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Sample records for flocculent structures sessile

  1. [Preparation and structural analysis of diatomite-supported SPFS flocculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-li; Fang, Hui-li; Jiang, Shao-jie; Yang, Chun; Ma, Jiang-ya; Zhang, Zhao-qing

    2011-07-01

    In the presetn study, polymerized ferric sulphate (PFS) flocculant was prepared and tested. In the preparation of PFS flocculant, industrial by-product ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) was reused as the main material. By composition with diatomite and drying up at certain temperature in vacuum drying oven, solid PFS flocculant was produced. Structural characteristics of the new flocculant product were examined through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that by compositing with diatomite, new group bridging emerged in the structure of PFS, which made the bond of groups stronger. In addition, part of the metalic contents in diatomite was polymerized with PFS, the product of which was polymerized ferric complex. Furthermore, the absorbing and agglomerating capacity of the diatomite carrier was significant. Considering the factors listed above, the new solid polymerized ferric sulphate (SPFS) flocculant was characterized with a larger molecule structure and enhanced absorbing, bridging and rolling sweep capacities. Through orthogonal experiment, optimum conditions of synthesis were as follows: the ratio of FeSO4.7H2O/diatomite in weight was 43/1, the reaction time is 1 h and the reaction temperature is 55 degrees C. By wastewater treatment experiment, it was found that the synthetic products showed good flocculation performance in the treatment of domestic sewage, the removal of COD was 80.00% and the removal of turbidity was 99.98%.

  2. Flocculation - Formation and structure of aggregates composed of polyelectrolyte chains and clay colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhawoth , Yasine

    2017-01-01

    Flocculation is a key process in numerous environmental and industrial technologies such as purification of waste-water or paper making. It is necessary to understand the formation and structure of the aggregates to control and optimize such a process. Most of the studies on flocculation involve spherical particles, but there is a clear need to understand the flocculation of anisotropic particles such as clay colloids, which are platelets. I studied the flocculation of montmorillonite clay su...

  3. EFFECT OF DEXTRAN-graft-POLYACRYLAMIDE INTERNAL STRUCTURE ON FLOCCULATION PROCESS PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezugla, T.; Kutsevol, N.; Shyichuk, A.; Ziolkowska, D.

    2008-01-01

    Dextran-graft-Polyacrylamide copolymers (D-g-PAA) of brush-like architecture were tested as flocculation aids in the model kaolin suspensions. Due to expanded conformation the D-g-PAA copolymers are more effective flocculants than individual PAA with close molecular mass. The internal structure of D-g-PAA copolymers which is determined by number and length of grafted PAA chains, the distance between grafts, etc., has the significant influence on flocculation behavior of such polymers

  4. Flocculation kinetics and aggregate structure of kaolinite mixtures in laminar tube flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi G, Farid; Sanders, R Sean; Masliyah, Jacob H

    2011-03-01

    Flocculation is commonly used in various solid-liquid separation processes in chemical and mineral industries to separate desired products or to treat waste streams. This paper presents an experimental technique to study flocculation processes in laminar tube flow. This approach allows for more realistic estimation of the shear rate to which an aggregate is exposed, as compared to more complicated shear fields (e.g. stirred tanks). A direct sampling method is used to minimize the effect of sampling on the aggregate structure. A combination of aggregate settling velocity and image analysis was used to quantify the structure of the aggregate. Aggregate size, density, and fractal dimension were found to be the most important aggregate structural parameters. The two methods used to determine aggregate fractal dimension were in good agreement. The effects of advective flow through an aggregate's porous structure and transition-regime drag coefficient on the evaluation of aggregate density were considered. The technique was applied to investigate the flocculation kinetics and the evolution of the aggregate structure of kaolin particles with an anionic flocculant under conditions similar to those of oil sands fine tailings. Aggregates were formed using a well controlled two-stage aggregation process. Detailed statistical analysis was performed to investigate the establishment of dynamic equilibrium condition in terms of aggregate size and density evolution. An equilibrium steady state condition was obtained within 90 s of the start of flocculation; after which no further change in aggregate structure was observed. Although longer flocculation times inside the shear field could conceivably cause aggregate structure conformation, statistical analysis indicated that this did not occur for the studied conditions. The results show that the technique and experimental conditions employed here produce aggregates having a well-defined, reproducible structure. Copyright © 2011

  5. Flocculation of colloidal clay by bacterial polysaccharides: effect of macromolecule charge and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labille, J; Thomas, F; Milas, M; Vanhaverbeke, C

    2005-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of montmorillonite flocculation by bacterial polysaccharides was investigated, with special emphasis on the effect of carboxylic charges in the macromolecules on the mechanisms of interaction with the clay surface. An indirect way to quantify the energy of interaction was used, by comparing the flocculation ability of variously acidic polysaccharides. Data on tensile strength of aggregates in diluted suspension were collected by timed size measurements in the domain 0.1-600 microm, using laser diffraction. The flow behavior of settled aggregates was studied by rheology measurements. Flocculation of colloidal clay suspension by polysaccharides requires cancelling of the electrostatic repulsions by salts, which allows approach of clay surfaces close enough to be bridged by adsorbing macromolecules. The amount of acidic charges of the polysaccharides, and especially their location in the molecular structure, governs the bridging mechanism and the resulting tensile strength of the aggregates. The exposure of carboxylate groups located on side chains strongly promotes flocculation. In turn, charges located on the backbone of the polysaccharide are less accessible to interaction, and the flocculation ability of such polysaccharides is lowered. Measurements at different pH indicate that adsorption of acidic polysaccharides occurs via electrostatic interactions on the amphoteric edge surface of clay platelets, whereas neutral polysaccharides rather adsorb via weak interactions. Increased tensile strength in diluted aggregates due to strong surface interactions results in proportionally increased viscosity of the concentrated aggregates.

  6. UV-initiated template copolymerization of AM and MAPTAC: Microblock structure, copolymerization mechanism, and flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, Huaili; Gao, Baoyu; Sun, Yongjun; Liu, Bingzhi; Zhao, Chuanliang

    2017-01-01

    Flocculation as the core technology of sludge pretreatment can improve the dewatering performance of sludge that enables to reduce the cost of sludge transportation and the subsequent disposal costs. Therefore, synthesis of high-efficiency and economic flocculant is remarkably desired in this field. This study presents a cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) flocculant with microblock structure synthesized through ultraviolet (UV)-initiated template copolymerization by using acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamido propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC) as monomers, sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) as template, and 2,2'-azobis [2-(2-imidazolin-2-yl) propane] dihydrochloride (VA-044) as photoinitiator. The microblock structure of the CPAM was observed through nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Furthermore, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) analysis was used to evaluate its thermal decomposition property. The copolymerization mechanism was investigated through the determination of the binding constant M K and study on polymerization kinetics. Results showed that the copolymerization was conducted in accordance with the I (ZIP) template polymerization mechanism, and revealed the coexistence of bimolecular termination free-radical reaction and mono-radical termination in the polymerization process. Results of sludge dewatering tests indicated the superior flocculation performance of microblock flocculant than random distributed CPAM. The residual turbidity, filter cake moisture content, and specific resistance to filtration reached 9.37 NTU, 68.01%, and 6.24 (10 12  m kg -1 ), respectively, at 40 mg L -1 of template poly(AM-MAPTAC) and pH 6.0. Furthermore, all flocculant except commercial CPAM showed a wide scope of pH application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v. Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v, Veegum (0.1% w/v and NaCl (0.05% w/v was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  8. Rheological behavior and stability of ciprofloxacin suspension: Impact of structural vehicles and flocculating agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Rezaee, Saeed; Salimi, Anayatollah; Asadi, Elham; Handali, Somayeh

    2013-07-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone and is used against a broad spectrum of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of structural vehicles and other formulating factors on physical stability and rheological behavior of ciprofloxacin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, different concentrations of sodium chloride and calcium chloride were added. After choosing suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Veegum were evaluated. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, the degree of flocculation and the ease of redispersion of the suspensions and growth of crystals were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations containing were also studied to find out their rheological behavior. According to the results, suspension containing glycerin (0.2% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.05% w/v) as wetting agent and flocculating agent, respectively, were the most stable formulations regarding their F and N. Microscopic observations showed the growth of crystals in ciprofloxacin suspension in formulation without excipients and the minimum amount of crystal growth was seen in suspension containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v). Rheological studies showed that almost all of the formulations had psuedoplastic behavior with different degree of thixotropy. The formulation containing NaCMC (0.25% w/v), Veegum (0.1% w/v) and NaCl (0.05% w/v) was the most stable formulation. It may be concluded that by altering the amount ratios of formulation factors, the best rheological behavior and the most proper thixotropy may be achieved.

  9. Flocculent and grand design spiral arm structure in cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 829 spiral galaxies in 22 clusters having redshifts between z = 0.02 and 0.06 were classified according to the appearance of their spiral arm structures. The fraction of galaxies that have a grand design spiral structure was found to be higher among barred galaxies than among non-barred galaxies (at z = 0.02, 95 per cent of strongly barred galaxies have a grand design, compared with 67 per cent of non-barred or weakly barred galaxies). Cluster galaxies and distant non-cluster galaxies have the same fraction of grand design galaxies when resolution effects are considered. The grand design fraction among cluster galaxies is also similar to the fraction observed among nearby galaxies in binary systems and in groups. (author)

  10. Influence of flocculating agents and structural vehicles on the physical stability and rheological behavior of nitrofurantoin suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimipour, Eskandar; Salimi, Anayatollah; Rezaee, Saeed; Balack, Maryam; Handali, Somayeh

    2014-05-01

    Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antibiotic that has been used for treatment of urinary tract against positive and negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of structural vehicles and flocculating agents on physical stability and rheological behavior of nitrofurantoin suspension. To formulate the suspensions, the effect of glycerin and polysorbate 80 as wetting agents was evaluated and their particle sizes were determined using the sieve method. Then to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium citrate and aluminum chloride were added. After choosing the suitable wetting and flocculating agents, structural vehicles such as sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose and Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. In addition, the effect of sorbitol on density of continuous phase and some physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation and ease of redispersion of the suspensions were evaluated. After incorporation of structural vehicles, the rheological properties of formulations were also determined to find their flow behavior. According to the results, glycerin (0.2%) and sodium citrate (0.3%) had the best effect on the suspension stability as wetting and flocculating agents, respectively. Rheological properties of formulations showed pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. In conclusion, the suspension containing Veegum 1%, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose 1%, glycerine 0.2%, sodium citrate 0.3% and sorbitol 20 % was chosen as the most physically stable formulation.

  11. Smectite flocculation structure modified by Al13 macro-molecules--as revealed by the transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbik, Marek S; Martens, Wayde N; Frost, Ray L; Song, Yen-Fang; Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2010-05-01

    The aggregate structure which occurs in aqueous smectitic suspensions is responsible for poor water clarification, difficulties in sludge dewatering and the unusual rheological behaviour of smectite rich soils. These macroscopic properties are dictated by the 3D structural arrangement of smectite finest fraction within flocculated aggregates. Here, we report results from a relatively new technique, transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), which makes it possible to investigate the internal structure and 3D tomographic reconstruction of the smectite clay aggregates modified by Al(13) Keggin macro-molecule [Al(13)(O)(4)(OH)(24)(H(2)O)(12)](7+). Three different treatment methods were shown resulted in three different micro-structural environments of the resulting flocculation. In case of smectite sample prepared in Methods 1 and 3 particles fall into the primary minimum where Van der Waals forces act between FF oriented smectite flakes and aggregates become approach irreversible flocculation. In case of sample prepared using Method 2, particles contacting by edges (EE) and edge to face (EF) orientation fell into secondary minimum and weak flocculation resulted in severe gelation and formation of the micelle-like texture in fringe superstructure, which was first time observed in smectite based gel. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum separation and structure of depletion- and bridging-flocculated emulsions: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Winden, van A.J.M.; Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Stability against demixing, rheology and microstructure of emulsions that were flocculated by depletion or bridging were compared. Flocculation by depletion and bridging was induced by addition of the polysaccharide carboxy-methylcellulose (CMC) to emulsions that were stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin

  13. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salud Deudero

    Full Text Available Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  14. Human Stressors Are Driving Coastal Benthic Long-Lived Sessile Fan Mussel Pinna nobilis Population Structure More than Environmental Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudero, Salud; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Álvarez, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Coastal degradation and habitat disruption are severely compromising sessile marine species. The fan shell Pinna nobilis is an endemic, vulnerable species and the largest bivalve in the Mediterranean basin. In spite of species legal protection, fan shell populations are declining. Models analyzed the contributions of environmental (mean depth, wave height, maximum wave height, period of waves with high energy and mean direction of wave source) versus human-derived stressors (anchoring, protection status, sewage effluents, fishing activity and diving) as explanatory variables depicting Pinna nobilis populations at a mesoscale level. Human stressors were explaining most of the variability in density spatial distribution of fan shell, significantly disturbing benthic communities. Habitat protection affected P. nobilis structure and physical aggression by anchoring reveals a high impact on densities. Environmental variables instead played a secondary role, indicating that global change processes are not so relevant in coastal benthic communities as human-derived impacts.

  15. Simulations of the flocculent spiral M33: what drives the spiral structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, C. L.; Pettitt, A. R.; Corbelli, E.; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    We perform simulations of isolated galaxies in order to investigate the likely origin of the spiral structure in M33. In our models, we find that gravitational instabilities in the stars and gas are able to reproduce the observed spiral pattern and velocity field of M33, as seen in HI, and no interaction is required. We also find that the optimum models have high levels of stellar feedback which create large holes similar to those observed in M33, whilst lower levels of feedback tend to produce a large amount of small scale structure, and undisturbed long filaments of high surface density gas, hardly detected in the M33 disc. The gas component appears to have a significant role in producing the structure, so if there is little feedback, both the gas and stars organise into clear spiral arms, likely due to a lower combined Q (using gas and stars), and the ready ability of cold gas to undergo spiral shocks. By contrast models with higher feedback have weaker spiral structure, especially in the stellar component, compared to grand design galaxies. We did not see a large difference in the behaviour of Qstars with most of these models, however, because Qstars stayed relatively constant unless the disc was more strongly unstable. Our models suggest that although the stars produce some underlying spiral structure, this is relatively weak, and the gas physics has a considerable role in producing the large scale structure of the ISM in flocculent spirals.

  16. A novel poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculant with outstanding flocculation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yang; Tan, Ying; Liang, Xuecheng; Lu, Cuige; Wang, Haiwei; Liu, Xiusheng; Wang, Pixin

    2015-01-01

    Series of anionic flocculants with outstanding flocculation performance, poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/diatomite composite flocculants (PAAD) were successfully prepared through aqueous solution copolymerization and applied to flocculate from oil-field fracturing waste-water. The structure of PAAD was characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction tests, and its properties were systematically evaluated by viscometer, thermogravimetry analysis and flocculation measurements. Furthermore, the influences of various reaction parameters on the apparent viscosity of flocculant solution were studied, and the optimum synthesis condition was determined. The novel composite flocculants exhibited outstanding flocculation properties. Specifically, the dosage of composite flocculants that could make the transmittance of treated wastewater exceed 90% was only approximately 12-35 ppm, which was far lower than that of conventional flocculants. Meanwhile, the settling time was lower than 5 s, which was similar to that of conventional flocculants. This was because PAAD flocculants had a higher absorption capacity, and larger chain extending space than conventional linear flocculants, which could refrain from the entanglement of linear polymer chains and significantly improve flocculation capacity.

  17. Low dynamics, high longevity and persistence of sessile structural species dwelling on Mediterranean coralligenous outcrops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Teixidó

    Full Text Available There is still limited understanding of the processes underlying benthic species dynamics in marine coastal habitats, which are of disproportionate importance in terms of productivity and biodiversity. The life-history traits of long-lived benthic species in these habitats are particularly poorly documented. In this study, we assessed decadal patterns of population dynamics for ten sponge and anthozoan species that play key structural roles in coralligenous outcrops (∼25 m depth in two areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea. This study was based on examination of a unique long-term photographic series, which allowed analysis of population dynamics over extensive spatial and time spans for the very first time. Specifically, 671 individuals were censused annually over periods of 25-, 15-, and 5-years. This long-term study quantitatively revealed a common life-history pattern among the ten studied species, despite the fact they present different growth forms. Low mortality rates (3.4% yr(-1 for all species combined and infrequent recruitment events (mean value of 3.1±0.5 SE recruits yr(-1 provided only a very small fraction of the new colonies required to maintain population sizes. Overall, annual mortality and recruitment rates did not differ significantly among years; however, some species displayed important mortality events and recruitment pulses, indicating variability among species. Based on the growth rates of these 10 species, we projected their longevity and, obtained a mean estimated age of 25-200 years. Finally, the low to moderate turnover rates (mean value 0.80% yr(-1 observed among the coralligenous species were in agreement with their low dynamics and persistence. These results offer solid baseline data and reveal that these habitats are among the most vulnerable to the current increases of anthropogenic disturbances.

  18. Hydrodynamics of Sessile Choanoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Greg; Nguyen, Hoa

    2014-11-01

    Choanoflagellates are unicellular organisms whose intriguing morphology includes a set of collars/microvilli emanating from the cell body, surrounding the beating flagellum. Certain types of choanoflagellates are sessile, i.e., they can attach themselves to a substrate via a pedicel which extends from the cell body. We investigate the interactions of the flagellum - microvilli - pedicel system in the feeding behavior of sessile choanoflagellates using the method of images for regularized Stokeslets. The results of the fluid-particle motions and streamlines explain their effective capture of bacteria in the fluid. Murchison Undergraduate Research Grant.

  19. Flocculent and grand design spiral galaxies in groups: time scales for the persistence of grand design spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Spiral arm classifications were made for 261 low-inclination galaxies in groups listed by Huchra and Geller. The fractional occurrence of grand design spiral structure in nonbarred galaxies was found to increase from approx.0.1 to approx.0.6 and then level off as the group crossing rate or galaxy collision rate in a group increases. A simple model is discussed where the random encounters between galaxies of any type and flocculent galaxies induce transient grand design spirals in the flocculent galaxies. If this grand-design stimulation occurs for binary collisions with impact parameters less than αR 25 , were R 25 is the galactic radius at 25 mag arcsec - 2 , and if the induced grand design spirals persist for an average time equal to #betta# galactic rotations, then the quantity α 2 #betta# equals approximately 3 x 10 4 . If binary collisions are responsible for grand design spirals, then this result implies either that the induced spirals last for many galactic rotations (#betta#>15), or that they can be stimulated by very remote encounters (α>45.) Alternatively, grand design spirals may be stimulated by multiple galaxy encounters, which would be the case for such large α, or by interactions with the potential well of the associated group, rather than by simple binary encounters. Weak correlations between the grand design fraction and the galaxy size, or between this fraction and the total number of galaxies in a group, were also found. Spiral structures of barred galaxies show no correlations with group environment

  20. Effect of different flocculants on the flocculation performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of different flocculants on the flocculation performance of flocculation performance of microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans, cells. ZT Harith, FM Yusoff, MS Mohamed, M Shariff, M Din, AB Ariff ...

  1. [Topography structure and flocculation mechanism of polymeric phosphate ferric sulfate (PPFS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huai-li; Zhang, Hui-qin; Jiang, Shao-jie; Li, Fang; Jiao, Shi-jun; Fang, Hui-li

    2011-05-01

    Characteristics of polymeric phosphate ferric sulfate (PPFS) were investigated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) in the present study. The formed PPFS structure and morphology were stereo meshwork, which was clustered and close to coral reef, synthesis of high charge density, bioactive polyhydroxy and mixed polynuclear complex PPFS. The results showed that charge neutralization of PPFS had not played a decisive role in the coagulation beaker test and the zeta potential proved that PPFS was largely affected by bridging and netting sweep. Therefore, the coagulation mechanisms of PPFS were mainly composed of charge neutralization, adsorption bridging and netting sweep mechanisms.

  2. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  3. One-step green synthesis of non-hazardous dicarboxyl cellulose flocculant and its flocculation activity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Liu, Hongyi; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2015-01-01

    The waste management of used flocculants is a thorny issue in the field of wastewater treatment. To natural cellulose based flocculants, utilization of hazardous cellulose solvent and simplification of synthetic procedure are the two urgent problems needing to be further improved. In this work, a series of natural dicarboxyl cellulose flocculants (DCCs) were one-step synthesized via Schiff-base route. The cellulose solvent (NaOH/Urea solution) was utilized during the synthesis process. The full-biodegradable flocculants avoid causing secondary pollution to environment. The chemical structure and solution property of the DCC products were characterized by FT-IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, TGA, FESEM, charge density and ζ-potential. Kaolin suspension and effluent from paper mill were selected to evaluate the flocculation activity of the DCCs. Their flocculation performance was compared with that of commercial cationic polyacrylamide and poly aluminium chloride flocculants. The positive results showed that the NaOH/Urea solvent effectively promoted the dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) conversion to DCC in the one-step synthesis reaction. The DCCs with the carboxylate content more than 1 mmol/g exhibited steady flocculation performance to kaolin suspension in the broad pH range from 4 to 10. Its flocculation capacity to the effluent from paper mill also showed excellent

  4. Flocculation mechanism of the actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an actinomycete Streptomyces sp. hsn06 with the ability to harvest Chlorella vulgaris biomass was used to investigate the flocculation mechanism. Streptomyces sp. hsn06 exhibited flocculation activity on algal cells through mycelial pellets with adding calcium. Calcium was determined to promote flocculation activity of mycelial pellets as a bridge binding with mycelial pellets and algal cells, which implied that calcium bridging is the main flocculation mechanism for mycelial pellets. Characteristics of flocculation activity confirmed proteins in mycelial pellets involved in flocculation procedure. The morphology and structure of mycelial pellets also caused dramatic effects on flocculation activity of mycelial pellets. According to the results, Streptomyces sp. hsn06 can be used as a novel flocculating microbial resource for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanocellulose size regulates microalgal flocculation and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sun Il; Min, Seul Ki; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-01-01

    Harvesting of microalgae is a cost-consuming step for biodiesel production. Cellulose has recently been studied as a biocompatible and inexpensive flocculant for harvesting microalgae via surface modifications such as cation-modifications. In this study, we demonstrated that cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) played a role as a microalgal flocculant via its network geometry without cation modification. Sulfur acid-treated tunicate CNF flocculated microalgae, but cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) did not. In addition, desulfurization did not significantly influence the flocculation efficiency of CNF. This mechanism is likely related to encapsulation of microalgae by nanofibrous structure formation, which is derived from nanofibrils entanglement and intra-hydrogen bonding. Moreover, flocculated microalgae were subject to mechanical stress resulting in changes in metabolism induced by calcium ion influx, leading to upregulated lipid synthesis. CNF do not require surface modifications such as cation modified CNC and flocculation is derived from network geometry related to nanocellulose size; accordingly, CNF is one of the least expensive cellulose-based flocculants ever identified. If this flocculant is applied to the biodiesel process, it could decrease the cost of harvest, which is one of the most expensive steps, while increasing lipid production. PMID:27796311

  6. Electrokinetics and flocculation studies of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, N. [Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Coal from India contains 25-35 per cent ash content. This leads to high slag volume, lower calorific value and inferior coke. In order to remove ash content, coal is washed, however, it retains some water that makes it difficult to process. Mechanical dewatering is performed in which a large portion of solids is removed while the remainder remains in centrifuge. There is therefore a need to recover solids and water. This paper discussed the use of flocculation and electrokinetic studies such as the determination of the point of zero charge. The experimental studies considered factors such as turbidity, faster settling, and compactness. Flocculation is brought about by the action of high molecular weight materials such as polyelectrolytes, where the material physically forms a bridge between two or more particles, uniting the sold particles into a random, three-dimensional structure, which is loose and porous. This paper also described the materials and methods of the electrokinetic studies on coal samples. Materials that were described included nephelometer, zeta meter, and a flocculator. It was concluded that in selecting the best flocculant, the preference order should be turbidity; settling rate; dosage; and moisture content. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  8. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  9. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    OpenAIRE

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops exhibit thermal wave trains, whose wave number depends strongly on the liquid volatililty and substrate thermal conductivity. The FC- 72 drops develop cellular structures whose size is proportional to the local thickness. Prior to this work, hydrotherma...

  10. Flocculation of kaolin and lignin by bovine blood and hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeric flocculants are used extensively for water purification, inhibition of soil erosion, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Production of highly active, renewable polymeric flocculants to replace synthetic flocculants is a priority. Using suspensions of kaolin, flocculation ...

  11. Flocculation Dynamics of cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cohesive sediment suspended in natural waters is subject not only to transport and deposition processes but also to reactions of flocculation, \\textit{i.e.} aggregation of fine particles, and breakup of aggregates. Although aggregation and breakup occur at small and very small length scales compared

  12. Flocculation and dispersion behaviour of two kaolinitic soil clays as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that crystalline Fe oxides were important in stabilizing the structure of the soils studied. The amorphous Fe oxides, however, did not play a stabilizing role. The clays whose crystalline Fe oxides, amorphous Fe oxides and organic matter were successively removed were the most flocculated and therefore had ...

  13. Sessile Drop Evaporation and Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mozumder; M. R. Ullah; A. Hossain; M. A. Islam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Quenching and cooling are important process in manufacturing industry for controlling the mechanical properties of materials, where evaporation is a vital mode of heat transfer. Approach: This study experimentally investigated the evaporation of sessile drop for four different heated surfaces of Aluminum, Brass, Copper and Mild steel with a combination of four different liquids as Methanol, Ethanol, Water and NaCl solution. The time of evaporation for the droplet on the hot...

  14. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; Niliot, C. Le

    2009-01-01

    Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the...

  15. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  16. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  17. Plasma-initiated polymerization of chitosan-based CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) flocculant for the enhanced flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhu, Chengyu; Sun, Wenquan; Xu, Yanhua; Xiao, Xuefeng; Zheng, Huaili; Wu, Huifang; Liu, Cuiyun

    2017-05-15

    In this work, a highly efficient and environmentally friendly chitosan-based graft flocculant, namely, acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride-grafted chitosan [CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC)], was prepared successfully through plasma initiation. FTIR results confirmed the successful polymerization of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) and P(AM-DMDAAC). P(AM-DMDAAC) was the copolymer of acrylamide- and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride. SEM results revealed that a densely cross-linked network structure formed on the surface. XRD results verified that the ordered crystal structure of chitosan in CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) was changed into an amorphous structure after plasma-induced polymerization. The flocculation results of low-algal-turbidity water further showed the optimal flocculation efficiency of turbidity removal rate, COD removal rate, and Chl-a removal rate were 99.02%, 96.11%, and 92.20%, respectively. The flocculation efficiency of CS-g-P(AM-DMDAAC) were significantly higher than those obtained by cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) and Polymeric aluminum and iron (PAFC). This work provided a valuable basis for the design of eco-friendly naturally modified polymeric flocculants to enhance the flocculation of low-algal-turbidity water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flocculation and consolidation of cohesive sediments under the influence of coagulant and flocculant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez Sanz, M.E.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the coagulation and flocculation processes of cohesive sediments under the influence of polyelectrolyte. For this study clay particles and anionic and cationic flocculants were used. The influence of the shear stresses on the flocculation demonstrated that the shear stress is

  19. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  20. Amplifying and attenuating the coffee-ring effect in drying sessile nanofluid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivoi, A.; Duan, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Experiments and simulations to promote or attenuate the “coffee-ring effect” for pinned sessile nanofluid droplets are presented. The addition of surfactant inside a water suspension of aluminum oxide nanoparticles results in coffee-ring formation after the pinned sessile droplets are fully dried on a substrate, while droplets of the same suspension without the surfactant produce a fine uniform coverage. A mathematical model based on diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation has been developed to explain the observed difference in the experiments. The simulations show that the particle sticking probability is a crucial factor on the morphology of finally dried structures.

  1. Velocity field measurements in an evaporating sessile droplet by means of micro-PIV technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagodnitsyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Velocity fields are measured in evaporating sessile droplets on two substrates with different contact angles and contact angle hysteresis using micro resolution particle image velocimetry technique. Different flow patterns are observed in different stages of droplet evaporation: a flow with vortices and a radial flow. Flow structure is found to be similar for droplets on different substrates.

  2. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the

  3. Yeast flocculation: New story in fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    Yeast flocculation has been used in the brewing industry to facilitate biomass recovery for a long time, and thus its mechanism of yeast flocculation has been intensively studied. However, the application of flocculating yeast in ethanol production garnered attention mainly in the 1980s and 1990s. In this article, updated research progress in the molecular mechanism of yeast flocculation and the impact of environmental conditions on yeast flocculation are reviewed. Construction of flocculating yeast strains by genetic approach and utilization of yeast flocculation for ethanol production from various feedstocks were presented. The concept of self-immobilized yeast cells through their flocculation is revisited through a case study of continuous ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast SPSC01, and their technical and economic advantages are highlighted by comparing with yeast cells immobilized with supporting materials and regular free yeast cells as well. Taking the flocculating yeast SPSC01 as an example, the ethanol tolerance of the flocculating yeast was also discussed.

  4. First-principles flocculation as the key to low energy algal biofuels processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Pierce, Flint; Brady, Patrick Vane; Dwyer, Brian P.; Grillet, Anne; Hankins, Matthew G; Hughes, Lindsey Gloe; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Murton, Jaclyn K.; O' Hern, Timothy J; Parchert, Kylea Joy; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Williams, Cecelia Victoria; Zhang, Xuezhi; Hu, Qiang; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton

    2012-09-01

    This document summarizes a three year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program effort to improve our understanding of algal flocculation with a key to overcoming harvesting as a techno-economic barrier to algal biofuels. Flocculation is limited by the concentrations of deprotonated functional groups on the algal cell surface. Favorable charged groups on the surfaces of precipitates that form in solution and the interaction of both with ions in the water can favor flocculation. Measurements of algae cell-surface functional groups are reported and related to the quantity of flocculant required. Deprotonation of surface groups and complexation of surface groups with ions from the growth media are predicted in the context of PHREEQC. The understanding of surface chemistry is linked to boundaries of effective flocculation. We show that the phase-space of effective flocculation can be expanded by more frequent alga-alga or floc-floc collisions. The collision frequency is dependent on the floc structure, described in the fractal sense. The fractal floc structure is shown to depend on the rate of shear mixing. We present both experimental measurements of the floc structure variation and simulations using LAMMPS (Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). Both show a densification of the flocs with increasing shear. The LAMMPS results show a combined change in the fractal dimension and a change in the coordination number leading to stronger flocs.

  5. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, K.; Moffat, J. R.; Matar, O. K.; Craster, R. V.

    2008-08-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops exhibit thermal wave trains, whose wave number depends strongly on the liquid volatililty and substrate thermal conductivity. The FC-72 drops develop cellular structures whose size is proportional to the local thickness. Prior to this work, hydrothermal waves have been observed in the absence of evaporation in shallow liquid layers subjected to an imposed temperature gradient. In contrast, here both the temperature gradients and the drop thickness vary spatially and temporally and are a natural consequence of the evaporation process.

  6. Flocculent Settling of Food Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Monirul Islam; Kim, Mingu; Haroun, Basem Mikhaeil; Nakhla, George; Keleman, Michael

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the flocculent settling in water and municipal wastewater (MWW) in a 10.6 ft deep column. A total of eight runs at three different testing conditions involving MWW alone, food waste (FW) alone, and FW in MWW (FW+MWW) were conducted. Total suspended solid (TSS), total BOD (TBOD), total COD (TCOD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal efficiencies after 3 hours of settling were 62%, 46%, 49%, 46% and 62% for FW, and 50%, 43%, 39%, 37% and 24% for MWW. Removal efficiencies of particulate COD (PCOD) and particulate BOD (PBOD) at the lowest surface overflow rate (SOR) of 1.1 m3/m2/hr corresponding to the longest settling time of 3 hours were 59% and 64% for FW, and 65% and 70% for FW with MWW samples. On the other hand, no significant variation between FW and FW with MWW was observed for PN removal after 3 hours of settling.

  7. Flocculation of retention pond water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; McGregor, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    An integral part of the water management strategy proposed by Ranger Uranium Mining Pty. Ltd. involves the collection of runoff water in a series of retention ponds. This water will subsequently be used in the uranium milling plant or released to Magela Creek. Runoff water collected during the wet season caused a section of Magela Creek to become turbid when it was released. The eroded material causing the turbidity was very highly dispersed and showed little tendency to sediment out in the retention ponds. Results of a preliminary study to determine the feasibility of clarifying retention pond water by flocculation with alum are presented. A concentration of 30 Mg/L alum reduced turbidity from an initial 340 NTU to less than 30 NTU in four hours

  8. Better flocculants by radiation induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.

    1978-01-01

    The use of radiation induced polymerization should theoritically allow to prepare better flocculants. The testings of several products prepared by such a process shows that better properties are indeed obtained: better efficiencies, lower amounts needed, better overall properties [fr

  9. Methylation of hemoglobin to enhance flocculant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive bioflocculant, bovine hemoglobin (Hb), has been covalently modified through methylation of the side chain carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acid residues to improve its flocculation activity. Potentiometric titration of the recovered products showed approximately 28% degree of ...

  10. Gravitational sedimentation of flocculated waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Tay, J H

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentation characteristics of flocculated wastewater sludge have not been satisfactorily explored using the non-destructive techniques, partially owing to the rather low solid content (ca. 1-2%) commonly noted in the biological sediments. This paper investigated, for the first time, the spatial-temporal gravitational settling characteristics of original and polyelectrolyte flocculated waste activated sludge using Computerized Axial Tomography Scanner. The waste activated sludge possessed a distinct settling characteristic from the kaolin slurries. The waste activated sludges settled more slowly and reached a lower solid fraction in the final sediment than the latter. Flocculation markedly enhanced the settleability of both sludges. Although the maximum achievable solid contents for the kaolin slurries were reduced, flocculation had little effects on the activated sludge. The purely plastic rheological model by Buscall and White (J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1(83) (1987) 873) interpreted the consolidating sediment data, while the purely elastic model by Tiller and Leu (J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Eng. 11 (1980) 61) described the final equilibrated sediment. Flocculation produced lower yield stress during transient settling, thereby resulting in the more easily consolidated sludge than the original sample. Meanwhile, the flocculated activated sludge was stiffer in the final sediment than in the original sample. The data reported herein are valuable to the theories development for clarifier design and operation.

  11. Production, Characterization, and Flocculation Mechanism of Cation Independent, pH Tolerant, and Thermally Stable Bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Song, Liyan; Li, Dou; Qiao, Jing; Zhao, Tiantao; Zhao, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic high polymer flocculants, frequently utilized for flocculating efficiency and low cost, recently have been discovered as producing increased risk to human health and the environment. Development of a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative flocculant agent is investigated in this paper. Bioflocculants are produced by microorganisms and may exhibit a high rate of flocculation activity. The bioflocculant ETH-2, with high flocculating activity (2849 mg Kaolin particle/mg ETH-2), produced by strain Enterobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge, was systematically investigated with regard to its production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism. Analyses of microscopic observation, zeta potential and ETH-2 structure demonstrates the bridging mechanism, as opposed to charge neutralization, was responsible for flocculation of the ETH-2. ETH-2 retains high molecular weight (603 to 1820 kDa) and multi-functional groups (hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl) that contributed to flocculation. Polysaccharides mainly composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 1∶2.9∶9.8 were identified as the active constituents in bioflocculant. The structure of the long backbone with active sites of polysaccharides was determined as a primary basis for the high flocculation activity. Bioflocculant ETH-2 is cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable, suggesting a potential fit for industrial application. PMID:25485629

  12. Production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism of cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable bioflocculant from Enterobacter sp. ETH-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    Full Text Available Synthetic high polymer flocculants, frequently utilized for flocculating efficiency and low cost, recently have been discovered as producing increased risk to human health and the environment. Development of a more efficient and environmentally sound alternative flocculant agent is investigated in this paper. Bioflocculants are produced by microorganisms and may exhibit a high rate of flocculation activity. The bioflocculant ETH-2, with high flocculating activity (2849 mg Kaolin particle/mg ETH-2, produced by strain Enterobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge, was systematically investigated with regard to its production, characterization, and flocculation mechanism. Analyses of microscopic observation, zeta potential and ETH-2 structure demonstrates the bridging mechanism, as opposed to charge neutralization, was responsible for flocculation of the ETH-2. ETH-2 retains high molecular weight (603 to 1820 kDa and multi-functional groups (hydroxyl, amide and carboxyl that contributed to flocculation. Polysaccharides mainly composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose, with a molar ratio of 1:2.9:9.8 were identified as the active constituents in bioflocculant. The structure of the long backbone with active sites of polysaccharides was determined as a primary basis for the high flocculation activity. Bioflocculant ETH-2 is cation independent, pH tolerant, and thermally stable, suggesting a potential fit for industrial application.

  13. Characterization of the flocculating agent from the spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Guo, Suo-Lian; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Huang, Zih-You; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-07-01

    High cost of biomass recovery is one of the bottlenecks for developing cost-effective processes with microalgae, particularly for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals through biorefinery, and microalgal biomass recovery through cell flocculation is a promising strategy. Some microalgae are naturally flocculated whose cells can be harvested by simple sedimentation. However, studies on the flocculating agents synthesized by microalgae cells are still very limited. In this work, the cell flocculation of a spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied, and the flocculating agent was identified to be cell wall polysaccharides whose crude extract supplemented at low dosage of 0.5 mg/L initiated the more than 80% flocculating rate of freely suspended microalgae C. vulgaris CNW11 and Scenedesmus obliquus FSP. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed a characteristic absorption band at 1238 cm(-1), which might arise from PO asymmetric stretching vibration of [Formula: see text] phosphodiester. The unique cell wall-associated polysaccharide with molecular weight of 9.86×10(3) g/mol, and the monomers consist of glucose, mannose and galactose with a molecular ratio of 5:5:2. This is the first time to our knowledge that the flocculating agent from C. vulgaris has been characterized, which could provide basis for understanding the cell flocculation of microalgae and breeding of novel flocculating microalgae for cost-effective biomass harvest. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Revisiting Coiled Flocculator Performance for Particle Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    This work summarizes recent studies evaluating the torsion and curvature parameters in the flocculation efficiency using a hydraulic plug-flow flocculator named as Flocs Generator Reactor (FGR). Colloidal Fe(OH)3 and coal particles were used as suspension models and a cationic polyacrylamide was used for the flocculation. The effectiveness of the aggregation process (in the distinct curvature and torsion parameters and hydrodynamic conditions) was evaluated by the settling rate of the Fe(OH)3 flocs and flocs size by photographic analysis. Due to curvature, a secondary flow is induced and the profiles of the flow quantities differ from those for a straight pipe. Results showed that the difference in the flocculator design influences the Fe(OH)3 flocs size and settling rates, reaching values about 13 and 4 mh-1, for the coiled and straight pipes respectively. Coal flocs generation also showed to be dependent on the flocculator design and shear rate. Results showed that turbulent kinetic energy increases due to curvature when the torsion parameter is kept constant (pitch close to zero) enhancing the flocs formation.

  15. Flocculation of chromite ore fines suspension using polysaccharide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    liquid separation. Keywords. Flocculation; graft copolymer; mineral industry effluent; chromite ore fines; ... work well as flocculating agent on coal washery effluent, copper and iron ore fines etc (Karmakar et al 1998, 1999;. Tripathy et al 2001).

  16. Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: Flocculation behavior and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razali, M.A.A.; Ariffin, A., E-mail: srazlan@usm.my

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flocculation performance of cassava grafted polyDADMAC was studied. • Turbidity and TSS removal increased with increasing grafting percentage. • The grafted polymer showed good removal in acidic and neutral region. • Zeta potential results pointed to the charge neutralization mechanism. • Flocs increased with increasing grafting percentage and molecular weight. - Abstract: In this work, flocculation properties of cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) with different grafting percentages were investigated. Flocculation performance was evaluated in simulated kaolin suspension. The grafting percentages used were 1.76 %, 14.84 %, and 21.98 %. The effectiveness of the flocculation was measured based on the reduction of the turbidity and total suspended solids (TSSs), zeta potential measurements, particle size, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Grafted polymers improved the removal rate of turbidity and TSS compared with gelatinized starch, and the removal rate increased with increasing grafting percentage and dosage.

  17. Polymeric flocculant based on cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride: Flocculation behavior and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razali, M.A.A.; Ariffin, A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Flocculation performance of cassava grafted polyDADMAC was studied. • Turbidity and TSS removal increased with increasing grafting percentage. • The grafted polymer showed good removal in acidic and neutral region. • Zeta potential results pointed to the charge neutralization mechanism. • Flocs increased with increasing grafting percentage and molecular weight. - Abstract: In this work, flocculation properties of cassava starch grafted polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) with different grafting percentages were investigated. Flocculation performance was evaluated in simulated kaolin suspension. The grafting percentages used were 1.76 %, 14.84 %, and 21.98 %. The effectiveness of the flocculation was measured based on the reduction of the turbidity and total suspended solids (TSSs), zeta potential measurements, particle size, and atomic force microscopy imaging. Grafted polymers improved the removal rate of turbidity and TSS compared with gelatinized starch, and the removal rate increased with increasing grafting percentage and dosage

  18. Co-Flocculation of Yeast Species, a New Mechanism to Govern Population Dynamics in Microbial Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Rossouw

    Full Text Available Flocculation has primarily been studied as an important technological property of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains in fermentation processes such as brewing and winemaking. These studies have led to the identification of a group of closely related genes, referred to as the FLO gene family, which controls the flocculation phenotype. All naturally occurring S. cerevisiae strains assessed thus far possess at least four independent copies of structurally similar FLO genes, namely FLO1, FLO5, FLO9 and FLO10. The genes appear to differ primarily by the degree of flocculation induced by their expression. However, the reason for the existence of a large family of very similar genes, all involved in the same phenotype, has remained unclear. In natural ecosystems, and in wine production, S. cerevisiae growth together and competes with a large number of other Saccharomyces and many more non-Saccharomyces yeast species. Our data show that many strains of such wine-related non-Saccharomyces species, some of which have recently attracted significant biotechnological interest as they contribute positively to fermentation and wine character, were able to flocculate efficiently. The data also show that both flocculent and non-flocculent S. cerevisiae strains formed mixed species flocs (a process hereafter referred to as co-flocculation with some of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts. This ability of yeast strains to impact flocculation behaviour of other species in mixed inocula has not been described previously. Further investigation into the genetic regulation of co-flocculation revealed that different FLO genes impact differently on such adhesion phenotypes, favouring adhesion with some species while excluding other species from such mixed flocs. The data therefore strongly suggest that FLO genes govern the selective association of S. cerevisiae with specific species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, and may therefore be drivers of ecosystem organisational

  19. Red mud flocculation process in alumina production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, E. R.; Firsov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    The process of thickening and washing red mud is a gooseneck of alumina production. The existing automated systems of the thickening process control involve stabilizing the parameters of the primary technological circuits of the thickener. The actual direction of scientific research is the creation and improvement of models and systems of the thickening process control by model. But the known models do not fully consider the presence of perturbing effects, in particular the particle size distribution in the feed process, distribution of floccules by size after the aggregation process in the feed barrel. The article is devoted to the basic concepts and terms used in writing the population balance algorithm. The population balance model is implemented in the MatLab environment. The result of the simulation is the particle size distribution after the flocculation process. This model allows one to foreseen the distribution range of floccules after the process of aggregation of red mud in the feed barrel. The mud of Jamaican bauxite was acting as an industrial sample of red mud; Cytec Industries of HX-3000 series with a concentration of 0.5% was acting as a flocculant. When simulating, model constants obtained in a tubular tank in the laboratories of CSIRO (Australia) were used.

  20. Coagulation-flocculation studies of wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although coagulation-flocculation processes have been practiced world-wide for almost a century in water treatment, several problems both in the theoretical and in the applied field have not been resolved yet. Especially interpretation of practical results with respect to governing

  1. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E., E-mail: geiza.oliveira@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCE/DQUI/UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Souza Junior, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas

    2013-11-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  2. Chemical modification of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with possible application as asphaltene flocculant agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.E.; Clarindo, J.E.S.; Santo, K.S.E.; Souza Junior, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Asphaltenes can cause enormous losses in the oil industry, because they are soluble only in aromatic solvents. Therefore, they must be removed from the petroleum before it is refined, using flocculant agents. Aiming to find new materials that can work as flocculant agents to asphaltenes, cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were chemically modified through acid-base reactions using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) to increase their lipophilicity. Nanoparticle synthesis was performed using the co-precipitation method followed by annealing of these nanoparticles, aiming to change the structural phase. Modified and unmodified nanoparticles were tested by FTIR-ATR, XRD and TGA/DTA. In addition, precipitation onset of the asphaltenes was performed using modified and unmodified nanoparticles. These tests showed that modified nanoparticles have a potential application as flocculant agents used to remove asphaltenes before oil refining, since the presence of nanoparticles promotes the asphaltene precipitation onset with the addition of a small amount of non-solvent (author)

  3. Contribution To The Study Of Flocculation Of Digestate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heviánková Silvie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the intensification of separating the solid phase of digestate using flocculants only. The separated solid phase should subsequently be used in agriculture for fertilising. Flocculants (polyacrylamides are difficult to biodegrade. In this respect, they should not deteriorate the properties of the solid phase and the flocculant dose must be as low as possible. The research aimed to identify the optimal cationic flocculant and its application procedure which would enable a dosage that would be both economically and ecologically acceptable. We tested 21 cationic flocculants of different charge density and molecular weight and 1 mixture of two selected flocculants (Sokoflok 53 and Sokoflok 54 with the aim to discover the lowest possible dose of flocculating agent to achieve the effective aggregation of digestate particles. The lowest flocculant doses were obtained using the mixture of flocculants labelled Sokoflok 53 and Sokoflok 54 in 4:1 proportion, both of a low charge density and medium molecular weight, namely 14.54 g/kg of total solids for a digestate from the biogas plant Stonava and namely 11.80 g/kg of total solids for a digestate from the biogas plant Vrahovice. The findings also reveal that flocculation is most effective during two-stage flocculant dosing at different mixing time and intensity.

  4. Enhanced Harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris Using Combined Flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Zhou, Wenguang; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a novel flocculation strategy for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris with combined flocculants, poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and calcium oxide (CaO), has been developed. The effect of flocculant dosage, the order of flocculant addition, mixing speed, and growth stage on the harvesting efficiency was evaluated. Results showed that the flocculation using combined flocculants significantly decreases the flocculant dosage and settling time compared with control. It was also found that CaO and γ-PGA influenced microalgal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells and pH of microalgal suspension. The most suitable order of flocculant addition was CaO first and then γ-PGA. The optimal mixing speed was 200 rpm for 0.5 min, followed by 50 rpm for another 4.5 min for CaO and γ-PGA with the highest flocculation efficiency of 95 % and a concentration factor of 35.5. The biomass concentration and lipid yield of the culture reusing the flocculated medium were similar to those when a fresh medium was used. Overall, the proposed method requires low energy input, alleviates biomass and water contamination, and reduces utilization of water resources and is feasible for harvesting C. vulgaris for biofuel and other bio-based chemical production.

  5. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sessile oak ( Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) genetic variability in Serbia was estimated applying cpDNA universal primer pairs. Five different haplotypes were detected in the analyzed sample material from populations in Serbia. The areas in West and Southwest Serbia, with all their specificities, represent an ...

  6. Modeling the evaporation of sessile multi-component droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diddens, C.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; van der Geld, C.W.M.; Wijshoff, H.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    We extended a mathematical model for the drying of sessile droplets, based on the lubrication approximation, to binary mixture droplets. This extension is relevant for e.g. inkjet printing applications, where ink consisting of several components are used. The extension involves the generalization of

  7. A taxonomic study of sessile peritrichs (Ciliophora: Peritricha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three new and four known species of sessile peritrichs were identified from the crustacean ectoparasites, Lernaea barnimiana (Hartman, 1870), L. cyprinacea Linnaeus, 1758 and Dolops ranarum(Stuhimann, 1891) from various fish hosts in South Africa The new species described are: Epistylis cyprinaceae sp. n., ...

  8. Engineering and Design: Precipitation/Coagulation/Flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-15

    Flocculation 7-3 7-3 Jar Test Analysis 10-1 10-3 Alternating Flow Diversion Equalization System 11-1 11-1 Intermittent Flow Diversion System...EM 1110-1-4012 15 NOV 01 (2) Polyaluminum chloride (PAC), another aluminum derivative, is a partially hydrolyzed aluminum chloride solution...derived from natural products include starch, starch derivatives, proteins, and tannins (EPA, 1987). Of these, starch is the most widely used. The

  9. Cake creep during filtration of flocculated manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Keiding, Kristian

    is filtered. Hence, it is not possible to scale up the experiments, and it is therefore difficult to optimize the flocculation and estimate the needed filter media area. Similar problems have been observed when sewage sludge and synthetic core-shell colloids are filtered, and it has been suggested......, and the mixing procedure affect the result, and lab-scale experiments are often used to study how these pre-treatments influence the filtration process. However, the existing mathematical filtration models are based on filtration of inorganic particles and cannot simulate the filtration data obtained when manure...

  10. Lotka-Volterra competition models for sessile organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew; Tanner, Jason E

    2008-04-01

    Markov models are widely used to describe the dynamics of communities of sessile organisms, because they are easily fitted to field data and provide a rich set of analytical tools. In typical ecological applications, at any point in time, each point in space is in one of a finite set of states (e.g., species, empty space). The models aim to describe the probabilities of transitions between states. In most Markov models for communities, these transition probabilities are assumed to be independent of state abundances. This assumption is often suspected to be false and is rarely justified explicitly. Here, we start with simple assumptions about the interactions among sessile organisms and derive a model in which transition probabilities depend on the abundance of destination states. This model is formulated in continuous time and is equivalent to a Lotka-Volterra competition model. We fit this model and a variety of alternatives in which transition probabilities do not depend on state abundances to a long-term coral reef data set. The Lotka-Volterra model describes the data much better than all models we consider other than a saturated model (a model with a separate parameter for each transition at each time interval, which by definition fits the data perfectly). Our approach provides a basis for further development of stochastic models of sessile communities, and many of the methods we use are relevant to other types of community. We discuss possible extensions to spatially explicit models.

  11. Impact of flocculation on flotation tailing's hydro-cycloning properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results of hydro-cycloning of flocculated and non-flocculated flotation tailing from the lead and zinc open pit mine 'Suplja stijena', Sula - Montenegro have been shown in this paper. Reason for this research was finding conditions in order to separate fraction that is suitable for embankment erection. Flotation tailings has been tested in the very state that it goes out from the flotation process and tailings which is flocculated by anionic flocculant. The object was to determine the impact of flocculation on properties of hydro-cycloning products and disposal process. In hydro-cycloning process greater underflow mass is being separated with non-flocculated tailing. Values of geomechanical parameters are significantly different, especially hydro-cyclone's underflow. All geomechanical parameters of hydro-cyclone's underflow are suitable for erecting embankment which shall be made from non-flocculated tailing. Underflow drainage of non-flocculated tailing is faster while overflow drainage is slower and problematic with both tailings.

  12. Prediction of parametric numbers in filterbed flocculation | Odira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... quality, turbidity breakthrough, etc) are due to insufficient flocculation in the filter bed. Such setbacks are probably due to the limited pore volume in the filter bed that would necessitate the settlement of flocculated water to reduce the sediment load applied to the filter. (Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: 2002 7: 117-132) ...

  13. Synthesis of a Cationic Polyacrylamide under UV Initiation and Its Flocculation in Estrone Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoxia Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A ternary cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM with the hydrophobic characteristic was prepared through ultraviolet- (UV- initiated polymerization technique for the estrone (E1 environmental estrogen separation and removal. The monomers of acrylamide (AM, acryloyloxyethyl-trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC, and acryloyloxyethyl dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (AODBAC were used to synthesize the ternary copolymer (PADA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were employed to characterize the structure, thermal decomposition property, and morphology of the polymers, respectively. FT-IR and 1H NMR results indicated the successful formation of the polymers. Besides, with the introduction of hydrophobic groups (phenyl group, an irregular and porous surface morphology and a favorable thermal stability of the PADA were observed by SEM and TG/DSC analyses, respectively. At the optimal condition (pH = 7, flocculant dosage = 4.0 mg/L and E1 concentration = 0.75 mg/L, an excellent E1 flocculation performance (E1 removal rate: 90.1%, floc size: 18.3 μm, and flocculation kinetics: 22.69×10-4 s−1 was acquired by using the efficient flocculant PADA-3 (cationic degree = 40%, and intrinsic viscosity = 6.30 dL·g−1. The zeta potential and floc size analyses were used to analyze the possible flocculation mechanism for the E1 removal. Results indicated that the charge neutralization, adsorption, and birding effects were dominant in the E1 removal progress.

  14. Induced flocculation of Pachysolen tannophilus using the tower fermentor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, K.F.; Clark, T.A.

    1985-12-01

    This article reports the induction of flocculation with Pachysolen tannophilus by the use of controlled aeration in a tower fermentor. The observed environmental and physiological conditions for flocculent growth are described. Although most studies with P. tannophilus have used oxylose as substrate, a synthetic glucose medium was chosen for this study as the faster growth rate of the organism on glucose was considered to favor more rapid selection of a flocculent strain. Due to flocculation, the concentration of yeast cells retained in the tower was up to 16 times greater than in the overflow. Ethanol yields approaching theoretical were achieved at low specific oxygen uptake rates, conditions which also favored maximum flocculation. Future work will involve continuous tower fermentation of sugar mixtures representative of the composition of wood hydrolysates.

  15. Surface wettability and triple line behavior controlled by nano-coatings: effects on the sessile drop evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerôme

    2010-11-01

    Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop posed on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (SiOx, SiOc and CF), the wettability and the triple line dynamic of a sessile drop under natural phase change. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the kinetics of evaporation, internal thermal motion and heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamic of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different for a drop evaporating in pinned mode than in receding mode. Moreover, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal flow structure and the evaporative heat flux are drastically influenced by the wettability the substrate.

  16. Effect of flocculating agent dosages on the performance of red mud flocculation under shear conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, M.J.; Simard, G.; Leclerc, A.; Peloquin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The performance of different polymers used to flocculate red mud particulate materials in the Bayer process can be evaluated on the basis of their efficiency to achieve adequate settling velocities and turbidity levels. In this study, three commercially available flocculants are evaluated under typical conditions found in the last washer of a Bayer plant. The different shear levels are produced by using a modified Couette flow system. Great differences are noticed in the performance of the polymers when they are compared at different dosages and at different shear rate levels. The data collected also suggests that conventional cylinder settling tests may not be adequate to measure the performance of certain types of polymers. (author)

  17. Flocculation kinetics of kaolinite : role of aqueous phase species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, P.; Wang, C.; Dhadli, N. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Flocculation kinetics were used to study the rate-based processes that lead to aggregate growth and breakage of kaolinite in oil sands tailings. The role of aqueous phase species on aggregate growth, breakage and flocculant de-activation was studied. Collision efficiency and deactivation parameters were presented. The study showed that collisions can be efficient when the adsorption of the polymer is thermodynamically favorable. Up to 94 percent of adsorption takes place at the kaolinite edge. Studies have shown that hydrogen bonding sites on the kaolinite disappear with increases in pH values. The impact of molecular level interactions on flocculation kinetics were assessed in order to determine collision efficiencies and aggregate breakage rates. A focused beam reflectance model was used to monitor flocculation kinetics in situ. The period over which reflectance was observed was coupled with the laser velocity to determine the chord length of the particle. The kinetics of flocculation were observed for a 10 minute period. The effects of pH, calcium additions, and EDTA chelating agent additions were investigated. The study showed that calcium additions accelerate the rate of flocculant growth dramatically, and provide a much higher collision efficiency. Flocculants formed in the presence of calcium were weaker. The presence of salts promoted polymer adsorption by non-specific Van der Waals forces. tabs., figs.

  18. Imaging c-PAM-induced flocculation of paper fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, William H; Banerjee, Sujit

    2008-04-01

    The flocculation of paper fibers by cationic polyacrylamides (c-PAM) was studied by imaging the fibers that remain free during flocculation. Studies with fibers of different lengths showed that the degree of flocculation increases with fiber length, with the best flocs being formed with mixtures of short and long fibers. Short fibers did not flocculate by themselves but were captured by flocs formed with longer fibers. The short fibers strengthen the floc and give it shear resistance. Shear had the expected effect of promoting flocculation at low Reynolds number but disrupting it at higher values. For a given polymer the maximum floc size for a mixture of fibers is dictated by the length distribution of the fibers. The polymer dose governs the rate of flocculation. The technique is especially useful in following the tail end of the flocculation process. At this stage a floc is almost fully grown and a small increase in its size would be very difficult to measure by conventional techniques. In contrast, the number of free fibers measured by single fiber imaging decreases rapidly at this point.

  19. Segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinato, R.S.; Mahmoudkhani, A.; Fenderson, T.; Watson, P. [Kemira, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Untreated oil sands tailings have a high solids content, have poor dewaterability, and contain no aggregates. This PowerPoint presentation investigated segregation and differential settling in flocculated tailings. Tailings were treated with gypsum and various polymers. Cylinder settling, dynamic rheometry, particle size analysis, and microscopy techniques were used to characterize the composite tailings. The particles sizes of the samples were evaluated in relation to shear rate, bed depth, and treatment. The study showed that the gypsum-treated tailings had small aggregates, size stratification, a high solids content, and poor dewaterability. The polymer N-treated tailings had the lowest solids content, good dewaterability, and weak aggregates. The polymer A-treated tailings had a low solids content, very good dewaterability, and strong aggregates. The addition of a coagulant to the polymer-A treated tailings provided weaker aggregates and a higher solids content. tabs., figs.

  20. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  1. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  2. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Lukas; Rühs, Patrick A.; Windhab, Erich J.; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v) and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk) to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making “soy slime”, a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food products. PMID

  3. Development of a flocculation sub-model for a 3-D CFD model based on rectangular settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, M; Xanthos, S; Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; McCorquodale, J A

    2011-01-01

    To assess performance and evaluate alternatives to improve the efficiency of rectangular Gould II type final settling tanks (FSTs), New York City Department of Environmental Protection and City College of NY developed a 3D computer model depicting the actual structural configuration of the tanks and the current and proposed hydraulic and solids loading rates. Fluent 6.3.26™ was the base platform for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, for which sub-models of the SS settling characteristics, turbulence, flocculation and rheology were incorporated. This was supplemented by field and bench scale experiments to quantify the coefficients integral to the sub-models. The 3D model developed can be used to consider different baffle arrangements, sludge withdrawal mechanisms and loading alternatives to the FSTs. Flocculation in the front half of the rectangular tank especially in the region before and after the inlet baffle is one of the vital parameters that influences the capture efficiency of SS. Flocculation could be further improved by capturing medium and small size particles by creating an additional zone with an in-tank baffle. This was one of the methods that was adopted in optimizing the performance of the tank where the CCNY 3D CFD model was used to locate the in-tank baffle position. This paper describes the development of the flocculation sub-model and the relationship of the flocculation coefficients in the known Parker equation to the initial mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration X0. A new modified equation is proposed removing the dependency of the breakup coefficient to the initial value of X0 based on preliminary data using normal and low concentration mixed liquor suspended solids values in flocculation experiments performed.

  4. Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefan; Urbassek, Herbert M; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans

    2014-11-18

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150,000 particles. For particle numbers below 10,000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of θ = 90° is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed that describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature, and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.

  5. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiachuan; Eraghi Kazzaz, Armin; AlipoorMazandarani, Niloofar; Hosseinpour Feizi, Zahra; Fatehi, Pedram

    2018-04-10

    Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  6. Production of Flocculants, Adsorbents, and Dispersants from Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, lignin is mainly produced in pulping processes, but it is considered as an under-utilized chemical since it is being mainly used as a fuel source. Lignin contains many hydroxyl groups that can participate in chemical reactions to produce value-added products. Flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants have a wide range of applications in industry, but they are mainly oil-based chemicals and expensive. This paper reviews the pathways to produce water soluble lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It provides information on the recent progress in the possible use of these lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants. It also critically discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to produce such products. The challenges present in the production of lignin-based flocculants, adsorbents, and dispersants and possible scenarios to overcome these challenges for commercial use of these products in industry are discussed.

  7. Effective flocculation of fine mineral suspensions using Moringa oleifera seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, T.M. [Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera seeds, or the active components of the seeds, in the clarification of waters containing suspended mineral fines. In comparative testing using a hematite suspension, the flocculating activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was better than alum. Twenty milligrams of seed powder was sufficient to clarify the hematite to near zero turbidity, while the same amount of alum had a minimal effect on turbidity. Extracts were prepared from the seeds in an attempt to separate the proteins. A crude protein extract was enriched by lowering the pH to 6.0. Only 0.08 mg/L of the enriched extract was required to flocculate a minusil suspension. Environmentally friendly protein flocculants could theoretically be produced and enhanced with recombinant DNA techniques as an alternative to chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  8. A simple shear limited, single size, time dependent flocculation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprenas, R.; Tran, D. A.; Strom, K.

    2017-12-01

    This research focuses on the modeling of flocculation of cohesive sediment due to turbulent shear, specifically, investigating the dependency of flocculation on the concentration of cohesive sediment. Flocculation is important in larger sediment transport models as cohesive particles can create aggregates which are orders of magnitude larger than their unflocculated state. As the settling velocity of each particle is determined by the sediment size, density, and shape, accounting for this aggregation is important in determining where the sediment is deposited. This study provides a new formulation for flocculation of cohesive sediment by modifying the Winterwerp (1998) flocculation model (W98) so that it limits floc size to that of the Kolmogorov micro length scale. The W98 model is a simple approach that calculates the average floc size as a function of time. Because of its simplicity, the W98 model is ideal for implementing into larger sediment transport models; however, the model tends to over predict the dependency of the floc size on concentration. It was found that the modification of the coefficients within the original model did not allow for the model to capture the dependency on concentration. Therefore, a new term within the breakup kernel of the W98 formulation was added. The new formulation results is a single size, shear limited, and time dependent flocculation model that is able to effectively capture the dependency of the equilibrium size of flocs on both suspended sediment concentration and the time to equilibrium. The overall behavior of the new model is explored and showed align well with other studies on flocculation. Winterwerp, J. C. (1998). A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. .Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36(3):309-326.

  9. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T.

    1995-12-31

    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Heldt, Caryn L

    2015-07-20

    Our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. However, worldwide immunization rates are low. The two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. The high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as an alternative vaccine purification operation. In our previous work, we demonstrated that osmolytes preferentially flocculate a non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV). In this work we show that osmolytes flocculate the enveloped virus, Sindbis virus heat resistant strain (SVHR), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm microfilter membrane while leaving proteins in solution. The best osmolytes were tested for their ability to flocculate SVHR at different concentrations, pH and ionic strengths. Our best removal was 98% of SVHR in 0.3M mannitol at a pH of 5. We propose that osmolytes are able to flocculate hydrophobic non-enveloped and enveloped virus particles by the reduction of the hydration layer around the particles, which stimulates virus aggregation. Now that we have demonstrated that protecting osmolytes flocculate viruses, this method has the potential to be a future platform purification process for vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dielectric Properties of Flocculated Water-in-Oil Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, T

    1996-12-31

    When an offshore oil field is near completion, water occupies a large fraction of the available pore volume. Thus, in collecting the oil and gas reserves, one has to deal with a high co-production of either formation- or injected water. This doctoral thesis focuses on the effect of water-in-oil emulsions on the dielectric properties, in particular the effect of flocculation. Various dielectric models are applied to obtain methods for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the flocculated state. Permittivity and measurement of dielectric properties are discussed as a basis for the interpretation of the dielectric properties of the emulsions. Various flocculation models are presented. It is concluded that the dielectric properties of water-in-oil emulsions are strongly influenced by continuously ongoing processes in the system. Because of flocculation and sedimentation the traditional dielectric mixture models cannot satisfactorily predict the dielectric behaviour. The experimentally obtained permittivities for the emulsions can be reproduced by including flocculation in the models and treating the floc aggregates as spheroids or subsystems with dielectric properties given by the degree of flocculation. The models discussed have difficulties reproducing the complete frequency behaviour found experimentally. This is probably because the dielectric relaxation may be influenced by processes not included in the models, such as the effects of dipolar or multipolar interactions between the droplets. For further research it is recommended that rheological and dielectric measurements be combined. 227 refs., 61 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Characterization of specialized flocculent yeasts to improve sparkling wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, R; Perpetuini, G; Di Gianvito, P; Arfelli, G; Schirone, M; Corsetti, A; Suzzi, G

    2016-06-01

    Flocculent wine yeasts were characterized for the expression of FLO1, FLO5, FLO8, AMN1 and RGA1 genes, growth kinetics and physicochemical properties of the cell surface during a 6-month sparkling wine fermentation period. The expression of FLO1, FLO5, FLO8, AMN1 and RGA1 genes was determined by RT-qPCR. The physicochemical characterization of yeast surface properties was evaluated by the microbial adhesion to solvents method. FLO5 gene was the most expressed one and a linear correlation with the flocculent degree was found. Flocculent strains were more hydrophobic than the commercial wine strain EC1118. Gene expressions and the ability to face secondary wine fermentation conditions were strain dependent. The importance of FLO5 gene in developing the high flocculent characteristic of wine yeasts was highlighted. Cell surface properties depended on the time of fermentation. Better knowledge about the expression of some genes encoding the flocculent phenotype which could be useful to select suitable starter cultures to improve sparkling wine technology was achieved. A step forward in understanding the complexity and strain-specific nature of flocculation phenotype was done. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. A highly efficient flocculant for graphene oxide recycling and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ruiying; Pan, Hui; Ma, Yuning; Mao, Lin; Li, Yao; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Shenmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we found a novel and efficient way of recycling graphene oxide (GO) by adding ZnO colloid into the GO solution. GO flocculates immediately when mixed with ZnO colloids. Interestingly, the flocculation would disappear and disperse homogeneously in solution if a certain amount of HCl is added. The study offers a solution to recover and reuse GO throughout its production procedures. More importantly, in the obtained reduced GO/ZnO (rGO/ZnO) flocculant, ZnO nanorods are observed self-assembled into an ordered structure in between the rGO sheets. This prevents the rGO sheets from re-stacking and facilitates the movement of the electrolyte into ZnO if the prepared rGO/ZnO is used as an electrode for supercapacitor. Electrochemical measurements have proved that the rGO/ZnO composite with a weight ratio of 1:1 exhibits a gravimetric specific capacitance of 175 F g-1 and the rGO/ZnO electrode maintains 89.6% of the initial capacitance after 5000 cycles of uses.

  14. Analysis and optimization of flocculation activity and turbidity reduction in kaolin suspension using pectin as a biopolymer flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Norli, I; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Morad, N

    2009-01-01

    The performance of pectin in turbidity reduction and the optimum condition were determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The effect of pH, cation's concentration, and pectin's dosage on flocculating activity and turbidity reduction was investigated at three levels and optimized by using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Coagulation and flocculation process were assessed with a standard jar test procedure with rapid and slow mixing of a kaolin suspension (aluminium silicate), at 150 rpm and 30 rpm, respectively, in which a cation e.g. Al(3+), acts as coagulant, and pectin acts as the flocculant. In this research, all factors exhibited significant effect on flocculating activity and turbidity reduction. The experimental data and model predictions well agreed. From the 3D response surface graph, maximum flocculating activity and turbidity reduction are in the region of pH greater than 3, cation concentration greater than 0.5 mM, and pectin dosage greater than 20 mg/L, using synthetic turbid wastewater within the range. The flocculating activity for pectin and turbidity reduction in wastewater is at 99%.

  15. Flocculation of flotation tailings using thermosensitive polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of thermosensitive polymers is the reversible transition between the hydrophilic and hydrophopic forms depending on the temperature. Although the main research efforts are focused on their application in different kinds of drug delivery systems, this phenomenon also allows one to precisely control the stability of solid-liquid dispersions. In this paper research on the application of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers in processing of minerals is presented. In the experiments tailings from flotation plant of one of the coal mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. (Poland were used. A laser particle sizer Fritsch Analysette 22 was used in order to determine the Particle Size Distribution (PSD. It was proved that there are some substantial issues associated with the application of thermosensitive polymers in industrial practice which may exclude them from the common application. High salinity of suspension altered the value of Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Moreover, the co-polymers used in research proved to be efficient flocculating agents without any temperature rise. Finally, the dosage needed to achieve steric stabilization of suspension was greatly beyond economic justification.

  16. Temperature effects on flocculation, using different coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C S B; Fradin, E; Gregory, J

    2004-01-01

    Temperature is known to affect flocculation and filter performance. Jar tests have been conducted in the laboratory, using a photometric dispersion analyser (PDA) to assess the effects of temperature on floc formation, breakage and reformation. Alum, ferric sulphate and three polyaluminium chloride (PACI) coagulants have been investigated for temperatures ranging between 6 and 29 degrees C for a suspension of kaolin clay in London tap water. Results confirm that floc formation is slower at lower temperatures for all coagulants. A commercial PACl product, PAX XL 19, produces the largest flocs for all temperatures; and alum the smallest. Increasing the shear rate results in floc breakage in all cases and the flocs never reform to their original size. This effect is most notable for temperatures around 15 degrees C. Breakage, in terms of floc size reduction, is greater for higher temperatures, suggesting a weaker floc. Recovery after increased shear is greater at lower temperatures implying that floc break-up is more reversible for lower temperatures.

  17. Universal evaporation dynamics of a confined sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Droplet evaporation under confinement is ubiquitous to multitude of applications such as microfluidics, surface patterning, and ink-jet printing. However, the rich physics governing the universality in the underlying dynamics remains grossly elusive. Here, we bring out hitherto unexplored universal features of the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet entrapped in a 3D confined fluidic environment. We show, through extensive set of experiments and theoretical formulations, that the evaporation timescale for such a droplet can be represented by a unique function of the initial conditions. Moreover, using same theoretical considerations, we are able to trace and universally merge the volume evolution history of the droplets along with evaporation lifetimes, irrespective of the extent of confinement. We also showcase the internal flow transitions caused by spatio-temporal variation of evaporation flux due to confinement. These findings may be of profound importance in designing functionalized droplet evaporation devices for emerging engineering and biomedical applications.

  18. Flocculation of suspended matter in a crude wet phosphoric acid (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brikci Nigassa, M.; Bensebaa, A.

    1994-11-01

    Prior to the recovery of uranium, a pre-treatment of the phosphoric acid is necessary to remove soluble impurities of different origins. In this work, synthetic flocculants have been used. the influence of operating conditions on flocculation and filtration, such as, type of flocculants, polymer concentration, temperature, mixing and time of agitation, has been studied for both aged and fresh phosphoric acid. It has been shown that synthetic flocculants can be used for flocculation ins a phosphoric acid medium and that flocculation and filtration processes are strongly linked

  19. Evaporation kinetics of sessile water droplets on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Leeladhar, Rajesh; Kang, Yong Tae; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-05-21

    Evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile droplets of water on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces are experimentally investigated. The results show that a constant contact radius (CCR) mode and a constant contact angle (CCA) mode are two dominating evaporation modes during droplet evaporation on the superhydrophobic surfaces. With the decrease in the solid fraction of the superhydrophobic surfaces, the duration of a CCR mode is reduced and that of a CCA mode is increased. Compared to Rowan's kinetic model, which is based on the vapor diffusion across the droplet boundary, the change in a contact angle in a CCR (pinned) mode shows a remarkable deviation, decreasing at a slower rate on the superhydrophobic surfaces with less-solid fractions. In a CCA (receding) mode, the change in a contact radius agrees well with the theoretical expectation, and the receding speed is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces with lower solid fractions. The discrepancy between experimental results and Rowan's model is attributed to the initial large contact angle of a droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces. The droplet geometry with a large contact angle results in a narrow wedge region of air along the contact boundary, where the liquid-vapor diffusion is significantly restricted. Such an effect becomes minor as the evaporation proceeds with the decrease in a contact angle. In both the CCR and CCA modes, the evaporative mass transfer shows the linear relationship between mass(2/3) and evaporation time. However, the evaporation rate is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces, which is more significant on the surfaces with lower solid fractions. As a result, the superhydrophobic surfaces slow down the drying process of a sessile droplet on them.

  20. Adsorption and flocculation by polymers and polymer mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John; Barany, Sandor

    2011-11-14

    Polymers of various types are in widespread use as flocculants in several industries. In most cases, polymer adsorption is an essential prerequisite for flocculation and kinetic aspects are very important. The rates of polymer adsorption and of re-conformation (relaxation) of adsorbed chains are key factors that influence the performance of flocculants and their mode of action. Polyelectrolytes often tend to adopt a rather flat adsorbed configuration and in this state their action is mainly through charge effects, including 'electrostatic patch' attraction. When the relaxation rate is quite low, particle collisions may occur while the adsorbed chains are still in an extended state and flocculation by polymer bridging may occur. These effects are now well understood and supported by much experimental evidence. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of multi-component flocculants, especially dual-polymer systems. In the latter case, there can be significant advantages over the use of single polymers. Despite some complications, there is a broad understanding of the action of dual polymer systems. In many cases the sequence of addition of the polymers is important and the pre-adsorbed polymer can have two important effects: providing adsorption sites for the second polymer or causing a more extended adsorbed conformation as a result of 'site blocking'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flocculation characteristics of polyacrylamide grafted cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla: An efficient and eco-friendly flocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Hangcheng; Yao, Juming

    2014-08-01

    This work presents a synthesis process and flocculation characteristics of an eco-friendly flocculant based on bamboo pulp cellulose (BPC) from Phyllostachys heterocycla. Ployacrylamide (PAM) was grafted onto the BPC by free-radical graft copolymerization in homogeneous aqueous solution. The optimal synthesis conditions of the bamboo pulp cellulose-graft-ployacrylamide flocculant (BPC-g-PAM) and its performance on wastewater treatments were investigated. A UV-based method was used to rapidly determine the degree of substitution (DS) of BPC. The results showed that, under the optimal synthesis conditions, the obtained BPC-g-PAM held a grafting ratio of 43.8% and DS of 1.31. Turbidity removal of the product reached 98.0% accompanying with the significant flocculation and sedimentation in target suspensions. The flocculation mechanism was explored by means of zeta potential method. For negatively charged contaminants, like kaolin clay particles, the BPC-g-PAM could remove the contaminants efficiently via bridging and charge neutralization in acidic or neutral environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of dynamic distribution of floc particles on flocculation effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Jun; HE Weipeng; Song Xinin; LI Guibai

    2009-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was used as coagulant and suspended particles in kaolin water. Online instruments including turbidimeter and particle counter were used to monitor the flocculation process. An evaluation model for demonstrating the impact on the flocculation effect was established based on the multiple linear regression analysis method. The parameter of the index weight of channels quantitatively described how the variation of floc particle population in different size ranges cause the decrement of turbidity. The study showed that the floc particles in different size ranges contributed differently to the decrement of turbidity and that the index weight of channel could excellently indicate the impact degree of floc particles dynamic distribution on flocculation effect. Therefore, the parameter may significantly benefit the development of coagulation and sedimentation techniques as well as the optimal coagulant selection.

  3. Chitosan as flocculant agent for clarification of stevia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. D. de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is used as a sweetener due to its low calorific value and its taste, which is very similar to that of sucrose. After extraction from dried leaves, stevia extract is dark in colour, and therefore needs to be whitened to increase acceptance by consumers. In this study we tested chitosan, a cationic polyelectrolyte, as flocculant agent for the whitening of the Stevia extract. Positive charges of chitosan can interact electrostatically with a counter-ion, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP, and then chitosan precipitates. A factorial design was used to study the whitening process, in which Glycosides Removal, Colour Removal, Turbidity Removal and Soluble Solids Removal were evaluated. The studied factors were Chitosan Mass and pH of the TPP solution. The results showed that chitosan is a good flocculant agent, being able to flocculate both the glycosides and the pigments that make the extract coloured.

  4. Impact of dynamic distribution of floc particles on flocculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Jun; He, Weipeng; Song, Xinin; Li, Guibai

    2009-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) was used as coagulant and suspended particles in kaolin water. Online instruments including turbidimeter and particle counter were used to monitor the flocculation process. An evaluation model for demonstrating the impact on the flocculation effect was established based on the multiple linear regression analysis method. The parameter of the index weight of channels quantitatively described how the variation of floc particle population in different size ranges cause the decrement of turbidity. The study showed that the floc particles in different size ranges contributed differently to the decrease of turbidity and that the index weight of channel could excellently indicate the impact degree of floc particles dynamic distribution on flocculation effect. Therefore, the parameter may significantly benefit the development of coagulation and sedimentation techniques as well as the optimal coagulant selection.

  5. Decontamination technology of contaminated water with flocculating and settling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Hosobuchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    In the joint research and development of treatment systems of cooling water for cutting asphalt pavement surface with our authors' group, the liquid-solid separation technology by flocculating and settling technology, and the flocculants for the use of systems were developed. In this paper, the developed flocculating and settling technology and the flocculants are discussed first. Next, the demonstration tests of decontamination technology on the contaminated water in swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture had been conducted by use of the stationary purification system of contaminated water and the flocculants compounding with or without iron ferrocianide developed by the preliminary test. It was clarified from the results that ionized cesium (Cs) rarely exists in the stagnant water in pools, ponds, lakes and so on at the time when nine months have passed since Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accidents. Further, it is necessary to use the flocculants compounding iron ferrocianide in the case where ionized Cs exists in water. From the above-mentioned results, the following problems were pointed out: One problem was cyanide dissolution in the purified water and the other one was the dissolution from the dehydration sludge. Finally, the high-performance mobile purification units of contaminated water which is capable for carrying with trucks have been developed, and the demonstration test was performed in Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture to purify the contaminated water in a pond and generated by the high-pressure water washing in a Public Hall. From the test results, it was made clear that the dehydration sludge separated by liquid-solid settling of the contaminated water of around 1,000Bq/l became a high radiation dose of about 185,000Bq/l. (author)

  6. Applications of a high temperature sessile drop device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, B; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C [Vienna University of Technology, Insitute of Solid State Physics E-138, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Worbs, P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Bereich Materialforschung, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: bernhard.schwarz@ifp.tuwien.ac.at

    2008-03-01

    The wettability of a liquid metal on a solid surface is of great technological interest for the industry (soldering, brazing, infiltration) as well as for fundamental research (diffusion, chemical reaction, intermetallic phases). The characterization of wetting is done by measuring the contact angle at the triple line of the liquid on the solid. A High Temperature Sessile Drop Device (HTSDD) was constructed and several applications were tested: (i) a wettability study of a copper-based brazing alloy (Cu-ABA) on TiN{sub x} coatings with different stoichiometries. The data derived from the HTSDD show that the reduction of the nitrogen content in the TiN coating reduces the time for reaching the final contact angle. Also for substoichiometric TiC a similar behaviour is predicted in literature. (ii) The liquid surface energy of molten metals can be estimated from the curvature of flattened droplets due to the influence of gravity. Two models were used for the calculation of the liquid surface energy of different liquid metals. (iii) From the droplet radius vs. time curves it is possible to distinguish between two different reactive wetting regimes - the diffusion and the reaction controlled reactive wetting. The beginning of this research topic will be discussed.

  7. Contact angle control of sessile drops on a tensioned web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Janghoon; Kim, Dongguk; Lee, Changwoo

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the influence of the change of tension applied to flexible and thin web substrate on the contact angle of sessile drop in roll-to-roll system was investigated. Graphene oxide and deionized water solutions were used in the experiments. Tension was changed to 29, 49, and 69 N, and the casting distance of the micropipette and the material was set to 10, 20, and 40 mm, and the droplet volume was set to 10, 20, and 30 μL, respectively. Statistical analysis of three variables and analysis of the variance methodology showed that the casting distance was most significant for the contact angle change, and the most interesting tension variable was also affected. The change in tension caused the maximum contact angle to change by 5.5°. The tension was not uniform in the width direction. When the droplet was applied in the same direction in the width direction, it was confirmed that the tension unevenness had great influence on the contact angle up to 11°. Finally, the casting distance, which has a large effect on the contact angle, was calibrated in the width direction to reduce the width direction contact angle deviation to 1%. This study can be applied to fine patterning research using continuous inkjet printing and aerosol jet printing, which are roll-to-roll processes based on droplet handling.

  8. The Association Between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0273 TITLE: The Association between Molecular Markers in Colorectal Sessile Serrated Polyps and Colorectal Cancer ... Colorectal Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0273 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrea Burnett-Hartman 5d... cancer in patients with sessile serrated colorectal polyps (SSPs). The project’s specific aims are as follows: 1) Estimate the risk of colorectal

  9. Study of the hibiscus esculentus mucilage coagulation–flocculation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The flocculent activity of Hibiscus esculentus (gombo) mucilage traditionally used for a local beer (Tchapalo) clarification in Côte d\\'Ivoire was studied using the method of the experimental designs. Of the three factors selected that are the volume of mucilage (X1), the temperature (X2) and the pH (X3), sole X1 and X3 ...

  10. Porcine parvovirus flocculation and removal in the presence of osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Pearson, Eric; Heldt, Caryn L

    2014-09-30

    Viruses can be modified into viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors in order to treat acquired or genetic diseases. To satisfy the current market demand, an improvement in current vaccine manufacturing is needed. Chromatography and nanofiltration are not suitable for all types of viruses. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation with osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as a potential virus purification process. We hypothesize that osmolytes strongly bind to water, thus leading to the formation of a hydration layer around the virus particles and stimulation of aggregation. We have discovered that osmolytes, including sugars, sugar alcohols and amino acids, preferentially flocculate porcine parvovirus (PPV), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm filter while leaving model proteins in solution. This large pore size filter increases the flux and decreases the transmembrane pressure of typical virus filters. The best flocculants were tested for their ability to aggregate PPV at different concentrations, shear stress, pH and ionic strength. We were able to remove 96% of PPV in 3.0M glycine at a pH of 5. Glycine is also an excipient, and therefore may not require removal later in the process. Virus flocculation using osmolytes, followed by microfiltration could be used as an integrated process for virus purification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF FLOCCULATION PROCESS BY MICROBIAL COAGULANT IN RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Nabilah Murad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing process of coagulation and flocculation are using chemicals that known as cationic coagulant such as alum, ferric sulfate, calcium oxide, and organic polymers.  Thus, this study concentrates on optimizing of flocculation process by microbial coagulant in river water. Turbidity and suspended solids are the main constraints of river water quality in Malaysia. Hence, a study is proposed to produce microbial coagulants isolated locally for river water treatment. The chosen microbe used as the bioflocculant producer is Aspergillus niger. The parameters to optimization in the flocculation process were pH, bioflocculant dosage and effluent concentration. The research was done in the jar test process and the process parameters for maximum turbidity removal was validated. The highest flocculating activity was obtained on day seven of cultivation in the supernatant. The optimum pH and bioflocculant dosage for an optimize sedimentation process were between 4-5 and 2-3 mL for 0.3 g/L of effluent concentration respectively. The model was validated by using a river water sample from Sg. Pusu and the result showed that the model was acceptable to evaluate the bioflocculation process.

  12. The role of electrostatics in saliva-induced emulsion flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silletti, Erika; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Norde, Willem; Van Aken, George A.

    Upon consumption food emulsions undergo different processes, including mixing with saliva. It has been shown that whole saliva induces emulsion flocculation [van Aken, G. A., Vingerhoeds, M. H., & de Hoog, E. H. A. (2005). Colloidal behaviour of food emulsions under oral conditions. In E. Dickinson

  13. Evaluation of the flocculating properties of Malvaviscus arboreus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Hylocereus undatus for water clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marcela Ramírez Estrada

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Malvaviscus arboreus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Hylocereus undatus have been reported by river residents as natural flocculants. Waters were investigated in La Salada creek (in the municipality of Caldas, Colombia to see if the effects are modified by the flocculant species (Malvaviscus arboreus, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Hylocereus undatus, the type of vegetal material (dry or fresh and the concentration of organic flocculant (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ml. JAR methodology was used, following the standard ASTM No. D2035-80. It was found that Heliocarpus popayanensis and Hylocereus undatus presented a flocculation power (P value: 0.017, that increasing the concentration of flocculent it increased the flocculation (P value: 0.08 and the storage did not alter the effects of species over the process of flocculation (P value: 0.7813.

  14. Transmission X-ray Microscopy—A New Tool in Clay Mineral Floccules Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray L. Frost

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective flocculation and dewatering of mineral processing streams containing clays are microstructure dependent in clay-water systems. Initial clay flocculation is crucial in the design and for the development of a new methodology of gas exploitation. Microstructural engineering of clay aggregates using covalent cations and Keggin macromolecules have been monitored using the new state of the art Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM with 60 nm tomography resolution installed in a Taiwanese synchrotron. The 3-D reconstructions from TXM images show complex aggregation structures in montmorillonite aqueous suspensions after treatment with Na+, Ca2+ and Al13 Keggin macromolecules. Na-montmorillonite displays elongated, parallel, well-orientated and closed-void cellular networks, 0.5–3 µm in diameter. After treatment by covalent cations, the coagulated structure displays much smaller, randomly orientated and openly connected cells, 300–600 nm in diameter. The average distances measured between montmorillonite sheets was around 450 nm, which is less than half of the cell dimension measured in Na-montmorillonite. The most dramatic structural changes were observed after treatment by Al13 Keggin; aggregates then became arranged in compacted domains of a 300 nm average diameter composed of thick face-to-face oriented sheets, which forms porous aggregates with larger intra-aggregate open and connected voids.

  15. Gene Signature in Sessile Serrated Polyps Identifies Colon Cancer Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Burt, Randall W.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Delker, Don A.

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20–30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n=12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n=9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). A smaller seven-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high (CIMP-H) and MLH1 silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. PMID:27026680

  16. Sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) vs. traditional serrated adenoma (TSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakovic, Emina Emilia; Gomez, Jose D; Driman, David K; Parfitt, Jeremy R; Wang, Chang; Benerjee, Tama; Snover, Dale C

    2008-01-01

    The morphologic distinction between various serrated polyps of the colorectum may be challenging. The distinction between sessile serrated adenoma (SSA) and traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) may be difficult using currently available criteria mostly based on cytologic characteristics. We have evaluated 66 serrated polyps including 29 SSA, 18 TSA, and 19 hyperplastic polyps for overall shape of the polyps, architectural features of individual crypts, the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasm, size and distribution of the proliferation and maturation zones, as well as Ki-67 and CK20 expression. The extent of the expression of CK20 and Ki-67 could not distinguish between the 3 types of serrated polyps, but the distribution of their expression was very helpful and differences were statistically significant. The distribution of Ki-67+ cells was the single most helpful distinguishing feature of the serrated polyp type (PTSA had low Ki-67 expression, which was limited to "ectopic crypts" and admixed tubular adenomalike areas. In serrated polyps, ectopic crypt formation (ECF) defined by the presence of ectopic crypts with their bases not seated adjacent to the muscularis mucosae was nearly exclusive to TSA and was found in all cases, while the presence of cytologic atypia and eosinophilia of the cytoplasm were characteristic, but not limited to TSA. No evidence of ECF, but nevertheless abnormal distribution of proliferation zone was characteristic of SSA, whereas HP had neither. The presence of the ECF defines TSA in a more rigorous fashion than previous diagnostic criteria and also explains the biologic basis of exuberant protuberant growth associated with TSA and the lack of such growth in SSA. Recognition of this phenomenon may also help in exploring the genetic and molecular basis for differences between SSA and TSA, because these architectural abnormalities may well be a reflection of abnormalities in genetically programmed mucosal development.

  17. Polyacrylamide grafted cellulose as an eco-friendly flocculant: Key factors optimization of flocculation to surfactant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Xiaogang; Shao, Lan; Zhang, Xiumei; Yao, Juming

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of effluents from surfactant manufacturers is giving rise to increasingly serious environmental problems. In order to develop the eco-friendly flocculation materials to achieve effective removal of pollutants from the surfactant effluents, the bamboo pulp cellulose from Phyllostachys heterocycla is employed as the skeleton material to synthesize an eco-friendly bamboo pulp cellulose-g-polyacrylamide (BPC-g-PAM) for flocculation. The BPC-g-PAM is used with the metal ions as the coagulant to treat the effluent from a surfactant manufacturer. The response surface methodology coupled with Box-behnken design is employed to optimize the key factors of coagulation-flocculation. The results show that the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM achieves the best coagulation-flocculation performance like, the fast treatment time, minimum coagulant and BPC-g-PAM dosages compared with the other two combinations of Al(3+) with BPC-g-PAM and Ca(2+) with BPC-g-PAM. Therefore, the combination of Fe(3+) with BPC-g-PAM is expected to promote its application for the pollution control in the surfactant manufacturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New insights about flocculation process in sodium caseinate-stabilized emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Montes-de-Oca-Ávalos, Juan; Herrera, María Lidia; Candal, Roberto Jorge; Pinto-de-Oliveira, Cristiano Luis; Linares-Torriani, Iris

    2016-11-01

    Flocculation process was studied in emulsions formulated with 10wt.% sunflower oil, 2, 5 or 7.5wt.% NaCas, and with or without addition of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30wt.%). Two different processing conditions were used to prepare emulsions: ultraturrax homogenization or further homogenization by ultrasound. Emulsions with droplets with diameters above (coarse) or below (fine) 1μm were obtained. Emulsions were analyzed for droplet size distribution by static light scattering (SLS), stability by Turbiscan, and structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data were fitted by a theoretical model that considered a system composed of poly dispersed spheres with repulsive interaction and presence of aggregates. Flocculation behavior was caused by the self-assembly properties of NaCas, but the process was more closely related to interfacial protein content than micelles concentration in the aqueous phase. The results indicated that casein aggregation was strongly affected by disaccharide addition, hydrophobic interaction of the emulsion droplets, and interactions among interfacial protein molecules. The structural changes detected in the protein micelles in different environments allowed understanding the macroscopic physical behavior observed in concentrated NaCas emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Springtime Leaf Development of Mature Sessile Oak Trees as Based on Multi-Seasonal Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYITRAI, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a four year leaf growth data-set we modelled the thermal time-dependent leafontogeny in upper and lower canopy layers of mature sessile oak trees, in a Quercetum petraeae-cerrisforest stand (NE Hungary. Our regression models revealed no considerable differences between thetiming of leaf unfolding and leaf expansion of different canopy layers. On the other hand seasonalcourse in leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA indicated that sun leaves needed considerably longer thermaltime to fully develop their anatomical structures compared to shade leaves. LMA of sun leaves washigher during the whole leaf maturation process suggesting that ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ characteristicsdevelop in very early stage of leaf ontogeny. Functioning of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo in shadeleaves have built up faster and performed better in all developmental stages which could be attributedto two main factors: 1 very early determination of leaf traits as a function of light environment and 2evolving shading effect of upper canopy layer eliminates photoinhibition in lower leaves.

  20. Differential Biofilm Formation and Chemical Disinfection Resistance of Sessile Cells of Listeria monocytogenes Strains under Monospecies and Dual-Species (with Salmonella enterica) Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostaki, Maria; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Braxou, Elli; Nychas, George-John

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible influence of bacterial intra- and interspecies interactions on the ability of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica to develop mixed-culture biofilms on an abiotic substratum, as well as on the subsequent resistance of sessile cells to chemical disinfection. Initially, three strains from each species were selected and left to attach and form biofilms on stainless steel (SS) coupons incubated at 15°C for 144 h, in periodically renewable tryptone soy broth (TSB), under either monoculture or mixed-culture (mono-/dual-species) conditions. Following biofilm formation, mixed-culture sessile communities were subjected to 6-min disinfection treatments with (i) benzalkonium chloride (50 ppm), (ii) sodium hypochlorite (10 ppm), (iii) peracetic acid (10 ppm), and (iv) a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (5 ppm) and peracetic acid (5 ppm). Results revealed that both species reached similar biofilm counts (ca. 105 CFU cm−2) and that, in general, interspecies interactions did not have any significant effect either on the biofilm-forming ability (as this was assessed by agar plating enumeration of the mechanically detached biofilm bacteria) or on the antimicrobial resistance of each individual species. Interestingly, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis clearly showed that the three L. monocytogenes strains did not contribute at the same level either to the formation of mixed-culture sessile communities (mono-/dual species) or to their antimicrobial recalcitrance. Additionally, the simultaneous existence inside the biofilm structure of S. enterica cells seemed to influence the occurrence and resistance pattern of L. monocytogenes strains. In sum, this study highlights the impact of microbial interactions taking place inside a mixed-culture sessile community on both its population dynamics and disinfection resistance. PMID:22307304

  1. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  2. Synthesis of optimal digital controller of flocculant dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pismenskiy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The task of automatic process control of the slime water thickening and flotation tailings clarification is the stabilization of thicken product density within the given range and keeping up the solids content in the overflow not above the permissible level with minimum use of the flocculants. In existing systems for automatic control the flocculant dosing is carried out according to the solids content in the device input (the principle of open-loop control. This leads to the excess consumption of the flocculants and increase the dispersion density of the overflow. To perform the synthesis of the optimal digital controller in order to minimize the deviations from the master control and ensure the specified quality of the transition process. Over controlling value should not exceed 5 %. To perform the system operation modeling in order to determine the quality of transient processes. Methodology. Synthesis of the optimal digital controller is based on the method of dynamic programming. Findings. A mathematical model of the object control is represented in the normal form of Cauchy and further in the form of differential equations. The optimum period of quantization as the function from specified error of control and the output coordinate change is calculated. The differential equation of Bellman is obtained and the condition for minimization of the quality functional. Bellman function is represented as a quadratic form from the variables of the system condition. In order to limit possible control, the weight coefficients of the functional are calculated based on maximum permitted values of the system condition variables and the control actions during the transient process. Practical value. Using the modeling of ACS of the flocculant dosing it was established that the over controlling amount is 3.5%, the transient process life 5.6 sec, the transient process is aperiodical, non-static control, which meets the requirements imposed on the

  3. Coagulation and flocculation of dissolved organic substances with organic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Kvinnesland, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation of natural organic matter (NOM) in water is a well-established process, enabling or enhancing the removal of these substances by different particle separation processes. The dominating coagulating agents used are, however, inorganic salts of iron (Fe3+) and aluminium (Al3+). The primary use of organic polymers is as flocculating agents for already coagulated aggregates. However, in recent years the use of cationic organic polymers have received increasing attent...

  4. Digital Imaging and Piezo-dispenser Actuator in Automatic Flocculation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani TOMPERI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an image-based on-line control system for a coiled pipe flocculator. A digital imaging technique developed previously is utilized to measure the characteristic floc size and a high-pressure piezo-dispenser is introduced for accurate dosing and rapid mixing of the flocculant. The controller is a conventional PI controller. Step change experiments on feed water quality, flow rate and desired floc size have been carried out for controller tuning and testing. The paper shows that the piezo-dispenser provides better flocculation results than a conventional dosing pump, and the flocculation result can be automatically controlled even when the feed water quality rapidly changes. The proposed flocculator is a simple, inexpensive and practical system for long-term laboratory tests to investigate the functionality of flocculants on varying feed waters.

  5. Molecular comparison of bacterial communities within iron-containing flocculent mats associated with submarine volcanoes along the Kermadec Arc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Tyler W; Olson, Julie B

    2009-03-01

    Iron oxide sheaths and filaments are commonly found in hydrothermal environments and have been shown to have a biogenic origin. These structures were seen in the flocculent material associated with two submarine volcanoes along the Kermadec Arc north of New Zealand. Molecular characterization of the bacterial communities associated with the flocculent samples indicated that no known Fe-oxidizing bacteria dominated the recovered clone libraries. However, clones related to the recently described Fe-oxidizing bacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans were obtained from both the iron-containing flocculent (Fe-floc) and sediment samples, and peaks corresponding to Mariprofundus ferrooxydans, as well as the related clones, were observed in several of our terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles. A large group of epsilonproteobacterial sequences, for which there is no cultured representative, dominated clones from the Fe-floc libraries and were less prevalent in the sediment sample. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that several operational taxonomic units appeared to be site specific, and statistical analyses of the clone libraries found that all samples were significantly different from each other. Thus, the bacterial communities in the Fe-floc samples were not more closely related to each other than to the sediment communities.

  6. Testing by photometric measurement and camera study of theoretical prediction of microvolume universal sessile dropshape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S R P; O'Neill, M; McMillan, N D; Arthure, K; Smith, S; Riedel, S

    2011-01-01

    The approach to the theory of sessile dropshapes held on a cylindrical drophead is discussed. It reveals an 'undifferentiable' universal micro-dropshape for volumes below 3μL. Camera studies demonstrate the veracity of this prediction exploited in the design of a new microvolume spectrometer. The mean pathlength of light injected through a microvolume sessile drop has been determined both from the model and from experiment. Drop volumes determine accurately the mean pathlength and with this Beer's law relationship is experimentally confirmed. The Transmitted Light Drop Analyser uses this universal 'natural cuvette' to deliver both high-performance UV spectra and absorbance measurements at discrete wavelengths.

  7. Floculation - Formation et structure des agrégats entre les chaînes de polyélectrolytes et colloïdes argileux

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhawoth , Yasine

    2017-01-01

    Flocculation is a key process in numerous environmental and industrial technologies such as purification of waste-water or paper making. It is necessary to understand the formation and structure of the aggregates to control and optimize such a process. Most of the studies on flocculation involve spherical particles, but there is a clear need to understand the flocculation of anisotropic particles such as clay colloids, which are platelets. I studied the flocculation of montmorillonite clay su...

  8. Marine microalgae flocculation using plant: the case of Nannochloropsis oculata and Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharuddin, N.; Aziz, N. S.; Sohif, H. N.; Basiran, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been commercially used as live feed for aquaculture and nutritional supplements. However, harvesting of marine microalgae is a major obstacle for industrial scale and one of the promising harvesting techniques is bio-flocculation. Nannochloropsis oculata from the culture broth was investigated. The potential of Moringa oleifera as a flocculant has been evaluated using jar test experiments. Moringa oleifera after oil extraction (MOAE) and with non-extracted Moringa oleifera (MOWE) have been studied and compared to chemical flocculant, aluminium sulphate. Three parameters involved: pH, settling time and flocculant dosage. When MOAE and MOWE were used as flocculants, the highest flocculation efficiency of Nannochloropsis oculata was observed at 93.77 percent (pH 7, 150 minutes, 5000 mg/L) and 70.56 percent (pH 7, 90 minutes, 4000 mg/L) respectively. Harvesting efficiency of 99.98 percent with short settling time, 30 minutes and 2000 mg/L of flocculant dosage at pH 6 was achieved using aluminium sulphate. The concentrated of Nannochloropsis oculata was then fed to the Brachionus plicatilis (rotifers) to observe the growth characteristics in 12 days period. Concentrates of MOWE gave better growth of Brachionus plicatilis than growth in concentrates of MOAE and live Nannochloropsis oculata. In contrast, growth of Brachionus plicatilis in aluminium sulphate was tremendously decline. In Conclusion, bio-flocculation using Moringa oleifera was rapid, inexpensive and eco-friendly technology as no addition of chemical flocculants was required. (author)

  9. Molecular mechanism of flocculation self-recognition in yeast and its role in mating and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saccharomyces cerevisiae flocculation occurs when fermentable sugars are limiting and is therefore considered as a way to enhance the survival chance of...

  10. Extraction of flocculants from a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis and analysis of their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingrong Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a preliminary screening study, our laboratory isolated from the biofloc in aquaculture waters a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis, which produced highly efficient bio-flocculants. In the present study, we extracted the crude flocculants from this strain and analyzed their properties. Distribution analysis indicated that the flocculants were mainly distributed in the supernatant of the fermentation liquid. The flocculants were extracted using an ethanol extraction method, and the chemical compositions and morphology of the crude flocculants were analyzed using the Molish reaction, Fehling reaction, ninhydrin reaction, biuret reaction, phenol-sulfuric acid assay, Coomassie brilliant blue staining, ultraviolet scanning, infrared scanning and scanning electron microscopy. The carbohydrate composition of the polysaccharides in the flocculants was analyzed with thin layer chromatography. The results indicated that flocculants were solid substances with an ivory white color and their texture was loose and soft. Visualization under scanning electron microscopy revealed that their ultra-morphology consisted of small, long and fiber-like shapes. Chemical and physical analyses indicated that polysaccharides accounted for 34.5% of the components in the crude flocculants. The monosaccharides present in crude flocculants included mainly glucose, galactose and mannitose.

  11. Some aspects related to stability, critical concentrations and kinetics of flocculation of the calcium phytate colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, F.J.M.; Alvarez, J.G.; Sanchis, S.E.; Munoz, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    As sup(99m)Tc-Ca phytate is an important radiopharmaceutical and its colloidal nature presents problems, we investigated some of them. This work describes the study of the colloidal behaviour of the calcium phytate colloid in terms of its formation, stability and kinetics of flocculation. The study of spontaneous, and centrifugation-induced flocculation allows the determination of two critical concentrations of sol flocculation. The titrations of calcium phytate colloid at different concentrations provide information on the colloidal formation conditions. Moreover, a study on flocculation kinetics was made by turbidity measurements. (author)

  12. Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Wang, Fei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given.

  13. Odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile as back-seat drivers of localized ant decline in urban habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Salyer

    Full Text Available Invasive species and habitat disturbance threaten biodiversity worldwide by modifying ecosystem performance and displacing native organisms. Similar homogenization impacts manifest locally when urbanization forces native species to relocate or reinvade perpetually altered habitat. This study investigated correlations between ant richness and abundance in response to urbanization and the nearby presence of invasive ant species, odorous house ants (Tapinoma sessile, within its native region. Surveying localized ant composition within natural, semi-natural, and urban habitat supported efforts to determine whether T. sessile appear to be primary (drivers threats as instigators or secondary (passengers threats as inheritors of indigenous ant decline. Sampling 180 sites, evenly split between all habitats with and without T. sessile present, yielded 45 total species. Although urbanization and T. sessile presence factors were significantly linked to ant decline, their interaction correlated to the greatest reduction of total ant richness (74% and abundance (81%. Total richness appeared to decrease from 27 species to 18 when natural habitat is urbanized and from 18 species to 7 with T. sessile present in urban plots. Odorous house ant presence minimally influenced ant communities within natural and semi-natural habitat, highlighting the importance of habitat alteration and T. sessile presence interactions. Results suggest urbanization releases T. sessile from unknown constraints by decreasing ant richness and competition. Within urban environment, T. sessile are pre-adapted to quickly exploit new resources and grow to supercolony strength wherein T. sessile drive adjacent biodiversity loss. Odorous house ants act as passengers and drivers of ecological change throughout different phases of urban 'invasion'. This progression through surviving habitat alteration, exploiting new resources, thriving, and further reducing interspecific competition supports a

  14. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS......). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated....

  15. Comparison of the lateral retention forces on sessile and pendant water drops on a solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Madrid, Rafael; Whitehead, Taylor; Irwin, George M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a simple experiment that demonstrates how a water drop hanging from a Plexiglas surface (pendant drop) experiences a lateral retention force that is comparable to, and in some cases larger than, the lateral retention force on a drop resting on top of the surface (sessile drop). The experiment also affords a simple demonstration of the Coriolis effect in two dimensions.

  16. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  17. Multimodality imaging in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and popliteal pseudoaneurysm complicating a sessile osteochondroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Jared D.; Monu, Johnny U.V. [University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Imaging Sciences, 601 Elmwood Ave., Box 648, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Synergistic use of ultrasonography, radiography, multidetector CT (MDCT) and MRI enabled a prompt and accurate diagnosis of a nonocclusive popliteal vein thrombus (deep venous thrombosis, DVT) and a pseudoaneurysm complicating a sessile osteochondroma in an 11-year-old boy who presented in the emergency department with sudden-onset nontraumatic pain in the posterior aspect of the knee. (orig.)

  18. New stalked and sessile cirripedes from the Eocene Mo Clay, northwest Jutland (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carriol, René-Pierre; Bonde, Niels Christensøn; Jakobsen, Sten Lennart

    2016-01-01

    New taxa of thoracican cirripedes are recorded from the Eocene Mo Clay of northwest Jutland, Denmark, namely Stipilepas molerensis Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a scalpelliform gooseneck barnacle, and Plesiobrachylepas jutlandica Carriol n. gen., n. sp., a brachylepadomorph sessile form. This material...

  19. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia: morphological patterns and correlations with MLH1 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Walker, Neal I; Leggett, Barbara A; Whitehall, Vicki Lj; Bettington, Mark L; Rosty, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas are the precursor polyp of approximately 20% of colorectal carcinomas. Sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia are rarely encountered and represent an intermediate step to malignant progression, frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Accurate diagnosis of these lesions is important to facilitate appropriate surveillance, particularly because progression from dysplasia to carcinoma can be rapid. The current World Health Organization classification describes two main patterns of dysplasia occurring in sessile serrated adenomas, namely, serrated and conventional. However, this may not adequately reflect the spectrum of changes seen by pathologists in routine practice. Furthermore, subtle patterns of dysplasia that are nevertheless associated with loss of MLH1 expression are not encompassed in this classification. We performed a morphological analysis of 266 sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia with concurrent MLH1 immunohistochemistry with the aims of better defining the spectrum of dysplasia occurring in these lesions and correlating dysplasia patterns with MLH1 expression. We found that dysplasia can be divided morphologically into four major patterns, comprising minimal deviation (19%), serrated (12%), adenomatous (8%) and not otherwise specified (79%) groups. Minimal deviation dysplasia is defined by minor architectural and cytological changes that typically requires loss of MLH1 immunohistochemical expression to support the diagnosis. Serrated dysplasia and adenomatous dysplasia have distinctive histological features and are less frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (13 and 5%, respectively). Finally, dysplasia not otherwise specified encompasses most cases and shows a diverse range of morphological changes that do not fall into the other subgroups and are frequently associated with loss of MLH1 expression (83%). This morphological classification of sessile serrated adenomas with dysplasia may represent an

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to enterocin AS-48 in planktonic and sessile states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gómez, Natacha; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ennahar, Said; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-10-15

    Enterocin AS-48 is a cyclic peptide of great interest for application in food preservation and sanitation. In the present study, the proteome response of Listeria monocytogenes to purified enterocin AS-48 was studied under two different conditions: planktonic cells and sessile cells grown on polystyrene plates. Ten different proteins were differentially expressed in planktonic L. monocytogenes cells treated with 0.1 μg/ml enterocin AS-48 compared to the untreated controls. Overexpressed proteins were related to stress response (DnaK) or carbohydrate transport and metabolism, while underexpressed and unexpressed proteins were related to metabolism (such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate oxidase, glutamate dehydrogenase or glutamate decarboxylase) or stress (GroEL). In the sessile state, L. monocytogenes cells tolerated up to 10 μg/ml bacteriocin, and the treated biofilm cells overexpressed a set of 11 proteins, some of which could be related to stress response (DnaK, GroEL), protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, while glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was the only unexpressed protein. Some of the overexpressed proteins (such as elongation factor Tu and GroEL) could also be implicated in cell adhesion. These results suggest different cell responses of L. monocytogenes to enterocin AS-48 in the planktonic and in the sessile state, including stress response and cell metabolism proteins. While in the planktonic state the bacterium may tend to compensate for the cytoplasmic cell permeability changes induced by AS-48 by reinforcing carbohydrate transport and metabolism, sessile cells seem to respond by shifting carbohydrate metabolism and reinforcing protein synthesis. Stress response proteins also seem to be important in the response to AS-48, but the stress response seems to be different in planktonic and in sessile cells. © 2013.

  1. Drop Impact Dynamics with Sessile Drops and Geometries: Spreading, Jetting, and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilger, Christopher F.

    The tendency of surface tension to cause small parcels of fluid to form into drops allows convenient packaging, transport, dispersal of liquid phase matter. Liquid drop impacts with solids, liquids, and other drops have realized and additional future applications in biological, manufacturing, heat transfer, and combustion systems. Experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamics of multiple drop collisions, rather than the most-studied phenomenon of single drop impacts. Additional drop impacts were performed on rigid hemispheres representing sessile drops, angled substrates, and into the vertex of two tilted surfaces arranged into a vee shape. A qualitative inspection of drop-sessile drop impacts shows distinct post-impact shapes depending on the offset distance between the drops. At intermediate offset distances, distinct jets issue from the overlap region between the two drops projected areas. These jets are observed to reach their maximum extent at a critical offset distance ratio, epsilon epsilon ˜ 0.75-0.80, with substrate contact angle and W e having a lesser effect. Capillary waves that traverse the sessile drop after collision cause a lower aspect ratio liquid column to emanate from the sessile drop opposite the impact. In order to better understand the jetting phenomenon seen in the offset drop-sessile drop impacts, simpler solid geometries are investigated that elicit a similar behavior. Solid hemispheres do not show the singular jetting observed in the fluidic case, however, a simple vee formed by two intersection planar substrates do jet in a similar fashion to the fluidic case. A geometric model with partnered experiments is developed to describe the bisymmetric spread of an impacting drop on an angled substrate. This geometric model is used to guide a time of arrival based model for various features of the drop impact, which is used to predict jetting in various vee channel experiments.

  2. The Role of Tree Mortality in Vitality Assessment of Sessile Oak Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Berki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The drought-induced vitality loss of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. has been continuously observed in Hungary for more than three decades. The decrease in stand density as a consequence of drought-induced mortality has not been taken into consideration in most of the monitoring methods. Materials and Methods: Forest stands without any forest intervention during the last 30 years were selected. Quadrats were designated for the analysis in 18 sessile oak stands along a climatic transect in which foliage transparency and stand density were measured. Drought stress was defined by the water balance approach. By combining the foliage transparency and the relative stand density, a new cumulative assessment method of stand level vitality was introduced to get a more realistic picture about the effects of long-term drought (lasting for several decades on the sessile oak forests in South-East Europe. Results: The calculated health status (100% - vital; 0% - dead of the sessile oak stands was between 70-90% in the moist South-West Hungary and below 50% close to its xeric limit. The individual tree-based vitality assessment method gave considerably higher values on 17 out of 18 sites. Conclusions: Forest monitoring should also consider stand level-based tree mortality in oak forests while assessing health condition especially close to its xeric limit. The proposed new method provides a more realistic picture about the effects of climate change on sessile oak stands particularly for forest managers interested in changing in the wood stock of forests.

  3. New sizing agents and flocculants derived from chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebeish, A.; Higay, A.; El-Shafei, A.

    2005-01-01

    Novel approaches for development of new textile sizing agents and flocculants were undertaken. One of these approaches is based on acid hydrolysis of chitosan and the other involves its carboxy methylation. Characterization of the hydrolyzed chitosan was performed through monitoring nitrogen content and apparent viscosity, while carboxymethyl chitosan was analyzed for degree of substitution (DS) along with apparent viscosity. Factors affecting both hydrolysis and carboxy methylation were investigated. The nitrogen content and apparent viscosity of chitosan decrease variably by increasing HCl concentration as well as time and temperature of hydrolysis. On the other hand, the DS of carboxymethyl chitosan increases by increasing the concentration of both sodium hydroxide and monochloroacetic acid and similarly increases by prolonging the duration and raising the temperature of carboxy methylation; in contrast with apparent viscosity which is inversely related to these parameters. Aqueous solutions of hydrolyzed chitosan or carboxymethyl chitosan were applied to light cotton fabric with a view to envision the technical feasibility of such water soluble chitosan for textile sizing. The size add-on on the light fabric is directly related to the concentration of the hydrolyzed or carboxymethyl chitosan in the sizing solution and so does the apparent viscosity of the latter. Hundred percent size removals could be achieved with the hydrolyzed chitosan irrespective or the size solution concentration provided that the latter is not less than 8%. Different situation is encountered with carboxymethyl chitosan where the percent size removal increase from 81% to 95% by increasing its concentration in the sizing solution from 5 % to 15%. Drying the sized fabric at 80 degree C for 5 minutes or 120 degree C for 3 minutes has practically no effect on percent size removal. The same holds true for heat treatment of the sized fabric at higher temperatures (up to 160 degree C) for longer

  4. Comparison and analysis of membrane fouling between flocculent sludge membrane bioreactor and granular sludge membrane bioreactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jing-Feng

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of inoculating granules on reducing membrane fouling. In order to evaluate the differences in performance between flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge in membrane reactors (MBRs, two reactors were run in parallel and various parameters related to membrane fouling were measured. The results indicated that specific resistance to the fouling layer was five times greater than that of mixed liquor sludge in the granular MBR. The floc sludge more easily formed a compact layer on the membrane surface, and increased membrane resistance. Specifically, the floc sludge had a higher moisture content, extracellular polymeric substances concentration, and negative surface charge. In contrast, aerobic granules could improve structural integrity and strength, which contributed to the preferable permeate performance. Therefore, inoculating aerobic granules in a MBR presents an effective method of reducing the membrane fouling associated with floc sludge the perspective of from the morphological characteristics of microbial aggregates.

  5. NGC2403: a flocculent galaxy with two principal centres of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.; Cepa, J.; Prieto, M.; Munoz Tunon, C.

    1987-01-01

    We have mapped the nearby flocculent spiral galaxy in the visible U, B and V bands, as well as in the near infrared J, H and K bands, with a linear resolution of 900 pc. The galaxy, which does not show marked spiral structure in visible photographs (Tammann and Sandage, 1968) nor in the 21 cm line of HI (Wevers, 1984) is found to have two principal current centres of large-scale star formation, signposted by centres of ultraviolet and blue flux. One is in the nucleus, defined by the geometrical centre of the HI emission, and the other at some 1.5 kpc radial distance away. The outer star-forming region is the more intense and the younger of the two, and corresponds to a local peak in the HI surface density. We use the colours of the star-forming regions and of the integrated galaxy to make a first order estimate of the stellar population distribution. (Author)

  6. Polymeric polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources for biodiesel wastewater treatment by dual-flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. M. Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel wastewater generally contains high levels of oils, soaps and glycerol residues. This needs wastewater treatment. In this study, the biodiesel wastewater treatment was tested (industrial wastewater (EFID and laboratory wastewater (EFLB from biodiesel by performing flocculation and dual-flocculation with renewable polymers. Tannin and cationic hemicellulose (CH were used as cationic flocculant, and cellulose acetate sulfate (CAS was used as an anionic flocculant. Polyacrylamide (PAM was used as a reference anionic flocculant for result efficiencies analysis obtained with CAS (renewable source flocculant. The treatment efficacy in wastewater was evaluated by: turbidity removal, sludge volume formed, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS. The obtained sludge was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TG. The dual-flocculation application condition of the 25% proportion of tannin (T and 75% proportion of cationic hemicelluloses (i.e., T25/CH75 showed EFLB turbidity removal of 89.1% and 89.5% for CAS and PAM additions respectively, and for EFID of 67% and 41% for CAS and PAM additions respectively. The dual-flocculation performance suggested that the polyelectrolytes obtained from renewable sources can be used for treating biodiesel wastewater.

  7. Scaling Behavior of Delayed Demixing, Rheology, and Microstructure of Emulsions Flocculated by Depletion and Bridging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Linden, van der E.; Vliet, van T.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper describes an experimental comparison of microstructure, rheology, and demixing of bridging- and depletion-flocculated oil-in-water emulsions. Confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging showed that bridging-flocculated emulsions were heterogeneous over larger length scales than

  8. Depletion - flocculation in oil-in-water emulsions using fibrillar protein assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Veerman, C.; Linden, van der E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that low concentrations of -lactoglobulin fibrils can induce depletion-flocculation in -lactoglobulin-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. The minimum required fibril concentration for flocculation was determined experimentally for fibril lengths of about 3 and 0.1 m. The minimum

  9. Revealing the characteristics of a novel bioflocculant and its flocculation performance in Microcystis aeruginosa removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengfei; Hui, Cai; Bai, Naling; Yang, Shengmao; Wan, Li; Zhang, Qichun; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, a novel bioflocculant, EPS-1, was prepared and used to flocculate the kaolin suspension and Microcystis aeruginosa. We focused on the characteristics and flocculation performance of EPS-1, especially with regard to its protein components. An important attribute of EPS-1 was its protein content, with 18 protein types identified that occupied a total content of 31.70% in the EPS-1. Moreover, the flocculating activity of these protein components was estimated to be no less than 33.93%. Additionally, polysaccharides that occupied 57.12% of the total EPS-1 content consisted of four monosaccharides: maltose, D-xylose, mannose, and D-fructose. In addition, carbonyl, amino, and hydroxyl groups were identified as the main functional groups. Three main elements, namely C1s, N1s, and O1s, were present in EPS-1 with relative atomic percentages of 62.63%, 24.91%, and 10.5%, respectively. Zeta potential analysis indicated that charge neutralization contributed to kaolin flocculation, but was not involved in M. aeruginosa flocculation. The flocculation conditions of EPS-1 were optimized, and the maximum flocculating efficiencies were 93.34% within 2 min for kaolin suspension and 87.98% within 10 min for M. aeruginosa. These results suggest that EPS-1 could be an alternative to chemical flocculants for treating wastewaters and cyanobacterium-polluted freshwater.

  10. Cationic flocculants carrying hydrophobic functionalities: applications for solid/liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Jaeger, W; Paulke, B-R; Bratskaya, S; Smolka, N; Bohrisch, J

    2007-07-26

    The flocculation behaviors of three series of polycations with narrow molecular weight distributions carrying hydrophobic substituents on their backbones [poly(N-vinylbenzyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride), poly(N-vinylbenzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-butylammonium chloride), and poly(N-vinylbenzylpyridinium chloride)] were investigated in dispersions of monodisperse polystyrene latexes and kaolin. Apparently, the charge density of the polycations decreases with increasing substituent hydrophobicity and increasing molecular weight of the polyelectrolytes. The necessary amount of flocculant for phase separation in dispersions with high substrate surface charge densities increases with increasing hydrophobicity of the polyelectrolyte. Nevertheless, the introduction of hydrophobic functionalities is beneficial, resulting in a substantial broadening of the range between the minimum and maximum amounts of flocculant necessary for efficient flocculation (flocculation window). An increase in ionic strength supports this effect. When the substrate has a low charge density, the hydrophobic interactions play a much more significant role in the flocculation process. Here, the minimum efficient doses remained the same for all three polyelectrolytes investigated, but the width of the flocculation window increased as the polycation hydrophobicity and the molecular weight increased. The necessary amount of flocculant increased with an increase in particle size at constant solid content of the dispersion, as well as with a decreasing number of particles at a constant particle size.

  11. The use of dielectric spectroscopy for the characterization of polymer-induced flocculation of polystyrene particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Vittrup; Keiding, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    in dilute suspensions. Thus, techniques usable for flocculation characterization in high-solids suspensions are desirable. This study investigates the use of dielectric spectroscopy to monitor the flocculation of polystyrene particles with a cationic polymer. The frequency-dependent permittivity is modeled......The flocculation of colloidal suspensions is an important unit operation in many industries, as it greatly improves the performance of solid separation processes. The number of available techniques for evaluating flocculation processes on line is limited, and most of these are only functional...... as a decrease in the magnitude of the dielectric dispersion. The use of dielectric spectroscopy is found to be valuable for assessing flocculation processes in high-solids suspensions, as changes in parameters Such as floc size and charge can be detected....

  12. The relationship between extent of hemoglobin purification and the performance characteristics of a blood-based flocculant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole blood is a highly complex substance. Hemoglobin, the most abundant blood protein, can function as a flocculant of colloidal clay; most of the other blood components exhibit poor flocculant activity. For the purpose of processing raw whole blood into a flocculant product, the practical value of...

  13. Flocculent killer yeast for ethanol fermentation of beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Kazuhito; Shimoii, Hitoshi; Sato, Shun' ichi; Saito, Kazuo; Tadenuma, Makoto

    1987-09-25

    When ethanol is produced using beet molasses, the concentration of ethanol is lower than that obtained using suger cane molasses. Yeast strain improvement was conducted to enhance ethanol production from beet molasses. The procedures and the results are as follows: (1) After giving ethanol tolerance to the flocculent yeast, strain 180 and the killer yeast, strain 909-1, strain 180-A-7, and strain 909-1-A-4 were isolated. These ethanol tolerant strains had better alcoholic fermentation capability and had more surviving cells in mash in the later process of fermentation than the parental strains. (2) Strain H-1 was bred by spore to cell mating between these two ethanol tolerant strains. Strain H-1 is both flocculent and killer and has better alcoholic fermentation capability than the parental strains. (3) In the fermentation test of beet molasses, strain H-1 showed 12.8% of alcoholic fermentation capability. It is equal to that of sugar cane molasses. Fermentation with reused cells were also successful. (5 figs, 21 refs)

  14. Processing of miscellaneous radioactive effluents by continous flocculation decantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, D.; Matton, P.; Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant of Chooz an installation for flocculation and chemical precipitation has been built to treat miscellaneous radioactive effluents continuously. It is an industrial prototype of 5 m 3 /h resulting of several years of research, first on lab scale in a discontinous system and finally in a continuous pilot plant of small size (500 l/h). The process is based on the adsorption of radioactivity on a floc of copper-ferrocyanide precipitated by ferric chloride. The water is then filtered. After a series of preliminary tests and modifications, it has been possible to develop a technique which satisfies the specified decontamination conditions and to reduce the discharges of radioactivity to the Meuse to only 5 - 10% of the authorized limits. The process aims principally at the treatment of laundry waste, but other effluents such as drains from the rocks, pool water and used decontamination solutions (of the primary pumps) have been treated. A technico-economic evaluation of the process in comparison with evaporation is clearly in favour of the flocculation. 31 figs, 40 tables, 12 refs

  15. A contribution to the sessile oak site and beech site defining in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in sessile oak forests and beech forests in the region central Serbia. The stands are classified as pure stands with the percentage of other species up to 10% per tree number, mixed forests of sessile oak with other species, and mixed forests of beech with other species, whose percentage does not exceed 50%. Altogether 257 stands were monitored - 202 beech stands and 55 sessile oak stands. By the applied method of defining the local heat potential (Lujić, 1960, modified by Ratknić et al. (2001 and Krstić (2004, 2008, which represents possibility of soil heating without vegetation, were determined. In this way, a scale of 162 possible combinations of local heat potential was obtained, which explains more precisely the dependence of beech stands and sessile oak stands on the topographic conditions. By applying the weighted values of the thermal co-ordinates of aspect and slope (E for each altitudinal belt of 100 m, it was concluded that pure stands have the widest ecological range. Pure beech stands occur at the sites with 34 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=4.6 to 8.12. Pure sessile oak stands occur at the sites with 12 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=5.10 to 8.11. The percentage of mixed beech stands with other broadleaf species is the highest at the sites with the co-ordinate V=10-11 (at the altitudes between 700 and 900 m is about 60 %. Mixed stands of sessile oak and beech are located on the terrains with combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=7.9 to 8.12. By using the local heat potential of a region, it can be identified which sites, i.e. which combinations of exposure, slope and altitude belong to the particular tree species. Consequently, a more reliable selection of tree species can be done for the bio-reclamation of barrens and other deforested terrains.

  16. Effects of urbanisation on macroalgae and sessile invertebrates in southeast Australian estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Amelia E.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F.; Hill, Nicole A.; Kirkpatrick, Jamie B.; Edgar, Graham J.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of anthropogenic and environmental factors on the composition, cover and dominance of macroalgae and sessile invertebrates was assessed in three capital city estuaries in south-eastern Australia. Heavy metals and proximity to ports showed the strongest relationships to the distribution of sessile reef biota after accounting for natural environmental gradients. The densities of laminarian, fucoid, brown and red foliose algae were negatively correlated with heavy metals, both in Port Phillip Bay (Melbourne) and the Derwent (Hobart), while turf, filamentous algae and some invertebrates were favoured. Sydney Harbour possessed a different pattern, with the laminarian kelp Ecklonia radiata most abundant near the main shipping port, probably because of biotic interactions involving urchin grazing in the lower estuary. Identifying drivers of benthic community pattern represents a key challenge for effective conservation management, particularly for estuaries affected by multiple anthropogenic impacts.

  17. Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture is a pathologic feature of biologically aggressive upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Novara, Giacomo; Burger, Maximilian; Gupta, Amit; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Kassouf, Wassim; Sircar, Kanishka; Zattoni, Filiberto; Walton, Tom; Tritschler, Stefan; Baba, Shiro; Bastian, Patrick J; Martínez-Salamanca, Juan I; Seitz, Christian; Otto, Wolfgang; Wieland, Wolf Ferdinand; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Hartmann, Arndt; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2012-09-01

    Macroscopic sessile tumor architecture was associated with adverse outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Before inclusion in daily clinical decision-making, the prognostic value of tumor architecture needs to be validated in an independent, external dataset. We tested whether macroscopic tumor architecture improves outcome prediction in an international cohort of patients. We retrospectively studied 754 patients treated with RNU for UTUC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at 9 centers located in Asia, Canada, and Europe. Tumor architecture was macroscopically categorized as either papillary or sessile. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to address recurrence-free (RFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) estimates. Macroscopic sessile architecture was present in 20% of the patients. Its prevalence increased with advancing pathologic stage and it was significantly associated with established features of biologically aggressive UTUC, such as tumor grade, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular invasion, and concomitant CIS (all P values architecture were 85% and 90%, compared with 58% and 66% for those with macroscopic sessile architecture, respectively (P values architecture was an independent predictor of both RFS (hazard ratio {HR}: 1.5; P = 0.036) and CSS (HR: 1.5; P = 0.03). We confirmed the independent prognostic value of macroscopic tumor architecture in a large, independent, multicenter UTUC cohort. It should be reported in every pathology report and included in post-RNU predictive models in order to refine current clinical decision making regarding follow-up protocol and adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Density Measurement of Liquid Ni-Ta Alloys by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; Kusuhiro Mukai

    2005-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Ta alloys was measured by using a modified sessile drop method. It is found that the density of the liquid Ni-Ta alloys decreases with the increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of tantalum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Ta binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tantalum concentration.

  19. Resolving an ostensible inconsistency in calculating the evaporation rate of sessile drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, S F; Amirfazli, A

    2017-05-01

    This paper resolves an ostensible inconsistency in the literature in calculating the evaporation rate for sessile drops in a quiescent environment. The earlier models in the literature have shown that adapting the evaporation flux model for a suspended spherical drop to calculate the evaporation rate of a sessile drop needs a correction factor; the correction factor was shown to be a function of the drop contact angle, i.e. f(θ). However, there seemed to be a problem as none of the earlier models explicitly or implicitly mentioned the evaporation flux variations along the surface of a sessile drop. The more recent evaporation models include this variation using an electrostatic analogy, i.e. the Laplace equation (steady-state continuity) in a domain with a known boundary condition value, or known as the Dirichlet problem for Laplace's equation. The challenge is that the calculated evaporation rates using the earlier models seemed to differ from that of the recent models (note both types of models were validated in the literature by experiments). We have reinvestigated the recent models and found that the mathematical simplifications in solving the Dirichlet problem in toroidal coordinates have created the inconsistency. We also proposed a closed form approximation for f(θ) which is valid in a wide range, i.e. 8°≤θ≤131°. Using the proposed model in this study, theoretically, it was shown that the evaporation rate in the CWA (constant wetted area) mode is faster than the evaporation rate in the CCA (constant contact angle) mode for a sessile drop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphogenesis of polycrystalline dendritic patterns from evaporation of a reactive nanofluid sessile drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua; Briscoe, Wuge H.

    2018-04-01

    We report polycrystalline residual patterns with dendritic micromorphologies upon fast evaporation of a mixed-solvent sessile drop containing reactive ZnO nanoparticles. The molecular and particulate species generated in situ upon evaporative drying collude with and modify the Marangoni solvent flows and Bénard-Marangoni instabilities, as they undergo self-assembly and self-organization under conditions far from equilibrium, leading to the ultimate hierarchical central cellular patterns surrounded by a peripheral coffee ring upon drying.

  1. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  2. Flocculation of Clay Colloids Induced by Model Polyelectrolytes: Effects of Relative Charge Density and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhawoth, Yasine; Michot, Laurent J; Levitz, Pierre; Malikova, Natalie

    2017-10-06

    Flocculation and its tuning are of utmost importance in the optimization of several industrial protocols in areas such as purification of waste water and civil engineering. Herein, we studied the polyelectrolyte-induced flocculation of clay colloids on a model system consisting of purified clay colloids of well-defined size fractions and ionene polyelectrolytes presenting regular and tunable chain charge density. To characterize ionene-induced clay flocculation, we turned to the combination of light absorbance (turbidity) and ζ-potential measurements, as well as adsorption isotherms. Our model system allowed us to identify the exact ratio of positive and negative charges in clay-ionene mixtures, the (c+/c-) ratio. For all samples studied, the onset of efficient flocculation occurred consistently at c+/c- ratios significantly below 1, which indicated the formation of highly ionene-deficient aggregates. At the same time, the ζ-potential measurements indicated an apparent zero charge on such aggregates. Thus, the ζ-potential values could not provide the stoichiometry inside the clay-ionene aggregates. The early onset of flocculation in clay-ionene mixtures is reminiscent of the behavior of multivalent salts and contrasts that of monovalent salts, for which a large excess amount of ions is necessary to achieve flocculation. Clear differences in the flocculation behavior are visible as a function of the ionene charge density, which governs the conformation of the ionene chains on the clay surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of different artificial neural network architectures in modeling of Chlorella sp. flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenooz, Alireza Moosavi; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee; Ranjbar, Reza; Nikbakht, Fatemeh; Bolouri, Oberon

    2017-07-03

    Biodiesel production from microalgae feedstock should be performed after growth and harvesting of the cells, and the most feasible method for harvesting and dewatering of microalgae is flocculation. Flocculation modeling can be used for evaluation and prediction of its performance under different affective parameters. However, the modeling of flocculation in microalgae is not simple and has not performed yet, under all experimental conditions, mostly due to different behaviors of microalgae cells during the process under different flocculation conditions. In the current study, the modeling of microalgae flocculation is studied with different neural network architectures. Microalgae species, Chlorella sp., was flocculated with ferric chloride under different conditions and then the experimental data modeled using artificial neural network. Neural network architectures of multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function architectures, failed to predict the targets successfully, though, modeling was effective with ensemble architecture of MLP networks. Comparison between the performances of the ensemble and each individual network explains the ability of the ensemble architecture in microalgae flocculation modeling.

  5. Development of Graft Copolymer Flocculant Based on Acrylamide and Acrylic Acid for the dewatering of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, G.A.; Abdel Khalek, M.A

    2012-01-01

    Most coal preparation processes were carried out in water medium. The water content of coal product has a negative impact on handling and specific energy value. The moisture content may be attributed to the proportion of fine coal, which presents the greatest dewatering problem. A novel polymeric flocculant has been developed by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with acrylic acid (AAc) using gamma irradiation technique. The grafted copol621621ymer P(AAm/AAc) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of reaction parameters, such as total absorbed dose, and monomer concentration on grafting yield were investigated. The flocculation performance of the graft copolymer P(AAm/AAc) was investigated in coal suspension. It was observed that the grafting ratio was one of the key factors for the flocculating effects. The copolymers with various grafting ratios showed different flocculating properties. It was found that as the grafting ratio increased, the flocculating effect also increased. The flocculation performance of the grafted copolymer was better than that of the commercial flocculant, poly-acrylamide (Magnafloc 1011).

  6. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and flocculation activity of novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-polyacrylamide hybrid polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huilong; Cui Jinyan [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Jiang Wenfeng, E-mail: dlutjiangwf@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} The preparation of a novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is achieved via free radical solution polymerization. {yields} Flocculation of kaolin suspensions using this novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is revealed in this study. {yields} The statistical model was first applied for calculating the thermodynamic parameters for the kaolin flocculating process. - Abstract: A novel Fe(OH){sub 3}-polyacrylamide inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (FHPAM) was synthesized via free radical solution polymerization initiated by a redox initiation system ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}-NaHSO{sub 3}) in an aqueous medium. Reaction parameters influencing the intrinsic viscosity and the yield of the hybrid polymer, such as initiator concentration, monomer mass fraction, temperature and reaction time were investigated and optimized. The results show that the maximum intrinsic viscosity and up to 94% yields of the hybrid polymer can be achieved using initiator concentration of 0.3% with acrylamide monomer mass fraction of 20% under solution polymerization at 40 deg. C for 7 h. The physicochemical properties of this hybrid flocculant were characterized with TEM, FTIR spectra, TGA, and conductivity. It was found that a chemical bond exists between Fe(OH){sub 3} colloid and polyacrylamide chains in the FHPAM. The application of the hybrid polymer for the treatment of 2.5 g L{sup -1} kaolin suspension indicates that it had an excellent flocculation capacity and its flocculation efficiency was much better than that of commercial available polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS). The optimal conditions for the flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension were the FHPAM dosage of 40 mg L{sup -1} at pH 7.0. The thermodynamic parameters for the flocculation process were calculated based on a statistical model. Interpretation of the results was given.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and flocculation activity of novel Fe(OH)3-polyacrylamide hybrid polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huilong; Cui Jinyan; Jiang Wenfeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The preparation of a novel Fe(OH) 3 -PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is achieved via free radical solution polymerization. → Flocculation of kaolin suspensions using this novel Fe(OH) 3 -PAM hybrid polymer flocculant is revealed in this study. → The statistical model was first applied for calculating the thermodynamic parameters for the kaolin flocculating process. - Abstract: A novel Fe(OH) 3 -polyacrylamide inorganic-organic hybrid polymer (FHPAM) was synthesized via free radical solution polymerization initiated by a redox initiation system ((NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 -NaHSO 3 ) in an aqueous medium. Reaction parameters influencing the intrinsic viscosity and the yield of the hybrid polymer, such as initiator concentration, monomer mass fraction, temperature and reaction time were investigated and optimized. The results show that the maximum intrinsic viscosity and up to 94% yields of the hybrid polymer can be achieved using initiator concentration of 0.3% with acrylamide monomer mass fraction of 20% under solution polymerization at 40 deg. C for 7 h. The physicochemical properties of this hybrid flocculant were characterized with TEM, FTIR spectra, TGA, and conductivity. It was found that a chemical bond exists between Fe(OH) 3 colloid and polyacrylamide chains in the FHPAM. The application of the hybrid polymer for the treatment of 2.5 g L -1 kaolin suspension indicates that it had an excellent flocculation capacity and its flocculation efficiency was much better than that of commercial available polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS). The optimal conditions for the flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension were the FHPAM dosage of 40 mg L -1 at pH 7.0. The thermodynamic parameters for the flocculation process were calculated based on a statistical model. Interpretation of the results was given.

  9. Energy-producing electro-flocculation for harvest of Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhang, Meng; Lv, Tao; Chen, Hongjun; Chika, Anthony Okonkwo; Xiang, Changli; Guo, Minxue; Wu, Minghui; Li, Jianjun; Jia, Lishan

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an efficient electro-flocculation process for Dunaliella salina with energy production by aluminum-air battery has been successfully applied. The formed aluminum hydroxide hydrates during discharging of battery were positively charged, which have a great potential for microalgae flocculation. The precipitation of aluminum hydroxide hydrates by algae also could improve the performance of aluminum-air battery. The harvesting efficiency could reach 97% in 20mins with energy production of 0.11kWh/kg. This discharging electro-flocculation (DEF) technology provides a new energy producing process to effectively harvest microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot-scale study of ballasted-flocculation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liem, L.E.; Brant, W.H.; Gagne, B.; Michaud, J.; Beaudet, J.-F.; Landry, D.; Braden, K.; Campbell, D.

    2002-01-01

    A ballasted-flocculation pilot-scale study was undertaken to treat a wide-range river water turbidity (17 to 2,608 NTU). The pilot-scale unit was operated at flowrates of 30 to 63 m 3 /h, which corresponded to loading rates of 40 to 84 m/h. Coagulants, polymers, and microsand were added to enhance the floc agglomeration. The weighted flocs settled rapidly resulting in excellent turbidity removals of 94.7 to 99.9%. At the peak turbidity, the unit had a 99.9% removal performance (2.7 from 2,608 NTU) at a loading rate of 40 m/h. In this case, polyaluminum silicosulfate and anionic polymer dosages were 82 and 1 mg/L, respectively. The microsand recycle rate was kept constant at 4.5 m 3 /h, and 1mg microsand was added for each liter of water treated. (author)

  11. Removal of Pyrethrin from Aqueous Effluents by Adsorptive Micellar Flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon K. Kuipa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium adsorption of pyrethrin onto aggregates formed by the flocculation of micelles of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS with aluminium sulphate is reported. The experimental results were analysed using different adsorption isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, Sips, Radke-Prausnitz, Temkin, linear equilibrium, and the Dubin-Radushkevich isotherms. The Freundlich and linear equilibrium isotherms best describe the adsorption of pyrethrin onto SDS micellar flocs, with the Freundlich adsorption constant, KF, and the mass distribution coefficient, KD, of 64.266 ((mg/g(L/mg1/n and 119.65 L/g, respectively. Applicability of the Freundlich adsorption model suggests that heterogeneous surface adsorption affects the adsorption. The mean free energy value estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm was 0.136 kJ/mol indicating that physisorption may be predominant in the adsorption process.

  12. On the equilibrium contact angle of sessile liquid drops from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Galindo, Amparo

    2018-04-28

    We present a new methodology to estimate the contact angles of sessile drops from molecular simulations by using the Gaussian convolution method of Willard and Chandler [J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 1954-1958 (2010)] to calculate the coarse-grained density from atomic coordinates. The iso-density contour with average coarse-grained density value equal to half of the bulk liquid density is identified as the average liquid-vapor (LV) interface. Angles between the unit normal vectors to the average LV interface and unit normal vector to the solid surface, as a function of the distance normal to the solid surface, are calculated. The cosines of these angles are extrapolated to the three-phase contact line to estimate the sessile drop contact angle. The proposed methodology, which is relatively easy to implement, is systematically applied to three systems: (i) a Lennard-Jones (LJ) drop on a featureless LJ 9-3 surface; (ii) an SPC/E water drop on a featureless LJ 9-3 surface; and (iii) an SPC/E water drop on a graphite surface. The sessile drop contact angles estimated with our methodology for the first two systems are shown to be in good agreement with the angles predicted from Young's equation. The interfacial tensions required for this equation are computed by employing the test-area perturbation method for the corresponding planar interfaces. Our findings suggest that the widely adopted spherical-cap approximation should be used with caution, as it could take a long time for a sessile drop to relax to a spherical shape, of the order of 100 ns, especially for water molecules initiated in a lattice configuration on a solid surface. But even though a water drop can take a long time to reach the spherical shape, we find that the contact angle is well established much faster and the drop evolves toward the spherical shape following a constant-contact-angle relaxation dynamics. Making use of this observation, our methodology allows a good estimation of the sessile drop contact

  13. Removal of antibiotics from water in the coexistence of suspended particles and natural organic matters using amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shuying [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Zhen, E-mail: yangzhen@njnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ren, Kexin [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tian, Ziqi [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dong, Chang; Ma, Ruixue; Yu, Ge [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Yang, Weiben, E-mail: yangwb007@njnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Cycling and Pollution Control, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Novel amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants are employed to remove antibiotics. • Effects of different structures of amino acids and antibiotics are investigated. • Correlation analysis shows coexisted kaolin and HA have synergistic removal effect. • Theoretical DFT calculation clarifies the interactions in molecular level. - Abstract: Contamination of trace antibiotics is widely found in surface water sources. This work delineates removal of trace antibiotics (norfloxacin (NOR), sulfadiazine (SDZ) or tylosin (TYL)) from synthetic surface water by flocculation, in the coexistence of inorganic suspended particles (kaolin) and natural organic matter (humic acid, HA). To avoid extra pollution caused by petrochemical products-based modification reagents, environmental-friendly amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants, Ctrp and Ctyr, with different functional aromatic-rings structures were employed. Jar tests at various pHs exhibited that, Ctyr, owning phenol groups as electron donors, was favored for elimination of cationic NOR (∼50% removal; optimal pH: 6; optimal dosage: 4 mg/L) and TYL (∼60% removal; optimal pH: 7; optimal dosage: 7.5 mg/L), due to π–π electron donator-acceptor (EDA) effect and unconventional H-bonds. Differently, Ctrp with indole groups as electron acceptor had better removal rate (∼50%) of SDZ anions (electron donator). According to correlation analysis, the coexisted kaolin and HA played positive roles in antibiotics’ removal. Detailed pairwise interactions in molecular level among different components were clarified by spectral analysis and theoretical calculations (density functional theory), which are important for both the structural design of new flocculants aiming at targeted contaminants and understanding the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in water.

  14. Removal of antibiotics from water in the coexistence of suspended particles and natural organic matters using amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Shuying; Yang, Zhen; Ren, Kexin; Tian, Ziqi; Dong, Chang; Ma, Ruixue; Yu, Ge; Yang, Weiben

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants are employed to remove antibiotics. • Effects of different structures of amino acids and antibiotics are investigated. • Correlation analysis shows coexisted kaolin and HA have synergistic removal effect. • Theoretical DFT calculation clarifies the interactions in molecular level. - Abstract: Contamination of trace antibiotics is widely found in surface water sources. This work delineates removal of trace antibiotics (norfloxacin (NOR), sulfadiazine (SDZ) or tylosin (TYL)) from synthetic surface water by flocculation, in the coexistence of inorganic suspended particles (kaolin) and natural organic matter (humic acid, HA). To avoid extra pollution caused by petrochemical products-based modification reagents, environmental-friendly amino-acid-modified-chitosan flocculants, Ctrp and Ctyr, with different functional aromatic-rings structures were employed. Jar tests at various pHs exhibited that, Ctyr, owning phenol groups as electron donors, was favored for elimination of cationic NOR (∼50% removal; optimal pH: 6; optimal dosage: 4 mg/L) and TYL (∼60% removal; optimal pH: 7; optimal dosage: 7.5 mg/L), due to π–π electron donator-acceptor (EDA) effect and unconventional H-bonds. Differently, Ctrp with indole groups as electron acceptor had better removal rate (∼50%) of SDZ anions (electron donator). According to correlation analysis, the coexisted kaolin and HA played positive roles in antibiotics’ removal. Detailed pairwise interactions in molecular level among different components were clarified by spectral analysis and theoretical calculations (density functional theory), which are important for both the structural design of new flocculants aiming at targeted contaminants and understanding the environmental behaviors of antibiotics in water.

  15. Characterization and flocculation properties of a carbohydrate bioflocculant from a newly isolated Bacillus velezensis 40B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Sahar A; Elkady, Marwa F; Farag, Soha; Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a bioflocculant with a high flocculation activity (> 98%) produced by strain 40B, which was isolated from a brackish water was investigated By 16S rDNA sequence analysis, strain 40B was identified as Bacillus velezensis. Chemical analysis of the bioflocculant 40B indicated that it contained 2% protein and 98% carbohydrates. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which were preferred for the flocculation process. The optimal concentration for the flocculation activity was 3.5 mg (-1). This polysaccharide could also flocculate kaolin suspension over a wide range of pH (1-10) and temperature (5-85 degrees C) in the presence of CaCl2. The stability of the bioflocculant 40B under various conditions suggests its possible use in the industries and environmental applications. However, no previous report exists on the isolation and characterization of a bioflocculant from the Bacillus velezensis.

  16. Ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae affects the energy-efficient harvesting by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ratio between autoflocculating and target microalgae in bio-flocculation was studied with emphasis on the recovery, sedimentation rate and energy demand for harvesting the target microalgae. When the autoflocculating microalgae Ettlia texensis, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus

  17. Effect of sepiolite on the flocculation of suspensions of fibre-reinforced cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarabo, Rocio; Fuente, Elena; Moral, Ana; Blanco, Angeles; Izquierdo, Laura; Negro, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Sepiolite is used to increase thixotropy of cement slurries for easier processing, to prevent sagging and to provide a better final quality in the manufacture of fibre-reinforced cement products. However, the effect of sepiolite on flocculation and its interactions with the components of fibre cement are yet unknown. The aim of this research is to study the effects of sepiolite on the flocculation of different fibre-reinforced cement slurries induced by anionic polyacrylamides (A-PAMs). Flocculation and floc properties were studied by monitoring the chord size distribution in real time employing a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) probe. The results show that sepiolite increases floc size and floc stability in fibre-cement suspensions. Sepiolite competes with fibres and clay for A-PAMs adsorption and its interaction with A-PAM improves flocculation of mineral particles.

  18. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  19. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  20. Flocculation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with Different Phenotypic Traits by Metal Cations and High pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating algal cells by flocculation as a prelude to centrifugation could significantly reduce the energy and cost of harvesting the algae. However, how variation in phenotypic traits such as cell surface features, cell size and motility alter the efficiency of metal cation and pH-induced flocculation is not well understood. Our results demonstrate that both wild-type and cell wall-deficient strains of the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii efficiently flocculate (>90% at an elevated pH of the medium (pH 11 upon the addition of divalent cations such as calcium and magnesium (>5 mM. The trivalent ferric cation (at 10 mM proved to be essential for promoting flocculation under weak alkaline conditions (pH ∼8.5, with a maximum efficiency that exceeded 95 and 85% for wild-type CC1690 and the cell wall-deficient sta6 mutant, respectively. Near complete flocculation could be achieved using a combination of 5 mM calcium and a pH >11, while the medium recovered following cell removal could be re-cycled without affecting algal growth rates. Moreover, the absence of starch in the cell had little overall impact on flocculation efficiency. These findings contribute to our understanding of flocculation in different Chlamydomonas strains and have implications with respect to inexpensive methods for harvesting algae with different phenotypic traits. Additional research on the conditions (e.g., pH and metal ions used for efficient flocculation of diverse algal groups with diverse characteristics, at both small and large scale, will help establish inexpensive procedures for harvesting cell biomass.

  1. Chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate composite dispersions: characterization of rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Rades, Thomas; Pongjanyakul, Thaned

    2008-03-03

    Composite dispersions of chitosan (CS), a positively charged polymer, and magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, were prepared and rheology, flocculate size and zeta potential of the CS-MAS dispersions were investigated. High and low molecular weights of CS (HCS and LCS, respectively) were used in this study. Moreover, the effects of heat treatment at 60 degrees C on the characteristics of the CS-MAS dispersions and the zeta potential of MAS upon addition of CS at different pHs were examined. Incorporation of MAS into CS dispersions caused an increase in viscosity and a shift of CS flow type from Newtonian to pseudoplastic flow with thixotropic properties. Heat treatment brought about a significant decrease in viscosity and hysteresis area of the composite dispersions. Microscopic studies showed that flocculation of MAS occurred after mixing with CS. The size and polydispersity index of the HCS-MAS flocculate were greater than those of the LCS-MAS flocculate. However, a narrower size distribution and the smaller size of the HCS-MAS flocculate were found after heating at 60 degrees C. Zeta potentials of the CS-MAS flocculates were positive and slightly increased with increasing MAS content. In the zeta potential studies, the negative charge of the MAS could be neutralized by the addition of CS. Increasing the pH and molecular weight of CS resulted in higher CS concentrations required to neutralize the charge of MAS. These findings suggest that the electrostatic interaction between CS and MAS caused a change in flow behavior and flocculation of the composite dispersions, depending on the molecular weight of CS. Heat treatment affected the rheological properties and the flocculate size of the composite dispersions. Moreover, pH of medium and molecular weight of CS influence the zeta potential of MAS.

  2. Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition - a transmission X-ray microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbik, Marek S; Song, Yen-Fang; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-01

    The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In order to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3wt.% of smectite was added to the 10wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Qualitative changes of riverine dissolved organic matter at low salinities due to flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmala, Eero; Bowers, David G.; Autio, Riitta; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Thomas, David N.

    2014-10-01

    The flocculation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was studied along transects through three boreal estuaries. Besides the bulk concentration parameters, a suite of DOM quality parameters were investigated, including colored DOM (CDOM), fluorescent DOM, and the molecular weight of DOM as well as associated dissolved iron concentrations. We observed significant deviations from conservative mixing at low salinities (DOC), UV absorption (a(CDOM254)), and humic-like fluorescence. The maximum deviation from conservative mixing for DOC concentration was -16%, at salinities between 1 and 2. An associated laboratory experiment was conducted where an artificial salinity gradient between 0 and 6 was created. The experiment confirmed the findings from the estuarine transects, since part of the DOC and dissolved iron pools were transformed to particulate fraction (>0.2 µm) and thereby removing them from the dissolved phase. We also measured flocculation of CDOM, especially in the UV region of the absorption spectrum. Protein-like fluorescence of DOM decreased, while humic-like fluorescence increased because of salt-induced flocculation. Additionally, there was a decrease in molecular weight of DOM. Consequently, the quantity and quality of the remaining DOM pool was significantly changed after influenced to flocculation. Based on these results, we constructed a mechanistic, two-component flocculation model. Our findings underline the importance of the coastal filter, where riverine organic matter is flocculated and exported to the sediments.

  4. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  5. SODIUM TITANATE NANOBELT AS A MICROPARTICLE TO INDUCE CLAY FLOCCULATION WITH CPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium titanate nanobelt was synthesized by treating titanium dioxide hydrothermally in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution. The product was characterized by SEM analysis and zeta potential measurement. It served as a microparticle to constitute a microparticle retention system with cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM, while the microparticle system was employed to induce the flocculation of kaolin clay. The flocculation behavior of kaolin clay in such a system was investigated by using a photometric dispersion analyzer connected with a dynamic drainage jar. It was found that the sodium titanate nanobelt carried negative charges and had a lower zeta potential at higher pH. It gave a large synergistic flocculation effect with CPAM at a very low dosage, and showed higher flocculation effect with CPAM under neutral and weak alkaline conditions. A suitably high shear level was helpful for the re-flocculation of clay by sodium titanate nanobelt. The clay flocculation induced by CPAM/titanate nanobelt system demonstrated high shear resistance and also generated dense flocs.

  6. New Method Developed to Measure Contact Angles of a Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Zhang, Nengli

    2002-01-01

    The spreading of an evaporating liquid on a solid surface occurs in many practical processes and is of importance in a number of practical situations such as painting, textile dyeing, coating, gluing, and thermal engineering. Typical processes involving heat transfer where the contact angle plays an important role are film cooling, boiling, and the heat transfer through heat pipes. The biological phenomenon of cell spreading also is analogous to a drop spreading (ref. 1). In the study of spreading, the dynamic contact angle describes the interfacial properties on solid substrates and, therefore, has been studied by physicists and fluid mechanics investigators. The dynamic contact angle of a spreading nonvolatile liquid drop provides a simple tool in the study of the free-boundary problem, but the study of the spreading of a volatile liquid drop is of more practical interest because the evaporation of common liquids is inevitable in practical processes. The most common method to measure the contact angle, the contact radius, and the height of a sessile drop on a solid surface is to view the drop from its edge through an optical microscope. However, this method gives only local information in the view direction. Zhang and Yang (ref. 2) developed a laser shadowgraphy method to investigate the evaporation of sessile drop on a glass plate. As described here, Zhang and Chao (refs. 3 and 4) improved the method and suggested a new optical arrangement to measure the dynamic contact angle and the instant evaporation rate of a sessile drop with much higher accuracy (less than 1 percent). With this method, any fluid motion in the evaporating drop can be visualized through shadowgraphy without using a tracer, which often affects the field under investigation.

  7. Dynamic Chemically Driven Dewetting, Spreading, and Self-Running of Sessile Droplets on Crystalline Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arscott, Steve

    2016-12-06

    A chemically driven dewetting effect is demonstrated using sessile droplets of dilute hydrofluoric acid on chemically oxidized silicon wafers. The dewetting occurs as the thin oxide is slowly etched by the droplet and replaced by a hydrogen-terminated surface; the result of this is a gradual increase in the contact angle of the droplet with time. The time-varying work of adhesion is calculated from the time-varying contact angle; this corresponds to the changing chemical nature of the surface during dewetting and can be modeled by the well-known logistic (sigmoid) function often used for the modeling of restricted growth, in this case, the transition from an oxidized surface to a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. The observation of the time-varying contact angle allows one to both measure the etch rate of the silicon oxide and estimate the hydrogenation rate as a function of HF concentration and wafer type. In addition to this, at a certain HF concentration, a self-running droplet effect is observed. In contrast, on hydrogen-terminated silicon wafers, a chemically induced spreading effect is observed using sessile droplets of nitric acid. The droplet spreading can also be modeled using a logistical function, where the restricted growth is the transition from hydrogen-terminated to a chemically induced oxidized silicon surface. The chemically driven dewetting and spreading observed here add to the methods available to study dynamic wetting (e.g., the moving three-phase contact line) of sessile droplets on surfaces. By slowing down chemical kinetics of the wetting, one is able to record the changing profile of the sessile droplet with time and gather information concerning the time-varying surface chemistry. The data also indicates a chemical interface hysteresis (CIH) that is compared to contact angle hysteresis (CAH). The approach can also be used to study the chemical etching and deposition behavior of thin films using liquids by monitoring the macroscopic

  8. Exploring Growth Variability and Crown Vitality of Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rybníček, Michal; Čermák, P.; Žid, T.; Kolář, Tomáš; Trnka, Miroslav; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2015), s. 17-27 ISSN 1733-8387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.4.31.0056; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0265; GA ČR GA13-04291S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Central Europe * crown condition * precipitation * sessile oak * temperature * tree rings Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2014

  9. Flocculation in ale brewing strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: re-evaluation of the role of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Ann Van; Machado, Manuela D; Soares, Eduardo V

    2012-02-01

    Flocculation is an eco-friendly process of cell separation, which has been traditionally exploited by the brewing industry. Cell surface charge (CSC), cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and the presence of active flocculins, during the growth of two (NCYC 1195 and NCYC 1214) ale brewing flocculent strains, belonging to the NewFlo phenotype, were examined. Ale strains, in exponential phase of growth, were not flocculent and did not present active flocculent lectins on the cell surface; in contrast, the same strains, in stationary phase of growth, were highly flocculent (>98%) and presented a hydrophobicity of approximately three to seven times higher than in exponential phase. No relationship between growth phase, flocculation and CSC was observed. For comparative purposes, a constitutively flocculent strain (S646-1B) and its isogenic non-flocculent strain (S646-8D) were also used. The treatment of ale brewing and S646-1B strains with pronase E originated a loss of flocculation and a strong reduction of CSH; S646-1B pronase E-treated cells displayed a similar CSH as the non-treated S646-8D cells. The treatment of the S646-8D strain with protease did not reduce CSH. In conclusion, the increase of CSH observed at the onset of flocculation of ale strains is a consequence of the presence of flocculins on the yeast cell surface and not the cause of yeast flocculation. CSH and CSC play a minor role in the auto-aggregation of the ale strains since the degree of flocculation is defined, primarily, by the presence of active flocculins on the yeast cell wall.

  10. Treatment of waste water by coagulation and flocculation using biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, L.; Saravana Kumar, M. P.; Jena, Amarjit; Gulla, Sudiv; Godhwani, Bhagesh

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the determination of physical and chemical parameters in the treatment process of waste water by flocculation and coagulation processes using natural coagulants and assessing their feasibility for water treatment by comparing the performance with each other and with a synthetic coagulant. Initial studies were done on the synthetic waste water to determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica). The study observed that coagulant Moringa Oleifera of 15 mg/L dose at 6 pH gave the best reduction efficiencies for major physicochemical parameters followed by Aloe Vera and Cactus under identical conditions. The study reveals that the untreated tannery effluents can be treated with environmental confirmative naturally occurring coagulants.

  11. Automation of a flocculation test for syphilis on Groupamatic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretta, M; Paris-Hamelin, A; Gener, J; Muller, A; Matte, C; Vaisman, A

    1975-01-01

    A flocculation reaction employing a cardiolipid antigen was used for syphilis screening on Groupamatic equipment in parallel with conventional screening reactions: Kolmer CF, RPCF, Kahn, Kline, and RPR. The positive samples were confirmed by FTA-200, FTA-ABS, TPI, and in some cases by TPHA. There were 5,212 known samples which had already been tested by all methods and of which 1,648 were positive, and 58,636 screened samples including 65 positives. Half of the samples in the first series were taken without anticoagulant; the remainder were collected in potassium EDTA. The percentage of false positives with the Groupamatic was about 1-4 per cent. The percentage of false negatives among positve (greater than or equal+) samples varied from 0-18 to 1-3 per cent.; on the other hand the sensitivity was less good for samples giving doubtful and/or dissociated reactions in conventional screening reactions. The specificity and sensitivity of this technique are acceptable for a blood transfusion centre. The reproducibility is excellent and the automatic reading of results accurate. Additional advantages are rapidity (340 samples processed per hour); simultaneous performance of eleven other immunohaematological reactions; no contamination between samples; automatic reading, interpretation, and print-out of results; and saving of time because samples are not filed sequentially and are automatically identified when the results are obtained. Although the importance of syphilis in blood transfusion seems small, estimates of the risk are difficult and further investigations are planned. Images PMID:1098731

  12. Evaluation of Flocculation and Filtration Procedures Applied to WSRC Sludge: A Report from B. Yarar, Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-06-04

    This report, addresses fundamentals of flocculation processes shedding light on why WSRC researchers have not been able to report the discovery of a successful flocculant and acceptable filtration rates. It also underscores the importance of applying an optimized flocculation-testing regime, which has not been adopted by these researchers. The final part of the report proposes a research scheme which should lead to a successful choice of flocculants, filtration aids (surfactants) and a filtration regime, as well recommendations for work that should be carried out to make up for the deficiencies of the limited WSRC work where a better performance should be the outcome.

  13. Operating Conditions of Coagulation-Flocculation Process for High Turbidity Ceramic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Al-Asheh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work attempted to determine the optimum conditions required for the coagulation and flocculation process as an essential stage of the ceramic wastewater treatment. Coagulation and flocculation is a very necessary step in industries as it lessens turbidity, color, and odor of wastewater. The experimental work was performed in several runs. The volume of wastewater used in each run was 200 mL and was kept at this value throughout. In certain runs, the speed of the mixer was varied while keeping the quantity of coagulant and flocculant constant in order to determine the optimum speed that resulted in the least turbidity. A speed of 5% was chosen as the ideal process speed according to the results obtained. Next, experiments were operated at this optimum speed while changing the dosage of coagulant and flocculant in order to decide the optimum dosage. Coagulant and flocculent amounts of 0.4 g (without booster and 0.2 g (with booster selected after the readings were taken. For all the readings, a turbidity meter was used providing results in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU. Lowest turbidity was achieved when using 5% speed with 0.4 grams of coagulant and 0.4 grams of flocculant, or 5% speed with 0.2 grams of coagulant, 0.2 grams of flocculant and 0.25 g/L of booster coagulant. According to factorial design analysis, such as parameters as impeller speed and dosage have an influential impact on the turbidity; while the booster has insignificant influence and other interactions between parameters are important.

  14. Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy study of globular proteins in emulsions: influence of droplet flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampon, V; Genot, C; Riaublanc, A; Anton, M; Axelos, M A V; McClements, D J

    2003-04-23

    Measurement of the intensity (I(MAX)) and/or wavelength (lambda(MAX)) of the maximum in the tryptophan (TRP) emission spectrum using front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) can be used to provide information about the molecular environment of proteins in nondiluted emulsions. Many protein-stabilized emulsions in the food industry are flocculated, and therefore, we examined the influence of droplet flocculation on FFFS. Stock oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by bovine serum albumin were prepared by high-pressure valve homogenization (30 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.35 wt % BSA, pH 7). These emulsions were used to create model systems with different degrees of droplet flocculation, either by changing the pH, adding surfactant, or adding xanthan. Emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA) with different pH (5 and 7) and molar ratios of Tween 20 to BSA (R = 0-131) were prepared by dilution of the stock emulsion. As the surfactant concentration was increased, the protein was displaced from the droplet surfaces, which caused an increase in both I(MAX) and lambda(MAX), because of the change in TRP environment. The dependence of I(MAX) and lambda(MAX) on surfactant concentration followed a similar pattern in emulsions that were initially flocculated (pH 5) and nonflocculated (pH 7). Relatively small changes in FFFS emission spectra were observed in emulsions (21 wt % n-hexadecane, 0.22 wt % BSA, pH 7) with different levels of depletion flocculation induced by adding xanthan. These results suggested that droplet flocculation did not have a major impact on FFFS. This study shows that FFFS is a powerful technique for nondestructively providing information about the molecular environment of proteins in concentrated and flocculated protein-stabilized emulsions. Nevertheless, in general the suitability of the technique may also depend on protein type and the nature of the physicochemical matrix surrounding the proteins.

  15. Evaluation of flocculating performance of a thermostable bioflocculant produced by marine Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoli, Arinze S; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the bioflocculant (named MBF-W7) production potential of a bacterial isolate obtained from Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acids gene sequence analysis showed 98% sequence similarity to Bacillus licheniformis strain W7. Optimum culture conditions for MBF-W7 production include 5% (v/v) inoculum size, maltose and NH4NO3 as carbon and nitrogen sources of choice, medium pH of 6 as the initial pH of the growth medium. Under these optimal conditions, maximum flocculating activity of 94.9% was attained after 72 h of cultivation. Chemical composition analyses showed that the purified MBF-W7 was a glycoprotein which was predominantly composed of polysaccharides 73.7% (w/w) and protein 6.2% (w/w). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups as the main functional groups identified in the bioflocculant molecules. Thermogravimetric analyses showed the thermal decomposition profile of MBF-W7. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that bridging played an important role in flocculation. MBF-W7 exhibited excellent flocculating activity for kaolin clay suspension at 0.2 mg/ml over a wide pH range of 3-11; with the maximal flocculation rate of 85.8% observed at pH 3 in the presence of Mn(2+). It maintained and retained high flocculating activity of over 70% after heating at 100°C for 60 min. MBF-W7 showed good turbidity removal potential (86.9%) and chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency (75.3%) in Tyume River. The high flocculating rate of MBF-W7 makes it an attractive candidate to replace chemical flocculants utilized in water treatment.

  16. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Acid Sensitivity Correlates with Flocculation Phenotype during Nutrient Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Kay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains vary in acid resistance; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that result in strain specific differences. Among 25 STEC O157:H7 strains tested, 7 strains flocculated when grown statically for 18 h in minimal salts medium at 37°C, while 18 strains did not. Interestingly, the flocculation phenotype (cells came out of suspension was found to correlate with degree of acid sensitivity in an assay with 400 mM acetic acid solution at pH 3.3 targeting acidified foods. Strains exhibiting flocculation were more acid sensitive and were designated FAS, for flocculation acid sensitive, while the acid resistant strain designated PAR for planktonic acid resistant. Flocculation was not observed for any strains during growth in complex medium (Luria Bertani broth. STEC strains B201 and B241 were chosen as representative FAS (2.4 log reduction and PAR (0.15 log reduction strains, respectively, due to differences in acid resistance and flocculation phenotype. Results from electron microscopy showed evidence of fimbriae production in B201, whereas fimbriae were not observed in B241.Curli fimbriae production was identified through plating on Congo red differential medium, and all FAS strains showed curli fimbriae production. Surprisingly, 5 PAR strains also had evidence of curli production. Transcriptomic and targeted gene expression data for B201 and B241indicated that csg and hde (curli and acid induced chaperone genes, respectively expression positively correlated with the phenotypic differences observed for these strains. These data suggest that FAS strains grown in minimal medium express curli, resulting in a flocculation phenotype. This may be regulated by GcvB, which positively regulates curli fimbriae production and represses acid chaperone proteins. RpoS and other regulatory mechanisms may impact curli fimbriae production, as well. These findings may help elucidate mechanisms

  17. Rapid removal of fine particles from mine water using sequential processes of coagulation and flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M.; Lee, H.J.; Shim, Y. [Korean Mine Reclamation Corporation MIRECO, Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    2010-07-01

    The processes of coagulation and flocculation using high molecular weight long-chain polymers were applied to treat mine water having fine flocs of which about 93% of the total mass was less than 3.02 {mu} m, representing the size distribution of fine particles. Six different combinations of acryl-type anionic flocculants and polyamine-type cationic coagulants were selected to conduct kinetic tests on turbidity removal in mine water. Optimization studies on the types and concentrations of the coagulant and flocculant showed that the highest rate of turbidity removal was obtained with 10 mg L{sup -1} FL-2949 (coagulant) and 12 mg L{sup -1} A333E (flocculant), which was about 14.4 and 866.7 times higher than that obtained with A333E alone and that obtained through natural precipitation by gravity, respectively. With this optimized condition, the turbidity of mine water was reduced to 0 NTU within 20 min. Zeta potential measurements were conducted to elucidate the removal mechanism of the fine particles, and they revealed that there was a strong linear relationship between the removal rate of each pair of coagulant and flocculant application and the zeta potential differences that were obtained by subtracting the zeta potential of flocculant-treated mine water from the zeta potential of coagulant-treated mine water. Accordingly, through an optimization process, coagulation-flocculation by use of polymers could be advantageous to mine water treatment, because the process rapidly removes fine particles in mine water and only requires a small-scale plant for set-up purposes owing to the short retention time in the process.

  18. Rapid removal of fine particles from mine water using sequential processes of coagulation and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Shim, Yonsik

    2010-04-01

    The processes of coagulation and flocculation using high molecular weight long-chain polymers were applied to treat mine water having fine flocs of which about 93% of the total mass was less than 3.02 microm, representing the size distribution of fine particles. Six different combinations of acryl-type anionic flocculants and polyamine-type cationic coagulants were selected to conduct kinetic tests on turbidity removal in mine water. Optimization studies on the types and concentrations of the coagulant and flocculant showed that the highest rate of turbidity removal was obtained with 10 mg L(-1) FL-2949 (coagulant) and 12 mg L(-1) A333E (flocculant), which was about 14.4 and 866.7 times higher than that obtained with A333E alone and that obtained through natural precipitation by gravity, respectively. With this optimized condition, the turbidity of mine water was reduced to 0 NTU within 20 min. Zeta potential measurements were conducted to elucidate the removal mechanism of the fine particles, and they revealed that there was a strong linear relationship between the removal rate of each pair of coagulant and flocculant application and the zeta potential differences that were obtained by subtracting the zeta potential of flocculant-treated mine water from the zeta potential of coagulant-treated mine water. Accordingly, through an optimization process, coagulation-flocculation by use of polymers could be advantageous to mine water treatment, because the process rapidly removes fine particles in mine water and only requires a small-scale plant for set-up purposes owing to the short retention time in the process.

  19. Magnetowetting and sliding motion of a sessile ferrofluid droplet in the presence of a permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Zhu, Guiping; Chua, Yong-Chin; Phan, Vinh-Nguyen; Tan, Say-Hwa

    2010-08-03

    Motion of a droplet on a planar surface has applications in droplet-based lab on a chip technology. This paper reports the experimental results of the shape, contact angles, and motion of ferrofluid droplets driven by a permanent magnet on a planar homogeneous surface. The water-based ferrofluid in use is a colloidal suspension of single-domain magnetic nanoparticles. The effect of the magnetic field on the apparent contact angle of the ferrofluid droplet was first investigated. The results show that an increasing magnetic flux decreases the apparent contact angle of a sessile ferrofluid droplet. Next, the dynamic contact angle was investigated by observing the shape and the motion of a sessile ferrofluid droplet. The advancing and receding contact angles of the moving ferrofluid were measured at different moving speeds and magnetic field strengths. The measured contact angles were used to estimate the magnitude of the forces involved in the sliding motion. Scaling analysis was carried out to derive the critical velocity, beyond which the droplet is not able to catch up with the moving magnet.

  20. The Measurement of the Surface Energy of Solids by Sessile Drop Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvimontes, Alfredo

    2018-05-01

    A new physical method, the sessile drop accelerometry (SDACC) for the study and measurement of the interfacial energies of solid-liquid-gas systems, is tested and discussed in this study. The laboratory instrument and technique—a combination of a drop shape analyzer with high-speed camera and a laboratory drop tower- and the evaluation algorithms, were designed to calculate the interfacial energies as a function of the geometrical changes of a sessile droplet shape due to the effect of "switching off" gravity during the experiment. The method bases on Thermodynamics of Interfaces and differs from the conventional approach of the two hundred-years-old Young's equation in that it assumes a thermodynamic equilibrium between interfaces, rather than a balance of tensions on a point of the solid-liquid-gas contour line. A comparison of the mathematical model that supports the method with the widely accepted Young`s equation is discussed in detail in this study. The method opens new possibilities to develop surface characterization procedures by submitting the solid-liquid-system to artificial generated and uniform force fields.

  1. Deposition pattern and tracer particle motion of evaporating multi-component sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad; Yang, Yang; Raza, Ghulam; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Leping; Du, Xiaoze; Wen, Dongsheng

    2017-11-15

    The understanding of near-wall motion, evaporation behavior and dry pattern of sessile nanofluid droplets is fundamental to a wide range of applications such as painting, spray drying, thin film coating, fuel injection and inkjet printing. However, a deep insight into the heat transfer, fluid flow, near-wall particle velocity and their effects on the resulting dry patterns is still much needed to take the full advantage of these nano-sized particles in the droplet. This work investigates the effect of direct absorptive silicon/silver (Si/Ag) hybrid nanofluids via two experiments. The first experiment identifies the motion of tracer particles near the triple line of a sessile nanofluid droplet on a super-hydrophilic substrate under ambient conditions by the multilayer nanoparticle image velocimetry (MnPIV) technique. The second experiment reveals the effect of light-sensitive Si/Ag composite nanoparticles on the droplet evaporation rate and subsequent drying patterns under different radiation intensities. The results show that the presence of nanoparticle in a very small proportion significantly affects the motion of tracer particles, leading to different drying patterns and evaporation rates, which can be very important for the applications such as spray coating and inkjet printing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Flocculation-coagulation behaviour study of tailings of a fluorspar mineral processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzioba, B. R.; Diaz, A. A.; Menendez-Aguado, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out a selection study of the most adequate flocculation-coagulation reagents to reduce the solids content in the overflow from the settling lagoons of a fluorspar processing plant. This overflow has 1/ solids content, clarified from a feed of 25% solids in the settling lagoons, and is pilled into a river. The importance of this work is enhanced by the fact that the plant is located in a low water resources area, and that eventually the water from the river is used for agriculture or even human consumption. It is relevant to find a working methodology which allow to improve the efficiency of the clarifying process and minimize the environmental impact. Regarding the research methodology, a series of trials were made at natural pH and 25 degree centigree to evaluate the action of those reagents which previously probed to be more efficient in this case: as flocculants were tried BOZEFLOC C 65, SEPARAN AP 273 P. SEPARAN MG 200, and as coagulant aluminium sulfate. The possible interaction of flocculation-coagulation processes was also studied, to obtain optimum result. As analysis criterium the total flocculation time was used, and as all essays were made in 100 ml probes, it corresponds with flocculation rate. As result of this study it can be concluded that the most efficient floculant was SEPARAN MG 200, at 4 g/T. with the observation that an excess of aluminium sulfate gets down the efficiency. (Author) 6 refs

  4. Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling during ethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve ethanolic fermentation performance of self-flocculating yeast, difference between a flocculating yeast strain and a regular industrial yeast strain was analyzed by transcriptional and metabolic approaches. Results: The number of down-regulated (industrial yeast YIC10 vs. flocculating yeast GIM2.71 and up-regulated genes were 4503 and 228, respectively. It is the economic regulation for YIC10 that non-essential genes were down-regulated, and cells put more “energy” into growth and ethanol production. Hexose transport and phosphorylation were not the limiting-steps in ethanol fermentation for GIM2.71 compared to YIC10, whereas the reaction of 1,3-disphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, the decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and its subsequent reduction to ethanol were the most limiting steps. GIM2.71 had stronger stress response than non-flocculating yeast and much more carbohydrate was distributed to other bypass, such as glycerol, acetate and trehalose synthesis. Conclusions: Differences between flocculating yeast and regular industrial yeast in transcription and metabolite profiling will provide clues for improving the fermentation performance of GIM2.71.

  5. Effective flocculation of Chlorella vulgaris using chitosan with zeta potential measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Y. J.; Lau, S. W.

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are considered as one promising source of third-generation biofuels due to their fast growth rates, potentially higher yield rates and wide ranges of growth conditions. However, the extremely low biomass concentration in microalgae cultures presents a great challenge to the harvesting of microalgae because a large volume of water needs to be removed to obtain dry microalgal cells for the subsequent oil extraction process. In this study, the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was effectively harvested using both low molecular weight (MW) and high MW chitosan flocculants. The flocculation efficiency was evaluated by physical appearance, supernatant absorbance, zeta potential and solids content after centrifugal dewatering. High flocculation efficiency of 98.0-99.0% was achieved at the optimal dosage of 30-40 mg/g with formation of large microalgae flocs. This study suggests that the polymer bridging mechanism was governing the flocculation behaviour of C. vulgaris using high MW chitosan. Besides, charge patch neutralisation mechanism prevailed at low MW chitosan where lower dosage was sufficient to reach near-zero zeta potential compared with the high MW chitosan. The amount of chitosan polymer present in the culture may also affect the mechanism of flocculation.

  6. A standardized imaging protocol for the endoscopic prediction of dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David J; Jayanna, Mahesh; Awadie, Halim; Desomer, Lobke; Lee, Ralph; Heitman, Steven J; Sidhu, Mayenaaz; Goodrick, Kathleen; Burgess, Nicholas G; Mahajan, Hema; McLeod, Duncan; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Dysplasia within sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) is difficult to detect and may be mistaken for an adenoma, risking incomplete resection of the background serrated tissue, and is strongly implicated in interval cancer after colonoscopy. The use of endoscopic imaging to detect dysplasia within SSPs has not been systematically studied. Consecutively detected SSPs ≥8 mm in size were evaluated by using a standardized imaging protocol at a tertiary-care endoscopy center over 3 years. Lesions suspected as SSPs were analyzed with high-definition white light then narrow-band imaging. A demarcated area with a neoplastic pit pattern (Kudo type III/IV, NICE type II) was sought among the serrated tissue. If this was detected, the lesion was labeled dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp with dysplasia); if not, it was labeled non-dysplastic (sessile serrated polyp without dysplasia). Histopathology was reviewed by 2 blinded specialist GI pathologists. A total of 141 SSPs were assessed in 83 patients. Median lesion size was 15.0 mm (interquartile range 10-20), and 54.6% were in the right side of the colon. Endoscopic evidence of dysplasia was detected in 36 of 141 (25.5%) SSPs; of these, 5 of 36 (13.9%) lacked dysplasia at histopathology. Two of 105 (1.9%) endoscopically designated non-dysplastic SSPs had dysplasia at histopathology. Endoscopic imaging, therefore, had an accuracy of 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90.1%-97.6%) and a negative predictive value of 98.1% (95% CI, 92.6%-99.7%) for detection of dysplasia within SSPs. Dysplasia within SSPs can be detected accurately by using a simple, broadly applicable endoscopic imaging protocol that allows complete resection. Independent validation of this protocol and its dissemination to the wider endoscopic community may have a significant impact on rates of interval cancer. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03100552.). Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Particle-level simulations of flocculation in a fiber suspension flowing through a diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Jelena S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate flocculation in dilute suspensions of rigid, straight fibers in a decelerating flow field of a diffuser. We carry out numerical studies using a particle-level simulation technique that takes into account the fiber inertia and the non-creeping fiber-flow interactions. The fluid flow is governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the standard k-omega eddy-viscosity turbulence model. A one-way coupling between the fibers and the flow is considered with a stochastic model for the fiber dispersion due to turbulence. The fibers interact through short-range attractive forces that cause them to aggregate into flocs when fiber-fiber collisions occur. We show that ballistic deflection of fibers greatly increases the flocculation in the diffuser. The inlet fiber kinematics and the fiber inertia are the main parameters that affect fiber flocculation in the prediffuser region.

  8. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Changming; Kou Geng; Wang Xiaoliang; Wang Shuhui; Gu Hongchen; Guo Yajun

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  9. Sludge dewatering in a decanter centrifuge aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS and essential oil of waste orange peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the study the comparative analysis of test results of drainage of municipal wastewater sludge was conducted with the use of flocculant Praestol 855BS and the mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS 50% + orange essential oil 50%, as the reagents supporting this process. It was also attempted to reduce unpleasant smells exuding from the drained sludge.

  10. Flocculation of wheat straw soda lignin by hemoglobin and chicken blood: Effects of cationic polymer or calcium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocculation can be used to separate non-sulfonated lignin from base hydrolyzed biomass. In the industrial process, the lignin is isolated by filtration and washed with water. Some of the lignin is lost in the wash water, and flocculation can be used to recover this lignin. Several ways of enhanc...

  11. Enhancing the auto-flocculation of photosynthetic bacteria to realize biomass recovery in brewery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Dong, Shan; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Ting; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming

    2018-02-15

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment technology can simultaneously realize wastewater purification and biomass production. The produced biomass contains high value-added products, which can be used in medical and agricultural industry. However, because of the small size and high electronegativity, PSB are hard to be collected from wastewater, which hampers the commercialization of PSB-based industrial processes. Auto-flocculation is a low cost, energy saving, non-toxic biomass collection method for microbiology. In this work, the influence factors with their optimal levels and mechanism for enhancing the auto-flocculation of PSB were investigated in pure cultivation medium. Then PSB auto-flocculation performance in real brewery wastewater was probed. Results showed that Na + concentration, pH and light intensity were three crucial factors except the initial inoculum sizes and temperature. In the pure medium cultivation system, the optimal condition for PSB auto-flocculation was as follows: pH was 9.5, inoculum size was 420 mg l -1 , Na + concentration was 0.067 mol l -1 , light intensity was 5000 lux, temperature was 30°C. Under the optimal condition, the auto-flocculation ratio and biomass recovery reached 85.0% and 1488 mg l -1 , which improved by 1.67-fold and 2.14-fold compared with the PSB enrichment cultivation conditions, respectively. Mechanism analysis showed that the protein/polysaccharides ratio and absolute Zeta potential value had a liner relationship. For the brewery wastewater treatment, under the above optimal condition, the chemical oxygen demand removal reached 94.3% with the auto-flocculation ratio and biomass recovery of 89.6% and 1510 mg l -1 , which increased 2.75-fold and 2.77-fold, respectively.

  12. Dendrochronological research in an artificially established sessile oak stand in the area of Fruška Gora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Branko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first regional research of the chronologies of sessile oak trees and definition of the local (master chronology of sessile oak in the area of Fruška Gora. In addition, the aim of this study is to determine the strength of the common signal in the growth of sessile oak and its dendroclimatological potential under the given conditions. The quality of the local series of radial increment (chronology and the strength of the common and climatic signals were evaluated using the following parameters: average mean sensitivity, expressed population signal, signal-to-noise ratio and the variance explained by eigenvectors in the procedure of analysis of the principal components. The results have shown that the obtained master chronologies are of satisfactory quality and reliability, and that they contain a sufficient general common ”signal”, which is a characteristic of all analyzed trees that can be processed in all dendroclimatological analyses. It was concluded that, under the investigated site conditions, sessile oak showed low to medium sensitivity of reaction to the modifications of environmental conditions in the past 90 years. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  13. Density of Liquid Ni-Mo Alloys Measured by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Zushu LI; ZaiNan TAO; Feng XIAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of liquid binary Ni-Mo alloys with molybdenum concentration from 0 to 20% (mass fraction) was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [13.18 - 2.65 × 10-3T + (-47.94 + 3.10 × 10-2T) × 10-2XMo] × 10-6m3·mol-1. The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.

  14. Thermal management of metallic surfaces: evaporation of sessile water droplets on polished and patterned stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, T.; Tsareva, S.; Andrieux, A.; Bortolini, G. A.; Bolzan, P. H.; Castanet, G.; Gradeck, M.; Marcos, G.

    2017-10-01

    This communication focus on the evaporation of sessile water droplets on different states of austenitic stainless steel surfaces: mirror polished, mirror polished and aged and patterned by sputtering. The evolution of the contact angle and of the droplet diameter is presented as a function of time at room temperature. For all the surface states, a constant diameter regime (CCR) is observed. An important aging effect on the contact angle is measured on polished surfaces due to atmospheric contamination. The experimental observations are compared to a quasi-static evaporation model assuming spherical caps. The evolution of the droplet volume as a function of time is almost linear with the evaporation time for all the observed surfaces. This is in accordance with the model prediction for the CCR mode for small initial contact angles. In our experiments, the evaporation time is found to be linearly dependent on the initial contact angle. This dependence is not correctly described by the evaporation model

  15. Novel mobbing strategies of a fish population against a sessile annelid predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachat, Jose; Haag-Wackernagel, Daniel

    2016-09-12

    When searching for food, foraging fishes expose themselves to hidden predators. The strategies that maximize the survival of foraging fishes are not well understood. Here, we describe a novel type of mobbing behaviour displayed by foraging Scolopsis affinis. The fish direct sharp water jets towards the hidden sessile annelid predator Eunice aphroditois (Bobbit worm). We recognized two different behavioural roles for mobbers (i.e., initiator and subsequent participants). The first individual to exhibit behaviour indicating the discovery of the Bobbit directed, absolutely and per time unit, more water jets than the subsequent individuals that joined the mobbing. We found evidence that the mobbing impacted the behaviour of the Bobbit, e.g., by inducing retraction. S. affinis individuals either mob alone or form mobbing groups. We speculate that this behaviour may provide social benefits for its conspecifics by securing foraging territories for S. affinis. Our results reveal a sophisticated and complex behavioural strategy to protect against a hidden predator.

  16. Sessile serrated lesion and its borderline variant - Variables with impact on recorded data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Mahin; Garbyal, Rajendra S; Kristensen, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Sessile serrated lesion (SSL), belonging to non-dysplastic serrated polyps (SP), has lately received much focus. Its role in the serrated neoplasia pathway(s) seems well established. Data on prevalence rate, demography, and some polyp characteristics remain, however, to be firmly established. Nor...... has its relation to SPs with subtle aberrant features, falling short of definite SSL-histology, been sufficiently addressed. The aim of this study was to highlight variables that may influence recorded data on SSL and to further discuss the appropriate place of SPs that possess histological attributes...... intermediate between traditional hyperplastic polyp (HP) and SSL, termed borderline SSL (BSSL). Upon review of 8.324 consecutive colorectal polyps signed-out as HP, 219 SSLs and 206 BSSLs were segregated, using strict predetermined criteria. Predominant left-sidedness and equal gender distribution...

  17. The treatment of low level effluents by flocculation and settling at the Chooz nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1989-01-01

    At the Chooz plant, radioactive effluents were formerly treated by evaporation, but because throughput was low, another method was studied. After laboratory tests, a 500 L/h flocculation and settling pilot plant was constructed, followed later by a 5 m 3 /h installation. The main isotopes eliminated are caesium-134 and caesium-137. Flocculation with copper ferrocyanide reduces the total activity to less than 500 Bq/L. The installation described in the paper was commissioned in 1984 and has been in industrial operation since 1985, processing all types of effluent. The evaporator can be set aside for boric acid recovery. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  19. Very high gravity ethanol fermentation by flocculating yeast under redox potential-controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chen-Guang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very high gravity (VHG fermentation using medium in excess of 250 g/L sugars for more than 15% (v ethanol can save energy consumption, not only for ethanol distillation, but also for distillage treatment; however, stuck fermentation with prolonged fermentation time and more sugars unfermented is the biggest challenge. Controlling redox potential (ORP during VHG fermentation benefits biomass accumulation and improvement of yeast cell viability that is affected by osmotic pressure and ethanol inhibition, enhancing ethanol productivity and yield, the most important techno-economic aspect of fuel ethanol production. Results Batch fermentation was performed under different ORP conditions using the flocculating yeast and media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1, 252 ± 2.9 and 298 ± 3.8 g/L. Compared with ethanol fermentation by non-flocculating yeast, different ORP profiles were observed with the flocculating yeast due to the morphological change associated with the flocculation of yeast cells. When ORP was controlled at −100 mV, ethanol fermentation with the high gravity (HG media containing glucose of 201 ± 3.1 and 252 ± 2.9 g/L was completed at 32 and 56 h, respectively, producing 93.0 ± 1.3 and 120.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol, correspondingly. In contrast, there were 24.0 ± 0.4 and 17.0 ± 0.3 g/L glucose remained unfermented without ORP control. As high as 131.0 ± 1.8 g/L ethanol was produced at 72 h when ORP was controlled at −150 mV for the VHG fermentation with medium containing 298 ± 3.8 g/L glucose, since yeast cell viability was improved more significantly. Conclusions No lag phase was observed during ethanol fermentation with the flocculating yeast, and the implementation of ORP control improved ethanol productivity and yield. When ORP was controlled at −150 mV, more reducing power was available for yeast cells to survive, which in turn improved their viability and VHG

  20. An evaluation of soluble cations and anions on the conductivity and rate of flocculation of kaolins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Deborah Lee

    1998-10-01

    The focus of this project was to learn how ionic concentrations and their contributions to electric conductivity influence the flocculation behavior of kaolin/water suspensions. Sodium silicate, calcium chloride, and magnesium sulfate were used as chemical additives. The specific surface areas, particle size distributions, and methylene blue indices for two kaolins were measured. The SSA and MBI for these kaolins indicated that they possessed inherent differences in SSA and flocculation behaviors. Rheological studies were also performed. Testing included simultaneous gelation, deflocculation, and pH tests. Viscosity, pH, temperature, and chemical additive concentrations were monitored at each point. Testing was performed at 45/55 wt% solids. Effects of additions of various levels of deflocculant and flocculant to each of the kaolin/water suspensions were studied by making several suspensions from each kaolin. The concentrations of dispersant, and flocculant levels and types were varied to produce suspensions with different chemical additive "histories," but all with similar final apparent viscosities. Slurry filtrates were analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature, and ion concentrations of (Al3+, Fe2+,3+, Ca 2+, Mg+, Na+, SO4 2--, and Cl--). Plastic properties were calculated to determine how variations in suspension histories affected conductivities, pH, and detectable ion contents of the suspensions. These analyses were performed on starting slurries which were under-, completely-, and over-deflocculated before further additions of flocculants and deflocculant were added to tune the slurries to the final, constant, target viscosity. Results showed that rates of flocculation and conductivities increased as concentrations of ions increased. By increasing conductivity correlations with increases in flocculation occurs, which yields higher rates of buildup, or RBU [1]. This is the single most important slip control property in the whitewares industry. Shear

  1. A New Approach to Measure Contact Angle and Evaporation Rate with Flow Visualization in a Sessile Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The contact angle and the spreading process of sessile droplet are very crucial in many technological processes, such as painting and coating, material processing, film-cooling applications, lubrication, and boiling. Additionally, as it is well known that the surface free energy of polymers cannot be directly, measured for their elastic and viscous restraints. The measurements of liquid contact angle on the polymer surfaces become extremely important to evaluate the surface free energy of polymers through indirect methods linked with the contact angle data. Due to the occurrence of liquid evaporation is inevitable, the effects of evaporation on the contact angle and the spreading become very important for more complete understanding of these processes. It is of interest to note that evaporation can induce Marangoni-Benard convection in sessile drops. However, the impacts of the inside convection on the wetting and spreading processes are not clear. The experimental methods used by previous investigators cannot simultaneously measure the spreading process and visualize the convection inside. Based on the laser shadowgraphic system used by the present author, a very simple optical procedure has been developed to measure the contact angle, the spreading speed, the evaporation rate, and to visualize inside convection of a sessile drop simultaneously. Two CCD cameras were used to synchronously record the real-time diameter of the sessile drop, which is essential for determination of both spreading speed and evaporation rate, and the shadowgraphic image magnified by the sessile drop acting as a thin plano-convex lens. From the shadowgraph, the inside convection of the drop can be observed if any and the image outer diameter, which linked to the drop profile, can be measured. Simple equations have been derived to calculate the drop profile, including the instantaneous contact angle, height, and volume of the sessile drop, as well as the evaporation rate. The influence of

  2. Analytical Model for Diffusive Evaporation of Sessile Droplets Coupled with Interfacial Cooling Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan A H; Biggs, Simon R; Nguyen, Anh V

    2018-05-30

    Current analytical models for sessile droplet evaporation do not consider the nonuniform temperature field within the droplet and can overpredict the evaporation by 20%. This deviation can be attributed to a significant temperature drop due to the release of the latent heat of evaporation along the air-liquid interface. We report, for the first time, an analytical solution of the sessile droplet evaporation coupled with this interfacial cooling effect. The two-way coupling model of the quasi-steady thermal diffusion within the droplet and the quasi-steady diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation is conveniently solved in the toroidal coordinate system by applying the method of separation of variables. Our new analytical model for the coupled vapor concentration and temperature fields is in the closed form and is applicable for a full range of spherical-cap shape droplets of different contact angles and types of fluids. Our analytical results are uniquely quantified by a dimensionless evaporative cooling number E o whose magnitude is determined only by the thermophysical properties of the liquid and the atmosphere. Accordingly, the larger the magnitude of E o , the more significant the effect of the evaporative cooling, which results in stronger suppression on the evaporation rate. The classical isothermal model is recovered if the temperature gradient along the air-liquid interface is negligible ( E o = 0). For substrates with very high thermal conductivities (isothermal substrates), our analytical model predicts a reversal of temperature gradient along the droplet-free surface at a contact angle of 119°. Our findings pose interesting challenges but also guidance for experimental investigations.

  3. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing: Interactions among coagulant and flocculant concentrations and pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G; Belloc, Claudia; Vaca, Mabel; Iturbe, Rosario; Bandala, Erick R

    2009-11-01

    Wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. The wastewater contained petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as salts, brownish organic matter and other constituents that were lixiviated from the soil during the washing process. The main goal of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and also be disposed at the end of the process properly. A second objective was to study the relationship among the coagulant and flocculant doses and the pH at which the CF process is developed, for systems where methylene blue active substances (MBAS) as well as oil and greases were present. The results for the selection of the right coagulant and flocculant type and dose, the optimum pH value for the CF process and the interactions among the three parameters are detailed along this work. The best coagulant and flocculant were FeCl(3) and Tecnifloc 998 at doses of 4,000 and 1 mg/L, correspondingly at pH of 5. These conditions gave color, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conductivity removals of 99.8, 99.6, 97.1 and 35%, respectively. It was concluded that it is feasible to treat the wastewaters generated in the contaminated soil washing process through CF process, and therefore, wastewaters could be recycled to the washing process or disposed to drainage.

  4. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of the shelf-life of Nannochloropsis oculata flocculates stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Low

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cell and culture viability of concentrates of the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata were assessed after storage for a period of 16 weeks at -18, 0 and 5°C. The concentrates were obtained from the crop of N. oculata, which was harvested at the start of the seasonal growth period using a process of flocculation. Flocotac Plus was used as the flocculation agent, achieving flocculation of 90% of the suspended microalgae. It was observed that the chemical process did not affect the number of live cells. The concentrate stored at -18°C presented slow freezing, which deteriorated the cells and therefore reduced cell viability after five weeks (75%. The concentrates stored at 0 and 5°C showed cell viability over 97% after the 16 weeks. Culture viability was only seen in the concentrates stored at 0 and 5°C, which showed specific growth rates similar to those of the control culture. It may be concluded that it is possible to use flocculates stored at 0 and 5°C after 16 weeks as inoculum for mass crops of N. oculata for food, green water and other uses.

  6. Biodiversity of autolytic ability in flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains suitable for traditional sparkling wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetuini, Giorgia; Di Gianvito, Paola; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Schirone, Maria; Corsetti, Aldo; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    Yeasts involved in secondary fermentation of traditional sparkling wines should show specific characteristics, such as flocculation capacity and autolysis. Recently it has been postulated that autophagy may contribute to the outcome of autolysis. In this study, 28 flocculent wine Saccahromyces cerevisiae strains characterized by different flocculation degrees were studied for their autolytic and autophagic activities. Autolysis was monitored in synthetic medium through the determination of amino acid nitrogen and total proteins released. At the same time, novel primer sets were developed to determine the expression of the genes ATG1, ATG17 and ATG29. Twelve strains were selected on the basis of their autolytic rate and ATG gene expressions in synthetic medium and were inoculated in a base wine. After 30, 60 and 180 days the autolytic process and ATG gene expressions were evaluated. The obtained data showed that autolysis and ATG gene expressions differed among strains and were independent of the degree of flocculation. This biodiversity could be exploited to select new starter stains to improve sparkling wine production. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Assessing the effectiveness and environmental impacts of using natural flocculants to manage turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of using chitosan as a natural flocculant to control : turbidity during in-stream construction work. A series of field tests in Oak Creek, Corvallis, OR were conducted in : order to test...

  8. Biodegradable flocculants based on polyacrylamide and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) grafted amylopectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolya, Haradhan; Tripathy, Tridib

    2014-09-01

    Synthesis of amylopectin grafted polyacrylamide (AP-g-PAM) and poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (AP-g-PDMA) was carried out by Ce4+ in water medium. The reaction conditions for maximum grafting was optimized by varying the reaction variables, including the concentration of monomers, ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), amylopectin, reaction time and temperature. The graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, NMR (both 1H and 13C) spectroscopy, molecular weight determination and molecular weight distribution by using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), thermal analysis (TGA), SEM studies. Biodegradation of the graft copolymers was carried out by enzyme hydrolysis. Flocculation performances of the graft copolymers were evaluated in 1.0 wt% coal and 1.0 wt% silica suspensions. A comparative study of the flocculation performances of AP-g-PDMA and AP-g-PAM was also made. It shows that the flocculation performance of AP-g-PDMA was better than that of AP-g-PAM. AP-g-PDMA performed best when compared with other commercial flocculants in the same suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of combined flocculant – Lanthanum modified bentonite treatment on aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, G.; Pauwels, M.; Lürling, M.

    2017-01-01

    A low dose flocculant (FeCl3), combined with lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) as phosphate-binding agent, has been applied for eutrophication management in Lake De Kuil (The Netherlands). After the treatment, the state of the lake shifted from hypertrophic to mesotrophic. Although

  10. Effect of flocculation on performance of arming yeast in direct ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw Teik Seong; Katakura, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Shioya, Suteaki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Bito, Yohei; Katahira, Satoshi; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences

    2006-11-15

    In the direct ethanol fermentation of raw starch by arming yeast with {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase, it is preferable to use a flocculent yeast because it can be recovered without centrifugation. Three types of arming yeast system, I (nonflocculent), II (mildly flocculent), and III (heavily flocculent), were constructed and their fermentation performances were compared. With an increase in the degree of flocculation, specific ethanol production rate for soluble starch decreased (0.19, 0.17, and 0.12 g g-dry-cell{sup -1} h{sup -1} for systems I, II, and III, respectively), but that for raw starch did not decrease as much as expected (0.06, 0.06, and 0.04 g g-dry-cell{sup -1} h{sup -1} for systems I, II and III, respectively). Microscopic observation revealed that many starch granules were captured in the yeast flocs in system III during the direct ethanol fermentation of raw starch. It was suggested that the capture of starch granules increases apparent substrate concentration for amylolytic enzymes in arming yeast cell flocs; thus, the specific ethanol production rate of system III was kept at a level comparable to those of the other systems. (orig.)

  11. APPLICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PEELS OF ORANGES AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE OF FLOCCULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the optimum conditions of the process of mechanical dewatering of municipal sewage sludge and reduction of odours emitted during this process. The process of dewatering of municipal sewage sludge was carried out using laboratory sedimentation centrifuge of MPW-350 type. Municipal sewage sludge stabilized during anaerobic digestion, taken from Wastewater Treatment Plant Jamno. The dewatering process was aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS of real solution concentration 0.3% and essential oil from orange, which was extracted from orange peels in the process of steam distillation. Constant parameters of dewatering process were: pH, temperature, colour, texture, smell, water content and dry matter content. Independent variables of dewatering process were: centrifugation time (in the range 1–10 min, centrifugation speed (in the range 1000–3000 rotations/min and dose of mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS (79% + essential oil of orange (21% in the range 0–48 ml/dm3. Water content in the sludge after the process, dry matter content in the effluent and the duration of the smell of oil in the sediment were determined. Studies showed that the essential oil from orange may be used as a partial substitute of flocculant Praestol 855BS in the process of centrifugal sedimentation. Essential oil of orange significantly reduces unpleasant odours which are emitted from sludge during mechanical dewatering. Simultaneous application of both reagents, ie. flocculant Praestol 855BS 79%, and essential oil of orange 21% of volume is recommended.

  12. Toxicity of clay flocculation of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to estuarine invertebrates and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic environmental effects of proposed control procedures for red tide events are relatively unknown but important to understand. The objective of this study was to determine the laboratory-derived toxicities of a clay flocculation technique proposed for the Florida red ti...

  13. Enhanced removal of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-05-30

    Microalgae are attracting attention due to their potentials in mitigating CO2 emissions and removing environmental pollutants. However, harvesting microalgal biomass from diluted cultures is one of the bottlenecks for developing economically viable processes for this purpose. Microalgal cells can be harvested by cost-effective sedimentation when flocculating strains are used. In this study, the removal of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied. The experimental results indicated that more than 80% Zn(2+) and 60% Cd(2+) were removed by the microalgal culture within 3 days in the presence up to 20.0mg/L Zn(2+) and 4.0mg/L Cd(2+), respectively, which were much higher than that observed with the culture of the non-flocculating C. vulgaris CNW11. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon was explored by investigating the effect of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) on the growth and metabolic activities of the microalgal strains. It was found that the flocculation of the microalga improved its growth, synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidation activity under the stressful conditions, indicating a better tolerance to the heavy metal ions for a potential in removing them more efficiently from contaminated wastewaters, together with a bioremediation of other nutritional components contributed to the eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Batch Sedimentation Studies for Freshwater Green Alga Scenedesmus abundans Using Combination of Flocculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu K. Moorthy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalga is the only feedstock that has the theoretical potential to completely replace the energy requirements derived from fossil fuels. However, commercialization of this potential source for fuel applications is hampered due to many technical challenges with harvesting of biomass being the most energy intensive process among them. The fresh water microalgal species, Scenedesmus abundans, has been widely recognized as a potential feedstock for production of biodiesel (Mandotra et al., 2014. The present work deals with sedimentation of algal biomass using extracted chitosan and natural bentonite clay powder as flocculant. The effect of flocculant combination and different factors such as temperature, pH, and concentration of algal biomass on sedimentation rates has been analyzed. A high flocculation efficiency of 76.22 ± 7.81% was obtained at an algal biomass concentration of 1 ± 0.05 g/L for a settling time of 1 h at 50 ± 5°C with a settling velocity of 103.2 ± 0.6 cm/h and a maximum surface conductivity of 2,260 ± 2 μS/cm using an optimal design in response surface methodology (RSM. Biopolymer flocculant such as chitosan exhibited better adsorption property along with bentonite clay powder that reduced the settling time significantly.

  15. Optimization of Alkaline Flocculation for Harvesting of Scenedesmus quadricauda #507 and Chaetoceros muelleri #862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Huo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology (RSM was used to evaluate the effects of pH and microalgal biomass concentration (BC on alkaline flocculating activity for harvesting one freshwater green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda #507 and one marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri #862. The pH value and BC were in range of 9.0–12.0 and 0.20–2.30 g/L, respectively. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the response indicates excellent evaluation of experimental data by second-order regressions. Optimum conditions for flocculating activity were estimated as follows: (i pH 11.6, BC 0.54 g/L for strain #507 and (ii pH 11.5, BC 0.42 g/L for strain #862. The maximum flocculating activity was around 94.7% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of synthetic ocean water (SOW to the freshwater #507 culture can increase the flocculating activity from 82.13%–88.79% in low algae concentration (0.52 g/L and 82.92%–95.60% in high concentration (2.66 g/L.

  16. Synthesis and flocculation properties of gum ghatti andpoly(acrylamide-co-acrylonitrile) based biodegradable hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the development of biodegradable flocculants based on graft co-polymers of gum ghatti (Gg) and a mixture of acrylamide and acrylonitrile co-monomers (AAm-co-AN). The hydrogel polymer exhibited an excellent swelling capacity...

  17. Coagulation and flocculation in the preparation of drinking water in a pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the practical part in this article was to explore the influence of different parameters on coagulation and flocculation processes as well as the influence of this stage on other stages in water purification. Analysis of the water samples was conducted in the chemical laboratory of Banja Luka Municipal Waterworks using standard methods for analyzing drinking water. The results are presented as diagrams that show the dependence of different parameters as a function of the residual turbidity and the content of natural organic matters in water. The following conclusions were drawn It is necessary to conduct the chemical treatment of raw water with the aim to satisfy chemical and bacteriological standards for drinking water. The best results were achieved with Al2(SO4s as coagulant,. Counterrecoil sludge in an amount of 2-3% in relation with the total quantity of water has a positive impacts on coagulation-flocculation processes. 4. For effective purification, all the conditions for coagulation-flocculation must be adjusted for the filter to have a longer useful life. One of example is correction of the pH to pH=7, coagulant dose 20 mg/L Al2(SO4s, flocculant dose 0.1 mg/L PE, counterrecoil sludge dose 90 L/h PM.

  18. TREATMENT OF LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COUPLING COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION OR OZONATION TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-01-01

    A major concern for landfilling facilities is the treatment of their leachate. To optimize organic matter removal from this leachate, the combination of two or more techniques is preferred in order to meet stringent effluent standards. In our study, coagulation-flocculation and ozonation are compared as pre- treatment steps for stabilized landfill leachate prior to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The efficiency of the pre treatment techniques is evaluated using COD and UVA254 measurements. For coagulation- flocculation, different chemicals are compared and optimal dosages are determined. After this, iron (III) chloride is selected for subsequent adsorption studies due to its high percentage of COD and UVA254 removal and good sludge settle-ability. Our finding show that ozonation as a single treatment is effective in reducing COD in landfill leachate by 66% compared to coagulation flocculation (33%). Meanwhile, coagulation performs better in UVA254 reduction than ozonation. Subsequent GAC adsorption of ozonated effluent, coagulated effluent and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal respectively (after 6 bed volumes). The effect of the pre-treatment techniques on GAC adsorption properties is evaluated experimentally and mathematically using Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. Mathematical modelling of the experimental GAC adsorption data shows that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and break through time with a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation.

  19. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAYAS Pérez Teresa; GEISSLER Gunther; HERNANDEZ Fernando

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculatio and advanced oxidation processes(AOP)had been studied.The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV/H202,UVO3 and UV/H-H202/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions.For each of these processes,different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency of the coffee wastewater.Coffee wastewater is characterized by a high chemical oxygen demand(COD)and low total suspended solids.The outcomes of coffee wastewater reeatment using coagulation-flocculation and photodegradation processes were assessed in terms of reduction of COD,color,and turbidity.It was found that a reductiOn in COD of 67%could be realized when the coffee wastewater was treated by chemical coagulation-flocculatlon witll lime and coagulant T-1.When coffee wastewater was treated by coagulation-flocculation in combination with UV/H202,a COD reduction of 86%was achieved,although only after prolonged UV irradiation.Of the three advanced oxidation processes considered,UV/H202,uv/03 and UV/H202/03,we found that the treatment with UV/H2O2/O3 was the most effective,with an efficiency of color,turbidity and further COD removal of 87%,when applied to the flocculated coffee wastewater.

  20. DMC-grafted cellulose as green-based flocculants for agglomerating fine kaolin particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel cellulose based flocculants C-g-P (DMC with various chain architectures are synthesized through a situ graft copolymerization. The cationic ammonium chloride group (DMC is grafted onto cellulose by two separate inverse emulsion polymerization with γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (KH-570 and double bond addition reactions, which is a new and simple method to employ KH-570 as a bridge for the connection of cellulose matrix and DMC group. The effects of pH, flocculant dose, standing time on turbidity of kaolin suspensions and particle sizes have been studied systematically. In addition, the response surface methodology (RSM study confirms that PAC and C-g-P (DMC have synergy in turbidity removal with a higher removal efficiency of 98.32%. Moreover, C-g-P (DMC 1 has higher removal efficiency with 96.5% at a low dosage of 0.6 mg L−1 and better floc properties than C-g-P (DMC 2 and C-g-P (DMC 3, suggesting that the length and quantity of cationic branch chains play a crucial role in Kaolin flocculation due to their dramatically enhanced bridging effects. Keywords: Cellulose, Cationic flocculant, Inverse emulsion polymerization, Kaolin suspension

  1. Dextran-induced depletion flocculation in oil-water emulsions in the presence of sucrose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdenstein, T.B.J.; Zoet, F.D.; Vliet, van T.; Linden, van der E.; Aken, van G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phase behaviour and mechanical properties of 10 wt% oil-in-water emulsions, stabilised by ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) and flocculated by the polysaccharide dextran were studied as a function of sucrose concentration. The sucrose concentration affected neither the polysaccharide concentration above

  2. Recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin-washing plant by flotation-flocculation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Barani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional processing of kaolin is achieved by dispersion of the mined ore and classification by multistage hydrocyclone plants. The inefficiencies inherent to cyclones produce a middling product that is commonly disposed back into the quarry. In this research, recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin washing plant, which is located in Iran was investigated by flotation and flotation- flocculation. Flotation experiments show that the flotation of kaolinite from the tailings is better in an acidic than in an alkaline medium containing cationic collectors. Flotation under acidic condition causes problems such as equipment corrosion at industrial scale. As a result, the cationic flotation of kaolinite is enhanced by addition of polyacrylamide as a flocculant. The results showed flocculation by polyacrylamide improved flotation of kaolinite within a range of pH. With 300 g/t dodecylamine, 500 g/t aluminum chloride, 50 g/t pine oil (frother, 15 g/t polyacrylamide, at pH = 7 and without de-slimming a product has 37.19% Al2O3, 54.19% SiO2 and 34.43% mass recovery was archived. Keywords: Kaolinite, Flotation, Flocculation, Cetylpyridinium chloride, Dodecylamine, Aluminum chloride, Polyacrylamide

  3. Impacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jilbert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe plays a key role in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal systems, participating in various redox reactions and influencing the burial of organic carbon. Large amounts of Fe enter the marine environment from boreal river catchments associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM and as colloidal Fe oxyhydroxides, principally ferrihydrite. However, the fate of this Fe pool in estuarine sediments has not been extensively studied. Here we show that flocculation processes along a salinity gradient in an estuary of the northern Baltic Sea efficiently transfer Fe and OM from the dissolved phase into particulate material that accumulates in the sediments. Flocculation of Fe and OM is partially decoupled. This is likely due to the presence of discrete colloidal ferrihydrite in the freshwater Fe pool, which responds differently from DOM to estuarine mixing. Further decoupling of Fe from OM occurs during sedimentation. While we observe a clear decline with distance offshore in the proportion of terrestrial material in the sedimentary particulate organic matter (POM pool, the distribution of flocculated Fe in sediments is modulated by focusing effects. Labile Fe phases are most abundant at a deep site in the inner basin of the estuary, consistent with input from flocculation and subsequent focusing. The majority of the labile Fe pool is present as Fe (II, including both acid-volatile sulfur (AVS-bound Fe and unsulfidized phases. The ubiquitous presence of unsulfidized Fe (II throughout the sediment column suggests Fe (II-OM complexes derived from reduction of flocculated Fe (III-OM, while other Fe (II phases are likely derived from the reduction of flocculated ferrihydrite. Depth-integrated rates of Fe (II accumulation (AVS-Fe + unsulfidized Fe (II + pyrite for the period 1970–2015 are greater in the inner basin of the estuary with respect to a site further offshore, confirming higher rates of Fe reduction in near-shore areas

  4. Impacts of flocculation on the distribution and diagenesis of iron in boreal estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilbert, Tom; Asmala, Eero; Schröder, Christian; Tiihonen, Rosa; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Virtasalo, Joonas J.; Kotilainen, Aarno; Peltola, Pasi; Ekholm, Päivi; Hietanen, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    Iron (Fe) plays a key role in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal systems, participating in various redox reactions and influencing the burial of organic carbon. Large amounts of Fe enter the marine environment from boreal river catchments associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and as colloidal Fe oxyhydroxides, principally ferrihydrite. However, the fate of this Fe pool in estuarine sediments has not been extensively studied. Here we show that flocculation processes along a salinity gradient in an estuary of the northern Baltic Sea efficiently transfer Fe and OM from the dissolved phase into particulate material that accumulates in the sediments. Flocculation of Fe and OM is partially decoupled. This is likely due to the presence of discrete colloidal ferrihydrite in the freshwater Fe pool, which responds differently from DOM to estuarine mixing. Further decoupling of Fe from OM occurs during sedimentation. While we observe a clear decline with distance offshore in the proportion of terrestrial material in the sedimentary particulate organic matter (POM) pool, the distribution of flocculated Fe in sediments is modulated by focusing effects. Labile Fe phases are most abundant at a deep site in the inner basin of the estuary, consistent with input from flocculation and subsequent focusing. The majority of the labile Fe pool is present as Fe (II), including both acid-volatile sulfur (AVS)-bound Fe and unsulfidized phases. The ubiquitous presence of unsulfidized Fe (II) throughout the sediment column suggests Fe (II)-OM complexes derived from reduction of flocculated Fe (III)-OM, while other Fe (II) phases are likely derived from the reduction of flocculated ferrihydrite. Depth-integrated rates of Fe (II) accumulation (AVS-Fe + unsulfidized Fe (II) + pyrite) for the period 1970-2015 are greater in the inner basin of the estuary with respect to a site further offshore, confirming higher rates of Fe reduction in near-shore areas. Mössbauer 57Fe

  5. PDADMAC flocculation of Chinese hamster ovary cells: enabling a centrifuge-less harvest process for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Thomas; Thomas, Anne; Senczuk, Anna; Petty, Krista; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Piper, Rob; Carvalho, Juliane; Hammond, Matthew; Sawant, Satin; Bussiere, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    High titer (>10 g/L) monoclonal antibody (mAb) cell culture processes are typically achieved by maintaining high viable cell densities over longer culture durations. A corresponding increase in the solids and sub-micron cellular debris particle levels are also observed. This higher burden of solids (≥15%) and sub-micron particles typically exceeds the capabilities of a continuous centrifuge to effectively remove the solids without a substantial loss of product and/or the capacity of the harvest filtration train (depth filter followed by membrane filter) used to clarify the centrate. We discuss here the use of a novel and simple two-polymer flocculation method used to harvest mAb from high cell mass cell culture processes. The addition of the polycationic polymer, poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) to the cell culture broth flocculates negatively-charged cells and cellular debris via an ionic interaction mechanism. Incorporation of a non-ionic polymer such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) into the PDADMAC flocculation results in larger flocculated particles with faster settling rate compared to PDADMAC-only flocculation. PDADMAC also flocculates the negatively-charged sub-micron particles to produce a feed stream with a significantly higher harvest filter train throughput compared to a typical centrifuged harvest feed stream. Cell culture process variability such as lactate production, cellular debris and cellular densities were investigated to determine the effect on flocculation. Since PDADMAC is cytotoxic, purification process clearance and toxicity assessment were performed.

  6. The use of laminar tube flow in the study of hydrodynamic and chemical influences on polymer flocculation of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, P N; George, N

    1992-08-05

    The optimization of microbial flocculation for subsequent biomass separation must relate the floc properties to separation process criteria. The effects of flocculant type, dose, and hydrodynamic conditions on floc formation in laminar tube flow were determined for an Escherichia coli system. Combined with an on-line aggregation sensor, this technique allows the flocculation process to be rapidly optimized. This is important, because interbatch variation in fermentation broth has consequences for flocculation control and subsequent downstream processing. Changing tube diameter and length while maintaining a constant flow rate allowed independent study of the effects of shear and time on the flocculation rate and floc characteristics. Tube flow at higher shear rates increased the rate and completeness of flocculation, but reduced the maximum floc size attained. The mechanism for this size limitation does not appear to be fracture or erosion of existing flocs. Rearrangement of particles within the flocs appears to be most likely. The Camp number predicted the extent of flocculation obtained in terms of the reduction in primary particle number, but not in terms of floc size.

  7. Optimal Water Recovery with Emphasis on Flocculant Consumption Rate in the Thickener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Hosseininasab

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water plays a vital role in mineral processing as evidenced by the approximately 2 to 3 tons of water used for the treatment of one ton of ore. A major portion of this water may be recovered in thickeners. This study aimed to control the wet tailings output of the Hematite Gol-e-Gohar plant by changing  flocculant dosage and type and solid percentage in the feed in order to enhance effluent clarity and reduce water consumption. Materials and A series of settling experiments were performed using different combinations of the flocculants (A25, A26 Yazd, A26 Esfahan, A27, and A28, flocculant doses (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 gr/ton, and solid loads in the feed (5, 7, 9, 10, and 11% to the thickener. The L25 Taguchi design method was chosen to handle the five different levels of the three factors. Adopting a 95% confidence interval, the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that flocculant consumption rate had a high effect on settling velocity (p = 0.006 while flocculant type and solid percentage in the feed had no significant effects. Moreover, it was found that A26 (Akhtar-chemistry Company, Yazd used at a rate of 40 g/ton improved the settling performance to yield an optimal water clarity. Using the findings of this study in process planning at the plant led to a considerable reduction (from the original 0.86 to 0.49 m3 in average water consumption per ton of input material so that the solid content of the thickener underflow rose from 7 to 45%.

  8. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Mayowa Oladele; Van Heerden, Esta; Pohl, Carolina H; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-06-12

    The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Arthrobacter humicola strain R1 and the sequence was deposited in the Gene bank as Arthrobacter humicola with accession number KC816574.1. Flocculating activity was enhanced with the aid of divalent cations, pH 12, at a dosage concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. The purified bioflocculant was heat stable and could retain more than 78% of its flocculating activity after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl moieties as the functional groups. The thermogravimetric analysis was used to monitor the pyrolysis profile of the purified bioflocculant and elemental composition revealed C: O: Na: P: K with 13.90: 41.96: 26.79: 16.61: 0.74 weight percentage respectively. The purified bioflocculant was able to remove chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate and turbidity from sewage waste water at efficiencies of 65.7%, 63.5%, 55.7%, 71.4% and 81.3% respectively. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using the bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola as a potential alternative to synthesized chemical flocculants in sewage waste water treatment and other industrial waste water.

  9. Projected changes in the future distribution and production of sessile oak forests near the xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre; Veperdi, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    As a result of regional climate change, most European countries are experiencing an increase in mean annual temperature and CO2 concentration and a decrease in mean annual precipitation. In low-elevation areas in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is a limiting factor, the projected climate change threatens the health, production, and potential distribution of forest ecosystems. The intensive summer droughts and commonly occurring extreme weather events create negative influences that cause health declines, changes in yield potential, and tree mortality. Due to the observed damages, attention has been focused on these problems. The impacts of climatic extremes cause difficulties in forest management; these difficulties occur more frequently in Hungary, which is a region that is the most sensitive to climatic extremes. Regional climate model simulations project that the frequency of extremely high temperatures and long-term dry periods will increase; both of these factors have negative effects on future tree species distribution and production. Thus, the aim of our study is to utilize the sessile oak (Quercus petraea) as a climate indicator tree species to investigate potential future distribution and estimate changes in growth trends. For future spatial distribution, we used the Fuzzy membership distribution model in a new Decision Support System (DSS) which was developed for the Hungarian forestry and agricultural sectors. Through study techniques we can employ DSS, which contains various environmental layers (topography, vegetation, past and projected future climate, soils, and hydrology), to create probability distribution maps. The results, based on 12 regional climate model simulations (www.ensembles-eu.org), show that the area of sessile oak forests is shrinking continuously and will continue to do so to the end of the 21st century. For future production estimations, we analysed intensive long-term growth monitoring network plots that were established in

  10. Flocculation and floc break-up related to tidally induced turbulent shear in a low-turbidity, microtidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2014-01-01

    flocculation and floc break-up dynamics in the lower part of the water column in the period around slack water. These dynamics were confirmed in the Eulerian deployments and were reoccurring in every tidal cycle. The dynamics were mostly governed by changes in turbulent shear. Strong microflocs with a lower...... mean threshold diameter of 50–60 μm present at high turbulent shear flocculated to form fragile macroflocs with sizes of several hundred microns and mean diameters above 80 μm around slack water periods. A hysteresis in floc break-up and flocculation was found at high water slack (HWS), as flocs formed...

  11. Synthesis of Mn-intercalated layered titanate by exfoliation–flocculation approach and its efficient photocatalytic activity under visible–light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jie; Tian, Yanlong; Chang, Binbin; Li, Gengnan; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    A novel Mn-intercalated layered titanate as highly active photocatalyst in visible-light region has been synthesized via a convenient and efficient exfoliation–flocculation approach with divalent Mn ions and monolayer titanate nanosheets. The 0.91 nm interlayer spacing of obtained photocatalyst is in accordance with the sum of the thickness of titanate nanosheet and the diameter of Mn ions. The yellow photocatalyst shows a spectral response in visible-light region and the calculated band gap is 2.59 eV. The photocatalytic performance of this material was evaluated by degradation and mineralization of an aqueous dye methylene blue under visible-light irradiation, and an enhanced photocatalytic activity in comparison with protonated titanate as well as the P25 TiO 2 and N-doped TiO 2 was obtained. Additionally, the layered structure is retained, no dye ions intercalating occurs during the photocatalysis process, and a ∼90% photocatalytic activity can be remained after reusing 3 cycles. - Graphical abstract: Mn-intercalated layered titanate as a novel and efficient visible-light harvesting photocatalyst was synthesized via a convenient and efficient exfoliation–flocculation approach in a mild condition. Highlights: ► Mn-intercalated titanate has been prepared by exfoliation–flocculation approach. ► The as-prepared catalyst shows spectral response in the visible-light region. ► Heat treatment at certain temperature enables formation of Mn-doped TiO 2 . ► Dye can be degradated effectively by the catalyst under visible light irradiation.

  12. Effects of microplastics on sessile invertebrates in the eastern coast of Thailand: An approach to coastal zone conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Senevirathna, Jayan Duminda Mahesh; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne; Chavanich, Suchana

    2017-11-15

    This study assessed the microplastic contamination of 3 most abundant sessile and intertidal invertebrates (Rock Oyster: Saccostrea forskalii, Striped Barnacle: Balanus amphitrite, Periwinkle: Littoraria sp.) in 3 beaches of the eastern coasts of Thailand. The results showed a significant accumulation of microplastics in the invertebrates at rates of 0.2-0.6 counts/g indicating higher pollution levels along the coastline. Filter feeding organisms showed comparatively higher accumulation rates of microplastics. Thus, contaminated bivalves pose potential health risks for seafood consumers. The plastic pollutant prevalence in sessile and intertidal communities was corresponded with pollution characteristics of contaminated beach habitats where they live. Thus, bivalves, gastropods and barnacles can be used as indicators for contamination of microplastics in the areas. This study also demonstrated the need for controlling plastic pollution in Thai coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual measurement of the evaporation process of a sessile droplet by dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhong, Liyun; Luo, Chunshu; Niu, Wenhu; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2015-07-16

    To perform the visual measurement of the evaporation process of a sessile droplet, a dual-channel simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry (DCSPSI) method is proposed. Based on polarization components to simultaneously generate a pair of orthogonal interferograms with the phase shifts of π/2, the real-time phase of a dynamic process can be retrieved with two-step phase-shifting algorithm. Using this proposed DCSPSI system, the transient mass (TM) of the evaporation process of a sessile droplet with different initial mass were presented through measuring the real-time 3D shape of a droplet. Moreover, the mass flux density (MFD) of the evaporating droplet and its regional distribution were also calculated and analyzed. The experimental results show that the proposed DCSPSI will supply a visual, accurate, noncontact, nondestructive, global tool for the real-time multi-parameter measurement of the droplet evaporation.

  14. Endoscopic mucosal resection of flat and sessile colorectal adenomas: Our experience with long-term follow-ups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grgov Saša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR or mucosectomy is a removing method of flat or sessile lesions, laterally spreading tumors and carcinoma of the colon or the rectum limited to mucosa or the surface part of the submucosa. The aim of the study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of EMR in removing flat and sessile colorectal adenomas. Methods. This prospective study involved 140 patients during the period of 8 years. A total of 187 colorectal adenomas were removed using the EMR method “inject and cut with snare”. Results. The approximate size of mucosectomised adenomas was 13.6 mm (from 8 mm to 60 mm. There was a total of 48 (25.7% flat adenomas and 139 (74.3% sessile adenomas, (p < 0.01. Using “en bloc” and “piecemeal” resection, 173 (92.5% and 14 (7.5% of colorectal adenomas were removed, respectively. In all the cases, a complete removal of colorectal adenomas was achieved. Two (1.4% patients had adenoma removal with intramucosal carcinoma each. In the average follow-up period of 21.2 ± 17.8 months, 2 (1.4% patients had adenoma relapse after EMR. Considering complications, there was bleeding in 1 (0.7% patient with a big rectum adenoma removed with EMR. Furthermore, one (0.7% patient had a postcoagulation syndrome after cecal adenoma was removed by EMR. Conclusion. EMR is an efficient, safe and minimally invasive technique of removing flat and sessile adenomas in the colon and the rectum, with a very low percentage of adenoma recurrence over a long period of monitoring.

  15. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondino, Clara; Torre, Luciana; Sahade, Ricardo Jose; Tatian, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verr...

  16. Hyper-Methylated Loci Persisting from Sessile Serrated Polyps to Serrated Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Angeline S; Baron, John A; Butterly, Lynn F; Suriawinata, Arief A; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Robinson, Christina M; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-03-02

    Although serrated polyps were historically considered to pose little risk, it is now understood that progression down the serrated pathway could account for as many as 15%-35% of colorectal cancers. The sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is the most prevalent pre-invasive serrated lesion. Our objective was to identify the CpG loci that are persistently hyper-methylated during serrated carcinogenesis, from the early SSA/P lesion through the later cancer phases of neoplasia development. We queried the loci hyper-methylated in serrated cancers within our rightsided SSA/Ps from the New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry, using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k panel to comprehensively assess the DNA methylation status. We identified CpG loci and regions consistently hyper-methylated throughout the serrated carcinogenesis spectrum, in both our SSA/P specimens and in serrated cancers. Hyper-methylated CpG loci included the known the tumor suppressor gene RET (p = 5.72 x 10-10), as well as loci in differentially methylated regions for GSG1L, MIR4493, NTNG1, MCIDAS, ZNF568, and RERG. The hyper-methylated loci that we identified help characterize the biology of SSA/P development, and could be useful as therapeutic targets, or for future identification of patients who may benefit from shorter surveillance intervals.

  17. Density of liquid NiCoAlCr quarternary alloys measured by modified sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHANG Shu-fang; XIAO Feng; YANG Ling-chuan; DONG Jian-xin; CAO Chun-lan; TAO Zai-nan; K. MUKAI

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni to Co to Al (x(Ni)-x(Co)-x(Al)≈73-12-15) which is close to the average value of the commercial Ni-based superalloys TMS75, INCO713, CM247LC and CMSX-4, and the mass fraction of chromium changes from 0 to 9% were measured by a modified sessile drop method. It is found that with increasing temperature and chromium concentration in the alloys, the densities of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys decrease, whereas the molar volume of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys increases. And the liquid densities of NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, cobalt, aluminum and chromium in the corresponding Ni-bases binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental ones, i.e. within the error tolerance range the densities of the liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state. The molar volume of liquid NiCoAlCr binary alloy shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing and the deviation changes small with the increase of chromium concentration at the same temperature.

  18. Effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with biocides on planktonic and sessile Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Natacha Caballero; Abriouel, Hikmate; Grande, M A José; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes strains in planktonic and sessile states, singly or in combination with biocides benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium bromide, triclosan, poly-(hexamethylen guanidinium) hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, hexachlorophene, and the commercial sanitizers P3 oxonia and P3 topax 66. Combinations of sub-inhibitory bacteriocin concentrations and biocide concentrations 4 to 10-fold lower than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) completely inhibited growth of the planktonic listeriae. Inactivation of Listeria in biofilms formed on polystyrene microtiter plates required concentrations of enterocin AS-48 greater than 50 μg/ml, and biocide concentrations ten to 100-fold higher. In combination with enterocin AS-48 (25 or 50 μg/ml), microbial inactivation increased remarkably for all biocides except P3 oxonia and P3 topax 66 solutions. Polystyrene microtiter plates conditioned with enterocin solutions (0.5-25 μg/ml) decreased the adherence and biofilm formation of the L. monocytogenes cell cocktail, avoiding biofilm formation for at least 24 h at a bacteriocin concentration of 25 μg/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R N

    2000-06-22

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self-recognition: water conditioned by a separate subcolony of the same genetic individual does not prompt oocyte growth. In each species, allosperm move from the surrounding water to the ovary and are then stored in close association with the growing oocytes. We concluded that sperm themselves are the water-borne factor that triggers the major phase of female reproductive investment. This mechanism is, to our knowledge, previously undescribed in animals, but has parallels with the initiation of maternal investment in flowering plants following the receipt of compatible pollen. The species studied may be representative of many other aquatic invertebrates which mate in a similar way. The stimulation of egg growth by allosperm could lead to intersexual conflict during oogenesis.

  20. Surfactant-adsorption-induced initial depinning behavior in evaporating water and nanofluid sessile droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Duan, Fei

    2015-05-19

    A surfactant-induced autophobic effect has been observed to initiate an intense depinning behavior at the initial stage of evaporation in both pure water and nanofluid sessile droplets. The cationic surfactant adsorbing to the negatively charged silicon wafer makes the solid surface more hydrophobic. The autophobing-induced depinning behavior, leading to an enlarged contact angle and a shortened base diameter, takes place only when the surfactant concentration is below its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The initial spreading degree right before the droplet retraction, the retracting velocity of the contact line, and the duration of the initial droplet retraction are shown to depend negatively on the surfactant concentration below the cmc. An unexpected enhancement in the initial depinning has been found in the nanofluid droplets, possibly resulting from the hydrophilic interplay between the graphite nanoparticle deposition and the surfactant molecules. Such promotion of the initial depinning due to the nanoparticle deposition makes the droplet retract even at a surfactant concentration higher than the cmc (1.5 cmc). The resulting deposition formed in the presence of the depinning behavior has great enhancement for coffee-ring formation as compared to the one free of surfactant, implying that the formation of a coffee ring does not require the pinning of the contact line during the entire drying process.

  1. Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris

    2017-11-01

    The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.

  2. Modelling the competition of planktonic and sessile aerobic heterotrophs for complementary nutrients in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T; Saikaly, P E; Oerther, D B

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive, simplified microbial biofilm model was developed to evaluate the impact of bioreactor operating parameters on changes in microbial population abundance. Biofilm simulations were conducted using three special cases: fully penetrated, internal mass transfer resistance and external mass transfer resistance. The results of model simulations showed that for certain operating conditions, competition for growth limiting nutrients generated oscillations in the abundance of planktonic and sessile microbial populations. These oscillations resulted in the violation of the competitive exclusion principle where the number of microbial populations was greater than the number of growth limiting nutrients. However, the operating conditions which impacted microbial community diversity were different for the three special cases. Comparing the results of model simulations for dispersed-growth, biofilms and bioflocs showed that oscillations and microbial community diversity were a function of competition as well as other key features of the ecosystem. The significance of the current study is that it is the first to examine competition as a mechanism for controlling microbial community diversity in biofilm reactors.

  3. Heat and mass transfer boundary conditions at the surface of a heated sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Anna-Lena; Lundström, T. Staffan

    2017-12-01

    This work numerically investigates how the boundary conditions of a heated sessile water droplet should be defined in order to include effects of both ambient and internal flow. Significance of water vapor, Marangoni convection, separate simulations of the external and internal flow, and influence of contact angle throughout drying is studied. The quasi-steady simulations are carried out with Computational Fluid Dynamics and conduction, natural convection and Marangoni convection are accounted for inside the droplet. For the studied conditions, a noticeable effect of buoyancy due to evaporation is observed. Hence, the inclusion of moisture increases the maximum velocities in the external flow. Marangoni convection will, in its turn, increase the velocity within the droplet with up to three orders of magnitude. Results furthermore show that the internal and ambient flow can be simulated separately for the conditions studied, and the accuracy is improved if the internal temperature gradient is low, e.g. if Marangoni convection is present. Simultaneous simulations of the domains are however preferred at high plate temperatures if both internal and external flows are dominated by buoyancy and natural convection. The importance of a spatially resolved heat and mass transfer boundary condition is, in its turn, increased if the internal velocity is small or if there is a large variation of the transfer coefficients at the surface. Finally, the results indicate that when the internal convective heat transport is small, a rather constant evaporation rate may be obtained throughout the drying at certain conditions.

  4. Transparent arrays of silver nanowire rings driven by evaporation of sessile droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Kang, Giho; Seong, Baekhoon; Chae, Illkyeong; Teguh Yudistira, Hadi; Lee, Hyungdong; Kim, Hyunggun; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-11-01

    A coffee-ring pattern can be yielded on the three-phase contact line following evaporation of sessile droplets with suspended insoluble solutes, such as particles, DNA molecules, and mammalian cells. The formation of such coffee-ring, together with their suppression has been applied in printing and coating technologies. We present here an experimental study on the assembly of silver nanowires inside an evaporating droplet of a colloidal suspension. The effects of nanowire length and concentration on coffee-ring formation of the colloidal suspension were investigated. Several sizes of NWs with an aspect ratio between 50 and 1000 were systematically investigated to fabricate coffee-ring patterns. Larger droplets containing shorter nanowires formed clearer ring deposits after evaporation. An order-to-disorder transition of the nanowires’ alignment was found inside the rings. A printing technique with the evaporation process enabled fabrication of arrays of silver nanowire rings. We could manipulate the patterns silver nanowire rings, which might be applied to the transparent and flexible electrode.

  5. Transparent arrays of silver nanowire rings driven by evaporation of sessile droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Kang, Giho; Seong, Baekhoon; Chae, Illkyeong; Yudistira, Hadi Teguh; Lee, Hyungdong; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Hyunggun

    2017-01-01

    A coffee-ring pattern can be yielded on the three-phase contact line following evaporation of sessile droplets with suspended insoluble solutes, such as particles, DNA molecules, and mammalian cells. The formation of such coffee-ring, together with their suppression has been applied in printing and coating technologies. We present here an experimental study on the assembly of silver nanowires inside an evaporating droplet of a colloidal suspension. The effects of nanowire length and concentration on coffee-ring formation of the colloidal suspension were investigated. Several sizes of NWs with an aspect ratio between 50 and 1000 were systematically investigated to fabricate coffee-ring patterns. Larger droplets containing shorter nanowires formed clearer ring deposits after evaporation. An order-to-disorder transition of the nanowires’ alignment was found inside the rings. A printing technique with the evaporation process enabled fabrication of arrays of silver nanowire rings. We could manipulate the patterns silver nanowire rings, which might be applied to the transparent and flexible electrode. (paper)

  6. Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Associated with Adjacent Sessile Serrated Lesion of the Appendix Vermiform: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kinoshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition of sessile serrated lesion (SSL of colon is controversial and the risk of progression to malignancy is also under investigation at present, SSL is generally described as a polyp characterized by a serrated architecture. It is estimated to represent a feature of a new cancerization pathway, coined “serrated neoplasia pathway,” particularly in right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, in appendix, the role of this pathway remains uncertain, probably because very few cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma associated with SSL were reported, and furthermore, immunohistochemical examination was rarely carried out. We herein report an interesting case of invasive appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibiting SSL, which was pathologically estimated as a potential precursor lesion, and performed representative immunohistochemistry for both the mucinous adenocarcinoma and SSL in the same specimen. To further elucidate the progression of the appendiceal carcinoma from SSL, both an adequate sectioning of the lesion and systematic immunohistochemical examination of a large number of appendiceal carcinoma cases containing adjacent SSL would be required.

  7. Automatable lipid bilayer formation and ion channel measurement using sessile droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, J L [Librede Inc., Sherman Oaks, CA (United States); Portonovo, S A; Schmidt, J J [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States); Bang, H, E-mail: schmidt@seas.ucla.ed [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-17

    Artificial lipid bilayer membranes have been used to reconstitute ion channels for scientific and technological applications. Membrane formation has traditionally involved slow, labor intensive processes best suited to small scale laboratory experimentation. We have recently demonstrated a high throughput method of membrane formation using automated liquid-handling robotics. We describe here the integration of membrane formation and measurement with two methods compatible with automation and high throughput liquid-handling robotics. Both of these methods create artificial lipid bilayers by joining lipid monolayers self-assembled at the interface of aqueous and organic phases using sessile aqueous droplets in contact with a measurement electrode; one using a pin tool, commonly employed in high throughput fluid handling assays, and the other using a positive displacement pipette. Membranes formed with both methods were high quality and supported measurement of ion channels at the single molecule level. Full automation of bilayer production and measurement with the positive displacement pipette was demonstrated by integrating it with a motion control platform.

  8. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isela Serrano-Fujarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%, C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%, while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  9. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma. Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient. PMID:25705688

  10. The novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 shows in vitro activity against sessile and planktonic Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Gómez-Perosanz, Marta; Escribano, Pilar; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    We studied the antifungal activity of SCY-078 (an orally bioavailable 1,3-β -d- glucan synthesis inhibitor), micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic and sessile forms of 178 Candida and non- Candida isolates causing fungaemia in patients recently admitted to a large European hospital. The in vitro activity of SCY-078, micafungin and fluconazole against the planktonic form of the isolates was assessed using EUCAST EDef 7.3 and CLSI M27-A3. Antibiofilm activity was assessed using the XTT reduction assay. SCY-078 and micafungin showed potent in vitro activity against Candida and non- Candida isolates. The in vitro activity of both drugs was similar, but SYC-078 displayed significantly lower MIC values than micafungin against Candida parapsilosis and non- Candida isolates, whereas micafungin displayed significantly lower MIC values for the remaining species ( P  Candida glabrata , in which the micafungin sessile MIC values were significantly lower ( P  Candida isolates in both sessile and planktonic forms is comparable to that of micafungin. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient.

  12. Environmental impact of a flocculant used to enhance solids transport during well bore clean-up operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, M.N.M.; Procyk, A.D.; Malbrel, C.A.; Ling, K.L.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates particle flocculation as a mechanism to remove residual contaminants in well bores during completion operations. Laboratory tests and field trials were conducted demonstrating the ability of flocculating polymer sweeps to improve well bore cleaning efficiency. This process reduces the volume of fluid accumulated in the well bore that is discharged to the environment and minimizes the risk of formation damage by residuals left in the well bore. In addition, a comprehensive environmental impact study was performed on the flocculating polymers which included 72 hrs-EC50, 48 hrs-LC50, 10 day- LC50 tests on a variety of marine organisms, and bioaccumulation and biodegradability tests. In all cases, the flocculating polymers were shown to be environmentally safe at the recommended concentrations

  13. Flocculation alters the distribution and flux of melt-water supplied sediments and nutrients in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thor Nygaard; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge

    In the Arctic, thawing permafrost and increased melting of glaciers are important drivers for changes in fine-grained sediment supply and biogeochemical fluxes from land to sea. Flocculation of particles is a controlling factor for the magnitude of fluxes and deposition rates in the marine...... environment but comparatively little is known about the flocculation processes in the Arctic. We investigated flocculation dynamics from a melt-water river in the inner Disko Fjord, West Greenland. A novel, laser-illuminated camera system significantly improved the particle size measurement capabilities...... and settling tubes were sampled to enable sub-sampling of different floc size fractions. Flocculation was observed during periods with low turbulent shear and also at the front of the fresh water plume resulting in significant volumes of large sized flocs at depth below the plume. The floc sizes and volumes...

  14. Effect of mineral nutrients on cell growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis for the production of a biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P G; Silva, H J

    2007-02-01

    The influence of mineral nutrients on the growth and self-flocculation of Tolypothrix tenuis was studied. The identification of possible limiting nutrients in the culture medium was performed by the biomass elemental composition approach. A factorial experimental design was used in order to estimate the contribution of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as their interactions. Iron was identified to be limiting in the culture medium. The micronutrients influenced mainly cellular growth without effects on self-flocculation. Conversely, the self-flocculation capacity of the biomass increased at higher concentrations of macronutrients. The optimization of mineral nutrition of T. tenuis allowed a 73% increase in the final biomass level and 3.5 times higher flocculation rates.

  15. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    López-Maldonado, Eduardo Alberto; Oropeza-Guzmán, Mercedes Teresita; Ochoa-Terán, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration) through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a k...

  16. [The toxic and hygienic characteristics of the new synthetic organic flocculants AES-5, AES-7 and AES-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Nekrasova, L S; Mudryĭ, I V

    2000-03-01

    A toxicological and hygienic characterization is submitted of novel synthetic organic flocculant AEC-5, AEC-7, AEC-10 which are low-toxicity substances and are classified under the fourth class of hazards. They have no skin-resorptive, locally irritative action and are endowed with a weak cumulative activity of functional character. The AEC-5 flocculant exerts a moderately manifest sensitizing effect in the dermal route of entry.

  17. Effects of flocculants on lipid extraction and fatty acid composition of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Lucelia; Moron-Villarreyes, Joaquin A.; D'Oca, Marcelo G. Montes; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interference of anionic and cationic flocculants in the lipid extraction and fatty acid profiles of two species of marine microalgae: Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. Cells were grown in batch cultures (f/2 medium, salinity of 28, temperature of 20 o C, light intensity of 40 μmol photons m -2 s -1 and 12/12 h L/D photoperiod) and concentrated using sodium hydroxide (control), sodium hydroxide and the anionic polyacrylamide flocculant Magnafloc ® LT-25 (APF treatment) and sodium hydroxide plus the cationic polyacrylamide flocculant Flopam ® (CPF treatment). There were no statistically significant differences among treatments with respect to lipid extraction for both species. However, N. oculata which presented higher percentages of C16:0, C16:1 and C20:5 fatty acids showed an increase of C14:0 and a decrease of C20:5 with the use of anionic flocculant. Additionally, T. weissflogii which had high percentages of C16:0, C16:1, C16:3 and C20:5, showed a decrease of C18:0 and C18:1n9c when both flocculants were used and a small decrease of C16:0 in the APF treatment. The results indicate that the choice of flocculant should be based on the level of saturation desirable, i.e., if the goal is to produce more stable biodiesel, with low percentage unsaturated fatty acids, then anionic flocculants should be used. On the other hand, if the aim is to produce unsaturated fatty acids for commercial uses in the pharmacy or food industries, then anionic polymers should be avoided. -- Highlights: → Interference of flocculants on biochemical of two marine microalgae. → Lipids extraction and fatty acids profile from Nannochloropsis oculata and Thalassiosira weissflogii. → No differences in the lipids but some differences on fatty acids profile.

  18. Effect of viscosity, basicity and organic content of composite flocculant on the decolorization performance and mechanism for reactive dyeing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanfang Wang; Baoyu Gao; Qinyan Yue; Yah Wang

    2011-01-01

    A coagulation/flocculation process using the composite floceulant polyaluminum chloride-epichlorohydrin dimethylamine (PAC-EPI-DMA) was employed for the treatment of an anionic azo dye (Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP dye).The effect of viscosity (η),basicity (B =[OH]/[Al]) and organic content (Wp) on the flocculation performance as well as the mechanism of PAC-EPI-DMA flocculant were investigated.The η was the key factor affecting the dye removal efficiency of PAC-EPI-DMA.PAC-EPI-DMA with an intermediate η (2400 mPa-sec) gave higher decolorization efficiency by adsorption bridging and charge neutralization due to the co-effect of PAC and EPI-DMA polymers.The Wp of the composite flocculant was a minor important factor for the flocculation.The adsorption bridging of PAC-EPI-DMA with η of 300 or 4300 mPa.sec played an important role with the increase of Wp,whereasthe charge neutralization of them was weaker with the increase of Wp.There was interaction between Wp and B on the removal of reactive dye.The composite flocculant with intermediate viscosity and organic content was effective for the treatment of reactive dyeing wastewater,which could achieve high reactive dye removal efficiency with low organic dosage.

  19. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., LTD, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v{sup -1}) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1}, a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 {+-} 0.13 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 94.2 {+-} 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  20. Bioethanol production by a flocculent hybrid, CHFY0321 obtained by protoplast fusion between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Um, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Yule; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Fusion hybrid yeast, CHFY0321, was obtained by protoplast fusion between non-flocculent-high ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHY1011 and flocculent-low ethanol fermentative Saccharomyces bayanus KCCM12633. The hybrid yeast was used together with the parental strains to examine ethanol production in batch fermentation. Under the conditions tested, the fusion hybrid CHFY0321 flocculated to the highest degree and had the capacity to ferment well at pH 4.5 and 32 o C. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using a cassava (Manihot esculenta) powder hydrolysate medium containing 19.5% (w v -1 ) total sugar in a 5 l lab scale jar fermenter at 32 o C for 65 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, CHFY0321 showed the highest flocculating ability and the best fermentation efficiency for ethanol production compared with those of the wild-type parent strains. CHFY0321 gave a final ethanol concentration of 89.8 ± 0.13 g l -1 , a volumetric ethanol productivity of 1.38 ± 0.13 g l -1 h -1 , and a theoretical yield of 94.2 ± 1.58%. These results suggest that CHFY0321 exhibited the fermentation characteristics of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and the flocculent ability of S. bayanus KCCM12633. Therefore, the strong highly flocculent ethanol fermentative CHFY0321 has potential for improving biotechnological ethanol fermentation processes.

  1. Impulsive control of a continuous-culture and flocculation harvest chemostat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongqian; Ma, Wanbiao; Meng, Xinzhu

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new mathematical model describing the process of continuous culture and harvest of microalgaes is proposed. By inputting medium and flocculant at two different fixed moments periodically, continuous culture and harvest of microalgaes is implemented. The mathematical analysis is conducted and the whole dynamics of model is investigated by using theory of impulsive differential equations. We find that the model has a microalgaes-extinction periodic solution and it is globally asymptotically stable when some certain threshold value is less than the unit. And the model is permanent when some certain threshold value is larger than the unit. Then, according to the threshold, the control strategies of continuous culture and harvest of microalgaes are discussed. The results show that continuous culture and harvest of microalgaes can be archived by adjusting suitable input time, input amount of medium or flocculant. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the control strategy.

  2. A mathematical model for batch and continuous thickening of flocculent suspensions in vessels with varying section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, R.; Damasceno, J.J.R.; Karlesen, K.H.

    2001-10-01

    The phenomenological theory of continuous thickening of flocculated suspensions in an ideal cylindrical thickener is extended to vessels having varying cross-section, including divergent or convergent conical vessels. The purpose of this contribution is to draw attention to the corresponding mathematical model, whose key ingredient is a strongly degenerate parabolic partial differential equation. For ideal (non-flocculated) suspensions, which do not form co compressible sediments, the mathematical model reduces to the kinematic approach by Anestis, who developed a method of construction of exact solution by the method of characteristics. The difficulty lies in the fact that characteristics and iso-concentration lines, unlike the conventional Kynch model for cylindrical vessels, do not coincide, and one has to resort to numerical methods to simulate the thickening process. A numerical algorithm is presented and employed for simulations of continuous thickening. Implications of the mathematical model are also demonstrated by steady-state calculations, which lead to new possibilities in thickener design. (author)

  3. Increase of ethanol productivity by cell-recycle fermentation of flocculating yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Xie, T; Hui, M

    2011-01-01

    Using the recombinant flocculating Angel yeast F6, long-term repeated batch fermentation for ethanol production was performed and a high volumetric productivity resulted from half cells not washed and the optimum opportunity of residual glucose 20 g l(-1) of last medium. The obtained highest productivity was 2.07 g l-(1) h(-1), which was improved by 75.4% compared with that of 1.18 g l(-1) h(-1) in the first batch fermentation. The ethanol concentration reached 8.4% corresponding to the yield of 0.46 g g(-1). These results will contribute greatly to the industrial production of fuel ethanol using the commercial method with the flocculating yeast.

  4. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  5. Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-30

    Among other natural flocculant/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin-Fowler-Guggenheim (FFG) and Gu-Zhu (GZ) models were used to adjust experimental data in a solid-liquid adsorption hypothesis. Last one resulted to be the most accurate one. Several data fit parameters were determined, as Freundlich order, which was found to be 1.66, Flory-Huggins interaction parameter from FFG model, which was found to be 4.87; and limiting Moringa surfactant adsorption capacity from GZ model, which was found to be 2.13 x 10(-3)mol/g.

  6. Study and simulation of the resistance of floccules to shear breakage in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touron, E.

    1995-01-01

    In France, spent fuels are in most cases reprocessed. The aim of the reprocessing is to separate the recyclable fissile materials (uranium, plutonium for instance) of radioactive wastes. The industrial process used until now is the Purex (Plutonium Uranium Refining by EXtraction) process. The two main first steps of this process are nowadays industrially completely controlled. Nevertheless, it exists several secondary operations which can interfere with the good unfolding of this process main steps as for instance, the clarification of the dissolution liquors. The aim of this work is then to improve particularly the separation efficiency between small particles and the associated dissolution liquors. The experimental study of the flow inside the rotor shows complex hydrodynamics arising from turbulence and secondary flows. This turbulent flow is likely to be capable of re-suspending small and flow density particles. The use of flocculants is a way of improving separation efficiencies. In gravity sedimentation, flocculants are frequently used to improve settling of fine particles, by causing them to aggregate behaving as if they were larger. Under slight turbulence, the flocs, which may be fragile, remain intact. In centrifugal sedimentation, shear rates are high and may result in complete floc breakup. Choice of the correct flocculant, proper dosage and right conditioning time result in strong, compact flocs so that flocculants can be used successfully. A diminution of the centrifugal shield from nominal conditions results in a diminution of shear breakage (in the feed zone) so that a total recover of solids may be obtained.(author). 122 refs., 95 figs., 28 tabs

  7. Ecotoxicological assessment of flocculant modified soil for lake restoration using an integrated biotic toxicity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Honggang; Pan, Gang

    2016-06-15

    Flocculant modified soils/clays are being increasingly studied as geo-engineering materials for lake restoration and harmful algal bloom control. However, the potential impacts of adding these materials in aquatic ecological systems remain unclear. This study investigated the potential effects of chitosan, cationic starch, chitosan modified soils (MS-C) and cationic starch modified soils (MS-S) on the aquatic organisms by using a bioassay battery. The toxicity potential of these four flocculants was quantitatively assessed using an integrated biotic toxicity index (BTI). The test system includes four aquatic species, namely Chlorella vulgaris, Daphnia magna, Cyprinus carpio and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, which represent four trophic levels in the freshwater ecosystem. Results showed that median effect concentrations (EC50) of the MS-C and MS-S were 31-124 times higher than chitosan and cationic starch, respectively. D. magna was the most sensitive species to the four flocculants. Histological examination of C. carpio showed that significant pathological changes were found in gills. Different from chitosan and cationic starch, MS-C and MS-S significantly alleviated the acute toxicities of chitosan and cationic starch. The toxicity order of the four flocculants based on BTI were cationic starch > chitosan > MS-S > MS-C. The results suggested that BTI can be used as a quantitative and comparable indicator to assess biotic toxicity for aquatic geo-engineering materials. Chitosan or cationic starch modified soil/clay materials can be used at their optimal dosage without causing substantial adverse effects to the bioassay battery in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Colorimetric Analysis on Flocculation of Bioinspired Au Self-Assembly for Biophotonic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Joong Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles exhibited strong surface plasmon absorption and couplings between neighboring particles within bioactivated self-assembly modified their optical properties. Colorimetric analysis on the optical modification of surface plasmon resoanance (SPR shift and flocculation parameter functionalized bioinspired gold assembly for biophotonic application. The physical origin of bioinspired gold aggregation-induced shifting, decreasing, or broadening of the plasmon absorption spectra could be explained in terms of dynamic depolarization, collisional damping, and shadowing effects.

  9. Study on Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Electrochemical, Flocculation and Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Jin, Xiuping; Pan, Yunbo; Zuo, Xiaoran

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the landfill leachate of different seasons in Liaoyang City is as the research object, and COD removal rate is as the main indicator. The electrochemical section’s results show that the optimal treatment conditions for the water of 2016 summer are as follows: voltage is 7.0V, current density is 40.21 A/m2, pH is equal to the raw water, electrolysis time is 1h, and the COD removal rate is 80.41%. The optimal treatment conditions for the 2017 fall’s water are: electrolysis voltage is 7.0 V, current density is 45.06 A/m2, electrolysis time is 4 hours, and COD removal rate is 28.03%. The flow rate of continuous electrolysis is 6.4 L/h using the water of 2016 fall, and the COD removal rate is 10.28%. The results of the flocculation process show that the optimal treatment conditions are as follows: pH is equal to the raw water; the optimal flocculant species is Fe-Al composite flocculant, wherein the optimal ratio of Fe-Al is n (Fe):n (Al)=0.5:1; the best dosage of flocculant is 2.0 g/L and COD removal rate is of 21.11%. The results of photocatalytic show that the optimal conditions are: pH is 4.5, Al2(SO4)3 is 1.0 g/L, FeSO4.7H2O is 700mg/L, H2O2(30%) is 4 mL/L, stirring and standing UV lamp light irradiation 3 hours, and adjusting pH to 6.0 or so, COD removal rate is 36.15%. +

  10. Metabolic adaptations of Azospirillum brasilense to oxygen stress by cell-to-cell clumping and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber N; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai K; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Green, Calvin S; Mishra, Priyanka; Purcell, Alicia; Aksenova, Anastasia; Hurst, Gregory B; Alexandre, Gladys

    2015-12-01

    The ability of bacteria to monitor their metabolism and adjust their behavior accordingly is critical to maintain competitiveness in the environment. The motile microaerophilic bacterium Azospirillum brasilense navigates oxygen gradients by aerotaxis in order to locate low oxygen concentrations that can support metabolism. When cells are exposed to elevated levels of oxygen in their surroundings, motile A. brasilense cells implement an alternative response to aerotaxis and form transient clumps by cell-to-cell interactions. Clumping was suggested to represent a behavior protecting motile cells from transiently elevated levels of aeration. Using the proteomics of wild-type and mutant strains affected in the extent of their clumping abilities, we show that cell-to-cell clumping represents a metabolic scavenging strategy that likely prepares the cells for further metabolic stresses. Analysis of mutants affected in carbon or nitrogen metabolism confirmed this assumption. The metabolic changes experienced as clumping progresses prime cells for flocculation, a morphological and metabolic shift of cells triggered under elevated-aeration conditions and nitrogen limitation. The analysis of various mutants during clumping and flocculation characterized an ordered set of changes in cell envelope properties accompanying the metabolic changes. These data also identify clumping and early flocculation to be behaviors compatible with the expression of nitrogen fixation genes, despite the elevated-aeration conditions. Cell-to-cell clumping may thus license diazotrophy to microaerophilic A. brasilense cells under elevated oxygen conditions and prime them for long-term survival via flocculation if metabolic stress persists. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin-washing plant by flotation-flocculation method

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Barani; Masoud Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    The traditional processing of kaolin is achieved by dispersion of the mined ore and classification by multistage hydrocyclone plants. The inefficiencies inherent to cyclones produce a middling product that is commonly disposed back into the quarry. In this research, recovery of kaolinite from tailings of Zonouz kaolin washing plant, which is located in Iran was investigated by flotation and flotation- flocculation. Flotation experiments show that the flotation of kaolinite from the tailings i...

  12. Loss of expression and promoter methylation of SLIT2 are associated with sessile serrated adenoma formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Beggs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenomas form a distinct subtype of colorectal pre-malignant lesions that may progress to malignancy along a different molecular pathway than the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway. Previous studies have hypothesised that BRAF mutation and promoter hypermethylation plays a role, but the evidence for this is not robust. We aimed to carry out a whole-genome loss of heterozygosity analysis, followed by targeted promoter methylation and expression analysis to identify potential pathways in serrated adenomas. An initial panel of 9 sessile serrated adenomas (SSA and one TSA were analysed using Illumina Goldengate HumanLinkage panel arrays to ascertain regions of loss of heterozygosity. This was verified via molecular inversion probe analysis and microsatellite analysis of a further 32 samples. Methylation analysis of genes of interest was carried out using methylation specific PCR (verified by pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry used to correlate loss of expression of genes of interest. All experiments used adenoma samples and normal tissue samples as control. SSA samples were found on whole-genome analysis to have consistent loss of heterozygosity at 4p15.1-4p15.31, which was not found in the sole TSA, adenomas, or normal tissues. Genes of interest in this region were PDCH7 and SLIT2, and combined MSP/IHC analysis of these genes revealed significant loss of SLIT2 expression associated with promoter methylation of SLIT2. Loss of expression of SLIT2 by promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity events is significantly associated with serrated adenoma development, and SLIT2 may represent a epimutated tumour suppressor gene according to the Knudson "two hit" hypothesis.

  13. Chasing a changing climate: Reproductive and dispersal traits predict how sessile species respond to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    AimStudies of species' range shifts have become increasingly relevant for understanding ecology and biogeography in the face of accelerated global change. The combination of limited mobility and imperilled status places some species at a potentially greater risk of range loss, extirpation or extinction due to climate change. To assess the ability of organisms with limited movement and dispersal capabilities to track shifts associated with climate change, we evaluated reproductive and dispersal traits of freshwater mussels (Unionida), sessile invertebrates that require species‐specific fish for larval dispersal.LocationNorth American Atlantic Slope rivers.MethodsTo understand how unionid mussels may cope with and adapt to current and future warming trends, we identified mechanisms that facilitated their colonization of the northern Atlantic Slope river basins in North America after the Last Glacial Maximum. We compiled species occurrence and life history trait information for each of 55 species, and then selected life history traits for which ample data were available (larval brooding duration, host fish specificity, host infection strategy, and body size) and analysed whether the trait state for each was related to mussel distribution in Atlantic Slope rivers.ResultsBrooding duration (p  .10).Main conclusionsOur results are potentially applicable to many species for which life history traits have not been well‐documented, because reproductive and dispersal traits in unionid mussels typically follow phylogenetic relationships. These findings may help resource managers prioritize species according to climate change vulnerability and predict which species might become further imperilled with climate warming. Finally, we suggest that similar trait‐based decision support frameworks may be applicable for other movement limited taxa.

  14. Triple-line behavior and wettability controlled by nanocoated substrates: influence on sessile drop evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, B; Brutin, D

    2011-12-20

    In this article, we investigate the influence of the surface properties of substrates on the evaporation process. Using various nanocoatings, it is possible to modify the surface properties of substrates, such as the roughness and the surface energy, while maintaining constant thermal properties. Experiments are conducted under atmospheric conditions with five fluids (methanol, ethanol, propanol, toluene and water) and four coatings (PFC, PTFE, SiOC, and SiO(x)). The various combinations of these fluids and coatings allow for a wide range of drop evaporation properties to be studied: the dynamics of the triple line, the volatility of fluids, and a large range of wettabilities (from 17 to 135°). The experimental data are in very good quantitative agreement with existing models of quasi-steady, diffusion-driven evaporation. The experimental results show that the dynamics of the evaporative rate are proportional to the dynamics of the wetting radius. Thus, the models succeed in describing the evaporative dynamics throughout the evaporation process regardless of the behavior of the triple line. Moreover, the use of various liquids reveals the validity of the models regardless of their volatility. The results also confirm the recent finding of a universal relation for the time evolution of the drop mass, independent of the drop size and initial contact angle. Finally, this study highlights the separate and coupled roles of the triple line and the wettability on the sessile drop evaporation process. Data reveal that the more wet and pinned a drop, the shorter the evaporation time. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Source of temperature and pressure pulsations during sessile droplet evaporation into multicomponent atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Aaron H; Sefiane, Khellil; Ward, Charles A

    2013-10-29

    During sessile droplet evaporation, studies with IR thermography and shadowgraphs have indicated temperature pulsations. We confirm those observations with microthermocouples, but microthermocouples also indicate temperature pulsations in the atmosphere of the droplet. The pressure in this atmosphere pulsated as well and was correlated with the temperature pulsations in the droplet. Also, we find that if a droplet evaporates into its own vapor, there are no temperature or pressure pulsations. The pulsations occur only if the droplet evaporates into an atmosphere with a component having a heat of solution with the droplet when it adsorbs-absorbs. None of the currently proposed mechanisms for the temperature pulsations provide an explanation for the coupling between the temperature pulsations in the droplet and the vapor-phase pressure pulsations, and for the absence of the pulsations when the system is single-component. As a mechanism for the pulsations, we propose that when a droplet is exposed to an atmosphere containing a component that has a heat of solution with the droplet, energy will be released from adsorption-absorption. This energy will cause pulsations in the evaporation flux, and these pulsations could cause the observed temperature and pressure pulsations. We examine this mechanism by showing that, if the measured temperature pulsations in a water droplet exposed to a methanol atmosphere are used as the input to a theory of evaporation kinetics (statistical rate theory), the pressure pulsations of the water vapor in the methanol atmosphere are predicted and agree with those measured with a quadrupole mass analyzer. When the inputs and outputs are reversed in the theory, we find that the temperature pulsations in the droplet are correctly predicted from the measured water vapor pulsations in the atmosphere.

  16. Moonlight-like proteins of the cell wall protect sessile cells of Candida from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms of Candida species are associated with high morbidity and hospital mortality. Candida forms biofilms by adhering to human host epithelium through cell wall proteins (CWP) and simultaneously neutralizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during the respiratory burst by phagocytic cells. The purpose of this paper is to identify the CWP of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis expressed after exposure to different concentrations of H2O2 using a proteomic approach. CWP obtained from sessile cells, both treated and untreated with the oxidizing agent, were resolved by one and two-dimensional (2D-PAGE) gels and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Some of these proteins were identified and found to correspond to moonlighting CWP such as: (i) glycolytic enzymes, (ii) heat shock, (iii) OSR proteins, (iv) general metabolic enzymes and (v) highly conserved proteins, which are up- or down-regulated in the presence or absence of ROS. We also found that the expression of these CWP is different for each Candida species. Moreover, RT-PCR assays allowed us to demonstrate that transcription of the gene coding for Eno1, one of the moonlight-like CWP identified in response to the oxidant agent, is differentially regulated. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration that, in response to oxidative stress, each species of Candida, differentially regulates the expression of moonlighting CWP, which may protect the organism from the ROS generated during phagocytosis. Presumptively, these proteins allow the pathogen to adhere and form a biofilm, and eventually cause invasive candidiasis in the human host. We propose that, in addition to the antioxidant mechanisms present in Candida, the moonlighting CWP also confer protection to these pathogens from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical outcomes of surveillance colonoscopy for patients with sessile serrated adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Jae Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs are known to be precursors of colorectal cancer (CRC. The proper interval of follow-up colonoscopy for SSAs is still being debated. We sought to determine the proper interval of colonoscopy surveillance in patients diagnosed with SSAs in South Korea. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with SSAs who received 1 or more follow-up colonoscopies. The information reviewed included patient baseline characteristics, SSA characteristics, and colonoscopy information. Results: From January 2007 to December 2011, 152 SSAs and 8 synchronous adenocarcinomas were identified in 138 patients. The mean age of the patients was 62.2 years and 60.1% patients were men. SSAs were located in the right colon (i.e., from the cecum to the hepatic flexure in 68.4% patients. At the first follow-up, 27 SSAs were identified in 138 patients (right colon, 66.7%. At the second follow-up, 6 SSAs were identified in 65 patients (right colon, 66.7%. At the 3rd and 4th follow-up, 21 and 11 patients underwent colonoscopy, respectively, and no SSAs were detected. The total mean follow-up duration was 33.9 months. The mean size of SSAs was 8.1±5.0 mm. SSAs were most commonly found in the right colon (126/185, 68.1%. During annual follow-up colonoscopy surveillance, no cancer was detected. Conclusions: Annual colonoscopy surveillance is not necessary for identifying new CRCs in all patients diagnosed with SSAs. In addition, the right colon should be examined more carefully because SSAs occur more frequently in the right colon during initial and follow-up colonoscopies.

  18. Polyacrylamide-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Xinfang [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Tao, Junshi; Li, Mingzhi; Zhu, Bishan; Li, Xuan; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhao, Tingjie; Wang, Bingzhu; Suo, Biao [Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Haiwang, E-mail: whwdbdx@126.com [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Ye, Li, E-mail: yeli@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Xiwei, E-mail: qxw@mail.neuq.edu.cn [Materials and Metallurgical College, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Hebei Provincial Laboratory for Dielectric and Electrolyte Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid materials are of great potential as flocculants in soil-liquid separation. Herein, we reported the design of inorganic soil-TiO{sub 2}-PAM hybrid materials using a unique process, which involved coating of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles on the surface of inorganic soils and subsequent polymerization of acrylamide (AM) on these nanoparticles under visible light. Inorganic soils including kaolin, bentonite, montmorillonite and diatomaceous earth were used to control the volume and to reduce the cost, and the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles accelerated PAM degradation. The nanoparticles initiated AM polymerization directly under visible light, thus providing a facile strategy for the synthesis of new organic-inorganic hybrid flocculants. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The degradation of PAM initiated by UV irradiation exceeded 24% in 2 h, depending on its initial concentration. - Highlights: • A new polyacrylamide (PAM)-based inorganic hybrid flocculants with self-degradable property was developed. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles show a unique surface-initiated property under the condition of visible light. • We designed a facile strategy for the synthesis of inorganic soil@TiO{sub 2}@PAM hybrid materials.

  19. On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.

  20. Upgrading secondary wastewater plant effluent by modified coagulation and flocculation, for water reuse in irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the feasibility of using coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation (CF-S for advanced treatment of secondary effluent released from the Yazd Intermittent Cycle Extended Aeration System was investigated. Four coagulants including ferric chloride (FeCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PAC, ferrous sulfate (FeSo4, and potassium ferrate (K2FeSo4 along with Gflog C-150 as flocculant polymer were used. In this study, returned chemical sludge was considered as a modification. Preliminary CF-S processes showed that FeSO4 and K2FeO4 had low removal efficiencies. Thus, these two coagulants were abandoned and CF-S processes were continued only with PAC and FeCl3 coagulants which had higher efficiencies in the removal of biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, and turbidity. Removal efficiency was higher when half of the chemical producing sludge was returned as compared with using both coagulants simultaneously along with 2 mg L−1 of C-150 as flocculant. In the optimum dosage, when half of PAC and FeCl3 sludge were returned, the volume of produced sludge was reduced by 40% and 28%, respectively, as compared without returned sludge. For the PAC coagulant in the optimum dosage with half of the sludge returned, all 2012 EPA standards of irrigation were met for both ‘processed and non-processed type’ agricultural crops.

  1. Lipid engineering reveals regulatory roles for membrane fluidity in yeast flocculation and oxygen-limited growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degreif, Daniel [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany); de Rond, Tristan [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bertl, Adam [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany); Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Budin, Itay [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-18

    Cells modulate lipid metabolism in order to maintain membrane homeostasis. In this paper, we use a metabolic engineering approach to manipulate the stoichiometry of fatty acid unsaturation, a regulator of cell membrane fluidity, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unexpectedly, reduced lipid unsaturation triggered cell-cell adhesion (flocculation), a phenomenon characteristic of industrial yeast but uncommon in laboratory strains. We find that ER lipid saturation sensors induce expression of FLO1 – encoding a cell wall polysaccharide binding protein – independently of its canonical regulator. In wild-type cells, Flo1p-dependent flocculation occurs under oxygen-limited growth, which reduces unsaturated lipid synthesis and thus serves as the environmental trigger for flocculation. Transcriptional analysis shows that FLO1 is one of the most highly induced genes in response to changes in lipid unsaturation, and that the set of membrane fluidity-sensitive genes is globally activated as part of the cell's long-term response to hypoxia during fermentation. Finally, our results show how the lipid homeostasis machinery of budding yeast is adapted to carry out a broad response to an environmental stimulus important in biotechnology.

  2. A novel acrylamide-free flocculant and its application for sludge dewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lianghua; Pan, Zhida; Hao, Nan; Peng, Wenqing

    2014-06-15

    In the present research, copolymers of methyl acrylate (MA) with anionic or cationic monomers were synthesized via emulsion polymerization, and used as sludge dewatering aids in wastewater treatment. The copolymerization of different stoichiometry of two monomers afforded a variety of water soluble copolymers with charge densities ranging from 40% to 80%, which align with the charge density of current flocculant products. These copolymers resemble current commercial products, but provide a greener solution by eliminating acrylamide monomer, which is a suspected carcinogen. High molecular weight copolymers were achieved by applying powder-like synthesis process with intrinsic viscosity of final products as high as 12.98 dl/g for anionic flocculant and 10.74 dl/g for cationic flocculant. The copolymers of methyl acrylate and [2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (AETAC) with 55% charge density exhibited comparable performance in clay settling test, real water jar test, and sludge dewatering, when compared to AM-based commercial product in the real wastewater treatment application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Winnowing and Flocculation in Bio-physical Cohesive Substrate: A Flume Experimental and Estuarine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L.; Parsons, D. R.; Manning, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Cohesive sediment, or mud, is ubiquitously found in most aqueous environments, such as coasts and estuaries. The study of cohesive sediment behaviors requires the synchronous description of mutual interactions of grains (e.g., winnowing and flocculation), their physical properties (e.g., grain size) and also the ambient water. Herein, a series of flume experiments (14 runs) with different substrate mixtures of sand-clay-EPS (Extracellular Polymeric Substrates: secreted by aquatic microorganisms) are combined with an estuarine field survey (Dee estuary, NW England) to investigate the behavior of suspensions over bio-physical cohesive substrates. The experimental results indicate that winnowing and flocculation occur pervasively in bio-physical cohesive flow systems. Importantly however, the evolution of the bed and bedform dynamics and hence turbulence production can be lower when cohesivity is high. The estuarine survey also revealed that the bio-physical cohesion provided by both the clay and microorganism fractions in the bed, that pervasively exists in many natural estuarine systems, plays a significant role in controlling the interactions between bed substrate and sediment suspension and deposition, including controlling processes such as sediment winnowing, flocculation and re-deposition. Full understanding of these processes are essential in advancing sediment transport modelling and prediction studies across natural estuarine systems and the work will report on an improved conceptual model for sediment sorting deposition in bio-physical cohesive substrates.

  4. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries.

  5. Recovery of Bacillus sphaericus spores by flocculation/sedimentation and flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lamenha Luna

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was use flocculation/sedimentation and flotation for recovery of spores of the Bacillus sphaericus. Microorganism was produced batchwise using culture medium based skimmed milk, corn steep liquor and mineral salts. The best results of flocculation were obtained using CaCl2.2H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, Al2(SO43 and tannin as flocculating agents, with optimal flocculation concentrations of 1,500, 3,000, 2,000 and 1,700ppm, respectively. Flocculent suspensions were characterized based on floc diameter and density. Settling tests were performed in batch at different concentrations of the cellular suspensions and revealed high recovery of the solids in suspension in all cases. Flotation tests were accomplished using a mechanical agitated flotation cell and the process was favoured by the increase of the system agitation and for the presence of a cationic collector.O trabalho aborda a recuperação de esporos da bactéria Bacillus sphaericus por floculação/sedimentação e flotação. O microrganismo foi produzido em batelada, utilizando-se meio de cultivo à base de leite desnatado, milhocina e sais minerais. Os melhores resultados de floculação foram obtidos com os floculantes CaCl2.2H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, Al2(SO43 e tanino, com concentrações ótimas de 1.500, 3.000, 2.000 e 1.700ppm, respectivamente. Os sistemas floculentos foram caracterizados através da determinação da densidade e do diâmetro médio dos flocos. Testes de sedimentação em batelada a diferentes concentrações das suspensões celulares revelaram elevados índices de recuperação dos sólidos em suspensão em todos os casos. Os ensaios de flotação foram realizados em célula de flotação mecânica, e o processo foi favorecido pelo aumento da agitação do sistema e pela presença de um coletor catiônico.

  6. Substrate type as a selective tool against colonization by non-native sessile invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C Cangussu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Different substrates of varying composition, color, texture and orientation may selectively influence recruitment of sessile invertebrates and thereby influence the resultant community. Thus substrates may act as a barrier to the establishment of non-indigenous species (NIS. In southern Brazil, granite is the main rock forming natural rocky walls that are available for encrusting organisms. In this study we tested whether granite selectively influences recruitment and impedes colonization by introduced and cryptogenic species that are already established on artificial substrates within the region. Plates of rough cut granite and of polyethylene were made available each month under a pier at a yacht club in Paranaguá Bay. A community is already established on concrete columns and fiber glass floats on the piers. After one, two and twelve months, the faunal composition of the plates was compared between the two treatments and other artificial substrates. Granite was recruited by all the seven introduced species found in the Bay and by 18 of 26 cryptogenic species and therefore is ineffective as a barrier to NIS colonization.Substratos de diferentes materiais, cores, texturas e orientação podem influenciar seletivamente no recrutamento de invertebrados sésseis e, assim, influenciar a comunidade resultante. Deste modo, o substrato pode funcionar como barreira contra o estabelecimento de espécies não nativas (NIS, na sigla em inglês. No sul do Brasil, o granito é a principal rocha formadora de costões rochosos naturais disponíveis para organismos incrustantes. Nesta investigação, nós testamos se o granito seleciona o recrutamento de espécies e se poderia, assim, impedir a colonização de espécies introduzidas ou criptogênicas já estabelecidas em substratos artificiais na região. Placas não polidas de granito e de polietileno foram submersas a cada mês em um píer de um iate clube na Baía de Paranaguá. Há uma comunidade j

  7. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Casanova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Point of use (POU household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions.

  8. Use of natural pH variation to increase the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Rafael; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2015-02-01

    Microalgae is largely used in aquaculture as feed. More recently, these microorganisms have been considered as an important feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the concentration of produced biomass represents a large parcel of production costs. In this study, we have evaluated the influence of natural pH variation of culture medium, caused by photosynthetic activity, on the flocculation of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Experiments were conducted with the same culture with different pH values (8.5 and 9.6), obtained after exposing the cells to different light conditions. For each pH value, different treatments were composed by adding 0, 5, 10, and 30 mM of NaOH and the flocculant Flopam® (FO4800 SH) at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, and 5 ppm. Higher flocculation efficiencies were obtained for the culture with pH 9.6 in comparison to 8.5 for the same NaOH and Flopam concentrations. Lower concentrations of base and flocculant were needed for flocculating the culture in higher pH, representing an economy of 20 % in the costs of crop harvesting.

  9. Modeling of microalgal shear-induced flocculation and sedimentation using a coupled CFD-population balance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzarijalal, Mohammad; Zokaee Ashtiani, Farzin; Dabir, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    In this study, shear-induced flocculation modeling of Chlorella sp. microalgae was conducted by combination of population balance modeling and CFD. The inhomogeneous Multiple Size Group (MUSIG) and the Euler-Euler two fluid models were coupled via Ansys-CFX-15 software package to achieve both fluid and particle dynamics during the flocculation. For the first time, a detailed model was proposed to calculate the collision frequency and breakage rate during the microalgae flocculation by means of the response surface methodology as a tool for optimization. The particle size distribution resulted from the model was in good agreement with that of the jar test experiment. Furthermore, the subsequent sedimentation step was also examined by removing the shear rate in both simulations and experiments. Consequently, variation in the shear rate and its effects on the flocculation behavior, sedimentation rate and recovery efficiency were evaluated. Results indicate that flocculation of Chlorella sp. microalgae under shear rates of 37, 182, and 387 s -1 is a promising method of pre-concentration which guarantees the cost efficiency of the subsequent harvesting process by recovering more than 90% of the biomass. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:160-174, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Improving the Efficiency of a Coagulation-Flocculation Wastewater Treatment of the Semiconductor Industry through Zeta Potential Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto López-Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process used for semiconductor wastewater treatment was improved by selecting suitable conditions (pH, polyelectrolyte type, and concentration through zeta potential measurements. Under this scenario the zeta potential, ζ, is the right parameter that allows studying and predicting the interactions at the molecular level between the contaminants in the wastewater and polyelectrolytes used for coagulation-flocculation. Additionally, this parameter is a key factor for assessing the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes based on the optimum dosages and windows for polyelectrolytes coagulation-flocculation effectiveness. In this paper, strategic pH variations allowed the prediction of the dosage of polyelectrolyte on wastewater from real electroplating baths, including the isoelectric point (IEP of the dispersions of water and commercial polyelectrolytes used in typical semiconductor industries. The results showed that there is a difference between polyelectrolyte demand required for the removal of suspended solids, turbidity, and organic matter from wastewater (23.4 mg/L and 67 mg/L, resp.. It was also concluded that the dose of polyelectrolytes and coagulation-flocculation window to achieve compliance with national and international regulations as EPA in USA and SEMARNAT in Mexico is influenced by the physicochemical characteristics of the dispersions and treatment conditions (pH and polyelectrolyte dosing strategy.

  11. Assessment of impact of culture conditions on capability of wastewater's microorganisms to flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the significant sources of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Kola North. Sewage coming to the ground waters, surface waters and near shore marine basin have a complex negative impact on the biocenosis of water objects. Considering the fact that basin self-purification process in climatic environment of the Far North is slow, it seems to be current problem to research influence of external factors on the native microorganisms involved in the biological transformation of most pollutants. Along with oxygenizing activity microorganisms are able to accumulate pollutant in the cells and to form floccules. As a result, microorganisms fix the dissolved contaminants that may be mechanically derived from water. Using the data on the chemical makeup of some urban and domestic sewage, nutrient media have been developed where microorganisms isolated from effluents have been cultivated. As major characteristics of the cultivation media affecting the intensity and direction of metabolic processes in microorganisms, the ratios C / N, C / P and N / P have been chosen. Intensity growth of bacteria in experimental nutrient media has been studied and the flocculating activity of bacterial suspensions has been determined. The rate of these microorganisms (Pseudomonas spp. and cultures of bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family average has been 70∙103 and 117∙103 cells/h respectively. The growth rate of each culture on different composition nutrient media has varied within three orders, and has correlated with the relative content of phosphates in the nutrient media. The flocculating potential does not depend on the ratio of biogenic elements C / N, C / P and N / P. Both cultures have shown the ability to precipitate suspended matter at the level of 50 % or more after cultivation on nutrient media similar in composition to habitat conditions.

  12. How climate change will affect sessile stages of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in mountain streams of the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, José M.; Alonso, Carlos; García de Jalón, Diego; Solana, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow and temperature regimes are determinant for the availability of suitable physical habitat for instream biological communities. Iberian brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations live in a climatic border in which summer water scarcity and raising temperatures will compromise their viability throughout the current century. Due to their impaired mobility, sessile stages of trout life cycle (i.e. eggs and larvae) are among the most sensitive organisms to environmental changing conditions. At a given spawning redd, thermal habitat is limited by the length of the period at which suitable temperatures occur. At the same time, suitable physical habitat is limited by the instream flow regime during spawning and incubation of eggs and larvae. Temperature and flow do also interact, thus producing synergistic effects on both physical and thermal habitats. This study is aimed at quantitatively predicting thermal and physical habitat loss for the sessile stages of brown trout life cycle due to clime change, in mountain streams at the rear edge of the species natural distribution using high-resolution spatial-temporal simulations of the thermal and physical habitat. Two streams of Central Spain have been studied (Cega and Lozoya streams). Daily temperature and flow data from ad hoc downscaled IPCC (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) predictions were used as input variables. Physical habitat changes were simulated from previously predicted stream flow data by means of hydraulic simulation tools (River2D). By taking into account the thermal tolerance limits and the proportion of lost physical habitat, limiting factors for the reproduction of brown trout in the study area were determined. The general increase of mean temperatures shortens the duration of the early developmental stages. This reduction of the sessile period is rather similar in both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by 2050. Differences between both scenarios become greater by 2099. The duration of sessile developmental is reduced

  13. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-01-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  14. Algae separation from urban landscape water using a high density microbubble layer enhanced by micro-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuwen; Xu, Jingcheng; Liu, Jia; Wei, Qiaoling; Li, Guangming; Huang, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of raw water results in outbreaks of algae, which hinders conventional water treatment. In this study, high density microbubble layers combined with micro-flocculation was adopted to remove algae from urban landscape water, and the effects of pressure, hydraulic loading, microbubble layer height and flocculation dosage on the removal efficiency for algae were studied. The greatest removal efficiency for algae, chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen and phosphorus was obtained at 0.42 MPa with hydraulic loading at 5 m/h and a flocculation dosage of 4 mg/L using a microbubble layer with a height of 130 cm. Moreover, the size, clearance distance and concentration of microbubbles were found to be affected by pressure and the height of the microbubble layer. Based on the study, this method was an alternative for algae separation from urban landscape water and water purification.

  15. Compositional thermodynamic model of asphaltenes flocculation out of crudes; Modelisation thermodynamique compositionnelle de la floculation des bruts asphalteniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczyk, V

    1997-12-02

    The aim of this work is to propose to the oil industry a compositional thermodynamic model able to predict the operating conditions which induce asphaltenes flocculation out of crudes. In this study, various analytical methods (calorimetry, elemental analysis, {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron diffusion,...) have been used in order to get a better description of the asphaltene fraction to infer its flocculation mechanism. The proposed model describes this flocculation as a thermodynamic transition inducing the formation of a new liquid phase with a high asphaltene content and formed by all the components initially in the crude: the asphaltene deposit. Asphaltenes are represented as a pseudo-component essentially made of carbon and hydrogen. The analytical modelling of the F11-F20 light fraction is the one proposed by Jaubert (1993). The F20+ heavy fraction is represented by four pseudo-components, their physical properties are calculated using the group contribution methods of Avaullee (1995) and of Rogalski and Neau (1990). The Peng-Robinson equation of state (1976) combined with the Abdoul and Peneloux group contribution mixing rules (1989) is used in order to restitute the gas-liquid-asphaltene deposit phase equilibria. This model not being able to compute flocculation conditions on a predictive manner, the method consists in fitting some physical properties of the pseudo-components introduced in the analytical representation of the asphaltene crudes. he obtained results show results show that the proposed flocculation model is then well adapted to the description of the thermodynamic properties (saturation pressures, relative volumes, flocculation curves) of asphaltene crudes within a relatively large range of temperature (30-150 deg C) and pressure (0.1-50 MPa), covering the majority of conditions met in oil production. (author) 109 refs.

  16. Improvement of the coagulation/flocculation process using a combination of Moringa oleifera lam with anionic polymer in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovani, Milene Carvalho; Camacho, Franciele Pereira; Nishi, Letícia; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Valverde, Karina Cardoso; Vieira, Angélica Marquetotti Salcedo; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of anionic polymer as a flocculant aid on the coagulation/flocculation performance with a saline solution of Moringa oleifera as a coagulant to provide larger flocs and decrease the time sedimentation. For the tests, raw water was used from Pirapó River Basin (Maringá, Paraná, Brazil). Optimization of coagulation/flocculation tests was initially performed in a jar-test with a dosage of M. oleifera Lam (crude extract--MO, oil-extracted with ethanol--MO (et) and hexane--MO (hex) 1% m/v) as the coagulant that ranged from 10 to 60 mg L(-1) and of the anionic polymer 0.1% as a flocculant aid with a dosage that ranged from 0 to 0.4 mg L(-1). The parameters analysed were colour, turbidity and compounds with absorption in UV254nm. In view of the statistical analysis results, MO (hex) with a dosage of 30 mg L(-1) was chosen as a coagulant for the next tests of coagulation/flocculation. When anionic polymer was used alone (0.0 mg L(-1) of MO (hex)), parameters were not removed and there was no generation of heavy flocs as compared with the combination of MO (hex) with the anionic polymer. Statistical analysis showed that MO (hex) obtained the highest removals of the parameters analysed in lower dosages and no significant increase in parameters removal was observed when the polymer dosage was increased. The efficacy of the coagulant +/- anionic polymer was optimal when 30mg L(-1) of MO (hex) was used as a coagulant and 0.1 mg L(-1) of the anionic polymer was used as a flocculant aid, decreasing the time sedimentation from 1 h to 15 min.

  17. Treatment of Industrial Liquid Waste of Steel Plating by Coagulation-Flocculation Using Sodium Biphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subiarto; Herlan Martono

    2007-01-01

    Research about treatment of industrial liquid waste of steel plating by coagulation-flocculation using sodium biphosphate have been conducted. The purpose of the treatment was the content reduction of Cr, Ni, and Cu in the liquid waste, so that produced effluent with Cr, Ni, and Cu content until they laid under mutual standard. The variables studied in this process were the solution pH, the coagulant/waste volume comparison, the speed of the fast stirring, and the time of the fast stirring. Optimum separation efficiency on coagulation-flocculation process of liquid waste of steel plating using sodium biphosphate at the condition of solution ph 9, coagulant/waste volume comparation 1.50, the speed of the fast stirring 400 rpm, and the time of fast stirring is 5 minute. Low stirring was conducted at 60 rpm for 60 minute. The yields of optimum separation efficiency in this condition were 99.48 % for Cr, 99.51 % for Ni, and 99.03 % for Cu. (author)

  18. Treatment of Surface water in lebanon by using the coagulation-flocculation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SLIM, K.; Saad, Z.; Kazpard, V.; El Samarani, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the absence of application of environmental protection laws in Lebanon. Anthropic effluents are directly discharged in the course of rivers. More specially two coastal rivers (GHadir and Ibrahim)located near Beirut. Treatment of these surface waters is done by coagulation-flocculation process by using Al13 coagulant. The elimination of suspended matters in Ghadir and Ibrahim rivers is studied by simple jar test coupled to measurement of supernatant turbidity and sediment volume. Physical and chemical parameters of water before and after treatment are given by Atomic absorption and ion chromatography analysis. The optimal coagulation concentration of Al was defined relatively to lowest concentration of Aluminum needed for maximum turbidity removal in treated water. This study showed that hydrolysis of aluminum salts before adding to water is relevant to the use of similar quantities of Al for the coagulation-flocculation process that eliminates primarily suspended matter in river. Restabilisation is shown in all Jar tests of Ibrahim river, but not in Ghadir where buffering effect is elevated. Results also showed that waters with low turbidity request low concentration of aluminum for the destabilization process. For this, Ibrahim water treatment was found better than river Ghadir characterized by higher inputs of anthropogenic effluents in its course. In all cases, cationic exchanges with Al 1 3 polycations within the sediments caused the release of calcium and the elevation of its concentration in the supernatant. Sulfate concentration diminished continuously in supernatant after the addition of the optimal coagulation concentration of aluminum. (author)

  19. Flocculation of Pyrite Fines in Aqueous Suspensions with Corn Starch to Eliminate Mechanical Entrainment in Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophilic flocculation of pyrite fines in aqueous suspensions with corn starch was studied by measuring particle size distribution, microscopy observation and micro-flotation. Furthermore, the interaction of corn starch with pyrite was investigated by determining the adsorption density and based on zeta potential measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS analysis in this work. The results of the particle size distribution measurement show that corn starch can effectively aggregate pyrite fines, and the pyrite floccules (flocs are sensitive to mechanical stirring. The micro-flotation results suggest that the mechanical entrainment of pyrite fines in flotation can be effectively eliminated through the formation of large-size flocs. The zeta potential of pyrite particles decreases with the addition of corn starch. The XPS results prove that carboxyl groups are generated on the digested corn starch, and both iron hydroxyl compounds and ferrous disulfide on the pyrite surface can chemically interact with the corn starch digested by sodium hydroxide.

  20. Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuda, O S; Amoo, I A; Ajayi, O O

    2006-02-28

    This study investigated the effect of coagulation/flocculation treatment process on wastewater of Fumman Beverage Industry, Ibadan, Nigeria. The study also compared different dosages of coagulant, polyelectrolyte (non-ionic polyacrylamide) and different pH values of the coagulation processes. The effect of different dosages of polyelectrolyte in combination with coagulant was also studied. The results reveal that low pH values (3-8), enhance removal efficiency of the contaminants. Percentage removal of 78, 74 and 75 of COD, TSS and TP, respectively, were achieved by the addition of 500 mg/L Fe2(SO4)3.3H2O and 93, 94 and 96% removal of COD, TSS and TP, respectively, were achieved with the addition of 25 mg/L polyelectrolyte to the coagulation process. The volume of sludge produced, when coagulant was used solely, was higher compared to the use of polyelectrolyte combined with Fe2(SO4)3.3H2O. This may be as a result of non-ionic nature of the polyelectrolyte; hence, it does not chemically react with solids of the wastewater. Coagulation/flocculation may be useful as a pre-treatment process for beverage industrial wastewater prior to biological treatment.

  1. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Design of amphoteric chitosan flocculants for phosphate and turbidity removal in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbovi, Henry K; Wilson, Lee D

    2018-06-01

    An amphoteric flocculant (CMC-CTA) was synthesized by grafting 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethylammonium chloride onto carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC). The turbidity and orthophosphate (P i ) removal properties of chitosan (CHI), CMC, and CMC-CTA were compared in the presence (and absence) of FeCl 3 coagulant. At a fixed FeCl 3 dosage, the effects of flocculant dosage, pH and settling time were evaluated. Turbidity removal (%) and optimal dosage (FeCl 3 ; mg/L) was determined: CMC-CTA (95.8%;5), CHI (88.8%;7.0) and CMC (68.8%;9.0). The corresponding P i removal (%) and dosage (mg/L) are listed: (93.4%;10), (90.6%;10), and (67.4%;5). Optimal turbidity and P i removal occurred at pH 4, where CMC-CTA had greater efficiency over CMC and CHI. The turbidity removal kinetics was described by the pseudo-second-order model, while P i removal followed the pseudo-first-order model. The removal process involves cooperative Coulombic interactions between the biopolymer/Fe(III)/P i and/or kaolinite colloids, along with polymer bridging effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer Simulation Elucidates Yeast Flocculation and Sedimentation for Efficient Industrial Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Guang; Li, Zhi-Yang; Hao, Yue; Xia, Juan; Bai, Feng-Wu; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer

    2018-05-01

    Flocculation plays an important role in the immobilized fermentation of biofuels and biochemicals. It is essential to understand the flocculation phenomenon at physical and molecular scale; however, flocs cannot be studied directly due to fragile nature. Hence, the present study is focused on the morphological specificities of yeast flocs formation and sedimentation via the computer simulation by a single floc growth model, based on Diffusion-Limited Aggregation (DLA) model. The impact of shear force, adsorption, and cell propagation on porosity and floc size is systematically illustrated. Strong shear force and weak adsorption reduced floc size but have little impact on porosity. Besides, cell propagation concreted the compactness of flocs enabling them to gain a larger size. Later, a multiple flocs growth model is developed to explain sedimentation at various initial floc sizes. Both models exhibited qualitative agreements with available experimental data. By regulating the operation constraints during fermentation, the present study will lead to finding optimal conditions to control the floc size distribution for efficient fermentation and harvesting. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Landfill leachate treatment by coagulation/flocculation combined with microelectrolysis-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Pang, Ya; Li, Xue; Chen, Fei; Liao, Xingsheng; Lei, Min; Song, Yong

    2018-02-07

    Landfill leachate was pretreated by chemical flocculation with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as a flocculant, and subsequently purified by the microelectrolysis-Fenton (MEF) process. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the MEF process, and the optimal conditions were initial pH 3.20, H 2 O 2 concentration 3.57 g/L, and Fe-C dosage 104.52 g/L. The PAC coagulation combined with MEF processes obtained a superior decontamination performance, and the predicted chemical oxygen demand (COD) and humic acids (HA) removal were respectively 90.27% and 93.79%. The strong fluorescence peak at 425 nm and the trapping experiment showed that [Formula: see text] was generated during MEF, which had a strong oxidation ability to degrade organic recalcitrant pollutants. The ultraviolet-visible spectra and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrices spectra (3D-EEMs) indicated that PAC coagulation could preferentially remove protein-like substances, while the MEF process was effective in destructing organic recalcitrant pollutants, especially humic-like and fulvic-like substances.

  5. Separation and purification of γ-aminobutyric acid from fermentation broth by flocculation and chromatographic methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiang; Duan, Qiang; Wang, Depei; Zhang, Yunze; Zheng, Chunyang

    2013-02-27

    To date, the multifunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is mainly produced by microbial fermentation in industry. The purpose of this study was to find an effective method for separation and purification of 31.2 g/L initial GABA from the fermentation broth of Enterococcus raffinosus TCCC11660. To remove the impurities from fermentation broth, flocculation pretreatment using chitosan and sodium alginate was first implemented to facilitate subsequent filtration. Ultrafiltration followed two discontinuous diafiltration steps to effectively remove proteins and macromolecular pigments, and the resulting permeate was further decolored by DA201-CII resin at a high decoloration ratio and GABA recovery. Subsequently, ion exchange chromatography (IEC) with Amberlite 200C resin and gradient elution were applied for GABA separation from glutamate and arginine. Finally, GABA crystals of 99.1% purity were prepared via warm ethanol precipitation twice. Overall, our results reveal that the successive process including flocculation, filtration, ultrafiltration, decoloration, IEC, and crystallization is promising for scale-up GABA extraction from fermentation broth.

  6. Effect of chemical composition on the flocculation dynamics of latex-based synthetic activated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Phong Nguyen; Hankins, Nicholas P.; Hilal, Nidal

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of calcium, alginate, fibrous cellulose, and pH on the flocculation dynamics and final properties of synthetic activated sludges. A laboratory-scale batch reactor, fed with standard synthetic sludges was used. The effects of varying calcium concentration (5-25 mM), alginate concentration (25-125 mg/L), fibrous cellulose concentration (0.2-0.8 g/L) and pH (3-9) on the sludge characteristics were studied by varying one parameter whilst keeping the others constant. The results from experiments indicated that the calcium, alginate, fibrous cellulose, and pH had the critical effect on the aggregation rate, flocs size, and made the improvement of the final properties of sludge. Dynamic measurements have established the optimum conditions for floc formation and can accurately reflect the state of formation of the synthetic activated sludge flocs. These correlate well with measurements of settleability and turbidity of the synthetic activated sludge. The results of this study support the bonding theory and indicate that formation of cations-polymer complexes and polymer gelation are important means of flocculation. The development of synthetic activated sludges is suggested also to be a possible surrogate for studying the final properties of activated sludge

  7. REMOVAL OF PHENOL AND SURFACTANT FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BAKRAOUY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the action of rainfall and natural fermentation, the stored waste produces a liquid fraction called leachate. This leachate is rich in organic matter (biodegradable but also refractory and trace elements. There are many techniques of treating the leachate, in particular, biological, physicochemical, membrane processes. The choice of a technique instead of another depends on several parameters including: the age of the leachate, composition... In this work we applied a coagulation-flocculation process to treat intermediate landfill leachate of Rabat city with a combined ferric chloride coagulant and a polymer flocculant. We were inspired by full factorial design, including twenty five experiments, to determine optimal dosages of coagulant and flocculant. We operate at pH 8.4, the best removal efficiencies obtained were 88 % for Turbidity, 98 % for Phenol and 82 % for surfactant. The optimum dosages values determined by this study were 13.2 g∙L-1 of coagulant, 62 mL∙L-1 of flocculant.

  8. Variables in the process of coagulation / flocculation / settling of leachate of municipal landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Thomé Jucá

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The careless disposal of waste may generate tremendous environmental and social impacts. For the treatment of landfill leachate, biological and physic-chemical treatments are routinely used. Chemical precipitation using calcium hydroxide has been used with great effectiveness in treating effluent with high concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals. The leachate used in this study was collected from a flow box of the Muribeca landfill, located in the city of Jaboatão Guararapes, PE. Commercial calcium hydroxide was used as coagulant in aqueous solution. The experiment was implemented using a fractional factorial design, followed by a complete planning 24. It was observed that the lowest turbidity and color were obtained at the highest flocculation speeds. Color removal was favored by long flocculation time whereas this did not occur for turbidity removal. For the optimal point, a reduction of 52% of the color and a NTU turbidity within the standards established in Brazilian Laws (CONAMA 357/05 and CONAMA 430/11 were obtained.

  9. Prevalence, distribution and risk of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps at a center with a high adenoma detection rate and experienced pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJspeert, Joep E. G.; de Wit, Koos; van der Vlugt, Manon; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are the precursors of 15 % - 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC). We aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of SSA/Ps and to evaluate the association between SSA/Ps and the risk of synchronous advanced neoplasia at a high quality colonoscopy center.

  10. pH dependence of the kinetics of interfacial tension changes during protein adsorption from sessile droplets on FEP-Teflon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderVegt, W; Norde, W; VanderMei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    Interfacial tension changes during protein adsorption at both the solid-liquid and the liquid-vapor interface were measured simultaneously by ADSA-P from sessile droplets of protein solutions on fluoroethylenepropylene-Teflon. Four globular proteins of similar size, viz. lysozyme, ribonuclease,

  11. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize...... the sporadic MSI-H counterpart. Recent studies have, however, challenged such simple one-pathway models, inviting the consideration of alternative, unexpected pathways. Here, the issue as to the possible role of SSP, primarily in the context of Lynch syndrome, but also in subjects from familial CRC families...... (FCF) is addressed. Polyps coded as hyperplastic polyps (HP) from subjects with Lynch syndrome and FCF enrolled in the HNPCC-register at the Hvidovre University Hospital as well as adenomas from this population were retrieved and reviewed for features of SSP. Ninety-eight polyps coded as HP and 41...

  12. Molecular features of colorectal hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenoma/polyps from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Lee, Eui Jin; Ha, Sangyun; Kang, So Young; Jang, Kee-Taek; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Kim, Young Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Odze, Robert Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Abundant recent data suggest that sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) is an early precursor lesion in the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis. It is believed that SSA/Ps develop cancer by an SSA/P-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Hyperplastic polyps (HPs) share some histologic and molecular characteristics with SSA/P, but it is unclear whether SSA/Ps are derived from HPs or whether they develop by a different pathogenetic pathway. Previous studies have shown that serrated polyps from Korean patients show different prevalence rates of certain molecular abnormalities compared with similar lesions from American patients, and this suggests that lifestyle and dietary factors may influence the serrated neoplasia pathway. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular features of HPs and SSA/Ps, the latter both with and without dysplasia, from Korean patients and to compare the findings with similar lesions from American patients. One hundred and eleven serrated polyps, consisting of 45 HPs (30 microvesicular, 11 goblet cell, 4 mucin depleted) and 56 SSA/Ps (36 with dysplasia, 20 without dysplasia), were retrieved from the pathology files of a large medical center in Korea and 38 SSA/P from American patients were evaluated for BRAF and KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), hMLH1, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p16, methylated in tumor-1 (MINT-1), MINT2, and MINT31. Methylation of hMLH1 was performed using 2 different sets of primers. Twenty-three conventional adenomas from Korean patients were included as controls. The data were compared between polyp subtypes and between polyps in the right versus the left colon. With regard to HP, KRAS mutations were present in 31.1% of polyps and BRAF mutations in 46.7% of polyps. KRAS mutations were significantly more common in goblet cell HP and BRAF in microvesicular HP (MVHP). Methylation of MGMT, hMLH1, APC, p16, MINT1, MINT2, and MINT31 were

  13. Evaporative Optical Marangoni Assembly: Tailoring the Three-Dimensional Morphology of Individual Deposits of Nanoparticles from Sessile Drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyfantakis, Manos; Varanakkottu, Subramanyan Namboodiri; Rudiuk, Sergii; Morel, Mathieu; Baigl, Damien

    2017-10-25

    We have recently devised the evaporative optical Marangoni assembly (eOMA), a novel and versatile interfacial flow-based method for directing the deposition of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) on solid substrates from evaporating sessile drops along desired patterns using shaped UV light. Here, we focus on a fixed UV spot irradiation resulting in a cylinder-like deposit of assembled particles and show how the geometrical features of the single deposit can be tailored in three dimensions by simply adjusting the optical conditions or the sample composition, in a quantitative and reproducible manner. Sessile drops containing cationic NPs and a photosensitive surfactant at various concentrations are allowed to evaporate under a single UV beam with a diameter much smaller than that of the drop. After complete evaporation, the geometrical characteristics of the NP deposits are precisely assessed using optical profilometry. We show that both the volume and the radial size of the light-directed NP deposit can be adjusted by varying the diameter or the intensity of the UV beam or alternatively by changing the concentration of the photosensitive surfactant. Notably, in all these cases, the deposits display an almost constant median height corresponding to a few layers of particles. Moreover, both the radial and the axial extent of the patterns are tuned by changing the NP concentration. These results are explained by the correlation among the strength of Marangoni flow, the particle trapping efficiency, and the volume of the deposit, and by the role of evaporation-driven flow in strongly controlling the deposit height. Finally, we extend the versatility of eOMA by demonstrating that NPs down to 30 nm in diameter can be effectively patterned on glass or polymeric substrates.

  14. Implementation of an e-learning module improves consistency in the histopathological diagnosis of sessile serrated lesions within a nationwide population screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, Joep E G; Madani, Ariana; Overbeek, Lucy I H; Dekker, Evelien; Nagtegaal, Iris D

    2017-05-01

    Distinguishing premalignant sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) from hyperplastic polyps (HPs) is difficult for pathologists in daily practice. We aimed to evaluate nationwide variability within histopathology laboratories in the frequency of diagnosing an SSL as compared with an HP within the Dutch population-based screening programme for colorectal cancer and to assess the effect of an e-learning module on interlaboratory consistency. Data were retrieved from the Dutch Pathology Registry from the start of the nationwide population screening programme, January 2014, until December 2015. An obligatory e-learning module was implemented among pathologists in October 2014. The ratio between SSL and HP diagnosis was determined per laboratory. Odds ratios (ORs) for the diagnosis of an SSL per laboratory were compared with the laboratory with the median odds (median laboratory), before and after implementation of the e-learning module. In total, 14 997 individuals with 27 879 serrated polyps were included; 6665 (23.9%) were diagnosed as SSLs, and 21 214 as HPs (76.1%). The ratio of diagnosing an SSL ranged from 5% to 47% (median 23%) within 44 laboratories. Half of the laboratories showed a significantly different OR (range 3.47-0.16) for diagnosing an SSL than the median laboratory. Variability decreased after implementation of the e-learning module (P = 0.02). Of all pathology laboratories, 70% became more consistent with the median laboratory after e-learning implementation. We demonstrated substantial interlaboratory variability in the histopathological diagnosis of SSLs, which significantly decreased after implementation of a structured e-learning module. Widespread implementation of education might contribute to more homogeneous practice among pathologists. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of coagulant and flocculant addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating waste-activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, G.; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Z.; Guo, H.; de Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.L.F.M.; van Lier, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35°C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1–86), the reactor was operated as a

  16. Surface water coagulation-flocculation models. Modelos para el proceso de coagulacion-floculacion de aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez Rosell, S.; Marin Llanes, L.; Marquez Canosa, E.

    1994-01-01

    Modelling of water treatment processes have been studied ultimately. In the present work, three of the models that are used generally to represent the physical-chemical phenomenum that occur during the coagulation-flocculation process, are compared. The best result are obtained with Freundlich model although the new model gives adequate results too. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Dynamics of polyelectrolyte adsorption and colloidal flocculation upon mixing studied using mono-dispersed polystyrene latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Lili; Cohen Stuart, Martien; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of polyelectrolytes just after their encounter with the surface of bare colloidal particles is analyzed, using the flocculation properties of mono-dispersed polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. Applying a Standardized Colloid Mixing (SCM) approach, effects of ionic strength and

  18. Flocculation and adsorption properties of biodegradable gum-ghatti-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, H

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the microwave-assisted synthesis of gum-ghatti (Gg)-grafted poly(acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (AAm-co-MAA) hydrogels for the development of biodegradable flocculants and adsorbents. The synthesized hydrogels were characterized...

  19. Investigation of Self-Assembly Processes for Chitosan-Based Coagulant-Flocculant Systems: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savi Bhalkaran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of contaminants in wastewater poses significant challenges to water treatment processes and environmental remediation. The use of coagulation-flocculation represents a facile and efficient way of removing charged particles from water. The formation of stable colloidal flocs is necessary for floc aggregation and, hence, their subsequent removal. Aggregation occurs when these flocs form extended networks through the self-assembly of polyelectrolytes, such as the amine-based polysaccharide (chitosan, which form polymer “bridges” in a floc network. The aim of this overview is to evaluate how the self-assembly process of chitosan and its derivatives is influenced by factors related to the morphology of chitosan (flocculant and the role of the solution conditions in the flocculation properties of chitosan and its modified forms. Chitosan has been used alone or in conjunction with a salt, such as aluminum sulphate, as an aid for the removal of various waterborne contaminants. Modified chitosan relates to grafted anionic or cationic groups onto the C-6 hydroxyl group or the amine group at C-2 on the glucosamine monomer of chitosan. By varying the parameters, such as molecular weight and the degree of deacetylation of chitosan, pH, reaction and settling time, dosage and temperature, self-assembly can be further investigated. This mini-review places an emphasis on the molecular-level details of the flocculation and the self-assembly processes for the marine-based biopolymer, chitosan.

  20. The effect of global velocity gradient on the character and filterability of aggregates formed during the coagulation/flocculation process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Bubáková, Petra; Pivokonská, Lenka; Hnaťuková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2011), s. 1355-1366 ISSN 0959-3330 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : aggregate size distribution * flocculation * mixing * fractal dimension * filtration Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2011

  1. The chemical and mechanical differences between alginate-like exopolysaccharides isolated from aerobic flocculent sludge and aerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Y. M.; Sharma, P. K.; van Loosdrecht, M. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in the gel matrix of aerobic granular sludge and normal aerobic flocculent sludge. From both types of sludge that fed with the same municipal sewage, the functional gel-forming exopolysaccharides, alginate-like exopolysaccharides, were isolated. These two

  2. Suspended particulate matter flocculation in a natural tidal wetland located in the San Francisco Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, J.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Wright, S. A.; Boss, E.; Downing, B. D.; Fleck, J.; Ganju, N. K.

    2011-12-01

    flocculation. Additionally, the timing of flocculation was coincident with periods of elevated dissolved organic matter, suggesting organic matter played a role in the formation of large aggregates. Measurements of SPM organic content in ebb water revealed that SPM was enriched in organic matter by up to 50% following interaction with the wetland. Newly formed aggregates were carried out to the estuary with the ebb tide. These results indicate that the Browns Island wetland (and presumably other similar wetlands throughout the San Francisco Bay-Delta) plays an important role in estuarine biogeochemistry and particle cycling because flocculated particles have higher settling velocities and optical properties than their component particles and will behave differently. The implications of these findings are relevant to several tidal wetland management concerns such as the maintenance of marsh elevation, the cycling and transport of contaminants, and water clarity.

  3. Physicochemical properties of cross-linked poly-gamma-glutamic acid and its flocculating activity against kaolin suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Kato, K.; Shimauchi, A.; Ping, X.; Fujita, K.; Tanaka, T.; Tarui, Y.; Hirasawa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linked poly-Gamma-glutamic acid (C-L Gamma-PGA) was prepared with Gamma-PGA irradiated with Gamma-PGA at various kGy values. The physicochemical properties including viscosity and water absorption capacity were compared between C-L Gamma-PGA and several typical flocculating agents. The viscosity of C-L Gamma-PGA increased with the dose of Gamma-lrradiatio, although the water absorption capacity of C-L Gamma-PGA did not, which showed a maximum of 1005.6 ml/g at 20 kGy. Flocculating activity against kaolin suspension was not observed for any of the test compounds when used singly. However, the activity of C-L Gamma-PGA markedly increased following the addition of polyaluminum chloride. The activity increased with temperature up to 80deg C and remained at 80 deg C of heat pretreatment for 1 h, but did not at more than 50 deg C of beat pretreatment for 24 h. The activity was also observed within a pH range of 4.5-10.0. Roth the water absorption capacity and flocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA decreased in parallel with increasing NaCl concentration, suggesting that the hocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA was associated with its water absorption capacity, rather than viscosity. An investigation of the effects of various cations on the flocculating activity of C-L Gamma-PGA showed that only trivalent catlons had a synergistic effect. The mechanism of C-L Gamma-PGA flocculating activity is discussed based on the results of preliminary experiments

  4. Mature landfill leachate treatment by coagulation/flocculation combined with Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Carlos; De Torres-Socías, Estefanía; Peres, José A; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, Isabel; Malato, Sixto; Lucas, Marco S

    2015-04-09

    This work reports the treatment of a mature landfill leachate through the application of chemical-based treatment processes in order to achieve the discharge legal limits into natural water courses. Firstly, the effect of coagulation/flocculation with different chemicals was studied, evaluating the role of different initial pH and chemicals concentration. Afterwards, the efficiency of two different advanced oxidation processes for leachate remediation was assessed. Fenton and solar photo-Fenton processes were applied alone and in combination with a coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment. This physicochemical conditioning step, with 2 g L(-1) of FeCl3 · 6H2O at pH 5, allowed removing 63% of COD, 80% of turbidity and 74% of total polyphenols. Combining the coagulation/flocculation pre-treatment with Fenton reagent, it was possible to reach 89% of COD removal in 96 h. Moreover, coagulation/flocculation combined with solar photo-Fenton revealed higher DOC (75%) reductions than single solar photo-Fenton (54%). In the combined treatment (coagulation/flocculation and solar photo-Fenton), it was reached a DOC reduction of 50% after the chemical oxidation, with 110 kJ L(-1) of accumulated UV energy and a H2O2 consumption of 116 mM. Toxicity and biodegradability assays were performed to evaluate possible variations along the oxidation processes. After the combined treatment, the leachate under study presented non-toxicity but biodegradability increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Process development for continuous ethanol fermentation by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Lihan; Liu, Chenguang; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-02-01

    Propionic acid, a major inhibitor to yeast cells, was accumulated during continuous ethanol fermentation from corn meal hydrolysate by the flocculating yeast under stillage backset conditions. Based on its inhibition mechanism in yeast cells, strategies were developed for alleviating this effect. Firstly, high temperature processes such as medium sterilization generated more propionic acid, which should be avoided. Propionic acid was reduced significantly during ethanol fermentation without medium sterilization, and concentrations of biomass and ethanol increased by 59.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Secondly, the running time of stillage backset should be controlled so that propionic acid accumulated would be lower than its half inhibition concentration IC50 (40 mmol/L). Finally, because low pH augmented propionic acid inhibition in yeast cells, a higher pH of 5.5 was validated to be suitable for ethanol fermentation under the stillage backset condition.

  6. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS TO CLEANUP HIGHLY POLLUTED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE STATION WASTEWATER BY BIOADSORPTION-COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Banchon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an ecofriendly solution to treat automobile service stations effluents with high concentrations of oily substances, surfactants, organic matter and heavy metals. Bioadsorption using sawdust from pine trees, sugar cane bagasse and coconut coir without any chemical modification removed colloidal contamination up to 70%. Polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and polyacrylamide were applied to remove dissolved and colloidal pollutants under saline conditions without change of initial pH. Both bioadsorption and coagulation-flocculation removed up to 97.8% of BOD, COD, surfactants and heavy metals at a saline concentration of 1.5% NaCl. The increase of ionic strength promoted a high sludge index and a representative cost saving in chemicals consumption of almost 70%. High levels of pollution removal with the minimal use of chemicals is herein presented.

  7. Bedform development and morphodynamics in mixed cohesive sediment substrates: the importance of winnowing and flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leiping; Parsons, Daniel; Manning, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    There remains a lack of process-based knowledge of sediment dynamics within flows over bedforms generated in complex mixtures of cohesionless sand and biologically-active cohesive muds in natural estuarine flow systems. The work to be presented forms a part of the UK NERC "COHesive BEDforms (COHBED)" project which aims to fill this gap in knowledge. Herein results from a field survey in sub-tidal zone of Dee estuary (NW, England) and a set of large-scale laboratory experiments, conducted using mixtures of non-cohesive sands, cohesive muds and Xanthan gum (as a proxy for the biological stickiness of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS)) will be presented. The results indicate the significance of biological-active cohesive sediments in controlling winnowing rates and flocculation dynamics, which contributes significantly to rates of bedform evolution.

  8. Arsenic removal in water by means of coagulation-flocculation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, M. F.; Carro P, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic and arsenical compounds are considered as carcinogenic and risky for humans according to epidemiological evidence related with the ingestion of arsenical water during a long period. In many places the only source of drinking water contains arsenic and, therefore, removal strategies have to be investigated. This work shows experimental results of coagulation-flocculation processes implemented to evaluate the efficiency in the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The main objectives include the evaluation of the relevant aspect that controls the removal efficiency. Experimental tests were performed with coagulant concentrations from 5 to 500 mg/L, solid particle concentrations from 0 to 6000 mg/L, and initial arsenic concentrations from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. These variables were simultaneously varied in more than 100 experiments. The efficiency in remediation ranged from 0% to 95%. Removal efficiency near 95% was obtained when using ferric chloride as coagulant, and was close to 80% when using aluminium sulfate as coagulant in arsenate solutions. The remediation efficiency decreased significantly when the ferric chloride concentration was higher than 50 mg/L in relation to the obtained results for aluminum sulfate for different type and concentration of soil particles. The highest removal efficiency were obtained at ph between 3 and 5 in oxidized solutions. Obtained results simulated by means of multiple linear regression analysis (R>0.90) allow determining that the main parameters that control the removal of arsenic from drinking water are coagulant concentration, ph, and solid particles concentration. Conversely, particle mineralogy and coagulant type have less significant effect on the removal by means of coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. Obtained results are relevant for the removal of As in water treatment plants as well as for the development of small scale filters. The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X

  9. Polymer-grafted cellulose nanocrystals as pH-responsive reversible flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kevin H M; Li, Jian; Wijesekera, Kushlani; Cranston, Emily D

    2013-09-09

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a sustainable nanomaterial with applications spanning composites, coatings, gels, and foams. Surface modification routes to optimize CNC interfacial compatibility and functionality are required to exploit the full potential of this material in the design of new products. In this work, CNCs have been rendered pH-responsive by surface-initiated graft polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine with the initiator ceric(IV) ammonium nitrate. The polymerization is a one-pot, water-based synthesis carried out under sonication, which ensures even dispersion of the cellulose nanocrystals during the reaction. The resultant suspensions of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (P4VP-g-CNCs) show reversible flocculation and sedimentation with changes in pH; the loss of colloidal stability is visible by eye even at concentrations as low as 0.004 wt %. The presence of grafted polymer and the ability to tune the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of P4VP-g-CNCs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electrophoretic mobility, mass spectrometry, transmittance spectroscopy, contact-angle measurements, thermal analysis, and various microscopies. Atomic force microscopy showed no observable changes in the CNC dimensions or degree of aggregation after polymer grafting, and a liquid crystalline nematic phase of the modified CNCs was detected by polarized light microscopy. Controlled stability and wettability of P4VP-g-CNCs is advantageous both in composite design, where cellulose nanocrystals generally have limited dispersibility in nonpolar matrices, and as biodegradable flocculants. The responsive nature of these novel nanoparticles may offer new applications for CNCs in biomedical devices, as clarifying agents, and in industrial separation processes.

  10. Sedimentation from flocculated suspensions in the presence of settling-driven gravitational interface instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhnia, Mohamad; Strom, Kyle

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally examine sedimentation from a freshwater suspension of clay flocs overlying saltwater in the presence of gravitational instabilities. The study seeks to determine: (1) if flocculation hampers or alters interface instability formation; (2) how the removal rates of sediment from the buoyant layer compare to those predicted by individual floc settling; and (3) whether or not it is possible to develop a model for effective settling velocity. The experiments were conducted in a tank at isothermal conditions. All experiments were initially stably stratified but later developed instabilities near the interface that grew into downward convecting plumes of fluid and sediment. Throughout, we measured sediment concentration in the upper and lower layers, floc size, and plume descent rates. The data showed that flocculation modifies the mixture settling velocity, and therefore shifts the mode of interface instability from double-diffusive (what one would expect from unflocculated clay) to settling-driven leaking and Rayleigh-Taylor instability formation. Removal rates of sediment from the upper layer in the presence of these instabilities were on the same order of magnitude as those predicted by individual floc settling. However, removal rates were found to better correlate with the speed of the interface plumes. A simple force-balance model was found to be capable of reasonably describing plume velocity based on concentration in the buoyant layer. This relation, coupled with a critical Grashof number and geometry relations, allowed us to develop a model for the effective settling velocity of the mixture based solely on integral values of the upper layer.

  11. Amino acids in cell wall of Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus sp. hsn08 with flocculation activity on Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the flocculation mechanism by Gram-positive bacterium, Micrococcus sp. hsn08 as a means for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris biomass. Bacterial cells of Micrococcus sp. hsn08 were added into algal culture to harvest algal cells through direct contacting with algae to form flocs. Viability dependence test confirmed that flocculation activity does not depend on live bacteria, but on part of the peptidoglycan. The further investigation has determined that amino acids in cell wall play an important role to flocculate algal cells. Positively charged calcium can combine bacterial and algal cells together, and form a bridge between them, thereby forming the flocs, suggesting that ions bridging is the main flocculation mechanism. These results suggest that bacterial cells of Micrococcus sp. hsn08 can be applied to harvest microalgae biomass with the help of amino acids in cell wall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential impact of global warming on the range of Spruce, Fir, Beech and sessile Oak in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedallu, Christian; Perez, Vincent; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Lebourgeois, Francois; Bertrand, Romain

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies all over the world that forecast the impact of global warming on vegetation but there is little information currently available to assess its consequences on French forests. The authors studied the range of four common species - spruce, fir, beech and sessile oak - so as to determine their ecology as accurately as possible and assess their sensitivity to global warming. Their range over the period from 1961-1990 was modelled and mapped for the whole of France using ecological variables that characterize climate, water supply, and soil nutrition. The models constructed predict effects from temperature, the water resource, water-logging and the trophic level of soils that are consistent with empirical knowledge about these species. Changes in the probabilities of presence during the 21. century investigated by simulating the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadCM3 climate model. Changes in climate as predicted by this model would lead to a decrease of the probabilities of presence for all four species initially in the first part of the 21. century at the outer limits of their ranges and then a very significant drop in most plains and medium altitude upland areas, even according to the most optimistic forecasts under scenario B2. The reduction in the forest surface areas that are favourable to the species investigated for the period 2070-2100 is estimated, depending on the scenario, to be between 92% and 99% for spruce, 80% and 93% for beech, 63% and 83% for fir and 43% and 83% for sessile oak. These forecasted changes are very significant in comparison with the current conditions that are favourable to the presence of these species for which edaphic variables act as a local filter within the overall climate envelope. The authors conclude by underscoring the value of these tools for identifying and mapping the most vulnerable areas so as to be in a position to track the behaviour of these species in these areas and determine the appropriate

  13. Differential sedimentation and selective flocculation in the desulfurization of Teruel lignite. Sedimentacion diferencial y floculacion selectiva en la desulfuracion de los lignitos de Teruel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, R.; Clemente, C.; Gomez-Limon, D. (Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    At the time of researching the possibility to remove the sulfur of the lignites located in the Teruel area via selective flocculation, it has been proved that in the case of the sulfur on its sulfur form, there's a pronounced interference with the differential sedimentation between coal and sulfur, increased by the fact of a selective liberation. This differential sedimentation shows better results on the sulfur removal process than that obtained by selective flocculation. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  14. [Isolation of an excellent bio-flocculant-producing strain and its application in the treatment of cold-rolling waste oily water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guo-Yuan; Ding, Cui-Ping; Yang, Jia-Xuan

    2011-09-01

    An excellent strain (designated as T-3) which produces bio-flocculants was isolated from soil samples, and identified as Klebsiella sp. species based on the analysis of morphology, physiology and biochemistry and 16S rDNA sequences measurement. The effects of culture conditions such as pH values, temperature, carbon sources and nitrogen sources on bio-flocculants production by T-3 strain were studied. The experiment results show that T-3 strain has better adaptability to carbon sources and nitrogen sources, and higher capacity of bio-flocculants was obtained when the initial pH value of culture and temperature were 9 and 25 degrees C respectively. Based on the colorimetric reactions of proteins and polysaccharide substance, ultraviolet scanning analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, it is found that the bio-flocculants produced by T-3 strain contains -OH and -COO(-) groups and belongs to anionic type flocculant. Moreover, the main component is polysaccharides. The treatment of oily cold-rolling wastewater by the bio-flocculant was investigated and the better result was obtained. When the dosages of CaCl2, bio-flocculants and poly aluminium chloride were 4 g x L(-1), 10% (volume fraction) and 1 g x L(-1) respectively, and the pH value was 7.0, the oil concentration, COD and turbidity were decreased to 10 mg x L(-1), 218.4 mg x L(-1) and 1.36 from 4 819 mg x L(-1), 28 456.8 mg x L(-1) and 3 950 with the removal efficiencies of 99.79%, 92.32% and 99.97% respectively. The interaction between flocculant and oily droplets is achieved by the interaction of Van der Waals force, hydrogen bond and the bridged coordination of Ca2+, in which the bridged coordination of Ca2+ is the dominant.

  15. Report on the effectiveness of flocculation for removal of 239Pu at concentrations of 1 pCi/L and 0.1 pCi/L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Bayhurst, G.K.; Mitchell, A.J.; Cisneros, M.R.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Rokop, D.J.; Aguilar, R.D.; Attrep, M.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the effectiveness of flocculation for the removal of Pu from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pond waters spiked with 239 Pu at the 1.0 and 0.1 pCi/L level. The flocculation treatment procedure is described in detail. Results are presented for treatment studies for the removal of Pu from C-2 pond water spiked with 239 Pu and from distilled water spiked with 239 Pu

  16. EVALUATION OF THE FLOCCULATION EFFICIENCY OF Chlorella vulgaris MEDIATED BY Moringa oleifera SEED UNDER DIFFERENT FORMS: FLOUR, SEED CAKE AND EXTRACTS OF FLOUR AND CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. L. Lapa Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Flocculation as a pre-separation method can help make production of biodiesel from microalgae economically feasible. In a previous study, Moringa oleifera seed flour (1 g.L-1 was shown to be a very efficient flocculant for Chlorella vulgaris, a microalga with high potential for biodiesel production. In this study, several aspects of C vulgaris flocculation mediated by Moringa were investigated in order to optimize the separation of this biomass. Flocculation efficiency was the same with seeds from different origins and lots. The stationary growth stage was best for harvesting C vulgaris cells to carry out flocculation efficiently (93%. The use of flour extracts and cake extracts generated the best cost-benefit ratio (flocculation efficiency from 78 to 97% with a saving in mass of seed of 75%. The highest efficiency was reached with extracts prepared with seawater and NaCl solutions which have high salt concentration. Reasonable stability of the extract allows its use for up to two weeks, provided it is kept at low temperature (4 ºC.

  17. Combined treatments of enterocin AS-48 with biocides to improve the inactivation of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus planktonic and sessile cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gómez, Natacha; Abriouel, Hikmate; Grande, M José; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-05-15

    Control of staphylococci during cleaning and disinfection is important to the food industry. Broad-spectrum bacteriocins with proved anti-staphylococcal activity, such as enterocin AS-48, could open new possibilities for disinfection in combination with biocides. In the present study, enterocin AS-48 was tested singly or in combination with biocides against a cocktail of six Staphylococcus aureus strains (including three methicillin-resistant strains) in planktonic state as well as in biofilms formed on polystyrene microtiter plates. Cells were challenged with enterocin, biocides or enterocin/biocide combinations. Inactivation of planktonic cells increased significantly (penterocin AS-48 (25mg/l) was tested in combination with benzalkonium chloride (BC), cetrimide (CT) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP), and non-significantly in combination with didecyldimethylammonium bromide (AB), triclosan (TC), hexachlorophene (CF), polyhexamethylen guanidinium chloride (PHMG), chlorhexidine (CH) or P3-oxonia (OX). In the sessile state (24h biofilms), staphylococci required higher biocide concentrations in most cases, except for OX. Inactivation of sessile staphylococci increased remarkably when biocides were applied in combination with enterocin AS-48, especially when the bacteriocin was added at 50mg/l. During storage, the concentrations of sessile as well as planktonic cells in the treated samples decreased remarkably for BC, TC and PHMG, but OX failed to inhibit proliferation of the treated biofilms as well as growth of planktonic cells. The observed inhibitory effects during storage were potentiated when the biocides were combined with 50 mg/l enterocin AS-48. Results from this study suggest that selected combinations of enterocin AS-48 and biocides offer potential use against planktonic and sessile, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Many Drops Interactions I: Simulation of Coalescence, Flocculation and Fragmentation of Multiple Colliding Drops with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Acevedo-Malavé

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH is a Lagrangian mesh-free formalism and has been useful to model continuous fluid. This formalism is employed to solve the Navier-Stokes equations by replacing the fluid with a set of particles. These particles are interpolation points from which properties of the fluid can be determined. In this study, the SPH method is applied to simulate the hydrodynamics interaction of many drops, showing some settings for the coalescence, fragmentation and flocculation problem of equally sized liquid drops in three-dimensional spaces. For small velocities the drops interact only through their deformed surfaces and the flocculation of the droplets arises. This result is very different if the collision velocity is large enough for the fragmentation of droplets takes place. We observe that for velocities around 15 mm/ms the coalescence of droplets occurs. The velocity vector fields formed inside the drops during the collision process are shown.

  19. Density of liquid NiCrAlMo quarternary alloys measured by a modified sessile drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Xiao, F.; Tao, Z.N.; MuKai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni:Cr:Al (approximately as 73:14:13) and molybdenum concentration from 0 to 10 mass% were measured by a modified sessile drop method (MSDM). It was found that the density of the liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration. The molar volume of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The density of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, chromium, aluminum and molybdenum in the corresponding Ni-based binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental results, means, within the error tolerance range the density of liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state

  20. Increased diversity of sessile epibenthos at subtidal hydrothermal vents: seven hypotheses based on observations at Milos Island, Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nike Bianchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on subtidal hydrothermal vent ecosystems at Milos, Hellenic Volcanic Arc (Aegean Sea, suggested that vent activity increased the species richness of sessile epibenthic assemblages. Based on 303 species found in 6 sites (3 close to vents, 3 farther away, the present paper uses correspondence analysis and species/samples curves to examine the species composition and richness of these assemblages. Differences due to vent proximity were more important than those due to bottom depth and distance from the shore. Diversity was confirmed to be higher near the vents, although none of the 266 species found at the vent sites can be considered as obligate vent-associated species. Seven different, although not mutually exclusive, hypotheses are discussed to explain the pattern of increased epibenthic species diversity at the vent sites, namely: (i vents represent an intermediate disturbance, inducing mortality by the emission of toxic fluids; (ii higher winter temperature allows for the occurrence of warm-water species, which add to the regional background; (iii venting disrupts the homogeneity of the water bottom layer, increasing bottom roughness and hence habitat heterogeneity; (iv deposition of minerals and enhanced bioconstruction by Ca enrichment increment habitat provision; (v fluid emission induces advective mechanisms that favour recruitment; (vi vents emit CO2, nutrients and trace elements that enhance primary productivity; and (vii bacterial chemosynthesis add to photosynthesis to provide a diversity of food sources for the fauna.

  1. Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oil prevented biofilm formation and showed antibacterial activity against planktonic and sessile bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Domenico; Napoli, Edoardo Marco; Cusimano, Maria Grazia; Vitale, Maria; Ruberto, Andgiuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Essential oils from six different populations of Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum were compared for their antibiofilm properties. The six essential oils (A to F) were characterized by a combination of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector analyses. All oils showed weak activity against the planktonic form of a group of Staphylococcus aureus strains and against a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442 reference strain. The ability to inhibit biofilm formation was investigated at sub-MIC levels of 200, 100, and 50 m g/ml by staining sessile cells with safranin. Sample E showed the highest average effectiveness against all tested strains at 50 m g/ml and had inhibition percentages ranging from 30 to 52%. In the screening that used preformed biofilm from the reference strain P. aeruginosa, essential oils A through E were inactive at 200 m g/ml; F was active with a percentage of inhibition equal to 53.2%. Oregano essential oil can inhibit the formation of biofilms of various food pathogens and food spoilage organisms.

  2. Political systems affect mobile and sessile species diversity--a legacy from the post-WWII period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A O Cousins

    Full Text Available Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political "map" of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae J1, a protein-based microbial flocculant-producing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Changlong; Li, Ang; Cui, Di; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang; Guo, Haijuan

    2016-02-20

    Klebsiella pneumoniae J1 is a Gram-negative strain, which belongs to a protein-based microbial flocculant-producing bacterium. However, little genetic information is known about this species. Here we carried out a whole-genome sequence analysis of this strain and report the complete genome sequence of this organism and its genetic basis for carbohydrate metabolism, capsule biosynthesis and transport system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Technological applications of organo-montmorillonites in the removal of pyrimethanil from water: adsorption/desorption and flocculation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Federico M; Undabeytia, Tomas; Morillo, Esmeralda; Torres Sánchez, Rosa M

    2017-06-01

    Pyrimethanil (2-aniline-4, 6-dimethylpyrimidine, PRM) is used in fruit packing plants to control fungal infections and diseases. The effluents greatly polluted with this fungicide, as a point source contamination, need to be technologically treated for their regeneration before they reach water bodies. This work evaluates the use of organo-montmorillonites, synthetized in our laboratory, for their application in adsorption and coagulation/flocculation processes for the removal of PRM from water. The adsorption-desorption performance of PRM in a raw montmorillonite (Mt) and several organo-montmorillonites (organo-Mt) obtained by different amounts and types of exchanged surfactants (octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and didodecyldimethylammonium (DDAB) bromides and benzyltrimethylammonium chloride (BTMA)) was studied. The PRM adsorption on raw Mt was assigned mainly to an interlayer occupancy, while hydrophobic interactions between PRM and the surfactants in the exchanged samples increased PRM adsorption, which was correlated with the surfactant loading. PRM desorption showed irreversible behavior in raw Mt, which changed to reversible for organo-Mt samples, and was also correlated with the increase of surfactant loading.Two of the organo-Mt with high surfactant loading (twice the CEC) were assayed for the removal of commercial PRM in coagulation/flocculation tests, and their performance was compared to that of the native clay (Mt). The use of the organo-Mt produced flocculation at a very low ratio (0.5 g L -1 ), whereas no flocculation was observed with Mt. These results proved the feasibility of the use of organo-Mt for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with PRM using a low organo-Mt/liquid ratio.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and secondary sludge dewatering performance of a novel combined silicon–aluminum–iron–starch flocculant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qintie, E-mail: qintlin@163.com; Peng, Huanlong; Zhong, Songxiong; Xiang, Jiangxin

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Silicon, aluminum, and iron were grafted onto starch chains to synthesize CSiAFS. • The sludge dewatering performance of CSiAFS was superior to PAC, PAM, and FeCl{sub 3}. • CSiAFS exhibited a good dewatering efficiency over a wide range of pH (3.0–11.0). • CSiAFS had a discontinuous surface with channels which helped to sludge dewatering. - Abstract: Flocculation is one of the most widely used cost-effective pretreatment method for sludge dewatering, and a novel environmentally friendly and efficient flocculant is highly desired in the sludge dewatering field. In this study, a novel combined silicon–aluminum–ferric–starch was synthesized by grafting silicon, aluminum, and iron onto a starch backbone. The synthesized starch flocculant was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The dewatering performance of secondary sludge was evaluated according to the capillary suction time, settling volume percentage, and specific resistance to filtration. The results indicated that the copolymer exhibited: (1) a good dewatering efficiency over a wide pH range of 3.0–11.0, (2) superior sludge dewatering performance compared to those of polyaluminum chloride (PACl), polyacrylamide (PAM), ferric chloride, and (3) a discontinuous surface with many channels or voids that helps to mobilize the impermeable thin layer of secondary sludge during filter pressing. Such a novel copolymer is a promising green flocculant for secondary sludge dewatering applications.

  6. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by flocculant with the capacity of reduction and chelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Chang, Qing; Han, Xiaoting; Zhang, Mingyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a novel flocculant with the properties of reduction and chelation for Cr. ► The removal of Cr(VI) by the flocculant depends highly on pH value. ► Some coexisting ions inhibit Cr (VI) removal, but promote total Cr removal. ► Cr and turbidity can be removed simultaneously in the treated wastewater. ► The interaction mechanism is investigated by FTIR and SEM. -- Abstract: A novel agent polyethyleneimine-sodium xanthogenate (PEX) with the multifunction of reduction, chelation, flocculation and precipitation was synthesized by using polyethyleneimine (PEI), carbon disulfide (CS 2 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The effects of different important parameters, such as pH value, initial Cr(VI) concentration, coexisting ions and turbidity etc., on the removal of chromium from aqueous solution by PEX were investigated in flocculation experiments. The experiments results demonstrated that PEX could efficiently remove Cr(VI) and total Cr (Cr(VI) + Cr(III)) in strongly acidic media. It was proved that the presence of coexisting ions (Na + , Ca 2+ , F − , Cl − , and SO 4 2− ) in the solution had a little influence on the removal of chromium. Furthermore, it was conformed that Cr(VI) ions and turbidity could be simultaneously removed when water samples contained both Cr(VI) ions and turbidity. Finally, the mechanism of interaction between chromium and PEX was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results reveal that dithiocarboxylic acid groups on PEX macromolecule play a major role in Cr(VI) reduction and Cr(III) chelation, and the flocs formation is attributed to the interparticle bridging mechanism of PEX

  7. Interspecific competition influences the organization of a diverse sessile insect community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Tatiana; de Carvalho Guimarães, Carla Daniele; Rodrigues Viana, João Paulo; Silva, Bárbara

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition has played a major role in determining the effects of species interactions in terrestrial communities and the perception of its role on shaping population dynamics and community structure has changed throughout the years. In this study, we evaluated the existence of interspecific competition in the herbivore community of the dioecious plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae), which holds a diverse community of gall-forming insects. Sixty plants were studied and gall richness and abundance among plants were evaluated. To address whether a plant already occupied by a gall species is preferred or avoided by another gall species, null models were used for all 60 plants combined and for male and female plants separately. Our results have shown that the 11 species of gall-formers found on B. pseudomyriocephala co-occur less than expected by chance alone, indicating that interspecific competition might be an important force structuring the insect community in this tropical host plant, regardless of plant gender.

  8. Preparation of poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid)-grafted gum and its flocculation and biodegradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, H; Mishra, Shivani B; Mishra, A K; Kaith, B S; Jindal, R; Kalia, S

    2013-10-15

    Biodegradation studies of Gum ghatti (Gg) and acrylamide-co-acrylic acid based flocculants [Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA)] have been reported using the soil composting method. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was found to degrade 89.76% within 60 days. The progress of biodegradation at each stage was monitored through FT-IR and SEM. Polymer was synthesized under pressure using potassium persulphate-ascorbic acid as a redox initiator and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide as a crosslinker. Synthesized polymer was found to show pH, temperature and ionic strength of the cations dependent swelling behavior. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) was utilized for the selective absorption of saline from different petroleum fraction-saline emulsions. The flocculation efficiency of the polymer was studied as a function of polymer dose, temperature and pH of the solution. Gg-cl-poly(AAm-co-AA) showed maximum flocculation efficiency with 20 mol L(-1) polymer dose in acidic medium at 50 °C. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. High-level ethanol production from starch by a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying cell-surface glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, A.; Shigechi, H.; Abe, M.; Uyama, K. [Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Matsumoto, T.; Fukuda, H. [Div. of Molecular Science, Kobe Univ., Nadaku, Kobe (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Ueda, M.; Tanaka, A. [Dept. of Synthetic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Kyoto Univ., Sakyoku, Kyoto (Japan); Kishimoto, M. [Dept. of Biotechnology, Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    A Strain of host yeast YF207, which is a tryptophan auxotroph and shows strong flocculation ability, was obtained from Saccharomyces diastaticus ATCC60712 and S. cerevisiae W303-1B by tetrad analysis. The plasmid pGA11, which is a multicopy plasmid for cell-surface expression of the Rhyzopus oryzae glucoamylase/{alpha}-agglutinin fusion protein, was then introduced into this flocculent yeast strain (YF207/pGA11). Yeast YF207/pGA11 grew rapidly under aerobic condition (dissolved oxygen 2.0 ppm), using soluble starch. The harvested cells were used for batch fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol under anaerobic condition and showed high ethanol production rates (0.71 g h{sup -1} I{sup -1}) without a time lag, because glucoamylase was immobilized on the yeast cell surface. During repeated utilization of cells for fermentation, YF207/pGA11 maintained high ethanol production rates over 300 h. Moreover, in fed-batch fermentation with YF207/pGA11 for approximately 120 h, the ethanol concentration reached up to 50 g I{sup -1}. In conclusion, flocculent yeast cells displaying cell-surface glucoamylase are considered to be very effective for the direct fermentation of soluble starch to ethanol. (orig.)

  10. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Flocculating Zymomonas mobilis is a promising host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xu, Jian-Feng; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-03-01

    Whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to metabolize glucose, Zymomonas mobilis uses the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Employing the ED pathway, 50% less ATP is produced, which could lead to less biomass being accumulated during fermentation and an improved yield of ethanol. Moreover, Z. mobilis cells, which have a high specific surface area, consume glucose faster than S. cerevisiae, which could improve ethanol productivity. We performed ethanol fermentations using these two species under comparable conditions to validate these speculations. Increases of 3.5 and 3.3% in ethanol yield, and 58.1 and 77.8% in ethanol productivity, were observed in ethanol fermentations using Z. mobilis ZM4 in media containing ∼100 and 200 g/L glucose, respectively. Furthermore, ethanol fermentation bythe flocculating Z. mobilis ZM401 was explored. Although no significant difference was observed in ethanol yield and productivity, the flocculation of the bacterial species enabled biomass recovery by cost-effective sedimentation, instead of centrifugation with intensive capital investment and energy consumption. In addition, tolerance to inhibitory byproducts released during biomass pretreatment, particularly acetic acid and vanillin, was improved. These experimental results indicate that Z. mobilis, particularly its flocculating strain, is superior to S. cerevisiae as a host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Treatment of landfill leachate by a combined process: Iron electrodissolution, iron oxidation by H2O2 and chemical flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Donneys-Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of iron electrodissolution and the flocculation processes with Fe2+ and Fe3+ for removing color, turbidity, chloride and chemical oxygen demand (COD were studied by treating a landfill leachate effluent from “El Carrasco” (Bucaramanga, Colombia. The pH and current density for the electrodissolution treatment were determined from potentiodynamic polarization studies. The electrodissolution process was performed under galvanostatic conditions at 24 A m−2 with changing polarity of the electrodes. Hydrogen peroxide was used for the oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ while Ca(OH2 was used for the flocculation as the pH modifier and coagulant adjuvant agent along with an anionic polyacrylamide. The results showed that higher removal efficiencies of the COD, color and turbidity were obtained (85, 96 and 76%, respectively using 0.225 g L−1 of hydrogen peroxide at pH about 8.5 after 150 min; requiring 0.6 kWh m−3 and a total treatment cost of 2.24 USD m−3. Keywords: Leachate, Iron electrodissolution, Potentiodynamic polarization, Flocculation

  13. Coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation and filtration in the removal of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. from water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Fernando César; Sabogal-Paz, Lyda Patricia

    2017-11-15

    Removing protozoa from a water supply using coagulation, flocculation, dissolved air flotation (DAF) and filtration on a bench scale was evaluated. Calcium carbonate flocculation with and without immunomagnetic separation (IMS) was chosen to detect Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in the studied samples. The results indicated that DAF removed between 1.31 log and 1.79 log of cysts and between 1.08 log and 1.42 log of oocysts. The performance was lower in filtration, with the removal of 1.07 log-1.44 log for cysts and 0.82 log-0.98 log for oocysts. The coagulation, flocculation, DAF and filtration steps removed more than 2.2 log of cysts and oocysts from the water studied. However, protozoa were detected in the filtered water, even with turbidity values of 0.2 NTU. The recovery of the detection method met the international criteria and was higher when there was no IMS. Including the third acid dissociation in the IMS was critical to improve the performance of the protocol tested. However, there was an increase in the technical and analytical complexity and costs. It was also observed that the efficiency of the treatment was linked to the performance of the selected method of detecting protozoa.

  14. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Liu, Kai; An, Ming-Zhe; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Koike, Yoji [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., 1-7-7 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Wu, Xiao-Lei [Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h{sup -1}. The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l{sup -1} d{sup -1} with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste. (author)

  15. Performance of a continuously operated flocculent sludge UASB reactor with slaughterhouse wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, S.; Zeeuw, W. de

    1988-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to assess the performance of a continuously operated, one-stage, flocculent sludge upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater at a process temperature of 30/sup 0/C. The results indicate that the type of substrate ingredients, coarse suspended solids, colloidal and soluble compounds in the wastewater, affect the performance of the reactor because of different mechanisms involved in their removal and their subsequent conversion into methane. Two different mechanisms are distinguished. An entrapment mechanism prevails for the elimination of coarse suspended solids while an adsorption mechanism is involved in the removal of the colloidal and soluble fractions of the wastewater. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that the system can satisfactorily handle organic space loads up to 5 kg COD m/sup -3/ day/sup -1/ at 30/sup 0/C. The data indicate, however, that continuing heavy accumulation of substrate components in the reactor is detrimental to the stability of the anaerobic treatment process as the accumulation can lead to sludge flotation and consequently to a complete loss of the active biomass from the reactor.

  16. Low-cost multi-stage filtration enhanced by coagulation-flocculation in upflow gravel filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the operational and design aspects of coagulation and flocculation in upflow gravel filters (CF-UGF in a multi-stage filtration (MSF plant. This study shows that CF-UGF units improve the performance of MSF considerably, when the system operates with turbidity above 30 NTU. It strongly reduces the load of particulate material before the water enters in the slow sand filters (SSF and therewith avoids short filter runs and prevents early interruption in SSF operations. The removal efficiency of turbidity in the CF-UGF with coagulant was between 85 and 96%, whereas the average efficiency without coagulant dosing was 46% (range: 21–76%. Operating with coagulant also improves the removal efficiency for total coliforms, E-coli and HPC. No reduction was observed in the microbial activity of the SSF, no obstruction of the SSF bed was demonstrated and SSF runs were maintained between 50 and 70 days for a maximum head loss of 0.70 m. The most important advantage is the flexibility of the system to operate with and without coagulant according to the influent turbidity. It was only necessary for 20% of the time to operate with the coagulant. The CF-UGF unit represented 7% of total construction costs and the O&M cost for the use of coagulant represented only 0.3%.

  17. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  18. Removal of Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 from effluent by coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency treatment in removing Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-1 25 from an aqueous radioactive effluent. The wastes are currently being produced from hospitals, research institutes, clinics and universities. Effluent was spiked separately with each type of the radioisotope and was treated by the coagulation-flocculation process. By varying the chemical dosages (i.e., alum, soda ash, ferric chloride and coagulant aid) in the treatment, different decontamination factor values were obtained. Optimum dosages and types of chemical used to remove a particular radioisotope was determined. Results indicated that optimum pH value for removing Zn-65 in an effluent was pH 8. The highest decontamination factor value was 61. In removal of 1-125 radioisotope, ferric chloride was suitable as a coagulant that gives the highest decontamination factor value of 5.0. Treatment to remove Mo-99 radioisotopes was conducted in the laboratory and treatment plant scale. For Mo-99 radioisotope treatment by laboratory and Plant scale, the highest decontamination factor obtained was between pH values of 4.0 to 4.5. By extrapolation of both scales, the plant scale treatment does not vary significantly from laboratory scale. This indicated treatment dosages of chemicals for the Low Level Treatment Plant scale be deduced from the laboratory scale

  19. UV disinfection and flocculation-chlorination sachets to reduce hepatitis E virus in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Sommer, Regina; Rosina, Girones

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major cause of waterborne outbreaks in areas with poor sanitation. As safe water supplies are the keystone for preventing HEV outbreaks, data on the efficacy of disinfection treatments are urgently needed. Here, we evaluated the ability of UV radiation and flocculation-chlorination sachets (FCSs) to reduce HEV in water matrices. The HEV-p6-kernow strain was replicated in the HepG2/C3A cell line, and we quantified genome number using qRT-PCR and infectivity using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). UV irradiation tests using low-pressure radiation showed inactivation kinetics for HEV of 99.99% with a UV fluence of 232J/m(2) (IC 95%, 195,02-269,18). Moreover, the FCSs preparations significantly reduced viral concentrations in both water matrices, although the inactivation results were under the baseline of reduction (4.5 LRV) proposed by WHO guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethanol production from kitchen waste using the flocculating yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KF-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.-Q.; Koike, Yoji; Liu Kai; An, M.-Z.; Morimura, Shigeru; Wu Xiaolei; Kida, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from kitchen waste was developed in this study. The process consists of freshness preservation of the waste, saccharification of the sugars in the waste, continuous ethanol fermentation of the saccharified liquid, and anaerobic treatment of the saccharification residue and the stillage. Spraying lactic acid bacteria (LCB) on the kitchen waste kept the waste fresh for over 1 week. High glucose recovery (85.5%) from LCB-sprayed waste was achieved after saccharification using Nagase N-40 glucoamylase. The resulting saccharified liquid was used directly for ethanol fermentation, without the addition of any nutrients. High ethanol productivity (24.0 g l -1 h -1 ) was obtained when the flocculating yeast strain KF-7 was used in a continuous ethanol fermentation process at a dilution rate of 0.8 h -1 . The saccharification residue was mixed with stillage and treated in a thermophilic anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); a VTS loading rate of 6 g l -1 d -1 with 72% VTS digestion efficiency was achieved. Using this process, 30.9 g ethanol, and 65.2 l biogas with 50% methane, was produced from 1 kg of kitchen waste containing 118.0 g total sugar. Thus, energy in kitchen waste can be converted to ethanol and methane, which can then be used as fuels, while simultaneously treating kitchen waste

  1. Wastewater Treatment in Dyehouse using Flocculation Method and Water re-use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelog Karla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research was to determine whether the treatment of dye-house wastewater with fl occulation could be efficient enough for water re-use in further production. A cationic condensation product was chosen for the treatment of industrial mixed wastewater collected in one week in Gorenjska predilnica d. d. Treated water was used for laboratory dyeing of cotton, polyester, polyacrylonitril, polyamide and wool with three different recipes representing light, medium and dark shade. The fabrics were dyed comparatively using technological and treated water under the same conditions. Colourimetric evaluation of dyed samples was done on spectrophotometer DataColour Spectrafl ash SF-600X. Wet fastness and colour fastness to perspiration (acid and alkaline of differently dyed samples were investigated. The results showed a high efficiency of flocculation for dye-house wastewater treatment and reuse of treated water in production. The change of colour was acceptable for all dyed samples except cotton light shade. Wet fastness became worse only on cotton but not more than one grade, when comparing the samples dyed in technological and those dyed in cleaned water. The colour fastness to perspiration did not change for polyester and polyacrylonitril; it was worse only for cotton samples.

  2. In situ determination of flocculated suspended material settling velocities and characteristics using a floc camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.; Haught, Dan; Manning, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of suspended sediment settling are necessary for numerical sediment models, water quality studies, and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems. Settling of cohesive sediment, which is common in estuaries, is more difficult to quantify than noncohesive sediment because of flocculation. Flocs are composed of an aggregation of finer silts, clays, and organic material. Floc characteristics, such as the diameter, density, porosity, and water content determine floc settling velocities. A floc camera provides the ability to capture the settling velocities and other desired characteristics of individual flocs in situ. Water samples taken using a Van Dorn sampler are immediately subsampled using a pipette and transferred to the floc camera. The Perspex settling column is outfitted with a LED backlighting to distinguish flocs. The floc camera’s high pixel and temporal resolution allows image analysis software to detect individual flocs and process floc statistics per image. Observed changes in floc location with respect to time presents a way of calculating settling velocities. This work presents results of validation tests with known sediment size distributions and of deployment of the camera during a field study.

  3. Clay-oil flocculation during surf washing at the Sea Empress incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.; Lunel, T.; Bailey, N.; Lee, K.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigations into clay-oil flocculation during surf washing of oiled cobbles at Marros Beach, as a response to oiling during the Sea Empress incident, were summarized. Stranded oil on the cobble storm beach was found to associate with fine minerals and form flocs when introduced into sea water. The emulsions persisted for about 14 days after the oiling, after which it begun to disintegrate. After 50 days the remaining emulsion was found to be unstable and penetrated the beach to depths of up to three meters. Since no evidence of biodegradation was found during this period, oil reduction was attributed to sheening, facilitated by tidal fluctuations. Surf washing operation was undertaken over a seven day period beginning 47 days after the spill. Some 8150 tonnes of oiled cobbles were moved a distance of between 12 and 18 m seaward along a length of 850 m. Analysis of samples after two days following surf washing showed that oil concentration did not exceed 22 ppm, compared to 700 ppm before relocation. The significant reduction was considered to have been the result of enhanced oil dispersion coupled with the effects of the surf washing operations. 10 refs., 7 tabs., 10 figs

  4. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  5. In-situ precipitation and flocculation of iron hydroxides. A novel alternative to gel treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. [Miskolch Univ. (Hungary). Research Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Kosztin, B.; Palasthy, Gy. [Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Szolnok (Hungary)

    2002-01-01

    Development of a new well treatment method was stimulated by recognizing that some inorganic compounds, particularly Fe(III) compounds, can be transformed into gel-like precipitate by in-situ hydrolysis which is then immobilized by flocculation or spontaneous aging. These blocking materials have excellent stability under field conditions, but in case of technological failure the gel phase can easily be broken up into mobile sols. Further, the novel method is characterized by outstanding placement selectivity; self-controlling chemical mechanism and injectivity problems may not arise even in low permeable porous systems. During a field tests, extending over four years, 10 oil producing and 7 water injection wells were treated. The well responses were different: ration of the technical success was about 60%, while 40% of treatment was definitely profitable. In special reservoir blocks the injectors were simultaneously treated with the oil producing wells. The primary aim of these projects was to enhance the effect of profile correction around the producers and to improve the frontal displacement mechanism. The novel method proved to be compatible with the reservoir system and technical failure was not encountered during the past five years. The positive results contributed significantly to a recent decision of the operator that, parallel with other profile correction and water shut-off (e.g. polymer/silicate) techniques, application of the novel method will be extended to other reservoirs of the Algyo field, Hungary. (orig.)

  6. Advantages of magnifying narrow-band imaging for diagnosing colorectal cancer coexisting with sessile serrated adenoma/polyp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Akiko; Osumi, Hiroki; Kishihara, Teruhito; Morishige, Kenjiro; Ishikawa, Hirotaka; Tamegai, Yoshiro; Igarashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the advantages of narrow-band imaging (NBI) for efficient diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P). The main objective of this study was to analyze the characteristic features of cancer coexisting with serrated lesion by carrying out NBI. We evaluated 264 non-malignant serrated lesions by using three modalities (conventional white light colonoscopy, magnifying chromoendoscopy, and magnifying NBI). Of the evaluated cancer cases with serrated lesions, 37 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In diagnosing non-malignant SSA/P, an expanded crypt opening (ECO) under magnifying NBI is a useful sign. One hundred and twenty-five lesions (87%) of observed ECO were, at the same time, detected to have type II open pit pattern, which is known to be a valuable indicator when using magnifying chromoendoscopy. ECO had high sensitivity of 80% for identifying SSA/P, with 62% specificity and 83% positive predictive value (PPV). In detecting the cancer with SSA/P, irregular vessels under magnifying NBI were frequently observed with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, 86% PPV and 100% negative predictive value. A focus on irregular vessels in serrated lesions might be useful for identification of cancer with SSA/P. This is an advantage of carrying out magnifying NBI in addition to being used simultaneously with other modalities by switching, and observations can be made by using wash-in water alone. We can carry out advanced examinations for selected lesions with irregular vessels. To confirm cancerous demarcation and invasion depth, a combination of all three aforementioned modalities should be done. © 2016 The Authors Digestive Endoscopy © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Identification of risk factors for sessile and traditional serrated adenomas of the colon by using big data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Jeung Hui; Ha, Sang Yun; Hong, Sung Noh; Chang, Dong Kyung; Son, Hee Jung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Hyeseung; Kim, Kyunga; Kim, Jee Eun; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Kim, Young-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the risk factors associated with serrated polyps, because the early studies, which occurred before the new World Health Organization classification was introduced, included mixtures of serrated polyps. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the presence of sessile serrated adenomas (SSAs) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) using big data analytics. Using a case-control design, we evaluated the risk factors associated with the presence of SSAs and TSAs. Subjects who underwent colonoscopies from 2002 to 2012 as part of the comprehensive health screening programs undertaken at the Samsung Medical Center, Korea, participated in this study. Of the 48 677 individuals who underwent colonoscopies, 183 (0.4%) had SSAs and 212 (0.4%) had TSAs. The multivariate analysis determined that being aged ≥ 50 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.27-2.90, P = 0.002) and a history of colorectal cancer among first-degree relatives (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.57-6.27, P = 0.001) were significant risk factors associated with the presence of SSAs and that being aged ≥ 50 years (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.79-3.80, P < 0.001), obesity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.36, P = 0.010), and a higher triglyceride level (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12-2.36, P = 0.010) were independent risk factors associated with the presence of TSAs. We used big data analytics to determine the risk factors associated with the presence of specific polyp subgroups, and individuals who have these risk factors should be carefully scrutinized for the presence of SSAs or TSAs during screening colonoscopies. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Wide-field piecemeal cold snare polypectomy of large sessile serrated polyps without a submucosal injection is safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, David J; Awadie, Halim; Bahin, Farzan F; Desomer, Lobke; Lee, Ralph; Heitman, Steven J; Goodrick, Kathleen; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Large series suggest endoscopic mucosal resection is safe and effective for the removal of large (≥ 10 mm) sessile serrated polyps (SSPs), but it exposes the patient to the risks of electrocautery, including delayed bleeding. We examined the feasibility and safety of piecemeal cold snare polypectomy (pCSP) for the resection of large SSPs.  Sequential large SSPs (10 - 35 mm) without endoscopic evidence of dysplasia referred over 12 months to a tertiary endoscopy center were considered for pCSP. A thin-wire snare was used in all cases. Submucosal injection was not performed. High definition imaging of the defect margin was used to ensure the absence of residual serrated tissue. Adverse events were assessed at 2 weeks and surveillance was planned for between 6 and 12 months.  41 SSPs were completely removed by pCSP in 34 patients. The median SSP size was 15 mm (interquartile range [IQR] 14.5 - 20 mm; range 10 - 35 mm). The median procedure duration was 4.5 minutes (IQR 1.4 - 6.3 minutes). There was no evidence of perforation or significant intraprocedural bleeding. At 2-week follow-up, there were no significant adverse events, including delayed bleeding and post polypectomy syndrome. First follow-up has been undertaken for 15 /41 lesions at a median of 6 months with no evidence of recurrence.  There is potential for pCSP to become the standard of care for non-dysplastic large SSPs. This could reduce the burden of removing SSPs on patients and healthcare systems, particularly by avoidance of delayed bleeding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  10. Uniform Incorporation of Flocculent Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructure into Three-Dimensional Porous Graphene as an Anode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries and Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Yongbing; Liu, Hui; Ji, Hongyi; Jiang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolong; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs) with lithium-ion battery-type anodes and electric double layer capacitor-type cathodes are attracting extensive attention and under wide investigation because of their combined merits of both high power and energy density. However, the performance of most HSCs is limited by low kinetics of the battery-type anode which cannot match the fast kinetics of the capacitor-type cathode. In this study, we have synthesized a three-dimensional (3D) porous composite with uniformly incorporated MoS2 flocculent nanostructure onto 3D graphene via a facile solution-processed method as an anode for high-performance HSCs. This composite shows significantly enhanced electrochemical performance due to the synergistic effects of the conductive graphene sheets and the interconnected porous structure, which exhibits a high rate capability of 688 mAh/g even at a high current density of 8 A/g and a stable cycling performance (997 mAh/g after 700 cycles at 2 A/g). Furthermore, by using this composite as the anode for HSCs, the HSC shows a high energy density of 156 Wh/kg at 197 W/kg, which also remains at 97 Wh/kg even at a high power density of 8314 W/kg with a stable cycling life, among the best results of the reported HSCs thus far.

  11. Flocculation of organic carbon from headwaters to estuary - the impact of soil erosion, water quality and land use on carbon transformation processes in eight streams draining Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoalv, J.; Groeneveld, M.; Quine, T. A.; Tranvik, L.

    2017-12-01

    Flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in streams and rivers is a process that contributes to the pool of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the aquatic system. In low-energy waters the increased sedimentation rates of this higher-density fraction of organic carbon (OC) makes POC important in allocating organic carbon into limnic storage, which subsequently influences emissions of greenhouse gases from the continental environment to the atmosphere. Allochthonous OC, derived from the terrestrial environment by soil erosion and litterfall, import both mineral aggregate-bound and free OC into freshwaters, which comprise carbon species of different quality and recalcitrance than autochthonous in-stream produced OC, such as from biofilms, aquatic plants and algae. Increased soil erosion due to land use change (e.g. agriculture, deforestation etc.) influences the input of allochthonous OC, which can lead to increased POC formation and sedimentation of terrestrial OC at flocculation boundaries in the landscape, i.e. where coagulation and flocculation processes are prone to occur in the water column. This study investigates the seasonal variation in POC content and flocculation capacity with respect to water quality (elemental composition) in eight river systems (four agricultural and four wooded streams) with headwaters in Exmoor, UK, that drain managed and non-managed land into Bristol Channel. Through flocculation experiments the samples were allowed to flocculate by treatments with added clay and salt standards that simulate the flocculation processes by 1) increased input of sediment into streams, and 2) saline mixing at the estuarine boundary, in order to quantify floc production and investigate POC quality by each process respectively. The results show how floc production, carbon quality and incorporation (e.g. complexation) of metals and rare earth elements (REE) in produced POC and remaining DOC in solution vary in water samples over the season and how

  12. Variations of floc morphology and extracellular organic matters (EOM) in relation to floc filterability under algae flocculation harvesting using polymeric titanium coagulants (PTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weijun; Song, Rongna; Cao, Bingdi; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng; Fu, Xingmin; Song, Yao

    2018-05-01

    The work evaluated the algae cells removal efficiency using titanium salt coagulants with different degree of polymerization (PTCs), and the algae cells aggregates and extracellular organic matter (EOM) under chemical flocculation were investigated. The results indicated that PTCs performed well in algae cells flocculation and separation. The main mechanism using PTCs of low alkalisation degree for algae flocculation was associated with charge neutralization, while adsorption bridging and sweep flocculation was mainly responsible for algae removal by PTCs of high alkalisation degree treatment. In addition, the flocs formed by PTC 1.0 showed the best filtration property, and EOM reached the minimum at this time, indicating the flocs formed by PTC 1.0 were more compact than other PTCs, which can be confirmed by SEM analysis. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3D-EEM) and high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) revealed that the EOMs were removed under PTCs flocculation, which improved floc filterability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Landfill Leachate Treatment Using Coupled, Sequential Coagulation-flocculation and Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Álvarez Cruz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of Fenton (Fe/H2O2 and photo-assisted Fenton (Fe2+/H2O2/UV reactions combined with coagulation-flocculation (C-F processes to remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD in a landfill leachate from Mexico at a laboratory scale. The C-F experiments were carried out in jar test equipment using different FeSO4 concentrations (0.0, 0.6, 1.0, 3, and 6 mM at pH = 3.0. The effluent from the C-F processes were then treated using the Fenton reaction. The experiments were carried out in a 500 mL glass reactor fillet with 250 mL of landfill leachate. Different molar ratio concentrations (Fe/H2O2 were tested (e.g., 1.6, 3.3, 30, 40 and 75, and the reaction was followed until COD analysis showed no significant further variation in concentration or until 90 min of reaction time were completed. The photo-assisted Fenton reaction was carried out using a UV lamp (365 nm, 5 mW with the same Fe/H2O2 molar ratio values described above. The results suggested that the photo-assisted Fenton process is the most efficient oxidation method for removing organic matter and color in the leachate. The photo-assisted Fenton process removed 68% of the COD and 90% of the color at pH = 3 over 30 minutes of reaction time using a H2O2/Fe molar ratio equal to 75 only using a third of the reaction time of the previous process.

  14. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  15. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase separation and flocculation for a charged colloidal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Wu, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We model the intercolloidal interaction by a hard-sphere Yukawa repulsion to which is added the long-range van der Waals attraction. In comparison with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsion, the Yukawa repulsion explicitly incorporates the spatial correlations between colloids and small ions. As a result, the repulsive part can be expressed analytically and has a coupling strength depending on the colloidal volume fraction. By use of this two-body potential of mean force and in conjunction with a second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, we construct the colloidal Helmholtz free energy and use it to calculate the thermodynamic quantities, pressure and chemical potential, needed in the determination of the liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagrams. We examine, in an aqueous charged colloidal dispersion, the effects of the Hamaker constant and particle size on the conformation of a stable liquid-liquid phase transition calculated with respect to the liquid-solid coexistence phases. We find that there exists a threshold Hamaker constant or particle size whose value demarcates the stable liquid-liquid coexistence phases from their metastable counterparts. Applying the same technique and using the energetic criterion, we extend our calculations to study the flocculation phenomenon in aqueous charged colloids. Here, we pay due attention to determining the loci of a stability curve stipulated for a given temperature T 0 , and obtain the parametric phase diagram of the Hamaker constant vs the coupling strength or, at given surface potential, the particle size. By imposing T 0 to be the critical temperature T c , i.e., setting k B T 0 (=k B T c ) equal to a reasonable potential barrier, we arrive at the stability curve that marks the irreversible reversible phase transition. The interesting result is that there occurs a minimum size for the colloidal particles below (above) which the colloidal dispersion is driven to an irreversible (reversible) phase

  16. A heuristic formula for turbulence-induced flocculation of cohesive sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterwerp, J. C.; Manning, A. J.; Martens, C.; de Mulder, T.; Vanlede, J.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents new measurements on the settling velocity of mud flocs in the Lower Sea Scheldt, Belgium, and compares the results with data obtained previously in the Tamar estuary, UK. The data show that the flocs are fairly compact with a fractal dimension of about 2.2, which is indicative for reaction limited aggregation processes, characteristic in dynamic aquatic systems with large tidal flow velocities and high SPM (suspended particulate matter) concentrations. The data also reveal a fairly small dependency of the settling velocity from SPM concentrations, consistently much smaller than earlier data published in literature. Furthermore, a simple explicit formulation is proposed for the settling velocity of cohesive sediment in estuaries and coastal seas. It is derived from an analytical solution of a Lagrangean flocculation model, which accounts for turbulence-induced aggregation and floc break-up. Also the effects of variations in SPM and of a limited residence time of the flocs in the turbulent water column are included. The model has been calibrated against data from settling velocity measurements carried out in the Tamar estuary. Values of the measured settling velocity vary between 0.5 and 5 mm s -1 at SPM-values between 0.05 and 8 g l -1. Using the tuned coefficients, the model describes the observations satisfactory, with an overall relative standard deviation of 30%. Also, the well-known and observed increase in settling velocity with turbulent shear stress at low stresses and the opposite trend at high stresses is described properly. Next, the model is applied to the new data obtained in the Lower Sea Scheldt estuary, again comparing favourably with overall relative standard deviations of 30-50%. It appeared that the coefficients of the model can be determined from independent measurements, but two of them have to be determined by trial and error, for which a simple procedure is proposed.

  17. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  18. Contact angle of copper-bearing shales using the sessile drop and captive bubble methods in the presence of selected frothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Szyszka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the measurement of contact angle of copper-bearing shales. The values of advancing and receding contact angles were determined using the sessile drop and captive bubble methods in the presence of aqueous solutions of acetal and pyridine and distilled water. Both methods demonstrated that the tested substances had only minor impact on the surface hydrophobicity of copper-bearing shales expressed by contact angle. The tests carried out proved that neither acetal nor pyridine may be classified to the collecting reagents because none of them improves hydrophobicity of copper-bearing shales. These reagents are only flotation frothers.

  19. Nano- and microparticles and associated pollutants in stormwater runoff: effects of disc filtration with and without flocculant addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Katrine; Mørch-Madsen, Andreas; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    Danish municipalities work towards separating stormwater and sewage. But stormwater runoff may be heavily polluted and therefore it is needed to find Best Available Technologies (BAT) to source separate and treat stormwater before discharge into surface waters. The aim here was to determine...... for treating stormwater runoff. The micro-sized particles were found to be mainly 2.1-19 μm in diameter and nano-sized particles were also observed (86-228 nm). Although the flocculant increased the observed volume of the micro-sized particles by 46%, the majority of the particles where still

  20. Elimination of man-made radionuclides from natural waters by applying a standard coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Miro, C.; Salas, A.; Fernandez, M.; Herranz, M.; Legarda, F.

    2004-01-01

    Effectiveness of potable water treatment processes that consist of the stages of coagulation-flocculation-decantation, using iron-based coagulants, in eliminating gamma-emitting man-made radioisotopes of cesium, strontium, and americium from two natural waters with different degrees of mineralization was studied. The resulting decontamination was found to depend on the chemical behavior of each of the radionuclides considered, on the pH at which the process of coagulation is carried out, and on the concentration of the other stable cations present. (author)

  1. Sedimentation Effects of Adding Flocculants to Leached Slurries at Lab Scale in the “Comandante Ernesto Che Guevara” plant in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eluberto Espinosa-Espinosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of adding PICIZ 7010, AN 910SH and Quimifloc N-30 flocculants to leached and magnetized slurries at lab scale. The evaluation was completed through the comparative method in accordance to the NRBI-579 Standard: Sedimentation Tests which use Talmage and Fitch method. The addition of Quimifloc N-30 flocculants to 6 g/t of reduced ore increased slurry density by 5,9 %, improved liquor clarification as result of a reduction of up to 75 % in suspended solids and slightly reduced the required unit area.

  2. The nuclear techniques in function of improving the efficiency of the flocculators and floats in the industrial waste treatment station of PETROBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damera Martinez, Arnaldo; Ramos Espinosa, Kenia A.; Pinto, Amenonia Ferreira; Barbalho, Andrea de Magalhaes; Derivet Zarzabal, Milagros

    2001-01-01

    This work was carried out in the Station of Treatment of Industrial Waste (STIW) in PETROBRAS (Brazil). The STIW has the function of receiving, to treat and storage liquid wastes coming from diverse points of the refinery, avoiding the environment contamination. This study consists on the determination of the time of residence inside the flocculators and floats, by means of nuclear technique of radioactive tracer, using Tc-99m. This technique has a great economic and environmental importance because the time of residence obtained experimentally in the flocculators and the floats, can be compared with those obtained theoretically, which allow to influence on the system, optimizing its operation

  3. [Effect of polymeric aluminum-iron on EPS and bio-flocculation in A2/O system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qin-Xue; Liu, Ai-Cui; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Han-Chang; Lü, Bing-Nan

    2012-04-01

    Polymeric aluminum-iron (PAFC) was added at the end of aeration tank to enhance phosphorus removal, so that the phosphorus concentration in the effluent could meet the calss A standard in municipal sewage treatment plant pollutant discharge standard (GB 18918-2002). The characteristics of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) and bio-flocculation for the activated sludge in the A2/O system were analyzed in the experiment. The results showed that, the gross of EPS varied little with the increase in PAFC dosage, while, the ratio of albumen to polysaccharide declined from 3.30 to 2.30. When the PAFC dosage increased, the concentration of Al3+ in EPS increased during the whole anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic cycle. The flocs of activated sludge became larger after PAFC addition, Zeta potential of the effluent dropped significantly from - 15.83 mV to -21.20 mV and sludge yield increased. Therefore, bio-flocculation of the activated sludge in the A2/O system improved when a proper amount of PAFC was added, subsequently improve the water quality of the effluent.

  4. Impact of Coagulant and Flocculant Addition to an Anaerobic Dynamic Membrane Bioreactor (AnDMBR) Treating Waste-Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Guido; Lopes, Wilton; Zhou, Zhongbo; Guo, Hongxiao; de Kreuk, Merle; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules

    2017-03-23

    In this work, we investigated the effects of flocculation aid (FA) addition to an anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) (7 L, 35 °C) treating waste-activated sludge (WAS). The experiment consisted of three distinct periods. In period 1 (day 1-86), the reactor was operated as a conventional anaerobic digester with a solids retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 days. In period 2 (day 86-303), the HRT was lowered to 18 days with the application of a dynamic membrane while the SRT was kept the same. In period 3 (day 303-386), a cationic FA in combination with FeCl₃ was added. The additions led to a lower viscosity, which was expected to lead to an increased digestion performance. However, the FAs caused irreversible binding of the substrate, lowering the volatile solids destruction from 32% in period 2 to 24% in period 3. An accumulation of small particulates was observed in the sludge, lowering the average particle size by 50%. These particulates likely caused pore blocking in the cake layer, doubling the trans-membrane pressure. The methanogenic consortia were unaffected. Dosing coagulants and flocculants into an AnDMBR treating sludge leads to a decreased cake layer permeability and decreased sludge degradation.

  5. A novel Fe(III) dependent bioflocculant from Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4-08: culture conditions optimization and flocculation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Tang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Jia; Chen, Rong-Ping; Liu, Xin; Qiao, Wei-Chuan; Li, Wen-Wei; Ruan, Hong-Hua; Song, Xin

    2016-10-07

    In this work, the effect of cultivation factors on the flocculation efficiency (FE) of bioflocculant P-GS408 from Klebsiella oxytoca was optimized by the response surface methodology. The most significant factor, i.e. culture time, was determined by gray relational analysis. A total of 240 mg of purified P-GS408 was prepared from 1 liter of culture solution under the optimal conditions. GC-MS analysis results indicated that the polysaccharide of P-GS408 mainly contains Rhamnose and Galactose, and the existence of abundant hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino groups was evidenced by FTIR and XPS analyses. With the aid of Fe 3+ , the FE of kaolin solution by P-GS408 could achieve 99.48% in ten minutes. Functional groups of polysaccharide were involved in the first adsorption step and the zeta potential of kaolin solution changed from -39.0 mV to 43.4 mV in the presence of Fe 3+ and P-GS408. Three-dimensional excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectra demonstrates that the trivalent Fe 3+ and Al 3+ can bind efficiently with P-GS408, while those univalent and divalent cations cannot. With the help of SEM images, FTIR, zeta potential and EEM spectra, we proposed the P-GS408 flocculation mechanism, which consists of coordination bond combination, charge neutrality, adsorption and bridging, and net catching.

  6. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity of wastewater collected from a textile factory before and after treatment by coagulation-flocculation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makene, Vedastus W; Tijani, Jimoh O; Petrik, Leslie F; Pool, Edmund J

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of textile effluent prior to discharge is necessary in order to avert the associated adverse health impacts on human and aquatic life. In the present investigation, coagulation/flocculation processes were evaluated for the effectiveness of the individual treatment. Effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the physicochemical characteristics. The quality of the pre-treated and post-flocculation treated effluent was further evaluated by determination of cytotoxicity and inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cell cultures. Cytotoxicity was determined using WST-1 assay. Nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. NO was determined in cell culture supernatant using the Griess reaction assay. The IL-6 secretion was determined using double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS ELISA). Cytotoxicity results show that raw effluent reduced the cell viability significantly (P production than the negative control. The inflammatory results further show that the raw effluent induced significantly (P production of IL-6 than the negative control. Among the coagulants/flocculants evaluated Al2(SO4)3.14H2O at a dosage of 1.6 g/L was the most effective to remove both toxic and inflammatory pollutants. In conclusion, the inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells can be used as sensitive biomarkers for monitoring the effectiveness of coagulation/flocculation processes used for textile effluent treatment.

  7. TiO2 Photocatalyst Nanoparticle Separation: Flocculation in Different Matrices and Use of Powdered Activated Carbon as a Precoat in Low-Cost Fabric Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Liriano-Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of photocatalyst nanoparticles is a problem impeding widespread application of photocatalytic oxidation. As sedimentation of photocatalyst particles is facilitated by their flocculation, the influence of common constituents of biologically pretreated wastewaters (NaCl, NaHCO3, and their combination with humic acid sodium salt on flocculation was tested by the pipet method. Results showed that the impact of these substances on TiO2 nanoparticle flocculation is rather complex and strongly affected by pH. When humic acid was present, TiO2 particles did not show efficient flocculation in the neutral and slightly basic pH range. As an alternative to photocatalyst separation by sedimentation, precoat vacuum filtration with powdered activated carbon (PAC over low-cost spunbond polypropylene fabrics was tested in the presence of two PAC types in aqueous NaCl and NaHCO3 solutions as well as in biologically treated greywater and in secondary municipal effluent. PAC concentrations of ≥2 g/L were required in order to achieve a retention of nearly 95% of the TiO2 nanoparticles on the fabric filter when TiO2 concentration was 1 g/L. Composition of the aqueous matrix and PAC type had a slight impact on precoat filtration. PAC precoat filtration represents a potential pretreatment for photocatalyst removal by micro- or ultrafiltration.

  8. Comparison between coagulation-flocculation and ozone-flotation for Scenedesmus microalgal biomolecule recovery and nutrient removal from wastewater in a high-rate algal pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gislayne Alves; Carissimi, Elvis; Monje-Ramírez, Ignacio; Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B; Rodrigues, Rafael Teixeira; Ledesma, María Teresa Orta

    2018-07-01

    The removal of nutrients by Scenedesmus sp. in a high-rate algal pond, and subsequent algal separation by coagulation-flocculation or flotation with ozone to recover biomolecules, were evaluated. Cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. in wastewater resulted in complete NH 3 -H removal, plus 93% total nitrogen and 61% orthophosphate removals. Ozone-flotation obtained better water quality results than coagulation-flocculation for most parameters (NH 3 -N, NTK, nitrate and nitrite) except orthophosphate. Ozone-flotation, also produced the highest recovery of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins which were 0.32 ± 0.03, 0.33 ± 0.025 and 0.58 ± 0.014 mg/mg of biomass, respectively. In contrast, there was a low lipid extraction of 0.21 mg of lipids/mg of biomass and 0.12-0.23 mg of protein/mg of biomass in the coagulation-flocculation process. In terms of biomolecule recovery and water quality, ozone showed better results than coagulation-flocculation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethanol production with a flocculating mutant of Zymomonas mobilis and immobilized glycoside hydrolases. Ethanolgewinnung mit einer flockenden Mutante von Zymomonas mobilis und immobilisierten Glycosidhydrolasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramm-Werner, S.

    1987-05-25

    A method to extend the substrate spectrum of Z. mobilis was developed. Higher ethanol yields were achieved by simultaneous use of hydrolases cross-linked with glutar aldehyde together with the flocculating Zymomonas cells (TW 602). Apart from the high product yields, the method is characterized by low susceptibility to infections.

  10. Effects of evaporation pressure and antifoam concentration and the use of a flocculant and adjuvant on the quality of sugar honey and panela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Esperanza Prada Forero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of multi-effect evaporators on panela (unrefined whole cane sugar production process requires, besides the technological adjustment, to maintain product characteristics; this condition revealed the lack of knowledge of the effect of evaporation pressure on the quality of panela. In order to fill part of this gap, this study sought to determine the effect of both the concentration of antifoam and the use of a flocculant (Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth and an adjuvant (lime on the quality of sugar honey and panela, when evaporation is performed at different atmospheric pressures. In order to achieve this, the present study worked on two completely randomized experimental designs with four replications, a density of evaporation heat flow of 27.78 kW/m2 and juice from the CC85-46 variety. In the first design, two variables were studied: evaporation pressure and use of flocculant and adjuvant with a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement without antifoam. In the second design, variables evaporation pressure and quantity of antifoam with a 4x3 factorial arrangement without flocculant nor adjuvant were studied. The results show that the quality of the product deteriorates in pressurized systems (glucoside coefficient increases up to 200%, is not affected by the use of 50 μL of antifoam per liter of clarified juice and improved by the use of flocculant (turbidity is reduced by 55%. Solidification and hardness improve with the addition of the adjuvant, but this increased 48% color and 24% turbidity.

  11. Was the extreme and widespread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, S.M.; Hollander, D.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates

  12. THE EFFECTS OF GRADIENT VELOCITY AND DETENTION TIME TO COAGULATION – FLOCCULATION OF DYES AND ORGANIC COMPOUND IN DEEP WELL WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Lindu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep well water of Trisakti University by coagulation and flocculation using baffle channel system has been conducted. The detention time of hydrolic were varied. The coagulant dose was varied as 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 ppm. Water of well sampel was added by coagulant with rotation velocity 200 rpm for 1 minute. The optimal coagulant dose was determined by measuring turbidity, colour, total suspended solids and organic compound. The result showed that the organic compound and colour of deep well water of Trisakti University could be reduced by coagulation and flocculation process by hydrolyc system. The optimal dose of the coagulant was 250 ppm. The removal efficiency of colour and organic compound using optimal dose for continuous flow reactor reached after water flow passed the reactor for 3 - 5 times detention time in the reactor. The optimal gradient velocity (G was 30 - 35 sec-1 and collision energy (GT was 65.000 - 79.000 to get optimal flocculation. With this condition, the removal efficiency of turbidity, colour and organic was more than 90%.   Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, colour, organic compound, deep well

  13. Effects of hydrodynamic mixing intensity coupled with ionic strength on the initial stage dynamics of bridging flocculation of polystyrene latex particles with polyelectrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adachi, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of hydrodynamic mixing intensity on the initial stage dynamics of bridging flocculation induced by adsorbing polyelectrolyte were analyzed as an extension of previous report on the effect of ionic strength (J. Coll. Int. Sci. 204 (1998) 328). Mixing condition were changed by adopting forked

  14. 疏水改性阳离子高分子絮凝剂的合成及其絮凝性能%Synthesis of the hydrophobic, modified, cationic, and polymeric flocculant and its flocculation capacity for wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永军; 吕学良; 郭海军

    2017-01-01

    Hydrophobic,modified,cationic,and polymeric flocculant P (DMC-MMA)has been polymerized and prepared by soap-free emulsion polymerization,using methacryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and methyl methacrylate (MMA)as raw materials.The influences of different factors,including monomer mass fraction,reaction temperature,initiator dosage and reaction time on the P (DMC-MMA)removing effect are investigated.The results show that under the following conditions:total monomer mass fraction is 30%,n (DMC):n (MMA)=7:3,reaction temperature 75 ℃,initiator dosage 0.5% and reaction time 8 h,the prepared P(DMC-MMA)has good flocculation effect.The maximum oil removing rate can reach 96%.In addition,the flocs do not adhere to the walls.%以甲基丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵(DMC)和甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)为原料,通过无皂乳液聚合制备了流动性好的疏水改性阳离子型高分子絮凝剂P (DMC-MMA),并考察了不同因素对P(DMC-MMA)除油效果的影响.结果表明:在单体总质量分数为30%、n(DMC):n(MMA)=7:3、反应温度75℃、引发剂用量为0.5%、反应时间8h条件下制备的P(DMC-MMA)具有良好的絮凝效果,最高除油率可达96%,且絮体不黏壁.

  15. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable to an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) due to microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare

  16. Urban wastewater photobiotreatment with microalgae in a continuously operated photobioreactor: growth, nutrient removal kinetics and biomass coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2017-11-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, nutrient removal and harvesting of a natural microalgae bloom cultivated in urban wastewater in a bubble column photobioreactor. Batch and continuous mode experiments were carried out with and without pH control by means of CO 2 dosage. Four coagulants (aluminium sulphate, ferric sulphate, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC)) and five flocculants (Chemifloc CM/25, FO 4498SH, cationic polymers Zetag (Z8165, Z7550 and Z8160)) were tested to determine the optimal dosage to reach 90% of biomass recovery. The maximum volumetric productivity obtained was 0.11 g SS L -1  d -1 during the continuous mode. Results indicated that the removal of total dissolved nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorous under continuous operation were greater than 99%. PAC, Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 were the best options from an economical point of view for microalgae harvesting.

  17. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  18. Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress incident: the role of surf washing (clay-oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Lee, K.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the at sea operations which took place in response to the Sea Empress oil spill, was presented. The grounding of the Sea Empress resulted in the release of 70,000 tonnes of blended crude oil into the environment. A qualitative account of the events which followed the incident were described. The early mobilization of a monitoring team has demonstrated the importance of scientific measurements to identify and maximize the efficiency of various cleanup operations. One of the important responses to this incident was the application of dispersants which by inducing flocculation, thereby reducing contact of oil directly with the substrate, and by reducing adhesion of the oil to the shoreline, contributed greatly to minimizing shoreline impact. 19 refs., 7 figs

  19. The Removal of Turbidity and TSS of the Domestic Wastewater by Coagulation-Flocculation Process Involving Oyster Mushroom as Biocoagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardede, Astrid; Budihardjo, Mochamad Arief; Purwono

    2018-02-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) can be utilized as biocoagulant since it has chitin cell wall. Chitin has characteristics of bioactivity, biodegradability, absorption and could bind the metal ions. In this study, Oyster Mushroom is micronized and mixed with wastewater to treat turbidity and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) using coagulation-flocculation process employed jartest method. Various doses of Oyster mushroom, 600 mg/l, 1000 mg/l, and 2000 mg/l were tested in several rapid mixing rates which were 100 rpm, 125 rpm, and 150 rpm for 3 minutes followed by 12 minutes of slow mixing at 45 rpm. The mixture then was settled for 60 minutes with pH level maintained at 6-8. The result showed that the Oyster mushroom biocoagulant was able to remove 84% of turbidity and 90% of TSS. These reductions were achieved with biocoagulant dose of 600 mg/ L at 150 rpm mixing rate.

  20. Combination of bioleaching by gross bacterial biosurfactants and flocculation: A potential remediation for the heavy metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Shi, Wei; Yang, Weichun; Liang, Lifen; Yao, Wenbin; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-09-01

    Combining bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 and flocculation by poly aluminium chloride (PAC) was proposed to develop a potential environment-friendly and cost-effective technique to remediate the severely contaminated soils by heavy metals. The factors affecting soil bioleaching by the gross biosurfactants of Burkholderia sp. Z-90 were optimized. The results showed the optimal removing efficiencies of Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were 44.0, 32.5, 52.2, 37.7, 24.1 and 31.6%, respectively at soil liquid ratio of 1:20 (w/v) for 5 d, which were more efficient than that by 0.1% of rhamnolipid. The amounts of the bioleached heavy metals by the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate were higher than that by other biosurfactants in the previous studies, although the removal efficiencies of the metals by the leachate were relatively lower. It was suggested that more heavy metals caused more competitive to chelate with function groups of the gross biosurfactants and the metal removal efficiencies by biosurfactants in natural soils were lower than in the artificially contaminated soils. Moreover, the Burkholderia sp. Z-90 leachate facilitated the metals to be transformed to the easily migrating speciation fractions. Additional, the results showed that PAC was efficient in the following flocculation to remove heavy metals in the waste bio-leachates. Our study will provide support for developing a bioleaching technique model to remediate the soils extremely contaminated by heavy metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) for potential treatment of textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; Liang, Can-Zeng; Chung, Tai-Shung; Weber, Martin; Staudt, Claudia; Maletzko, Christian

    2016-03-15

    A novel combination of forward osmosis (FO) process with coagulation/flocculation (CF) (FO-CF) has been experimentally conceived for the treatment and reuse of textile wastewater. FO is employed to spontaneously recover water from the wastewater via osmosis and thus effectively reduces its volume with a dramatically enhanced dye concentration. CF is then applied to precipitate and remove dyes from the FO concentrated stream with much improved efficiency and reduced chemical dosage. The FO-CF hybrid system exhibits unique advantages of high water flux and recovery rate, well controlled membrane fouling, high efficiency, and minimal environmental impact. Using a lab-made thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane, an initial water flux (Jw) of 36.0 L m(-2) h(-1) with a dye rejection of 99.9% has been demonstrated by using 2 M NaCl as the draw solution and synthetic textile wastewater containing multiple textile dyes, inorganic salts and organic additives as the feed under the FO mode. The Jw could be maintained at a high value of 12.0 L m(-2) h(-1) even when the recovery rate of the wastewater reaches 90%. Remarkable reverse fouling behavior has also been observed where the Jw of the fouled membrane can be almost fully restored to the initial value by physical flushing without using any chemicals. Due to the great dye concentration in the FO concentrated wastewater stream, the CF process could achieve more than 95% dye removal with a small dosage of coagulants and flocculants at 500-1000 ppm. The newly developed FO-CF hybrid process may open up new exploration of alternative technologies for the effective treatment and reuse of textile effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A predictive model of iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation tuning Z-potential in aqueous environment for biological application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldassarre, Francesca; Cacciola, Matteo; Ciccarella, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most used magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical and biotechnological field because of their nontoxicity respect to the other metals. The investigation of iron oxide nanoparticles behaviour in aqueous environment is important for the biological applications in terms of polydispersity, mobility, cellular uptake and response to the external magnetic field. Iron oxide nanoparticles tend to agglomerate in aqueous solutions; thus, the stabilisation and aggregation could be modified tuning the colloids physical proprieties. Surfactants or polymers are often used to avoid agglomeration and increase nanoparticles stability. We have modelled and synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles through a co-precipitation method, in order to study the influence of surfactants and coatings on the aggregation state. Thus, we compared experimental results to simulation model data. The change of Z-potential and the clusters size were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering. We developed a suitable numerical model to predict the flocculation. The effects of Volume Mean Diameter and fractal dimension were explored in the model. We obtained the trend of these parameters tuning the Z-potential. These curves matched with the experimental results and confirmed the goodness of the model. Subsequently, we exploited the model to study the influence of nanoparticles aggregation and stability by Z-potential and external magnetic field. The highest Z-potential is reached up with a small external magnetic influence, a small aggregation and then a high suspension stability. Thus, we obtained a predictive model of Iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation that will be exploited for the nanoparticles engineering and experimental setup of bioassays

  3. A predictive model of iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation tuning Z-potential in aqueous environment for biological application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldassarre, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.baldassarre@unisalento.it [University of Salento, Department of Cultural Heritage (Italy); Cacciola, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.cacciola@unirc.it [University “Mediterranea” of Reggio Calabria, DICEAM (Italy); Ciccarella, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.ciccarella@unisalento.it [University of Salento, Department of Innovation Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most used magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical and biotechnological field because of their nontoxicity respect to the other metals. The investigation of iron oxide nanoparticles behaviour in aqueous environment is important for the biological applications in terms of polydispersity, mobility, cellular uptake and response to the external magnetic field. Iron oxide nanoparticles tend to agglomerate in aqueous solutions; thus, the stabilisation and aggregation could be modified tuning the colloids physical proprieties. Surfactants or polymers are often used to avoid agglomeration and increase nanoparticles stability. We have modelled and synthesised iron oxide nanoparticles through a co-precipitation method, in order to study the influence of surfactants and coatings on the aggregation state. Thus, we compared experimental results to simulation model data. The change of Z-potential and the clusters size were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering. We developed a suitable numerical model to predict the flocculation. The effects of Volume Mean Diameter and fractal dimension were explored in the model. We obtained the trend of these parameters tuning the Z-potential. These curves matched with the experimental results and confirmed the goodness of the model. Subsequently, we exploited the model to study the influence of nanoparticles aggregation and stability by Z-potential and external magnetic field. The highest Z-potential is reached up with a small external magnetic influence, a small aggregation and then a high suspension stability. Thus, we obtained a predictive model of Iron oxide nanoparticles flocculation that will be exploited for the nanoparticles engineering and experimental setup of bioassays.

  4. Removal of inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process using adsorption and flocculation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Fatehi, Pedram; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-07-01

    A process for removing inhibitors from pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by adsorption and flocculation, and the characteristics of this process were studied. In this process, industrially produced PHL was treated with unmodified and oxidized activated carbon as an absorbent and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) as a flocculant. The overall removal of lignin and furfural in the developed process was 83.3% and 100%, respectively, while that of hemicelluloses was 32.7%. These results confirmed that the developed process can remove inhibitors from PHL prior to producing value-added products, e.g. ethanol and xylitol via fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of Coagulation and Flocculation Process Combined with Chemical Sequestration in Removal of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants from Aautomotive Industry Sewag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The most important environmental problem of automotive industries is the produced wastewater due to its various processes. The flocculation and coagulation along with chemical sequestration are among important processes for removing contaminants from wastewaters. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation process along with chemical sequestration in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from automotive industry sewage. Study Method: This study is an applied-experimental study. The removal of organic and inorganic substances by coagulation, flocculation process combined with chemical sequestration was carried out in batch reactors. The parameters turbidity, heavy metals' concentration, color, phosphate, coagulants concentration, exposure time, TSS, pH and COD were studied. The concentration of color and residue of heavy metals were determined using spectrophotometer -UV and atomic absorption. Results: The research results showed that the removal percentage of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn by ferric sulfate combined with lime at a pH equal to 10 and the exposure time of 100 minutes were 52.65, 96.3, 3.27 and 100 respectively, and percentage of removing them by aluminum sulfate combined with lime was 52.65, 97.8, 3.37 and 99.81 respectively. the removal percentage of TSS, COD, color, turbidity, phosphates ferric sulfate was also 68.9, 83, 94, 84 and 47.2 respectively, and this amount of removal by aluminum sulfate was 62, 80, 94, 73.5 and 48 respectively at neutral pH and concentration of coagulant was obtained equal to 150 mg / L. Conclusion: According to the results, the use of coagulation and flocculation process combined with chemical sequestration in the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewaters of automotive industry achieved under optimal conditions is very effective and can be used in water treatment of automotive industry.

  6. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Its Potential Association with Aluminium Sulphate in the Process of Coagulation/Flocculation and Sedimentation of Surface Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cardoso Valverde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to optimize the operational conditions in surface water coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation step, besides evaluating the association between seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera and the synthetic coagulant aluminium sulphate for surface water treatment. The assays were performed in Jar Test using surface water from Pirapó River basin, Maringá, PR. It was observed that the operational conditions affect the coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process efficiency. Optimal operational conditions for coagulants association are as follows: rapid mixing velocity (RMV of 105 rpm, rapid mixing times (RMT of 1 min, slow mixing velocity (SMV of 30 rpm, slow mixing times (SMT of 15 min, and sedimentation time (ST of 15 min; this enables an improvement in the process, contributing to a reduction in synthetic coagulant aluminium sulphate demand of up to 30%, combined with an increase in M. oleifera dosage, not affecting the coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation process efficiency, considering the water pH range between 7 and 9.

  7. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were

  8. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  9. Effect of pH on Separation of Solid Content from Paint Contained Wastewater by a Coagulant-flocculant Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Semnani Rahbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical wastewater treatment is one of the attracting and common methods for wastewater treatment among the currently employed chemical unit processes. The use of coagulant-flocculant compound is one of the efficient methods for separating of paint and recovery of water. In this research, it was introduced and the effect of pH on removal of solid content from solution was studied experimentally. For this purpose, sludge and suspended solid content of the solution were determined in a jar test by measurement of UV absorption of treated solution and solid separation percentage. The results showed that in pH range 9.5-10.5, maximum efficiency of solid content removal was up to 95%. Consequently, maximum paint removal was obtained in this range of pH. The separation of solid content of the solution was due to formation of aluminum hydroxide. As shown by the results, the reduction of potassium hydroxide as pH adjuster caused decrease of pH and consequently decreases of aluminum hydroxide and solid content removal.  

  10. Inhibitor tolerance of a recombinant flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during glucose and xylose co-fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have negative effects on the ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of eight typical inhibitors, including weak acids, furans, and phenols, on glucose and xylose co-fermentation of the recombinant xylose-fermenting flocculating industrial S. cerevisiae strain NAPX37 were evaluated by batch fermentation. Inhibition on glucose fermentation, not that on xylose fermentation, correlated with delayed cell growth. The weak acids and the phenols showed additive effects. The effect of inhibitors on glucose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: vanillin > phenol > syringaldehyde > 5-HMF > furfural > levulinic acid > acetic acid > formic acid. The effect of inhibitors on xylose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: phenol > vanillin > syringaldehyde > furfural > 5-HMF > formic acid > levulinic acid > acetic acid. The NAPX37 strain showed substantial tolerance to typical inhibitors and showed good fermentation characteristics, when a medium with inhibitor cocktail or rape straw hydrolysate was used. This research provides important clues for inhibitors tolerance of recombinant industrial xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae.

  11. Harvesting Microalgal Biomass grown in Anaerobic Sewage Treatment Effluent by the Coagulation-Flocculation Method: Effect of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servio Tulio Cassini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domestic sewage treatment. The effluent quality was also analyzed after biomass recovery. Coagulants represented by modified tannin, cationic starch and aluminum sulfate recovered more than 90% of algae biomass, at concentrations greater than 80 mg/L, in the pH range 7-10. Cationic starch promoted higher microalgal biomass recovery with a wider pH range. Powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus esculentus(okra gum promoted biomass removal of 50%, only in the acidic range of pH. After sedimentation of the microalgal biomass, the effluents showed a removal of >80% for phosphorus and nitrogen values and >50% for BOD and COD when using aluminum sulfate, cationic starch and modified tannin as coagulants. Natural organic coagulants in a wide pH range can replace aluminum sulfate, a reference coagulant in microalgal biomass recovery, without decreasing microalgal biomass harvesting efficiency and the quality of the final effluent.

  12. The Response of Basal Area Increment in Old Sprout-origin Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. Trees During Their Conversion to a Coppice-with-standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Adamec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the response of adult sprout-origin sessile oaks (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. to a strong release. Our research plot was established at the Training Forest Enterprise of Mendel University in Brno (Czech Republic at the turn of 2008/2009. The plot is situated on a plateau with mesotrofic soil in a beech-oak forest vegetation zone at an altitude of 410 m above sea level. Tree responses were monitored using precise girth measurements. During the first year after the release, the basal area increment showed a positive correlation with only the tree diameter. During the second and third year, the basal area increment was also correlated with the release intensity. During the third year, the basal area increment was explained by the tree diameter, the crown shape, and the release intensity as well as individual types of epicormic shoot occurrence. The occurrence of epicormic shoots in the lower part of the trunks and umbel-shaped crowns increased the basal area increment. In the first, second and third year after thinning, the model explained 11.79%, 11.25% and 28.99%, respectively, of the basal area increment variability. Adult trees of sprout origin responded to a strong release very early (within two years after felling.

  13. The glycoconjugate sugar residues of the sessile and motile cells in the thymus of normal and cyclosporin-A-treated rats: lectin histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Gheri Bryk, S; Riccardi, R; Sgambati, E; Cirri Borghi, M B

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that cell surface glycoconjugates play a determinant role in cellular recognition, cell-to-cell adhesion and serve as receptor molecules. T-lymphocytes are in strict contact with the thymic epithelial cells, which control their process of maturation and proliferation. On the other hand the normal maturation of the epithelial cells is believed to be induced by T-lymphocytes. For these reasons we have studied the glycoconjugates saccharidic moieties of the sessile and motile cells in the thymus of normal male albino Wistar rats and their changes following cyclosporin-A treatment, using a battery of seven HRP-lectins. Cytochemical controls were performed for specificity of lectin-sugar reaction. Some sections were pre-treated with neuraminidase prior to staining with HRP-lectins. Our results have demonstrated, in the control rats, a large amount and a variety of terminal and subterminal oligosaccharides within and/or on the epithelial thymic cells and in macrophages. After cyclosporin-A treatment, among the thymic epithelial cells, the subcapsular, paraseptal and perivascular cells showed the loss of some sugar residues, which characterized the same cells in the intact thymus. Some hypotheses are reported on the role played by the glycoconjugate sugar residues in control and cyclosporin-A treated rats.

  14. Dimerization of a flocculent protein from Moringa oleifera: experimental evidence and in silico interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavankumar, Asalapuram R; Kayathri, Rajarathinam; Murugan, Natarajan A; Zhang, Qiong; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Okoli, Chuka; Bulone, Vincent; Rajarao, Gunaratna K; Ågren, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins exist in dimeric and other oligomeric forms to gain stability and functional advantages. In this study, the dimerization property of a coagulant protein (MO2.1) from Moringa oleifera seeds was addressed through laboratory experiments, protein-protein docking studies and binding free energy calculations. The structure of MO2.1 was predicted by homology modelling, while binding free energy and residues-distance profile analyses provided insight into the energetics and structural factors for dimer formation. Since the coagulation activities of the monomeric and dimeric forms of MO2.1 were comparable, it was concluded that oligomerization does not affect the biological activity of the protein.

  15. Flocculation-coagulation behaviour study of tailings of a fluorspar mineral processing plant; Estudio del comportamiento de las colas de una planta de beneficio de mineral de fluorita frente a procesos floculacion-coagulacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzioba, B. R.; Diaz, A. A.; Menendez-Aguado, J. M.

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out a selection study of the most adequate flocculation-coagulation reagents to reduce the solids content in the overflow from the settling lagoons of a fluorspar processing plant. This overflow has 1/ solids content, clarified from a feed of 25% solids in the settling lagoons, and is pilled into a river. The importance of this work is enhanced by the fact that the plant is located in a low water resources area, and that eventually the water from the river is used for agriculture or even human consumption. It is relevant to find a working methodology which allow to improve the efficiency of the clarifying process and minimize the environmental impact. Regarding the research methodology, a series of trials were made at natural pH and 25 degree centigree to evaluate the action of those reagents which previously probed to be more efficient in this case: as flocculants were tried BOZEFLOC C 65, SEPARAN AP 273 P. SEPARAN MG 200, and as coagulant aluminium sulfate. The possible interaction of flocculation-coagulation processes was also studied, to obtain optimum result. As analysis criterium the total flocculation time was used, and as all essays were made in 100 ml probes, it corresponds with flocculation rate. As result of this study it can be concluded that the most efficient floculant was SEPARAN MG 200, at 4 g/T. with the observation that an excess of aluminium sulfate gets down the efficiency. (Author) 6 refs.

  16. Photo-dissolution of flocculent, detrital material in aquatic environments: contributions to the dissolved organic matter pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Oliva; Yamashita, Youhei; Jaffé, Rudolf

    2011-07-01

    This study shows that light exposure of flocculent material (floc) from the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE) results in significant dissolved organic matter (DOM) generation through photo-dissolution processes. Floc was collected at two sites along the Shark River Slough (SRS) and irradiated with artificial sunlight. The DOM generated was characterized using elemental analysis and excitation emission matrix fluorescence coupled with parallel factor analysis. To investigate the seasonal variations of DOM photo-generation from floc, this experiment was performed in typical dry (April) and wet (October) seasons for the FCE. Our results show that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for samples incubated under dark conditions displayed a relatively small increase, suggesting that microbial processes and/or leaching might be minor processes in comparison to photo-dissolution for the generation of DOM from floc. On the other hand, DOC increased substantially (as much as 259 mgC gC(-1)) for samples exposed to artificial sunlight, indicating the release of DOM through photo-induced alterations of floc. The fluorescence intensity of both humic-like and protein-like components also increased with light exposure. Terrestrial humic-like components were found to be the main contributors (up to 70%) to the chromophoric DOM (CDOM) pool, while protein-like components comprised a relatively small percentage (up to 16%) of the total CDOM. Simultaneously to the generation of DOC, both total dissolved nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus also increased substantially during the photo-incubation period. Thus, the photo-dissolution of floc can be an important source of DOM to the FCE environment, with the potential to influence nutrient dynamics in this system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of ultrasonic and hydrodynamic cavitation on the treatment of cork wastewater by flocculation and Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yuste-Córdoba, Francisco J; Cintas, Pedro; Wu, Zhansheng; Boffa, Luisa; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports that ultrasonic (US) and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) are efficient strategies for the environmental remediation of cork wastewater (CW). It is necessary to remove toxic, inhibitory or refractory organic matter from CW using physical and chemical techniques (pre-treatment) prior to performing conventional biological treatment. After this biological treatment, it is also critical to further decontaminate (post-treatment) in order to meet the discharge limitation. The pre-treatment of diluted CW using Fenton oxidation (FE) alone led to COD and polyphenol (PP) removal values of 30% and 61%, respectively, while HC and US resulted in 83-90% increases in COD reduction and 26-33% increases in PP reduction. Whereas 55% and 91% COD and PP removal were achieved using flocculation (Floc) alone, COD elimination was increased by a further 7-18% under HC and US. No noticeable improvement in PP elimination was observed. US did not enhance the Floc decontamination of the original concentrated CW, however, considerable quantities of white biofilm were surprisingly generated on the CW surface after the pre-treatment, thus indicating the improvement of biodegradability of the resulting liquid. In fact, the post-treatment stage, using FE alone after having filtered the biofilms, led to reductions of 53% in COD and 90% in PP. The HC and US protocols resulted in 26-34% increases in COD elimination. HC further enhanced PP elimination caused by FE, while US resulted in lower levels of PP elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2 plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Evidence suggests that MSI/CIMP+ colorectal cancer may arise through the serrated tumorigenic pathway through various forms of serrated neoplasias. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway. Methods By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA, 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma, 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration. Results Strong (2+ COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008 and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04. Furthermore, any (1+/2+ COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p Conclusion COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma. COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway.

  19. Production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by Serratia sp.1 using wastewater sludge as raw material and flocculation activity of the EPS produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezawada, J; Hoang, N V; More, T T; Yan, S; Tyagi, N; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2013-10-15

    Growth profile and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production of Serratia sp.1 was studied in shake flask fermentation for 72 h using wastewater sludge as raw material. Maximum cell concentration of 6.7 × 10(9) cfu/mL was obtained at 48 h fermentation time. EPS dry weight, flocculation activity and dewaterability of different EPS (tightly bound or TB-EPS, loosely bound or LB-EPS and broth-EPS or B-EPS) were also measured. The highest concentration of LB-EPS (2.45 g/L) and TB-EPS (0.99 g/L) were attained at 48 h of fermentation. Maximum flocculation activity and dewaterability (ΔCST) of TB-EPS (76.4%, 14.5s and 76.5%, 15.5s), LB-EPS (67.8%, 8.1s and 64.7%, 7.6s) and broth EPS (61%, 6.1s and 70.4%, 6.8s) were obtained at 36 and 48 h of growth. Higher flocculation activity and dewaterability were achieved with TB-EPS than with the two other EPS. Characterization of TB-EPS and LB-EPS was done in terms of their protein and carbohydrate content. Protein content was much higher in TB-EPS where as carbohydrate content was only slightly higher in TB-EPS than LB-EPS. Morphology of the Serratia strain after fermentation in sludge and TSB was observed under a scanning electron microscope and the cell size was found to be bigger in the sludge medium than the TSB medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A combined acidification/PEO flocculation process to improve the lignin removal from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haiqiang; Fatehi, Pedram; Xiao, Huining; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-04-01

    The presence of lignin impairs the utilization of the hemicelluloses dissolved in the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. In this paper, a novel process was developed by combining the acidification and poly ethylene oxide (PEO) flocculation concepts to improve the lignin removal. The results showed that the lignin removal was improved by the addition of PEO to the acidified PHL, particularly at a low pH of 1.5. The main mechanisms involved are the lignin/PEO complex formation and the bridging of the formed complexes. This hypothesis was supported by the turbidity, FTIR and particle size measurements. Interestingly, the hemicelluloses removal from the acidification/PEO flocculation was marginal, which would be beneficial for the down-stream ethanol production from the PHL. Additionally, a process flow diagram was proposed that incorporates this new concept into the existing configuration of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electro-flocculation associated with the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam as natural coagulant for the removal of reactive blue 5G dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Souza dos Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although an important significant sector in world economy, the textile industry is known for its large volumes of wastewater generated in production processes. In the search for cleaner technologies, the application of electrochemical processes, such as electro-flocculation, or natural coagulants, such as Moringa oleifera Lam extract, have become recurrent in literature. Since the required operating conditions for alternative technologies are such that they hamper effective application, current paper presents results obtained with the use of a hybrid system of treatment which combines electro-flocculation and the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera lam to evaluate the removal of reactive blue 5G dye from aqueous solutions. Milder conditions of electric current intensity (0.10 – 1.50 A and natural coagulant concentration (250-2000 mg L-1 were tested. Through a Central Composite Rotatable Design, it was possible to obtain a quadratic model which subsidized the optimization of operating conditions. Applying an electric current of 0.97 A to sacrificial electrodes of iron and a concentration of 2000 mg L-1 for the extract of Moringa oleifera Lam, an average 86.79% color removal was obtained, considered a satisfactory rate.

  2. The clinical significance and synchronous polyp burden of large (≥ 20 mm) sessile serrated polyps in patients without serrated polyposis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desomer, Lobke; Tate, David J; Jayanna, Mahesh; Pellise, Maria; Awadie, Halim; Burgess, Nicholas G; McLeod, Duncan; Mahajan, Hema; Lee, Eric Y T; Williams, Stephen J; Bourke, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) are important precursors of colorectal carcinoma and interval cancer. Large SSPs (≥ 20 mm) outside the definition of serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) have not been studied in comparison with SPS. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients with large SSPs in this context.  Patients with at least one SSP (≥ 20 mm) were eligible. Data from three consecutive colonoscopies were used to compare clinical and endoscopic characteristics in three patient groups: SPS, a solitary large SSP, and patients with at least two SSPs without fulfilling the criteria for SPS (oligo-SSP). Data on the diagnostic colonoscopy were collected retrospectively, whereas the remaining data was collected prospectively.  67/146 patients (45.9 %) had SPS, 53/146 (36.3 %) had a solitary SSP, and 26/146 (17.8 %) were categorized as oligo-SSP. Personal (16.4 %, 9.4 %, and 11.5 %, respectively) and family (17.9 %, 17.0 %, and 23.1 %, respectively) history of colorectal carcinoma did not differ significantly between groups. Polyp burden was greater in SPS compared with solitary SSP but was not different from oligo-SSP (advanced adenomas: SPS 32.8 % vs. solitary SSP 9.4 % [ P  = 0.002] vs. oligo-SSP 34.6 % [ P  = 0.87]; ≥ 10 conventional adenomas: 11.9 % vs. 0 % [ P  = 0.01] vs. 3.8 % [ P  = 0.44], respectively). Dysplasia in large SSPs was frequent in all groups (41.1 % overall). SPS was recognized by referring endoscopists in only 9.0 % of cases.  Patients with oligo-SSPs have similar synchronous polyp burden and clinical characteristics as patients with SPS and may require similar surveillance. Modification of the criteria for the diagnosis of SPS to include this group seems warranted. Patients with a solitary SSP have a lower risk of synchronous polyps, including advanced adenomas. Larger studies are warranted to determine whether these patients may return to standard surveillance

  3. Microstreaming from Sessile Semicylindrical Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Guo, Lin; Wang, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Powerful steady streaming flows result from the ultrasonic driving of microbubbles, in particular when these bubbles have semicylindrical cross section and are positioned in contact with a microfluidic channel wall. We have used this streaming in experiment to develop novel methods for trapping and sorting of microparticles by size, as well as for micromixing. Theoretically, we arrive at an analytical description of the streaming flow field through an asymptotic computation that, for the first time, reconciles the boundary layers around the bubble and along the substrate wall, and also takes into account the oscillation modes of the bubble. This approach gives insight into changes in the streaming pattern with bubble size and driving frequency, including a reversal of the flow direction at high frequencies with potentially useful applications. Present address: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri S &T.

  4. Utilizing solar energy for the purification of olive mill wastewater using a pilot-scale photocatalytic reactor after coagulation-flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, I; Panagi, A; Ioannou, L A; Frontistis, Z; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the application of a solar-driven advanced oxidation process (solar Fenton) combined with previous coagulation/flocculation, for the treatment of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at a pilot scale. Pre-treatment by coagulation/flocculation using FeSO4·7H2O (6.67 g L(-1)) as the coagulant, and an anionic polyelectrolyte (FLOCAN 23, 0.287 g L(-1)) as the flocculant, was performed to remove the solid content of the OMW. The solar Fenton experiments were carried out in a compound parabolic collector pilot plant, in the presence of varying doses of H2O2 and Fe(2+). The optimization of the oxidation process, using reagents at low concentrations ([Fe(2+)] = 0.08 g L(-1); [H2O2] = 1 g L(-1)), led to a high COD removal (87%), while the polyphenolic fraction, which is responsible for the biorecalcitrant and/or toxic properties of OMW, was eliminated. A kinetic study using a modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was performed in order to determine the reaction rate constants. This work evidences also the potential use of the solar Fenton process at the inherent pH of the OMW, yielding only a slightly lower COD removal (81%) compared to that obtained under acidic conditions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the capacity of the applied advanced process to reduce the initial OMW toxicity against the examined plant species (Sorghum saccharatum, Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba), and the water flea Daphnia magna. The OMW treated samples displayed a varying toxicity profile for each type of organism and plant examined in this study, a fact that can potentially be attributed to the varying oxidation products formed during the process applied. Finally, the overall cost of solar Fenton oxidation for the treatment of 50 m(3) of OMW per day was estimated to be 2.11 € m(-3). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  6. The roles of physical mixing and biochemical composition on the depositional characteristics of flocculated suspended sediment in the Eden estuary, Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Julie; Manning, Andrew; Aspden, Rebecca; Baas, Jaco; Paterson, David

    2015-04-01

    Sediment load in estuarine waters is generally composed of a mixture of sand, clay and biological matter and it is recognised that there is strong mediation of the physical behaviour of flocs by biological components of the system. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by benthic and pelagic bacteria and algae are a key variable influencing flocculation processes. Variation in the nature and concentration of polymers can alter sediment stability and transport in mixed sediment beds but these substances can also significantly enhance inter-particle cohesion in the water column and therefore deposition and transport. This study examined the variation in naturally occurring EPS concentration and its influence on several physical variables of flocs within the Eden Estuary, Scotland. Samples were collected for total suspended sediment and colormetric analysis of polymer concentration. Subsamples were transferred to the settling column of the LabSFLOC-2 - Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics -high resolution video floc camera system (Manning, 2006) where settling flocs were viewed (resolution~10μm) to determine floc size (D) and settling velocity (Ws) characteristics. Preliminary results indicate a wide range of microfloc (D160mm) fractions present, with the latter approaching 1 mm during flocculation conducive conditions. Correspondingly, when considering all floc samples, floc settling velocities generally spanned three orders of magnitude with floc size and settling velocities correlating with polymer concentrations. These typically ranged from slow settling (Ws of 0.01-0.05 mm.s-1) predominantly organically based microflocs to faster settling, significantly larger and more porous Macroflocs settling at ~10-15 mm.s-1. The temporal distributions of D and Ws, sediment and polymer concentrations, and the sugar composition of the polymers in suspension are examined in the paper with variation also related to physical and microbiological factors in

  7. Harvesting of freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris using acid mine drainage as a cost effective flocculant for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kurade, Mayur B.; Abou-Shanab, Reda A.I.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.; Lee, Sang-hun; Yang, Il-Seung; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic presentation of coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass using AMD. - Highlights: • AMDs containing high Fe"2"+/Al"3"+ improved the settling kinetics of microalgal biomass. • The highest k_2 value was 40 × 10"−"2 L mg"−"1 min"−"1 for C. vulgaris with AMD (1). • With AMD (2), k_2 was 4.0 × 10"−"2 L mg"−"1 min"−"1 for both C. vulgaris and S. obliquus. • The highest FE (93%) and CF (29) for C. vulgaris was achieved with AMD (1). • AMD (1) removed 99.80% of Fe"3"+ and 99.99% of Al"3"+ from the supernatant. - Abstract: Development of a low-cost harvesting technology could be an effective approach for making microalgal biofuel commercially feasible. The use of acid mine drainage (AMD) to coagulate/flocculate biomass is a cost-effective strategy for addressing this challenge. Here, settling kinetics, flocculation efficiency (FE), and concentration factor (CF) of two morphologically different microalgae species, Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris, were investigated with respect to AMD dosage (5% and 10%) and medium pH (7 and 9). AMD was collected from two different sites, AMD (1) and AMD (2), and increasing its dosage to 10% improved the settling rate, FE, and CF of the floc. At 10% AMD (1) dosage and pH 9, the highest rate constants (k_2) for the second order equations were 6.65 × 10"−"2 and 40 × 10"−"2 L mg"−"1⋅min"−"1 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively; at 10% AMD (2), k_2 values were 4.22 × 10"−"2 and 4.76 × 10"−"2 L mg"−"1 min"−"1, respectively. Similarly, FE/CF values were 89%/25 for S. obliquus and 93%/29 for C. vulgaris with 10% AMD (1); and 81%/17 and 79%/17, respectively, with 10% AMD (2). AMD effectively removed 99.80% of Fe"3"+, 99.99% of Al"3"+, 94% of Ca"2"+, 84% of Mg"2"+ and all of Na"+ and K"+ ions from the supernatant. The results of kinetics, EF, and CF measurements indicate that AMDs, naturally rich in iron and aluminum ions, could provide a feasible

  8. Removal of bulk contaminants from radioactive waste water at Bruce A using a clay based flocculent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davloor, R.; Harper, B.

    2011-01-01

    implement a clay-based flocculation Pre-Treatment System. In-service since late 2000, the system has been able to reliably treat a broad range of contaminants in the waste water before being sent to the downstream ROS. This clay-based system is unique in its application; it is able to remove bulk oil and grease, suspended solids, and metal contaminants in a waste stream that contains a high amount of surfactants originating from the laundering of plastic suits (personal protective equipment for working in radioactive environments) and other waste waters from the station. The treated water from the PTS consistently meets the strict requirements for subsequent treatment by the system RO membranes. This paper describes the laboratory and pilot scale testing that led to the development of the process, as well as the full scale implementation of this unique Pre-Treatment System. (author)

  9. Removal of bulk contaminants from radioactive waste water at Bruce A using a clay based flocculent system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davloor, R.; Harper, B. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    implement a clay-based flocculation Pre-Treatment System. In-service since late 2000, the system has been able to reliably treat a broad range of contaminants in the waste water before being sent to the downstream ROS. This clay-based system is unique in its application; it is able to remove bulk oil and grease, suspended solids, and metal contaminants in a waste stream that contains a high amount of surfactants originating from the laundering of plastic suits (personal protective equipment for working in radioactive environments) and other waste waters from the station. The treated water from the PTS consistently meets the strict requirements for subsequent treatment by the system RO membranes. This paper describes the laboratory and pilot scale testing that led to the development of the process, as well as the full scale implementation of this unique Pre-Treatment System. (author)

  10. Size and structure of Chlorella zofingiensis /FeCl 3 flocs in a shear flow: Algae Floc Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Hern, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shelden, Bion [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hughes, Lindsey G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mondy, Lisa A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-07-26

    Flocculation is a promising method to overcome the economic hurdle to separation of algae from its growth medium in large scale operations. But, understanding of the floc structure and the effects of shear on the floc structure are crucial to the large scale implementation of this technique. The floc structure is important because it determines, in large part, the density and settling behavior of the algae. Freshwater algae floc size distributions and fractal dimensions are presented as a function of applied shear rate in a Couette cell using ferric chloride as a flocculant. Comparisons are made with measurements made for a polystyrene microparticle model system taken here as well as reported literature results. The algae floc size distributions are found to be self-preserving with respect to shear rate, consistent with literature data for polystyrene. Moreover, three fractal dimensions are calculated which quantitatively characterize the complexity of the floc structure. Low shear rates result in large, relatively dense packed flocs which elongate and fracture as the shear rate is increased. Our results presented here provide crucial information for economically implementing flocculation as a large scale algae harvesting strategy.

  11. Development of improved radioactive effluent treatment to remove Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 by the coagulation-flocculation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, S H [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-02-01

    Coagulation-flocculation treatment using aluminum sulphate, sodium carbonate, ferric chloride and coagulant aid was able to remove {sup 65}Zn, {sup 99}Mo and {sup 125}I from an aqueous effluent. Chemicals` dosages into the samples were varied which contributed different decontamination factors. For {sup 65}Zn removal, optimum pH value was 8 that provided the decontamination factor of 35. For {sup 125}I, optimum pH value was 7 with the decontamination factor of 4.8. Treatment of the effluent containing {sup 99}Mo at a laboratory scale was proved to be valid for the extrapolation to a plant scale. The pH range for optimum treatment was between 4.0 to 4.5. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs.

  12. Pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment in a continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile real hospital wastewater after a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Parladé, E; Llorca, M; Villagrasa, M; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Martinez-Alonso, M; Gaju, N; Caminal, G; Sarrà, M

    2017-06-01

    Hospital wastewaters are a main source of pharmaceutical active compounds, which are usually highly recalcitrant and can accumulate in surface and groundwater bodies. Fungal treatments can remove these contaminants prior to discharge, but real wastewater poses a problem to fungal survival due to bacterial competition. This study successfully treated real non-spiked, non-sterile wastewater in a continuous fungal fluidized bed bioreactor coupled to a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment for 56 days. A control bioreactor without the fungus was also operated and the results were compared. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing approach was used to study the microbial community arisen in both reactors and as a result some bacterial degraders are proposed. The fungal operation successfully removed analgesics and anti-inflammatories, and even the most recalcitrant pharmaceutical families such as antibiotics and psychiatric drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of improved radioactive effluent treatment to remove Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 by the coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation treatment using aluminum sulphate, sodium carbonate, ferric chloride and coagulant aid was able to remove 65 Zn, 99 Mo and 125 I from an aqueous effluent. Chemicals' dosages into the samples were varied which contributed different decontamination factors. For 65 Zn removal, optimum pH value was 8 that provided the decontamination factor of 35. For 125 I, optimum pH value was 7 with the decontamination factor of 4.8. Treatment of the effluent containing 99 Mo at a laboratory scale was proved to be valid for the extrapolation to a plant scale. The pH range for optimum treatment was between 4.0 to 4.5. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  14. Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Sophie M; Hollander, David J; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2015-11-15

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates whether MOSSFA occurred in other large oil spills and identifies the main drivers of oil sedimentation. MOSSFA was found to have occurred during the IXTOC I blowout and possibly during the Santa Barbara blowout. Unfortunately, benthic effects were not sufficiently studied for the 52 spills we reviewed. However, based on the current understanding of drivers involved, we conclude that MOSSFA and related benthic contamination may be widespread. We suggest to collect and analyze sediment cores at specific spill locations, as improved understanding of the MOSSFA process will allow better informed spill responses in the future, taking into account possible massive oil sedimentation and smothering of (deep) benthic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic removal in water by means of coagulation-flocculation processes; Remocion de arsenico en agua mediante procesos de coagulacion-floculacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, M. F.; Carro P, M. E., E-mail: ffrancis@efn.uncor.edu [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Departamento de Construcciones Civiles, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-10-01

    Arsenic and arsenical compounds are considered as carcinogenic and risky for humans according to epidemiological evidence related with the ingestion of arsenical water during a long period. In many places the only source of drinking water contains arsenic and, therefore, removal strategies have to be investigated. This work shows experimental results of coagulation-flocculation processes implemented to evaluate the efficiency in the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The main objectives include the evaluation of the relevant aspect that controls the removal efficiency. Experimental tests were performed with coagulant concentrations from 5 to 500 mg/L, solid particle concentrations from 0 to 6000 mg/L, and initial arsenic concentrations from 0.5 to 5 mg/L. These variables were simultaneously varied in more than 100 experiments. The efficiency in remediation ranged from 0% to 95%. Removal efficiency near 95% was obtained when using ferric chloride as coagulant, and was close to 80% when using aluminium sulfate as coagulant in arsenate solutions. The remediation efficiency decreased significantly when the ferric chloride concentration was higher than 50 mg/L in relation to the obtained results for aluminum sulfate for different type and concentration of soil particles. The highest removal efficiency were obtained at ph between 3 and 5 in oxidized solutions. Obtained results simulated by means of multiple linear regression analysis (R>0.90) allow determining that the main parameters that control the removal of arsenic from drinking water are coagulant concentration, ph, and solid particles concentration. Conversely, particle mineralogy and coagulant type have less significant effect on the removal by means of coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. Obtained results are relevant for the removal of As in water treatment plants as well as for the development of small scale filters. The samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X

  16. A comparative study on the efficiency of ozonation and coagulation-flocculation as pretreatment to activated carbon adsorption of biologically stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloibiri, Violet; Ufomba, Innocent; Chys, Michael; Audenaert, Wim T M; Demeestere, Kristof; Van Hulle, Stijn W H

    2015-09-01

    The present work investigates the potential of coagulation-flocculation and ozonation to pretreat biologically stabilized landfill leachate before granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. Both iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) and polyaluminium chloride (PACl) are investigated as coagulants. Better organic matter removal is observed when leachate was treated with FeCl3. At a dose of 1mg FeCl3/mg CODo (CODo: initial COD content), the COD and α254 removal was 66% and 88%, respectively. Dosing 1mg PACl/mg CODo resulted in 44% COD and 72% α254 removal. The settle-ability of sludge generated by PACl leveled off at 252mL/g, while a better settle-ability of 154mL/g was obtained for FeCl3 after dosing 1mg coagulant/mg CODo. For ozonation, the percentage of COD and α254 removal increased as the initial COD concentration decreased. Respectively 44% COD and 77% α254 removal was observed at 112mg COD/L compared to 5% COD and 26% α254 removal at 1846mg COD/L. Subsequent activated carbon adsorption of ozonated, coagulated and untreated leachate resulted in 77%, 53% and 8% total COD removal after treatment of 6 bed volumes. Clearly showing the benefit of treating the leachate before GAC adsorption. Mathematical modeling of the experimental GAC adsorption data with Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models show that ozonation increases the adsorption capacity and breakthrough time of GAC by a factor of 2.5 compared to coagulation-flocculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PRODUKSI ETANOL DARI TETES TEBU OLEH Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEMBENTUK FLOK (NRRL – Y 265 (Ethanol Production from Cane Molasses by Flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL – Y 265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Krisna Wardani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of sugar cane molasses by flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production was investigated. In order to minimize the negative effect of calcium on yeast growth, pretreated sugar cane molasses with dilute acid was performed. The influence of process parameters such as sugar concentration and inoculum concentration were evaluated for enhancing bioethanol production. Result showed that maximum ethanol concentration of 8,792% (b/v was obtained at the best condition of inoculum concentration 10% (v/v and sugar concentration 15% (b/v. Based on the experimental data, maximum yield of ethanol production of 65% was obtained. This result demonstrated the potential of molasses as promising biomass resources for ethanol production. Keywords: Ethanol, preteated cane molasses, flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation   ABSTRAK Efisiensi produksi bioetanol diperoleh melalui ketepatan pemilihan jenis mikroorganisme, bahan baku, dan kontrol proses fermentasi. Alternatif proses untuk meminimalisasi biaya produksi etanol adalah dengan mengeliminasi tahap pemisahan sentrifugasi sel dari produk karena memerlukan biaya instalasi dan biaya perawatan yang tinggi. Proses sentrifugasi merupakan tahapan penting untuk memisahkan sel mikroba dari medium fermentasi pada produksi bioetanol. Untuk meminimalisir biaya produksi akibat proses tersebut digunakan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan tetes tebu sebagai sumber gula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi penambahan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan konsentrasi sumber gula dalam tetes tebu yang tepat dalam produksi etanol yang maksimum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sebanyak 5%, 10%, dan 15% (v/v diinokulasikan pada medium tetes tebu hasil pretreatment dengan kandungan gula 15%, 20%, dan 25% (b/v pada pH 5. Fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30°C dan agitasi 100 rpm selama 72 jam. Etanol tertinggi didapat pada kondisi konsentrasi inokulum

  18. Structuralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaget, Jean

    Provided is an overview of the analytical method known as structuralism. The first chapter discusses the three key components of the concept of a structure: the view of a system as a whole instead of so many parts; the study of the transformations in the system; and the fact that these transformations never lead beyond the system but always…

  19. The Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix: Composition, Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Christopher G; Vila, Taissa; Romo, Jesus A; Montelongo-Jauregui, Daniel; Wall, Gina; Ramasubramanian, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2017-03-01

    A majority of infections caused by Candida albicans -the most frequent fungal pathogen-are associated with biofilm formation. A salient feature of C. albicans biofilms is the presence of the biofilm matrix. This matrix is composed of exopolymeric materials secreted by sessile cells within the biofilm, in which all classes of macromolecules are represented, and provides protection against environmental challenges. In this review, we summarize the knowledge accumulated during the last two decades on the composition, structure, and function of the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Knowledge of the matrix components, its structure, and function will help pave the way to novel strategies to combat C. albicans biofilm infections.

  20. Study and simulation of the resistance of floccules to shear breakage in a centrifuge; Etude et modelisation de la destruction d`agregats de colloides par les contraintes de cisaillement creees dans un separateur centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touron, E

    1995-09-29

    In France, spent fuels are in most cases reprocessed. The aim of the reprocessing is to separate the recyclable fissile materials (uranium, plutonium for instance) of radioactive wastes. The industrial process used until now is the Purex (Plutonium Uranium Refining by EXtraction) process. The two main first steps of this process are nowadays industrially completely controlled. Nevertheless, it exists several secondary operations which can interfere with the good unfolding of this process main steps as for instance, the clarification of the dissolution liquors. The aim of this work is then to improve particularly the separation efficiency between small particles and the associated dissolution liquors. The experimental study of the flow inside the rotor shows complex hydrodynamics arising from turbulence and secondary flows. This turbulent flow is likely to be capable of re-suspending small and flow density particles. The use of flocculants is a way of improving separation efficiencies. In gravity sedimentation, flocculants are frequently used to improve settling of fine particles, by causing them to aggregate behaving as if they were larger. Under slight turbulence, the flocs, which may be fragile, remain intact. In centrifugal sedimentation, shear rates are high and may result in complete floc breakup. Choice of the correct flocculant, proper dosage and right conditioning time result in strong, compact flocs so that flocculants can be used successfully. A diminution of the centrifugal shield from nominal conditions results in a diminution of shear breakage (in the feed zone) so that a total recover of solids may be obtained.(author). 122 refs., 95 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Duque, M; Herrera Vasconcelos, T; Laria Piedra, N

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  2. Adição de polieletrólito ao processo de floculação no pós-tratamento de lixiviado por coagulação-floculação-sedimentação Addition to polyelectrolyte flocculation process in post leachate treatment coagulation-sedimentation-flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Passerine de Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A adição de polieletrólito ao processo de floculação no tratamento físico-químico por coagulação-floculação-sedimentação de efluentes tem sido uma alternativa para a obtenção de clarificados de boa qualidade em menor tempo devido ao aumento da velocidade de sedimentação. Deste modo, este artigo, objetivou determinar as inter-relações entre as variáveis pH, gradiente de floculação, dosagem de ferro e tipo de polieletrólito e avaliar o efeito desta adição na remoção de cor, DQO e turbidez no pós-tratamento do lixiviado submetido a tratamento biolõgico. Através do uso da técnica de planejamento e analisando-se os resultados obtidos, pôde-se verificar que o polímero de carga catiônica apresentou-se como o mais eficiente, obtendo remoções de até 97,70% para cor verdadeira, 81,52% para DQO e 92,18% para turbidez.The addition of polyelectrolyte flocculation process in the physical-chemical treatment by coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation effluent has been an alternative to obtain clarification of good quality in less time due to increased sedimentation rate. Thus, this article aimed to determine the interrelationships between the pH gradient, flocculation, iron dosage and type of polyelectrolyte and evaluate the effect of this addition on color removal, COD and turbidity in the post-treatment of the leachate subjected to pretreatment biological. Through the use of technical planning and analyzing the results, it was found that the polymer cationic charge introduced himself as the most efficient, achieving removals of up to 97.70% for true color, 81.52% for COD and 92.18% for turbidity.

  3. The Influence of Surface Anisotropy Crystalline Structure on Wetting of Sapphire by Molten Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Santillan, Joaquin

    2013-05-01

    The wetting of sapphire by molten aluminum was investigated by the sessile drop technique from 1073 K to 1473 K (800 °C to 1200 °C) at PO2 <10-15 Pa under Ar atmosphere. This study focuses on sapphire crystalline structure and its principle to the interface. The planes " a" and " b" are oxygen terminated structures and wet more by Al, whereas the " c" plane is an aluminum terminated structure. A wetting transition at 1273 K (1000 °C) was obtained and a solid surface tension proves the capillarity trends of the couple.

  4. The use of flocculating brewer's yeast for Cr(III) and Pb(II) removal from residual wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, A.I.; Teixeira, J.A. [Centro de Engenharia Biologica-IBQF, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal)

    1999-11-01

    The use of inexpensive biosorbents to sequester heavy metals from aqueous solutions, is one of the most promising technologies being developed to remove these toxic contaminants from wastewaters. Considering this challenge, the viability of Cr(III) and Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions using a flocculating brewer's yeast residual biomass from a Portuguese brewing industry was studied. The influence of physicochemical factors such as medium pH, biomass concentration and the presence of a co-ion was characterised. Metal uptake kinetics and equilibrium were also analysed, considering different incubation temperatures. For both metals, uptake increased with medium pH, being maximal at 5.0. Optimal biomass concentration for the biosorption process was determined to be 4.5 g dry weight/l. In chromium and lead mixture solutions, competition for yeast binding sites was observed between the two metals, this competition being pH dependent. Yeast biomass showed higher selectivity and uptake capacity to lead. Chromium uptake kinetic was characterised as having a rapid initial step, followed by a slower one. Langmuir model describes well chromium uptake equilibrium. Lead uptake kinetics suggested the presence of mechanisms other than biosorption, possibly including its precipitation. (orig.)

  5. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L -1 of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L -1 and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol /V solution ), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L -1  h -1 , respectively.

  6. THE FLOCCULATION MAXIMUM (pH) OF FIBRINOGEN AND SOME OTHER BLOOD-CLOTTING REAGENTS. (RELATIVE TURBIDIMETRY WITH THE EVELYN PHOTOELECTRIC COLORIMETER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J H

    1942-03-20

    By means of a novel adaptation of the Evelyn photoelectric colorimeter to the measurement of relative turbidities, the question of the flocculation maximum (F.M.) in acetate buffer solutions of varying pH and salt content has been studied on (a) an exceptionally stable prothrombin-free fibrinogen and its solutions after incipient thermal denaturation and incomplete tryptic proteolysis, (b) plasma, similarly treated, (c) prothrombin, thrombin, and (brain) thromboplastin solutions. All the fibrinogens show a remarkable uniformity of the precipitation pattern, viz. F.M. =4.7 (+/-0.2) pH in salt-containing buffer solutions and pH = 5.3 (+/-0.2) in salt-poor buffer (N/100 acetate). The latter approximates the isoelectric point (5.4) obtained by cataphoresis (14). There is no evidence that denaturation or digestion can produce any "second maximum." The data support the view that fibrin formation (under the specific influence of thrombin) is intrinsically unrelated to denaturation and digestion phenomena, although all three can proceed simultaneously in crude materials. A criticism is offered, therefore, of Wöhlisch's blood clotting theory. Further applications of the photoelectric colorimeter to coagulation problems are suggested, including kinetic study of fibrin formation and the assay of fibrinogen, with a possible sensitivity of 7.5 mg. protein in 100 cc. solution.

  7. Constraining the Spatial Extent of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation Following the Deepwater Horizon Event Using an Excess 210Pb Flux Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, P T; Brooks, G R; Larson, R A; Holmes, C W; O'Malley, B J; Hollander, D J

    2017-06-06

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, there were several lines of evidence indicating the presence of marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). A significant amount of marine oil snow formed in the water column of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM), settled rapidly, and ultimately accumulated in the sediments of the nGoM. This study utilized a commonly used radioisotope tracer (excess 210 Pb, 210 Pb xs ) from 32 sediment cores collected from 2010 to 2013 to characterize the spatial extent of MOSSFA on the seafloor. Relative to pre-DWH conditions, an increase in 210 Pb xs flux occurred in two distinct regions: (1) in the western portion of the study area on an east-northeast to west-southwest axis, stretching 230 km southwest and 140 km northeast of the DWH wellhead, and (2) in the eastern portion of the study area on a 70 km northeast to southwest axis near the DeSoto Canyon. The total sedimentary spatial extent of MOSSFA, as calculated by increased 210 Pb xs flux after 2010, ranged from 12 805 to 35 425 km 2 . 210 Pb xs flux provides a valuable tool for documenting the spatial extent of MOSSFA following DWH and will continue to aid in the determination of advective transport and ultimate depocenters of MOSSFA material.

  8. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xue, C; Ge, X M; Yuan, W J; Wang, J Y; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in the continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast. Zinc sulfate was added at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g l(-1), respectively. Reduced average floc sizes were observed in all the zinc-supplemented cultures. Both the ethanol tolerance and thermal tolerance were significantly improved by zinc supplements, which correlated well with the increased ergosterol and trehalose contents in the yeast flocs. The highest ethanol concentration by 0.05 g l(-1) zinc sulfate supplementation attained 114.5 g l(-1), in contrast to 104.1 g l(-1) in the control culture. Glycerol production was decreased by zinc supplementations, with the lowest level 3.21 g l(-1), about 58% of the control. Zinc content in yeast cells was about 1.4 microMol g(-1) dry cell weight, about sixfold higher than that of control in all the zinc-supplemented cultures, and close correlation of zinc content in yeast cells with the cell viability against ethanol and heat shock treatment was observed. These studies suggest that exogenous zinc addition led to a reprogramming of cellular metabolic network, resulting in enhanced ethanol tolerance and ethanol production.

  9. Structure and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on above-ground organs in Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphology and distribution of glandular and non-glandular trichomes on the above-ground organs of Inula helenium L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of biseriate glandular trichomes, i.e. sessile and stalk hairs, and non-glandular trichomes were recorded. Sessile glandular trichomes were found on all examined I. helenium organs (with their highest density on the abaxial surface of leaves and disk florets, and on stems, whereas stalk glandular trichomes were found on leaves and stems. Sessile trichomes were characterised by a slightly lower height (58–103 μm and width (32–35 μm than the stalk trichomes (62–111 μm x 31–36 μm. Glandular hairs were composed of 5–7 (sessile trichomes or 6–9 (stalk trichomes cell tiers. Apical trichome cell tiers exhibited features of secretory cells. Secretion was accumulated in subcuticular space, which expanded and ruptured at the top, and released its content. Histochemical assays showed the presence of lipids and polyphenols, whereas no starch was detected. Non-glandular trichomes were seen on involucral bracts, leaves and stems (more frequently on involucral bracts. Their structure comprised 2–9 cells; basal cells (1–6 were smaller and linearly arranged, while apical cells had a prozenchymatous shape. The apical cell was the longest and sharply pointed. Applied histochemical tests revealed orange-red (presence of lipids and brow colour (presence of polyphenols in the apical cells of the trichomes. This may suggest that beside their protective role, the trichomes may participate in secretion of secondary metabolites.

  10. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cements and concentrated model suspensions. Flow, jamming and flocculation; Ciments et suspensions concentrees modeles. Ecoulement, encombrement et floculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lootens, D

    2004-10-15

    Here we report about the rheological behavior of very concentrated dispersions -or pastes- of granular or colloidal particles of cement or of monodisperse spherical silica particles. The model system of silica particles is used in order to control the physical chemistry properties of the suspension. Our research project is centered on two points which are focusing on the slurries properties: (i) the first one is the study of the structuring process by the coagulation at rest and its relation with setting. We use special tools (ultrasonic, confocal) to follow and understand the evolution from coagulation to the setting of cement (ii) the second is the study of the dynamic structuring phenomena, under shear, typical of the concentrated suspensions and named jamming. The flow can enter into a shear-thickening and, possibly jamming regime. The onset of this regime is shown to involve giant fluctuations of stress, assigned to the formation and breakup of direct frictional contact chains. The surface state of the particles is a determining factor in this transition. The studies of the normal stress and microscopic observation give good reasons to believe that solid friction is involved in the jamming transition. (author)

  12. The disc method. A new method for selecting facilitations in flocculating sludge to be dewatered in centrifuges; Metodo de disco. Un nuevo metodo para la seleccion de floculantes en la floculacion de lodos a deshidratar en centrifugas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canga Rodriguez, J.; Gutierrez Lavin, A.

    2002-07-01

    An experimental protocol was designed at a laboratory scale, in view of achieving the selection with different poly electrolytes related to the chemical conditioning (flocculation) of sewage sludge before dewatering it in a drying centrifuge. The method is based on a new parameter of quality of the formed floc, which measures its compaction when is submitted to a fix external strength. Some experimental tests have been introduced, whose results are numbers, avoiding all subjective aspects related to direct observation of flocs. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Influence of zeolite treated with sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide on the coagulation-flocculation process of drainage. Influencia de la zeolita tratada con acido sulfurico y con hidroxido de sodio en el proceso de coagulacion floculacion en aguas superficiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Duque, M.; Herrera Vasconcelos, T.; Laria Piedra, N.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper has had as objective the treatment of natural zeolite from Tasajera with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide (residuals acid and basic from the regeneration of cationic and anionic resins of the ''Otto Parallada'' thermoelectric plant) at different times and concentrations, with a further comparison and testing of the effectiveness of the obtained zeolite in respect to the natural one as a coadyuvant of the coagulation-flocculation process in the treatment of superficial water. (Author)

  14. The nuclear techniques in function of improving the efficiency of the flocculators and floats in the industrial waste treatment station of PETROBRAS; Las tecnicas nucleares en funcion de mejorar la eficiencia de los floculadores y los flotadores de la estacion de tratamiento de desechos industriales en PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damera Martinez, Arnaldo; Ramos Espinosa, Kenia A. [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: damera@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Pinto, Amenonia Ferreira; Barbalho, Andrea de Magalhaes [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Derivet Zarzabal, Milagros [Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones Azucareras, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    This work was carried out in the Station of Treatment of Industrial Waste (STIW) in PETROBRAS (Brazil). The STIW has the function of receiving, to treat and storage liquid wastes coming from diverse points of the refinery, avoiding the environment contamination. This study consists on the determination of the time of residence inside the flocculators and floats, by means of nuclear technique of radioactive tracer, using Tc-99m. This technique has a great economic and environmental importance because the time of residence obtained experimentally in the flocculators and the floats, can be compared with those obtained theoretically, which allow to influence on the system, optimizing its operation.

  15. MLH1-93 G/a polymorphism is associated with MLH1 promoter methylation and protein loss in dysplastic sessile serrated adenomas with BRAFV600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Lochlan J; Jamieson, Saara; McKeone, Diane; Corish, Tracie; Rohdmann, Megan; Furner, Tori; Bettington, Mark; Liu, Cheng; Kawamata, Futoshi; Bond, Catherine; Van De Pols, Jolieke; Leggett, Barbara; Whitehall, Vicki

    2018-01-05

    Sessile serrated adenomas with BRAF mutation progress rapidly to cancer following the development of dysplasia (SSAD). Approximately 75% of SSADs methylate the mismatch repair gene MLH1, develop mismatch repair deficiency and the resultant cancers have a good prognosis. The remaining SSADs and BRAF mutant traditional serrated adenomas (TSA) develop into microsatellite stable cancers with a poor prognosis. The reason for this dichotomy is unknown. In this study, we assessed the genotypic frequency of the MLH1-93 polymorphism rs1800734 in SSADs and TSAs to determine if the uncommon variant A allele predisposes to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation. We performed genotyping for the MLH1-93 polymorphism, quantitative methylation specific PCR, and MLH1 immunohistochemistry on 124 SSAD, 128 TSA, 203 BRAF mutant CRCs and 147 control subjects with normal colonoscopy. The minor A allele was significantly associated with a dose dependent increase in methylation at the MLH1 promoter in SSADs (p = 0.022). The AA genotype was only observed in SSADs with MLH1 loss. The A allele was also overrepresented in BRAF mutant cancers with MLH1 loss. Only one of the TSAs showed loss of MLH1 and the overall genotype distribution in TSAs did not differ from controls. The MLH1-93 AA genotype is significantly associated with promoter hypermethylation and MLH1 loss in the context of SSADs. BRAF mutant microsatellite stable colorectal cancers with the AA genotype most likely arise in TSAs since the A allele does not predispose to methylation in this context.

  16. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable with an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien

    2018-05-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) because of microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare endoscopic detection rates and distribution of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients with a matched control population. We collected data of Lynch syndrome patients with a proven germline mutation who underwent colonoscopy between January 2011 and April 2016 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals. Control subjects undergoing elective colonoscopy from 2011 and onward for symptoms or surveillance were selected from a prospectively collected database. Patients were matched 1:1 for age, gender, and index versus surveillance colonoscopy. An expert pathology review of serrated polyps was performed. The primary outcomes included the detection rates and distribution of SSLs. We identified 321 patients with Lynch syndrome who underwent at least 1 colonoscopy. Of these, 223 Lynch syndrome patients (mean age, 49.3; 59% women; index colonoscopy, 56%) were matched to 223 control subjects. SSLs were detected in 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.8-11.9) of colonoscopies performed in Lynch syndrome patients and in 6.7% (95% confidence interval, 4.1-10.8) of control subjects (P = .86). None of the detected SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients contained dysplasia. The detection rate of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients undergoing colonoscopy is comparable with a matched population. These findings suggest that the role of the serrated neoplasia pathway in CRC development in Lynch syndrome seems to be comparable with that in the general population. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  18. Detection and quantification of classic and emerging viruses by skimmed-milk flocculation and PCR in river water from two geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgua, Byron; Fumian, Tulio; Rusiñol, Marta; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Mbayed, Viviana A; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Miagostovich, Marize; Girones, Rosina

    2013-05-15

    Molecular techniques and virus concentration methods have shown that previously unknown viruses are shed by humans and animals, and may be transmitted by sewage-contaminated water. In the present study, 10-L river-water samples from urban areas in Barcelona, Spain and Rio Janeiro, Brazil, have been analyzed to evaluate the viral dissemination of human viruses, validating also a low-cost concentration method for virus quantification in fresh water. Three viral groups were analyzed: (i) recently reported viruses, klassevirus (KV), asfarvirus-like virus (ASFLV), and the polyomaviruses Merkel cell (MCPyV), KI (KIPyV) and WU (WUPyV); (ii) the gastroenteritis agents noroviruses (NoV) and rotaviruses (RV); and (iii) the human fecal viral indicators in water, human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV). Virus detection was based on nested and quantitative PCR assays. For KV and ASFLV, nested PCR assays were developed for the present study. The method applied for virus concentration in fresh water samples is a one-step procedure based on a skimmed-milk flocculation procedure described previously for seawater. Using spiked river water samples, inter- and intra-laboratory assays showed a viral recovery rate of about 50% (20-95%) for HAdV, JCPyV, NoV and RV with a coefficient of variation ≤ 50%. HAdV and JCPyV were detected in 100% (12/12) of the river samples from Barcelona and Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, NoV GGII was detected in 83% (5/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Barcelona, whereas none of the other viruses tested were detected. NoV GGII was detected in 33% (2/6), KV in 33% (2/6), ASFLV in 17% (1/6) and MCPyV in 50% (3/6) of the samples from Rio de Janeiro, whereas KIPyV and WUPyV were not detected. RV were only analyzed in Rio de Janeiro and resulted positive in 67% (4/6) of the samples. The procedure applied here to river water represents a useful, straightforward and cost-effective method that could be applied in routine water quality testing

  19. COMPARISON OF VACUUM AND HIGH PRESSURE EVAPORATED WOOD HYDROLYZATE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY REPEATED FED-BATCH USING FLOCCULATING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Dehkhoda

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of increasing the sugars concentration in dilute-acid ligno-cellulosic hydrolyzate to more than 100 g/l for industrial applications, the hydrolyzate from spruce was concentrated about threefold by high-pressure or vacuum evaporations. It was then fermented by repeated fed-batch cultivation using flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae with no prior detoxification. The sugars and inhibitors concentrations in the hydrolyzates were compared after the evaporations and also fermenta-tion. The evaporations were carried out either under vacuum (VEH at 0.5 bar and 80°C or with 1.3 bar pressure (HPEH at 107.5°C, which resulted in 153.3 and 164.6 g/l total sugars, respectively. No sugar decomposition occurred during either of the evaporations, while more than 96% of furfural and to a lesser extent formic and acetic acids disappeared from the hydrolyzates. However, HMF and levulinic acid remained in the hydrolyzates and were concentrated proportionally. The concentrated hydrolyzates were then fermented in a 4 l bioreactor with 12-22 g/l yeast and 0.14-0.22 h-1 initial dilute rates (ID. More than 84% of the fermentable sugars present in the VEH were fermented by fed-batch cultivation using 12 g/l yeast and initial dilution rate (ID of 0.22 h-1, and resulted in 0.40±0.01 g/g ethanol from the fermentable sugars in one cycle of fermentation. Fermentation of HPEH was as successful as VEH and resulted in more than 86% of the sugar consumption under the corresponding conditions. By lowering the initial dilution rate to 0.14 h-1, more than 97% of the total fermentable sugars were consumed, and ethanol yield was 0.44±0.01 g/g in one cycle of fermentation. The yeast was able to convert or assimilate HMF, levulinic, acetic, and formic acids by 96, 30, 43, and 74%, respectively.

  20. A novel bio-electrochemical system with sand/activated carbon separator, Al anode and bio-anode integrated micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation cost effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changfei; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    A novel bio-electrochemical system (BES) was developed by integrating micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation from attaching a sacrificing Al anode to the bio-anode, it effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery (maximum power density of 365.1 mW/m 3 and a maximum cell voltage of 0.97 V), and achieving high removals of COD (>99.4%), NH 4 + -N (>98.7%) and TP (>98.6%). The anode chamber contains microbes, activated carbon (AC)/graphite granules and Al anode. It was separated from the cathode chamber containing bifunctional catalytic and filtration membrane cathode (loaded with Fe/Mn/C/F/O catalyst) by a multi-medium chamber (MMC) filled with manganese sand and activated carbon granules, which replaced expensive PEM and reduced cost. An air contact oxidation bed for aeration was still adopted before liquid entering the cathode chamber. micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation helps in achieving high removal efficiencies and contributes to membrane fouling migration. The increase of activated carbon in the separator MMC increased power generation and reduced system electric resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet on glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings: focusing on the final stage of thin droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatapova, Elizaveta Ya; Shonina, Anna M; Safonov, Alexey I; Sulyaeva, Veronica S; Kabov, Oleg A

    2018-03-07

    The evaporation dynamics of a water droplet with an initial volume of 2 μl from glass surfaces with fluoropolymer coatings are investigated using the shadow technique and an optical microscope. The droplet profile for a contact angle of less than 5° is constructed using an image-analyzing interference technique, and evaporation dynamics are investigated at the final stage. We coated the glass slides with a thin film of a fluoropolymer by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition method at different deposition modes depending on the deposition pressure and the temperature of the activating wire. The resulting surfaces have different structures affecting the wetting properties. Droplet evaporation from a constant contact radius mode in the early stage of evaporation was found followed by the mode where both contact angle and contact radius simultaneously vary in time (final stage) regardless of wettability of the coated surfaces. We found that depinning occurs at small contact angles of 2.2-4.7° for all samples, which are smaller than the measured receding contact angles. This is explained by imbibition of the liquid into the developed surface of the "soft" coating that leads to formation of thin droplets completely wetting the surface. The final stage, which is little discussed in the literature, is also recorded. We have singled out a substage where the contact line velocity is abruptly increasing for all coated and uncoated surfaces. The critical droplet height corresponding to the transition to this substage is about 2 μm with R/h = 107. The duration of this substage is the same for all coated and uncoated surfaces. Droplets observed at this substage for all the tested surfaces are axisymmetric. The specific evaporation rate clearly demonstrates an abrupt increase at the final substage of the droplet evaporation. The classical R 2 law is justified for the complete wetting situation where the droplet is disappearing in an axisymmetric manner.

  2. Detection rate and predictive factors of sessile serrated polyps in an organised colorectal cancer screening programme with immunochemical faecal occult blood test: the EQuIPE study (Evaluating Quality Indicators of the Performance of Endoscopy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Senore, Carlo; Da Re, Filippo; Barca, Alessandra; Bonelli, Luigina Ada; Cannizzaro, Renato; de Pretis, Giovanni; Di Furia, Lucia; Di Giulio, Emilio; Mantellini, Paola; Naldoni, Carlo; Sassatelli, Romano; Rex, Douglas K; Zappa, Marco; Hassan, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    To assess detection rate and predictive factors of sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) in organised colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on the faecal immunochemical test (FIT). Data from a case series of colonoscopies of FIT-positive subjects were provided by 44 Italian CRC screening programmes. Data on screening history, endoscopic procedure and histology results, and additional information on the endoscopy centre and the endoscopists were collected, including the age-standardised and sex-standardised adenoma detection rate (ADR) of the individual endoscopists. The SSP detection rate (SSP-DR) was assessed for the study population. To identify SSP-predictive factors, multilevel analyses were performed according to patient/centre/endoscopist characteristics. We analysed 72 021 colonoscopies, of which 1295 presented with at least one SSP (SSP-DR 1.8%; 95% CI 1.7% to 1.9%). At the per-patient level, SSP-DR was associated with males (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.54) and caecal intubation (OR 3.75; 95% CI 2.22 to 6.34), but not with the FIT round. The presence of at least one advanced adenoma was more frequent among subjects with SSPs than those without (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.86 to 2.33). At the per-endoscopist level, SSP-DR was associated with ADR (third vs first ADR quartile: OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35; fourth vs first quartile: OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.24 to 2.90). The low prevalence of SSPs and the lack of association with the FIT round argue against SSP as a suitable target for FIT-based organised programmes. Strict association of SSP-DR with the key colonoscopy quality indicators, namely caecal intubation rate and high ADR further marginalises the need for SSP-specific quality indicators in FIT-based programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Structural changes and degradation of Red Latosols under different management systems for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in food production is fundamental, although physical degradation has been observed in recent years, caused by different cultural practices that modify structures and consequently the functioning of soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible structural changes and degradation in an Oxisol under different managements for 20 years: no-tillage cultivation with and without crop rotation, perennial crop and conventional tillage, plus a forested area (reference. Initially, the crop profile was described and subsequently, 10 samples per management system and forest soil were collected to quantify soil organic matter, flocculation degree, bulk density, and macroporosity. The results indicated structural changes down to a soil depth of 50 cm, with predominance of structural units ∆μ (intermediate compaction level under perennial crop and no-tillage crop rotation, and of structural units ∆ (compacted under conventional tillage and no-tillage. The soil was increasingly degraded in the increasing order: forest => no-tillage crop rotation => perennial crop => no-tillage without crop rotation => conventional tillage. In all managements, the values of organic matter and macroporosity were always below and bulk density always above those of the reference area (forest and, under no-tillage crop rotation and perennial crop, the flocculation degree was proportionally equal to that of the reference area.

  4. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass Remaining During Evaporation of Sessile Drop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danberg, James E

    2008-01-01

    ... (height to base diameter) or contact angle. A combined variation of diameter and contact angle as a power law function is advanced with the effects of varying the power law exponent investigated...

  6. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, C.L.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Torriani, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  7. Structural investigations of sodium caseinate micelles in complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck Iriart, C.; Herrera, M.L.; Candal, R.; Oliveira, C.L.P.; Torriani, I.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The most frequent destabilization mechanisms in Sodium Caseinate (NaCas) emulsions are creaming and flocculation. Coarse or fine emulsions with low protein con- tent destabilize mainly by creaming. If migration mechanism is suppressed, flocculation may become the main mechanism of destabilization. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) technique was applied to investigate sodium caseinate micelles structure in different environments. As many natural products, Sodium Caseinate samples have large polydisperse size distribution. The experimental data was analyzed using advanced modeling approaches. The Form Factor for the Caseinate micelle subunits was described by an ellipsoidal core shell model and the structure factor was split into two contributions, one corresponding to the particle-particle interactions and another one for the long range correlation of the subunits in the supramolecular structure. For the first term the hard sphere structure factor using the Percus-Yevick approximation for closure relation was used and for the second term a fractal model was applied. Three concentrations of sodium Caseinate (2, 5 and 7.5 %wt.) were measured in pure water, sugar solutions (20 %wt.) and in three different lipid phase emulsions containing 10 %wt. sunflower seed, olive and fish oils. Data analysis provided an average casein subunit radius of 4 nm, an average distance between the subunits of around 20nm and a fractal dimension value of around 3 for all samples. As indicated by the values of the correlation lengths for the set of studied samples, the casein aggregation is strongly affected by simple sugar additions and it is enhanced by emulsion droplets hydrophobic interaction. As will be presented, these nanoscale structural results provided by scattering experiments is consistent with macroscopic results obtained from several techniques, providing a new understanding of NaCas emulsions. (author)

  8. Evaluación de la reproducibilidad del diagnóstico microscópico del adenoma serrado de sésil de colon Assessing the reproducibility of the microscopic diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bustamante-Balén

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el adenoma serrado sésil (ASS es una lesión descrita recientemente y que puede estar relacionada con el desarrollo de hasta un 15% de los cánceres colorrectales (CCR. Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de los criterios morfológicos para el diagnóstico del ASS evaluando el grado de acuerdo entre patólogos. Material y métodos: se estudió la concordancia entre dos patólogos para el diagnóstico de las lesiones serradas de colon en 195 lesiones (187 pólipos hiperplásicos y 7 adenomas serrados. De cada lesión se recogió el tamaño, la localización, la morfología y la forma de obtención de la muestra. Los dos patólogos eran desconocedores del diagnóstico inicial, las características macroscópicas y la localización de las lesiones. Los posibles diagnósticos fueron: ASS, adenoma serrado tradicional (AST, pólipo hiperplásico (PH, pólipo serrado, adenoma tubular o formas mixtas. Las dudas diagnósticas debían describirse. La concordancia entre los dos observadores se evaluó mediante el índice kappa (κ. También se evaluó la influencia de las variables recogidas de las lesiones en el grado de acuerdo en el diagnóstico. Resultados: el acuerdo global para el diagnóstico histológico fue pobre (κ = 0,14. También lo fue el acuerdo para el diagnóstico de ASS (κ = 0,23. La concordancia para el diagnóstico de ASS mejoró con el tamaño > 5 mm (κ = 0,64 y para la localización proximal (κ = 0,43. Conclusión: en un contexto clínico real, los criterios morfológicos existentes para la identificación del ASS pueden ser de difícil aplicación.Introduction: sessile serrated adenoma (SSA is a recently described lesion that may be related to the development of up to 15% of colorectal cancers (CRCs. Objective: to determine the accuracy of morphological criteria for the diagnosis of SSA by assessing concordance between pathologists. Material and methods: concordance between two pathologists in the diagnosis of

  9. Structure of Colloidal Flocs in relation to the Dynamic Properties of Unstable Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Adachi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors of unstable colloidal dispersions are reviewed in terms of floc formation. Geometrical structure of flocs in terms of chemical conditions and formation mechanics is a key to predict macroscopic transportation properties. The rate of sedimentation and rheological properties can be described with the help of fractal dimension (D that is the function of the number of contacts between clusters (Nc. It is also well known that the application of water soluble polymers and polyelectrolytes, which are usually used as a conditioner or flocculants in colloidal dispersions, critically affects the process of flocculation. The resulted floc structure is also influenced by the application of polymer. In order to reveal the roles of the polymers, the elementary rate process of polymer reaching to colloidal interface and subsequent reconformation process into more stable adsorption state are needed to be analyzed. The properties of permeable flocs and adsorbed polymer (polyelectrolyte layers formed on the colloidal surfaces remain to be worked out in relation to inhomogeneous porous structure and electrokinetics in the future.

  10. Structure-function characterization and optimization of a plant-derived antibacterial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Mougli; Haenni, Marisa; Canarelli, Stéphane; Fisch, Florian; Chodanowski, Pierre; Servis, Catherine; Michielin, Olivier; Freitag, Ruth; Moreillon, Philippe; Mermod, Nicolas

    2005-09-01

    Crushed seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree have been used traditionally as natural flocculants to clarify drinking water. We previously showed that one of the seed peptides mediates both the sedimentation of suspended particles such as bacterial cells and a direct bactericidal activity, raising the possibility that the two activities might be related. In this study, the conformational modeling of the peptide was coupled to a functional analysis of synthetic derivatives. This indicated that partly overlapping structural determinants mediate the sedimentation and antibacterial activities. Sedimentation requires a positively charged, glutamine-rich portion of the peptide that aggregates bacterial cells. The bactericidal activity was localized to a sequence prone to form a helix-loop-helix structural motif. Amino acid substitution showed that the bactericidal activity requires hydrophobic proline residues within the protruding loop. Vital dye staining indicated that treatment with peptides containing this motif results in bacterial membrane damage. Assembly of multiple copies of this structural motif into a branched peptide enhanced antibacterial activity, since low concentrations effectively kill bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes without displaying a toxic effect on human red blood cells. This study thus identifies a synthetic peptide with potent antibacterial activity against specific human pathogens. It also suggests partly distinct molecular mechanisms for each activity. Sedimentation may result from coupled flocculation and coagulation effects, while the bactericidal activity would require bacterial membrane destabilization by a hydrophobic loop.

  11. Floculação de leveduras por Lactobacillus fermentum em processos industriais de fermentação alcoólica avaliada por técnica fotométrica Fotometric method to determine yeast flocculation caused by Lactobacillus fermentum in alcoholic fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Castro e Souza

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Na produção de álcool por fermentação com leveduras, a floculação manifesta-se como um mecanismo natural de agregação de células. Essa condição pode ser induzida por vários fatores, entre eles, a interação entre bactérias floculentas como Lactobacillus fermentum e as leveduras. Esse fato torna-se prejudicial para o processo, pois tanto nas unidades que se utilizam do sistema de recuperação de células por centrifugação, como nas que não o utilizam, ocorrem perdas excessivas de fermento, em conseqüência dos problemas operacionais decorrentes da floculação, comprometendo seriamente o desempenho industrial. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a floculação em vinho proveniente de fermentação experimental, sob duas condições de pH de fermento tratado utilizadas como inóculo e temperaturas de fermentação, não se observando diferenças significativas entre elas. Com este estudo, pôde-se ainda avaliar a capacidade de dispersão dos flocos em três condições de pH no tratamento do fermento em fase industrial, mostrando diferenças altamente significativas entre elas. A maior capacidade de dispersão no tratamento do fermento é desejável para o controle da floculação industrial, permitindo a sua centrifugação, com conseqüente separação das bactérias contaminantes do fermento. Essas constatações tornaram-se possíveis pelo emprego da técnica usual de determinação da floculação por espectrofotometria, modificada pela desfloculação prévia das amostras de vinho e fermento, o que conferiu maior estabilidade nas leituras.In the production of alcohol by yeast fermentation, flocculation is a natural mechanism of cell aggregation. This mechanism can be induced by several factors, as the interaction with flocculent bacteria like Lactobacillus fermentum which strongly interacts with yeasts. Flocculation means loss to the process because both the mills that recover cells by centrifugation systems and the mills

  12. Structural characterization of coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin and its effect on hemostatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Luciana de Andrade; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Santana, Lucimeire Aparecida; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Paiva, Patricia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2013-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins. cMoL, a coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin, was isolated from seeds of the plant. Structural studies revealed a heat-stable and pH resistant protein with 101 amino acids, 11.67 theoretical pI and 81% similarity with a M. oleifera flocculent protein. Secondary structure content was estimated as 46% α-helix, 12% β-sheets, 17% β-turns and 25% unordered structures belonging to the α/β tertiary structure class. cMoL significantly prolonged the time required for blood coagulation, activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) and prothrombin times (PT), but was not so effective in prolonging aPTT in asialofetuin presence. cMoL acted as an anticoagulant protein on in vitro blood coagulation parameters and at least on aPTT, the lectin interacted through the carbohydrate recognition domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of submarine mine tailings on macrobenthic community structure and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannum, Hilde C; Gundersen, Hege; Escudero-Oñate, Carlos; Johansen, Joachim T; Schaanning, Morten T

    2018-07-15

    A mesocosm experiment with intact benthic communities was conducted to evaluate the effects of mine tailings on benthic community structure and biogeochemical processes. Two types of tailings were supplied from process plants using flotation and flocculation chemicals, while a third type was absent of added chemicals. All tailings impacted the sediment community at thin layers, and through more mechanisms than merely hypersedimentation. In general, the strongest impact was observed in a very fine-grained tailings containing flotation chemicals. The second strongest occurred in tailings with no process chemicals. The tailings with flocculation chemicals initiated the weakest response. Fluxes of oxygen, nitrate and ammonium provided some indications on biodegradation of organic phases. Release of phosphate and silicate decreased with increasing layer thickness of all three tailings. A threshold level of 2cm was identified both for faunal responses and for fluxes of phosphate and silicate. The particular impact mechanisms should receive more attention in future studies in order to minimize the environmental risk associated with tailings disposal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Provision of ecosystem services by human-made structures in a highly impacted estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, Craig A; Jud, Zachary R; Archer, Stephanie K; Riera, David

    2014-01-01

    Water filtration is one of the most important ecosystem services provided by sessile organisms in coastal ecosystems. As a consequence of increased coastal development, human-made shoreline structures (e.g., docks and bulkheads) are now common, providing extensive surface area for colonization by filter feeders. We estimate that in a highly urbanized sub-tropical estuary, water filtration capacity supported by filter feeding assemblages on dock pilings accounts for 11.7 million liters of water h −1 , or ∼30% of the filtration provided by all natural oyster reef throughout the estuary. Assemblage composition, and thus filtration capacity, varied as a function of piling type, suggesting that the choice of building material has critical implications for ecosystem function. A more thorough depiction of the function of coastal ecosystems necessitates quantification of the extensive ecosystem services associated with human-made structures. (paper)

  15. Morphology and it structures of the coralline formations of San Bernardo's archipelago, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Victoria, Mateo; Diaz, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    The archipelago of San Bernardo is an extensive reef complex of coralline origin located off the Caribbean coast of Colombia. In order to determine the distribution, morphological features, structure, and zonation patterns of the bottom environments of this area, employing aerial photography and observations in the field, thematic maps were produced and a series of data upon the structure of the sessile benthic biota was gathered. The complex comprises an area of more than 250 km 2; of which more than 60% corresponds to bottoms with notable coral cover (> 60% of the bottom) extending to depths of nearly 30m. Three geomorphological units and seven main types of habitats or ecological units were recognized

  16. Removal of binary dyes mixtures with opposite and similar charges by adsorption, coagulation/flocculation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of CeO2/H2O2 Fenton-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa Hamoud, Houeida; Finqueneisel, Gisèle; Azambre, Bruno

    2017-06-15

    In this study, the removal of binary mixtures of dyes with similar (Orange II/Acid Green 25) or opposite charges (Orange II/Malachite Green) was investigated either by simple adsorption on ceria or by the heterogeneous Fenton reaction in presence of H 2 O 2 . First, the CeO 2 nanocatalyst with high specific surface area (269 m 2 /g) and small crystal size (5 nm) was characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and N 2 ph