuarentiocho animales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grandes grupos, de 24 cada uno. El primero fue control, con solución salina fisiológica (SSF 5 mL/kg y el segundo con extracto vía oral, 300 mg/kg, durante 15 días. Cada grupo consideró 6 hembras y 6 machos juntos, y 6 hembras y 6 machos separados. Los animales que estuvieron juntos fueron sacrificados, para observar la presencia de fetos en el útero; y a los animales que estuvieron separados, se les extrajo muestra de sangre, para conocer el nivel de testosterona en machos y LH, FSH, estrógenos y progesterona en hembras, expresándose en µg/dL; el dosaje hormonal se realizó por el método de electroquimioluminiscencia. Asimismo, se determinó GOT, GPT, urea y creatinina, según las técnicas utilizadas en el laboratorio clínico. Principales medidas de resultados: Gravidez, FSH, LH, estrógenos y progesterona en ratas hembras; testosterona en ratas machos. Resultados: Los flavonoides, compuestos fenólicos y taninos estuvieron en mayor cantidad en el extracto etanólico. El 100% de ratas que recibió el extracto etanólico de la planta y estuvo junto a los machos resultó grávida; y, las separadas que recibieron el mismo extracto, presentaron incremento de FSH en las hembras y testosterona en los machos, comparativamente a los controles respectivos. Los niveles de GOT, GPT, urea y creatinina se encontraron dentro de los límites aceptados. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el extracto etanólico de las flores de Laccopetalum giganteum (pacra-pacra incrementó la fertilidad en ratas normales.

  7. Descripción del uso y manejo de plaguicidas en las empresas de flores afiliadas a Asocolflores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela E. Varona

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En Colombia, la exposición a plaguicidas se ha convertido en un problema de salud pública debido al incremento de la demanda; esto ha ocasionado impacto en la salud de la población y en el ambiente. Objetivo. Describir los plaguicidas empleados y determinar su uso y manejo en las empresas de flores en la sabana de Bogotá y Rionegro (Antioquia afiliadas a la Asociación Colombiana de Exportadores de Flores, Asocolflores. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en 84 empresas estratificadas por ubicación geográfica y por tamaño. Se recolectó información de la empresa y del trabajador, y se realizó una observación detallada del proceso de fumigación y utilización de los plaguicidas. Se llevó a cabo un análisis univariado, bivariado y la exploración de posibles asociaciones. Resultados. El 39,4% de los trabajadores de las empresas incluidas en el estudio pertenecían al sexo masculino y el 60,6% al femenino. Respecto a la categoría toxicológica, el 14,3% de los plaguicidas pertenecía a la categoría I, el 14,4% a la II, el 52,0% a la categoría III y el restante, 19,2%, a la categoría IV. Los plaguicidas más utilizados fueron los ditiocarbamatos con 11,7%. Los equipos más empleados para la aplicación de los plaguicidas eran la bomba móvil (92,8% y la lanza (92,9%. El seguimiento de la exposición a plaguicidas por pruebas de laboratorio, se realizaba por medio de la colinesterasa mediante la técnica de Michel-Aldrige en el 85,9% de las empresas. Conclusión. Este estudio describe la forma como se utilizan los plaguicidas en la industria floricultora en Colombia. Se hacen recomendaciones para mejorar su manejo y se proponen medidas para reducir la exposición de los trabajadores.

  8. Mobile Technology Affinity in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, S; Scheel, J; Stoessel, L; Schieber, K; Jank, S; Lüker, C; Vitinius, F; Grundmann, F; Eckardt, K-U; Prokosch, H-U; Erim, Y

    Medication nonadherence is a common problem in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Mobile health approaches to improve medication adherence are a current trend, and several medication adherence apps are available. However, it is unknown whether RTRs use these technologies and to what extent. In the present study, the mobile technology affinity of RTRs was analyzed. We hypothesized significant age differences in mobile technology affinity and that mobile technology affinity is associated with better cognitive functioning as well as higher educational level. A total of 109 RTRs (63% male) participated in the cross-sectional study, with an overall mean age of 51.8 ± 14.2 years. The study included the Technology Experience Questionnaire (TEQ) for the assessment of mobile technology affinity, a cognitive test battery, and sociodemographic data. Overall, 57.4% of the patients used a smartphone or tablet and almost 45% used apps. The TEQ sum score was 20.9 in a possible range from 6 (no affinity to technology) to 30 (very high affinity). Younger patients had significantly higher scores in mobile technology affinity. The only significant gender difference was found in having fun with using electronic devices: Men enjoyed technology more than women did. Mobile technology affinity was positively associated with cognitive functioning and educational level. Young adult patients might profit most from mobile health approaches. Furthermore, high educational level and normal cognitive functioning promote mobile technology affinity. This should be kept in mind when designing mobile technology health (mHealth) interventions for RTRs. For beneficial mHealth interventions, further research on potential barriers and desired technologic features is necessary to adapt apps to patients' needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Affinity Strings: Enterprise Data for Resource Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Nackerud

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The University of Minnesota Libraries have created a MyLibrary portal, with databases and e-journals targeted to users, based on their affiliations. The University's enterprise authentication system provides an "affinity string", now used to personalize the MyLibrary portal. This affinity string automates discovery of a user's relationship to the University--describing a user's academic department and degree program or position at the University. Affinity strings also provide the Libraries with an anonymized view of resource usage, allowing data collection that respects users' privacy and lays the groundwork for automated recommendation of relevant resources based on the practices and habits of their peers.

  10. Semi-Commercial and Traditional Hunting of Baar Tribe in Riung, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat Kayat

    2017-01-01

    Hunting is one of the aspects that influence number of wild animals. The article aims at describing semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara as an alternative for wild animal conservation.  The data collection methods are guided interview, in-depth interview and participant observation. The findings show that in the semi-comercial and traditional hunting concept of Baar Tribe in East Nusa Tenggara, traditional wisdom is represented by hunting techniques and equipments. It is likely that rapid semi-commercial hunting conducted by certain members of Baar tribe causes sharp decline in the population of wild animals. On the other hand, annual traditional hunting which strictly follows traditional code of conduct can maintain Timor deer population in Timor. Keywords: hunting, population, semi-commercial, traditional, Timor deer

  11. Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affinity purification of recombinant human plasminogen activator from ... Screening antibody was performed using rhPA milk in an ELISA-elution assay. ... useful for purifying other tPA mutants or other novel recombinant milkderived proteins.

  12. PRINCIPLES OF AFFINITY-BASED BIOSENSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the amount of resources that have been invested by national and international academic, government, and commercial sectors to develop affinity-based biosensor products, little obvious success has been realized through commercialization of these devices for specific applic...

  13. Quantum deformation of the affine transformation algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, N.; Sato, Haru-Tada

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a quantum deformation of the affine transformation algebra in one-dimensional space. It is shown that the quantum algebra has a non-cocommutative Hopf algebra structure, simple realizations and quantum tensor operators. (orig.)

  14. Dynamics of Open Systems with Affine Maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da-Jian; Liu Chong-Long; Tong Dian-Min

    2015-01-01

    Many quantum systems of interest are initially correlated with their environments and the reduced dynamics of open systems are an interesting while challenging topic. Affine maps, as an extension of completely positive maps, are a useful tool to describe the reduced dynamics of open systems with initial correlations. However, it is unclear what kind of initial state shares an affine map. In this study, we give a sufficient condition of initial states, in which the reduced dynamics can always be described by an affine map. Our result shows that if the initial states of the combined system constitute a convex set, and if the correspondence between the initial states of the open system and those of the combined system, defined by taking the partial trace, is a bijection, then the reduced dynamics of the open system can be described by an affine map. (paper)

  15. On the Lp affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface area measure on convex bodies. We also establish the reverse version of -Petty projection inequality and an affine isoperimetric inequality of − p K . Author Affiliations. Wuyang Yu1 Gangsong Leng2. Institute of Management Decision ...

  16. The hundred-year emotion war: are emotions natural kinds or psychological constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Siegel, Erika H; Quigley, Karen S; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and anxiety) elicit specific changes in cognition, judgment, behavior, experience, and physiology. In this article, we point out that Lench et al. (2011) is not the final word on the emotion debate. First, we point out that Lench et al.'s findings do not support their claim that discrete emotions organize cognition, judgment, experience, and physiology because they did not demonstrate emotion-consistent and emotion-specific directional changes in these measurement domains. Second, we point out that Lench et al.'s findings are in fact consistent with the alternative (a psychological constructionist approach to emotion). We close by appealing for a construct validity approach to emotion research, which we hope will lead to greater consensus on the operationalization of the natural kind and psychological construction approaches, as well as the criteria required to finally resolve the emotion debate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Jenis dan Status Konservasi Ikan Hiu yang Tertangkap di Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI Labuan Bajo, Manggarai Barat, Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Syakurachman Alaydrus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the types of sharks are caught, sold and conservation status in the fish auction place (TPI Labuan Bajo, West Manggarai, Flores, East Nusa Tenggara have been conducted in February and March 2014 in Labuan Bajo. The research method was the survey method and used Market Survey sampling techniques and identification by Rapid Assessment method. Descriptively analyzed data, displayed in the form of narration and a table. Based on the results of the study, found 114 individual sharks, 55 individual males, 59 females were classified into three orders, namely Orectolobiformes, Lamniformes, and Carcharhiniformes; 4 families that Carcharhinidae, Odontaspididae, Rhynchobatidae, and Ginglymostomatidae; 5 genera namely Carcharhinus, Triaenodon, Rhyncobatus, Prionace, and Rhizoprionodon and 9 types of sharks that Carcharhinus melanopterus, Triaenodon obesus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Carcharhinus taurus, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, Rhynchobatus australiae, Prionace glauca, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Nebrius ferrugineus. Based on the state of conservation, shark found in Labuan Bajo TPI classified Vulnerable and Near Threatened, the dominant type of shark found is Carcharhinus melanopterus (91 fishes while the least was found is Rhynchobatus australiae, Prionace glauca, Rhizoprionodon acutus, and Nebrius ferrugineus (each 1 individual.

  18. Training for Future Esp Trainers: Evaluating the Training of Trainers (TOT Program in Labuan Bajo, Manggarai Barat, Flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Rifai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By cooperating with Yayasan Komodo Kita and Mandiri Bank, English department of Binus University was chiefly in charge of a 15 day Training Of Trainers (TOT program for 24 participants prepared for teaching English in Labuan Bajo, Flores. The training was aimed to prepare already fluent- in – English- teachers, tour guides, and university graduates with the right tools and method in teaching English. To assess the program, a set of evaluation questionnaire was given to the participants to know their responses on the training material, the trainers, and the program by using Likert’s scale type questions. An observational record was also used as a tool to measure participants’ achievement. The questionnaire reveals that the participants respond positively to the program and the material and favor the approaches made by the trainers during the training. However, the training shows various results in participants’ performance. It is assumed that the non teaching background of the majority of participants and the level of English as two key factors influencing their performance.  

  19. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Siegel, Erika H.; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) report a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claim support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and anxiety) elicit specific changes in cognition, judgment, behavior, experience, and physiology. In this paper, we point out that Lench et al. (2011) is not the final word on the emotion debate. First, we point out that Lench et al.’s findings do not support their claim that discrete emotions organize cognition, judgment, experience, and physiology because they did not demonstrate emotion-consistent and -specific directional changes in these measurement domains. Second, we point out that Lench et al.’s findings are in fact consistent with the alternative (a psychological constructionist approach to emotion). We close by appealing for a construct validity approach to emotion research, which we hope will lead to greater consensus on the operationalization of the natural kind and psychological construction approaches, as well as the criteria required to finally resolve the emotion debate. PMID:23294094

  20. Radio elements transfer from water to atmosphere through degassing processes in the Loire estuary: the Flore project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontugne, M.; Hatte, C.; Paterne, M.; Maro, D.; Germain, P.; Hebert, D.; Rozet, M.; Voiseux, C.; Solier, L.; Tenailleau, L.; Abril, G.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of the toxic substances in the environment covers various fields of investigations like contamination by the radioelements, heavy metals and organic compounds. The knowledge of the biogeochemical cycles of the radioelements basically their temporal and spatial distributions is essential to a better understanding of their biological effects. Estuarine environments present a major interest since they constitute accumulation areas of wastes and rejections of the majority of the anthropogenic activities. These transition zones between fresh waters and ocean, characterised by the change of the physico- chemical properties (pH, salinity, turbidity) allows a redistribution of the radioelements by their speciation or phase change thus modifying their bio-availability. The Loire River estuary receives the rejections of radioelements being able to come from various sources like the nuclear thermal power stations (fourteen engines with discharges of carbon-14, tritium), the hospital complexes (rejections of iodine 131). The aims of FLORE program is to study the distribution of these radioelements and processes of phase transfer in this estuary especially in the mud plug area where the biochemical activity is intense. If most of the processes of transfer are now well established, fluxes of radioelements between water and the atmosphere are not quantified. Two oceanographic cruises carried out in February and September 2003 on board N/O 'Cotes de La Manche' allow to present distribution Iodine 131 within the estuary and the first estimation of radiocarbon and tritium fluxes from the river water to the atmosphere. (author)

  1. The invasive alien plants threatened the balance of ecosystem in conservative area in Ontoloe Island, Flores-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonius Mboka Segu Wake, Ignatius; Retnaningsih Soeprobowati, Tri; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    Invasive alien plants threaten to biodiversity, particularly in small island with high endemicity values such as Ontoloe Island, a tourist destination area of Riung Seventeen Island in Flores. The study aims to characterized the invasive plants have attacked the conservative area in Ontoloe Island. The method used by combining the line method and the plot method with three observation stations in utilization block and four observation station in protection block. Plot of 1mx1m was used for the observation of ground cover plants and seedling, 5mx5m for the observation in stake level, 10mx10m for the observation in pole level, 20mx20m for the observation in tree level. The data level of the plants obtained then analyzed with Important Value Index (IVI). Result showed that Lamtoro plants (Leuchaena leucocephala) is the invasive alien species which has the highest IVI in both of utilization block and protection block in each level of tree, stake, and pole. There are other invasive alien plants such as Tembeleken (Lantana camara) and Bidara (Zizipus mauritiana) dominated in stake level and Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) dominated in seedling level. All the native plants in Ontoloe Island will be threatened their existing because of the less control of invasive alien plants. Therefore, needs serious handling by the government in order to keep the balanced of the ecosystems in Ontoloe Island to be maintained especially to not deviated from management objectives area of Komodo Dragons conservation (Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912).

  2. Étude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore médicinale du Haut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study is considered as a contribution to the study of medicinal plants that are used in traditional herbal medicne by the local population of the Haute Moulouya. Methods and results: Using 320 questionnaires, a series of ethnobotanical surveys was conducted in the field during the years of 2012 and 2013.

  3. Epidemiology of leprosy on five isolated islands in the Flores Sea, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirjam I.; Hatta, Mochammad; Kwenang, Agnes; Klatser, Paul R.; Oskam, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a population-based survey on five small islands in South Sulawesi Province (Indonesia) to collect baseline data previous to a chemoprophylactic intervention study aiming at interrupting the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae . Here we describe the present leprosy epidemiology on these

  4. Different endothelin receptor affinities in dog tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, B.M.L.; Loehrer, W.

    1991-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) is a long-lasting potent vasoconstrictor-peptide. Here the authors report different binding affinities of endothelin-1 (ET-1) to ET-receptors of various dog tissues. Crude microsomal fractions were prepared after homogenisation of dog tissues in 50 mM Tris/HCl, 20 mM MnCl2, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.4 by differential centrifugation. Aliquots of microsomal fractions (70 micrograms of protein) were incubated at 25 degrees C for 180 min in the presence of 20 pM 125I-ET-1 and various concentrations of cold ET-1. Four different ET-1 receptor binding affinities were found: adrenals, cerebrum, liver, heart, skeletal muscle and stomach microsomal membranes contained high affinity binding sites (Kd 50 - 80 pM, Bmax 60 - 250 fmol/mg). In cerebellum and spleen medium affinity ET-1 receptors (Kd 350 pM, Bmax 880 and 1200 fmol/mg respectively) were present. In comparison lung and kidney microsomes contained a low affinity ET-1 receptor (Kd 800 and 880 pM, Bmax 1600 and 350 fmol/mg). Receptors of even lower affinity were present in heart, intestine and liver microsomes with Kd values of 3 - 6 nM

  5. The metric-affine gravitational theory as the gauge theory of the affine group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The metric-affine gravitational theory is shown to be the gauge theory of the affine group, or equivalently, the gauge theory of the group GL(4,R) of tetrad deformations in a space-time with a locally Minkowskian metric. The identities of the metric-affine theory, and the relationship between them and those of general relativity and Sciama-Kibble theory, are derived. (Auth.)

  6. Étude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore médicinale dans la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... Mots-clés : Ethnobotanique, Gharb, Plantes Médicinales, Médecine Traditionnelles. Abstract. Objective: An ... des plantes à la sécurité alimentaire et aux soins de santé primaire n'est plus à démontrer car près de. 80% de la population .... Tableau 1 : Profil général des utilisateurs (N= 520). Caractéristiques.

  7. Hirota's solitons in the affine and the conformal affine Toda models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Constantinidis, C.P.; Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    We use Hirota's method formulated as a recursive scheme to construct a complete set of soliton solutions for the affine Toda field theory based on an arbitrary Lie algebra. Our solutions include a new class of solitons connected with two different types of degeneracies encountered in Hirota's perturbation approach. We also derive an universal mass formula for all Hirota's solutions to the affine Toda model valid for all underlying Lie groups. Embedding of the affine Toda model in the conformal affine Toda model plays a crucial role in this analysis. (orig.)

  8. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caprio, Giuseppe; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-08-11

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin (Hb) in red blood cells (RBCs). Although the oxygen affinity of blood is well-understood and routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of RBC volume and Hb concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers, and they are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume, and Hb concentration for individual RBCs in high throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.9%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-Hb dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with Hb concentration but independent of osmolarity, which suggests variation in the Hb to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2-3 DPG) ratio on a cellular level. By quantifying the functional behavior of a cellular population, our system adds a dimension to blood cell analysis and other measurements of single-cell variability.

  9. The fourth dimension in immunological space: how the struggle for nutrients selects high-affinity lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Eldering, Eric

    2012-09-01

    Lymphocyte activation via the antigen receptor is associated with radical shifts in metabolism and changes in requirements for nutrients and cytokines. Concomitantly, drastic changes occur in the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that alter the sensitivity of lymphocytes to limiting concentrations of key survival factors. Antigen affinity is a primary determinant for the capacity of activated lymphocytes to access these vital resources. The shift in metabolic needs and the variable access to key survival factors is used by the immune system to eliminate activated low-affinity cells and to generate an optimal high-affinity response. In this review, we focus on the control of apoptosis regulators in activated lymphocytes by nutrients, cytokines, and costimulation. We propose that the struggle among individual clones that leads to the formation of high-affinity effector cell populations is in effect an 'invisible' fourth signal required for effective immune responses. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. DIREITOS HUMANOS E DIREITOS FUNDAMENTAIS: CONVERGÊNCIAS ENTRE JOAQUÍN HERRERA FLORES E LUIGI FERRAJOLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Serratine Grubba, UFSC, Brasil

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O trabalho tem como objeto a reflexão sobre o fundamento dos Direitos Humanos e sua indissociável relação com os Direitos Fundamentais, no âmbito do Estado de Direito contemporâneo. Para tanto, procura estabelecer possíveis convergências teóricas entre Joaquín Herrera Flores e Luigi Ferrajoli. A análise dos Direitos Fundamentais, a partir da teoria garantista; e dos Direitos Humanos, com base da teoria crítica da reinvenção, é tanto um desafio teórico quanto prático do século XXI. Isso, em virtude da necessidade da investigação de seus fundamentos teóricos e possibilidades de implementação na dialética da práxis da vida em sociedade, para que as conquistas históricas de Direitos não sejam reduzidas à mera retórica hegemônico-conservadora de uma ordem global fundada na desigualdade e exploração. Percebe-se, então, que o constitucionalismo e os Direitos não importam em conquistas, mas em programas normativos a serem buscados diariamente, tal como a democracia e a paz. Nesse sentido, situa-se a importância do estudo dos direitos, estejam eles em normativas nacionais ou internacionais, bem como situá-los em sua transitoriedade e constante construção, em suma, em sua historicidade, para serem efetivamente garantidos. Palavras-chave: Garantismo. Teoria crítica. Direitos Humanos. Direitos Fundamentais.

  11. The evolving landscape and climate of western Flores: an environmental context for the archaeological site of Liang Bua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, K E; Roberts, R G; Sutikna, T; Morwood, M J; Drysdale, R; Zhao, J-x; Chivas, A R

    2009-11-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of the eastern Indonesian archipelago has evolved at a pace dictated by its tropical climate and its geological and tectonic history. This has produced accelerated karstification, flights of alluvial terraces, and complex, multi-level cave systems. These cave systems sometimes contain a wealth of archaeological evidence, such as the almost complete skeleton of Homo floresiensis found at the site of Liang Bua in western Flores, but this information can only be understood in the context of the geomorphic history of the cave, and the more general geological, tectonic, and environmental histories of the river valley and region. Thus, a reconstruction of the landscape history of the Wae Racang valley using speleothems, geological structure, tectonic uplift, karst, cave, and terrace development, provides the necessary evidence to determine the formation, age, evolution, and influences on the site. This evidence suggests that Liang Bua was formed as two subterranean chambers approximately 600ka, but could not be occupied until approximately 190ka when the Wae Racang wandered to the southern side of the valley, exposing the chamber and depositing alluvial deposits containing artifacts. During the next approximately 190k.yr., the chambers coalesced and evolved into a multi-level and interconnected cave that was subjected to channel erosion and pooling events by the development of sinkholes. The domed morphology of the front chamber accumulated deep sediments containing well stratified archaeological and faunal remains, but ponded water in the chamber further prevented hominin use of the cave until approximately 100ka. These chambers were periodically influenced by river inundation and volcanic activity, whereas the area outside the cave was greatly influenced by glacial phases, which changed humid forest environments into grassland environments. This combined evidence has important implications for the archaeological interpretation of the site.

  12. SOIL PROPERTIES OF THE EASTERN TOPOSEQUENCE OF MOUNT KELIMUTU, FLORES ISLAND, EAST NUSA TENGGARA AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatullah Hikmatullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelimutu stratovolcano is one of the young volcanoes extensively found in Flores island. Studies on volcanic soil properties and their suitability for agricultural development in the whole island are lacking. The research was conducted to evaluate the relationship of elevation and soil properties,  and suitability for agricultural development. Five representative pedons at elevation of 550, 1,000, 1,200, 1,400, and 1,600 m above sea level (asl, respectively, were studied in the field, and 22 soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory. The results indicated that elevation significantly affected soil properties and degree of soil weathering. With decreasing elevation, sand content, amorphous material content, and phosphate retention decreased. Concomitantly, clay content, H2O-pH, exchangeable Ca and Mg, base saturation, and soil-CEC increased. A highly positive correlation was shown between P retention and NaFpH, Al, and (Al+0.5 Fe contents extracted by acid ammonium oxalate. Soil-CEC also showed significant positive correlation with clay and silt contents, organic carbon, and exchangeable Ca and Mg. Degree of weathering increased with decreasing elevation as reflected by decreasing silt/clay ratio. Soils developed from Entisols (Lithic Udorthents at 1,600 m asl, to Andisols (Typic Hapludands at 1,000-1,400 m asl, and Mollisols (Typic Hapludolls at lower elevation down to 550 m asl. Soils at 1,400-1,600 m asl are unsuitable for  agriculture. Soils at 1,000-1,200 m are moderately suitable for food crops, horticulture, and estate crops. Dominant limiting factors are steep slopes and P retention. Soils at 550 m asl are suitable for food and estate crops, and also lowland horticulture.

  13. System Properties Determine Food Security and Biodiversity Outcomes at Landscape Scale: A Case Study from West Flores, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil French Collier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The food-biodiversity nexus is a concept that defines and characterizes the complex interactions between agricultural systems and biodiversity conservation. Here we use a social-ecological systems approach that combines fuzzy cognitive mapping and graph theoretic analyses to uncover system properties that determine food security and biodiversity outcomes at a landscape scale. We studied a rice-based agricultural landscape system situated in Mbeliling district of West Flores, Indonesia. A graphical representation of the Mbeliling district food-biodiversity nexus was created by local experts. The representation revealed system properties that help reconcile the trade-offs between food security and biodiversity conservation. The graph represented a diverse set of food security and biodiversity nodes, and showed that there is not a simple dichotomy between ‘production and protection’. The analysis captured greater complexity than popular academic concepts such as land sparing–land sharing or sustainable intensification. Three major themes emerged from the graph. We found distinct clusters of factors influencing biodiversity and food security. We named these sources of influence (1 Modernisation and sustainable farming; (2 Knowledge and management; and (3 Governance and processes. Component 2 was the most representative of emergent system properties that contribute positively to managing a sustainable food-biodiversity nexus in the Mbeliling landscape. The key determinants of outcomes were: improving agronomic practices, diversifying production, maintaining forest cover and connectivity, and using knowledge and natural resource management processes to mitigate the main drivers of change. Our approach highlights the complexities in the food-biodiversity nexus, and could have wide application in other locations.

  14. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Walton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  15. Affine coherent states and Toeplitz operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutníková, Mária; Hutník, Ondrej

    2012-06-01

    We study a parameterized family of Toeplitz operators in the context of affine coherent states based on the Calderón reproducing formula (= resolution of unity on L_2( {R})) and the specific admissible wavelets (= affine coherent states in L_2( {R})) related to Laguerre functions. Symbols of such Calderón-Toeplitz operators as individual coordinates of the affine group (= upper half-plane with the hyperbolic geometry) are considered. In this case, a certain class of pseudo-differential operators, their properties and their operator algebras are investigated. As a result of this study, the Fredholm symbol algebras of the Calderón-Toeplitz operator algebras for these particular cases of symbols are described. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  16. The dynamics of metric-affine gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. → The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. → Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. → f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy

  17. Phosphopeptide enrichment by immobilized metal affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E.; Larsen, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been the method of choice for phosphopeptide enrichment prior to mass spectrometric analysis for many years and it is still used extensively in many laboratories. Using the affinity of negatively charged phosphate groups towards positively...... charged metal ions such as Fe3+, Ga3+, Al3+, Zr4+, and Ti4+ has made it possible to enrich phosphorylated peptides from peptide samples. However, the selectivity of most of the metal ions is limited, when working with highly complex samples, e.g., whole-cell extracts, resulting in contamination from...

  18. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  19. New unitary affine-Virasoro constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N.A.; Poratti, M.; Yamron, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-systematic investigation of the Virasoro master equation. The space of all affine-Virasoro constructions is organized by K-conjugation into affine-Virasoro nests, and an estimate of the dimension of the space shows that most solutions await discovery. With consistent ansatze for the master equation, large classes of new unitary nests are constructed, including quadratic deformation nests with continuous conformal weights, and unitary irrational central charge nests, which may dominate unitary rational central charge on compact g

  20. Applications of Affine and Weyl geometry

    CERN Document Server

    García-Río, Eduardo; Nikcevic, Stana

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo-Riemannian geometry is, to a large extent, the study of the Levi-Civita connection, which is the unique torsion-free connection compatible with the metric structure. There are, however, other affine connections which arise in different contexts, such as conformal geometry, contact structures, Weyl structures, and almost Hermitian geometry. In this book, we reverse this point of view and instead associate an auxiliary pseudo-Riemannian structure of neutral signature to certain affine connections and use this correspondence to study both geometries. We examine Walker structures, Riemannia

  1. Original Paper Flore et végétation de la Réserve Spéciale de Faune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    babacar

    L'étude a été réalisée entre 2010 et 2014 dans la Réserve Spéciale de Faune de Gueumbeul (RSFG) qui est une zone humide ... tuna tandis que les espèces fréquentes ne représentent que 3% de la flore globale. ... combinée aux aléas climatiques entraîne une régression ... pour le redéploiement de la faune sahélienne.

  2. Estudio químico de los compuestos lipídicos de las hojas, tallos y flores de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Santana, Patricia; Miranda Martínez, Migdalia; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodney; Orellana León, Tulio; Abreu Payrol, Juan; Peralta García, Esther L

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. es una especie que crece silvestre en el Ecuador, para la cual existen escasos antecedentes de estudios químicos y biológicos, y en ninguno de estos se aborda el estudio de fracciones lipídicas. Objetivos: estudiar las fracciones de compuestos lipídicos presentes en las hojas, tallos y flores de la especie. Métodos: la planta se recolectó en estado adulto, en época de floración, los órganos vegetales fueron secados en estufa por separado, se ...

  3. Triterpenoid Saponins from Anemone rivularis var. Flore-Minore and Their Anti-Proliferative Activity on HSC-T6 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Gao, Hui; Xie, Xiao-Jie; Jurhiin, Jirimubatu; Zhang, Mu-Zi-He; Zhou, Yan-Ping; Liu, Rui; Ning, Meng; Han, Jin; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2018-02-23

    Five previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins ( 1 - 5 ), along with eight known ones ( 6 - 13 ), were isolated from the whole plants of Anemone rivularis var. flore-minore . Their structures were clarified by extensive spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. For the first time, the lupane-type saponins ( 3 and 12 ) were reported from the Anemone genus. The anti-proliferative activity of all isolated saponins was evaluated on hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). Saponins 12 and 13 , which possess more monosaccharides than the others, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity, with IC 50 values of 18.21 and 15.56 μM, respectively.

  4. Crossing Chris: Some Markerian Affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martin

    2010-01-01

    -pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    Abstract (E: This essay creatively explores a group of artists, writers, and other special individuals whose work or life story can be described as having an intriguing affinity with the protean career of Chris Marker. Avoiding the ‘usual suspects’ (such as Godard or Sebald, it discusses gossip columnist Milt Machlin, record collector Harry Smith, painter Gianfranco Baruchello, writer-filmmaker Edgardo Cozarinsky, and several others. From this constellation, a particular view of Markerian poetics emerges, touching upon the meanings of anonymity, storytelling, history and archiving.

     

    Abstract (F: Cet essai brosse de manière créative le portrait d’un groupe d'artistes, d'écrivains et d'autres personnes particulières dont le travail ou la biographie peuvent être décrits comme montrant une étrange mais certaine connivence avec la carrière protéiforme de Chris Marker. Evitant les lieux communs (comme Godard ou Sebald, cet article trace des références moins attendues :

  5. Affinity Programs and the Real Estate Brokerage Industry

    OpenAIRE

    G Stacy Sirmans; David A. Macpherson

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys active real estate brokers obtaining information on involvement in affinity programs and referral/relocation networks. Some results regarding affinity involvement are: (a) 13% of respondents reported affinity affilliations, 75% reported no affiliations, and 12% indicated plans to become involved within the next year; (b) about half having affinity affiliations were involved with 2-4 groups; (c) affinity relationships were most often with membership organizations, corporatio...

  6. Polynomials associated with equilibria of affine Toda-Sutherland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odake, S; Sasaki, R

    2004-01-01

    An affine Toda-Sutherland system is a quasi-exactly solvable multi-particle dynamics based on an affine simple root system. It is a 'cross' between two well-known integrable multi-particle dynamics, an affine Toda molecule (exponential potential, periodic nearest-neighbour interaction) and a Sutherland system (inverse sine-square interaction). Polynomials describing the equilibrium positions of affine Toda-Sutherland systems are determined for all affine simple root systems

  7. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate to a defatted, commercially available human serum albumin preparation were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations. The binding isotherm could not be fitted by the general binding equation. It was necessary to assume that the preparation was a mixture...... of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...... and drug binding abilities of the low-affinity component. The fatty acids decanoate, laurate, myristate and palmitate were bound with higher affinity to the mixture than to the low-affinity component. Diazepam was bound with nearly the same affinity to the low-affinity component as to the albumin mixture...

  8. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  9. Compound immobilization and drug-affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Uwe; Gridling, Manuela; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive small molecules act through modulating a yet unpredictable number of targets. It is therefore of critical importance to define the cellular target proteins of a compound as an entry point to understanding its mechanism of action. Often, this can be achieved in a direct fashion by chemical proteomics. As with any affinity chromatography, immobilization of the bait to a solid support is one of the earliest and most crucial steps in the process. Interfering with structural features that are important for identification of a target protein will be detrimental to binding affinity. Also, many molecules are sensitive to heat or to certain chemicals, such as acid or base, and might be destroyed during the process of immobilization, which therefore needs to be not only efficient, but also mild. The subsequent affinity chromatography step needs to preserve molecular and conformational integrity of both bait compound and proteins in order to result in the desired specific enrichment while ensuring a high level of compatibility with downstream analysis by mass spectrometry. Thus, the right choice of detergent, buffer, and protease inhibitors is also essential. This chapter describes a widely applicable procedure for the immobilization of small molecule drugs and for drug-affinity chromatography with subsequent protein identification by mass spectrometry.

  10. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  11. It's the peptide-MHC affinity, stupid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammertoens, Thomas; Blankenstein, Thomas

    2013-04-15

    Adoptively transferred T cells can reject large established tumors, but recurrence due to escape variants frequently occurs. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Engels et al. demonstrate that the affinity of the target peptide to the MHC molecule determines whether large tumors will relapse following adoptive T cell therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. General super Virasoro construction on affine G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-10-01

    We consider a bosonic current algebra and a theory of free fermions and construct a general N = 1 super Virasoro current algebra. We obtain a master-set of equations which comprises the bosonic master equation for general Virasoro construction on affine G. As an illustration we study the case of the group SU(2). (author). 13 refs

  13. Condiciones de trabajo y actividades extraocupacionales de población trabajadora diagnosticada con síndrome del túnel del carpo en empresas de cultivo de flores, Cundinamarca, 2011-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Duarte, Wilder Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    El estudio, de tipo descriptivo y de corte transversal, analiza condiciones de trabajo y actividades extraocupacionales de población laboral de cultivos de flores del departamento de Cundinamarca, Colombia con un diagnóstico de Síndrome del Túnel del Carpo. Se diseñó una encuesta que fue aplicada directamente por el investigador a una población muestral por conveniencia y a disponibilidad de 3 empresas de cultivo de flores de Cundinamarca, afiliadas a ASOCOLFLORES, durante los periodos 2011-I...

  14. Binding affinities of anti-acetylcholine receptor autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, J.J.; Drachman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies directed against acetylcholine (ACh) receptors are present in the sera of nearly 90% of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), and are involved in the pathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. However, the antibody titers measured by the standard radioimmunoassay correspond poorly with the clinical severity of the disease. To determine whether this disparity could be accounted for by differences in the binding affinities of anti-ACh receptor antibodies in different patients, we have measured the binding affinities of these autoantibodies in 15 sera from MG patients. The affinity constants (K/sub o/), as determined by Scatchard analysis, were all in the range of 10/sup 10/ M/sup -1/, comparable to the highest values reported in immunized animals. The affinity constants were truly representative of the population of autoantibodies detected by the radioimmunoassay, as shown by the remarkable linearity of the Scatchard plots (r/sup 2/>0.90) and the close correlation between the antibody titers determined by extrapolation of the Scatchard plots and by saturation analysis (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). There was only a 6-fold variation in affinity constants measured in this series of patients despite widely differing antibody titers and severity of the disease. Factors other than the titer and affinity of anti-ACh receptor antibodies may correlate better with the clinical manifestations of MG.

  15. Flower and fruit development of Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae Desenvolvimento de flores e frutos de Parkia pendula (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Piechowski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkia pendula occurs in Brazil in Amazonia and in the northeastern Atlantic Forest. In the latter, its buds, nectar, and seedpod gum are discussed to be keystone resources for the mammalian fauna. To enhance the knowledge about these important nourishment sources, the aim of this study was to detect and describe distinct phases in the flower and pod development. The study was conducted in a 306 ha forest fragment in Igarassu, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Six morphometrical variables were measured weekly at five inflorescences of two individuals from September 2003 to January 2004. Eleven distinct developmental phases were identified in the 21 weeks lasting development from the very first inflorescences to mature pods and are described in detail. These phases are good predictors for the flowering and fruiting phenology of P. pendula, since they are easily distinguishable from the forest floor. Furthermore, highly synchronized abortions of inflorescences, buds, and pods were observed which support the previously assumed predator satiation defense strategy in Parkia.Parkia pendula ocorre no Brasil, tanto na Amazônia como na Mata Atlântica nordestina. Seus botões, néctar e goma da vagem são recursos chave para a mastofauna da Mata Atlântica nordestina. Para aumentar o conhecimento sobre estes importantes recursos alimentares, este estudo teve como objetivo detectar e descrever as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento de flores e frutos. Este trabalho foi realizado em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de 306 ha em Igarassu, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Entre setembro de 2003 e janeiro de 2004, seis variáveis morfométricas foram medidas semanalmente em cinco inflorescências de dois indivíduos. Onze fases distintas de desenvolvimento puderam ser identificadas e descritas em detalhe nas 21 semanas desde o desenvolvimento das primeiras inflorescências até as vagens maduras. Essas fases são boas preditoras da fenologia de floração e

  16. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana e triagem fitoquímica das flores de Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don Leguminosae-Mimosoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Andrade

    Full Text Available A atividade antibacteriana das flores da Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. (Leguminosae foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em disco. As bactérias testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. O meio de cultura utilizado foi ágar Müeller-Hinton. Foram utilizados discos de papel (6 mm de diâmetro impregnados com 1000, 500, 250 e 125 mg dos extratos: Etanol Bruto, fração Acetato de Etila e fração Diclorometano obtidas a partir do extrato etanólico bruto. Os resultados indicam que as amostras avaliadas exercem ação contra as cepas gram positivo testadas, em graus variáveis sendo que a fração Acetato de Etila apresentou maior atividade. A triagem fitoquímica indicou a presença de fenóis e flavonoides nas flores de A. podalyriifolia.

  17. Effect of silicon on the quality of flowers of Dendrobium nobile (OrchidaceaeEfeito do silício na qualidade de flores de Dendrobium nobile (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The orchid Dendrobium nobile Lindl is widely cultivated throughout the world as cut and potted flowers. Silicon (Si has demonstrated beneficial effects on various crops, increasing cell stiffness, giving protection to pathogens, increasing photosynthetic capacity and drought tolerance, promoting higher growth and longevity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of silicon on Dendrobium nobile orchid flowers. Treatments were performed with magnesium silicate (SiMg at the following concentrations: 0.0, 0.16; 0.32; 0.48 and 0.64 g L-1. The foliar applications were carried out fortnightly totaling four applications two months before flowering. The variables evaluated were: longevity of flowers, number of flowers per pot and number of shoots per plant. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and ten replications. The foliar applications of SiMg increased 59% flower production and shoots up to 66%, being more efficient with the increasing of concentrations. The increasing of longevity of the flowers in the dose 0.45 g L-1 was up to four days. A orquídea Dendrobium nobile Lindl é amplamente cultivada pelo mundo como flor de corte e em vasos. O silício (Si tem demonstrado efeito benéfico em diversas culturas, como por exemplo: aumentando a rigidez celular, conferindo proteção à fitopatógenos, aumento da capacidade fotossintética, tolerância à seca, promoção de maior crescimento e conservação pós-colheita. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silício em diferentes concentrações na qualidade de flores da orquídea Dendrobium nobile. Os tratamentos foram realizados com silicato de magnésio (SiMg nas seguintes concentrações: 0,0; 0,16; 0,32; 0,48 e 0,64g L-1. As aplicações foram realizadas quinzenalmente via foliar, totalizando quatro aplicações dois meses antes do florescimento. As variáveis avaliadas foram: longevidade das flores, número de

  18. Staircase Models from Affine Toda Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dorey, P; Dorey, Patrick; Ravanini, Francesco

    1993-01-01

    We propose a class of purely elastic scattering theories generalising the staircase model of Al. B. Zamolodchikov, based on the affine Toda field theories for simply-laced Lie algebras g=A,D,E at suitable complex values of their coupling constants. Considering their Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations, we give analytic arguments in support of a conjectured renormalisation group flow visiting the neighbourhood of each W_g minimal model in turn.

  19. Calculation of protein-ligand binding affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Michael K; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Accurate methods of computing the affinity of a small molecule with a protein are needed to speed the discovery of new medications and biological probes. This paper reviews physics-based models of binding, beginning with a summary of the changes in potential energy, solvation energy, and configurational entropy that influence affinity, and a theoretical overview to frame the discussion of specific computational approaches. Important advances are reported in modeling protein-ligand energetics, such as the incorporation of electronic polarization and the use of quantum mechanical methods. Recent calculations suggest that changes in configurational entropy strongly oppose binding and must be included if accurate affinities are to be obtained. The linear interaction energy (LIE) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) methods are analyzed, as are free energy pathway methods, which show promise and may be ready for more extensive testing. Ultimately, major improvements in modeling accuracy will likely require advances on multiple fronts, as well as continued validation against experiment.

  20. 2D Affine and Projective Shape Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Darshan; Klassen, Eric; Huiling Le; Srivastava, Anuj

    2014-05-01

    Current techniques for shape analysis tend to seek invariance to similarity transformations (rotation, translation, and scale), but certain imaging situations require invariance to larger groups, such as affine or projective groups. Here we present a general Riemannian framework for shape analysis of planar objects where metrics and related quantities are invariant to affine and projective groups. Highlighting two possibilities for representing object boundaries-ordered points (or landmarks) and parameterized curves-we study different combinations of these representations (points and curves) and transformations (affine and projective). Specifically, we provide solutions to three out of four situations and develop algorithms for computing geodesics and intrinsic sample statistics, leading up to Gaussian-type statistical models, and classifying test shapes using such models learned from training data. In the case of parameterized curves, we also achieve the desired goal of invariance to re-parameterizations. The geodesics are constructed by particularizing the path-straightening algorithm to geometries of current manifolds and are used, in turn, to compute shape statistics and Gaussian-type shape models. We demonstrate these ideas using a number of examples from shape and activity recognition.

  1. Excited state electron affinity calculations for aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Adnan Yousif

    2017-08-01

    Excited states of negative aluminum ion are reviewed, and calculations of electron affinities of the states (3s^23p^2)^1D and (3s3p^3){^5}{S}° relative to the (3s^23p)^2P° and (3s3p^2)^4P respectively of the neutral aluminum atom are reported in the framework of nonrelativistic configuration interaction (CI) method. A priori selected CI (SCI) with truncation energy error (Bunge in J Chem Phys 125:014107, 2006) and CI by parts (Bunge and Carbó-Dorca in J Chem Phys 125:014108, 2006) are used to approximate the valence nonrelativistic energy. Systematic studies of convergence of electron affinity with respect to the CI excitation level are reported. The calculated value of the electron affinity for ^1D state is 78.675(3) meV. Detailed Calculations on the ^5S°c state reveals that is 1216.8166(3) meV below the ^4P state.

  2. Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glass approach ''saturation'' with respect to the leachate solution. Most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to ''saturation''. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to ''saturation'' is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. Interpretations of recent experimental data on the dissolution behaviour of silicate glasses and silicate minerals indicate the following: 1) simple affinity control does not explain the observed dissolution rate for silicate minerals or glasses; 2) dissolution rates can be significantly modified by dissolved cations even under conditions far from saturation where the affinity term is near unity; 3) the effects of dissolved species such as Al and Si on the dissolution rate vary with pH, temperature, and saturation state; and 4) as temperature is increased, the effect of both pH and temperature on glass and mineral dissolution rates decrease, which strongly suggests a switch in rate control from surface reaction-based to diffusion control. Borosilicate glass dissolution models need to be upgraded to account for these recent experimental observations. (A.C.)

  3. Meet Rudy Flores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jane

    1980-01-01

    The problems and satisfactions of teaching deaf children are discussed in this interview with a teacher of the deaf. Uses of Ameslon and signed English, talking, and valuable teaching approaches are offered. (JD)

  4. Engineering of bispecific affinity proteins with high affinity for ERBB2 and adaptable binding to albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nilvebrant

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ERBB2, is a well-validated target for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent studies suggest that the over-expression of this receptor in various cancers might also be exploited for antibody-based payload delivery, e.g. antibody drug conjugates. In such strategies, the full-length antibody format is probably not required for therapeutic effect and smaller tumor-specific affinity proteins might be an alternative. However, small proteins and peptides generally suffer from fast excretion through the kidneys, and thereby require frequent administration in order to maintain a therapeutic concentration. In an attempt aimed at combining ERBB2-targeting with antibody-like pharmacokinetic properties in a small protein format, we have engineered bispecific ERBB2-binding proteins that are based on a small albumin-binding domain. Phage display selection against ERBB2 was used for identification of a lead candidate, followed by affinity maturation using second-generation libraries. Cell surface display and flow-cytometric sorting allowed stringent selection of top candidates from pools pre-enriched by phage display. Several affinity-matured molecules were shown to bind human ERBB2 with sub-nanomolar affinity while retaining the interaction with human serum albumin. Moreover, parallel selections against ERBB2 in the presence of human serum albumin identified several amino acid substitutions that dramatically modulate the albumin affinity, which could provide a convenient means to control the pharmacokinetics. The new affinity proteins competed for ERBB2-binding with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and recognized the native receptor on a human cancer cell line. Hence, high affinity tumor targeting and tunable albumin binding were combined in one small adaptable protein.

  5. Direct analysis of the lectin reactivity of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum by crossed affinity radio-immunoelectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerckaert, J.P.; Bayard, B.; Biserte, G.; Puech, F.; Codaccioni, X.

    1980-01-01

    Affinity experiments with the lentil (Lens culinaris) lectin have revealed the existence of two distinct molecular populations of alpha-fetoprotein: lectin reactive and lectin non-reactive. Using a combination of crossed lectin immunoelectrophoresis and radio-immunoelectrophoresis, it has been possible to obtain directly the lentil lectin affinity patterns of alpha-fetoprotein present in maternal sera. The lentil lectin reactivity of maternal alpha-fetoprotein decreases almost linearly with the gestational age from week 15 to 35. (Auth.)

  6. Caracterización morfológica de Gliricidia sepium, composición bromatológica y proporción de azúcares en sus flores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Fonte

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes Indio Hatuey, con el fin de determinar las características morfológicas de Gliricidia sepium, así como la composición bromatológica y la proporción de azúcares en sus flores. Se midieron las siguientes variables: altura total, diámetro del tronco a la altura del pecho (DAP y ancho de la copa. Además, se estimó la cantidad de flores por árbol y por hectárea. En las flores colectadas se determinó la composición bromatológica: MS, PB, FB y Ca, la humedad y la lignina de Klason. El tamaño de muestra utilizado fue el 12 % del total (20 árboles y cada árbol constituyó una réplica. Los valores medios fueron: DAP de 44,7 cm; altura de 4,85 m; 295 racimos por árbol, con 34 flores como promedio cada uno; el total estimado fue de 10 030 flores por árbol y de 8 986 880 flores por hectárea. La MS fue de 8,69 %; FB, 32,57 %; lignina de Klason, 28,8 %; PB, 7,04 %; y Ca, 0,99 %. Como azúcares simples se detectaron la glucosa (4,82 % y la fructosa (10,36 %, mientras que la sacarosa mostró valores de 1,73 %. Se concluye que todos los árboles de G. sepium muestreados son típicos de la especie. Además, el porcentaje de MS de sus flores fue bajo, pero estas tuvieron un alto contenido de FB, PB, lignina de Klason y calcio. La fructosa fue el azúcar más abundante en el extracto y la sacarosa el más escaso.

  7. Affine fractal functions as bases of continuous funtions | Navascues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present paper is the study of affine transformations of the plane, which provide self-affine curves as attractors. The properties of these curves depend decisively of the coefficients of the system of affinities involved. The corresponding functions are continuous on a compact interval. If the scale factors are ...

  8. Single-step affinity purification for fungal proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B; De Souza, Colin P; Osmani, Stephen A

    2010-05-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  9. Single-Step Affinity Purification for Fungal Proteomics ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui-Lin; Osmani, Aysha H.; Ukil, Leena; Son, Sunghun; Markossian, Sarine; Shen, Kuo-Fang; Govindaraghavan, Meera; Varadaraj, Archana; Hashmi, Shahr B.; De Souza, Colin P.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    A single-step protein affinity purification protocol using Aspergillus nidulans is described. Detailed protocols for cell breakage, affinity purification, and depending on the application, methods for protein release from affinity beads are provided. Examples defining the utility of the approaches, which should be widely applicable, are included.

  10. Optimización del tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial horizontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica L. Jaramillo-Gallego

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: optimizar un sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales de cultivos de flores, con el fin de mejorar la eficiencia en la remoción de los contaminantes, usando humedales construidos de flujo subsuperficial-horizontal. Metodología: se realizó un estudio de tipo exploratorio experimental en dos etapas, en la primera se efectuó el acondicionamiento fisicoquímico y biológico del sistema de tratamiento, en la segunda, se llevó a cabo el seguimiento de la remoción de los contaminantes durante nueve meses, para lo cual se monitoreó la demanda química de oxígeno, demanda biológica de oxígeno, sólidos totales, sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto. Resultados: Se logró mejorar la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento en 7,1% para la Demanda biológica de oxígeno, 4,1% Demanda química de oxígeno, 56,9% sólidos totales y 117,2% solidos suspendidos totales. Conclusión: La concentración de DQO disminuyó con el tratamiento primario (Precipitación y oxidación química y favoreció la eficiencia del sistema de tratamiento secundario, dado que las aguas a tratar tenían valores muy altos de DQO que pueden saturar los humedales con contaminantes persistentes. Se podrían obtener mayores eficiencias, si se logra mejorar el sistema de tratamiento primario. Abstract Objective: to optimize the wastewater treatment system of flower crops in order to improve pollutant removal efficiency, using a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Methodology: An exploratory experimental study was conducted in two stages; in the first stage the treatment system was conditioned physically, chemically and biologically. In the second stage pollutant removal was monitored for nine months. To achieve this, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, total solids, total suspended solids, pH and dissolved oxygen were monitored. Results: It was possible to improve the efficiency of the treatment system in 7.1% for

  11. Implicações do agrupamento de inflorescências para a taxa de visitação por beija-flores e a produção de frutos de Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p181 A distribuição espacial de plantas pode influenciar a atividade de visitantes florais. O agrupamento de flores em manchas pode ser mais atrativo aos visitantes e supostamente influenciar a produção de frutos. Este estudo teve por objetivo testar a hipótese de que em Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae o tamanho do agrupamento de inflorescências influencia positivamente a taxa de visitação e a produção de frutos da espécie. O estudo foi realizado em trecho de Mata Atlântica, no município do Rio de Janeiro. Foram registradas cinco espécies de beija-flores visitantes florais. A taxa de visitação média (± desvio padrão dos beija-flores foi de 2 (± 0,56 visitas por hora por agrupamento. A quantidade de inflorescências por agrupamento influenciou positivamente a taxa de visitação dos beija-flores, mas influenciou negativamente a quantidade de frutos produzidos por inflorescência. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, sugerimos que a densidade de inflorescências em um agrupamento possa influenciar negativamente a quantidade de flores visitadas por cada inflorescência, em função de um aumento na quantidade de inflorescências incluídas nas rotas de forrageamento.

  12. Affine Fullerene C60 in a GS-Quasigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Volenec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It will be shown that the affine fullerene C60, which is defined as an affine image of buckminsterfullerene C60, can be obtained only by means of the golden section. The concept of the affine fullerene C60 will be constructed in a general GS-quasigroup using the statements about the relationships between affine regular pentagons and affine regular hexagons. The geometrical interpretation of all discovered relations in a general GS-quasigroup will be given in the GS-quasigroup C(1/2(1+5.

  13. On the structure of self-affine convex bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voynov, A S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We study the structure of convex bodies in R{sup d} that can be represented as a union of their affine images with no common interior points. Such bodies are called self-affine. Vallet's conjecture on the structure of self-affine bodies was proved for d = 2 by Richter in 2011. In the present paper we disprove the conjecture for all d≥3 and derive a detailed description of self-affine bodies in R{sup 3}. Also we consider the relation between properties of self-affine bodies and functional equations with a contraction of an argument. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND PRACTICE OF TOLERANCE, SOLIDARITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF STUDENTS FROM NORMAL RURAL SCHOOL "RICARDO FLORES MAGON"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Arely Hernández-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Rural School “Ricardo Flores Magon” is concerned about providing an education that contributes to the integral formation of its students, with the intention that they will graduate with the skills needed to enter the labor and social world, for it is required to acquire values that contribute of the significantly way to consolidate the graduate profile. The quantitative method was used in this research; It focuses on the type of non-experimental design; the sample was probabilistic, 90 students of the Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education. Among the results it highlighted that students who practice more often the values of responsibility, solidarity and tolerance obtain higher academic achievement than those of their classmates.

  15. Intérêt de l'étude de la flore des diatomées du lieu de submersion dans le diagnostic de noyade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUDES B.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available La recherche de diatomées dans les tissus de la victime pour contribuer au diagnostic de noyade doit être accompagnée de l'analyse d'un échantillon d'eau prélevé sur les lieux de précipitation ou de découverte du corps. Cet échantillon permet d'établir un inventaire représentatif de la flore du lieu de découverte ou de submersion, et d'effectuer les comparaisons avec les taxons trouvés dans les tissus. De plus, la détermination de taxons dominants dans l'échantillon d'eau peut avoir une valeur indicative du lieu de découverte.

  16. Estado peronista y cooperativismo eléctrico: El caso de la Cooperativa Eléctrica de Las Flores entre 1946 y 1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodrigo La Scaleia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El rubro de la electricidad fue uno de los sectores más dinámicos para la transformación económica que experimentó la Argentina en la década del 40. Al mismo tiempo fue una de las ramas en las que se desarrolló más fuertemente el cooperativismo, que jugó un papel esencial en la provisión de energía eléctrica, fuera de los grandes centros urbanos. En este trabajo se estudia el desenvolvimiento de la Cooperativa Eléctrica de Las Flores destinada al suministro de energía del partido homónimo, en el interior de la Provincia de Buenos Aires entre 1946 y 1951. Finalmente el trabajo analiza la política energética primero en la Provincia de Buenos Aires durante al Gobierno de Domingo Mercante y segundo en el ámbito nacional, durante la primera presidencia de Juan Perón.The sector of electricity was one of the more dynamics for the economic transformation, which Argentine had experimented in the 40ies. At the same time, it was a brnch in which the cooperativism was strongly developed, being extremely important for the provision of electric energy, out of the huge urben centres. In this work it is studied the development of the electric cooperative of Las Flores destinated to the suministry of energy of the similar district, in the inner of the Buenos Aires Province between 1946 and 1951. Finally the study analyses the energetic politic, firstly in the Province of Buenos Aires during Domingo Mercante's government and secondly in the national circuit, during Juan Perón's presidency.

  17. Método para avaliação da potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não convencionais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth R. Tempel Stumpf

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Para garantir o êxito no mercado de novos produtos da Floricultura, é preciso estabelecer critérios objetivos de escolha das características ornamentais desejáveis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo propor e validar um método para a avaliação do potencial ornamental de plantas nativas e não-convencionais, para uso como flores e folhagens de corte. A partir de uma planilha de avaliação especialmente elaborada para tal fim, foi testado o grau de potencialidade ornamental de 11 espécies nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, resultante do somatório das notas dadas para cada uma das dez características escolhidas por sua importância para a arte floral e para o mercado. Para a validação da eficácia do método, foi efetuada uma pesquisa de opinião on line. Andropogon bicornis, Baccharis articulata, B. usterii, Eryngium ebracteatum, E. eriophorum, E. sanguisorba, Hypericum connatum, Limonium brasiliense, Myrsine umbellata, Schinus lentiscifolius e S. terebinthifolius receberam pontuação superior a 70 pontos, sendo categorizadas como de alta potencialidade ornamental. A eficácia da escolha destas espécies com base em atributos estéticos visuais ficou comprovada nos resultados obtidos pela aplicação da planilha e posteriormente validados pela pesquisa de opinião. Os resultados indicam que o método aqui proposto é uma ferramenta eficaz para avaliar o grau de potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não-convencionais

  18. Aspects of affine Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H.W.; Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.; Sasaki, R.

    1990-05-01

    The report is devoted to properties of the affine Toda field theory, the intention being to highlight a selection of curious properties that should be explicable in terms of the underlying group theory but for which in most cases there are no explanation. The motivation for exploring the ideas contained in this report came principally from the recent work of Zamolodchikov concerning the two dimensional Ising model at critical temperature perturbed by a magnetic field. Hollowood and Mansfield pointed out that since Toda field theory is conformal the perturbation considered by Zamolodchikov might well be best regarded as a perturbation of a Toda field theory. This work made it seem plausible that the theory sought by Zamolodchikov was actually affine E 8 Toda field theory. However, this connection required an imaginary value of the coupling constant. Investigations here concerning exact S-matrices use a perturbative approach based on real coupling and the results differ in various ways from those thought to correspond to perturbed conformal field theory. A further motivation is to explore the connection between conformal and perturbed conformal field theories in other contexts using similar ideas. (N.K.)

  19. From affine Hecke algebras to boundary symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by earlier works we employ appropriate realizations of the affine Hecke algebra and we recover previously known non-diagonal solutions of the reflection equation for the U q (gl n -bar ) case. The corresponding N site spin chain with open boundary conditions is then constructed and boundary non-local charges associated to the non-diagonal solutions of the reflection equation are derived, as coproduct realizations of the reflection algebra. With the help of linear intertwining relations involving the aforementioned solutions of the reflection equation, the symmetry of the open spin chain with the corresponding boundary conditions is exhibited, being essentially a remnant of the U q (gl n -bar ) algebra. More specifically, we show that representations of certain boundary non-local charges commute with the generators of the affine Hecke algebra and with the local Hamiltonian of the open spin chain for a particular choice of boundary conditions. Furthermore, we are able to show that the transfer matrix of the open spin chain commutes with a certain number of boundary non-local charges, depending on the choice of boundary conditions

  20. Gravitational Goldstone fields from affine gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Romualdo; Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2000-08-01

    In order to facilitate the application of standard renormalization techniques, gravitation should be described, in the pure connection formalism, as a Yang-Mills theory of a certain spacetime group, say the Poincaré or the affine group. This embodies the translational as well as the linear connection. However, the coframe is not the standard Yang-Mills-type gauge field of the translations, since it lacks the inhomogeneous gradient term in the gauge transformations. By explicitly restoring this ``hidden'' piece within the framework of nonlinear realizations, the usual geometrical interpretation of the dynamical theory becomes possible, and in addition one can avoid the metric or coframe degeneracy which would otherwise interfere with the integrations within the path integral. We claim that nonlinear realizations provide the general mathematical scheme for the foundation of gauge theories of spacetime symmetries. When applied to construct the Yang-Mills theory of the affine group, tetrads become identified with nonlinear translational connections; the anholonomic metric no longer constitutes an independent gravitational potential, since its degrees of freedom reveal a correspondence to eliminateable Goldstone bosons. This may be an important advantage for quantization.

  1. Dinâmica floral e abortamento de flores em híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha Floral dynamics and flower abortion in hybrids of canola and Indian mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Battisti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica floral e determinar o índice de abortamento de flores de híbridos de canola (Brassica napus e de mostarda castanha (Brassica juncea, bem como determinar suas relações com as condições meteorológicas do Sul do Brasil. Durante a floração, dez híbridos de canola e dois de mostarda foram avaliados a cada três dias quanto ao número de flores abertas, de síliquas e de flores abortadas. O número acumulado e relativo de flores foi usado para avaliação da dinâmica floral. A relação desses números com a soma térmica acumulada durante a floração foi determinada por meio de modelo logístico. A partir dos coeficientes desse modelo, identificaram-se grupos de genótipos com diferentes taxas de emissão de flores. O abortamento de flores entre híbridos variou de 10,53 a 45,96% e correlacionou-se com a temperatura e a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. Genótipos com maiores tempos térmicos entre o período de máxima emissão de flores e o final da floração geralmente apresentam maiores percentagens de abortamento de flores. O ajuste dos dados de emissão de flores aos de soma térmica do período da floração, por meio de modelo logístico, permite simular a dinâmica floral de híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral dynamics and to determine the index of flower abortion in canola (Brassica napus and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea hybrids, as well as to determine their relation with meteorological conditions of southern Brazil. During flowering, ten hybrids of canola and two of Indian mustard were evaluated every three days as to the number of open flowers, pods, and aborted flowers. The cumulative and the relative number of flowers were used to evaluate floral dynamics. The relation of these numbers with the accumulated thermal sum during flowering was determined with a logistic model. Groups of genotypes with different

  2. Affinity Crystallography: A New Approach to Extracting High-Affinity Enzyme Inhibitors from Natural Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguda, Adeleke H; Lavallee, Vincent; Cheng, Ping; Bott, Tina M; Meimetis, Labros G; Law, Simon; Nguyen, Nham T; Williams, David E; Kaleta, Jadwiga; Villanueva, Ivan; Davies, Julian; Andersen, Raymond J; Brayer, Gary D; Brömme, Dieter

    2016-08-26

    Natural products are an important source of novel drug scaffolds. The highly variable and unpredictable timelines associated with isolating novel compounds and elucidating their structures have led to the demise of exploring natural product extract libraries in drug discovery programs. Here we introduce affinity crystallography as a new methodology that significantly shortens the time of the hit to active structure cycle in bioactive natural product discovery research. This affinity crystallography approach is illustrated by using semipure fractions of an actinomycetes culture extract to isolate and identify a cathepsin K inhibitor and to compare the outcome with the traditional assay-guided purification/structural analysis approach. The traditional approach resulted in the identification of the known inhibitor antipain (1) and its new but lower potency dehydration product 2, while the affinity crystallography approach led to the identification of a new high-affinity inhibitor named lichostatinal (3). The structure and potency of lichostatinal (3) was verified by total synthesis and kinetic characterization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of isolating and characterizing a potent enzyme inhibitor from a partially purified crude natural product extract using a protein crystallographic approach.

  3. Patrimony and production in the rural environments of Buenos Aires. San José de Flores, 1800-1875 Patrimonio y producción en los entornos rurales de Buenos Aires. San José de Flores, 1800-1875

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ciliberto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, I aim to reconstruct the productive characteristics of the crop and grain farms in San Jose de Flores district through the analysis of the information provided by wills and testaments and postmortem inventories. In addition, I approach the study of the investment schemes of the proprietors and/or tenants of these farms in order to outline a socioeconomic and political profile, focusing on those tenants that have obtained the legal property of the lands.En el presente artículo reconstruimos a partir de la información proporcionada por testamentos e inventarios post mortem las características productivas de los establecimientos frutihortícolas y cerealeros del partido de San José de Flores. Abordamos, además, el estudio de los esquemas de inversión de los propietarios y/o arrendatarios de estas unidades esbozando su perfil socioeconómico y político, deteniéndonos especialmente en aquellos que han accedido a la propiedad legal de los terrenos.

  4. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang; Furtlehner, Cyril; Germain-Renaud, Cecile; Sebag, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  5. Data Stream Clustering With Affinity Propagation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-07-09

    Data stream clustering provides insights into the underlying patterns of data flows. This paper focuses on selecting the best representatives from clusters of streaming data. There are two main challenges: how to cluster with the best representatives and how to handle the evolving patterns that are important characteristics of streaming data with dynamic distributions. We employ the Affinity Propagation (AP) algorithm presented in 2007 by Frey and Dueck for the first challenge, as it offers good guarantees of clustering optimality for selecting exemplars. The second challenging problem is solved by change detection. The presented StrAP algorithm combines AP with a statistical change point detection test; the clustering model is rebuilt whenever the test detects a change in the underlying data distribution. Besides the validation on two benchmark data sets, the presented algorithm is validated on a real-world application, monitoring the data flow of jobs submitted to the EGEE grid.

  6. Self-affinity and nonextensivity of sunspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the time series of sunspots by using two different approaches, analyzing its self-affine behavior and studying its distribution. The long-range correlation exponent α has been calculated via Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and the power law vanishes to values greater than 11 years. On the other hand, the distribution of the sunspots obeys a q-exponential decay that suggests a non-extensive behavior. This observed characteristic seems to take an alternative interpretation of the sunspots dynamics. The present findings suggest us to propose a dynamic model of sunspots formation based on a nonlinear Fokker–Planck equation. Therefore its dynamic process follows the generalized thermostatistical formalism.

  7. Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling with Hierarchical Processor Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifaci , Vincenzo; Brandenburg , Björn; D'Angelo , Gianlorenzo; Marchetti-Spaccamela , Alberto

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Many multiprocessor real-time operating systems offer the possibility to restrict the migrations of any task to a specified subset of processors by setting affinity masks. A notion of " strong arbitrary processor affinity scheduling " (strong APA scheduling) has been proposed; this notion avoids schedulability losses due to overly simple implementations of processor affinities. Due to potential overheads, strong APA has not been implemented so far in a real-time operat...

  8. Estudo comparativo de flores casmógamas, cleistógamas e de frutos de Camarea affinis St.-Hil. (Malpighiaceae Comparative study of casmogamous and cleistogamous flowers and Camarea affinis St.-Hil. fruits (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Candida Henrique Mamede

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Camarea pertence a tribo Gaudichaudieae caracterizada pela redução no número de elementos do androceu, gineceu parcialmente sincárpico, estilete único e ginobásico e pela ocorrência de flores cleistógamas. Neste trabalho é feito o estudo de Camarea affinis St-Hil. no que se refere à morfologia e á anatomia de flores casmógamas e cleistógamas, assim como de seus respectivos frutos.The genus Camarea belongs to the tribe Gaudichaudieae, which is traditionally characterized by a solitaiy gynobasic style, presence of veiy reduced cleistogamous flowers, an androecium of 6 staminal elements and carpels only partially united. This paper presents information about the morphology and the anatomy of chamosgamous and cleistogamous flowers and fruits of Camarea affinis St HiL

  9. First record of the behavior of latex drainage by Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae in laticiferous flowers Primeiro registro do comportamento de drenagem de latex de Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae em flores latescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Koschnitzke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behavior of the bee Trigona spinipes, to avoid the latex, when piercing the base of the tubular corolla of the flowers of Mandevilla guanabarica in order to steal the nectar.Este trabalho descreve o comportamento da abelha Trigona spinipes para evitar o látex quando perfura a base da corola tubular das flores de Mandevilla guanabarica ao roubar néctar.

  10. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: apoidea visitantes das flores de goiaba em pomar comercial in Salinas, MG Bee diversity in a commercial guava orchard in Salinas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Alves Guimarães

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As abelhas são responsáveis por cerca de 80% a 100% da polinização de culturas agrícolas, especialmente aquelas relacionadas com a produção de sementes e frutos. A investigação da diversidade de abelhas em pomares de goiaba pode ser subsídio para estratégias de incremento da produtividade. Nesta perspectiva, o objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de goiaba (Psidium guajava, em pomar comercial em Salinas (MG. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em maio de 2005 e foram coletadas as abelhas visitantes das flores nos horários entre 6h e 18h, totalizando-se 44 horas de coleta. Coletaram-se 705 abelhas de 17 espécies, sendo Trigona spinipes a mais freqüente e dominante na cultura da goiaba. Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata e Tetragonisca angustula foram consideradas acessórias. Aproximadamente 84% dos indivíduos foram coletados da manhã, de 6h às 10h.Pollination is an important factor in agricultural systems, especially in growing fruits and seed production, which depend greatly on bee visiting during blossom season; highly successful gains within these activities varies between 80 and nearly 100 per cent, owing to the bees. The assessment of bee diversity in commercial orchards of guava may contribute to a more desirable strategic design and consequent improvement of production. The aim of the study was identify the diversity of visiting bees to guava flowers (Psidium guajava in a commercial orchard in Salinas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The work was carried during blossom season of May - 2005. Field works occurred between 6:00 am to 6:00 pm, counting with 44 hours of collection, when 705 bees were collected. The richness observed was of 17 species, the most frequent and dominant being Trigona spinipes. Among the collection there were some considered accessory species: Apis mellifera, Melipona quadrifasciata and Tetragonisca angustula. Most of individual bees have been captured

  11. Visita de abejas (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea a flores de melón Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Di Trani de la Hoz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se observaron las visitas observadas a flores seleccionadas en un cultivo del Distrito de San Lorenzo, Chiriquí, del 6 de Enero y el 19 de Febrero del 2002, desde las 6:30 am hasta las 4:30 pm, y se anotaron características de las visita, como el tiempo de visita y el tipo de recurso colectado. Las visitas fueron mayormente para la recolección de néctar (casi 3/4. La recolección de polen se concentró hacia las primeras horas de la mañana, cesando definitivamente a las 11:00 am. El tiempo medio de recolección fue similar para ambos recursos, pero fue marcadamente distinto para cada sexo floral. Las visitas a flores femeninas fueron significativamente (Prueba t Student, pBee (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitation to cantaloupe Cucumis melo (Cucurvitaceae flowers in Panama. Flower visits by bees were observed in a melon cultivated field of San Lorenzo district, in Chiriquí, Panama, from January 6 to February 19, 2002, from 6:30 am to 4:30 pm We recorded the duration of each foraging event and the type of resource collected. Flower visits were mostly for nectar collection (∼75 %. Pollen foraging was concentrated in the first hours of the morning and ended by 11:00 am The mean collection time was similar for both food resources, but was different between flower sexes. Flower visits to female flowers took longer (Student's t test, p<0.0001, with a mean time duration of 8.4±4.4 s, whereas in male flowers mean visitation time was of 4.0±1.5 s. Finally, the mean time for each floral sex remained practically constant through the evolution of the crop. Our results were similar to the found ones in temperate zone crops, so apparently tropical conditions of Panama do not change the bee visit patterns on melon flowers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 677-680. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  12. Post-harvest longevity of Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae flowers/ Longevidade pós-colheita de flores de Oncidium varicosum (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu Faria

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncidium varicosum from the Orchidaceae family has been widely used as pot flower, and, most recently, as cut flower. The objective of this work was to evaluate the longevity of the Oncidium varicosum, due to its low post-harvest resistance, after being conditioned in preservation solutions with different concentrations of sucrose. Oncidium varicosum stems grown in Holambra (SP were transported to Londrina (PR in climatized trucks at 5-7oC. Pre-treatment with pulsing (15% sucrose for 24 hours followed by conditioning in maintenance solution (1, 2, 3, and 4% of sucrose as well as conditioning in maintenance solution without pre-treatment were evaluated. Flower stems were distributed in an entirely casualized design, with ten treatments and five replications. Flowers were evaluated daily, using a score system developed to compare and verify the conservation of visual aspects. No treatment was superior to the control in maintaining the longevity of the flowers.A orquídea Oncidium varicosum é bastante utilizada como flor de vaso e atualmente vem se destacando como flor de corte. Devido sua baixa resistência pós-colheita, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a longevidade de Oncidium varicosum após o acondicionamento em soluções conservantes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose. As hastes de Oncidium varicosum, produzidas em Holambra (SP, foram transportadas para Londrina (PR em caminhão climatizado a 5-7°C. Foram avaliadas a utilização de prétratamento com “pulsing” (15% de sacarose por 24 horas seguido de acondicionamento em solução de manutenção (1, 2, 3 e 4% de sacarose e o acondicionamento em solução de manutenção sem prétratamento. As hastes florais foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e cinco repetições. As avaliações das flores foram diárias, sob critério de notas definido para comparar e verificar a conservação dos aspectos visuais. Nenhum dos tratamentos

  13. Cambrian trilobites with Siberian affinities, southwestern Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.R.; Egbert, R.M.; Sullivan, R.; Knoth, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Cambrian trilobites occur in two levels (about 7 m apart) in the core of a large, complex anticlinal structure in the area between the Taylor Mountains and the Hoholitna River in southwestern Alaska. The lower collection contains Erbia, Macannaia (a species close to Soviet forms described as Pagetia ferox Lermontova), two species of Kootenia (including one perhaps cospecific with forms from the central Brooks range), and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. It is clear that biogeographic affinities are with the transitional facies of the eastern Siberian platform and the south Siberian foldbelt. In Soviet terms, the age of the collection falls in a disputed interval called latest Early Cambrian (Tojonian) by some authors, and earliest Middle Cambrian (Amgan) by others. In North American terms, Macannaia is known only from early Middle Cambrian beds. The younger collection contains abundant agnostids, a variety of conocoryphids, Paradoxides, and several species of ptychoparioid trilobites. This is an assemblage of undoubted late Middle Cambrian age, comparable to faunas described from the Maya State of the Siberian platform and the Paradoxides paradoxissimus Stage of the Baltic region. Both faunas are from ocean-facing or outer shelf environments. None of the key non-agnostid or non-pagetiid elements have been seen previously in deposits of Cambrian North America.

  14. Set-Membership Proportionate Affine Projection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Werner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate adaptive filters can improve the convergence speed for the identification of sparse systems as compared to their conventional counterparts. In this paper, the idea of proportionate adaptation is combined with the framework of set-membership filtering (SMF in an attempt to derive novel computationally efficient algorithms. The resulting algorithms attain an attractive faster converge for both situations of sparse and dispersive channels while decreasing the average computational complexity due to the data discerning feature of the SMF approach. In addition, we propose a rule that allows us to automatically adjust the number of past data pairs employed in the update. This leads to a set-membership proportionate affine projection algorithm (SM-PAPA having a variable data-reuse factor allowing a significant reduction in the overall complexity when compared with a fixed data-reuse factor. Reduced-complexity implementations of the proposed algorithms are also considered that reduce the dimensions of the matrix inversions involved in the update. Simulations show good results in terms of reduced number of updates, speed of convergence, and final mean-squared error.

  15. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  16. Affine connection form of Regge calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatsymovsky, V. M.

    2016-12-01

    Regge action is represented analogously to how the Palatini action for general relativity (GR) as some functional of the metric and a general connection as independent variables represents the Einstein-Hilbert action. The piecewise flat (or simplicial) spacetime of Regge calculus is equipped with some world coordinates and some piecewise affine metric which is completely defined by the set of edge lengths and the world coordinates of the vertices. The conjugate variables are the general nondegenerate matrices on the three-simplices which play the role of a general discrete connection. Our previous result on some representation of the Regge calculus action in terms of the local Euclidean (Minkowsky) frame vectors and orthogonal connection matrices as independent variables is somewhat modified for the considered case of the general linear group GL(4, R) of the connection matrices. As a result, we have some action invariant w.r.t. arbitrary change of coordinates of the vertices (and related GL(4, R) transformations in the four-simplices). Excluding GL(4, R) connection from this action via the equations of motion we have exactly the Regge action for the considered spacetime.

  17. Affinity of serum apolipoproteins for lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibdah, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of lipid composition and packing as well as the structure of the protein on the affinities of apolipoproteins for lipid monolayers have been investigated. The adsorption of 14 C-reductively methylated human apolipoproteins A-I and A-II at saturating subphase concentrations to monolayers prepared with synthetic lipids or lipoprotein surface lipids spread at various initial surface pressures has been studied. The adsorption of apolipoproteins is monitored by following the surface radioactivity using a gas flow counter and Wilhelmy plate, respectively. The physical states of the lipid monolayers are evaluated by measurement of the surface pressure-molecular area isotherms using a Langmuir-Adam surface balance. The probable helical regions in various apolipoproteins have been predicted using a secondary structure analysis computer program. The mean residue hydrophobicity and mean residue hydrophobic moment for the predicted helical segments have been calculated. The surface properties of synthetic peptides which are amphipathic helix analogs have been investigated at the air-water and lipid-water interfaces

  18. Theoretical determination of proton affinity differences in zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, G.J.; Santen, van R.A.

    1993-01-01

    An important factor in zeolite catalysis is the proton affinity, i.e., the energy required to remove a proton from the zeolite lattice. Differences in proton affinity are expected to influence the catalytic activity of acid sites, making the catalytically active sites inhomogeneous (within one

  19. Capillary electrophoresis-based assessment of nanobody affinity and purity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haselberg, Rob; Oliveira, Sabrina; van der Meel, Roy; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2014-01-01

    Drug purity and affinity are essential attributes during development and production of therapeutic proteins. In this work, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine both the affinity and composition of the biotechnologically produced "nanobody" EGa1, the binding fragment of a

  20. Generalized Warburg impedance on realistic self-affine fractals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... We analyse the problem of impedance for a diffusion controlled charge transfer process across an irregular interface. These interfacial irregularities are characterized as two class of random fractals: (i) a statistically isotropic self-affine fractals and (ii) a statistically corrugated self-affine fractals.

  1. Polynomial Primal-Dual Cone Affine Scaling for Semidefinite Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); J.F. Sturm; S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we generalize the primal--dual cone affine scaling algorithm of Sturm and Zhang to semidefinite programming. We show in this paper that the underlying ideas of the cone affine scaling algorithm can be naturely applied to semidefinite programming, resulting in a new

  2. Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu [Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.

  3. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  4. Generalized Warburg impedance on realistic self-affine fractals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyse the problem of impedance for a diffusion controlled charge transfer process across an irregular interface. These interfacial irregularities are characterized as two class of random fractals: (i) a statistically isotropic self-affine fractals and (ii) a statistically corrugated self-affine fractals. The information about the ...

  5. Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on Sepharose- Cibacron Blue F3GA. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pseudo affinity adsorption of bioproducts on Sepharose-cibacron blue F3-GA was subjected to rumen microbial enzyme evaluation through batch binding and column chromatography of ...

  6. Self-affine roughness influence on redox reaction charge admittance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    2005-01-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of self-affine electrode roughness on the admittance of redox reactions during facile charge transfer kinetics. The self-affine roughness is characterized by the rms roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi and the roughness exponent H (0

  7. Affine Toda equations and solutions in the homogeneous grading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuevsky, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 542, April 1 (2018), s. 149-161 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : affine Lie gebras * affine Toda modes * solitons Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379517302100

  8. Online identification of continuous bimodal and trimodal piecewise affine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Q.T.; van den Boom, A.J.J.; Baldi, S.; Rantzer, Anders; Bagterp Jørgensen, John; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the identification of continuous piecewise affine systems in state space form with jointly unknown partition and subsystem matrices. The partition of the system is generated by the so-called centers. By representing continuous piecewise affine systems in the max-form and

  9. Duals of Affine Grassmann Codes and Their Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, P.; Ghorpade, S. R.; Hoholdt, T.

    2012-01-01

    Affine Grassmann codes are a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes. These codes were introduced in a recent work by Beelen Here, we consider, more generally, affine Grassmann codes of a given level. We explicitly determine the dual of an affine...... Grassmann code of any level and compute its minimum distance. Further, we ameliorate the results by Beelen concerning the automorphism group of affine Grassmann codes. Finally, we prove that affine Grassmann codes and their duals have the property that they are linear codes generated by their minimum......-weight codewords. This provides a clean analogue of a corresponding result for generalized Reed-Muller codes....

  10. Exploring Girls' Science Affinities Through an Informal Science Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brandy; Zvoch, Keith

    2017-10-01

    This study examines science interests, efficacy, attitudes, and identity—referred to as affinities, in the context of an informal science outreach program for girls. A mixed methods design was used to explore girls' science affinities before, during, and after participation in a cohort-based summer science camp. Multivariate analysis of survey data revealed that girls' science affinities varied as a function of the joint relationship between family background and number of years in the program, with girls from more affluent families predicted to increase affinities over time and girls from lower income families to experience initial gains in affinities that diminish over time. Qualitative examination of girls' perspectives on gender and science efficacy, attitudes toward science, and elements of science identities revealed a complex interplay of gendered stereotypes of science and girls' personal desires to prove themselves knowledgeable and competent scientists. Implications for the best practice in fostering science engagement and identities in middle school-aged girls are discussed.

  11. DAYA ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN SENGGANI (Melastoma affine D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Trisharyanti Dian Kusumowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma affine D. Don had some activities such as anthelmintic, antibacteria, antiinfiammation, antifungal, and antitumor. The aims of this research was determine antibacteria activity of ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don. The antimicrobial activity was tested by solid dilution method to get Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC. The compounds in Melastoma affine D. Don was analyzed by tube test method and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC with chloroform : methanol : formic acid (8,5:1,5:0,5 as mobile phase and silica gel GF254 as stationary phase. The result showed ethanolic extract of Melastoma affine D. Don contains alkaloid, polyphenol, fiavonoid, saponin, and essential oil. The MIC of Senggani against Staphylococcus aureus was 2% and 3% against Escherichia coli and the extract could not inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli multiresistant until concentration 7% extract ethanol. Keywords: Melastoma affine D. Don, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli

  12. Biodiversity, zoogeography and affinity of Orissa sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thomas, P.A.; Sree, A.; Bapuji, M.; Rao, K.M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    . Along with coral reefs, the ridge reefs gained importance for the study of different coral populations. With the advent of SCUBA and submersibles scientists have been able to initiate careful studies of subtidal / benthic faunal communities. With the use...

  13. Electron affinity and excited states of methylglyoxal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauletyarov, Yerbolat; Dixon, Andrew R.; Wallace, Adam A.; Sanov, Andrei

    2017-07-01

    Using photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, we characterized the anion of methylglyoxal (X2A″ electronic state) and three lowest electronic states of the neutral methylglyoxal molecule: the closed-shell singlet ground state (X1A'), the lowest triplet state (a3A″), and the open-shell singlet state (A1A″). The adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of the ground state, EA(X1A') = 0.87(1) eV, spectroscopically determined for the first time, compares to 1.10(2) eV for unsubstituted glyoxal. The EAs (adiabatic attachment energies) of two excited states of methylglyoxal were also determined: EA(a3A″) = 3.27(2) eV and EA(A1A″) = 3.614(9) eV. The photodetachment of the anion to each of these two states produces the neutral species near the respective structural equilibria; hence, the a3A″ ← X2A″ and A1A″ ← X2A″ photodetachment transitions are dominated by intense peaks at their respective origins. The lowest-energy photodetachment transition, on the other hand, involves significant geometry relaxation in the X1A' state, which corresponds to a 60° internal rotation of the methyl group, compared to the anion structure. Accordingly, the X1A' ← X2A″ transition is characterized as a broad, congested band, whose vertical detachment energy, VDE = 1.20(4) eV, significantly exceeds the adiabatic EA. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the ab initio predictions using several equation-of-motion methodologies, combined with coupled-cluster theory.

  14. Electron affinities of atoms, molecules, and radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulides, A.A.; McCorkle, D.L.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    We review briefly but comprehensively the theoretical, semiempirical and experimental methods employed to determine electron affinities (EAs) of atoms, molecules and radicals, and summarize the EA data obtained by these methods. The detailed processes underlying the principles of the experimental methods are discussed very briefly. It is, nonetheless, instructive to recapitulate the definition of EA and those of the related quantities, namely, the vertical detachment energy, VDE, and the vertical attachment energy, VAE. The EA of an atom is defined as the difference in total energy between the ground state of the neutral atom (plus the electron at rest at infinity) and its negative ion. The EA of a molecule is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion when both, the neutral molecules and the negative ion, are in their ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states. The VDE is defined as the minimum energy required to eject the electron from the negative ion (in its ground electronic and nuclear state) without changing the internuclear separation; since the vertical transition may leave the neutral molecule in an excited vibrational/rotational state, the VDE, although the same as the EA for atoms is, in general, different (larger than), from the EA for molecules. Similarly, the VAE is defined as the difference in energy between the neutral molecule in its ground electronic, vibrational and rotational states plus an electron at rest at infinity and the molecular negative ion formed by addition of an electron to the neutral molecule without allowing a change in the intermolecular separation of the constituent nuclei; it is a quantity appropriate to those cases where the lowest negative ion state lies above the ground states of the neutral species and is less or equal to EA

  15. Convulsant bicuculline modifies CNS muscarinic receptor affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz Georgina

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work from this laboratory has shown that the administration of the convulsant drug 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP, a GAD inhibitor, modifies not only GABA synthesis but also binding of the antagonist [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([3H]-QNB to central muscarinic receptors, an effect due to an increase in affinity without modifications in binding site number. The cholinergic system has been implicated in several experimental epilepsy models and the ability of acetylcholine to regulate neuronal excitability in the neocortex is well known. To study the potential relationship between GABAergic and cholinergic systems with seizure activity, we analyzed the muscarinic receptor after inducing seizure by bicuculline (BIC, known to antagonize the GABA-A postsynaptic receptor subtype. Results We analyzed binding of muscarinic antagonist [3H]-QNB to rat CNS membranes after i.p. administration of BIC at subconvulsant (1.0 mg/kg and convulsant (7.5 mg/kg doses. Subconvulsant BIC dose failed to develop seizures but produced binding alteration in the cerebellum and hippocampus with roughly 40% increase and 10% decrease, respectively. After convulsant BIC dose, which invariably led to generalized tonic-clonic seizures, binding increased 36% and 15% to cerebellar and striatal membranes respectively, but decreased 12% to hippocampal membranes. Kd value was accordingly modified: with the subconvulsant dose it decreased 27% in cerebellum whereas it increased 61% in hippocampus; with the convulsant dose, Kd value decreased 33% in cerebellum but increased 85% in hippocampus. No change in receptor number site was found, and Hill number was invariably close to unity. Conclusion Results indicate dissimilar central nervous system area susceptibility of muscarinic receptor to BIC. Ligand binding was modified not only by a convulsant BIC dose but also by a subconvulsant dose, indicating that changes are not attributable to the seizure process

  16. DIVERSIDAD DE LEVADURAS ASOCIADAS A INFLORESCENCIAS DE MANGO Y FLORES DE 'LULO ARBÓREO' DIVERSIDADE DE LEVEDURAS ASSOCIADAS A INFLORESCÊNCIAS DE MANGA E FLORES DE 'LULO ARBÓREO' YEAST DIVERSITY ASSOCIATED TO INFLORESCENCES OF MANGO AND FLOWERS OF 'LULO ARBOREO'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACKELINE GAVIRIA V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el conocimiento de levaduras ha sido limitado a especies de interés clínico. El micro-hábitat aéreo de las flores, presenta un área de gran interés para el aislamiento de levaduras con importancia en el campo industrial, por su potencial uso como controlador biológico. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la diversidad de levaduras asociadas a inflorescencia de Mango (Mangífera índica y flores de Lulo arbóreo (Solanum wrightii. Para dicha finalidad se trabajó con 96 aislados, a los cuales se les realizó caracterización fenotípica y posteriores pruebas de MSP-PCR Fingerprinting. Estas pruebas fueron complementadas con amplificación parcial y secuenciación del segmento 26S del ADNr para identificación a nivel de especie. El patrón de diversidad encontrado refleja una dominancia de la especie Candida leandrae en flores de lulo arbóreo, también se presentaron especies como Cryptococcus laurentii, Candida parazyma, Aeurobasidium pullulans y Pseudozyma tsukubaensis. Las inflorescencias de mango presentaron especies como Sydowia eucalypti, Cryptococcus flavescens, C. laurentii, C. nemorosus, C. heveanensis, Pichia kluyveri, Pseudozyma tsukubaensis y Candida asparagi. Se logró identificar hasta el nivel taxonómico de especie el total de los aislados encontrados, además se hallaron especies con potencial uso biotecnológico.Na Colômbia, o conhecimento das leveduras é limitado a espécies de interesse clinico. O micro-habitat aéreo das flores apresenta um interessante campo para o isolamento de leveduras com importância na indústria pelo seu potencial uso em controle biológico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a diversidade de leveduras associadas a inflorescências de Manga (Mangifera indica e flores de 'lulo' (Solanum wrightii. Para isso, foram analisados 96 isolados, que foram caracterizados com testes fenotípicos e MSP-PCR Fingerprinting complementadas com sequenciamento parcial da região 26S do r

  17. Characteristics of high affinity and low affinity adenosine binding sites in human cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, D.; Fox, I.V.

    1986-01-01

    The binding characteristics of human brain cortical membrane fractions were evaluated to test the hypothesis that there are A 1 and A 2 adenosine binding sites. The ligands used were 2-chloro(8- 3 H) adenosine and N 6 -(adenine-2, 8- 3 H) cyclohexayladenosine. Binding of chloroadenosine to human brain cortical membranes was time dependent, reversible and concentration dependent. The kinetic constant determinations from binding studies of the adenosine receptor are presented. Utilizing tritium-cyclohexyladenosine as ligand the authors observed evidence for a high affinity binding site in human brain cortical membranes with a kd of 5 nM

  18. Fractal-based exponential distribution of urban density and self-affine fractal forms of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang; Feng Jian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The model of urban population density differs from the common exponential function. ► Fractal landscape influences the exponential distribution of urban density. ► The exponential distribution of urban population suggests a self-affine fractal. ► Urban space can be divided into three layers with scaling and non-scaling regions. ► The dimension of urban form with characteristic scale can be treated as 2. - Abstract: Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark’s model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark’s model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark’s model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to verify the theoretical inference. Based on the empirical analysis, a three-ring model of cities is presented and a city is conceptually divided into three layers from core to periphery. The scaling region and non-scaling region appear alternately in the city. This model may be helpful for future urban studies and city planning.

  19. ODE/IM correspondence and modified affine Toda field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Katsushi; Locke, Christopher

    2014-08-15

    We study the two-dimensional affine Toda field equations for affine Lie algebra g{sup ^} modified by a conformal transformation and the associated linear equations. In the conformal limit, the associated linear problem reduces to a (pseudo-)differential equation. For classical affine Lie algebra g{sup ^}, we obtain a (pseudo-)differential equation corresponding to the Bethe equations for the Langlands dual of the Lie algebra g, which were found by Dorey et al. in study of the ODE/IM correspondence.

  20. Realization of Robertson-Walker spacetimes as affine hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bangyen

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in embeddings of spacetimes in higher dimensional spaces, we consider a special type of embedding. We prove that Robertson-Walker spacetimes can be embedded as centroaffine hypersurfaces and graph hypersurfaces in some affine spaces in such a way that the induced relative metrics are exactly the Lorentzian metrics on the Robertson-Walker spacetimes. Such realizations allow us to view Robertson-Walker spacetimes and their submanifolds as affine submanifolds in a natural way. Consequently, our realizations make it possible to apply the tools of affine differential geometry to study Robertson-Walker spacetimes and their submanifolds

  1. Volatility Components, Affine Restrictions and Non-Normal Innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Dorian, Christian

    Recent work by Engle and Lee (1999) shows that allowing for long-run and short-run components greatly enhances a GARCH model's ability fit daily equity return dynamics. Using the risk-neutralization in Duan (1995), we assess the option valuation performance of the Engle-Lee model and compare...... models to four conditionally non-normal versions. As in Hsieh and Ritchken (2005), we find that non-affine models dominate affine models both in terms of fitting return and in terms of option valuation. For the affine models we find strong evidence in favor of the component structure for both returns...

  2. An improved affine projection algorithm for active noise cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Wang, Mingjiang; Han, Yufei; Sun, Yunzhuo

    2017-08-01

    Affine projection algorithm is a signal reuse algorithm, and it has a good convergence rate compared to other traditional adaptive filtering algorithm. There are two factors that affect the performance of the algorithm, which are step factor and the projection length. In the paper, we propose a new variable step size affine projection algorithm (VSS-APA). It dynamically changes the step size according to certain rules, so that it can get smaller steady-state error and faster convergence speed. Simulation results can prove that its performance is superior to the traditional affine projection algorithm and in the active noise control (ANC) applications, the new algorithm can get very good results.

  3. The topological entropy of iterated piecewise affine maps is uncomputable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Koiran

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is impossible to compute (or even to approximate the topological entropy of a continuous piecewise affine function in dimension four. The same result holds for saturated linear functions in unbounded dimension. We ask whether the topological entropy of a piecewise affine function is always a computable real number, and conversely whether every non-negative computable real number can be obtained as the topological entropy of a piecewise affine function. It seems that these two questions are also open for cellular automata.

  4. Programa e estratégia da revolução mexicana em Ricardo Flores Magón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Santos

    2010-12-01

    ="Subtle Emphasis" />

    No decênio anterior a explosão da Revolução Mexicana (1910, Ricardo Flores Magón (1874-1922 liderou o Partido Liberal Mexicano em uma trajetória de radicalização política e ideológica, evoluindo da denúncia de cunho jurídico dos abusos da ditadura até afirmar-se como oposição revolucionária ao Porfiriato. Constrangido ao exílio nos Estados Unidos, Ricardo planejou duas

  5. Affinity between information retrieval system and search topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    1979-01-01

    Ten search profiles are tested on the INIS system at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The results are plotted on recall-precision chart ranging from 100% recall to 100% precision. The curves are not purely systems-dependent nor search-dependent, and are determined substantially by the ''affinity'' between the system and the search topic. The curves are named ''Affinity curves of search topics with information retrieval systems'', and hence retrieval affinity factors are derived. They are obtained not only for individual search topics but also for averages in the system. By such a quantitative examination, the difference of affinity among search topics in a given system, that of the same search topic among various systems, and that of systems to the same group of search topics can be compared reasonably. (author)

  6. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kä ferbö ck, Florian; Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties

  7. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes—Our Current Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad G. Magor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes.

  8. Congruence of genomic and ethnolinguistic affinities among five ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    their ethnic and linguistic affinities, we analysed DNA samples of individuals drawn from five tribes with diverse, but ... arisen from admixture between the Gonds (maternal) and ..... nuclear `fossil' of the mitochondrial D-loop and the origin of.

  9. ASIFT: An Algorithm for Fully Affine Invariant Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoshen Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available If a physical object has a smooth or piecewise smooth boundary, its images obtained by cameras in varying positions undergo smooth apparent deformations. These deformations are locally well approximated by affine transforms of the image plane. In consequence the solid object recognition problem has often been led back to the computation of affine invariant image local features. The similarity invariance (invariance to translation, rotation, and zoom is dealt with rigorously by the SIFT method The method illustrated and demonstrated in this work, Affine-SIFT (ASIFT, simulates a set of sample views of the initial images, obtainable by varying the two camera axis orientation parameters, namely the latitude and the longitude angles, which are not treated by the SIFT method. Then it applies the SIFT method itself to all images thus generated. Thus, ASIFT covers effectively all six parameters of the affine transform.

  10. Sugawara construction for affine SL(N,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, M.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the sl(N,1) superalgebras, their affine extensions and their representations. This is used to perform a Sugawara construction of the Virasoro algebra. The allowed values of the conformal anomaly and the conformal dimension are computed. (orig.)

  11. Self-affine fractal growth front of Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae have been grown in various environmental conditions and analyzed from the viewpoint of self-affinity. The growth behavior can be described by the Eden model in favorable conditions, and by DLA in unfavorable conditions.

  12. Methods for quantifying T cell receptor binding affinities and thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Gloor, Brian E.; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Baker, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    αβ T cell receptors (TCRs) recognize peptide antigens bound and presented by class I or class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Recognition of a peptide/MHC complex is required for initiation and propagation of a cellular immune response, as well as the development and maintenance of the T cell repertoire. Here we discuss methods to quantify the affinities and thermodynamics of interactions between soluble ectodomains of TCRs and their peptide/MHC ligands, focusing on titration calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, and fluorescence anisotropy. As TCRs typically bind ligand with weak-to-moderate affinities, we focus the discussion on means to enhance the accuracy and precision of low affinity measurements. In addition to further elucidating the biology of the T cell mediated immune response, more reliable low affinity measurements will aid with more probing studies with mutants or altered peptides that can help illuminate the physical underpinnings of how TCRs achieve their remarkable recognition properties. PMID:21609868

  13. Local uncontrollability for affine control systems with jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanţă, Savin

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates affine control systems with jumps for which the ideal If(g1, …, gm) generated by the drift vector field f in the Lie algebra L(f, g1, …, gm) can be imbedded as a kernel of a linear first-order partial differential equation. It will lead us to uncontrollable affine control systems with jumps for which the corresponding reachable sets are included in explicitly described differentiable manifolds.

  14. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  15. Color and Contrast Enhancement by Controlled Piecewise Affine Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Lisani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (HE. The proposed algorithm performs a piecewise affine transform of the intensity levels of a digital image such that the new cumulative distribution function will be approximately uniform (as with HE, but where the stretching of the range is locally controlled to avoid brutal noise enhancement. We call this algorithm Piecewise Affine Equalization (PAE. Several experiments show that, in general, the new algorithm improves HE results.

  16. Diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores de Citrus em pomares de laranjeira e tangerineira Diversity of flowers visiting bees of Citrus in salinas, state of minas gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tigre do Nascimento

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de abelhas em culturas de valor comercial, no período de florescimento, é importante não apenas para garantir a polinização cruzada, quando indispensável, mas também para incrementar a produção de frutos e sementes. Nessa perspectiva, o presente trabalho teve a finalidade de identificar as abelhas visitantes das flores em pomar de laranjeira (Citrus sinensis e tangerineira (Citrus reticulata em Salinas - MG. O trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Santa Isabel, da Escola Agrotécnica Federal de Salinas - MG, em pomares de laranjeira com as variedades, pera, baía e baianinha, e de tangerineira, variedade poncã. As coletas das abelhas visitantes das culturas da laranjeira e tangerineira foram feitas nas floradas principais, entre os meses de agosto e outubro. Foram coletadas as abelhas que visitaram as flores nos horários entre 06 h e 18 h, totalizando 52 horas na laranjeira e 50 horas na tangerineira. No pomar de laranjeira, foram coletados 5.045 espécimes com riqueza de 12 espécies, e na tangerineira, 1.428 espécimes com 20 espécies. As espécies de abelhas de maior predominância e dominância em todos os horários amostrados foram Apis mellifera e Trigona spinipes na cultura da laranjeira e A. mellifera, T. spinipes e Tetragonisca angustula na cultura da tangerineira.The presence of bees on cultures with commercial value during flowering is important to ensure the cross-pollination, when necessary, but also to increase the production of fruits and seeds. This work aimed to identify flowers' visiting bees on orange and tangerine orchards in Salinas - MG. The work was leaded on Santa Isabel experimental farm of the Federal Agro-technical School of Salinas - MG, on orange orchards (Citrus sinensis with pear, bahia and baianinha varieties in the spacing of 5,0 x 6,0, and on tangerine orchards (C. reticulate using poncã variety in the spacing of 5,0 x 5,0. The sampling of visiting bees from orange and tangerine

  17. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  18. Triagem fitoquímica e avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. MATTE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a triagem fitoquímica e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana de extratos das flores de Sambucus nigraL. Os extratos; aquoso (10 %, etanólico (5 % e Acetato de etila (5 % foram submetidos a testes colorimétricos para triagem fitoquímica e a avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada pelo método de disco-difusão em ágar. Os resultados mostraram que nas concentrações de 6 e 12 mg o extrato aquoso apresentou halos significativos de inibição para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém, quando comparado aos medicamentos usados como referência a atividade não foi satisfatória, e, ainda, evidenciou a ausência de inibição para todas as cepas testadas com o aumento da concentração para 18 e 24 mg. A análise da triagem fitoquímica evidenciou a presença de flavonoides com intensa reação de cor no extrato aquoso e etanólico, e de fraca intensidade no extrato acetato de etila. Nos mesmos extratos, pelos testes realizados, não foram detectados taninos, saponinas, antraquinonas e alcaloides. Concluiu-se que o extrato aquoso apresentou melhor efeito inibitório para Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Streptococcus pyogenes, porém insuficiente para promover a inativação eficiente quando comparado aos controles.

  19. Detection of pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, southwestern Coral Triangle tuna, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuddin, Mukti; Farhum, Aisjah; Safruddin, Safruddin; Selamat, Muhammad Banda; Sudirman, Sudirman; Nurdin, Nurjannah; Syamsuddin, Mega; Ridwan, Muhammad; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Using remote sensing of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) together with catch data, we investigated the detection and persistence of important pelagic habitat hotspots for skipjack tuna in the Gulf of Bone-Flores Sea, Indonesia. We analyzed the data for the period between the northwest and southeast monsoon 2007-2011. A pelagic hotspot index was constructed from a model of multi-spectrum satellite-based oceanographic data in relation to skipjack fishing performance. Results showed that skipjack catch per unit efforts (CPUEs) increased significantly in areas of highest pelagic hotspot indices. The distribution and dynamics of habitat hotspots were detected by the synoptic measurements of SST, SSHA and Chl-a ranging from 29.5° to 31.5°C, from 2.5 to 12.5 cm and from 0.15 to 0.35 mg m-3, respectively. Total area of hotspots consistently peaked in May. Validation of skipjack CPUE predicted by our model against observed data from 2012 was highly significant. The key pelagic habitat corresponded with the Chl-a front, which could be related to the areas of relatively high prey abundance (enhanced feeding opportunity) for skipjack. We found that the area and persistence of the potential skipjack habitat hotspots for the 5 years were clearly identified by the 0.2 mg m-3 Chl-a isopleth, suggesting that the Chl-a front provides a key oceanographic indicator for global understanding on skipjack tuna habitat hotspots in the western tropical Pacific Ocean, especially within Coral Triangle tuna.

  20. Two-parameter quantum affine algebra Ur,s(sln-circumflex), Drinfeld realization and quantum affine Lyndon basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Naihong; Rosso, M.; Zhang Honglian

    2006-12-01

    We further find the defining structure of a two-parameter quantum affine algebra U r,s (sl n -circumflex) (n > 2) in the sense of Benkart-Witherspoon [BW1] after the work of [BGH1], [HS] and [BH], which turns out to be a Drinfeld double. Of more importance for the 'affine' cases is that we work out the compatible two-parameter version of the Drinfeld realization as a quantum affinization of U r,s (sl n ) and establish the Drinfeld isomorphism Theorem in the two-parameter setting via developing a new remarkable combinatorial approach - quantum 'affine' Lyndon basis with an explicit valid algorithm, based on the Drinfeld realization. (author)

  1. Profiling of Parkin-binding partners using tandem affinity purification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Zanon

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1-2% of the general population over age 60. It is characterized by a rather selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of α-synuclein-enriched Lewy body inclusions. Mutations in the Parkin gene (PARK2 are the major cause of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with various cellular functions, including the induction of mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarizaton, but the full repertoire of Parkin-binding proteins remains poorly defined. Here we employed tandem affinity purification interaction screens with subsequent mass spectrometry to profile binding partners of Parkin. Using this approach for two different cell types (HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, we identified a total of 203 candidate Parkin-binding proteins. For the candidate proteins and the proteins known to cause heritable forms of parkinsonism, protein-protein interaction data were derived from public databases, and the associated biological processes and pathways were analyzed and compared. Functional similarity between the candidates and the proteins involved in monogenic parkinsonism was investigated, and additional confirmatory evidence was obtained using published genetic interaction data from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the results of the different analyses, a prioritization score was assigned to each candidate Parkin-binding protein. Two of the top ranking candidates were tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and interaction to Parkin was confirmed for one of them. New candidates for involvement in cell death processes, protein folding, the fission/fusion machinery, and the mitophagy pathway were identified, which provide a resource for further elucidating Parkin function.

  2. Profiling of Parkin-Binding Partners Using Tandem Affinity Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenburg, Hagen; Doncheva, Nadezhda T.; Schwienbacher, Christine; Serafin, Alice; Alexa, Adrian; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Albrecht, Mario; Klein, Christine; Hicks, Andrew A.; Pramstaller, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1–2% of the general population over age 60. It is characterized by a rather selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of α-synuclein-enriched Lewy body inclusions. Mutations in the Parkin gene (PARK2) are the major cause of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism. The Parkin protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with various cellular functions, including the induction of mitophagy upon mitochondrial depolarizaton, but the full repertoire of Parkin-binding proteins remains poorly defined. Here we employed tandem affinity purification interaction screens with subsequent mass spectrometry to profile binding partners of Parkin. Using this approach for two different cell types (HEK293T and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells), we identified a total of 203 candidate Parkin-binding proteins. For the candidate proteins and the proteins known to cause heritable forms of parkinsonism, protein-protein interaction data were derived from public databases, and the associated biological processes and pathways were analyzed and compared. Functional similarity between the candidates and the proteins involved in monogenic parkinsonism was investigated, and additional confirmatory evidence was obtained using published genetic interaction data from Drosophila melanogaster. Based on the results of the different analyses, a prioritization score was assigned to each candidate Parkin-binding protein. Two of the top ranking candidates were tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and interaction to Parkin was confirmed for one of them. New candidates for involvement in cell death processes, protein folding, the fission/fusion machinery, and the mitophagy pathway were identified, which provide a resource for further elucidating Parkin function. PMID:24244333

  3. Savoir-faire des populations locales des taxons du Jardin Botanique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2 sept. 2013 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : En vu de connaître l'usage des espèces végétales du Jardin Botanique de Bingerville par les populations locales, diverses activités de recherche ont été réalisées. Méthodologies et résultats : Le recensement de la flore a été effectué et a permis d'enregistrer 419 taxons. A l'issue d'une ...

  4. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  5. Reconstitution of high-affinity opioid agonist binding in brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remmers, A.E.; Medzihradsky, F. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex, the {mu} selective agonist ({sup 3}H)dihydromorphine in the absence of sodium, and the nonselective antagonist ({sup 3}H)naltrexone in the presence of sodium, bound to two populations of opioid receptor sites with K{sub d} values of 0.69 and 8.7 nM for dihydromorphine, and 0.34 and 5.5 nM for naltrexone. The addition of 5 {mu}M guanosine 5{prime}-({gamma}-thio)triphosphate (GTP({gamma}S)) strongly reduced high-affinity agonist but not antagonist binding. Exposure of the membranes to high pH reduced the number of GTP({gamma}-{sup 35}S) binding sites by 90% and low K{sub m}, opioid-sensitive GTPase activity by 95%. In these membranes, high-affinity agonist binding was abolished and modulation of residual binding by GTP({gamma}S) was diminished. Alkali treatment of the glioma cell membranes prior to fusion inhibited most of the low K{sub m} GTPase activity and prevented the reconstitution of agonist binding. The results show that high-affinity opioid agonist binding reflects the ligand-occupied receptor - guanine nucleotide binding protein complex.

  6. Diseño Box-Behnken para la optimización de la adsorción del colorante azul ácido sobre residuos de flores

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Ana Cristina; Echavarría, Ana María; Hormaza, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se determinaron las mejores condiciones para la remoción del colorante Azul Ácido 9 (AA9) a través de un diseño factorial completo 2³ y su posterior optimización mediante un diseño de superficie Box- Behnken utilizando tallos de flores (TF) como material adsorbente. Las variables evaluadas fueron dosis de adsorbente (D), concentración de colorante (C) y tiempo de contacto (t). El contenido del colorante se cuantificó por espectrometría UV-Vis. El modelo estadístico presentó u...

  7. O efeito da infusão das flores de Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda sobre ratas gestantes e lactantes expostas ao campo eletromagnético de ultra-alta-frequência

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Becker Borba

    2010-01-01

    O Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda (HpA) é uma planta da família Malvaceae, típica de clima tropical de ecossistemas de mangues. A infusão das flores do HpA apresenta propriedades antioxidantes, decorrentes da vitamina E, flavonóides, quercetina e taninos. Há estudos mostrando que os campos eletromagnéticos de ultra-alta-freqüência (CEMUAF) podem provocar danos à saúde. Estes danos acontecem por indução de estresse oxidativo às células. O presente estudo visa verificar o efeito antioxidante das...

  8. Lapa vermelha IV Hominid 1: morphological affinities of the earliest known American

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Walter A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies concerning the extra-continental morphological affinities of Paleo-Indian skeletons, carried out independently in South and North America, have indicated that the Americas were first occupied by non-Mongoloids that made their way to the New World through the Bering Strait in ancient times. The first South Americans show a clear resemblance to modern South Pacific and African populations, while the first North Americans seem to be at an unresolved morphological position between modern South Pacific and Europeans. In none of these analyses the first Americans show any resemblance to either northeast Asians or modern native Americans. So far, these studies have included affirmed and putative early skeletons thought to date between 8,000 and 10,000 years B.P. In this work the extra-continental morphological affinities of a Paleo-Indian skeleton well dated between 11,000 and 11,500 years B.P. (Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1, or "Luzia" is investigated, using as comparative samples Howells' (1989 world-wide modern series and Habgood's (1985 Old World Late Pleistocene fossil hominids. The comparison between Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1 and Howells' series was based on canonical variate analysis, including 45 size-corrected craniometric variables, while the comparison with fossil hominids was based on principal component analysis, including 16 size-corrected variables. In the first case, Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1 exhibited an undisputed morphological affinity firstly with Africans and secondly with South Pacific populations. In the second comparison, the earliest known American skeleton had its closest similarities with early Australians, Zhoukoudian Upper Cave 103, and Taforalt 18. The results obtained clearly confirm the idea that the Americas were first colonized by a generalized Homo sapiens population which inhabited East Asia in the Late Pleistocene, before the definition of the classic Mongoloid morphology.

  9. Genetic affinities of Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic Arabs in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert M John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse of bacterial species, and since the 5'-end of cagA gene and the middle allele of vacA gene of H. pylori from different populations exhibit considerable polymorphisms, these sequence diversities were used to gain insights into the genetic affinities of this gastric pathogen from different populations. Because the genetic affinity of Arab strains from the Arabian Gulf is not known, we carried out genetic analysis based on sequence diversities of the cagA and the vacA genes of H. pylori from 9 ethnic Arabs in Kuwait. The analysis showed that the Kuwaiti isolates are closely related to the Indo-European group of strains, although some strains have a tendency to form a separate cluster close to the Indo- European group, but clearly distinct from East Asian strains. However, these results need to be confirmed by analyses of neutral markers (house-keeping genes in a multi-locus sequence typing [MLST] platform. The profiling of virulence-associated genes may have resulted from ecologically distinct populations due to human migration and geographical separation over long periods of time.

  10. Characterization of self-affinity in the global regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    1994-11-01

    Methods for characterization of self-affine surfaces and measurements of their roughness exponents H are developed. It is shown that for smoothed surfaces, which underwent particular coarse graining or averaging of the small-scale fluctuations, the excess surface area Sex and the mean square root radius of curvature ac are related by two distinct asymptotic power laws if ac is well below or well above a certain crossover scale acr. In the local regime of self-affinity, when acSex~(ac/acr)-(1-H). In the global regime of self-affinity, when ac>>acr, Sex~(ac/acr)-2(1-H)/(2-H). The former scaling relationship is consistent with the well known definition of local fractal dimensions dloc=dtop+1-H. The latter scaling relationship offers alternatives for characterization of self-affinity over large scales by means of excess dimensions defined as dex=dtop+2(1-H)/(2-H) and can be used for determination of roughness exponents from the measurements provided in the global regime. The thermodynamic method of fractal analysis, proposed earlier for self-similar surfaces (A.V. Neimark, Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 51, 535 (1990) [JETP Lett. 51, 607 (1990)]; Physica A 191, 258 (1992)), is extended for self-affine surfaces for determination of fractal dimensions and roughness exponents from adsorption and capillary experimental data.

  11. Specificity and affinity quantification of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Guo, Liyong; Hu, Liang; Wang, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Most biological processes are mediated by the protein-protein interactions. Determination of the protein-protein structures and insight into their interactions are vital to understand the mechanisms of protein functions. Currently, compared with the isolated protein structures, only a small fraction of protein-protein structures are experimentally solved. Therefore, the computational docking methods play an increasing role in predicting the structures and interactions of protein-protein complexes. The scoring function of protein-protein interactions is the key responsible for the accuracy of the computational docking. Previous scoring functions were mostly developed by optimizing the binding affinity which determines the stability of the protein-protein complex, but they are often lack of the consideration of specificity which determines the discrimination of native protein-protein complex against competitive ones. We developed a scoring function (named as SPA-PP, specificity and affinity of the protein-protein interactions) by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions show that SPA-PP performs remarkably on both predictions of binding pose and binding affinity. Thus, SPA-PP is a promising quantification of protein-protein interactions, which can be implemented into the protein docking tools and applied for the predictions of protein-protein structure and affinity. The algorithm is implemented in C language, and the code can be downloaded from http://dl.dropbox.com/u/1865642/Optimization.cpp.

  12. Quantitative relationship between antibody affinity and antibody avidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between antibody avidity, measured by the dissociation of the antigen-antibody bond in antigen excess, and antibody affinity was studied. Complexes of radiolabelled antigen and antibody of known affinity were prepared in vitro and allowed to stand for seven days to reach equilibrium. Then nonlabelled antigen in one hundred fold excess was added to dissociate the complexes. After an appropriate incubation the fraction of antigen bound to antibody was measured by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The dissociation index was the fraction bound in the experimental sample divided by the fraction bound in the control. The correlation coefficient between the dissociation index and the antibody binding constant was 0.92 for early dissociation and 0.98 for late dissociation. The regression equation relating the binding constant to the dissociation index was K = 6.4(DI) + 6.25, where DI is the late dissociation index and K is the logarithm to the base 10 of the binding constant. There is a high correlation between avidity and affinity of antibody. Antibody affinity can be estimated from avidity data. The stability of antigen-antibody complexes can be predicted from antibody affinity

  13. Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: Contextual affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Fritz, B.

    1990-01-01

    Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 100C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Hegelson: v = k + · S · a( H + ) -n · (1 - e -(A/RT) ). It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. The authors prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO 2 (m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites

  14. Thermokinetic model of borosilicate glass dissolution: contextual affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Vernaz, E.; Crovisier, J.L.; Fritz, B.

    1989-01-01

    Short and long-term geochemical interactions of R7T7 nuclear glass with water at 100 0 C were simulated with the DISSOL thermokinetic computer code. Both the dissolved glass quantity and the resulting water composition, saturation states and mineral quantities produced were calculated as a function of time. The rate equation used in the simulation was first proposed by Aagaard and Helgeson. It simulates a gradually diminishing dissolution rate as the reaction affinity diminishes. The best agreement with 1-year experimental data was obtained with a reaction affinity calculated from silica activity (Grambow's hypothesis) rather than taking into account the activity of all the glass components as proposed by Jantzen and Plodinec. The concept of residual affinity was introduced by Grambow to express the fact that the glass dissolution rate does not cease. We prefer to replace the term residual affinity by contextual affinity, which expresses the influence on the dissolution rate of three factors: the solution chemistry, the metastability of SiO 2 (m), and the possible precipitation of certain aluminosilicates such as zeolites. 19 refs

  15. USING MICROSCALE THERMOPHORESIS TO EASILY MEASURE BINDING AFFINITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Breitsprecher*

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While it’s very common for biologists and chemists to test whether or not two molecules interact with each other, it’s much more useful to gather information on the nature of that interaction. How strong is it? How long will it last? What does that mean for its biological function? One way to answer these questions is to study affinity. Binding affinity is defined as the strength of the binding interaction between a single biomolecule to its binding partner, or ligand, and it can be quantifiably measured, providing information on whether or not molecules are interacting, as well as assigning a value to the affinity. When measuring binding affinity, there are several parameters to look at, but the dissociation constant (Kd, which defines the likelihood that an interaction between two molecules will break, is a very common measurement. The smaller the dissociation constant, the more tightly bound the ligand is, and the higher the affinity is between the two molecules.

  16. k-Schur functions and affine Schubert calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Thomas; Morse, Jennifer; Schilling, Anne; Shimozono, Mark; Zabrocki, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the very active field of combinatorics of affine Schubert calculus, explains the current state of the art, and states the current open problems. Affine Schubert calculus lies at the crossroads of combinatorics, geometry, and representation theory. Its modern development is motivated by two seemingly unrelated directions. One is the introduction of k-Schur functions in the study of Macdonald polynomial positivity, a mostly combinatorial branch of symmetric function theory. The other direction is the study of the Schubert bases of the (co)homology of the affine Grassmannian, an algebro-topological formulation of a problem in enumerative geometry. This is the first introductory text on this subject. It contains many examples in Sage, a free open source general purpose mathematical software system, to entice the reader to investigate the open problems. This book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers, who want to become familiar with ...

  17. Specific capture of uranyl protein targets by metal affinity chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, C.; Dedieu, A.; Guerin, P.; Quemeneur, E.; Meyer, D.; Vidaud, C.

    2008-01-01

    To improve general understanding of biochemical mechanisms in the field of uranium toxicology, the identification of protein targets needs to be intensified. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) has been widely developed as a powerful tool for capturing metal binding proteins from biological extracts. However uranyl cations (UO 2 2+ ) have particular physico-chemical characteristics which prevent them from being immobilized on classical metal chelating supports. We report here on the first development of an immobilized uranyl affinity chromatography method, based on the cation-exchange properties of amino-phosphonate groups for uranyl binding. The cation distribution coefficient and loading capacity on the support were determined. Then the stability of the uranyl-bonded phase under our chromatographic conditions was optimized to promote affinity mechanisms. The successful enrichment of uranyl binding proteins from human serum was then proven using proteomic and mass spectral analysis. (authors)

  18. Integrable deformations of affine Toda theories and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fateev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce and study five series of one-parameter families of two-dimensional integrable quantum field theories. These theories have a Lagrangian description in terms of the massive Thirring model coupled with non-simply laced affine Toda theories. Perturbative calculations, analysis of the factorized scattering theory and the Bethe ansatz technique are used to show that these field theories possess the dual representation available for the perturbative analysis in the strong coupling limit. The dual theory can be formulated as the non-linear sigma model with Witten's Euclidean black hole metric (complex sinh-Gordon theory) coupled with non-simply laced affine Toda theories. Lie algebras associated with these ''dual'' Toda theories belong to the dual series of affine algebras but have a smaller rank. The exact relation between coupling constants in the dual theories is conjectured. (orig.)

  19. Enhancing Community Detection By Affinity-based Edge Weighting Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Andy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Henson, Van [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, Panayot [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Community detection refers to an important graph analytics problem of finding a set of densely-connected subgraphs in a graph and has gained a great deal of interest recently. The performance of current community detection algorithms is limited by an inherent constraint of unweighted graphs that offer very little information on their internal community structures. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to address this issue that weights the edges in a given graph based on recently proposed vertex affinity. The vertex affinity quantifies the proximity between two vertices in terms of their clustering strength, and therefore, it is ideal for graph analytics applications such as community detection. We also demonstrate that the affinity-based edge weighting scheme can improve the performance of community detection algorithms significantly.

  20. Two high-affinity ligand binding states of uterine estrogen receptor distinguished by modulation of hydrophobic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchens, T.W.; Li, C.M.; Zamah, N.M.; Besch, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    The steroid binding function of soluble (cytosolic) estrogen receptors from calf uteri was evaluated under conditions known to modify the extent of hydrophobic interaction with receptor-associated proteins. Receptor preparations were equilibrated into 6 M urea buffers and control buffers by chromatography through small columns of Sephadex G-25 or by dialysis at 0.6 0 C. Equilibrium dissociation constants (K/sub d/) and binding capacities (n) of experimental and control receptor preparations were determined by 13-point Scatchard analyses using concentrations of 17β-[ 3 H]estradiol from 0.05 to 10 nM. Nonspecific binding was determined at each concentration by parallel incubations with a 200-fold molar excess of the receptor-specific competitor diethylstilbestrol. The control receptor population was consistently found to be a single class of binding sites with a high affinity for estradiol which was unaffected by G-25 chromatography, by dialysis, by dilution, or by the presence of 0.4 M KCl. However, equilibration into 6 M urea induced a discrete (10-fold) reduction in receptor affinity to reveal a second, thermodynamically stable, high-affinity binding state. The presence of 0.4 M KCl did not significantly influence the discrete change in receptor affinity induced by urea. The effects of urea on both receptor affinity and binding capacity were reversible, suggesting a lack of covalent modification. These results demonstrate nonenzymatic means by which not only the binding capacity but also the affinity of receptor for estradiol can be reversibly controlled, suggesting that high concentrations of urea might be more effectively utilized during the physicochemical characterization and purification of steroid receptor proteins

  1. Low affinity uniporter carrier proteins can increase net substrate uptake rate by reducing efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Wortel, Meike T.; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Wagner, Marijke J.; De La Torre Cortés, Pilar; Teusink, Bas

    2018-01-01

    Many organisms have several similar transporters with different affinities for the same substrate. Typically, high-affinity transporters are expressed when substrate is scarce and low-affinity ones when it is abundant. The benefit of using low instead of high-affinity transporters remains unclear,

  2. Low affinity uniporter carrier proteins can increase net substrate uptake rate by reducing efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Wortel, M.T.; Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Wagner, Marijke J.; De La Torre, P.; Teusink, Bas

    2018-01-01

    Many organisms have several similar transporters with different affinities for the same substrate. Typically, high-affinity transporters are expressed when substrate is scarce and low-affinity ones when it is abundant. The benefit of using low instead of high-affinity transporters remains

  3. Determinación de razas fisiológicas de Fusariumoxysporumf.sp. Dianthien suelos cultivados y en variedades de clavel en la finca "flores las palmas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavides Joaquín L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    EI problema fitosanitario más Limitante del cultivo del clavel en Colombia es el marchitamiento vascular ocasionado por Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi con pérdidas económicas muy importantes. EI objetivo del trabajo fue la determinación de las razas fisiológicas del patógeno en la línea "Flores Las Palmas·, localizada en el Municipio de Tocancipá, Cundinamarca, a partir de muestras de plantas de clavel afectadas y de suelo. La investigación consistió en la obtención de 50 aislamientos del hongo a partir de plantas afectadas por la enfermedad y de 50 alistamientos de suelo, los cuales se inocularon en las variedades diferenciales de clavel lbiza, Taiga, Raggio di Sole, Pink Calypso, Niki y San Remo. Los resultados mostraron que 41

    (82% de los 50 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de plantas enfermas de clavel estándar se clasificaron como raza 2 del patógeno, cinco aislamientos (10% se caracterizaron como de baja patogenicidad, por l0 cual no fue posible determinar la raza a la cual pertenecen y cuatro aislamientos (8% se caracterizaron por no ser patogénicos en plantas de clavel. De los 50 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos a partir de muestras de suelo, solamente uno de ellos (2% Jue patogénico en plantas de clavel y se clasifico como raza 2, siendo los demás aislamientos no patogénicos en plantas de clavel.

  4. Uso medicinal de las plantas por los otomíes del municipio de Nicolás Flores, Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez-González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las plantas medicinales por los otomíes (hñähñü de Nicolás Flores, Hidalgo se ha mantenido a través de las generaciones. La influencia de la medicina alópata está restringida principalmente a la prevención de enfermedades como poliomielitis, sarampión, viruela y paludismo. La medicina tradicional es más viable ante las condiciones socioeconómicas, fisiográficas y culturales en esta región. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las especies de plantas que utilizan los hñähñü con fines medicinales, el tipo de enfermedades que se tratan y la afinidad geográfica de las mismas. El trabajo de campo consistió en la realización de entrevistas abiertas a los pobladores del municipio y en la colecta de ejemplares en diferentes unidades "etnoecológicas". Se reporta el uso medicinal de 112 especies en el tratamiento de afecciones como susto, dolor de estómago, dolor del riñón, diarrea, fiebre, mal de ojo, entre otras. Aunque la mayoría de los habitantes conoce el uso medicinal de algunas plantas, los ancianos son más cultos, en la sabiduría hñähñü, como la de otras etnias de México, el pensamiento mágico-religioso forma parte de su cosmovisión y consideran la dualidad frío-caliente para el tratamiento. La gama de enfermedades que se presume curan las plantas registradas es muy amplio, desde la gripe hasta el cáncer. El 75 % de las especies utilizadas por esta etnia son nativas del Continente Americano, principalmente de México y Centroamérica (39 %, lo que sugiere que el acervo botánico básico tradicional hñähñü aún es vigente.

  5. Bees visitors of three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in Central Amazonia Abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiacea na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Kaminski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on bees visitors to three species of Clusia (Clusiaceae flowers in the Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil were made during three two-week periods. The three species of Clusia, namely C. grandiflora, C. panapanari and C. insignis, presented variations regarding the species of bee visitors. A total of 23 bee species visited the three species of Clusia. The Euglossini and Meliponinae bees were the most frequent visitors of the Clusia flowers. Bee collecting behavior of floral resources is described.Durante seis semanas foram realizadas observações das abelhas visitantes de flores de três espécies de Clusia (Clusiaceae, na Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, em Manaus. As três espécies de Clusia: C. grandiflora Splitg., C. panapanari (Aubl. e C. insignis Mart. apresentaram diferenças com relação às visitas de espécies de abelhas, tendo sido visitadas por 23 espécies. Abelhas Euglossini e Meliponinae foram os visitantes mais freqüentes em flores de Clusia. O comportamento de coleta de recursos florais é descrito.

  6. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Angeli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1,4 did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column.

  7. Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, L K [S B R Government Womens' College, Berhampur, Orissa 760 001 (India); Pati, K C [Department of Physics, Khallikote College, Berhampur, Orissa 760 001 (India)

    2006-02-10

    Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras (untwisted and twisted) are obtained from their Dynkin diagrams. These diagrams give a classification of restricted root systems associated with these algebras. In the case of simple Lie algebras, these root systems and Satake diagrams correspond to symmetric spaces which have recently found many physical applications in quantum integrable systems, quantum transport problems, random matrix theories etc. We hope these types of root systems may have similar applications in theoretical physics in future and may correspond to symmetric spaces analogue of affine Kac-Moody algebras if they exist.

  8. Molecular basis of a high affinity murine interleukin-5 receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Devos, R; Plaetinck, G; Van der Heyden, J; Cornelis, S; Vandekerckhove, J; Fiers, W; Tavernier, J

    1991-01-01

    The mouse interleukin-5 receptor (mIL-5R) consists of two components one of which, the mIL-5R alpha-chain, binds mIL-5 with low affinity. Recently we demonstrated that monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) recognizing the second mIL-5R beta-chain, immunoprecipitate a p130-140 protein doublet which corresponds to the mIL-3R and the mIL-3R-like protein, the latter chain for which so far no ligand has been identified. In this study we show that a high affinity mIL-5R can be reconstituted on COS1 cells by...

  9. Entomofauna asociada a flores de berenjena y su papel en la producción de los frutos Insects associated with eggplant flowers and their role in fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El papel de los insectos polinizadores despierta interés, principalmente, en la reproducción de plantas tales como la berenjena. Este trabajo de recolección de la entomofauna asociada a las flores de Solanum melongena tuvo como objetivos identificar posibles agentes polinizadores locales y analizar el beneficio de los insectos antófilos a esta planta. Las observaciones y la colecta de los insectos visitantes de las flores fueron realizadas en febrero de 2008, entre las 7:00 y 17:15 horas, cada 45 minutos y en un área de 27 m². El experimento para el análisis y la comparación entre autofecundación espontánea y polinización por medio de agentes bióticos fue realizado en el mismo sitio, de febrero a marzo de 2009. Fueron colectados 631 insectos que visitaban las flores de berenjena, se destacaron los coleópteros de los géneros Colaspis Fabricius, Astylus Laporte, Harmonia Mulsant, Epitrix Foudras y Diabrotica Chevrolat; y los himenópteros del género Bombus Latreille. El pico de visitación en Solanum melongena ocurrió entre las 9:00 y 11:00 horas y corresponde al 36% del muestreo. De las flores sometidas al test de autofecundación espontánea, el 39% formaron frutos, mientras que apenas el 11% de las flores emasculadas y expuestas al proceso de acción por medio de agentes bióticos fructificaron.The interest in the role of insect pollination is growing, mainly in the reproduction of plants of economic interest, such as the eggplant. This study about the entomofauna associated with flowers of Solanum melongena has as objectives to identify possible pollinators' agents and to analyze the benefit of the anthophile insects to this plant. The observations and the survey of the flower visitors' insects were made in February 2008, between 7:00 am and 5:15 pm, every 45 minutes, in an area of 27 m². The experiment for analysis and comparison between spontaneous self pollination and by biological agents was made at the same place, from

  10. Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae Interações entre abelhas carpinteiras e abelhas das orquídeas (Hymenoptera: Apidae em flores de Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fernando dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. In this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini and Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini, visiting the Brazil nut flowers (Bertholletia excelsa: Lecythidaceae in a central Amazonia agricultural area. The visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. Furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. The individuals of Xylocopa frontalis visited the Brazil nut flowers before Eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. Neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. Thus, X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of B. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. This result has important implications for pollinating the Brazil nut, and a possible management of X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.A competição entre duas espécies de abelhas por um mesmo tipo de recurso floral pode gerar comportamentos antagônicos entre elas, principalmente, dentro de áreas cultivadas, onde o recurso alimentar é limitado sazonalmente e localmente. No presente trabalho, foi testada a hipótese de antagonismo entre duas espécies de abelhas solitárias da família Apidae, Eulaema mocsaryi (Euglossini e Xylocopa frontalis (Xylocopini em flores da castanheira do Brasil (Bertholletia

  11. Mutational analysis of affinity and selectivity of kringle-tetranectin interaction. Grafting novel kringle affinity ontp the trtranectin lectin scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, C; Sigurskjold, B W

    2000-01-01

    -type lectin-like domain of tetranectin, involving Lys-148, Glu-150, and Asp-165, which mediates calcium-sensitive binding to plasminogen kringle 4. Here, we investigate the effect of conservative substitutions of these and a neighboring amino acid residue. Substitution of Thr-149 in tetranectin...... with a tyrosine residue considerably increases the affinity for plasminogen kringle 4, and, in addition, confers affinity for plasminogen kringle 2. As shown by isothermal titration calorimetry analysis, this new interaction is stronger than the binding of wild-type tetranectin to plasminogen kringle 4...

  12. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  13. Generalized Warburg impedance on realistic self-affine fractals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Generalized Warburg impedance on realistic self-affine fractals: Comparative study of statistically corrugated and isotropic roughness. RAJESH KUMAR and RAMA KANT. Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 121, No. 5, September 2009, pp. 579–588. 1. ( ) c. L. R ω on page 582, column 2, para 2, after eq (8) should read as ...

  14. Testing Affine Term Structure Models in Case of Transaction Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the impact of transaction costs on the performance of affine interest rate models. We test the implied (no arbitrage) Euler restrictions, and we calculate the specification error bound of Hansen and Jagannathan to measure the extent to which a model is

  15. Classically integrable boundary conditions for affine Toda field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowcock, P.; Corrigan, E.; Dorey, P.E.; Rietdijk, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    Boundary conditions compatible with classical integrability are studied both directly, using an approach based on the explicit construction of conserved quantities, and indirectly by first developing a generalisation of the Lax pair idea. The latter approach is closer to the spirit of earlier work by Sklyanin and yields a complete set of conjectures for permissible boundary conditions for any affine Toda field theory. (orig.)

  16. Defining carbohydrate binding of glucan phosphatases via Affinity gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2016-01-01

    was to determine a technique to measure carbohydrate binding quickly and efficiently. We established a protocol to reproducibly and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE). The results show that the various glucan phosphatases possess differing...

  17. Electrochemical affinity biosensors for detection of mycotoxins: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Juan C; Bonel, Laura; Ezquerra, Alba; Hernández, Susana; Bertolín, Juan R; Cubel, Carlota; Castillo, Juan R

    2013-11-15

    This review discusses the current state of electrochemical biosensors in the determination of mycotoxins in foods. Mycotoxins are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by molds. The acute toxicity of these results in serious human and animal health problems, although it has been only since early 1960s when the first studied aflatoxins were found to be carcinogenic. Mycotoxins affect a broad range of agricultural products, most important cereals and cereal-based foods. A majority of countries, mentioning especially the European Union, have established preventive programs to control contamination and strict laws of the permitted levels in foods. Official methods of analysis of mycotoxins normally requires sophisticated instrumentation, e.g. liquid chromatography with fluorescence or mass detectors, combined with extraction procedures for sample preparation. For about sixteen years, the use of simpler and faster analytical procedures based on affinity biosensors has emerged in scientific literature as a very promising alternative, particularly electrochemical (i.e., amperometric, impedance, potentiometric or conductimetric) affinity biosensors due to their simplicity and sensitivity. Typically, electrochemical biosensors for mycotoxins use specific antibodies or aptamers as affinity ligands, although recombinant antibodies, artificial receptors and molecular imprinted polymers show potential utility. This article deals with recent advances in electrochemical affinity biosensors for mycotoxins and covers complete literature from the first reports about sixteen years ago. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variational problems for plane curves in centro-affine geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper closed extremals of variational problems defined by quadratic polynomials in the centro-affine curvature are considered. The closure of the trajectories is discussed and the existence of countably many closed critical curves is proven. The geometrical properties of closed trajectories are analyzed by numerical methods.

  19. Transformations Based on Continuous Piecewise-Affine Velocity Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freifeld, Oren; Hauberg, Søren; Batmanghelich, Kayhan

    2017-01-01

    We propose novel finite-dimensional spaces of well-behaved transformations. The latter are obtained by (fast and highly-accurate) integration of continuous piecewise-affine velocity fields. The proposed method is simple yet highly expressive, effortlessly handles optional constraints (e.g., volum...

  20. Certain extensions of vertex operator algebras of affine type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haisheng

    2001-01-01

    We generalize Feigin and Miwa's construction of extended vertex operator (super)algebras A k (sl(2)) for other types of simple Lie algebras. For all the constructed extended vertex operator (super)algebras, irreducible modules are classified, complete reducibility of every module is proved and fusion rules are determined modulo the fusion rules for vertex operator algebras of affine type. (orig.)

  1. Affine Kac-Moody algebras and their representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, R.

    1988-01-01

    Highest weight representation theory of finite dimensional and affine Kac-Moody algebras is summarized from a unified point of view. Lattices of discrete additive quantum numbers and the presentation of Lie algebras on Cartan matrices are the central points of departure for the analysis. (author)

  2. Student Engagement and Neoliberalism: Mapping an Elective Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to argue that student engagement, an important area for research about learning and teaching in formal higher education, has an elective affinity with neoliberalism, a hegemonic ideology in many countries of the developed world. The paper first surveys an extensive research literature examining student engagement and…

  3. Smooth surfaces from bilinear patches: Discrete affine minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Käferböck, Florian

    2013-06-01

    Motivated by applications in freeform architecture, we study surfaces which are composed of smoothly joined bilinear patches. These surfaces turn out to be discrete versions of negatively curved affine minimal surfaces and share many properties with their classical smooth counterparts. We present computational design approaches and study special cases which should be interesting for the architectural application. 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Modular invariants for affine SU(3) theories at prime heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.; Thiran, E.; Weyers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A proof is given for the existence of two and only two modular invariant partition functions in affine SU(3) k theories at heights n=k+3 which are prime numbers. Arithmetic properties of the ring of algabraic integers Z(ω) which is related to SU(3) weights are extensively used. (orig.)

  5. Affinity membranes for hormone removal from aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urmenyi, A.M.; Poot, Andreas A.; Wessling, Matthias; Mulder, M.H.V.

    2005-01-01

    A novel affinity membrane was prepared by covalent binding of antibodies (against 17--estradiol) to a micro-porous poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) membrane, taking benefit from the high surface area of EVAL membranes and the large number of reactive groups available for further surface

  6. The mass spectrum and coupling in affine Toda theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fring, A.; Liao, H.C.; Olive, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    We provide a unified derivation of the mass spectrum and the three point coupling of the classical affine Toda field theories, using general Lie algebraic techniques. The masses are proportional to the components of the right Perron-Frobenius vector and the three point coupling is proportional to the area of the triangle formed by the masses of the fusing particles. (orig.)

  7. Combinatorial Vector Fields for Piecewise Affine Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is intended to be a continuation of Habets and van Schuppen (2004) and Habets, Collins and van Schuppen (2006), which address the control problem for piecewise-affine systems on an arbitrary polytope or a family of these. Our work deals with the underlying combinatorics of the underlyi...

  8. Definition of percolation thresholds on self-affine surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, S.J.; Paterson, Lincoln; Knackstedt, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the percolation transition on a two-dimensional substrate with long-range self-affine correlations. We find that the position of the percolation threshold on a correlated lattice is no longer unique and depends on the spanning rule employed. Numerical results are provided for spanning

  9. Affinity of antibody secreted by a single cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    It was the intention of this research to measure the affinity of antibody secreted by a single cell, and to describe the spectrum of affinities displayed in response to antigenic stimulation. The single cell secreting specific antibody was isolated by means of the hemolytic plaque assay. The amount of antibody secreted by the cell was to be measured through the use of a solid phase radioimmunoassay. The affinity of the antibody would be estimated by comparing the diameter of the plaque, and the amount of antibody secreted, with a mathematical theory of the formation of a plaque in agar. As a test system, a solid phase radioimmunoassay was developed for human serum albumin using antibody coupled to Sephadex. A sensitivity of 1 nanogram was attained with this assay. A solid phase radioimmunoassay for mouse immunoglobulin M was developed, using antibody coupled to Sepharose. The sensitivity attained with this assay was only on the order of 10 micrograms. The mouse immunoglobulin M radioimmunoassay was not sensitive enough to measure the amount of antibody secreted by a single cell. From a theoretical equation, the relationship between antibody affinity, plaque diameter and antibody secretion rate was calculated for the experimental conditions used in this research. By assuming a constant antibody secretion rate, an effective binding constant for the antibody was estimated from the average plaque diameters. This effective binding constant was observed to increase during the immune response

  10. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Full Length Research Paper. Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells. Adebayo, I. A.1*, Awoniyi, T. A. M. 1 and Olaleye, O. D.2. 1Department of Animal Production and Health, Animal Parasitology and Microbiology Research Unit, Federal University of Technology, P M B 704, ...

  11. Affinity Electrophoresis for Analysis of Catalytic Module-Carbohydrate Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Svensson, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis has long been used to study the interaction between proteins and large soluble ligands. The technique has been found to have great utility for the examination of polysaccharide binding by proteins, particularly carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). In recent years, carbohy...

  12. High-affinity RNA aptamers to C-reactive protein (CRP): newly developed pre-elution methods for aptamer selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, N; Umekage, S; Sakai, E; Tanaka, T; Kikuchi, Y; Sato, K; Kawauchi, S; Tanaka, H

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a modified SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method to obtain RNA aptamers with high affinity to C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a clinical biomarker present in plasma, the level of which increases in response to infections and noninfectious inflammation. The CRP level is also an important prognostic indicator in patients with several syndromes. At present, CRP content in blood is measured immunochemically using antibodies. To develop a more sensitive method using RNA aptamers, we have attempted to obtain high-affinity RNA aptamers to CRP. We succeeded in obtaining an RNA aptamer with high affinity to CRP using a CRP-immobilized Sepharose column and pre-elution procedure. Pre-elution is a method that removes the weak binding portion from a selected RNA population by washing for a short time with buffer containing CRP. By surface plasmon-resonance (SPR) analysis, the affinity constant of this aptamer for CRP was calculated to be K D = 2.25x10 -9 (M). The secondary structure, contact sites with CRP protein, and application of this aptamer will be described.

  13. Whole transcriptome analysis for T cell receptor-affinity and IRF4-regulated clonal expansion of T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Clonal population expansion of T cells during an immune response is dependent on the affinity of the T cell receptor (TCR for its antigen [1]. However, there is little understanding of how this process is controlled transcriptionally. We found that the transcription factor IRF4 was induced in a manner dependent on TCR-affinity and was critical for the clonal expansion and maintenance of effector function of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling experiment using RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq to interrogate global expression changes when IRF4 was deleted in CD8+ T cells activated with either a low or high affinity peptide ligand. This allowed us not only to determine IRF4-dependent transcriptional changes but also to identify transcripts dependent on TCR-affinity [2]. Here we describe in detail the analyses of the RNA-seq data, including quality control, read mapping, quantification, normalization and assessment of differential gene expression. The RNA-seq data can be accessed from Gene Expression Omnibus database (accession number GSE49929.

  14. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Novel trends in affinity biosensors: current challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arugula, Mary A; Simonian, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Molecular biorecognition processes facilitate physical and biochemical interactions between molecules in all crucial metabolic pathways. Perhaps the target analyte and the biorecognition element interactions have the most impactful use in biosensing applications. Traditional analytical sensing systems offer excellent biorecognition elements with the ability to detect and determine the presence of analytes. High affinity antibodies and DNA play an important role in the development of affinity biosensors based on electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive approaches. Advancements in this area routinely employ labels, label free, nanoparticles, multifunctional matrices, carbon nanotubes and other methods to meet the requirements of its own application. However, despite increasing affinity ceilings for conventional biosensors, the field draws back in meeting specifically important demands, such as long-term stability, ultrasensitivity, rapid detection, extreme selectivity, strong biological base, calibration, in vivo measurements, regeneration, satisfactory performance and ease of production. Nevertheless, recent efforts through this line have produced novel high-tech nanosensing systems such as ‘aptamers’ and ‘phages’ which exhibit high-throughput sensing. Aptamers and phages are powerful tools that excel over antibodies in sensibility, stability, multi-detection, in vivo measurements and regeneration. Phages are superior in stability, screening for affinity-based target molecules ranging from small to proteins and even cells, and easy production. In this review, we focus mainly on recent developments in affinity-based biosensors such as immunosensors, DNA sensors, emphasizing aptasensors and phage-based biosensors basing on novel electrochemical, optical and mass sensitive detection techniques. We also address enzyme inhibition-based biosensors and the current problems associated with the above sensors and their future perspectives. (topical review)

  16. Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Wolfgang; Balanovsky, Oleg; Sanchez, Juan J.; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Adler, Christina J.; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Brandt, Guido; Schwarz, Carolin; Nicklisch, Nicole; Dresely, Veit; Fritsch, Barbara; Balanovska, Elena; Villems, Richard; Meller, Harald; Alt, Kurt W.; Cooper, Alan

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000–4,000 b.c.) from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 b.c.). However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.) and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42) and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500–4,900 calibrated b.c.). We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394) and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting a major

  17. Ancient DNA from European early neolithic farmers reveals their near eastern affinities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Haak

    Full Text Available In Europe, the Neolithic transition (8,000-4,000 B.C. from hunting and gathering to agricultural communities was one of the most important demographic events since the initial peopling of Europe by anatomically modern humans in the Upper Paleolithic (40,000 B.C.. However, the nature and speed of this transition is a matter of continuing scientific debate in archaeology, anthropology, and human population genetics. To date, inferences about the genetic make up of past populations have mostly been drawn from studies of modern-day Eurasian populations, but increasingly ancient DNA studies offer a direct view of the genetic past. We genetically characterized a population of the earliest farming culture in Central Europe, the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK; 5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C. and used comprehensive phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to locate its origins within the broader Eurasian region, and to trace potential dispersal routes into Europe. We cloned and sequenced the mitochondrial hypervariable segment I and designed two powerful SNP multiplex PCR systems to generate new mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data from 21 individuals from a complete LBK graveyard at Derenburg Meerenstieg II in Germany. These results considerably extend the available genetic dataset for the LBK (n = 42 and permit the first detailed genetic analysis of the earliest Neolithic culture in Central Europe (5,500-4,900 calibrated B.C.. We characterized the Neolithic mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity and geographical affinities of the early farmers using a large database of extant Western Eurasian populations (n = 23,394 and a wide range of population genetic analyses including shared haplotype analyses, principal component analyses, multidimensional scaling, geographic mapping of genetic distances, and Bayesian Serial Simcoal analyses. The results reveal that the LBK population shared an affinity with the modern-day Near East and Anatolia, supporting

  18. Composição físico-química do vinho Bordô de Flores da Cunha, RS, elaborado com uvas maturadas em condições de baixa precipitação Physicochemical composition of Bordô wines from Flores da Cunha, RS, made with grapes matured in low rain conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Maria Tecchio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O Bordô é, depois do Isabel, o vinho de mesa de maior importância econômica na Serra Gaúcha, pois existe um considerável segmento de mercado que o aprecia, especialmente por seu sabor frutado e por sua cor intensa e matiz violeta. Devido a isso e às condições de estiagem que ocorreram no verão de 2005, quando as chuvas corresponderam a 38% da normal climatológica, analisaram-se vinhos Bordô do município de Flores da Cunha, RS, um dos mais importantes produtores da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos analisados eram varietalmente puros e elaborados segundo a tecnologia de cada vinícola. Avaliaram-se 39 variáveis, das quais os resultados mais expressivos foram os seguintes: álcool 10,58% v/v; acidez total 91meq L-1; acidez volátil 7,3meq L-1; pH 3,21; extrato seco 24,24g L-1; açúcares redutores 2,90g L-1; extrato seco reduzido 22,34g L-1; cinzas 2,09g L-1; ácido tartárico 5,35g L-1; DO 420 0,480; DO 520 1,296; DO 620 0,184; taninos 1,41g L-1; antocianinas 778,8mg L-1; etanal 14,9mg L-1; acetato de etila 59,3mg L-1; metanol 290,9mg L-1; 1-propanol 24,9mg L-1; 2-metiL-1-propanol 40,6mg L-1; 2-metiL-1-butanol 45,9mg L-1; 3-metiL-1-butanol 149,1mg L-1; soma dos álcoois superiores 260,5mg L-1; e K 953mg L-1.The Bordô, after Isabel, is the table wine presenting the greater economic importance in the Serra Gaúcha region, because there is a segment of the market that likes its characteristics, specially its fruity flavor, color intensity, and violet hue. Due to these aspects and to the very dry climatic conditions in the 2005 summer, where rain represented 38% of the climatological normal, Bordô wines were analyzed from the commune of Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, one of the most important producers of the Serra Gaúcha region. Analyzed wines were varietal ones and made according to the technology of each winery. Thirty nine variables were evaluated and the average parameters of the most expressive ones were the following: alcohol 10.58% v

  19. Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala R. Ana Victoria

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available El mayor nivel de coadaptación ave nectarívora-flor conocido hasta el momento, se ha logrado en los Trochilidae (VAN DER PIJL & DODSON,1969; FEINSINGER et al., 1979 ; tanto, que se ha hablado de flores adaptadas a la polinización por una especie particular de colibrí, y de colibríes que dependen para su alimentación de una sola clase de flor (SNOW & SNOW, 1980.Los factores principales que afectan la selección de alimento por parte de los colibríes están relacionados con: hábitat y estratificación de la vegetación (STILES & VVOLF,1970; FEINSINGER & CoLWELL, 1978, distribución espacial y características de las flores (FEINSINGER & COLYVELL,1978; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, distribución temporal del alimento (WOLF et al., 1976, morfología del pico del ave (FEINSINGER & COLWELL, 1978; STILES, 1978 a; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, tamaño del cuerpo (VVOLF et al., 1976, "disco de sustentación del ala" (wing disc loading y, finalmente, la energía que el colibrí requiere para sustentarse en el aire (EPTING & CASEY, 1973; WOLF et al., 1976. Colombia está incluida en el área central de evolución de los Trochilidae (SNOW & SNOW,- 1980 y posee numerosas especies así como riqueza de hábitats ocupados por ellos. Al igual que trabajos anteriores (SNOW & SNOW, 1980; MURCIA, 1983, el presente aporta al conocimiento de la ecología de los colibríes en este país; especificamente, trata algunos aspectos de la interacción Thalurania furcata colombica-flor proveedora de alimento en un Bosque Subandino. Between April and September 1983 observations were made on the relations between Thalurcnia furcata colombica and flowers in the laguna de Pedro Palo area (Cundinamarca, Colombia. The hummingbird was seen visiting 15 species of plants (beloging to 13 families situated mainly on the edge of forest, among which the following species showed a high degree of ornithophily: Besleria solanoides (Gesneriaceae, Bomarea racemose (Amaryllidaceae

  20. When hummingbirds are the thieves: visitation effect on the reproduction of Neotropical snowbell Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae Quando os beija-flores são os ladrões: efeito da visitação na reprodução de uma planta Neotropical Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart (Styracaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of floral visitors associated with a particular plant is frequently larger than predicted by the traditional concept of floral syndromes and the role that unpredicted visitors play in plant reproduction deserves attention. Hummingbirds are frequently recorded visiting flowers with distinct floral syndromes, especially in some hummingbird flower poor ecosystem such as the Cerrado. In this study we investigated the effect of frequent hummingbird visits on the reproduction of melittophilous Styrax ferrugineus. The flowers were visited by many different insect groups and visits by hummingbirds were frequent, especially early in the morning when nectar availability was higher. Nectar parameters varied considerably during the flower life span, and was probably affected by the temperature variation during the day. Hummingbird exclusion experiments showed no effect in the fruit-set of the plant. The inability of hummingbirds to deplete all of the nectar produced in this mass-flowering plant, and the existence of another resource (pollen for the primary pollinator (large bees, are possible reasons why there was no perceptible hindrance of plant reproduction by the hummingbirds. Although no effect in the fruit-set was observed, the use of non-ornithophilous flowers must be important for hummingbirds, which are specialized nectar consumers.O espectro de visitantes florais associados a uma planta é frequentemente maior que o esperado pelo conceito tradicional de síndromes florais e o papel desses visitantes inesperados tem recebido mais atenção. Os beija-flores freqüentemente visitam flores com síndromes florais distintas, especialmente em alguns ecossistemas pobre em flores ornitófilas como o Cerrado. Investigamos aqui o efeito das visitas de beija-flores na reprodução de Styrax ferrugineus, uma espécie melitófila. As flores foram visitadas por diferentes grupos de insetos e as visitas por beija-flores foram frequentes

  1. ESTUDIO DE LAS VISITAS DE LAS MOSCAS DE LAS FLORES (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE EN Salvia bogotensis (LAMIACEAE EN EL JARDÍN BOTÁNICO JOSÉ CELESTINO MUTIS (BOGOTÁ D.C., COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamora Monica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir la interacción entre Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae y las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae en un ambiente urbano, el jardín botánico "José Celestino Mutis" (Bogotá D.C.. Una vez comprobada la existencia del síndrome de entomofilia, se caracterizó la morfología floral, la composición taxonómica, la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies de sírfidos identificadas como visitantes florales, así como la morfometría cefálica y bucal. S. bogotensis presenta el síndrome de la entomofilia con ausencia de autofecundación. La comunidad de sírfidos asociada con esta comprende nueve especies, agrupadas en cinco géneros. Las especies son Allograpta neotropica Curran, 1936, Allograpta exotica Wiedermann, 1830, Allograpta annulipes Macquart, 1850, Allograpta aenea Hull, 1937, Lejops mexicana Macquart, 1842, Platycheirus ecuadoriensis Fluke, 1945, Platycheirus fenestrata Macquart, 1842, Syrphus shoree Fluke, 1950 y Toxomerus sp. 1. Las especies de moscas identificadas presentan en su conjunto características conductuales y morfológicas asociadas a polinizadores de baja eficiencia, con una baja tasa de visitas, incapacidad de activación de los balancines y un mínimo contacto corporal del insecto con las anteras y el estigma de la flor. Adicionalmente, las moscas presentan una carga muy baja de granos de polen de S. bogotensis sobre el cuerpo y alta inversión de tiempo en la limpieza de su cuerpo (acicalamiento. Las flores visitadas por estos insectos no dieron origen a frutos. Todo lo anterior permite concluir que dichas moscas no son polinizadores efectivos de S. bogotensis. Además de dípteros, se observaron varias especies de insectos visitantes florales de S. bogotensis pertenecientes a las familias Apidae, Halictidae y Megachilidae. Los sírfidos se benefician por el consumo de polen de S. bogotensis, pero no interfieren en el crecimiento y el desarrollo de la planta, por lo cual

  2. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  3. Use of thermodynamic coupling between antibody-antigen binding and phospholipid acyl chain phase transition energetics to predict immunoliposome targeting affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegerman, Melvin E; Zou, Yuejiao; Golunski, Eva; Peng, Tao; Huang, Shao-Ling; McPherson, David D

    2014-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of ligand-target binding has been a useful tool for dissecting the nature of the binding mechanism and, therefore, potentially can provide valuable information regarding the utility of targeted formulations. Based on a consistent coupling of antibody-antigen binding and gel-liquid crystal transition energetics observed for antibody-phosphatidylethanolamine (Ab-PE) conjugates, we hypothesized that the thermodynamic parameters and the affinity for antigen of the Ab-PE conjugates could be effectively predicted once the corresponding information for the unconjugated antibody is determined. This hypothesis has now been tested in nine different antibody-targeted echogenic liposome (ELIP) preparations, where antibody is conjugated to dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) head groups through a thioether linkage. Predictions were satisfactory (affinity not significantly different from the population of values found) in five cases (55.6%), but the affinity of the unconjugated antibody was not significantly different from the population of values found in six cases (66.7%), indicating that the affinities of the conjugated antibody tended not to deviate appreciably from those of the free antibody. While knowledge of the affinities of free antibodies may be sufficient to judge their suitability as targeting agents, thermodynamic analysis may still provide valuable information regarding their usefulness for specific applications.

  4. A novel affinity purification method to isolate peptide specific antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Alan E; Lernmark, A; Kofod, Hans

    1990-01-01

    Site-specific, high affinity polyclonal antisera are effectively and successfully produced by immunizing rabbits with synthetic peptides. The use of these antisera in subsequent immune analysis is often limited because of non-specific binding. We describe a new and simple method to effectively...... affinity-purify anti-peptide antibodies. To test our system, rabbits were immunized with model peptides representing sequences of the putative rabbit growth hormone receptor and several HLA-DQ beta-chain molecules. Polystyrene plastic beads were coated with peptides. Immune serum was incubated...... with the beads and after a wash step the bound antibodies were eluted in 1 M acetic acid. The eluted material was composed predominantly of intact immunoglobulin as evidenced by the presence of heavy and light chain bands in SDS-PAGE. The eluted antibodies were peptide specific in ELISA and bound only to intact...

  5. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Borgia, Madeleine B.; Bugge, Katrine; Kissling, Vera M.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Fernandes, Catarina B.; Sottini, Andrea; Soranno, Andrea; Buholzer, Karin J.; Nettels, Daniel; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Best, Robert B.; Schuler, Benjamin

    2018-03-01

    Molecular communication in biology is mediated by protein interactions. According to the current paradigm, the specificity and affinity required for these interactions are encoded in the precise complementarity of binding interfaces. Even proteins that are disordered under physiological conditions or that contain large unstructured regions commonly interact with well-structured binding sites on other biomolecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of an unexpected interaction mechanism: the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex with picomolar affinity, but fully retain their structural disorder, long-range flexibility and highly dynamic character. On the basis of closely integrated experiments and molecular simulations, we show that the interaction can be explained by the large opposite net charge of the two proteins, without requiring defined binding sites or interactions between specific individual residues. Proteome-wide sequence analysis suggests that this interaction mechanism may be abundant in eukaryotes.

  6. Einstein’s gravity from a polynomial affine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2018-03-01

    We show that the effective field equations for a recently formulated polynomial affine model of gravity, in the sector of a torsion-free connection, accept general Einstein manifolds—with or without cosmological constant—as solutions. Moreover, the effective field equations are partially those obtained from a gravitational Yang–Mills theory known as Stephenson–Kilmister–Yang theory. Additionally, we find a generalization of a minimally coupled massless scalar field in General Relativity within a ‘minimally’ coupled scalar field in this affine model. Finally, we present a brief (perturbative) analysis of the propagators of the gravitational theory, and count the degrees of freedom. For completeness, we prove that a Birkhoff-like theorem is valid for the analyzed sector.

  7. Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental...... morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar...... to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines...

  8. Evaluation Codes from an Affine Veriety Code Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation codes (also called order domain codes) are traditionally introduced as generalized one-point geometric Goppa codes. In the present paper we will give a new point of view on evaluation codes by introducing them instead as particular nice examples of affine variety codes. Our study...... includes a reformulation of the usual methods to estimate the minimum distances of evaluation codes into the setting of affine variety codes. Finally we describe the connection to the theory of one-pointgeometric Goppa codes. Contents 4.1 Introduction...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 4.9 Codes form order domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 4.10 One-point geometric Goppa codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 4.11 Bibliographical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 References...

  9. Affinity of four polar neurotransmitters for lipid bilayer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chunhua; Ye, Fengbin; Valardez, Gustavo F.

    2011-01-01

    . The simulations suggest that this attraction mainly relies on electrostatic interactions of the amino group of the neurotransmitter and the lipid phosphate. We conclude that moderate attraction to lipid membranes occurs for some polar neurotransmitters and hence that one premise for a theory of bilayer-mediated......Weak interactions of neurotransmitters and the lipid matrix in the synaptic membrane have been hypothesized to play a role in synaptic transmission of nerve signals, particularly with respect to receptor desensitization (Cantor, R. S. Biochemistry 2003, 42, 11891). The strength of such interactions......, however, was not measured, and this is an obvious impediment for further evaluation and understanding of a possible role for desensitization. We have used dialysis equilibrium to directly measure the net affinity of selected neurotransmitters for lipid membranes and analyzed this affinity data...

  10. Momentum conserving defects in affine Toda field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristow, Rebecca; Bowcock, Peter [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-30

    Type II integrable defects with more than one degree of freedom at the defect are investigated. A condition on the form of the Lagrangian for such defects is found which ensures the existence of a conserved momentum in the presence of the defect. In addition it is shown that for any Lagrangian satisfying this condition, the defect equations of motion, when taken to hold everywhere, can be extended to give a Bäcklund transformation between the bulk theories on either side of the defect. This strongly suggests that such systems are integrable. Momentum conserving defects and Bäcklund transformations for affine Toda field theories based on the A{sub n}, B{sub n}, C{sub n} and D{sub n} series of Lie algebras are found. The defect associated with the D{sub 4} affine Toda field theory is examined in more detail. In particular classical time delays for solitons passing through the defect are calculated.

  11. Extreme disorder in an ultrahigh-affinity protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgia, Alessandro; Borgia, Madeleine B; Bugge, Katrine

    2018-01-01

    Molecular communication in biology is mediated by protein interactions. According to the current paradigm, the specificity and affinity required for these interactions are encoded in the precise complementarity of binding interfaces. Even proteins that are disordered under physiological conditions...... with picomolar affinity, but fully retain their structural disorder, long-range flexibility and highly dynamic character. On the basis of closely integrated experiments and molecular simulations, we show that the interaction can be explained by the large opposite net charge of the two proteins, without requiring...... or that contain large unstructured regions commonly interact with well-structured binding sites on other biomolecules. Here we demonstrate the existence of an unexpected interaction mechanism: the two intrinsically disordered human proteins histone H1 and its nuclear chaperone prothymosin-α associate in a complex...

  12. Computational modeling and molecular imprinting for the development of acrylic polymers with high affinity for bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Fernando; Chianella, Iva; Piletsky, Sergey A; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2010-02-05

    This work has focused on the rational development of polymers capable of acting as traps of bile salts. Computational modeling was combined with molecular imprinting technology to obtain networks with high affinity for cholate salts in aqueous medium. The screening of a virtual library of 18 monomers, which are commonly used for imprinted networks, identified N-(3-aminopropyl)-methacrylate hydrochloride (APMA.HCl), N,N-diethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DEAEM) and ethyleneglycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP) as suitable functional monomers with medium-to-high affinity for cholic acid. The polymers were prepared with a fix cholic acid:functional monomer mole ratio of 1:4, but with various cross-linking densities. Compared to polymers prepared without functional monomer, both imprinted and non-imprinted microparticles showed a high capability to remove sodium cholate from aqueous medium. High affinity APMA-based particles even resembled the performance of commercially available cholesterol-lowering granules. The imprinting effect was evident in most of the networks prepared, showing that computational modeling and molecular imprinting can act synergistically to improve the performance of certain polymers. Nevertheless, both the imprinted and non-imprinted networks prepared with the best monomer (APMA.HCl) identified by the modeling demonstrated such high affinity for the template that the imprinting effect was less important. The fitting of adsorption isotherms to the Freundlich model indicated that, in general, imprinting increases the population of high affinity binding sites, except when the affinity of the functional monomer for the target molecule is already very high. The cross-linking density was confirmed as a key parameter that determines the accessibility of the binding points to sodium cholate. Materials prepared with 9% mol APMA and 91% mol cross-linker showed enough affinity to achieve binding levels of up to 0.4 mmol g(-1) (i.e., 170 mg g(-1)) under flow

  13. An Affine Invariant Bivariate Version of the Sign Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    words: affine invariance, bivariate quantile, bivariate symmetry, model,. generalized median, influence function , permutation test, normal efficiency...calculate a bivariate version of the influence function , and the resulting form is bounded, as is the case for the univartate sign test, and shows the...terms of a blvariate analogue of IHmpel’s (1974) influence function . The latter, though usually defined as a von-Mises derivative of certain

  14. Proton Affinities of Organocatalysts Derived from Pyridine N-oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Váňa, J.; Roithová, J.; Kotora, Martin; Beran, Pavel; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Kočovský, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2014), s. 349-356 ISSN 0011-1643 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0587 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : density functional theory * isodesmic reactions * kinetic method * mass spectrometry * organocatalysis * proton affinity * superbases Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.728, year: 2014

  15. Piecewise affine control for fast unmanned ground vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Benine Neto , André; Grand , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) may experience skidding when moving at high speeds, and therefore have its safety jeopardized. For this reason the nonlinear dynamics of lateral tire forces must be taken into account into the design of steering controllers for autonomous vehicles. This paper presents the design of a state feedback piecewise affine controller applied to an UGV to coordinate the steering and torque distribution inputs in order to reduce vehicle skidding on...

  16. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Caprio, Di; Stokes, Chris; Higgins, John M.; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system....

  17. Paradoxical affinities: otherness and ambivalence as creative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Jan

    2018-06-01

    Referring to her own background as the child of Jewish refugees forced to leave their countries of origin before the second World War, the author describes how her attitude towards Jung and his ideas has evolved. The role of paradoxical affinities that have affected the author's life and identity as a Jungian analyst are considered, alongside the impact of experiences of otherness whilst supervising and teaching abroad, particularly in Eastern Europe. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Chitinolytic activity of the rumen ciliates Diploplastron affine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belzecki, G.; Miltko, R.; Michalowski, T.; Šimůnek, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 201-203 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/2584 Grant - others:Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology Poland(PL) 2 P06Z 052 30 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Diploplastron affine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  19. Affine.m—Mathematica package for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Anton

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present Affine.m-a program for computations in representation theory of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and describe implemented algorithms. The algorithms are based on the properties of weights and Weyl symmetry. Computation of weight multiplicities in irreducible and Verma modules, branching of representations and tensor product decomposition are the most important problems for us. These problems have numerous applications in physics and we provide some examples of these applications. The program is implemented in the popular computer algebra system Mathematica and works with finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras. Catalogue identifier: AENA_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENB_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 844 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 045 908 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: i386-i686, x86_64. Operating system: Linux, Windows, Mac OS, Solaris. RAM: 5-500 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5. Nature of problem: Representation theory of finite-dimensional Lie algebras has many applications in different branches of physics, including elementary particle physics, molecular physics, nuclear physics. Representations of affine Lie algebras appear in string theories and two-dimensional conformal field theory used for the description of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems. Also Lie symmetries play a major role in a study of quantum integrable systems. Solution method: We work with weights and roots of finite-dimensional and affine Lie algebras and use Weyl symmetry extensively. Central problems which are the computations of weight multiplicities, branching and fusion coefficients are solved using one general recurrent

  20. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure.

  1. High-throughput fragment screening by affinity LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Isaksson, Roland; Ohlson, Sten

    2013-02-01

    Fragment screening, an emerging approach for hit finding in drug discovery, has recently been proven effective by its first approved drug, vemurafenib, for cancer treatment. Techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, surface plasmon resonance, and isothemal titration calorimetry, with their own pros and cons, have been employed for screening fragment libraries. As an alternative approach, screening based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation has been developed. In this work, we present weak affinity LC/MS as a method to screen fragments under high-throughput conditions. Affinity-based capillary columns with immobilized thrombin were used to screen a collection of 590 compounds from a fragment library. The collection was divided into 11 mixtures (each containing 35 to 65 fragments) and screened by MS detection. The primary screening was performed in 3500 fragments per day). Thirty hits were defined, which subsequently entered a secondary screening using an active site-blocked thrombin column for confirmation of specificity. One hit showed selective binding to thrombin with an estimated dissociation constant (K (D)) in the 0.1 mM range. This study shows that affinity LC/MS is characterized by high throughput, ease of operation, and low consumption of target and fragments, and therefore it promises to be a valuable method for fragment screening.

  2. Approximate convex hull of affine iterated function system attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkinis, Anton; Gentil, Christian; Lanquetin, Sandrine; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an iterative algorithm to approximate affine IFS attractor convex hull. ► Elimination of the interior points significantly reduces the complexity. ► To optimize calculations, we merge the convex hull images at each iteration. ► Approximation by ellipses increases speed of convergence to the exact convex hull. ► We present a method of the output convex hull simplification. - Abstract: In this paper, we present an algorithm to construct an approximate convex hull of the attractors of an affine iterated function system (IFS). We construct a sequence of convex hull approximations for any required precision using the self-similarity property of the attractor in order to optimize calculations. Due to the affine properties of IFS transformations, the number of points considered in the construction is reduced. The time complexity of our algorithm is a linear function of the number of iterations and the number of points in the output approximate convex hull. The number of iterations and the execution time increases logarithmically with increasing accuracy. In addition, we introduce a method to simplify the approximate convex hull without loss of accuracy.

  3. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of general principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Rodriguez, Elliott; Azaria, Shiden; Pekarek, Allegra; Hage, David S

    2017-11-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography, or AMC, is a liquid chromatographic method in which the support is a monolith and the stationary phase is a biological-binding agent or related mimic. AMC has become popular for the isolation of biochemicals, for the measurement of various analytes, and for studying biological interactions. This review will examine the principles and applications of AMC. The materials that have been used to prepare AMC columns will be discussed, which have included various organic polymers, silica, agarose, and cryogels. Immobilization schemes that have been used in AMC will also be considered. Various binding agents and applications that have been reported for AMC will then be described. These applications will include the use of AMC for bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The use of AMC with chiral stationary phases and as a tool to characterize biological interactions will also be examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Affinity chromatography: A versatile technique for antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sushrut; Saxena, Vikas; Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Antibodies continue to be extremely utilized entities in myriad applications including basic research, imaging, targeted delivery, chromatography, diagnostics, and therapeutics. At production stage, antibodies are generally present in complex matrices and most of their intended applications necessitate purification. Antibody purification has always been a major bottleneck in downstream processing of antibodies, due to the need of high quality products and associated high costs. Over the years, extensive research has focused on finding better purification methodologies to overcome this holdup. Among a plethora of different techniques, affinity chromatography is one of the most selective, rapid and easy method for antibody purification. This review aims to provide a detailed overview on affinity chromatography and the components involved in purification. An array of support matrices along with various classes of affinity ligands detailing their underlying working principles, together with the advantages and limitations of each system in purifying different types of antibodies, accompanying recent developments and important practical methodological considerations to optimize purification procedure are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An affine model of the dynamics of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2018-06-01

    Thin astrophysical discs are very often modelled using the equations of 2D hydrodynamics. We derive an extension of this model that describes more accurately the behaviour of a thin disc in the absence of self-gravity, magnetic fields, and complex internal motions. The ideal fluid theory is derived directly from Hamilton's Principle for a 3D fluid after making a specific approximation to the deformation gradient tensor. We express the equations in Eulerian form after projection on to a reference plane. The disc is thought of as a set of fluid columns, each of which is capable of a time-dependent affine transformation, consisting of a translation together with a linear transformation in three dimensions. Therefore, in addition to the usual 2D hydrodynamics in the reference plane, the theory allows for a deformation of the mid-plane (as occurs in warped discs) and for the internal shearing motions that accompany such deformations. It also allows for the vertical expansions driven in non-circular discs by a variation of the vertical gravitational field around the horizontal streamlines, or by a divergence of the horizontal velocity. The equations of the affine model embody conservation laws for energy and potential vorticity, even for non-planar discs. We verify that they reproduce exactly the linear theories of 3D warped and eccentric discs in a secular approximation. However, the affine model does not rely on any secular or small-amplitude assumptions and should be useful in more general circumstances.

  6. Affinity-tuning leukocyte integrin for development of safe therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Spencer

    Much attention has been given to the molecular and cellular pathways linking inflammation with cancer and the local tumor environment to identify new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Among the many molecular players involved in the complex response, central to the induction of inflammation is intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, which is of particular interest for its highly sensitive and localized expression in response to inflammatory signals. ICAM-1, which has been implicated to play a critical role in tumor progression in various types of cancer, has also been linked to cancer metastases, where ICAM-1 facilitates the spread of metastatic cancer cells to secondary sites. This unique expression profile of ICAM-1 throughout solid tumor microenvironment makes ICAM-1 an intriguing molecular target, which holds great potential as an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. Herein, we have engineered the ligand binding domain, or the inserted (I) domain of a leukocyte integrin, to exhibit a wide range of monovalent affinities to the natural ligand, ICAM-1. Using the resulting I domain variants, we have created drug and gene delivery nanoparticles, as well as targeted immunotherapeutics that have the ability to bind and migrate to inflammatory sites prevalent in tumors and the associated microenvironment. Through the delivery of diagnostic agents, chemotherapeutics, and immunotherapeutics, the following chapters demonstrate that the affinity enhancements achieved by directed evolution bring the affinity of I domains into the range optimal for numerous applications.

  7. A Quick and Affine Invariance Matching Method for Oblique Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAO Xiongwu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a quick, affine invariance matching method for oblique images. It calculated the initial affine matrix by making full use of the two estimated camera axis orientation parameters of an oblique image, then recovered the oblique image to a rectified image by doing the inverse affine transform, and left over by the SIFT method. We used the nearest neighbor distance ratio(NNDR, normalized cross correlation(NCC measure constraints and consistency check to get the coarse matches, then used RANSAC method to calculate the fundamental matrix and the homography matrix. And we got the matches that they were interior points when calculating the homography matrix, then calculated the average value of the matches' principal direction differences. During the matching process, we got the initial matching features by the nearest neighbor(NN matching strategy, then used the epipolar constrains, homography constrains, NCC measure constrains and consistency check of the initial matches' principal direction differences with the calculated average value of the interior matches' principal direction differences to eliminate false matches. Experiments conducted on three pairs of typical oblique images demonstrate that our method takes about the same time as SIFT to match a pair of oblique images with a plenty of corresponding points distributed evenly and an extremely low mismatching rate.

  8. Supramolecular Affinity Chromatography for Methylation-Targeted Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Graham A E; Starke, Melissa J; Shaurya, Alok; Li, Janessa; Hof, Fraser

    2016-04-05

    Proteome-wide studies of post-translationally methylated species using mass spectrometry are complicated by high sample diversity, competition for ionization among peptides, and mass redundancies. Antibody-based enrichment has powered methylation proteomics until now, but the reliability, pan-specificity, polyclonal nature, and stability of the available pan-specific antibodies are problematic and do not provide a standard, reliable platform for investigators. We have invented an anionic supramolecular host that can form host-guest complexes selectively with methyllysine-containing peptides and used it to create a methylysine-affinity column. The column resolves peptides on the basis of methylation-a feat impossible with a comparable commercial cation-exchange column. A proteolyzed nuclear extract was separated on the methyl-affinity column prior to standard proteomics analysis. This experiment demonstrates that such chemical methyl-affinity columns are capable of enriching and improving the analysis of methyllysine residues from complex protein mixtures. We discuss the importance of this advance in the context of biomolecule-driven enrichment methods.

  9. Recombinant spider silk genetically functionalized with affinity domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Thatikonda, Naresh; Lindberg, Diana; Rising, Anna; Johansson, Jan; Nygren, Per-Åke; Hedhammar, My

    2014-05-12

    Functionalization of biocompatible materials for presentation of active protein domains is an area of growing interest. Herein, we describe a strategy for functionalization of recombinant spider silk via gene fusion to affinity domains of broad biotechnological use. Four affinity domains of different origin and structure; the IgG-binding domains Z and C2, the albumin-binding domain ABD, and the biotin-binding domain M4, were all successfully produced as soluble silk fusion proteins under nondenaturing purification conditions. Silk films and fibers produced from the fusion proteins were demonstrated to be chemically and thermally stable. Still, the bioactive domains are concluded to be folded and accessible, since their respective targets could be selectively captured from complex samples, including rabbit serum and human plasma. Interestingly, materials produced from mixtures of two different silk fusion proteins displayed combined binding properties, suggesting that tailor-made materials with desired stoichiometry and surface distributions of several binding domains can be produced. Further, use of the IgG binding ability as a general mean for presentation of desired biomolecules could be demonstrated for a human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) model system, via a first capture of anti-VEGF IgG to silk containing the Z-domain, followed by incubation with hVEGF. Taken together, this study demonstrates the potential of recombinant silk, genetically functionalized with affinity domains, for construction of biomaterials capable of presentation of almost any desired biomolecule.

  10. Accurate and sensitive quantification of protein-DNA binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Chaitanya; Rube, H Tomas; Kribelbauer, Judith F; Crocker, Justin; Loker, Ryan E; Martini, Gabriella D; Laptenko, Oleg; Freed-Pastor, William A; Prives, Carol; Stern, David L; Mann, Richard S; Bussemaker, Harmen J

    2018-04-17

    Transcription factors (TFs) control gene expression by binding to genomic DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Mutations in TF binding sites are increasingly found to be associated with human disease, yet we currently lack robust methods to predict these sites. Here, we developed a versatile maximum likelihood framework named No Read Left Behind (NRLB) that infers a biophysical model of protein-DNA recognition across the full affinity range from a library of in vitro selected DNA binding sites. NRLB predicts human Max homodimer binding in near-perfect agreement with existing low-throughput measurements. It can capture the specificity of the p53 tetramer and distinguish multiple binding modes within a single sample. Additionally, we confirm that newly identified low-affinity enhancer binding sites are functional in vivo, and that their contribution to gene expression matches their predicted affinity. Our results establish a powerful paradigm for identifying protein binding sites and interpreting gene regulatory sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  11. Uso de grãos de pólen na identificação de plantas e para examinar a participação de nicho alimentar entre beija-flores no Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Chupil, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A teoria sugere que espécies que ocupam o mesmo nicho não devem ser simpátricas devido a exclusão competitiva. Como consequência disso, para que espécies potencialmente competidoras coexistam e partilhem o recurso disponível, é necessário que separem-se temporalmente ou espacialmente. Este processo propõe explicar vários componentes da estrutura das assembleias de beija-flores, devido à importância e à especialização em um recurso (néctar). Para testarmos se a sobreposição de nicho al...

  12. The Purification of a Blood Group A Glycoprotein: An Affinity Chromatography Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelrich, J.; Pouplana, R.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a purification process through affinity chromatography necessary to obtain specific blood group glycoproteins from erythrocytic membranes. Discusses the preparation of erythrocytic membranes, extraction of glycoprotein from membranes, affinity chromatography purification, determination of glycoproteins, and results. (CW)

  13. PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, David S.; Anguizola, Jeanethe A.; Bi, Cong; Li, Rong; Matsuda, Ryan; Papastavros, Efthimia; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Vargas, John; Zheng, Xiwei

    2012-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a separation technique that has become increasingly important in work with biological samples and pharmaceutical agents. This method is based on the use of a biologically-related agent as a stationary phase to selectively retain analytes or to study biological interactions. This review discusses the basic principles behind affinity chromatography and examines recent developments that have occurred in the use of this method for biomedical and pharmaceutical analysis. Techniques based on traditional affinity supports are discussed, but an emphasis is placed on methods in which affinity columns are used as part of HPLC systems or in combination with other analytical methods. General formats for affinity chromatography that are considered include step elution schemes, weak affinity chromatography, affinity extraction and affinity depletion. Specific separation techniques that are examined include lectin affinity chromatography, boronate affinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, and immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Approaches for the study of biological interactions by affinity chromatography are also presented, such as the measurement of equilibrium constants, rate constants, or competition and displacement effects. In addition, related developments in the use of immobilized enzyme reactors, molecularly imprinted polymers, dye ligands and aptamers are briefly considered. PMID:22305083

  14. Computation of piecewise affine terminal cost functions for model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, F.D.; Lazar, M.; Allgöwer, F.; Fränzle, Martin; Lygeros, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the construction of piecewise affine terminal cost functions for model predictive control (MPC). The terminal cost function is constructed on a predefined partition by solving a linear program for a given piecewise affine system, a stabilizing piecewise affine

  15. Affinity to host population stimulates physical growth in adult offspring of Turkish migrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Aydan; Scheffler, Christiane

    2018-01-18

    Because of political conflicts and climate change, migration will be increased worldwide and integration in host societies is a challenge also for migrants. We hypothesize that migrants, who take up the challenge in a new social environment are taller than migrants who do not pose this challenge. We analyze by a questionnaire possible social, nutritional and ethnic influencing factors to body height (BH) of adult offspring of Turkish migrants (n = 82, 39 males) aged from 18 to 34 years (mean age 24.6 years). The results of multiple regression (downward selection) show that the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the Turkish culture, the smaller he is (95% CI, -3.79, -0.323). Further, the more a male adult offspring of Turkish migrants feels like belonging to the German culture, the taller he is (95% CI, -0.152, 1.738). We discussed it comparable to primates taking up their challenge in dominance, where as a result their body size increase is associated with higher IGF-1 level. IGF-1 is associated with emotional belonging and has a fundamental role in the regulation of metabolism and growth of the human body. With all pilot characteristics of our study results show that the successful challenge of integration in a new society is strongly associated with the emotional integration and identification in the sense of a personal sense of belonging to society. We discuss taller BH as a signal of social growth adjustment. In this sense, a secular trend of BH adaptation of migrants to hosts is a sign of integration.

  16. Weak affinity chromatography for evaluation of stereoisomers in early drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Thi, Minh-Dao; Bergström, Maria; Fex, Tomas; Svensson, Susanne; Ohlson, Sten; Isaksson, Roland

    2013-07-01

    In early drug discovery (e.g., in fragment screening), recognition of stereoisomeric structures is valuable and guides medicinal chemists to focus only on useful configurations. In this work, we concurrently screened mixtures of stereoisomers and estimated their affinities to a protein target (thrombin) using weak affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry (WAC-MS). Affinity determinations by WAC showed that minor changes in stereoisomeric configuration could have a major impact on affinity. The ability of WAC-MS to provide instant information about stereoselectivity and binding affinities directly from analyte mixtures is a great advantage in fragment library screening and drug lead development.

  17. The spectrum of the conserved charges in affine Toda theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    A vertex operator construction for the phase of the minimal form factor is used to predict the exact spectrum of the infinite set of conserved charges on the multi-particle states in affine Toda theories from the bootstrap S-matrix. Conversely, the scattering phase can be recovered from the spectral information. The result is checed against the classical spectrum which is calculated ab-initio using the τ-function formalism. The latter is shown to provide a considerable shortcut compared to the traditional use of the inverse scattering transform. (orig.)

  18. Weyl-Invariant Extension of the Metric-Affine Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazirian, R.; Tanhayi, M. R.; Motahar, Z. A.

    2015-01-01

    Metric-affine geometry provides a nontrivial extension of the general relativity where the metric and connection are treated as the two independent fundamental quantities in constructing the spacetime (with nonvanishing torsion and nonmetricity). In this paper, we study the generic form of action in this formalism and then construct the Weyl-invariant version of this theory. It is shown that, in Weitzenböck space, the obtained Weyl-invariant action can cover the conformally invariant teleparallel action. Finally, the related field equations are obtained in the general case.

  19. Realization of parking task based on affine system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Woo; Narikiyo, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a motion control system of an unmanned vehicle, where parallel parking task is realized based on a self-organizing affine system modeling and a quadratic programming based robust controller. Because of non-linearity of the vehicle system and complexity of the task to realize, control objective is not always realized with a single algorithm or control mode. This paper presents a hybrid model for parallel parking task in which seven modes for describing sub-tasks constitute an entire model

  20. A simple method for affinity purification of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juweid, M; Sato, J; Paik, C; Onay-Basaran, S; Weinstein, J N; Neumann, R D [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1993-04-01

    A simple method is described for affinity purification of radiolabeled antibodies using glutaraldehyde-fixed tumor target cells. The cell-bound antibody fraction is removed from the cells by an acid wash and then immediately subjected to buffer-exchange chromatography. The method was applied to the D3 murine monoclonal antibody which binds to a 290 kDa antigen on the surface of Line 10 guinea pig carcinoma cells. No alteration in the molecular size profile was detected after acid washing. Purification resulted in a significant increase in immunoreactivity by an average of 14 [+-] 47% (SD; range 4-30%). (author).

  1. Experimental and theoretical binding affinity between polyvinylpolypyrrolidone and selected phenolic compounds from food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Lara, Esteban F; López-Cortés, Xaviera A; Castro, Ricardo I; Avila-Salas, Fabián; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Laurie, V Felipe; Santos, Leonardo S

    2015-02-01

    Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) is a fining agent, widely used in winemaking and brewing, whose mode of action in removing phenolic compounds has not been fully characterised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experimental and theoretical binding affinity of PVPP towards six phenolic compounds representing different types of phenolic species. The interaction between PVPP and phenolics was evaluated in model solutions, where hydroxyl groups, hydrophobic bonding and steric hindrance were characterised. The results of the study indicated that PVPP exhibits high affinity for quercetin and catechin, moderate affinity for epicatechin, gallic acid and lower affinity for 4-methylcatechol and caffeic acid. The affinity has a direct correlation with the hydroxylation degree of each compound. The results show that the affinity of PVPP towards phenols is related with frontier orbitals. This work demonstrates a direct correlation between the experimental affinity and the interaction energy calculations obtained through computational chemistry methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on oxygen affinity of blood in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Samuel; Grisolia, Santiago; Fiedler, Adam J.; Hellegers, Andre E.

    1970-01-01

    Blood of patients with sickle cell anemia (SS) exhibits decreased affinity for oxygen, although the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin S is the same as that of hemoglobin A. SS red cells contain more 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) than normal erythrocytes. The oxygen affinity of hemolyzed red cells is decreased by added DPG, and hemolysates prepared from SS red cells do not differ from normal hemolysates in this regard. Reduction of oxygen affinity to the levels found in intact SS red cells required DPG concentrations in excess of those found in most SS patients. The same was true of oxygen affinity of patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency. Other organic phosphates, as well as inorganic ions, are known to alter the oxygen affinity of dilute solutions of hemoglobin. These substances, the state of aggregation of hemoglobin molecules, and cytoarchitectural factors probably play roles in determining oxygen affinity of both normal and SS red cells. PMID:5443181

  3. An {Mathematical expression} iteration bound primal-dual cone affine scaling algorithm for linear programmingiteration bound primal-dual cone affine scaling algorithm for linear programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Sturm; J. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we introduce a primal-dual affine scaling method. The method uses a search-direction obtained by minimizing the duality gap over a linearly transformed conic section. This direction neither coincides with known primal-dual affine scaling directions (Jansen et al., 1993;

  4. Methyl Cation Affinities of Neutral and Anionic Maingroup-Element Hydrides: Trends Across the Periodic Table and Correlation with Proton Affinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R. Joshua; Guerra, Celia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2010-01-01

    We have computed the methyl cation affinities in the gas phase of archetypal anionic and neutral bases across the periodic table using ZORA-relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at BP86/QZ4P//BP86/TZ2P. The main purpose of this work is to provide the methyl cation affinities (and

  5. Influence of affinity on antibody determination in microtiter ELISA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, J.H.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Butler, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretically, all immunoassays are affinity (Ka) dependent when the product of the antibody (Ab) Ka and the free epitope concentration is less than 10. Thus, the degree of dependence on Ka depends on the concentration of available antigen in the system. The authors examined the binding of 125 I-anti-fluorescein (a-FLU) monoclonal antibodies of different affinities to FLU-gelatin adsorbed on Immunlon 2 microtiter plates. Data obtained were in general agreement with our theoretical predictions; the percent of 125 I-a-FLU which bound correlated with Ka, as did the shape of the titration curves. Measurement of 5 a-FLU monoclonals by the ELISA showed that the determination of Ab concentrations depends on the FLU-gelatin concentration, epitope density, and on the relationship between the Kas of test samples and the reference standard Ab preparation. Thus the ELISA is Ka dependent and should not be used routinely to estimate the absolute amount to Ab in unknown samples. However, the Ka dependency of the ELISA might provide a convenient assay for the estimation of the relative functional Ka (rfKa) of antibody preparations

  6. PANDA: Protein function prediction using domain architecture and affinity propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Chenguang; Wang, Yiheng; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Nan

    2018-02-22

    We developed PANDA (Propagation of Affinity and Domain Architecture) to predict protein functions in the format of Gene Ontology (GO) terms. PANDA at first executes profile-profile alignment algorithm to search against PfamA, KOG, COG, and SwissProt databases, and then launches PSI-BLAST against UniProt for homologue search. PANDA integrates a domain architecture inference algorithm based on the Bayesian statistics that calculates the probability of having a GO term. All the candidate GO terms are pooled and filtered based on Z-score. After that, the remaining GO terms are clustered using an affinity propagation algorithm based on the GO directed acyclic graph, followed by a second round of filtering on the clusters of GO terms. We benchmarked the performance of all the baseline predictors PANDA integrates and also for every pooling and filtering step of PANDA. It can be found that PANDA achieves better performances in terms of area under the curve for precision and recall compared to the baseline predictors. PANDA can be accessed from http://dna.cs.miami.edu/PANDA/ .

  7. Affinity Labeling of Membrane Receptors Using Tissue-Penetrating Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin C. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling, a useful in vivo biochemical tool, is limited when applied in vivo because of the poor tissue penetration by ultraviolet (UV photons. This study investigates affinity labeling using tissue-penetrating radiation to overcome the tissue attenuation and irreversibly label membrane receptor proteins. Using X-ray (115 kVp at low doses (<50 cGy or Rad, specific and irreversible binding was found on striatal dopamine transporters with 3 photoaffinity ligands for dopamine transporters, to different extents. Upon X-ray exposure (115 kVp, RTI-38 and RTI-78 ligands showed irreversible and specific binding to the dopamine transporter similar to those seen with UV exposure under other conditions. Similarly, gamma rays at higher energy (662 keV also affect irreversible binding of photoreactive ligands to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (by PK14105 and to the dopamine (D2 membrane receptors (by azidoclebopride, respectively. This study reports that X-ray and gamma rays induced affinity labeling of membrane receptors in a manner similar to UV with photoreactive ligands of the dopamine transporter, D2 dopamine receptor (D2R, and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBDZR. It may provide specific noninvasive irreversible block or stimulation of a receptor using tissue-penetrating radiation targeting selected anatomic sites.

  8. Flexible Molybdenum Electrodes towards Designing Affinity Based Protein Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Radha Shanmugam, Nandhinee; Muthukumar, Sriram; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-07-18

    Molybdenum electrode based flexible biosensor on porous polyamide substrates has been fabricated and tested for its functionality as a protein affinity based biosensor. The biosensor performance was evaluated using a key cardiac biomarker; cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI). Molybdenum is a transition metal and demonstrates electrochemical behavior upon interaction with an electrolyte. We have leveraged this property of molybdenum for designing an affinity based biosensor using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We have evaluated the feasibility of detection of cTnI in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum (HS) by measuring impedance changes over a frequency window from 100 mHz to 1 MHz. Increasing changes to the measured impedance was correlated to the increased dose of cTnI molecules binding to the cTnI antibody functionalized molybdenum surface. We achieved cTnI detection limit of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 1 ng/mL in HS medium. The use of flexible substrates for designing the biosensor demonstrates promise for integration with a large-scale batch manufacturing process.

  9. Detection of Waterborne Viruses Using High Affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Zeynep; Gittens, Micah; Guerreiro, Antonio; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Walker, Jimmy; Piletsky, Sergey; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-07-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptor ligands which can recognize and specifically bind to a target molecule. They are more resistant to chemical and biological damage and inactivation than antibodies. Therefore, target specific-MIP nanoparticles are aimed to develop and implemented to biosensors for the detection of biological toxic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi toxins that cause many diseases and death due to the environmental contamination. For the first time, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) targeting the bacteriophage MS2 as the template was investigated using a novel solid-phase synthesis method to obtain the artificial affinity ligand for the detection and removal of waterborne viruses through optical-based sensors. A high affinity between the artificial ligand and the target was found, and a regenerative MIP-based virus detection assay was successfully developed using a new surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor which provides an alternative technology for the specific detection and removal of waterborne viruses that lead to high disease and death rates all over the world.

  10. Expression and affinity purification of recombinant proteins from plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Urvee A.; Sur, Gargi; Daunert, Sylvia; Babbitt, Ruth; Li, Qingshun

    2002-01-01

    With recent advances in plant biotechnology, transgenic plants have been targeted as an inexpensive means for the mass production of proteins for biopharmaceutical and industrial uses. However, the current plant purification techniques lack a generally applicable, economic, large-scale strategy. In this study, we demonstrate the purification of a model protein, beta-glucuronidase (GUS), by employing the protein calmodulin (CaM) as an affinity tag. In the proposed system, CaM is fused to GUS. In the presence of calcium, the calmodulin fusion protein binds specifically to a phenothiazine-modified surface of an affinity column. When calcium is removed with a complexing agent, e.g., EDTA, calmodulin undergoes a conformational change allowing the dissociation of the calmodulin-phenothiazine complex and, therefore, permitting the elution of the GUS-CaM fusion protein. The advantages of this approach are the fast, efficient, and economical isolation of the target protein under mild elution conditions, thus preserving the activity of the target protein. Two types of transformation methods were used in this study, namely, the Agrobacterium-mediated system and the viral-vector-mediated transformation system. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. Braided affine geometry and q-analogs of wave operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Dimitri; Saponov, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this review is to compare different approaches to constructing the geometry associated with a Hecke type braiding (in particular, with that related to the quantum group U q (sl(n))). We place emphasis on the affine braided geometry related to the so-called reflection equation algebra (REA). All objects of such a type of geometry are defined in the spirit of affine algebraic geometry via polynomial relations on generators. We begin by comparing the Poisson counterparts of 'quantum varieties' and describe different approaches to their quantization. Also, we exhibit two approaches to introducing q-analogs of vector bundles and defining the Chern-Connes index for them on quantum spheres. In accordance with the Serre-Swan approach, the q-vector bundles are treated as finitely generated projective modules over the corresponding quantum algebras. Besides, we describe the basic properties of the REA used in this construction and compare different ways of defining q-analogs of partial derivatives and differentials on the REA and algebras close to them. In particular, we present a way of introducing a q-differential calculus via Koszul type complexes. The elements of the q-calculus are applied to defining q-analogs of some relativistic wave operators. (topical review)

  12. Membrane Affinity of Platensimycin and Its Dialkylamine Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Rowe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane permeability is a desired property in drug design, but there have been difficulties in quantifying the direct drug partitioning into native membranes. Platensimycin (PL is a new promising antibiotic whose biosynthetic production is costly. Six dialkylamine analogs of PL were synthesized with identical pharmacophores but different side chains; five of them were found inactive. To address the possibility that their activity is limited by the permeation step, we calculated polarity, measured surface activity and the ability to insert into the phospholipid monolayers. The partitioning of PL and the analogs into the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli was assessed by activation curve shifts of a re-engineered mechanosensitive channel, MscS, in patch-clamp experiments. Despite predicted differences in polarity, the affinities to lipid monolayers and native membranes were comparable for most of the analogs. For PL and the di-myrtenyl analog QD-11, both carrying bulky sidechains, the affinity for the native membrane was lower than for monolayers (half-membranes, signifying that intercalation must overcome the lateral pressure of the bilayer. We conclude that the biological activity among the studied PL analogs is unlikely to be limited by their membrane permeability. We also discuss the capacity of endogenous tension-activated channels to detect asymmetric partitioning of exogenous substances into the native bacterial membrane and the different contributions to the thermodynamic force which drives permeation.

  13. Growth and mortality of larval Myctophum affine (Myctophidae, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, C; Katsuragawa, M; Zani-Teixeira, M L

    2015-04-01

    The growth and mortality rates of Myctophum affine larvae were analysed based on samples collected during the austral summer and winter of 2002 from south-eastern Brazilian waters. The larvae ranged in size from 2·75 to 14·00 mm standard length (L(S)). Daily increment counts from 82 sagittal otoliths showed that the age of M. affine ranged from 2 to 28 days. Three models were applied to estimate the growth rate: linear regression, exponential model and Laird-Gompertz model. The exponential model best fitted the data, and L(0) values from exponential and Laird-Gompertz models were close to the smallest larva reported in the literature (c. 2·5 mm L(S)). The average growth rate (0·33 mm day(-1)) was intermediate among lanternfishes. The mortality rate (12%) during the larval period was below average compared with other marine fish species but similar to some epipelagic fishes that occur in the area. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Self-affinity in the dengue fever time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, S. M.; Saba, H.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Filho, A. S. Nascimento; Moret, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Dengue is a complex public health problem that is common in tropical and subtropical regions. This disease has risen substantially in the last three decades, and the physical symptoms depict the self-affine behavior of the occurrences of reported dengue cases in Bahia, Brazil. This study uses detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to verify the scale behavior in a time series of dengue cases and to evaluate the long-range correlations that are characterized by the power law α exponent for different cities in Bahia, Brazil. The scaling exponent (α) presents different long-range correlations, i.e. uncorrelated, anti-persistent, persistent and diffusive behaviors. The long-range correlations highlight the complex behavior of the time series of this disease. The findings show that there are two distinct types of scale behavior. In the first behavior, the time series presents a persistent α exponent for a one-month period. For large periods, the time series signal approaches subdiffusive behavior. The hypothesis of the long-range correlations in the time series of the occurrences of reported dengue cases was validated. The observed self-affinity is useful as a forecasting tool for future periods through extrapolation of the α exponent behavior. This complex system has a higher predictability in a relatively short time (approximately one month), and it suggests a new tool in epidemiological control strategies. However, predictions for large periods using DFA are hidden by the subdiffusive behavior.

  15. Theory of affine projection algorithms for adaptive filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ozeki, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on theoretical aspects of the affine projection algorithm (APA) for adaptive filtering. The APA is a natural generalization of the classical, normalized least-mean-squares (NLMS) algorithm. The book first explains how the APA evolved from the NLMS algorithm, where an affine projection view is emphasized. By looking at those adaptation algorithms from such a geometrical point of view, we can find many of the important properties of the APA, e.g., the improvement of the convergence rate over the NLMS algorithm especially for correlated input signals. After the birth of the APA in the mid-1980s, similar algorithms were put forward by other researchers independently from different perspectives. This book shows that they are variants of the APA, forming a family of APAs. Then it surveys research on the convergence behavior of the APA, where statistical analyses play important roles. It also reviews developments of techniques to reduce the computational complexity of the APA, which are important f...

  16. Probing SH2-domains using Inhibitor Affinity Purification (IAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfener, Michael; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Kuster, Bernhard; Sewald, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Many human diseases are correlated with the dysregulation of signal transduction processes. One of the most important protein interaction domains in the context of signal transduction is the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain that binds phosphotyrosine residues. Hence, appropriate methods for the investigation of SH2 proteins are indispensable in diagnostics and medicinal chemistry. Therefore, an affinity resin for the enrichment of all SH2 proteins in one experiment would be desirable. However, current methods are unable to address all SH2 proteins simultaneously with a single compound or a small array of compounds. In order to overcome these limitations for the investigation of this particular protein family in future experiments, a dipeptide-derived probe has been designed, synthesized and evaluated. This probe successfully enriched 22 SH2 proteins from mixed cell lysates which contained 50 SH2 proteins. Further characterization of the SH2 binding properties of the probe using depletion and competition experiments indicated its ability to enrich complexes consisting of SH2 domain bearing regulatory PI3K subunits and catalytic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits that have no SH2 domain. The results make this probe a promising starting point for the development of a mixed affinity resin with complete SH2 protein coverage. Moreover, the additional findings render it a valuable tool for the evaluation of PI3K complex interrupting inhibitors.

  17. The Mobile Phone Affinity Scale: Enhancement and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rochelle K

    2016-01-01

    Background Existing instruments that assess individuals’ relationships with mobile phones tend to focus on negative constructs such as addiction or dependence, and appear to assume that high mobile phone use reflects pathology. Mobile phones can be beneficial for health behavior change, disease management, work productivity, and social connections, so there is a need for an instrument that provides a more balanced assessment of the various aspects of individuals’ relationships with mobile phones. Objective The purpose of this research was to develop, revise, and validate the Mobile Phone Affinity Scale, a multi-scale instrument designed to assess key factors associated with mobile phone use. Methods Participants (N=1058, mean age 33) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk between March and April of 2016 to complete a survey that assessed participants’ mobile phone attitudes and use, anxious and depressive symptoms, and resilience. Results Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 6-factor model. The final measure consisted of 24 items, with 4 items on each of 6 factors: Connectedness, Productivity, Empowerment, Anxious Attachment, Addiction, and Continuous Use. The subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range=0.76-0.88, mean 0.83), and high item factor loadings (range=0.57-0.87, mean 0.75). Tests for validity further demonstrated support for the individual subscales. Conclusions Mobile phone affinity may have an important impact in the development and effectiveness of mobile health interventions, and continued research is needed to assess its predictive ability in health behavior change interventions delivered via mobile phones. PMID:27979792

  18. Topography of the high-affinity lysine binding site of plasminogen as defined with a specific antibody probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, L.A.; Plow, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    An antibody population that reacted with the high-affinity lysine binding site of human plasminogen was elicited by immunizing rabbits with an elastase degradation product containing kringles 1-3 (EDP I). This antibody was immunopurified by affinity chromatography on plasminogen-Sepharose and elution with 0.2 M 6-aminohexanoic acid. The eluted antibodies bound [ 125 I]EDP I, [ 125 I]Glu-plasminogen, and [ 125 I]Lys-plasminogen in radioimmunoassays, and binding of each ligand was at least 99% inhibited by 0.2 M 6-aminohexanoic acid. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of [ 125 I]EDP I binding by tranexamic acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, and lysine were 2.6, 46, and l730 μM, respectively. Similar values were obtained with plasminogen and suggested that an unoccupied high-affinity lysine binding site was required for antibody recognition. The antiserum reacted exclusively with plasminogen derivatives containing the EDP I region and did not react with those lacking an EDP I region, or with tissue plasminogen activator or prothrombin, which also contains kringles. By immunoblotting analyses, a chymotryptic degradation product of M/sub r/ 20,000 was derived from EDP I that retained reactivity with the antibody. α 2 -Antiplasmin inhibited the binding of radiolabeled EDP I, Glu-plasminogen, or Lys-plasminogen by the antiserum, suggesting that the recognized site is involved in the noncovalent interaction of the inhibitor with plasminogen. The binding of [ 125 I]EDP I to fibrin was also inhibited by the antiserum. The observations provide independent evidence for the role of the high-affinity lysine binding site in the functional interactions of plasminogen with its primary substrate and inhibitor

  19. Pistillate Flower Abcission Symptoms of ‘Serr’ Walnut (Juglans RegiaL. Sintomatología del Aborto en flores Pistiladas de Nogal (Juglans regiaL. ‘Serr’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián González R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pistillate flower abscission (PFA severely affects walnut (Juglans regia L. production, mainly of the cultivar ‘Serr’. A study on symptoms of flower abortion in walnut ‘Serr’, induced by excess or lack of pollen, was carried out following the evolution of flowers and peduncles. Hand pollinated flowers, with different pollen concentrations: 0, 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100% pollen diluted (w/w in talcum powder, showed external and internal abortion symptoms. External symptoms were recorded directly from the tree, while for internal symptoms, flower excisions stained with blue Toluidin-O at 0.05%, were analyzed under an optical microscope. Excess pollen abortion produced flowers with rapid damage. The growth rate was very low, involucre brightness was lost and the stigma turned necrotic, in contrast to the flower aborted from lack of pollen. Normal flowers continued growing to fruit harvest, without losing brightness. Excess pollen abortion induced flower drop, with or without attached peduncle. Two separation zones can be present: the distal and proximal areas of the peduncle. Peduncle scars allowed for differentiating abortion induced from excess or lack of pollen, or other reasons.El aborto en flores postiladas (PFA por exceso de polen que afecta al nogal (Juglans regia L., disminuye considerablemente la producción de nueces, principalmente en el cultivar ‘Serr’. Se estudió la sintomatología del aborto por exceso y falta de polinización en flores y pedúnculo de este cultivar. Para esto se realizó polinización manual, utilizando diferentes concentraciones de polen sobre flores en diferentes estados de receptividad. Las concentraciones se obtuvieron mediante diluciones (peso/peso de polen combinado con talco. Las concentraciones utilizadas fueron 0; 1; 5; 25; 50 y 100% de polen. Se observó la sintomatología externa e interna de la flor, mediante apreciación visual en el árbol y a través de cortes longitudinales en la flor para

  20. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae present in the flowers of the balsa wood Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788 = Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apidae associadas às flores do pau-de-balsa Ochroma lagopus Swartz, 1788

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina Guimarães Brighenti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The flower of balsa wood holds about 10 to 15 mL of nectar, which helps attracting pollinating agents, since the genus Ochroma is incapable of self-fertilization. However, a high mortality of bees is observed in these flowers. The present study investigated the frequency and constancy of mortality of the individuals of the familyApidae that fed on nectar from the balsa wood. Data was gathered from June to August 2008, in Lavras – Minas Gerais State, Brazil. In addition, the survival of the Africanized bees that fed on the nectar of this flower was compared to those that fed on 50% aqueous solution of honey. Forty flowers were analyzed, and 949 individuals of the orders Hymenoptera (98.1%, Hemiptera (0.95%, Coleoptera (0.74% and Diptera (0.21% were collected. Most Hymenoptera individuals were bees of the genera Partamona and Trigona (677 individuals, which were considered of constant occurrence. Flowers producing up to 16.7 nectar mL were found. The nectar diet contained 16.44% of total sugar, and resulted in low survival of the bees in laboratory (31.32 . 2.37 hours, compared to a diet of 50% aqueous solution of honey (112.32 .2.03 hours.A flor do pau-de-balsa produz cerca de 10 a 15 mL de néctar, útil na atração de polinizadores, uma vez que o gênero Ochroma é incapaz de fazer autofecundação. É observada intensa mortalidade de abelhas em suas flores. Objetivou-se realizar o levantamento da frequência e constância de mortalidade de indivíduos da família Apidae, sendo os dados levantados no período de junho a agosto de 2008 em Lavras, MinasGerais, Brasil. Além disso, avaliou-se a sobrevivência de abelhas africanizadas alimentadas com o néctar desta flor quando comparados com aquelas alimentadas com solução aquosa de mel a 50%. Foram analisadas 40 flores e coletados 949 indivíduos das Ordens: Hymenoptera (98,1%, Hemiptera (0,95%, Coleoptera (0,74% e Diptera (0,21%. Dentre os himenópteros os mais frequentes foram dos g

  1. Viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira (Annona squamosa em diferentes horários Viability of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa pollen grains at different hours of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No manejo do cultivo da pinha (Annona squamosa, a polinização artificial é uma prática preconizada para, obter maior pegamento dos frutos bem como uniformização do formato dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira em diferentes horários de coleta. O pólen foi obtido a partir de flores no estádio funcionalmente estaminada. Foram avaliados oito horários de coleta de pólen: zero hora, 1 hora, 2 horas, 3 horas, 4 horas, 5 horas, 6 horas e 7 horas da manhã. Foi utilizado meio de cultura padrão para germinação de pólen, com concentração de 10% de sacarose. As flores foram coletadas nos horários estabelecidos e os grãos de pólen foram retirados das anteras com auxílio de um pincel número 2 e em seguida inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela experimental constituída por duas placas Petri. Foram contados 100 grãos de pólen por placa. Após 6 horas de inoculação, os grãos de pólen foram visualizados sob lupa. Foram considerados germinados os grãos de pólen que possuíam tubo polínico com tamanho igual ou superior ao diâmetro do próprio pólen. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre o horário de coleta dos grãos de pólen. A percentagem média da germinação variou de 46,75% a 53,62% dos grãos de pólen germinados.In the management of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa crop, the artificial pollination is a preconized practice to obtain higher establishment of the fruits as well as their standardization. This study was carried out to evaluate the viability of sugar apple pollen grains at different collecting times. The pollens were obtained from the flowers at the functional staminate stage. The pollen grains were collected every hour, starting from 00:00am and ending at 07:00am, totalizing 8

  2. Du simple relevé de végétation à la gestion des données sur la biodiversité : problèmes liées à la construction d’une base de données sur la flore alpine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPIEGELBERGER, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available À partir de l'exemple de constitution de la base de données FloRem sur la flore alpine, cet article nous présente ici les difficultés, les avantages et limites d'une telle base pour la valorisation de données de diversité végétale sur le long terme.

  3. Abelhas (Hymenoptera: Apoidea visitantes das flores do feijão guandu no Recôncavo Baiano, Brasil Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea on pigeonpea flowers in 'Recôncavo Baiano' region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruberval Leone Azevedo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O feijão guandu Cajanus cajan L. é uma cultura comum, encontrada com freqüência em todo o Brasil, principalmente em pequenas propriedades rurais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter informações sobre a diversidade de abelhas visitantes das flores do feijão guandu, gerando informações sobre a estrutura da comunidade de abelhas e a importância desta leguminosa como fonte de recursos tróficos. As coletas foram feitas semanalmente, entre maio e outubro de 2005, na área experimental de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFBA, localizada no município de Cruz das Almas, Bahia, no intervalo entre as 6:00 e as 18:00 horas. Um total de 4.676 indivíduos foi coletado visitando as flores do feijão guandu. A família Apidae foi representada por 99,3% dos indivíduos e 76,2% das espécies amostradas. Os gêneros Xylocopa e Trigona foram os que apresentaram maior riqueza, com quatro e três espécies, respectivamente. Trigona spinipes foi a espécie mais abundante, com freqüência relativa igual a 83,1%, seguida de Nannotrigona testaceicornis (5,1%.Pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan L. is a common crop, frequently found throughout Brazil, mainly in small rural properties. This research was aimed at geting information on the diversity of visiting bees to flowers of pigeonpea, generating information on the structure of the bee community and the importance of this Leguminosae as source of food resources. Collections had been made weekly, between May and October 2005 in the Experimental area of the Center of Agrarian Sciences and Environmental of the UFBA, located in the Cruz das Almas, Bahia, in the interval between 6:00 AM and 06:00 PM. A total of 4.676 individuals was collected visiting the pigeonpea flowers. The Apidae family was represented by 99.25% of individuals and 76.19% of total species. The genera Xylocopa and Trigona were the ones that showed greater richness, with four and three species, respectively. Trigona spinipes was the most

  4. Fibrin matrices with affinity-based delivery systems and neurotrophic factors promote functional nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D; MacEwan, Matthew R; French, Alexander R; Moore, Amy M; Hunter, Daniel A; Mackinnon, Susan E; Moran, Daniel W; Borschel, Gregory H; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

    2010-08-15

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have both been shown to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration following injury and target different neuronal populations. The delivery of either growth factor at the site of injury may, therefore, result in quantitative differences in motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery. In this study we evaluated the effect of affinity-based delivery of GDNF or NGF from fibrin-filled nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) on motor nerve regeneration and functional recovery in a 13 mm rat sciatic nerve defect. Seven experimental groups were evaluated consisting of GDNF or NGF and the affinity-based delivery system (DS) within NGCs, control groups excluding the DS and/or growth factor, and nerve isografts. Groups with growth factor in the conduit demonstrated equivalent or superior performance in behavioral tests and relative muscle mass measurements compared to isografts at 12 weeks. Additionally, groups with GDNF demonstrated greater specific twitch and tetanic force production in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle than the isograft control, while groups with NGF produced demonstrated similar force production compared to the isograft control. Assessment of motor axon regeneration by retrograde labeling further revealed that the number of ventral horn neurons regenerating across NGCs containing GDNF and NGF DS was similar to the isograft group and these counts were greater than the groups without growth factor. Overall, the GDNF DS group demonstrated superior functional recovery and equivalent motor nerve regeneration compared to the isograft control, suggesting it has potential as a treatment for motor nerve injury.

  5. Affine Geometry, Visual Sensation, and Preference for Symmetry of Things in a Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is controlled by numerical parameters, which act in analogy with a biological organism’s DNA. The introductory part of this paper reviews findings from experiments illustrating the critical role of two-dimensional (2D design parameters, affine geometry and shape symmetry for visual or tactile shape sensation and perception-based decision making in populations of experts and non-experts. It will be shown that 2D fractal symmetry, referred to herein as the “symmetry of things in a thing”, results from principles very similar to those of affine projection. Results from experiments on aesthetic and visual preference judgments in response to 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of asymmetry are presented. In a first experiment (psychophysical scaling procedure, non-expert observers had to rate (on a scale from 0 to 10 the perceived beauty of a random series of 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of fractal symmetry. In a second experiment (two-alternative forced choice procedure, they had to express their preference for one of two shapes from the series. The shape pairs were presented successively in random order. Results show that the smallest possible fractal deviation from “symmetry of things in a thing” significantly reduces the perceived attractiveness of such shapes. The potential of future studies where different levels of complexity of fractal patterns are weighed against different degrees of symmetry is pointed out

  6. Schubert calculus and threshold polynomials of affine fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, S.E.; Walton, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We show how the threshold level of affine fusion, the fusion of Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) conformal field theories, fits into the Schubert calculus introduced by Gepner. The Pieri rule can be modified in a simple way to include the threshold level, so that calculations may be done for all (non-negative integer) levels at once. With the usual Giambelli formula, the modified Pieri formula deforms the tensor product coefficients (and the fusion coefficients) into what we call threshold polynomials. We compare them with the q-deformed tensor product coefficients and fusion coefficients that are related to q-deformed weight multiplicities. We also discuss the meaning of the threshold level in the context of paths on graphs

  7. Loading direction regulates the affinity of ADP for kinesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Sotaro; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2003-04-01

    Kinesin is an ATP-driven molecular motor that moves processively along a microtubule. Processivity has been explained as a mechanism that involves alternating single- and double-headed binding of kinesin to microtubules coupled to the ATPase cycle of the motor. The internal load imposed between the two bound heads has been proposed to be a key factor regulating the ATPase cycle in each head. Here we show that external load imposed along the direction of motility on a single kinesin molecule enhances the binding affinity of ADP for kinesin, whereas an external load imposed against the direction of motility decreases it. This coupling between loading direction and enzymatic activity is in accord with the idea that the internal load plays a key role in the unidirectional and cooperative movement of processive motors.

  8. Affine Lie algebraic origin of constrained KP hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1994-07-01

    It is presented an affine sl(n+1) algebraic construction of the basic constrained KP hierarchy. This hierarchy is analyzed using two approaches, namely linear matrix eigenvalue problem on hermitian symmetric space and constrained KP Lax formulation and we show that these approaches are equivalent. The model is recognized to be generalized non-linear Schroedinger (GNLS) hierarchy and it is used as a building block for a new class of constrained KP hierarchies. These constrained KP hierarchies are connected via similarity-Backlund transformations and interpolate between GNLS and multi-boson KP-Toda hierarchies. The construction uncovers origin of the Toda lattice structure behind the latter hierarchy. (author). 23 refs

  9. Approximated affine projection algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Kim, In-Young; Park, Young-Cheol

    2007-09-01

    We propose an approximated affine projection (AP) algorithm for feedback cancellation in hearing aids. It is based on the conventional approach using the Gauss-Seidel (GS) iteration, but provides more stable convergence behaviour even with small step sizes. In the proposed algorithm, a residue of the weighted error vector, instead of the current error sample, is used to provide stable convergence. A new learning rate control scheme is also applied to the proposed algorithm to prevent signal cancellation and system instability. The new scheme determines step size in proportion to the prediction factor of the input, so that adaptation is inhibited whenever tone-like signals are present in the input. Simulation results verified the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Higher-order momentum distributions and locally affine LDDMM registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Nielsen, Mads; Darkner, Sune

    2013-01-01

    description of affine transformations and subsequent compact description of non-translational movement in a globally nonrigid deformation. The resulting representation contains directly interpretable information from both mathematical and modeling perspectives. We develop the mathematical construction......To achieve sparse parametrizations that allow intuitive analysis, we aim to represent deformation with a basis containing interpretable elements, and we wish to use elements that have the description capacity to represent the deformation compactly. To accomplish this, we introduce in this paper...... higher-order momentum distributions in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) registration framework. While the zeroth-order moments previously used in LDDMM only describe local displacement, the first-order momenta that are proposed here represent a basis that allows local...

  11. Political ideology: its structure, functions, and elective affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Federico, Christopher M; Napier, Jaime L

    2009-01-01

    Ideology has re-emerged as an important topic of inquiry among social, personality, and political psychologists. In this review, we examine recent theory and research concerning the structure, contents, and functions of ideological belief systems. We begin by defining the construct and placing it in historical and philosophical context. We then examine different perspectives on how many (and what types of) dimensions individuals use to organize their political opinions. We investigate (a) how and to what extent individuals acquire the discursive contents associated with various ideologies, and (b) the social-psychological functions that these ideologies serve for those who adopt them. Our review highlights "elective affinities" between situational and dispositional needs of individuals and groups and the structure and contents of specific ideologies. Finally, we consider the consequences of ideology, especially with respect to attitudes, evaluations, and processes of system justification.

  12. Affine analogues of the Sasaki-Shchepetilov connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Robaszewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For two-dimensional manifold M with locally symmetric connection ∇ and with ∇-parallel volume element vol one can construct a flat connection on the vector bundle TM⊕E, where E is a trivial bundle. The metrizable case, when M is a Riemannian manifold of constant curvature, together with its higher dimension generalizations, was studied by A.V. Shchepetilov [J. Phys. A: 36 (2003, 3893-3898]. This paper deals with the case of non-metrizable locally symmetric connection. Two flat connections on TM⊕(R⨯M and two on TM⊕(R2⨯M are constructed. It is shown that two of those connections - one from each pair - may be identified with the standard flat connection in RN, after suitable local affine embedding of (M,∇ into RN.

  13. Automorphisms of the affine SU(3) fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.

    1994-01-01

    We classify the automorphisms of the (chiral) level-k affine SU(3) fusion rules, for any value of k, by looking for all permutations that commute with the modular matrices S and T. This can be done by using the arithmetic of the cyclotomic extensions where the problem is naturally posed. When k is divisible by 3, the automorphism group ( similar Z 2 ) is generated by the charge conjugation C. If k is not divisible by 3, the automorphism group ( similar Z 2 xZ 2 ) is generated by C and the Altschueler-Lacki-Zaugg automorphism. Although the combinatorial analysis can become more involved, the techniques used here for SU(3) can be applied to other algebras. (orig.)

  14. The anatomy, affinity, and phylogenetic significance of Markuelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cunningham, John A; Liu, Jian-Bo; Cheng, Hong

    2005-01-01

    The fossil record provides a paucity of data on the development of extinct organisms, particularly for their embryology. The recovery of fossilized embryos heralds new insight into the evolution of development but advances are limited by an almost complete absence of phylogenetic constraint. Markuelia is an exception to this, known from cleavage and pre-hatchling stages as a vermiform and profusely annulated direct-developing bilaterian with terminal circumoral and posterior radial arrays of spines. Phylogenetic analyses have hitherto suggested assignment to stem-Scalidophora (phyla Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida). We test this assumption with additional data and through the inclusion of additional taxa. The available evidence supports stem-Scalidophora affinity, leading to the conclusion that scalidophorans, cyclonerualians, and ecdysozoans are primitive direct developers, and the likelihood that scalidophorans are primitively metameric.

  15. The affinity of the uranyl ion for nitrogen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; De Sousa, A.S.; Hancock, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Established ligand design principles are used to predict the solution chemistry of UO 2 2+ with nitrogen donor ligands which do not contain carboxylate donors. pK a 's of the nitrogen donors are lowered by addition of hydroxylalkyl groups causing UO 2 2+ to have a greater affinity for these ligands than for hydroxide. Potentiometric studies using the ligands N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)1,2-diaminoethane, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine with UO 2 2+ showed that UO 2 2+ has a considerable aqueous solution chemistry with these ligands. (orig.)

  16. A High Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassera, María B.; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Merino, Emilio F.; Burgos, Emmanuel S.; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2011-01-01

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (Km 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap4A (2.0 Å resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine, ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg2+ ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layered α/β/α sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight-binding for adenosine arises from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168 and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64 and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2′- and 3′-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to human adenosine kinase (48% identity) than to AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identity). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role of this enzyme to maintain the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects. PMID:21247194

  17. 'The Strange Case of Angelica': affinity between Fantastic and Documental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Benis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Manoel de Oliveira films The Strange Case of Angélica, a project from the early fifties of the past century. In it, the confrontation between the documentary side of the film (the sequences where the protagonist, Isaac, photographs the workers in the vineyards and the fantastic sequences (the episodes with the ghost of Angelica seems to indicate an affinity. That "shadow of resemblance" Petrarch spoke about to his close friend Giovanni Boccaccio: "... he who imitates must proceed in such a way that what he does is similar but not equal, and that the likeness is not that which exists between the original and the copy, that the more similar the more it is praiseworthy, but instead a likeness which one finds in the similarities between a father and a son, among which, though much difference is made in the aspect, there is, however, as a shadow of resemblance, which the painters call 'aire' (... "(apud Rodrigues 2003: 5. A "family air" as a living correlation that comes to our encounter and which is felt as an immediate understanding (and not as definable evidence. In the film, the shiver that assaults us through the apparition of Angelica seems to announce something that goes beyond this same vision: the eminence of the disappearance of the vineyard workers and their gestures, a loss of connection between Man and Nature. The present affinity - Angelica / diggers - is mirrored in Isaac's immense melancholy, the only person apparently capable of perceiving the landscape, the "air" that this relationship evokes. The whole film is crossed by the glimpse of this indefinable kinship, by the porosity between the sensitive world and the spectral world, the permanent interweaving of visibilities / invisibilities that allow us access to this other cinematographic space-time, more percept than visible, in which, according to Manoel de Oliveira, the phantom of physical reality reveals itself "more real, however, than reality itself" (Baecque and

  18. The Mobile Phone Affinity Scale: Enhancement and Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Lantini, Ryan; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fava, Joseph L; Barnett, Nancy P; Scott-Sheldon, Lori Aj

    2016-12-15

    Existing instruments that assess individuals' relationships with mobile phones tend to focus on negative constructs such as addiction or dependence, and appear to assume that high mobile phone use reflects pathology. Mobile phones can be beneficial for health behavior change, disease management, work productivity, and social connections, so there is a need for an instrument that provides a more balanced assessment of the various aspects of individuals' relationships with mobile phones. The purpose of this research was to develop, revise, and validate the Mobile Phone Affinity Scale, a multi-scale instrument designed to assess key factors associated with mobile phone use. Participants (N=1058, mean age 33) were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk between March and April of 2016 to complete a survey that assessed participants' mobile phone attitudes and use, anxious and depressive symptoms, and resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 6-factor model. The final measure consisted of 24 items, with 4 items on each of 6 factors: Connectedness, Productivity, Empowerment, Anxious Attachment, Addiction, and Continuous Use. The subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach alpha range=0.76-0.88, mean 0.83), and high item factor loadings (range=0.57-0.87, mean 0.75). Tests for validity further demonstrated support for the individual subscales. Mobile phone affinity may have an important impact in the development and effectiveness of mobile health interventions, and continued research is needed to assess its predictive ability in health behavior change interventions delivered via mobile phones. ©Beth C Bock, Ryan Lantini, Herpreet Thind, Kristen Walaska, Rochelle K Rosen, Joseph L Fava, Nancy P Barnett, Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 15.12.2016.

  19. Affine planes, ternary rings, and examples of non-Desarguesian planes

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a detailed self-contained exposition of a part of the theory of affine planes leading to a construction of affine (or, equivalently, projective) planes not satisfying the Desarques axiom. It is intended to complement the introductory expositions of the theory of affine and projective planes. A novelty of our exposition is a new notation for the ternary operation in a ternary ring, much more suggestive than the standard one.

  20. Density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata solving the relaxed density classification problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolnik, Barbara; Dembowski, Marcin; Bołt, Witold; Baetens, Jan M; De Baets, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the density classification problem in the context of affine continuous cellular automata. Although such cellular automata cannot solve this problem in the classical sense, most density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata with a unit neighborhood radius are valid solutions of a slightly relaxed version of this problem. This result follows from a detailed study of the dynamics of the density-conserving affine continuous cellular automata that we introduce. (paper)

  1. DFT study on the effect of exocyclic substituents on the proton affinity of 1-methylimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haining; Bara, Jason E.; Turner, C. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • DFT calculations are used to predict the proton affinity of 1-methylimidazoles. • The electron-withdrawing groups dominate the predicted proton affinity. • The effects of multiple substituents on the proton affinity can be accurately predicted. • Large compound libraries can be screened for imidazoles with tailored reactivity. - Abstract: A deeper understanding of the acid/base properties of imidazole derivatives will aid the development of solvents, polymer membranes and other materials that can be used for CO 2 capture and acid gas removal. In this study, we employ density functional theory calculations to investigate the effect of various electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups on the proton affinity of 1-methylimidazole. We find that electron-donating groups are able to increase the proton affinity relative to 1-methylimidazole, i.e., making the molecule more basic. In contrast, electron-withdrawing groups cause a decrease of the proton affinity. When multiple substituents are present, their effects on the proton affinity were found to be additive. This finding offers a quick approach for predicting and targeting the proton affinities of this series of molecules, and we show the strong correlation between the calculated proton affinities and experimental pK a values

  2. Comercialização de flores e plantas ornamentais no segmento varejista no município de Lavras/MG Flowes and ornamentals plantas commercialization in retailer segment at Lavras/MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceratti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O mercado brasileiro de flores e plantas ornamentais apresenta-se com perspectivas de crescimento e conseqüente incremento para os principais segmentos da cadeia produtiva: produção, distribuição e comercialização. Esta previsão, bastante otimista, vem atraindo para o setor novos empreendedores, com conseqüente aumento da concorrência e a constante necessidade da busca por novos produtos e serviços. Com o objetivo de compreender a nova tendência da cadeia de flores e plantas ornamentais e de avaliar a estrutura do segmento varejista no município de Lavras (MG, realizou-se um levantamento de informações junto aos estabelecimentos que comercializam flores e plantas ornamentais, no primeiro semestre de 2003. Para tanto, utilizou-se de uma pesquisa de caráter exploratório, com perguntas voltadas à estrutura operacional da empresa, além de questões sociais sobre o florista, podendo-se citar o nível de conhecimento na área e preocupação com atualização. No município não há estabelecimentos com auto-serviço de flores e plantas ornamentais, apenas floriculturas comerciais, que totalizam 11 estabelecimentos, dentre os quais, 64% realizam projetos paisagísticos, 73% oferecem trabalhos de jardinagem, e 45% possuem produção própria, sendo que esta se caracteriza, de modo geral, por plantios protegidos em pequenas áreas, voltados para o próprio abastecimento, apenas com cultivos orgânicos, simplificados, de mudas para jardim. Assim, todos dependem do fornecimento regular de plantas, em sua maioria realizado diretamente por grandes atacadistas, ponto a ponto. De maneira geral, observou-se que os varejistas limitam-se à participação na disputa de preços, mostrando-se preocupados com os altos níveis de competitividade em que o mercado encontra-se e menos interessados na diversificação dos produtos e serviços e estratégias de marketing. Por outro lado, há poucos comerciantes voltados para a oferta de produtos com

  3. Multiple affinity forms of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor in rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, T.K.; Fisher, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Binding of 125I-calcitonin gene-related peptide (125I-CGRP) to rat cerebellum membranes and the sensitivity to guanine nucleotides of binding were investigated. Cerebellum binding sites labeled by 125I-CGRP appear to be highly specific, inasmuch as CGRP inhibited binding with an IC50 of 100 pM but other peptides were inactive or much less active in displacing 125I-CGRP from these sites. 125I-CGRP binding sites in cerebellum membranes were saturable and of high affinity. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites, with a KD of 224 ± 28 pM and Bmax of 131 ± 15 fmol/mg of protein. In the presence of guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), a single population of binding sites, with a KD of 464 ± 77 pM and Bmax of 100 ± 14 fmol/mg of protein, was observed. The kinetics of association of 125I-CGRP with cerebellum membranes were monophasic at all ligand concentrations tested. However, the observed association rate constant (kobs) was not dependent on [125I-CGRP] in a linear fashion in either the absence or the presence of GTP gamma S (100 microM). The kinetics of dissociation of 125I-CGRP from cerebellum membranes were multiexponential, with fast and slow dissociating components having rate constants of 0.34 ± 0.01 and 0.025 ± 0.001 min-1, respectively. The fast dissociating component represented 60 ± 2% of the total specific binding sites. Dissociation of 125I-CGRP from cerebellum sites was much faster in the presence of GTP gamma S (100 microM) but still exhibited dissociation from two affinity components. The rate constants for these components of dissociation were 0.67 ± 0.03 and 0.077 ± 0.007 min-1, with the faster dissociating component representing 66 ± 1% of the total specific binding sites

  4. Hemoglobin oxygen affinity in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Böning

    Full Text Available In patients with cystic fibrosis lung damages cause arterial hypoxia. As a typical compensatory reaction one might expect changes in oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Therefore position (standard half saturation pressure P50st and slope (Hill's n of the O2 dissociation curve as well as the Bohr coefficients (BC for CO2 and lactic acid were determined in blood of 14 adult patients (8 males, 6 females and 14 healthy controls (6 males, 8 females. While Hill's n amounted to approximately 2.6 in all subjects, P50st was slightly increased by 1 mmHg in both patient groups (controls male 26.7 ± 0.2, controls female 27.0 ± 0.1, patients male 27.7 ± 0.5, patients female 28.0 ± 0.3 mmHg; mean and standard error, overall p<0.01. Main cause was a rise of 1-2 µmol/g hemoglobin in erythrocytic 2,3-biphosphoglycerate concentration. One patient only, clearly identified as an outlier and with the mutation G551D, showed a reduction of both P50st (24.5 mmHg and [2,3-biphosphoglycerate] (9.8 µmol/g hemoglobin. There were no differences in BCCO2, but small sex differences in the BC for lactic acid in the controls which were not detectable in the patients. Causes for the right shift of the O2 dissociation curve might be hypoxic stimulation of erythrocytic glycolysis and an increased red cell turnover both causing increased [2,3-biphosphoglycerate]. However, for situations with additional hypercapnia as observed in exercising patients a left shift seems to be a more favourable adaptation in cystic fibrosis. Additionally when in vivo PO2 values were corrected to the standard conditions they mostly lay left of the in vitro O2 dissociation curve in both patients and controls. This hints to unknown fugitive factors influencing oxygen affinity.

  5. Mathematical analysis of frontal affinity chromatography in particle and membrane configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda-Mansir, A; Montesinos, R M; Guzmán, R

    2001-10-30

    The scaleup and optimization of large-scale affinity-chromatographic operations in the recovery, separation and purification of biochemical components is of major industrial importance. The development of mathematical models to describe affinity-chromatographic processes, and the use of these models in computer programs to predict column performance is an engineering approach that can help to attain these bioprocess engineering tasks successfully. Most affinity-chromatographic separations are operated in the frontal mode, using fixed-bed columns. Purely diffusive and perfusion particles and membrane-based affinity chromatography are among the main commercially available technologies for these separations. For a particular application, a basic understanding of the main similarities and differences between particle and membrane frontal affinity chromatography and how these characteristics are reflected in the transport models is of fundamental relevance. This review presents the basic theoretical considerations used in the development of particle and membrane affinity chromatography models that can be applied in the design and operation of large-scale affinity separations in fixed-bed columns. A transport model for column affinity chromatography that considers column dispersion, particle internal convection, external film resistance, finite kinetic rate, plus macropore and micropore resistances is analyzed as a framework for exploring further the mathematical analysis. Such models provide a general realistic description of almost all practical systems. Specific mathematical models that take into account geometric considerations and transport effects have been developed for both particle and membrane affinity chromatography systems. Some of the most common simplified models, based on linear driving-force (LDF) and equilibrium assumptions, are emphasized. Analytical solutions of the corresponding simplified dimensionless affinity models are presented. Particular

  6. A single base-pair change in 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin increases human receptor affinity and leads to efficient airborne viral transmission in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Jayaraman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus continues to circulate among the human population as the predominant H1N1 subtype. Epidemiological studies and airborne transmission studies using the ferret model have shown that the transmission efficiency of 2009 H1N1 viruses is lower than that of previous seasonal strains and the 1918 pandemic H1N1 strain. We recently correlated this reduced transmission efficiency to the lower binding affinity of the 2009 H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA to α2→6 sialylated glycan receptors (human receptors. Here we report that a single point mutation (Ile219→Lys; a base pair change in the glycan receptor-binding site (RBS of a representative 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, A/California/04/09 or CA04/09, quantitatively increases its human receptor-binding affinity. The increased human receptor-affinity is in the same range as that of the HA from highly transmissible seasonal and 1918 pandemic H1N1 viruses. Moreover, a 2009 H1N1 virus carrying this mutation in the RBS (generated using reverse genetics transmits efficiently in ferrets by respiratory droplets thereby reestablishing our previously observed correlation between human receptor-binding affinity and transmission efficiency. These findings are significant in the context of monitoring the evolution of the currently circulating 2009 H1N1 viruses.

  7. New Insights into Viral Architecture via Affine Extended Symmetry Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Keef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal work of Caspar and Klug on the structure of the protein containers that encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome, it has been recognized that icosahedral symmetry is crucial for the structural organization of viruses. In particular, icosahedral symmetry has been invoked in order to predict the surface structures of viral capsids in terms of tessellations or tilings that schematically encode the locations of the protein subunits in the capsids. Whilst this approach is capable of predicting the relative locations of the proteins in the capsids, a prediction on the relative sizes of different virus particles in a family cannot be made. Moreover, information on the full 3D structure of viral particles, including the tertiary structures of the capsid proteins and the organization of the viral genome within the capsid are inaccessible with their approach. We develop here a mathematical framework based on affine extensions of the icosahedral group that allows us to address these issues. In particular, we show that the relative radii of viruses in the family of Polyomaviridae and the material boundaries in simple RNA viruses can be determined with our approach. The results complement Caspar and Klug's theory of quasi-equivalence and provide details on virus structure that have not been accessible with previous methods, implying that icosahedral symmetry is more important for virus architecture than previously appreciated.

  8. Chemical Affinity as Material Agency for Naturalizing Contextual Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Matsuno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical affinity involves the integration of two different types of interaction. One is the interaction operating between a pair of reactants while forming a chemical bond, and the other is the prior interaction between those reactants when they identify a reaction partner. The context of the environments under which chemical reactions proceed is identified by the interaction of the participating chemical reactants themselves unless the material process of internal measurement is substituted by theoretical artifacts in the form of imposed boundary conditions, as in the case, for example, of thermal equilibrium. The identification-interaction specific to each local participant serves as a preparation for the making of chemical bonds. The identification-interaction is intrinsically selective in precipitating those chemical bonds that are synthesized most rapidly among possible reactions. Once meta-stable products appear that mediate chemical syntheses and their partial decompositions without totally decomposing, those products would become selective because of their ongoing participation in the identification-interaction. One important natural example must have been the origin and evolution of life on Earth.

  9. Methods for determining the genetic affinity of microorganisms and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, George E. (Inventor); Willson, III, Richard C. (Inventor); Zhang, Zhengdong (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Selecting which sub-sequences in a database of nucleic acid such as 16S rRNA are highly characteristic of particular groupings of bacteria, microorganisms, fungi, etc. on a substantially phylogenetic tree. Also applicable to viruses comprising viral genomic RNA or DNA. A catalogue of highly characteristic sequences identified by this method is assembled to establish the genetic identity of an unknown organism. The characteristic sequences are used to design nucleic acid hybridization probes that include the characteristic sequence or its complement, or are derived from one or more characteristic sequences. A plurality of these characteristic sequences is used in hybridization to determine the phylogenetic tree position of the organism(s) in a sample. Those target organisms represented in the original sequence database and sufficient characteristic sequences can identify to the species or subspecies level. Oligonucleotide arrays of many probes are especially preferred. A hybridization signal can comprise fluorescence, chemiluminescence, or isotopic labeling, etc.; or sequences in a sample can be detected by direct means, e.g. mass spectrometry. The method's characteristic sequences can also be used to design specific PCR primers. The method uniquely identifies the phylogenetic affinity of an unknown organism without requiring prior knowledge of what is present in the sample. Even if the organism has not been previously encountered, the method still provides useful information about which phylogenetic tree bifurcation nodes encompass the organism.

  10. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1 complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourlay Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes.

  11. Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya; Sanchez, Sophie; Senden, Tim; Trinajstic, Kate; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2017-07-01

    Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, 1890 is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described. Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish (Myxinoidea). However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. Additionally, new tomographic data reveal that the following characters of crown-group gnathostomes (chondrichthyans + osteichthyans) are present in Palaeospondylus: a longer telencephalic region of the braincase, separation of otic and occipital regions by the otico-occipital fissure, and vertebral centra. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans. Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. gunni as a stem chondrichthyan. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes.

  12. Isotopic enrichments via altered first and second solution electron affinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.; Espe, M.P.; Reiter, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Electron spin resonance experiments have been utilized to show that the solution electron affinity of benzene- 13 C 6 is less than that of benzene by 0.24 kcal/mol and that the solution EA of benzene-d 6 is less than that of benzene by 0.44 kcal/mol. Perdeuteration of naphthalene, anthracene, or perylene results in a very similar lowering of the solution EA of the hydrocarbon as evidenced by the fact that the equilibrium constant for the electron transfer between the hydrocarbon anion radical, X/sup .-/, and the perdeuterated hydrocarbon, Xd (X/sup .-/ + Xd = Xd/sup .-/ + X), is less than unity. Likewise the second EAs of perdeuterated perylene and anthracene are lower than those of the unsubstituted hydrocarbons (K/sub eq/ for X 2- + Xd/sup .-/ = X/sup .-/ + Xd 2- is less than unity). The free energy and enthalpy of electron transfer from the anthracene anion radical to perdeuterated anthracene is 0.41 kcal/mol and that from the anthracene dianion to the perdeuterated anion radical is 0.10 kcal/mol. The fact that these equilibrium constants are not equal to 1 enables one to use the difference in the chemical reactivity of the ions and neutral molecules to selectively isotopically enrich the hydrocarbons involved

  13. Aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns for affinity glycoprotein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armutcu, Canan; Bereli, Nilay; Bayram, Engin; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2014-02-01

    Novel aspartic acid incorporated monolithic columns were prepared to efficiently affinity purify immunoglobulin G (IgG) from human plasma. The monolithic columns were synthesised in a stainless steel HPLC column (20 cm × 5 mm id) by in situ bulk polymerisation of N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid (MAAsp), a polymerisable derivative of L-aspartic acid, and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Monolithic columns [poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid) (PHEMAsp)] were characterised by swelling studies, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The monolithic columns were used for IgG adsorption/desorption from aqueous solutions and human plasma. The IgG adsorption depended on the buffer type, and the maximum IgG adsorption from aqueous solution in phosphate buffer was 0.085 mg/g at pH 6.0. The monolithic columns allowed for one-step IgG purification with a negligible capacity decrease after ten adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The affinity of the uranyl ion for nitrogen donor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, N.V. (Atomic Energy Corp. of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Process Technology); De Sousa, A.S.; Hancock, R.D. (Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Centre for Molecular Design)

    1992-01-01

    Established ligand design principles are used to predict the solution chemistry of UO[sub 2][sup 2+] with nitrogen donor ligands which do not contain carboxylate donors. pK[sub a]'s of the nitrogen donors are lowered by addition of hydroxylalkyl groups causing UO[sub 2][sup 2+] to have a greater affinity for these ligands than for hydroxide. Potentiometric studies using the ligands N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)1,2-diaminoethane, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine with UO[sub 2][sup 2+] showed that UO[sub 2][sup 2+] has a considerable aqueous solution chemistry with these ligands. (orig.).

  15. The affinity plutonium(IV) for nitrogen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, N.V.; Hancock, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Established ligand design principles are used to predict the solution chemistry of Pu(IV) with nitrogen donor ligands which do not contain carboxylate donors. pK a 's of the nitrogen donors are lowered by addition of hydroxyalkyl groups causing Pu(IV) to have a greater affinity for these ligands than for hydroxide. Potentiometric studies using the ligands N,N,N'N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N''-pentakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,7-triazaheptane; N,N,N',N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane; N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane; 1,4,8,11-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine with Pu(IV) showed that Pu(IV) has a considerable aqueous solution chemistry with these ligands. Data were processed by the ESTA library of programs and stability constants for all the systems are reported. Implications for selective ligand design for Pu(IV) are discussed. (orig.)

  16. On dynamic equations for interaction of the affinor field with affine connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    The Lagrangian of interaction of an affinor field with an affine connection is constructed and the equations of motion and conservation laws are derived. It is shown that there exists a symmetric conserved tensor of the affine-connection energy-momentum

  17. Na+,K+-ATPase Na+ affinity in rat skeletal muscle fiber types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in expression systems have found different ion activation of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase isozymes, which suggest that different muscles have different ion affinities. The rate of ATP hydrolysis was used to quantify Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and the Na(+) affinity of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase...

  18. Affinity for Quantitative Tools: Undergraduate Marketing Students Moving beyond Quantitative Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasi, Crina O.; Wilson, J. Holton; Puri, Cheenu; Divine, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Marketing students are known as less likely to have an affinity for the quantitative aspects of the marketing discipline. In this article, we study the reasons why this might be true and develop a parsimonious 20-item scale for measuring quantitative affinity in undergraduate marketing students. The scale was administered to a sample of business…

  19. High affinity calmodulin target sequence in the signalling molecule PI 3-kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, R; Julsgart, J; Berchtold, M W

    1998-01-01

    M-binding peptide derived from the p110gamma isoform interacts with CaM in a calcium-dependent way. Using gel shift analysis and fluorescence spectrophotometry we discovered that the peptide forms a high affinity complex with CaM. Titration experiments using dansylated CaM gave an affinity constant of 5 n...

  20. The application of magnetic force differentiation for the measurement of the affinity of peptide libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Hao; Kirkham, Perry M.; Myers, Tina M.; Cassell, Gail H.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring the binding affinity of phage displayed peptides and a target protein using magnetic particles. The specific interaction between the phage displayed peptides and the target protein was subject to a force generated by the magnetic particle. The binding affinity was obtained by analyzing the force-bond lifetime

  1. Complementary three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of binding affinity and functional potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosco, Paolo; Ahring, Philip K; Dyhring, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Complementary 3D-QSAR modeling of binding affinity and functional potency is proposed as a tool to pinpoint the molecular features of the ligands, and the corresponding amino acids in the receptor, responsible for high affinity binding vs those driving agonist behavior and receptor activation. Th...

  2. Improved methodology for the affinity isolation of human protein complexes expressed at near endogenous levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanski, Michal; Molloy, Kelly; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and reliable procedure for the capture of affinity-tagged proteins and associated complexes from human cell lines is reported. Through multiple optimizations, high yield and low background affinity-purifications are achieved from modest quantities of human cells expressing endogenous...

  3. Affinity resins as new tools for identifying target proteins of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Yuji; Nishino, Kohei; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ito, Hideyuki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Tai, Akihiro

    2018-02-12

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA) has diverse physiological functions, but little is known about the functional mechanisms of AA. In this study, we synthesized two types of affinity resin on which AA is immobilized in a stable form to identify new AA-targeted proteins, which can provide important clues for elucidating unknown functional mechanisms of AA. To our knowledge, an affinity resin on which AA as a ligand is immobilized has not been prepared, because AA is very unstable and rapidly degraded in an aqueous solution. By using the affinity resins, cytochrome c (cyt c) was identified as an AA-targeted protein, and we showed that oxidized cyt c exhibits specific affinity for AA. These results suggest that two kinds of AA-affinity resin can be powerful tools to identify new target proteins of AA.

  4. Role of the T cell receptor ligand affinity in T cell activation by bacterial superantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Geisler, C; Buus, S

    2001-01-01

    Similar to native peptide/MHC ligands, bacterial superantigens have been found to bind with low affinity to the T cell receptor (TCR). It has been hypothesized that low ligand affinity is required to allow optimal TCR signaling. To test this, we generated variants of Staphylococcus enterotoxin C3...... (SEC3) with up to a 150-fold increase in TCR affinity. By stimulating T cells with SEC3 molecules immobilized onto plastic surfaces, we demonstrate that increasing the affinity of the SEC3/TCR interaction caused a proportional increase in the ability of SEC3 to activate T cells. Thus, the potency...... correlation between ligand affinity and ligand potency indicating that it is the density of receptor-ligand complexes in the T cell contact area that determines TCR signaling strength....

  5. [An examination of the determinants of social withdrawal and affinity for social withdrawal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Asami; Matsui, Yutaka; Takatsuka, Yusuke

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the determinants of social withdrawal using data from a survey by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Office for Youth Affairs and Public Safety (2008). In addition, this study identified young people who showed an affinity for social withdrawal although they were not in a state of withdrawal, and examined the determinants of an affinity for social withdrawal. The results of stepwise discriminant analysis showed that factors such as social phobia, depression, violence, and emotional bonds with family differentiated between the general youth group and the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". Social phobia, violence, and refusal to be interfered in self-decision making differentiated between the social withdrawal group and the "affinity group". This study shows that an "affinity group" should be cared as well as an actual withdrawal group.

  6. Atividade de alguns insetos em flores de Brassica napus L. em Dourados-MS e a interação com fatores climáticos Activity of some insects in Brassica napus L. flowers at Dourados-MS and the interaction with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Mara Mussury

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a flutuação populacional, horários de visitação e a interação com fatores climáticos de insetos visitantes de flores de Brassica napus L. em diversos estádios fenológicos. O trabalho foi realizado em Dourados, MS, Brasil. Os insetos foram coletados com rede entomológica de 30 cm de diâmetro, a cada duas horas, no período de 7 as 17 horas. Foram coletadas as abelhas Apis mellifera, Linnaeus, 1758, Trigona sp., o vespídeo Brachygastra lecheguana (Latreille - 1824 e uma espécie de Chloropidae (Diptera, que foi a mais abundante e freqüente nas amostragens. O pico populacional da maioria dos insetos foi das 9 às 15 horas; contudo, para Trigona sp., foi entre 9 e 11 horas. A maior frequência de insetos ocorreu durante o estádio fenológico III. A análise de correlação evidenciou que a umidade relativa entre 11 horas (r = 0,57 e 13 horas (r = 0,43 favoreceu a ocorrência do díptero da família Chloropidae. Reduções nas populações de insetos do estádio III para o IV foram devidas, provavelmente, a temperaturas mais baixas, que atingiram a média de 16,1ºC.The objective of this work was to study the populational fluctuation, the preferred visiting time, and the interaction with climatic factors in several phenological stages from visitant insects in Brassica napus L. flowers. The study was accomplished in Dourados-MS, Brazil. The insects were collected with a 30-cm wide entomologic sweep net every 2 hours from 7h00 to 17h00. Apis mellifera L., 1758, Trigona sp., and Brachygastra lecheguana (Latreille - 1824 were gathered in B. napus flowers. A dipterous from the Chloropidae family was the insect with the largest populational density in the samples. The large occurrence of most pollinators was between 9h00 and 15h00, but Trigona sp. was present in larger numbers between 9h00 and 11h00. The largest frequency of pollinator insects occurred during stage III of flowering. The correlation analysis indicated

  7. Affinity-based biosensors in sport medicine and doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Franco; Antiochia, Riccarda; Botrè, Francesco; Favero, Gabriele; Tortolini, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Affinity-based biosensors (ABBs) have started to be considered in sport medicine and doping control analysis because they are cheap, easy to use and sufficiently selective analytical devices, characterized by a reversible interaction with the analyte under investigation allowing the use of the same sensor for multiple analyses. In this review we describe the main categories of substances reported in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List and how ABBs may contribute to their detection. Although several ABBs proposed in the last few years display limit of detections that are in principle matching the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements, their application in the framework of 'traditional' antidoping tests seems quite unlikely, mainly because of the still insufficient selectivity especially in the case of 'pseudo-endogenous' compounds, and on the lack of complete information regarding potential matrix effects in real samples and following their routine use. At the same time, ABBs could contribute to fill a significant information gap concerning complementary evidence that can be obtained from their use 'on the spot', as well as to preselect a risk population of individuals to be targeted for a full antidoping test; while in sport medicine they could contribute to obtaining analytical information of physiological relevance from the measurement of specific parameters or markers before, during and after physical exercise.

  8. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  9. A new Late Devonian genus with seed plant affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le

    2015-02-26

    Many ovules of Late Devonian (Famennian) seed plants have been well studied. However, because few taxa occur with anatomically preserved stems and/or petioles, the vascular system of these earliest spermatophytes is little understood and available data come mostly from Euramerica. There remains great controversy over the anatomical differentiation of Late Devonian and Carboniferous seed plant groups of Buteoxylonales, Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales. Protostele evolution of these early spermatophytes needs more research. A new taxon Yiduxylon trilobum gen. et sp. nov. with seed plant affinities has been discovered in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Tizikou Formation of Hubei Province, China. It is represented by stems, helically arranged and bifurcate fronds with two orders of pinnae and planate pinnules. Both secondary pinnae and pinnules are borne alternately. Stems contain a small protostele with three primary xylem ribs possessing a single peripheral protoxylem strand. Thick secondary xylem displays multiseriate bordered pitting on the tangential and radial walls of the tracheids, and has biseriate to multiseriate and high rays. A narrow cortex consists of inner cortex without sclerotic nests and sparganum-type outer cortex with peripheral bands of vertically aligned sclerenchyma cells. Two leaf traces successively arise tangentially from each primary xylem rib and they divide once to produce four circular-oval traces in the stem cortex. Four vascular bundles occur in two C-shaped groups at each petiole base with ground tissue and peripheral bands of sclerenchyma cells. Yiduxylon justifies the assignment to a new genus mainly because of the protostele with protoxylem strands only near the periphery of primary xylem ribs, leaf trace origination and petiolar vascular supply structure. It shares many definitive characters with Calamopityales and Lyginopteridales, further underscoring the anatomical similarities among early seed plants. The primary vascular

  10. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.

    1988-01-25

    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.

  11. Benzonitrile: Electron affinity, excited states, and anion solvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Andrew R.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We report a negative-ion photoelectron imaging study of benzonitrile and several of its hydrated, oxygenated, and homo-molecularly solvated cluster anions. The photodetachment from the unsolvated benzonitrile anion to the X ˜ 1 A 1 state of the neutral peaks at 58 ± 5 meV. This value is assigned as the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the valence anion and the upper bound of adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of benzonitrile. The EA of the lowest excited electronic state of benzonitrile, a ˜ 3 A 1 , is determined as 3.41 ± 0.01 eV, corresponding to a 3.35 eV lower bound for the singlet-triplet splitting. The next excited state, the open-shell singlet A ˜ 1 A 1 , is found about an electron-volt above the triplet, with a VDE of 4.45 ± 0.01 eV. These results are in good agreement with ab initio calculations for neutral benzonitrile and its valence anion but do not preclude the existence of a dipole-bound state of similar energy and geometry. The step-wise and cumulative solvation energies of benzonitrile anions by several types of species were determined, including homo-molecular solvation by benzonitrile, hydration by 1-3 waters, oxygenation by 1-3 oxygen molecules, and mixed solvation by various combinations of O2, H2O, and benzonitrile. The plausible structures of the dimer anion of benzonitrile were examined using density functional theory and compared to the experimental observations. It is predicted that the dimer anion favors a stacked geometry capitalizing on the π-π interactions between the two partially charged benzonitrile moieties.

  12. The first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine reactivates memory B cells: evidence for extensive clonal selection, intraclonal affinity maturation, and multiple isotype switches to IgA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Ditzel, H J

    1999-01-01

    selected, and expanded population of cells existing before vaccination, i.e., memory B cells. The dominating heavy and light chains of the response were combined in a Fab that bound HibCP. It was shown that the shared heavy and light chain mutations increased the affinity for HibCP considerably, indicating...

  13. Abundancia de colibríes y uso de flores en un bosque templado del sureste de México Hummingbird abundance and flowers use in a template forest from Southeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Partida Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La abundancia de los colibríes puede variar por la fenología de floración de las plantas de las que se alimentan. Sin embargo, la información sobre la interacción colibrí-flor es limitada en ambientes tropicales de montaña. En este estudio se evaluó la abundancia de colibríes con redes de niebla y se registró la fenología de floración mensual de las flores visitadas por los colibríes en tres ambientes (bosque de encino, de neblina y matorral en la Reserva Ecológica Huitepec, Chiapas, México de enero a agosto 2010. Cuatro especies de colibríes (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami y Eugenes fulgens se registraron y sus abundancias variaron entre ambientes (H3.8=14.8, p=0.001. Siete especies de plantas fueron visitadas por los colibríes, y presentaron una mayor floración formando parches durante la temporada de secas. En el matorral se concentró el mayor número de especies de plantas con flores. Fuchsia paniculata presentó el mayor periodo de floración aunque solo fue visitada por H. leucotis. Passiflora membranacea fue la única especie visitada por las cuatro especies de colibríes. La única asociación positiva fue la abundancia de E. fulgens con la floración de P. membranacea (rS=0.93, p=0.02. Las fluctuaciones de las abundancias de colibríes en este estudio están en cierta forma determinadas por las interacciones del recurso floral y su distribución en el ambienteHummingbird abundance varies with plant bloom phenology used for feeding. However, the information on hummingbird-flower interaction is limited for tropical mountain environments. We evaluated hummingbird abundance using mist nest and estimated monthly flowering phenology visited by hummingbirds in three different habitats (oak forest, cloud forest and bush from January to August 2010 in Huitepec Ecological Reserve. We recorded four hummingbird species (Hylocharis leucotis, Lampornis amethystinus, Lamprolaima rhami and Eugenes

  14. Differential affinity of mammalian histone H1 somatic subtypes for DNA and chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Xavier

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is involved in the formation and maintenance of chromatin higher order structure. H1 has multiple isoforms; the subtypes differ in timing of expression, extent of phosphorylation and turnover rate. In vertebrates, the amino acid substitution rates differ among subtypes by almost one order of magnitude, suggesting that each subtype might have acquired a unique function. We have devised a competitive assay to estimate the relative binding affinities of histone H1 mammalian somatic subtypes H1a-e and H1° for long chromatin fragments (30–35 nucleosomes in physiological salt (0.14 M NaCl at constant stoichiometry. Results The H1 complement of native chromatin was perturbed by adding an additional amount of one of the subtypes. A certain amount of SAR (scaffold-associated region DNA was present in the mixture to avoid precipitation of chromatin by excess H1. SAR DNA also provided a set of reference relative affinities, which were needed to estimate the relative affinities of the subtypes for chromatin from the distribution of the subtypes between the SAR and the chromatin. The amounts of chromatin, SAR and additional H1 were adjusted so as to keep the stoichiometry of perturbed chromatin similar to that of native chromatin. H1 molecules freely exchanged between the chromatin and SAR binding sites. In conditions of free exchange, H1a was the subtype of lowest affinity, H1b and H1c had intermediate affinities and H1d, H1e and H1° the highest affinities. Subtype affinities for chromatin differed by up to 19-fold. The relative affinities of the subtypes for chromatin were equivalent to those estimated for a SAR DNA fragment and a pUC19 fragment of similar length. Avian H5 had an affinity ~12-fold higher than H1e for both DNA and chromatin. Conclusion H1 subtypes freely exchange in vitro between chromatin binding sites in physiological salt (0.14 M NaCl. The large differences in relative affinity of the H1 subtypes for

  15. Cooperação e localidade: uma análise no contexto do agronegócio de flores Cooperation and locality: an analysis in the context of flowers agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro de Castro Nunes Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a cooperação e o papel da localidade no contexto do agronegócio de flores e plantas ornamentais. Para tanto, traz seu arcabouço teórico estruturado no tripé: localidade, cooperativismo e ações conjuntas. Essa pesquisa foi desenvolvida em duas importantes regiões de produção e comercialização: Holambra e Mogi das Cruzes. A abordagem metodológica utilizada foi de pesquisa exploratória com a condução de um levantamento do tipo survey. A pesquisa de campo obteve 90 questionários válidos, cujos entrevistados foram produtores rurais, que pertencem a pelo menos uma das cooperativas e/ou associações presentes nas localidades estudadas. Os resultados mostram que há uma prática de ações de parcerias entre os produtores pesquisados e que a etnia aparece como um dos fatores indutores dessa cooperação.This paper presents a study about cooperation and the locality role flowers and ornamental plants agribusiness. Thus, the theoretical framework is based on: locality, cooperatives and joint actions. This research was developed in two important regions of production and commercialization: Holambra and Mogi das Cruzes. The methodological approach was based on an exploratory research in which a survey was performed. The field research got 90 valid questionnaires from producers, related at least to one of the cooperatives and/or associations in studied localities. The results show that there are partnership actions among the interviewed producers, which have strong influences of the ethnic factor on this cooperation.

  16. Geographical affinities of the HapMap samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao He

    Full Text Available The HapMap samples were collected for medical-genetic studies, but are also widely used in population-genetic and evolutionary investigations. Yet the ascertainment of the samples differs from most population-genetic studies which collect individuals who live in the same local region as their ancestors. What effects could this non-standard ascertainment have on the interpretation of HapMap results?We compared the HapMap samples with more conventionally-ascertained samples used in population- and forensic-genetic studies, including the HGDP-CEPH panel, making use of published genome-wide autosomal SNP data and Y-STR haplotypes, as well as producing new Y-STR data. We found that the HapMap samples were representative of their broad geographical regions of ancestry according to all tests applied. The YRI and JPT were indistinguishable from independent samples of Yoruba and Japanese in all ways investigated. However, both the CHB and the CEU were distinguishable from all other HGDP-CEPH populations with autosomal markers, and both showed Y-STR similarities to unusually large numbers of populations, perhaps reflecting their admixed origins.The CHB and JPT are readily distinguished from one another with both autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers, and results obtained after combining them into a single sample should be interpreted with caution. The CEU are better described as being of Western European ancestry than of Northern European ancestry as often reported. Both the CHB and CEU show subtle but detectable signs of admixture. Thus the YRI and JPT samples are well-suited to standard population-genetic studies, but the CHB and CEU less so.

  17. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  18. Evaluación del uso de señales visuales y de localización por el colibrí cola-ancha (Selasphorus platycercus al visitar flores de Penstemon roseus Evaluation of the use of visual and location cues by the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercusforaging in flowers of Penstemon roseus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pérez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los colibríes la memoria espacial desempeña un papel importante durante el forrajeo. Éste se basa en el uso de señales específicas (visuales o en señales espaciales (localización de flores y plantas con néctar. Sin embargo, el uso de estas señales por los colibríes puede variar de acuerdo con la escala espacial que enfrentan cuando visitan flores de una o más plantas durante el forrajeo; ésto se puso a prueba con individuos del colibrí cola-ancha Selasphorus platycercus. Por otro lado, para evaluar la posible variación en el uso de las señales, se llevaron a cabo experimentos en condiciones semi-naturales utilizando flores de la planta Penstemon roseus, nativa del sitio de estudio. A través de la manipulación de la presencia/ausencia de una recompensa (néctar y señales visuales, evaluamos el uso de la memoria espacial durante el forrajeo entre 2 plantas (experimento 1 y dentro de una sola planta (experimento 2. Los resultados demostraron que los colibríes utilizaron la memoria de localización de la planta de cuyas flores obtuvieron recompensa, independientemente de la presencia de señales visuales. Por el contrario, en flores individuales de una sola planta, después de un corto periodo de aprendizaje los colibríes pueden utilizar las señales visuales para guiar su forrajeo y discriminar las flores sin recompensa. Asimismo, en ausencia de señales visuales los individuos basaron su forrajeo en la memoria de localización de la flor con recompensa visitada previamente. Estos resultados sugieren plasticidad en el comportamiento de forrajeo de los colibríes influenciada por la escala espacial y por la información adquirida en visitas previas.In hummingbirds spatial memory plays an important role during foraging. It is based in use of specific cues (visual or spatial cues (location of flowers and plants with nectar. However, use of these cues by hummingbirds may change according to the spatial scale they face when visit

  19. Specificity and affinity quantification of flexible recognition from underlying energy landscape topography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Chu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility in biomolecular recognition is essential and critical for many cellular activities. Flexible recognition often leads to moderate affinity but high specificity, in contradiction with the conventional wisdom that high affinity and high specificity are coupled. Furthermore, quantitative understanding of the role of flexibility in biomolecular recognition is still challenging. Here, we meet the challenge by quantifying the intrinsic biomolecular recognition energy landscapes with and without flexibility through the underlying density of states. We quantified the thermodynamic intrinsic specificity by the topography of the intrinsic binding energy landscape and the kinetic specificity by association rate. We found that the thermodynamic and kinetic specificity are strongly correlated. Furthermore, we found that flexibility decreases binding affinity on one hand, but increases binding specificity on the other hand, and the decreasing or increasing proportion of affinity and specificity are strongly correlated with the degree of flexibility. This shows more (less flexibility leads to weaker (stronger coupling between affinity and specificity. Our work provides a theoretical foundation and quantitative explanation of the previous qualitative studies on the relationship among flexibility, affinity and specificity. In addition, we found that the folding energy landscapes are more funneled with binding, indicating that binding helps folding during the recognition. Finally, we demonstrated that the whole binding-folding energy landscapes can be integrated by the rigid binding and isolated folding energy landscapes under weak flexibility. Our results provide a novel way to quantify the affinity and specificity in flexible biomolecular recognition.

  20. Identification of an adeno-associated virus binding epitope for AVB sepharose affinity resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    Full Text Available Recent successes of adeno-associated virus (AAV–based gene therapy have created a demand for large-scale AAV vector manufacturing and purification techniques for use in clinical trials and beyond. During the development of purification protocols for rh.10, hu.37, AAV8, rh.64R1, AAV3B, and AAV9 vectors, based on a widely used affinity resin, AVB sepharose (GE, we found that, under the same conditions, different serotypes have different affinities to the resin, with AAV3B binding the best and AAV9 the poorest. Further analysis revealed a surface-exposed residue (amino acid number 665 in AAV8 VP1 numbering differs between the high-affinity AAV serotypes (serine in AAV3B, rh.10, and hu.37 and the low-affinity ones (asparagine in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9. The residue locates within a surface-exposed, variable epitope flanked by highly conserved residues. The substitution of the epitope in AAV8, rh.64R1, and AAV9 with the corresponding epitope of AAV3B (SPAKFA resulted in greatly increased affinity to AVB sepharose with no reduction in the vectors’ in vitro potency. The presence of the newly identified AVB-binding epitope will be useful for affinity resin selection for the purification of novel AAV serotypes. It also suggests the possibility of vector engineering to yield a universal affinity chromatography purification method for multiple AAV serotypes.

  1. Production and Characterization of Desmalonichrome Relative Binding Affinity for Uranyl Ions in Relation to Other Siderophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Kai-For; Dai, Ziyu; Wunschel, David S.

    2016-06-24

    Siderophores are Fe binding secondary metabolites that have been investigated for their uranium binding properties. Much of the previous work has focused on characterizing hydroxamate types of siderophores, such as desferrioxamine B, for their uranyl binding affinity. Carboxylate forms of these metabolites hold potential to be more efficient chelators of uranyl, yet they have not been widely studied and are more difficult to obtain. Desmalonichrome is a carboxylate siderophore which is not commercially available and so was obtained from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium oxysporum cultivated under Fe depleted conditions. The relative affinity for uranyl binding of desmalonichrome was investigated using a competitive analysis of binding affinities between uranyl acetate and different concentrations of iron(III) chloride using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In addition to desmalonichrome, three other siderophores, including two hydroxamates (desferrioxamine B and desferrichrome) and one carboxylate (desferrichrome A) were studied to understand their relative affinities for the uranyl ion at two pH values. The binding affinities of hydroxymate siderophores to uranyl ion were found to decrease to a greater degree at lower pH as the concentration of Fe (III) ion increases. On the other hand, lowering pH has little impact on the binding affinities between carboxylate siderophores and uranyl ion. Desmalonichrome was shown to have the greatest relative affinity for uranyl at any pH and Fe(III) concentration. These results suggest that acidic functional groups in the ligands are critical for strong chelation with uranium at lower pH.

  2. Affinity purification using recombinant PXR as a tool to characterize environmental ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Bellet, Virginie; Grimaldi, Marina; Riu, Anne; Aït-Aïssa, Sélim; Cavaillès, Vincent; Fenet, Hélène; Balaguer, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Many environmental endocrine disrupting compounds act as ligands for nuclear receptors. The human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), for instance, is activated by a variety of environmental ligands such as steroids, pharmaceutical drugs, pesticides, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybromo diethylethers. Some of us have previously reported the occurrence of hPXR ligands in environmental samples but failed to identify them. The aim of this study was to test whether a PXR-affinity column, in which recombinant hPXR was immobilized on solid support, could help the purification of these chemicals. Using PXR ligands of different affinity (10 nM < EC50 < 10 μM), we demonstrated that the PXR-affinity preferentially column captured ligands with medium to high affinities (EC50 < 1 μM). Furthermore, by using the PXR-affinity column to analyze an environmental sample containing ERα, AhR, AR, and PXR activities, we show that (i) half of the PXR activity of the sample was due to compounds with medium to high affinity for PXR and (ii) PXR shared ligands with ERα, AR, and AhR. These findings demonstrate that the newly developed PXR-affinity column coupled to reporter cell lines represents a valuable tool for the characterization of the nature of PXR active compounds and should therefore guide and facilitate their further analysis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  3. Influence of bone affinity on the skeletal distribution of fluorescently labeled bisphosphonates in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Anke J; Stewart, Charlotte A; Sun, Shuting; Błażewska, Katarzyna M; Kashemirov, Boris A; McKenna, Charles E; Russell, R Graham G; Rogers, Michael J; Lundy, Mark W; Ebetino, Frank H; Coxon, Fraser P

    2012-04-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used antiresorptive drugs that bind to calcium. It has become evident that these drugs have differing affinities for bone mineral; however, it is unclear whether such differences affect their distribution on mineral surfaces. In this study, fluorescent conjugates of risedronate, and its lower-affinity analogues deoxy-risedronate and 3-PEHPC, were used to compare the localization of compounds with differing mineral affinities in vivo. Binding to dentine in vitro confirmed differences in mineral binding between compounds, which was influenced predominantly by the characteristics of the parent compound but also by the choice of fluorescent tag. In growing rats, all compounds preferentially bound to forming endocortical as opposed to resorbing periosteal surfaces in cortical bone, 1 day after administration. At resorbing surfaces, lower-affinity compounds showed preferential binding to resorption lacunae, whereas the highest-affinity compound showed more uniform labeling. At forming surfaces, penetration into the mineralizing osteoid was found to inversely correlate with mineral affinity. These differences in distribution at resorbing and forming surfaces were not observed at quiescent surfaces. Lower-affinity compounds also showed a relatively higher degree of labeling of osteocyte lacunar walls and labeled lacunae deeper within cortical bone, indicating increased penetration of the osteocyte canalicular network. Similar differences in mineralizing surface and osteocyte network penetration between high- and low-affinity compounds were evident 7 days after administration, with fluorescent conjugates at forming surfaces buried under a new layer of bone. Fluorescent compounds were incorporated into these areas of newly formed bone, indicating that "recycling" had occurred, albeit at very low levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that the bone mineral affinity of bisphosphonates is likely to influence their distribution within the

  4. Methyl cation affinities of neutral and anionic maingroup-element hydrides: trends across the periodic table and correlation with proton affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R Joshua; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2010-07-22

    We have computed the methyl cation affinities in the gas phase of archetypal anionic and neutral bases across the periodic table using ZORA-relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at BP86/QZ4P//BP86/TZ2P. The main purpose of this work is to provide the methyl cation affinities (and corresponding entropies) at 298 K of all anionic (XH(n-1)(-)) and neutral bases (XH(n)) constituted by maingroup-element hydrides of groups 14-17 and the noble gases (i.e., group 18) along the periods 2-6. The cation affinity of the bases decreases from H(+) to CH(3)(+). To understand this trend, we have carried out quantitative bond energy decomposition analyses (EDA). Quantitative correlations are established between the MCA and PA values.

  5. Composition, Endemism and Phytogeographical Affinities of the Taiwan Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Fu Hsieh

    2002-12-01

    from tropical Asia to eastern Asia (232 species; 4. species distributed in Japan and the Ryukyus (189 species; 5. species distributed in temperate and subboreal regions (221 species; and 6. cosmopolitan species (72 species. The main theme of western affinity of Taiwan flora is clearly indicated by almost 52% of the total flora (2069 species which are also represented in China. The alliances of the flora are also pronounced with the Ryukyus and southern Japan (1618 species in common. However, the close relationship between Taiwan and Japan is through their mutual relation to the lowland flora of southern and eastern China. The tropical elements, mostly ranging from Malaysia to the Philippines, are well represented in the lowlands of Taiwan and particularly in the southernmost Hengchun Peninsula and the Lanyu Island off the southeast coast of Taiwan.

  6. The Effect of Volcanic Ash Composition on Ice Nucleation Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genareau, K. D.; Cloer, S.; Primm, K.; Woods, T.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the role that volcanic ash plays in ice nucleation is important for knowledge of lightning generation in both volcanic plumes and in clouds developing downwind from active volcanoes. Volcanic ash has long been suggested to influence heterogeneous ice nucleation following explosive eruptions, but determining precisely how composition and mineralogy affects ice nucleation affinity (INA) is poorly constrained. For the study presented here, volcanic ash samples with different compositions and mineral/glass contents were tested in both the deposition and immersion modes, following the methods presented in Schill et al. (2015). Bulk composition was determined with X-ray fluorescence (XRF), grain size distribution was determined with laser diffraction particle size analysis (LDPSA), and mineralogy was determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of the deposition-mode experiments reveal that there is no relationship between ice saturation ratios (Sice) and either mineralogy or bulk ash composition, as all samples have similar Sice ratios. In the immersion-mode experiments, frozen fractions were determined from -20 °C to -50 °C using three different amounts of ash (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt% of slurry). Results from the immersion freezing reveal that the rhyolitic samples (73 wt% SiO2) nucleate ice at higher temperatures compared to the basaltic samples (49 wt% SiO2). There is no observed correlation between frozen fractions and mineral content of ash samples, but the two most efficient ice nuclei are rhyolites that contain the greatest proportion of amorphous glass (> 90 %), and are enriched in K2O relative to transition metals (MnO and TiO2), the latter of which show a negative correlation with frozen fraction. Higher ash abundance in water droplets increases the frozen fraction at all temperatures, indicating that ash amount plays the biggest role in ice nucleation. If volcanic ash can reach sufficient abundance (

  7. Constraints on the affinity term for modeling long-term glass dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Carroll, S.A.; Phillips, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Predictions of long-term glass dissolution rates are highly dependent on the form of the affinity term in the rate expression. Analysis of the quantitative effect of saturation state on glass dissolution rate for CSG glass (a simple analog of SRL-165 glass), shows that a simple (1-Q/K) affinity term does not match experimental results. Our data at 100 degree C show that the data is better fit by an affinity term having the form (1 - (Q/K) 1 /σ) where σ = 10

  8. Affinity of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts on different cerebral receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencini, Cristina; Cavallo, Federica; Bruni, Giancarlo; Capasso, Anna; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura; Giorgi, Giorgio; Micheli, Lucia

    2006-05-24

    Iresine herbstii Hook. (Amaranthaceae) and Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerheim (Solanaceae) are used in the northern Peruvian Andes for magic-therapeutical purposes. The traditional healers use Iresine herbstii with the ritual aim to expel bad spirits from the body. Furthermore, Iresine herbstii was used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose, for divination, to diagnose diseases, and to take possession of another identity. Also, species of Brugmansia have been reported to be used during ritual practices for magical and curative purposes. Given the above evidence, the aim of the present study is to evaluate if the central effects of Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea could be associated with interaction with SNC receptors. Two Iresine herbstii extracts (methanolic and aqueous) and one Brugmansia arborea aqueous extract were tested for in vitro affinity on 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), D1, D2, alpha(1), and alpha(2) receptors by radioligand binding assays. The biological materials for binding assay (cerebral cortex) were taken from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The extracts affinity for receptors is definite as inhibition percentage of radioligand/receptor binding and measured as the radioactivity of remaining complex radioligand/receptor. The data obtained for Iresine extracts have shown a low affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and no affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptor. Otherwise the methanolic extract showed affinity for 5-HT(2C) receptor (IC(50): 34.78 microg/ml) and for D1 receptor (IC(50): 19.63 microg/ml), instead the Iresine aqueous extract displayed a lower affinity for D1 (48.3% at the maximum concentration tested) and a higher value of affinity for D2 receptors (IC(50): 32.08 microg/ml). The Brugmansia aqueous extract displayed affinity for D1 receptors (IC(50): 17.68 microg/ml), D2 receptors (IC(50): 15.95 microg/ml) and weak affinity for the serotoninergic receptors. None of the three extracts showed relevant affinity

  9. The phylogenetic affinities of Trachylepis sulcata nigra and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best predictor of melanism along the coastline in this population is a high number of fog days per year, a finding consistent with studies of melanism in cordylid lizards in southern Africa. Further sampling may determine gene flow levels occurring across the contact zone of melanistic and non-melanistic phenotypes and ...

  10. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted.

  11. Class of the affine line is a zero divisor in the Grothendieck ring

    OpenAIRE

    Borisov, Lev

    2014-01-01

    We show that the class of the affine line is a zero divisor in the Grothendieck ring of algebraic varieties over complex numbers. The argument is based on the Pfaffian-Grassmannian double mirror correspondence.

  12. Quantum image encryption based on generalized affine transform and logistic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao-Ran; Tao, Xiang-Yang; Zhou, Nan-Run

    2016-07-01

    Quantum circuits of the generalized affine transform are devised based on the novel enhanced quantum representation of digital images. A novel quantum image encryption algorithm combining the generalized affine transform with logistic map is suggested. The gray-level information of the quantum image is encrypted by the XOR operation with a key generator controlled by the logistic map, while the position information of the quantum image is encoded by the generalized affine transform. The encryption keys include the independent control parameters used in the generalized affine transform and the logistic map. Thus, the key space is large enough to frustrate the possible brute-force attack. Numerical simulations and analyses indicate that the proposed algorithm is realizable, robust and has a better performance than its classical counterpart in terms of computational complexity.

  13. The Binding of Biotin to Sepharose-Avidin Column: Demonstration of the Affinity Chromatography Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, A. D.; Landman, N. N.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a biochemistry experiment that illustrates the methodology of affinity chromatography by attaching avidin, a glycoprotein in egg white, to a Sepharose matrix in order to bind biotin-containing proteins. (MLH)

  14. Lp-dual affine surface area forms of Busemann–Petty type problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associated with the notion of Lp-intersection body which was defined ... Lp-dual affine surface area; Lp-intersection body; Busemann–Petty ..... [11] Schneider R, Convex Bodies: The Brunn–Minkowski Theory (1993) (Cambridge: Cam-.

  15. Preparation of Affinity Column Based on Zr4+ Ion for Phosphoproteins Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Mi; Bae, In Ae; Park, Jung Hyen; Kim, Tae Dong; Choi, Seong Ho

    2009-01-01

    This paper has described about preparation of Zr 4+ affinity column based on the poly(styreneco- glycidyl methacrylate) prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate in order to isolate phosphopeptide. The Zr 4+ ions were introduced after the phophonation of an epoxy group on polymeric microspheres. The successful preparation of Zr 4+ -immobilized polymeric microsphere stationary phase was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectra, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The separation efficiency for Zr 4+ affinity column prepared by slurry packing was tested to phosphonated casein and dephosphonated casein. The resolution time (min) of the phosphonated casein was higher than that of dephosphated casein for Zr 4+ affinity polymeric microsphere by liquid chromatography. This Zr 4+ affinity column can be used for isolation of phosphonated casein from casein using liquid chromatography

  16. Preparation of Affinity Column Based on Zr{sup 4+} Ion for Phosphoproteins Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Mi; Bae, In Ae; Park, Jung Hyen; Kim, Tae Dong; Choi, Seong Ho [Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    This paper has described about preparation of Zr{sup 4+} affinity column based on the poly(styreneco- glycidyl methacrylate) prepared by emulsion polymerization of styrene and glycidyl methacrylate in order to isolate phosphopeptide. The Zr{sup 4+} ions were introduced after the phophonation of an epoxy group on polymeric microspheres. The successful preparation of Zr{sup 4+}-immobilized polymeric microsphere stationary phase was confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectra, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The separation efficiency for Zr{sup 4+} affinity column prepared by slurry packing was tested to phosphonated casein and dephosphonated casein. The resolution time (min) of the phosphonated casein was higher than that of dephosphated casein for Zr{sup 4+} affinity polymeric microsphere by liquid chromatography. This Zr{sup 4+} affinity column can be used for isolation of phosphonated casein from casein using liquid chromatography.

  17. Affinity-Selected Filamentous Bacteriophage as a Probe for Acoustic Wave Biodetectors of Salmonella typhimurium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric V; Sorokulova, Iryna B; Petrenko, Valery A; Chen, I-Hsuan; Barbaree, James M; Vodyanoy, Vitaly J

    2005-01-01

    Proof-in-concept biosensors were prepared for the rapid detection of Salmonella typhimurium in solution, based on affinity-selected filamentous phage prepared as probes physically adsorbed to piezoelectric transducers...

  18. Biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilov, D.

    1977-01-01

    Long term experiments have proved the affinity of cv. Mavroud in transplantations on various root stocks. Best affinity was observed in the combination cv. Mavroud X Riparia tomanteau, followed, in a descending order, by the combinations Mavroud X Mavroud (autotransplantation), Mavroud X Berlandieri X Riparia Kobber SBB and Mavroud X Riparia 33 EM. In view to establish indices for predicting the transplantation affinity a great number of physiological-biochemical and morphological-anatomical studies were carried out. The results obtained showed that a most clearly expressed positive, statistically significant correlation exists between the amount of 15 N transported from the root stock to the scions, shoots and leaves. As a result, a biochemical method for fast affinity diagnosis in grape-vine transplantation has been developed. The reliability of the method has been checked up also with other cultivars. Up to the present no such method was known in grape-vine science and practice. (author)

  19. Development of an aptamer-based affinity purification method for vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Lönne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since aptamers bind their targets with high affinity and specificity, they are promising alternative ligands in protein affinity purification. As aptamers are chemically synthesized oligonucleotides, they can be easily produced in large quantities regarding GMP conditions allowing their application in protein production for therapeutic purposes. Several advantages of aptamers compared to antibodies are described in general within this paper. Here, an aptamer directed against the human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF was used as affinity ligand for establishing a purification platform for VEGF in small scale. The aptamer was covalently immobilized on magnetic beads in a controlled orientation resulting in a functional active affinity matrix. Target binding was optimized by introduction of spacer molecules and variation of aptamer density. Further, salt-induced target elution was demonstrated as well as VEGF purification from a complex protein mixture proving the specificity of protein-aptamer binding.

  20. ODE/IM correspondence and Bethe ansatz for affine Toda field equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Ito

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the linear problem associated with modified affine Toda field equation for the Langlands dual gˆ∨, where gˆ is an untwisted affine Lie algebra. The connection coefficients for the asymptotic solutions of the linear problem are found to correspond to the Q-functions for g-type quantum integrable models. The ψ-system for the solutions associated with the fundamental representations of g leads to Bethe ansatz equations associated with the affine Lie algebra gˆ. We also study the A2r(2 affine Toda field equation in massless limit in detail and find its Bethe ansatz equations as well as T–Q relations.