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Sample records for flies provision offspring

  1. The pay-offs of maternal care increase as offspring develop, favouring extended provisioning in an egg-feeding frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Moore, M P; Martin, R A; Richards-Zawacki, C L; Sprehn, C G

    2016-10-01

    Offspring quantity and quality are components of parental fitness that cannot be maximized simultaneously. When the benefits of investing in offspring quality decline, parents are expected to shift investment towards offspring quantity (other reproductive opportunities). Even when mothers retain complete control of resource allocation, offspring control whether to allocate investment to growth or development towards independence, and this shared control may generate parent-offspring conflict over the duration of care. We examined these predictions by, in a captive colony, experimentally removing tadpoles of the strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) from the mothers that provision them with trophic eggs throughout development. Tadpoles removed from their mothers were no less likely to survive to nutritional independence (i.e. through metamorphosis) than were those that remained with their mothers, but these offspring were smaller at metamorphosis and were less likely to survive to reach adult size, even though they were fed ad libitum. Tadpoles that remained with their mothers developed more slowly than those not receiving care, a pattern that might suggest that offspring extracted more care than was in mothers' best interests. However, the fitness returns of providing care increased with offspring development, suggesting that mothers would be best off continuing care until tadpoles initiated metamorphosis. Although the benefits of parental investment in offspring quality are often thought to asymptote at high levels, driving parent-offspring conflict over weaning, this assumption may not hold over natural ranges of investment, with selection on both parents and offspring favouring extended durations of parental care. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Effects of maternal and offspring environmental conditions on growth, development and diapause in latitudinal yellow dung fly populations

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Inon; Bauerfeind, Stephanie S; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Schäfer, Martin A

    2010-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic plasticity can allow populations to persist in changing environments. Maternal effects represent one important but often neglected source of phenotypic plasticity. Mothers and offspring of 2 high- (northern Norway and central Sweden) and 2 low- (northern and southern Spain) latitude yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae) populations were exposed to cold (12 degrees C) and warm (18 degrees C) temperatures and to short (8 h light: 16 h dark) and l...

  3. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Caswell Stoddard

    Full Text Available Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits.

  4. Brood parasitism increases provisioning rate, and reduces offspring recruitment and adult return rates, in a cowbird host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jeffrey P; Reetz, Matthew J

    2006-08-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism in birds presents a special problem for the host because the parasitic offspring exploit their foster parents, causing them to invest more energy in their current reproductive effort. Nestling brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are a burden to relatively small hosts and may reduce fledgling quality and adult survival. We documented food-provisioning rates of one small host, the prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea), at broods that were similar in age (containing nestlings 8-9 days old), but that varied in composition (number of warbler and cowbird nestlings) and mass, and measured the effect of brood parasitism on offspring recruitment and adult returns in the host. The rate of food provisioning increased with brood mass, and males and females contributed equally to feeding nestlings. Controlling for brood mass, the provisioning rate was higher for nests with cowbirds than those without. Recruitment of warbler fledglings from unparasitized nests was 1.6 and 3.7 times higher than that of fledglings from nests containing one or two cowbirds, respectively. Returns of double-brooded adult male and female warblers decreased with an increase in the number of cowbirds raised, but the decrease was more pronounced in males. Reduced returns of warbler adults and recruitment of warbler fledglings with increased cowbird parasitism was likely a result of reduced survival. Cowbird parasitism increased the warblers' investment in current reproductive effort, while exerting additional costs to current reproduction and residual reproductive value. Our study provides the strongest evidence to date for negative effects of cowbird parasitism on recruitment of host fledglings and survival of host adults.

  5. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: an evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Joel C; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2003-11-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade-offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade-offs of age-specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  6. Coal fly ash basins as an attractive nuisance to birds: Parental provisioning exposes nestlings to harmful trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, A.L.; Hopkins, W.A.; Parikh, J.H.; Jackson, B.P.; Unrine, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Birds attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins may expose their young to contaminants by provisioning them with contaminated food. Diet and tissues of Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscala) nestlings were analyzed for trace elements to determine if nestlings were accumulating elements via dietary exposure and if feather growth limits elemental accumulation in other tissues. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations in ash basin diets were 5× higher than reference diets. Arsenic, cadmium, and selenium concentrations were elevated in feather, liver, and carcass, but only liver Se concentrations approached levels of concern. Approximately 15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd was sequestered in feathers of older (>5 days) nestlings, whereas only 1% of the total body burden of Sr was sequestered in feathers. Feather concentrations of only three elements (As, Se, and Sr) were correlated with liver concentrations, indicating their value as non-lethal indicators of exposure. - Highlights: ► We examined elemental uptake by grackle nestlings associated with coal ash basins. ► Diet of ash basin nestlings had higher levels of Se, As, and Cd than control nestlings. ► Se, As, Cd, and Sr concentrations of ash basin nestling tissues were elevated. ► Only Se in nestling liver approached published levels of concern. ► Nestling feathers sequestered >15% of the total body burden of Se, As, and Cd. - Nestlings of common grackles attracted to nest around coal ash settling basins were exposed to elevated dietary Se, As, Cd, and Sr, resulting in elevated Se tissue concentrations approaching reported levels of concern.

  7. Seabirds maintain offspring provisioning rate despite fluctuations in prey abundance: A multi-species functional response for guillemots in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    1. Seabirds that consume more than one prey type may adjust their foraging to maintain provisioning rates for their chicks. How energetically effective are these strategies, and what are the implications for the management of seabirds and their marine habitat? 2. A multi-species functional response...... at a major North Sea colony from 1992 to 2005. 4. The fitted model reproduced changes in diet and consumption rate which were consistent with changes in local prey abundance including a long-term decline in sandeels.5. The model predicted that energy intake by chicks would be more sensitive to changes...... consumption rates so that these can be used as a metric of prey availability. Further, quantifying trophic links between marine prey and apex predators is needed to support the development of multi-species models in which the predators can be included. Such models are needed as tools to effectively manage...

  8. Transgenerational effects of maternal and grandmaternal age on offspring viability and performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch Qazi, Margaret C; Miller, Paige B; Poeschel, Penny M; Phan, Mai H; Thayer, Joseph L; Medrano, Christian L

    2017-07-01

    In non-social insects, fitness is determined by relative lifetime fertility. Fertility generally declines with age as a part of senescence. For females, senescence has profound effects on fitness by decreasing viability and fertility as well as those of her offspring. However, important aspects of these maternal effects, including the cause(s) of reduced offspring performance and carry-over effects of maternal age, are poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a useful system for examining potential transgenerational effects of increasing maternal age, because of their use as a model system for studying the physiology and genetic architecture of both reproduction and senescence. To test the hypothesis that female senescence has transgenerational effects on offspring viability and development, we measured the effects of maternal age on offspring survival over two generations and under two larval densities in two laboratory strains of flies (Oregon-R and Canton-S). Transgenerational effects of maternal age influence embryonic viability and embryonic to adult viability in both strains. However, the generation causing the effects, and the magnitude and direction of those effects differed by genotype. The effects of maternal age on embryonic to adult viability when larvae are stressed was also genotype-specific. Maternal effects involve provisioning: older females produced smaller eggs and larger offspring. These results show that maternal age has profound, complex, and multigenerational consequences on several components of offspring fitness and traits. This study contributes to a body of work demonstrating that female age is an important condition affecting phenotypic variation and viability across multiple generations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Offspring Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Steiner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental aggression, that is, offspring protection aggression, can be viewed as a type of parental investment. Most mammalian males do not exhibit parental investment and therefore exhibit little, if any, parental aggression. Men demonstrate parental investment, and are typically more physically aggressive than women, but parental physical aggression in humans has been largely unexplored. The current study examined potential sex differences in estimates of parental physical aggression involving hypothetical situations, while controlling for general physical aggression. A self-report measure was administered to 217 students from a western U.S. university (55 male nonparents, 50 female nonparents, 54 fathers, and 58 mothers. Male nonparents reported higher parental physical aggression than female nonparents, but there was no difference between mothers and fathers. The results are interpreted in light of ancestral effects of sexual selection and proximal effects of sex differences in testosterone, risk taking, and fear aversion.

  10. Antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kölliker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In species across taxa, offspring have means to influence parental investment (PI. PI thus evolves as an interacting phenotype and indirect genetic effects may strongly affect the co-evolutionary dynamics of offspring and parental behaviors. Evolutionary theory focused on explaining how exaggerated offspring solicitation can be understood as resolution of parent-offspring conflict, but the evolutionary origin and diversification of different forms of family interactions remains unclear.In contrast to previous theory that largely uses a static approach to predict how "offspring individuals" and "parental individuals" should interact given conflict over PI, we present a dynamic theoretical framework of antagonistic selection on the PI individuals obtain/take as offspring and the PI they provide as parents to maximize individual lifetime reproductive success; we analyze a deterministic and a stochastic version of this dynamic framework. We show that a zone for equivalent co-adaptation outcomes exists in which stable levels of PI can evolve and be maintained despite fast strategy transitions and ongoing co-evolutionary dynamics. Under antagonistic co-adaptation, cost-free solicitation can evolve as an adaptation to emerging preferences in parents.We show that antagonistic selection across the offspring and parental life-stage of individuals favors co-adapted offspring and parental behavior within a zone of equivalent outcomes. This antagonistic parent-offspring co-adaptation does not require solicitation to be costly, allows for rapid divergence and evolutionary novelty and potentially explains the origin and diversification of the observed provisioning forms in family life.

  11. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  12. Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

    2000-01-01

    The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal l...

  13. Parental-Offspring Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Disputes between parents and their young might seem easy enough to spot in everyday human life, but the notion of a general, evolutionary conflict between offspring and their parents has proved surprisingly slippery (reviewed by Godfray 1995). Nevertheless, today, almost four decades since the

  14. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in offspring size is of fundamental ecological and evolutionary importance. The level of provisioning an organism receives from its mother can have far reaching consequences for subsequent survival and performance. In marine systems, the traditional focus was on the remarkable variation in offspring size among species but there is increasing focus on variation in offspring size within species. Here we review the incidence and consequences of intraspecific offspring-size variation for marine invertebrates. Offspring size is remarkably variable within and among marine invertebrate populations. We examined patterns of variation in offspring size within populations using a meta-analysis of the available data for 102 species across 7 phyla. The average coefficient of variation in offspring size within populations is 9%, while some groups (e.g., direct developers) showed much more variation (15%), reflecting a fourfold difference between the largest and smallest offspring in any population. Offspring-size variation can have for reaching consequences. Offspring size affects every stage of a marine invertebrate's life history, even in species in which maternal provisioning accounts for only a small proportion of larval nutrition (i.e., planktotrophs). In species with external fertilization, larger eggs are larger targets for sperm and as such, the sperm environment may select for different egg sizes although debate continues over the evolutionary importance of such effects. Offspring size affects the planktonic period in many species with planktotrophic and lecithotrophic development, but we found that this effect is not universal. Indeed, much of the evidence for the effects of offspring size on the planktonic period is limited to the echinoids and in this group and other taxa there is variable evidence, suggesting further work is necessary. Post-metamorphic effects of offspring size were strong in species with non-feeding larvae and direct

  15. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  16. Experimental evidence for offspring learning in parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, H; Rodríguez-Gironés, M A; Yedvab, S; Winkler, D W; Lotem, A

    2000-09-07

    The offspring of birds and mammals solicit food from their parents by a combination of movements and vocalizations that have come to be known collectively as 'begging'. Recently, begging has most often been viewed as an honest signal of offspring need. Yet, if offspring learn to adjust their begging efforts to the level that rewards them most, begging intensities may also reflect offsprings' past experience rather than their precise current needs. Here we show that bird nestlings with equal levels of need can learn to beg at remarkably different levels. These experiments with hand-raised house sparrows (Passer domesticus) indicated that chicks learn to modify begging levels within a few hours. Moreover, we found that the begging postures of hungry chicks in natural nests are correlated with the average postures that had previously yielded them parental feedings. Such learning challenges parental ability to assess offspring needs and may require that, in response, parents somehow filter out learned differences in offspring signals.

  17. Fly Sings

    OpenAIRE

    Osmond, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Fly Sings (winner of the Bitish Library's 2015 Michael Marks Poetry Illustration award) forms the first installment of a prequel to the deadman and hare stories. It concerns how hare first came to be ‘summoned to the world below’, to look for deadman.\\ud \\ud Strandline Books chapbooks are produced as signed and numbered editions of 48, printed in black inkjet on 90gsm off-white recycled paper. They sell at £8 + £2 p&p. If interested, please email Mat Osmond at

  18. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  19. When ambient noise impairs parent-offspring communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucass, Carsten; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2016-05-01

    Ambient noise has increased in extent, duration and intensity with significant implications for species' lives. Birds especially, because they heavily rely on vocal communication, are highly sensitive towards noise pollution. Noise can impair the quality of a territory or hamper the transmission of vocal signals such as song. The latter has significant fitness consequences as it may erode partner preferences in the context of mate choice. Additional fitness costs may arise if noise masks communication between soliciting offspring and providing parents during the period of parental care. Here, we experimentally manipulated the acoustic environment of blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) families within their nest boxes with playbacks of previously recorded highway noise and investigated the consequences on parent-offspring communication. We hypothesized that noise interferes with the acoustic cues of parental arrival and vocal components of offspring begging. As such we expected an increase in the frequency of missed detections, when nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent, and a decrease in parental provisioning rates. Parents significantly reduced their rate of provisioning in noisy conditions compared to a control treatment. This reduction is likely to be the consequence of a parental misinterpretation of the offspring hunger level, as we found that nestlings fail to respond to the returning parent more frequently in the presence of noise. Noise also potentially masks vocal begging components, again contributing to parental underestimation of offspring requirements. Either way, it appears that noise impaired parent-offspring communication is likely to reduce reproductive success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  1. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  2. Maternal care, mother-offspring aggregation and age-dependent coadaptation in the European earwig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Y; Kölliker, M

    2013-09-01

    Benefits and costs of parental care are expected to change with offspring development and lead to age-dependent coadaptation expressed as phenotypic (behavioural) matches between offspring age and parental reproductive stage. Parents and offspring interact repeatedly over time for the provision of parental care. Their behaviours should be accordingly adjusted to each other dynamically and adaptively, and the phenotypic match between offspring age and parental stage should stabilize the repeated behavioural interactions. In the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), maternal care is beneficial for offspring survival, but not vital, allowing us to investigate the extent to which the stability of mother-offspring aggregation is shaped by age-dependent coadaptation. In this study, we experimentally cross-fostered nymphs of different age classes (younger or older) between females in early or late reproductive stage to disrupt age-dependent coadaptation, thereby generating female-nymph dyads that were phenotypically matched or mismatched. The results revealed a higher stability in aggregation during the first larval instar when care is most intense, a steeper decline in aggregation tendency over developmental time and a reduced developmental rate in matched compared with mismatched families. Furthermore, nymph survival was positively correlated with female-nymph aggregation stability during the early stages when maternal care is most prevalent. These results support the hypothesis that age-related phenotypically plastic coadaptation affects family dynamics and offspring developmental rate. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G.; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S.; Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions. PMID:26617418

  4. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  5. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  6. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  7. A chemical signal of offspring quality affects maternal care in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Flore; Haynes, Kenneth F; Kölliker, Mathias

    2009-08-07

    Begging signals of offspring are condition-dependent cues that are usually predicted to display information about the short-term need (i.e. hunger) to which parents respond by allocating more food. However, recent models and experiments have revealed that parents, depending on the species and context, may respond to signals of quality (i.e. offspring reproductive value) rather than need. Despite the critical importance of this distinction for life history and conflict resolution theory, there is still limited knowledge of alternative functions of offspring signals. In this study, we investigated the communication between offspring and caring females of the common earwig, Forficula auricularia, hypothesizing that offspring chemical cues display information about nutritional condition to which females respond in terms of maternal food provisioning. Consistent with the prediction for a signal of quality we found that mothers exposed to chemical cues from well-fed nymphs foraged significantly more and allocated food to more nymphs compared with females exposed to solvent (control) or chemical cues from poorly fed nymphs. Chemical analysis revealed significant differences in the relative quantities of specific cuticular hydrocarbon compounds between treatments. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time that an offspring chemical signal reflects nutritional quality and influences maternal care.

  8. Effects of decomposition on carcass attendance in a guild of carrion-breeding flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, M S; Elgar, M A

    2003-09-01

    Many forensically important calliphorids, sarcophagids and muscids (Diptera) oviposit or larviposit on corpses only during the early stages of decomposition, yet individuals may attend bodies throughout decay. A field study was conducted to investigate how patterns of carcass use and attendance by some fly species are affected by decomposition. Five fly traps were placed in the forest and baited with whole, fresh piglet carcasses. Piglets decomposed in traps throughout the experiment, and all were skeletonized within 6 days. Flies were trapped at both early and late decomposition stages, and the species and population structures of trap catches were compared. More flies attended carcasses early rather than late in decay. For all species, flies attending early were mainly gravid females, but few gravid females attended late in decay. No females ovi- or larviposited late in decay, whereas females of all fly species deposited offspring early in decay. The number of males trapped of each species correlated positively with the number of females with eggs at early development stages. Observations were made of fly predation by European wasps Vespula germanica Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) and jumper ants Myrmecia pilosula Smith (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) throughout the experiment. There was a higher risk for smaller fly species of being killed following predator attack. Ants and wasps attacked smaller fly species, whereas only wasps attacked larger fly species.

  9. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    points to a divide between the engineered and the organic and shows a human aspiration for control of information and of biological species. Frustratingly, the work does not allow control over the flies and the printing surface; the flies decide whether it is suitable to print on the paper...

  10. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  11. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  13. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  14. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  15. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the nu......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

  16. Sex determination mechanisms in the Calliphoridae (blow flies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M

    2014-01-01

    The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. "Predicting" parental longevity from offspring endophenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yashin, Anatoli I; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Kulminski, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    , cognitive functioning and health/well-being among offspring predict longevity in parents. Good predictors can be used as endophenotypes for exceptional survival. Our analyses revealed significant associations between cumulative indices describing physiological state, as well as a number of offspring...... phenotypes, and parental lifespan, supporting both their familial basis and relevance to longevity. We conclude that the study of endophenotypes within families is a valid approach to the genetics of human longevity....

  18. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cluding section. What Makes Flight Possible. It is obvious to most of us today that a body in flight must obey. Newton's laws of motion. Leonardo da Vinci in the early 1500's had already realised that "a bird flies according to mathematical .... Here x is the distance from the leading edge along the wing surface. In a majority of ...

  20. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  1. Epigenetically Heritable Alteration of Fly Development in Response to Toxic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shay Stern

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing organisms have evolved a wide range of mechanisms for coping with recurrent environmental challenges. How they cope with rare or unforeseen challenges is, however, unclear as are the implications to their unchallenged offspring. Here, we investigate these questions by confronting the development of the fly, D. melanogaster, with artificial tissue distributions of toxic stress that are not expected to occur during fly development. We show that under a wide range of toxic scenarios, this challenge can lead to modified development that may coincide with increased tolerance to an otherwise lethal condition. Part of this response was mediated by suppression of Polycomb group genes, which in turn leads to derepression of developmental regulators and their expression in new domains. Importantly, some of the developmental alterations were epigenetically inherited by subsequent generations of unchallenged offspring. These results show that the environment can induce alternative patterns of development that are stable across multiple generations.

  2. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  3. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The influence of parental history of diabetes and offspring birthweight on offspring glucose metabolism in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Jørgensen, Mie Kw; Damm, Peter

    2011-01-01

    tolerance status in non-diabetic offspring of patients with T2DM and 2) to study the associations of birthweight with measures of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. Design. Family cohort study. Population. Offspring of patients with verified T2DM diagnosed after age 40 years...

  5. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  6. Preconception Alcohol Increases Offspring Vulnerability to Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Shaima; Chastain, Lucy G; Gangisetty, Omkaram; Cabrera, Miguel A; Sochacki, Kamil; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2016-10-01

    The effect of preconception drinking by the mother on the life-long health outcomes of her children is not known, and therefore, in this study using an animal model, we determined the impact of preconception alcohol drinking of the mother on offspring stress response during adulthood. In our preconception alcohol exposure model, adult female rats were fed with 6.7% alcohol in their diet for 4 weeks, went without alcohol for 3 weeks and were bred to generate male and female offspring. Preconception alcohol-exposed offsprings' birth weight, body growth, stress response, anxiety-like behaviors, and changes in stress regulatory gene and protein hormone levels were evaluated. In addition, roles of epigenetic mechanisms in preconception alcohol effects were determined. Alcohol feeding three weeks prior to conception significantly affected pregnancy outcomes of female rats, with respect to delivery period and birth weight of offspring, without affecting maternal care behaviors. Preconception alcohol negatively affected offspring adult health, producing an increased stress hormone response to an immune challenge. In addition, preconception alcohol was associated with changes in expression and methylation profiles of stress regulatory genes in various brain areas. These changes in stress regulatory genes were normalized following treatment with a DNA methylation blocker during the postnatal period. These data highlight the novel possibility that preconception alcohol affects the inheritance of stress-related diseases possibly by epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents...

  8. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  9. Improved attractants for enhancing tsetse fly suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    At the initiation of this co-ordinated research project (CRP), the available visually attractant devices and odours for entomological monitoring and for suppression of tsetse fly populations were not equally effective against all economically important tsetse fly species. For species like G. austeni, G. brevipalpis, G. swynnertoni and some species of the PALPALIS-group of tsetse flies no sufficiently effective combinations of visual or odour attractants were available for efficient suppression and standardized monitoring as part of an operational integrated intervention campaign against the tsetse and trypanosomosis (T and T) problem. The Co-ordinated Research Project on Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations and Barrier Systems used in Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns involved (a) the identification, synthesis and provision of candidate kairomones, their analogues and of dispensers; (b) laboratory screening of synthesised candidate kairomones through electrophysiological studies and wind tunnel experiments; (c) field tests of candidate kairomones alone or as part of odour blends, in combination with available and or new trap designs; and (d) analysis of hydrocarbons that influence tsetse sexual behaviour. The CRP accomplished several main objectives, namely: - The screening of new structurally related compounds, including specific stereoisomers, of known tsetse attractants resulted in the identification of several new candidate odour attractants with promising potential. - An efficient two-step synthetic method was developed for the pilot plant scale production of 3-n-propyphenol, synergistic tsetse kairomone component. - Electrophysiological experiments complemented with wind tunnel studies provided an efficient basis for the laboratory screening of candidate attractants prior to the initiation of laborious field tests. - New traps were identified and modifications of existing traps were tested for some species

  10. Sand fly-borne viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvědová Cvanová, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important vectors of protozoan, bacterial and viral patogens causing diseases in humans and domestic animals. This thesis summarizes the current knowledge on sand fly-born viruses, their distribution in the World, infection symptoms and life cycle in the nature. These viruses are transmitted by sand flies of genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia and Sergentomyia and they can be found on every continent except for Antarctica. They belong into four families, Bunyav...

  11. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  12. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  13. PARASITOID VENOM INDUCES METABOLIC CASCADES IN FLY HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrinalini; Siebert, Aisha L; Wright, Jeremy; Martinson, Ellen; Wheeler, David; Werren, John H

    2015-04-01

    Parasitoid wasps inject insect hosts with a cocktail of venoms to manipulate the physiology, development, and immunity of the hosts and to promote development of the parasitoid offspring. The jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis is a model parasitoid with at least 79 venom proteins. We conducted a high-throughput analysis of Nasonia venom effects on temporal changes of 249 metabolites in pupae of the flesh fly host ( Sarcophaga bullata ), over a five-day time course. Our results show that venom does not simply arrest the metabolism of the fly host. Rather, it targets specific metabolic processes while keeping hosts alive for at least five days post venom injection by the wasp. We found that venom: (a) Activates the sorbitol biosynthetic pathway while maintaining stable glucose levels, (b) Causes a shift in intermediary metabolism by switching to anaerobic metabolism and blocking the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (c) Arrests chitin biosynthesis that likely reflects developmental arrest of adult fly structures, (d) Elevates the majority of free amino acids, and (e) May be increasing phospholipid degradation. Despite sharing some metabolic effects with cold treatment, diapause, and hypoxia, the venom response is distinct from these conditions. Because Nasonia venom dramatically increases sorbitol levels without changing glucose levels, it could be a useful model for studying the regulation of the sorbitol pathway, which is relevant to diabetes research. Our findings generally support the view that parasitoid venoms are a rich source of bioactive molecules with potential biomedical applications.

  14. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  15. Factors Affecting Species Identifications of Blow Fly Pupae Based upon Chemical Profiles and Multivariate Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, William; Carroll, Clinton; Dixon, Darren A; Goodpaster, John V; Picard, Christine J

    2017-04-11

    Alternative methods for the identification of species of blow fly pupae have been developed over the years that consist of the analyses of chemical profiles. However, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors that could influence the predictive manner for the tests have not been evaluated. The lipids of blowfly pupae ( Cochliomyia macellaria , Lucilia cuprina , Lucilia sericata , and Phormia regina ) were extracted in pentane, derivatized, and analyzed by total-vaporization solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TV-SPME GC-MS). Peak areas for 26 compounds were analyzed. Here we evaluated one biotic factor (colonization) on four species of blow flies to determine how well a model produced from lipid profiles of colonized flies predicted the species of flies of offspring of wild-caught flies and found very good species identification following 10 generations of inbreeding. When we evaluated four abiotic factors in our fly rearing protocols (temperature, humidity, pupation substrate, and diet), we found that the ability to assign the chemical profile to the correct species was greatly reduced.

  16. Purpose in Life Among Centenarian Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Sarah; Bloore, Katherine; Sebastiani, Paola; Flynn, Christopher; Leonard, Brittany; Whitaker, Kelsey; Mostowy, Marilyn; Perls, Thomas; Andersen, Stacy L

    2018-03-07

    Purpose in life (PIL), a feeling of meaning and direction in life, is associated with favorable health outcomes including lower mortality and reduced risk of disease, disability, and cognitive impairment. Since centenarian offspring have been shown to have long health spans we sought to examine whether they have higher PIL than individuals without familial longevity. We compared PIL scores from the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being in centenarian offspring from the New England Centenarian Study (N=361, mean age=82.0 years) with three referent groups: spouses, birth cohort-matched referents, and Health and Retirement Study (HRS) participants. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, and marital status indicated greater odds of high PIL among centenarian offspring compared with spouse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.002-3.68, p=.049) and birth cohort referents (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.36-5.14, p=.004). Offspring had an almost three times greater odds of having high PIL than HRS participants (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17-3.96, ppurposefulness may be a target for interventions to promote healthy aging.

  17. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  18. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  19. Variables Associated with the Adjustment of Offspring of Alcoholic Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, David J.; Genest, Myles

    Although research has shown the problems associated with being the offspring of an alcoholic, not all such offspring are maladjusted. To investigate the relationships among variables associated with the adjustment of children of alcoholic fathers, 30 offspring of alcoholic fathers and 40 controls, aged 18 to 23 years, completed demographic,…

  20. The Flying University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  1. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  2. Learning from the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea; Schwartz, Renee

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly ("Drosophila melanogaster") is an ideal subject for studying inheritance patterns, Mendel's laws, meiosis, Punnett squares, and other aspects of genetics. Much of what we know about genetics dates to evolutionary biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan's work with mutated fruit flies in the early 1900s. Many genetic laboratories…

  3. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-05-01

    Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers' first 11 years of their child's life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathways to Suicide-Related Behavior in Offspring of Mothers With Depression: The Role of Offspring Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, Gemma; Zammit, Stanley; Mahedy, Liam; Pearson, Rebecca M.; Sellers, Ruth; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Offspring of mothers with depression are a high-risk group for the development of suicide-related behavior. These offspring are therefore a priority for preventive interventions; however, pathways contributing to risk, including specific aspects of offspring psychopathology, remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine whether offspring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol abuse independently mediate the association between maternal depression and offspring suicide-related behavior. Method Data were used from a population-based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Three distinct classes of depression symptoms across the mothers’ first 11 years of their child’s life were identified (minimal, moderate, chronic-severe). Offspring psychopathology was assessed at age 15 years and suicide-related behavior at age 16 years. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results There was evidence for increased risk of suicidal ideation in offspring of mothers with chronic-severe depression symptoms in comparison to offspring of mothers with minimal symptoms (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% CI = 2.19, 4.21). This association was independently mediated by offspring MDD, GAD, and DBD symptoms. The same mechanisms were found for offspring of mothers with moderate depression symptoms over time. Results were similar for offspring suicide attempt except for additional evidence of an indirect effect through offspring ADHD symptoms. Conclusion Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. PMID:25901775

  5. Neutrons are flying

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    View of the n_TOF tube with members of the design and construction team of the facility(from left to right: R. Magnin/LHC, E. Radermacher/EP, P. Cennini/EP and R. Cappi/PS). A new experimental facility was inaugurated at CERN on Wednesday 8 November. The neutron Time Of Flight (n_TOF) facility received its first protons from the PS at 10:55. With an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons per cycle on the n_TOF target, an intense neutron beam has been produced at CERN for the first time, opening the door to many new avenues of research including, for example, neutron induced cross-section measurements. The facility is an offspring of the work by Carlo Rubbia and his group on the novel idea of an Energy Amplifier. The basic idea was successfully tested at the PS with the FEAT experiment and later with the TARC experiment, where the feasibility of transmutation of long-lived products by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) was confirmed. This led to the possibility of radio-isotope production for medical applications, fo...

  6. Parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Borges, Rebeca; Medina Mora, Maria-Elena; Benjet, Corina; Nock, Matthew K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the extent to which parental psychopathology may confer increased risk of suicide ideation and attempts among their offspring in Mexico. Data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002) to examine the unique associations between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidality were used. Parental disorders (major depression, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) were comorbid and after controlling for comorbidity and number of disorders only parental panic and antisocial personality disorder remained associated with ideation and attempts in the total sample. Those with more parental disorders were at increased risk of ideation and attempt, as well as increased risk to transition from suicide ideation to an attempt. These findings may help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries.

  7. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  8. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The...

  9. Why offspring in nonhuman families differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott

    2013-07-18

    Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird) to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental) effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  10. Why Offspring in Nonhuman Families Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Forbes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Offspring within families, both human and nonhuman, often differ. The obvious question is: Why? Work on psychological differences on children within human families has focused primarily on differences in the nonshared environment of contemporary siblings, though the precise location of this nonshared environment is still the subject of much debate. Here I explore the range of explanations for within-brood diversity from the perspective of nonhuman families, particularly birds that share certain key features with human families. I examine the role of social rank in creating a nonshared environment within the family, and present data from a model system (an altricial bird to illustrate how different the effective environments experienced by offspring sitting side-by-side in the same confined physical space, tended by the same parents, and experiencing similar ecological variability, can be. These broodmates can effectively live in different worlds. I then briefly explore other sources of diversity among offspring in nonhuman families, including within brood genetic differences and non-genetic maternal (parental effects that often covary with birth / hatching rank. Given the ubiquity and far-reaching consequences of maternal effects in nonhuman families, and some human data suggestive of similar patterns, it would seem worthwhile to explore the potential role of maternal effects in creating phenotypic diversity in psychological traits among children in human families.

  11. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  12. Male rock sparrows differentially allocate nest defence but not food provisioning to offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; Carmagnani, Cristina; Griggio, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    for a number of species, while male differential allocation based on female secondary sexual traits has received less attention. Yet females of many species, among birds in particular, are ornamented. We performed a test of male differential allocation based on a female ornament in the rock sparrow (Petronia......Secondary sexual characters may provide information about individual quality to a partner, which may use it during parental care to strategically allocate resources to the current breeding attempt (Differential Allocation Hypothesis). Differential allocation by females has been demonstrated...

  13. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  14. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837377

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to

  15. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  16. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  17. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies.

  18. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  19. Plasticity in foraging strategies of inshore birds: how Little Penguins maintain body reserves while feeding offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Robinson-Laverick, Sarah M; Le Maho, Yvon; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Chiaradia, André

    2011-10-01

    Breeding animals face important time and energy constraints when caring for themselves and their offspring. For long-lived species, life-history theory predicts that parents should favor survival over current reproductive attempts, thus investing more into their own maintenance than the provisioning of their young. In seabirds, provisioning strategies may additionally be influenced by the distance between breeding sites and foraging areas, and offshore and inshore species should thus exhibit different strategies. Here, we examine the provisioning strategies of an inshore seabird using a long-term data set on more than 200 Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor. They alternated between two consecutive long and several short foraging trips all along chick rearing, a strategy almost never observed for inshore animals. Short trips allowed for regular provisioning of the chicks (high feeding frequency and larger meals), whereas long trips were performed when parent body mass was low and enabled them to rebuild their reserves, suggesting that adult body condition may be a key factor in initiating long trips. Inshore seabirds do use dual strategies of alternating short and long trips, but from our data, on a simpler and less flexible way than for offshore birds.

  20. A theoretical model of the evolution of maternal effects under parent-offspring conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido

    The evolution of maternal effects on offspring phenotype should depend on the extent of parent-offspring conflict and costs and constraints associated with maternal and offspring strategies. Here, we develop a model of maternal effects on offspring dispersal phenotype under parent-offspring conflict

  1. Risks to the offspring from parental occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.F.; Schottenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    Risks to the offspring of workers with occupational chemical exposures may derive from mutagenic, teratogenic or carcinogenic effects of industrial agents to which the parents are exposed. Evidence for impaired pregnancies and hazards to the offspring of working populations with chemical exposures is, however, very limited. Evidence is reviewed for hazards to the offspring resulting from parental occupational exposure to vinyl chloride, benzene, chloroprene, radiation and petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Other environmental and behavioral factors with major effects on pregnancy outcome are considered. These include smoking, alcohol, and drug exposures. An approach to surveillance for chromosomal abnormalities in offspring of occupationally exposed parents is outlined

  2. Aging parasites produce offspring with poor fitness prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, Cédric; Faivre, Bruno; Lechenault, Clothilde; Sorci, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    Senescing individuals have poor survival prospects and low fecundity. They can also produce offspring with reduced survival and reproductive success. We tested the effect of parental age on the performance of descendants in the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus , an intestinal parasite of rodents. We found that offspring of senescing worms had reduced within-host survival and reduced egg shedding over the first month post-infection compared with offspring produced by young parents. These results suggest that declining offspring quality is a component of senescence in parasitic nematodes and might have evolutionary consequences for the optimal schedule of age-dependent investment into reproductive effort. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ACCOUNTING PROVISIONS FOR VACATION PAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna CEBOTARI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article are proposed for examination theoretical aspects related to the notion of provision. The authors describe the method of calculation and accounting for provisions regarding the payment of leave.

  5. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... of schizophrenia was associated with maternal schizophrenia (OR = 15.41 with 95% CI 5.96-39.81) and, independently, with paternal hospitalisation with neurosis (OR = 5.90 with 95% CI 2.23-15.62). The risk of schizophrenia associated with paternal neurosis remained significant after excluding offspring of parents...

  6. Is aggregated oviposition by the blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) really pheromone-mediated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Wong, Warren H L; VanLaerhoven, Sherah; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    When female blow flies Lucilia sericata and Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposit in aggregations on carrion, even-aged larval offspring reportedly develop faster, and fewer are parasitized or preyed upon. The benefits of aggregated oviposition equally affect con- and heterospecific larvae sharing a resource. The benefits imply that female blow flies engage in coordinated, pheromone-mediated oviposition behavior. Yet, repeated attempts to identify oviposition pheromones have failed invoking doubt that they exist. Simply by regurgitating and feeding on carrion, flies may produce attractive semiochemicals. If flies were to aggregate in response to feeding flies rather than ovipositing flies, then the semiochemical cue(s) may be associated with the salivary gland. Working with L. sericata and P. regina and using liver as a surrogate oviposition medium, we test the hypotheses, and present data in their support, that (i) gravid or nongravid females ovipositing and/or feeding on liver enhance its attractiveness to gravid and nongravid females; (ii) females respond to semiochemicals from feeding heterospecific females; (iii) females respond equally well to semiochemicals from feeding con- and heterospecific females; (iv) macerated head tissues of females applied to liver enhance its attractiveness; and (v) females in direct contact with and feeding on liver, but not when next to yet physically separated from liver, enhance attraction of flies. We conclude that oviposition site-seeking females do not respond to an oviposition pheromone. Instead, they appear to coopt semiochemicals associated with feeding flies as resource indicators, taking chances that resources are suitable for oviposition, and that ovipositing flies are present. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Maternal Fat Feeding Augments Offspring Nephron Endowment in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Hokke

    Full Text Available Increasing consumption of a high fat 'Western' diet has led to a growing number of pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity. Maternal overnutrition and obesity have health implications for offspring, yet little is known about their effects on offspring kidney development and renal function. Female C57Bl6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 21% fat or matched normal fat diet (NFD, 6% fat for 6 weeks prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation and lactation. HFD dams were overweight and glucose intolerant prior to mating but not in late gestation. Offspring of NFD and HFD dams had similar body weights at embryonic day (E15.5, E18.5 and at postnatal day (PN21. HFD offspring had normal ureteric tree development and nephron number at E15.5. However, using unbiased stereology, kidneys of HFD offspring were found to have 20-25% more nephrons than offspring of NFD dams at E18.5 and PN21. Offspring of HFD dams with body weight and glucose profiles similar to NFD dams prior to pregnancy also had an elevated nephron endowment. At 9 months of age, adult offspring of HFD dams displayed mild fasting hyperglycaemia but similar body weights to NFD offspring. Renal function and morphology, measured by transcutaneous clearance of FITC-sinistrin and stereology respectively, were normal. This study demonstrates that maternal fat feeding augments offspring nephron endowment with no long-term consequences for offspring renal health. Future studies assessing the effects of a chronic stressor on adult mice with augmented nephron number are warranted, as are studies investigating the molecular mechanisms that result in high nephron endowment.

  8. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding mink (Neovison vison) a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy induces higher birth weight and altered hepatic gene expression in the F2 offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank; Blache, Dominique; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition during foetal life can induce modifications in the phenotype of an individual. The present study aimed to observe effects of low foetal life protein provision on modifications of the phenotype and changes in the progeny of 1-year-old female mink (F1 generation) offspring of mothers fed...... a low-protein diet. Traits studied included reproductive performance, energy and protein metabolism, and key hepatic enzymes associated with glucose homeostasis and metabolic hormones. The F0 generation offspring were fed either a low-protein (14 % of metabolisable energy (ME) from protein - FLP1...... though energy and nitrogen metabolism displayed no effect of protein provision during early life, programming effects still appeared at the molecular level in the following generation...

  10. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  11. Altered morphology of liver and pancreas tissues of offsprings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results shopwed growth retardation of the offsprings, micromorphological changes in tissues such as liver (genernalized apoptotic processes and hepatocellular necrosis) and pancreas (increased islet cells density and scattered acinar hyperplasia with solid cellular area) in the offsprings of the female albino rats that ...

  12. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  13. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J ...

  14. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated

  15. Offspring Socioeconomic Status and Parent Mortality Within a Historical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Hanson, Heidi A; Smith, Ken R

    2016-10-01

    Considering a network approach to health determinants, we test the hypothesis that benefits of high socioeconomic status (SES) may be transmitted up the generational ladder from offspring to parents. Studies that examine own SES and own health outcomes, or SES of parents and outcomes of young or adolescent children, are common. Those that investigate SES of offspring and their association with parental health are rare. Employing data from a historical population of individuals extracted from a comprehensive population database that links demographic and vital records across generations, this study tests the hypothesis that higher offspring SES associates with lower parental mortality after controlling for parental SES. The sample includes 29,972 individuals born between 1864 and 1883 whose offspring were born between 1886 and 1920. SES is operationalized using Nam-Powers occupational status scores divided into quartiles and a category for farmers. Models assess mortality risk after age 40. Included is a test for whether effects are proportional across parents who died younger and older. Estimated life expectancies across categories of offspring SES conditioned on parental SES are calculated to illustrate specifically how differences in SES relate to differences in years lived. Results indicate a longevity penalty for those whose offspring have low SES and a longevity dividend for those with high-SES offspring. The influence of offspring attributes on well-being of parents points to fluid and myriad linkages between generations.

  16. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  17. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  18. Flying in Nightmares - A Neglected Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Schönhammer, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    It is widely supposed in the scientific and popular literature on dreams that flying in dreams is of mostly delightful character. Domhoff (1996) recently emphasised the highly positive feelings experienced in flying dreams although he mentions a turn to apprehension later in the dream ("crashing", "coming down"). In my research (an interview-sample of flying dreams) I met flying experiences in contexts of nightmares which are seldom mentioned and never thoroughly discussed in interdiscipli...

  19. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the ... Author Affiliations. Amitabh Joshi1. Animal Behaviour Unit Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research Jakkur P.O. Bangalore 560 064, India ...

  20. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fly ash (FA) is a coal product generated from coal fired thermal power stations. ... million tons during 2001–2010 AD (Muraka et al 1987;. Satyanarayan and Pushpalata 1991). Disposal of FA and bottom ash are today's burning problems as they have .... Muraka I P, Boyd R H and Harbert H P 1987 Solid waste disposal and ...

  1. To Fly in the Sky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  2. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  3. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fly ash were measured through N2 adsorption at 77 K using a TRISTAR-3000 surface area and porosity analyzer (Micromeritics). Surface morphology of fly ash was characterized by a SM-. 6700F field emission scanning electron microscope. Table 2. Chemical composition of fly ash. Oxide of metal. Percentage composition.

  4. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Many entities currently use fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although the body of knowledge is : great concerning the use of fly ash, several projects per year are subject to poor performance where fly ash is named ...

  5. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter ...... infection of broiler flocks in summer....

  6. The origins of altruism in offspring care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D

    2013-11-01

    The current review aims to unify existing views of altruism through an examination of the biological bases of a fundamental form of giving: altruistic responding. Altruistic responding is most salient during heroic acts of helping but is also observed any time one perceives another's distress or need, which in turn motivates one to help at a current cost to the self. Such aid is simple, observable across species, and rooted in the instincts and circuits that evolved to maximize inclusive fitness through the care of helpless offspring. By design, the system already biases aid to both kin and nonkin under conditions that are largely adaptive. These inherent benefits are also buttressed in primates and humans by known, later-arriving benefits to helping in group-living animals. Evidence for the proposed homology between altruistic responding and offspring retrieval is presented through 10 key shared factors. Conceptually, both require (a) participation by nonmothers, (b) motor competence and expertise, (c) an adaptive opponency between avoidance and approach, and a facilitating role of (d) neonatal vulnerability, (e) salient distress, and (f) rewarding close contact. Physiologically, they also share neurohormonal support from (g) oxytocin, (h) the domain-general mesolimbocortical system, (i) the cingulate cortex, and (j) the orbitofrontal cortex. The framework intermixes ultimate and proximate levels of analysis and unifies existing views by assuming that even complex human behaviors reflect ancient mammalian neural systems that evolved to solve key problems in adaptive ways, with far-reaching consequences for even our most venerated human traits. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  7. Managing the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) using an electric walk-through fly trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D W; Stringham, S M; Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Poore, M H; Meier, A

    2002-10-01

    An electric walk-through fly trap was evaluated for the management of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), on dairy cattle in North Carolina over 2 yr. The trap relies on black lights and electrocution grids to attract and kill flies that are brushed from the cattle passing through. During the first season, horn fly densities were reduced from >1,400 to flies per animal. Horn fly density averaged 269.2 +/- 25.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap twice daily, and 400.2 +/- 43.5 on the control group during the first year. The second year, seasonal mean horn fly density was 177.3 +/- 10.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap compared with 321.1 +/- 15.8 on the control group. No insecticides were used to control horn flies during this 2-yr study.

  8. Parental prey selection affects risk-taking behaviour and spatial learning in avian offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn E; Ramsay, Scot L; Donaldson, Christine; Adam, Aileen

    2007-10-22

    Early nutrition shapes life history. Parents should, therefore, provide a diet that will optimize the nutrient intake of their offspring. In a number of passerines, there is an often observed, but unexplained, peak in spider provisioning during chick development. We show that the proportion of spiders in the diet of nestling blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, varies significantly with the age of chicks but is unrelated to the timing of breeding or spider availability. Moreover, this parental prey selection supplies nestlings with high levels of taurine particularly at younger ages. This amino acid is known to be both vital and limiting for mammalian development and consequently found in high concentrations in placenta and milk. Based on the known roles of taurine in mammalian brain development and function, we then asked whether by supplying taurine-rich spiders, avian parents influence the stress responsiveness and cognitive function of their offspring. To test this, we provided wild blue tit nestlings with either a taurine supplement or control treatment once daily from the ages of 2-14 days. Then pairs of size- and sex-matched siblings were brought into captivity for behavioural testing. We found that juveniles that had received additional taurine as neonates took significantly greater risks when investigating novel objects than controls. Taurine birds were also more successful at a spatial learning task than controls. Additionally, those individuals that succeeded at a spatial learning task had shown intermediate levels of risk taking. Non-learners were generally very risk-averse controls. Early diet therefore has downstream impacts on behavioural characteristics that could affect fitness via foraging and competitive performance. Fine-scale prey selection is a mechanism by which parents can manipulate the behavioural phenotype of offspring.

  9. Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD. Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient–gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension. Here, we review the key themes on the effect of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes and programmed hypertension. We have particularly focused on the following areas: metabolic effects of fructose on hypertension and kidney disease; effects of maternal HF consumption on hypertension development in adult offspring; effects of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes; and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced programmed hypertension in animal models. Provision of personalized nutrition is still a faraway goal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient–gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases.

  10. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  11. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  12. Hyperleptinemia During Pregnancy Decreases Adult Weight of Offspring and Is Associated With Increased Offspring Locomotor Activity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kelly E; Stevens, Damaiyah; Pennington, Kathleen A; Thaisrivongs, Rose; Kaiser, Jennifer; Ellersieck, Mark R; Miller, Dennis K; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-10-01

    Pregnant women who are obese or have gestational diabetes mellitus have elevated leptin levels and their children have an increased risk for child and adult obesity. The goals of this study were to determine whether offspring weights are altered by maternal hyperleptinemia, and whether this occurs via behavioral changes that influence energy balance. We used 2 hyperleptinemic mouse models. The first was females heterozygous for a leptin receptor mutation (DB/+), which were severely hyperleptinemic, and that were compared with wild-type females. The second model was wild-type females infused with leptin (LEP), which were moderately hyperleptinemic, and were compared with wild-type females infused with saline (SAL). Total food consumption, food preference, locomotor activity, coordinated motor skills, and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed in wild-type offspring from each maternal group at 3 postnatal ages: 4-6, 11-13, and 19-21 weeks. Half the offspring from each group were then placed on a high-fat diet, and behaviors were reassessed. Adult offspring from both groups of hyperleptinemic dams weighed less than their respective controls beginning at 23 weeks of age, independent of diet or sex. Weight differences were not explained by food consumption or preference, because female offspring from hyperleptinemic dams tended to consume more food and had reduced preference for palatable, high-fat and sugar, food compared with controls. Offspring from DB/+ dams were more active than offspring of controls, as were female offspring of LEP dams. Maternal hyperleptinemia during pregnancy did not predispose offspring to obesity, and in fact, reduced weight gain.

  13. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  14. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  15. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  16. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  17. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine Dalsgaard; Mortensen, E L; Schmidt, L

    2011-01-01

    Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes.......Maternal diabetes may affect offspring cognitive function. The objective of the study was to evaluate cognitive function and potential predictors hereof in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes....

  18. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  19. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  20. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Offspring of Young Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Betina Frydenlund; Schmidt, Anne Aarslev; Mulvihill, John J

    2018-01-01

    Danish cancer survivors and 40 859 offspring (40 794 live-born children and 65 fetuses) of 19 536 siblings. Chromosomal abnormalities include numeric and structural abnormalities. Odds ratios were estimated by multiple logistic regression models comparing the risk of chromosomal abnormalities among...... compared with their siblings' offspring (odds ratio = 0.99, 95% confidence interval = 0.67 to 1.44, two-sided P = .94), with similar risk between male and female survivors. Cancer survivors were not more likely than their siblings to have children with a chromosomal abnormality.......To examine whether cancer survivors diagnosed before age 35 years are more likely to have offspring with chromosomal abnormalities than their siblings, chromosomal abnormalities were determined in a population-based cohort of 14 611 offspring (14 580 live-born children and 31 fetuses) of 8945...

  2. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Andrea G

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption to abnormal fetal brain development and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric morbidity in offspring. In addition, it highlights key mechanisms by which maternal obesity and maternal diet might impact fetal and offspring neurodevelopment, including neuroinflammation; increased oxidative stress, dysregulated insulin, glucose, and leptin signaling; dysregulated serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling; and perturbations in synaptic plasticity. Finally, the review summarizes available evidence regarding investigational therapeutic approaches to mitigate the harmful effects of maternal obesity on fetal and offspring neurodevelopment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Micro-Albuminuria In Adolescent/Young Adult Offsprings Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...

  4. Advance Resource Provisioning in Bulk Data Scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balman, Mehmet

    2012-10-01

    Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.

  5. Pooled Genotyping of Microsatellite Markers in Parent–Offspring Trios

    OpenAIRE

    Kirov, George; Williams, Nigel; Sham, Pak; Craddock, Nick; Owen, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent–offspring trio...

  6. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...... agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic...

  7. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Pernilla Foyer; Erik Wilsson; Per Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring int...

  8. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring wit...

  9. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  10. The schooling of offspring and the survival of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Esther M; Mare, Robert D

    2014-08-01

    Contemporary stratification research on developed societies usually views the intergenerational transmission of educational advantage as a one-way effect from parent to child. However, parents' investment in their offspring's schooling may yield significant returns for parents themselves in later life. For instance, well-educated offspring have greater knowledge of health and technology to share with their parents and more financial means to provide for them than do their less-educated counterparts. We use data from the 1992-2006 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to examine whether adult offspring's educational attainments are associated with parents' survival in the United States. We show that adult offspring's educational attainments have independent effects on their parents' mortality, even after controlling for parents' own socioeconomic resources. This relationship is more pronounced for deaths that are linked to behavioral factors: most notably, chronic lower respiratory disease and lung cancer. Furthermore, at least part of the association between offspring's schooling and parents' survival may be explained by parents' health behaviors, including smoking and physical activity. These findings suggest that one way to influence the health of the elderly is through their offspring. To harness the full value of schooling for health, then, a family and multigenerational perspective is needed.

  11. Mother-offspring associations in northern muriquis, Brachyteles hypoxanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Karynna; Roper, James J; Passos, Fernando C; Strier, Karen B

    2008-03-01

    Maternal care of offspring is ubiquitous among primates, but its duration varies across species due to factors such as dispersal patterns and social dynamics, which influence opportunities for and potential benefits of maternal investment in older offspring, respectively. We examined mother-offspring associations in wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), in which males are philopatric, females typically disperse before puberty, and social relationships among and between males and females are egalitarian. Associations were systematically recorded between ten mothers, each with two-six offspring in the study group, and all group members from August 2003-May 2004 at the RPPN-Feliciano Miguel Abdala in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Infants of both sexes received similarly high percentages of their mothers' association time. Mothers without infants also maintained strong associations with their youngest juvenile sons. Mothers did not spend consistently more time associating with either juvenile or adult sons than daughters. Our finding of non-preferential associations between muriqui mothers and their older male offspring suggests that extended maternal investment in offspring may be of minimal value in their egalitarian society compared with its value for species living in hierarchical societies.

  12. Female promiscuity and maternally dependent offspring growth rates in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, Michael; Brooks, Robert C; Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    Conflicts between family members are expected to influence the duration and intensity of parental care. In mammals, the majority of this care occurs as resource transfer from mothers to offspring during gestation and lactation. Mating systems can have a strong influence on the severity of familial conflict--where female promiscuity is prevalent, conflict is expected to be higher between family members, causing offspring to demand more resources. If offspring are capable of manipulating their mothers and receive resources in proportion to their demands, resource transfer should increase with elevated promiscuity. We tested this prediction, unexplored across mammals, using a comparative approach. The total durations of gestation and lactation were not related to testes mass, a reliable proxy of female promiscuity across taxa. Offspring growth during gestation, however, and weaning mass, were positively correlated with testes mass, suggesting that offspring gain resources from their mothers at faster rates when familial conflict is greater. During gestation, the relationship between offspring growth and testes mass was also related to placenta morphology, with a stronger relationship between testes mass and growth observed in species with a less invasive placenta. Familial conflict could have a pervasive influence on patterns of parental care in mammals. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Male provisioning is negatively correlated with attempted extrapair copulation frequency in the stitchbird (or hihi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen; Armstrong

    2000-10-01

    In species with biparental care of offspring and high levels of extrapair parentage, paired males may suffer reduced fitness by investing in offspring that are not their own. In such instances, males are predicted to evolve some form of discrimination between kin and nonkin and vary investment accordingly. One simple form of discrimination is to follow behavioural cues to paternity. We investigated paternal contribution to chick rearing in a socially monogamous population of stitchbirds, Notiomystis cincta, with high levels of extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity. The relative contribution of the male to chick provisioning was negatively correlated with attempted EPC frequency. Because the majority of EPC attempts are forced and conspicuous in stitchbirds they are an obvious cue for males to use. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  14. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  15. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  16. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, adiposity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ methylation in offspring, grand-offspring mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghai Yan

    Full Text Available Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear.We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected.Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP α, cyclooxygenase (Cox-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue.Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice.Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny.

  17. The Synergistic Roles of the Chronic Prenatal and Offspring Stress Exposures in Impairing Offspring Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Juan; Wang, Zheng-Yu; Chen, Ke-Yang; Han, Zhen-Min; Wang, Qi-Hong; Yao, Yu-You

    2016-04-23

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), extensive experimental studies have demonstrated a negative impact of chronic stress during various stages of life (including prenatal phase) on some aspects of AD pathology. Nevertheless, presently, few studies have been involved in the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathology elicited by the chronic prenatal stress (CPS) and the chronic offspring stress (COS) exposures simultaneously, particularly for the adult male APPswe/PS1dE9 murine offspring. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CPS on learning and memory impairments induced by COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice and the related mechanism. Our study firstly demonstrates that 14-day exposure to CPS could exacerbate the learning and memory impairments, as well as neuropathological damages in the CA3 regions of the hippocampus and cortex neurons, which is induced by the 28-day exposure to COS in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring mice. In addition, CPS could potentiate the production of AβPP, Aβ42, and corticosterone in 6-month-old male APPswe/PS1dE9 offspring that also suffer COS. In conclusion, our novel findings strongly implicate the synergistic roles of the CPS and COS exposures in impairing offspring learning and memory. Moreover, CPS potentiating the production of Aβ42 might be mediated by glucocorticoids through increasing the expression of APP and BACE1 gene.

  18. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Trauer

    Full Text Available In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages

  19. Parental legacy in insects: variation of transgenerational immune priming during offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on

  20. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREIRA, Pedro; PÉREZ-CEREZALES, Serafín; LAGUNA, Ricardo; FERNÁNDEZ-GONZALEZ, Raúl; SANJUANBENITO, Belén Pintado; GUTIÉRREZ-ADÁN, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  1. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierez, Arturo; White, Gregory; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted-cone design to passively confine flies in 8 modified collection bottles corresponding to 8 intervals. Efficacy trials in a hot-arid desert environment indicate no significant difference (P  =  0.896) between the modified sequential trap and a Rid-Max® fly trap.

  2. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  3. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  4. Spatial distribution of tsetse flies in some areas within western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate identification of tsetse fly endemic-foci using spatially explicit maps could be important in the strategic control of tsetse flies. This survey presents spatially explicit maps of tsetse flies in some tsetse fly-endemic areas in the Western, Eastern and Northern Regions of Ghana. Field samplings for tsetse flies using ...

  5. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  6. Sensitizing pigment in the fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, K.; Kirschfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing pigment hypothesis for the high UV sensitivity in fly photoreceptors (R1-6) is further substantiated by measurements of the polarisation sensitivity in the UV. The quantum yield of the energy transfer from sensitizing pigment to rhodopsin was estimated by electrophysiological measurements of the UV sensitivity and the rhabdomeric absorptance (at 490 nm) in individual receptor cells. The transfer efficiency is >=0.75 in receptors with an absorptance in the rhabdomeres of 0.55-0.95. This result suggests that the sensitizing pigment is bound in some way to the rhodopsin. A ratio of two molecules of sensitizing pigment per one rhodopsin is proposed. (orig.)

  7. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    de Vol Electriques . Experience de IAirbus A320 par J.Farineau et X.Lc tron MIL-STD- 1797 is Not a Cookbook 7 by D).B.Lcggctt and G.TIBlack Flying...Gideslip excursion in the dutc-h-roll mocl and the ILajoi- corsequence is its non~-osc& Ilatory behaviour. When dipole cancellation does nct occur laterai...single dipole pair in the each axis are near optima, interaxis closed-loop pilot-vehicle system (with crosstalk is minimized, etc. Just as the Izero

  8. Stabilizing sexual selection for female ornaments in a dance fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J; Gwynne, D T; Bussière, L F

    2012-07-01

    Ornamental traits function by improving attractiveness and are generally presumed to experience directional selection for mating success. However, given the greater investment of females in offspring than males, female-specific ornaments can in theory signal fecundity yet be constrained by fecundity costs. Theoretical work predicts that such constraints can lead to stabilizing selection via male choice for intermediately ornamented females. Female dance flies Rhamphomyia longicauda (Diptera: Empididae) display two female-specific ornaments in mating swarms - inflatable abdominal sacs and pinnate tibial scales. We investigated the intensity and form of sexual selection on female traits including ornaments and found no evidence for directional sexual selection. Instead, we found marginally nonsignificant quadratic selection for all three measures of ornament expression. Canonical analysis confirmed that the strongest vectors of nonlinear selection were associated with ornamental traits, although the significance of the quadratic coefficients associated with these vectors depended on the statistical approach. Direct Mitchell-Olds and Shaw tests for the location of the maximum fitted fitness value for both raw morphological traits and canonical axes revealed only one marginally nonsignificant result for the multivariate axis loading most heavily on pinnate leg scales. Together, these results provide the first tentative support for stabilizing selection on female-specific ornaments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Offspring of Hypertensive Parents During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo Barbosa de; Peçanha, Tiago; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; da Silva, Lílian Pinto; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães Guedes; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of hypertensive parents present autonomic dysfunction at rest and during physiological maneuvers. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise remains unknown. This study tested whether the cardiac autonomic modulation would be reduced in offspring of hypertensive parents during exercise. Fourteen offspring of hypertensive and 14 offspring of normotensive individuals were evaluated. The groups were matched by age (24.5±1.0 vs. 26.6±1.5 years; p=0.25) and BMI (22.8±0.6 vs. 24.2±1.0 kg/m 2 ; p=0.30). Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed simultaneously during 3 min at baseline followed by 3-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated using heart rate variability. Primary variables were subjected to two-way ANOVA (group vs. time). P valueexercise protocol. In contrast, offspring of hypertensive subjects showed a reduction of SDNN (Basal=34.8±3.5 vs. 45.2±3.7 ms; Exercise=30.8±3.3 vs. 41.5±3.9 ms; p group=0.01), RMSSD (Basal=37.1±3.7 vs. 52.0±6.0 ms; Exercise=28.6±3.4 vs. 41.9±5.3 ms; p group=0.02) and pNN50 (Basal=15.7±4.0 vs. 29.5±5.5%; Exercise=7.7±2.4 vs. 18.0±4.3%; p group=0.03) during the exercise protocol in comparison with offspring of normotensive parents. We concluded that normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit impaired cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Parents with bipolar disorder: are disease characteristics good predictors of psychopathology in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Amador, M; de la Serna, E; Vila, M; Romero, S; Valenti, M; Sánchez-Gistau, V; Benabarre, A; Vieta, E; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2013-05-01

    To investigate rates of psychopathology in the offspring of subjects with bipolar disorder (BP-offspring) compared to the offspring of healthy subjects (HC-offspring) in a Spanish sample and to study possible predictors of psychopathology in BP-offspring. Fifty BP-offspring from 36 families and 25 HC-offspring from 25 families. Psychopathology was compared in BP-offspring and HC-offspring. Factors associated with DSM-IV axis I disorders in BP-offspring were analyzed using logistic regression. Half of BP-offspring fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for at least one axis I disorder with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (30%), anxiety disorders (14%) and affective disorders (10%) as the most frequent. After controlling for having more than one sibling in the study, the odds ratio for BP-offspring presenting an axis I disorder was 15.02 when a biological parent had bipolar disorder with a lifetime history of psychotic symptoms and 3.34 when one parent had bipolar II disorder. Moreover, a higher Global Assessment of Functioning score in the biological co-parent was associated with a significantly lower frequency of axis I disorders in BP-offspring. Psychopathology in BP-offspring should be routinely assessed, with special emphasis on children from parents with specific disease characteristics (psychosis, BP II disorder) in order to establish an early diagnosis and appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutamate neurotransmission is affected in prenatally stressed offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, Maria Eugenia; Baier, Carlos Javier

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization with syn......Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that male adult offspring of stressed mothers exhibited higher levels of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors than control rats. These offspring also showed long-lasting astroglial hypertrophy and a reduced dendritic arborization...... with synaptic loss. Since metabolism of glutamate is dependent on interactions between neurons and surrounding astroglia, our results suggest that glutamate neurotransmitter pathways might be impaired in the brain of prenatally stressed rats. To study the effect of prenatal stress on the metabolism...... was not affected it was found that prenatal stress (PS) changed the expression of the transporters, thus, producing a higher level of vesicular vGluT-1 in the frontal cortex (FCx) and elevated levels of GLT1 protein and messenger RNA in the hippocampus (HPC) of adult male PS offspring. We also observed increased...

  12. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Robert H; Arredouani, Mohamed S; Fedulov, Alexey; Kobzik, Lester; Hubeau, Cedric

    2007-07-27

    Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate) can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  14. Maternal allergic contact dermatitis causes increased asthma risk in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobzik Lester

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Offspring of asthmatic mothers have increased risk of developing asthma, based on human epidemiologic data and experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal allergy at non-pulmonary sites can increase asthma risk in offspring. Methods BALB/c female mice received 2 topical applications of vehicle, dinitrochlorobenzene, or toluene diisocyanate before mating with untreated males. Dinitrochlorobenzene is a skin-sensitizer only and known to induce a Th1 response, while toluene diisocyanate is both a skin and respiratory sensitizer that causes a Th2 response. Both cause allergic contact dermatitis. Offspring underwent an intentionally suboptimal protocol of allergen sensitization and aerosol challenge, followed by evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway inflammation, and cytokine production. Mothers were tested for allergic airway disease, evidence of dermatitis, cellularity of the draining lymph nodes, and systemic cytokine levels. The role of interleukin-4 was also explored using interleukin-4 deficient mice. Results Offspring of toluene diisocyanate but not dinitrochlorobenzene-treated mothers developed an asthmatic phenotype following allergen sensitization and challenge, seen as increased Penh values, airway inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage total cell counts and eosinophilia, and Th2 cytokine imbalance in the lung. Toluene diisocyanate treated interleukin-4 deficient mothers were able to transfer asthma risk to offspring. Mothers in both experimental groups developed allergic contact dermatitis, but not allergic airway disease. Conclusion Maternal non-respiratory allergy (Th2-skewed dermatitis caused by toluene diisocyanate can result in the maternal transmission of asthma risk in mice.

  15. Mammal reproductive strategies driven by offspring mortality-size relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Brown, James H

    2009-06-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifestyle. Results suggest that preweaning vulnerability to predation has been the major factor determining how female placental mammals allocate production between a few large and many small offspring within a litter and between a few large litters and many small ones within a reproductive season. Artiodactyls, perissodactyls, cetaceans, and pinnipeds, which give birth in the open on land or in the sea, produce a few large offspring, at infrequent intervals, because this increases their chances of escaping predation. Insectivores, fissiped carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents, whose offspring are protected in burrows or nests, produce large litters of small newborns. Primates, bats, sloths, and anteaters, which carry their young from birth until weaning, produce litters of one or a few offspring because of the need to transport and care for them.

  16. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  17. A fly larva (Syrphidae: Ocyptamus that preys on adult flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onanchi Ureña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory syrphid larvae feed on relatively immobile prey, but here we report the first case (as far as we are aware of obligatory predation on very mobile prey. Larvae of an undescribed species of Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae were found in whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae aggregations on the undersides of citrus leaves. However, instead of preying on the whitefly nymphs (as would be expected, the larvae preyed on adult flies (Diptera that were attracted to the honeydew. In the laboratory, larvae captured significantly more flies on whitefly infested leaves than on washed leaves, and generally abandoned leaves that lacked whiteflies. Most cases of successful prey capture involved flies that probed the anterior part of the larva’s body with its proboscis (as if it were honeydew. The syrphid larva lashed out at the fly and entangled it in sticky oral secretion. The prey did not recover when they were removed from the larva, suggesting that this new predatory species also employs venom to subdue its prey. Although the larvae consumed some honeydew, they were unable to complete their development on this diet. Two parasitoids were reared from Ocyptamus puparia, Proaspicera sp. (Hymenoptera: Figitidae and Paracarotomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, both of which are endoparasitic koinobionts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1157-1163. Epub 2010 December 01.Las larvas depredadoras de Syrphidae se alimentan de presas relativamente inmóviles, pero aquí reportamos el primer caso (hasta ahora conocido de la depredación obligatoria en presas muy móviles. Se encontraron las larvas de una especie no descrita de Ocyptamus (Diptera: Syrphidae juntas con ninfas de mosca blanca (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en el envés de las hojas de cítricos. Sin embargo, en vez de alimentarse de las ninfas de mosca blanca (como debería esperarse, las larvas se alimentaron de moscas adultas (Diptera que fueron atraídas a las excreciones azucaradas de la mosca blanca. En el

  18. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  19. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Moulay Yacoub province, centre Morocco: Effect of ecological factors. ... Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens were collected (78.3% ...

  20. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  1. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    disposal or to minimize the environmental impact. One of the approaches is the conversion of fly ash to zeolites, which have wide applications in ion exchange, as mole- cular sieves, catalysts, and adsorbents (Breck 1974). The present study is concerned with the synthesis of zeolite from coal fly ash and its characterization ...

  2. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against immature horn fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Rochon, K; Selinger, L B

    2010-06-01

    We screened 85 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), making up 57 different subspecies, and two isolates of Bacillus sphaericus (Meyer and Neide) for activity against immature horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The majority of B. thuringiensis and the B. sphaericus isolates had little or no activity against horn fly and stable fly. Approximately 87% of the isolates caused fly larvae and 64% caused stable fly, 95% of the isolates caused fly and stable fly immatures. These isolates were B. t. tolworthi 4L3, B. t. darmstadiensis 4M1, B. t. thompsoni 401, B. t. thuringiensis HD2, and B. t. kurstaki HD945. The LD50 values ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 x 10(6) spores per g manure for horn fly and from 6.3 to 35 x 10(6) spores per g media for stable fly. These were consistently more toxic compared with the B. t. israelensis isolates examined. All had DNA that hybridized with cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac toxin probes, three hybridized with a cry1B probe, and two hybridized with a cry2A probe. These may have potential for use in integrated management of pest flies.

  3. Distribution of horn flies on individual cows as a percentage of the total horn fly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, J H; Steelman, C D; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; George, J E

    2003-10-20

    Twenty-three mixed-breed herd cows were phenotyped for their ability to serve as a suitable host for Haematobia irritans, the horn fly. Based upon consistent observations within the lower quartile or upper quartile of individual fly counts, four cows were phenotyped as low carriers and five cows were phenotyped as high carriers of horn flies. The cows designated as low carriers consistently carried levels of flies below the economic threshold. However, during a period of fly population explosion, low carriers harbored flies well above the economic threshold. Although the number of flies counted on these low carrying cattle increased as the population increased, the relative percentage of the population that they carried changed very little. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this observation, and future studies are suggested.

  4. Stable Fly, (L., Dispersal and Governing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the movement of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L., has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (13 km is mainly wind-driven by weather fronts that carry stable flies from inland farm areas for up to 225 km to beaches of northwestern Florida and Lake Superior. Stable flies can reproduce for a short time each year in washed-up sea grass, but the beaches are not conducive to establishment. Such movement is passive and does not appear to be advantageous to stable fly's survival. On a regional scale, stable flies exhibit little genetic differentiation, and on the global scale, while there might be more than one “lineage”, the species is nevertheless considered to be panmictic. Population expansion across much of the globe likely occurred from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene in association with the spread of domesticated nomad livestock and particularly with more sedentary, penned livestock.

  5. Kin competition within groups: the offspring depreciation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, J; Sutherland, W J

    2002-12-22

    Where relatives compete for the same resources (kin competition) and each obtains an equal share, this can favour the evolution of elevated dispersal rates, such that most resource competition is among non-relatives. We show that this effect evaporates as among-sibling dominance increases to the point where the allocation of resources is maximally unequal. We restore a kin-competition effect on emigration rates from dominance-ranked family groups by showing that where siblings form queues to inherit the breeding positions, the length of the queue affects the fitness of all individuals by depreciating the rank of subsequent offspring. Incorporating this 'offspring depreciation' effect decreases optimal queue lengths, increases dispersal rates and explains the otherwise paradoxical use of sinks by cooperatively breeding birds in stable environments. The offspring depreciation effect also favours the evolution of small, but consistent, clutch sizes and high reproductive skew, but constrains the evolution of alloparenting.

  6. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  7. Depressed parents' attachment: effects on offspring suicidal behavior in a longitudinal family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Erica K; Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Melhem, Nadine; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A; Mann, J John

    2014-08-01

    To investigate relationships of depressed parents' attachment style to offspring suicidal behavior. 244 parents diagnosed with a DSM-IV depressive episode completed the Adult Attachment Questionnaire at study entry. Baseline and yearly follow-up interviews of their 488 offspring tracked suicidal behavior and psychopathology. Survival analysis and marginal regression models with correlated errors for siblings investigated the relationship between parent insecure attachment traits and offspring characteristics. Data analyzed were collected 1992-2008 during a longitudinal family study completed January 31, 2014. Parental avoidant attachment predicted offspring suicide attempts at a trend level (P = .083). Parental anxious attachment did not predict offspring attempts (P = .961). In secondary analyses, anxious attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .034) and, in offspring suicide attempters, was associated with greater intent (P = .045) and lethality of attempts (P = .003). Avoidant attachment in parents was associated with offspring impulsivity (P = .025) and major depressive disorder (P = .012). Parental avoidant attachment predicted a greater number of suicide attempts (P = .048) and greater intent in offspring attempters (P = .003). Results were comparable after adjusting for parent diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. Insecure avoidant, but not anxious, attachment in depressed parents may predict offspring suicide attempt. Insecure parental attachment traits were associated with impulsivity and major depressive disorder in all offspring and with more severe suicidal behavior in offspring attempters. Insecure parental attachment merits further study as a potential target to reduce risk of offspring psychopathology and more severe suicidal behavior. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  9. Models of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    , schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness.......This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care...

  10. Protein Nutrition of Southern Plains Small Mammals: Immune Response to Variation in Maternal and Offspring Dietary Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and postnatal offspring nutrition may influence offspring traits. We investigated the effects of maternal and postweaning offspring dietary nitrogen on immune function and hematology in two species of rodent: the hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon his...

  11. Food provisioning and parental status in songbirds: can occupancy models be used to estimate nesting performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Catherine Corbani

    Full Text Available Indirect methods to estimate parental status, such as the observation of parental provisioning, have been problematic due to potential biases associated with imperfect detection. We developed a method to evaluate parental status based on a novel combination of parental provisioning observations and hierarchical modeling. In the summers of 2009 to 2011, we surveyed 393 sites, each on three to four consecutive days at Forêt Montmorency, Québec, Canada. We assessed parental status of 2331 adult songbirds based on parental food provisioning. To account for imperfect detection of parental status, we applied MacKenzie et al.'s (2002 two-state hierarchical model to obtain unbiased estimates of the proportion of sites with successfully nesting birds, and the proportion of adults with offspring. To obtain an independent evaluation of detection probability, we monitored 16 active nests in 2010 and conducted parental provisioning observations away from them. The probability of detecting food provisioning was 0.31 when using nest monitoring, a value within the 0.11 to 0.38 range that was estimated by two-state models. The proportion of adults or sites with broods approached 0.90 and varied depending on date during the sampling season and year, exemplifying the role of eastern boreal forests as highly productive nesting grounds for songbirds. This study offers a simple and effective sampling design for studying avian reproductive performance that could be implemented in national surveys such as breeding bird atlases.

  12. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Friederich

    Full Text Available More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.

  13. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A; Hardie, Roger C; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli.

  14. Delivery of a functional anti-trypanosome Nanobody in different tsetse fly tissues via a bacterial symbiont, Sodalis glossinidius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vooght, Linda; Caljon, Guy; De Ridder, Karin; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2014-11-07

    Sodalis glossinidius, a vertically transmitted microbial symbiont of the tsetse fly, is currently considered as a potential delivery system for anti-trypanosomal components that reduce or eliminate the capability of the tsetse fly host to transmit parasitic trypanosomes, an approach also known as paratransgenesis. An essential step in developing paratransgenic tsetse is the stable colonization of adult flies and their progeny with recombinant Sodalis bacteria, expressing trypanocidal effector molecules in tissues where the parasite resides. In this study, Sodalis was tested for its ability to deliver functional anti-trypanosome nanobodies (Nbs) in Glossina morsitans morsitans. We characterized the in vitro and in vivo stability of recombinant Sodalis (recSodalis) expressing a potent trypanolytic nanobody, i.e. Nb_An46. We show that recSodalis is competitive with WT Sodalis in in vivo conditions and that tsetse flies transiently cleared of their endogenous WT Sodalis population can be successfully repopulated with recSodalis at high densities. In addition, vertical transmission to the offspring was observed. Finally, we demonstrated that recSodalis expressed significant levels (ng range) of functional Nb_An46 in different tsetse fly tissues, including the midgut where an important developmental stage of the trypanosome parasite occurs. We demonstrated the proof-of-concept that the Sodalis symbiont can be genetically engineered to express and release significant amounts of functional anti-trypanosome Nbs in different tissues of the tsetse fly. The application of this innovative concept of using pathogen-targeting nanobodies delivered by insect symbiotic bacteria could be extended to other vector-pathogen systems.

  15. "Enactment" in the lives and treatment of Holocaust survivors' offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Ilany

    2002-04-01

    This paper explores an aspect of "enactment" often seen in Holocaust survivors' offspring: the compulsion to re-create their parents' experiences in their own lives through concrete acts. At the core of this compulsion is a psychic hole, a gap in the child's emotional understanding, stemming from identification with the parents on one hand, and the parents' denial or repression of the trauma on the other. The compulsion to enact can be transformed into a cognitive mode when such offspring are helped to find the meaning of the trauma in their parents' lives, as is illustrated here by clinical examples.

  16. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    during pregnancy on the incidence of AD in the offspring. METHODS: A total of 24 341 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were followed prospectively. Information about alcohol consumption was obtained by interview at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Information about symptoms......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...

  17. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  20. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  1. Clinical, demographic, and familial correlates of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A; Kupfer, David J; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-04-01

    Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years, of 233 parents with BP-I or BP-II (via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Offspring diagnoses were determined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Analyses focused on the 41 offspring who were diagnosed with BP-I (N = 9), BP-II (N = 5), or BP-NOS (N = 27). Offspring with BP had proband parents who were significantly younger at the time of their birth, were more likely to be female, and had lower socio-economic status, versus proband parents of offspring without BP. Parental clinical variables and obstetric variables were not significantly associated with BP among offspring. History of physical and/or sexual abuse, exposure to antidepressants, and exposure to stimulants was significantly greater among offspring with versus without BP. There was significantly greater prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and exposure to stimulants and antidepressants among offspring with versus without BP. Variables significantly associated with BP among offspring in regression analyses were as follows: older offspring age, younger parent age at birth, offspring anxiety disorders and ODD/CD, and biological coparent with BP. History of anxiety and/or disruptive behavior disorders, as well as presence of bi-lineal parental BP, is associated with elevated risk of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring. If replicated prospectively, these findings could have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology among BP offspring.

  2. Bereavement Care Provision in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla

    2015-01-01

    The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...

  3. IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... housing settlements, frequency of water and power supply, the state of environmental sanitation and the efficiency of communication system. All these are indices of urban development. Mabogunje. (1993) stressed that, infrastructure provision in an extensive continuous and self-sustaining basis becomes a ...

  4. Reduction in maternal Polycomb levels contributes to transgenerational inheritance of a response to toxic stress in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Shay; Snir, Orli; Mizrachi, Eran; Galili, Matana; Zaltsman, Inbal; Soen, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    Transgenerational persistence of parental responses to environmental stimuli has been reported in various organisms, but the underlying mechanisms remain underexplored. In one of these reported examples, we have shown that exposure of fly larvae to G418 antibiotic leads to non-Mendelian inheritance of ectopic induction of certain developmental genes. Here we investigate if this inheritance involves changes in mRNA composition within the early, maternal-stage offspring embryos of exposed flies. Exposure to G418 in F1 modified the maternal RNA levels of many genes in their early (F2) embryos. This includes reduction of maternal Polycomb group genes which persisted in the following generation of embryos (F3). To investigate the functional meaning of this reduction, we compared genetically normal embryos of Polycomb mutant females to normal embryos of normal females. Analysis with two different alleles of Polycomb, Pc1 and Pc3, revealed that maternal reduction in Polycomb gene dosage has a positive influence on the inheritance of induced expression. Together, this shows that exposure to G418 stress reduces the maternal levels of Polycomb in the offspring embryos and this reduction contributes to the inheritance of induced expression. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  5. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g....../kg for zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  6. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    OpenAIRE

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportion...

  7. Evidence for Sticky-Trap Avoidance by Stable Fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Response to Trapped Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, D V; Sutcliffe, J F

    2017-09-01

    Populations of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies are often sampled using sticky traps. We wanted to know whether flies already caught on sticky traps might inhibit to some extent subsequent flies from being caught. To test this, we recorded the number of stable flies landing on white plastic corrugated panels (Coroplast®), which were prepared according to 4 treatments: 12 live stable flies glued to the surface, 12 live house flies (Musca domestica) glued to the surface, 12 black dots, and no treatment. From 160 observations, we found that fewer stable flies landed on panels with either attached stable flies (129) or house flies (133) compared with the number landing on panels with black dots (259) and/or with no treatment (210). This apparent inhibitory effect of trapped flies may explain published trap-catch patterns from field studies.

  8. Evolving minimum standards in responsible international sperm donor offspring quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Pim M. W.; Thorn, Petra; Castilla, Jose A.; Frith, Lucy; Crawshaw, Marilyn; Mochtar, Monique; Bjorndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson C.

    2015-01-01

    An international working group was established with the aim of making recommendations on the number of offspring for a sperm donor that should be allowable in cases of international use of his sperm. Considerations from genetic, psychosocial, operational and ethical points of view were debated. For

  9. Neonatal neurological assessment of offspring in maternal phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisbren, SE; Chang, P; Levy, HL; Shifrin, H; Allred, E; Azen, C; de la Cruz, F; Hanley, W; Koch, R; Matalon, R; Rouse, B

    This study assesses the impact of prenatal and postnatal factors in maternal phenylketonuria (PKU). The Dubowitz Neurological Assessment of the Preterm and Full-term Newborn Infant was administered within the first 8 days of life to 56 offspring of women with PKU and 45 controls. Follow-up testing

  10. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Stephen M.; Sharma, Anu; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption agencies; nonadoptees were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Outcome measures were attempted suicide, reported by parent or offspring, and factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior including psychiatric disorder symptoms, personality traits, family environment, and academic disengagement. RESULTS: The odds of a reported suicide attempt were ∼4 times greater in adoptees compared with nonadoptees (odds ratio: 4.23). After adjustment for factors associated with suicidal behavior, the odds of reporting a suicide attempt were reduced but remained significantly elevated (odds ratio: 3.70). CONCLUSIONS: The odds for reported suicide attempt are elevated in individuals who are adopted relative to those who are not adopted. The relationship between adoption status and suicide attempt is partially mediated by factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior. Continued study of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults. PMID:24019414

  11. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-01-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  12. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Asklund, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Little is known the about the reproductive health of offspring after fertility treatment. In 2001-2005, the authors approached young Danish men attending a compulsory physical examination to determine their fitness for military service. A total of 1,925 men volunteered, delivered a semen sample, ...

  13. Maternal and offspring production parameters of Damascus goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal and offspring production parameters of Damascus goats raised under Sudan conditions. AA Hassabo, WM Anna'eem, SOA Ni'ma. Abstract. This study was intended to highlight the production performance parameters of the Damascus breed of goats under Sudan conditions and their interrelations. Forty does ...

  14. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Olsen, Jørn; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that maternal depression during pregnancy is abstract associated with asthma in the offspring, but the role of medical treatment of depression is not known. Our goal was to examine whether prenatal antidepressant use increases the risk of asthma in...

  15. Risk for asthma in offspring of asthmatic mothers versus fathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Robert H; Kobzik, Lester; Dahl, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many human epidemiologic studies demonstrate that maternal asthma confers greater risk of asthma to offspring than does paternal disease. However, a handful have shown the opposite. Given this disparity, a meta-analysis is necessary to determine the veracity and magnitude of the "maternal effect."...

  16. Offspring fitness and individual optimization of clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Within-year variation in clutch size has been claimed to be an adaptation to variation in the individual capacity to raise offspring. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating brood size to one common size, and predicted that if clutch size is individually optimized, then birds with originally large

  17. Maternal inflammatory bowel disease and offspring body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Sorensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may influence intrauterine growth and hence size at birth, but the consequences for offspring in later life remain uncertain. This study investigated the growth of children of mothers with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)....

  18. Association of Parental Hypertension With Arterial Stiffness in Nonhypertensive Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Quiroz, Rene; Enserro, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    High arterial stiffness seems to be causally involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that offspring of parents with hypertension may display higher arterial stiffness before clinically manifest hypertension, given that hypertension is a heritable condition. We compa...

  19. A search for transmission ratio distortions in offspring from crosses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Observation of such ef- fects is possible when a large number of offspring from a pair of parents can be studied. As individuals in a population most likely have different genotypes in TRD affecting loci,. Keywords. transmission ratio distortion; meiotic drive; inbred mice. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 87, No. 2, August 2008. 127 ...

  20. Evidence of Oxidative Shielding of Offspring in a Wild Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma I. K. Vitikainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying a life history tradeoff between survival and reproduction. However, evidence that reproduction is associated with increased oxidative damage is equivocal, and some studies have found that breeding females exhibit reduced, rather than elevated, levels of oxidative damage compared to equivalent non-breeders. Recently it was hypothesized that oxidative damage could have negative impacts on developing offspring, and that mothers might down-regulate oxidative damage during reproduction to shield their offspring from such damage. We tested this hypothesis through a longitudinal study of adult survival, reproduction, and oxidative damage in wild banded mongooses (Mungos mungo in Uganda. High levels of oxidative damage as measured by malondialdehyde (MDA were associated with reduced survival in both sexes. Levels of protein carbonyls were not linked to survival. Mothers showed reduced levels of MDA during pregnancy, and individuals with higher MDA levels gestated fewer offspring and had lower pup survival. These results suggest that maternal oxidative damage has transgenerational costs, and are consistent with the idea that mothers may attempt to shield their offspring from particularly harmful types of oxidative damage during pregnancy. We suggest that further advance in understanding of life history variation could benefit from theoretical and empirical exploration of the potential transgenerational costs of reproduction.

  1. Maternal obesity and late effects on offspring metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vido, Daniele Sá; Nejm, Mariana Bocca; Silva, Neila Ribeiro; Silva, Sylvia Maria Affonso; Cravo, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Jacqueline

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism. Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 groups of pregnant animals: Control (C) - false lesion (sham) and Obese (OB) - lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N), and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H). At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition. During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat. Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity.

  2. Mammal Reproductive Strategies Driven by Offspring Mortality-Size Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibly, Richard M.; Brown, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs have long been a major theme in life-history theory, but they have been hard to document. We introduce a new method that reveals patterns of divergent trade-offs after adjusting for the pervasive variation in rate of resource allocation to offspring as a function of body size and lifes...

  3. Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Valarie

    2002-01-01

    Examines whether parental divorce is associated with offspring trust in parents, intimate partners, and others. Results reveal that although parental divorce is negatively associated with trust, these effects largely disappear once the quality of the past parent-teen relationship is taken into account. (Contains 48 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  4. Parent–offspring recognition in the Brown-headed Parrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recognition by vocal characteristics between parents and their offspring is thought to be ubiquitous in colonially nesting avian species. The Brown-headed Parrot Poicephalus cryptoxanthus nests in hollows in trees. However, when the chicks fledge they leave the nest and for the following three weeks spend their time in a ...

  5. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis and Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-01-01

    other conditions potentially leading to fetal programming. Method The nationwide cohort study included all children born alive from 1977 to 2008 in Denmark (N = 1,917,723). Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard rate ratios (HR) of ASD in offspring exposed to maternal or paternal RA...

  6. Maternal vitamin D status and offspring bone fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    offspring bone mass and related that to maternal vitamin D status. METHODS: The Danish Fetal Origins 1988 Cohort recruited 965 pregnant women during 1988-89 at their 30th gestation week antenatal midwife visit. A blood sample was drawn and serum was stored, which later was analyzed for the concentration...

  7. Meiotic faults as a major cause of offspring inviability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel; Zimmerman, Kolea; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction often concludes that increased offspring viability is a benefit of sexual reproduction as compared to parthenogenesis. We show that all comparisons contributing to this conclusion involve cases of meiotic parthenogenesis, t...

  8. Maternal exposure to the holocaust and health complaints in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Although the link between chronic stress and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases of adulthood has been known for some time, there is growing recognition that early environmental influences may result in developmental programming via epigenetic mechanisms, thereby affecting the developmental trajectory of disease progression. Previous studies support the idea that offspring of Holocaust survivors may have been subjected to early developmental programming. We evaluated the relationship between parental exposure to the Holocaust and self-reported health ratings and disorders made by their adult offspring (i.e., second generation Holocaust survivors). A total of 137 subjects were evaluated. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal but not paternal exposure to the Holocaust was related to poorer subjective impressions of emotional and physical health. This relationship was diminished when the offspring's own level of trait anxiety was considered. Offspring with maternal, but not paternal, Holocaust exposure also reported greater use of psychotropic and other medications, including medications for the treatment of hypertension and lipid disorders. The mechanism linking these health outcomes and maternal exposure deserves further investigation, including the possibility that fetal or early developmental programming is involved.

  9. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartsteen, Birgitte Hollegaard; Byars, Sean Geoffrey; Lykke, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health....

  10. Face-Emotion Processing in Offspring at Risk for Panic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Moulton, John L., III; Lissek, Shmuel; Guardino, Mary; Woldehawariat, Girma

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Panic disorder (PD) has been linked to perturbed processing of threats. This study tested the hypotheses that offspring of parents with PD and offspring with anxiety disorders display relatively greater sensitivity and attention allocation to fear provocation. Method: Offspring of adults with PD, major depressive disorder (MDD), or no…

  11. Association between Parental and Offspring's Alcohol Use--Population Data from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Authors investigated the association between alcohol use of parents and offspring in data derived from a district based household survey on drug abuse. Methods: Data on 4411 fathers paired with 6884 offspring were available. Alcohol use disorders were diagnosed based on DSM-III-R criteria. Analyses was conducted to contrast 1979 offspring of…

  12. Birth by cesarean section in relation to adult offspring overweight and biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Halldorsson, T I; Olsen, S F

    2018-01-01

    : The Danish Fetal Origins Cohort enrolled 965 pregnant women in 1988-1989. In 2008, a follow-up study of the offspring was completed. The offspring were invited to participate in a clinical examination with measurements of anthropometry and a fasting blood sample (n=443). In addition, 252 offspring completed...

  13. Hybrid marriages and phenotypic heterosis in offspring: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Qiran; Chen, Qihui

    2018-02-19

    In genetics, heterosis refers to the phenomenon that cross-breeding within species leads to offspring that are genetically fitter than their parents and exhibit improved phenotypic characteristics. Based on the theory of heterosis and existing genetic evidence, offspring of "hybrid" marriages (spouses originating from different states/provinces/countries/areas), though relatively rare due to physical boundaries, may exhibit greater genetic fitness in terms of intelligence, height, or physical attractiveness (the "distance-performance" hypothesis). This study explores whether heterosis is a contributing factor to offspring's educational attainment in China by applying a high-dimensional fixed effects (HDFE) modelling framework to the unique 0.1% micro-sample of the 2000 Chinese Population Census data. Concerning potential endogeneity of hybrid marriages, we conduct a series of robustness checks. Reassuringly, the estimated heterosis effect remains significantly positive across various measurements, after controlling for parental educational attainments/height, environmental influences, and over a thousand region and region-by-year fixed effects. The effects in male and higher-educated offspring are found to be stronger. Results are replicated when analyzing body height using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Although endogeneity of "hybrid marriages" may not be completely ruled out, the current study sheds light on the potentially beneficial effects of interprovincial migration on population-level human capital accumulation, and we hope that this paper can intrigue future studies that further address endogeneity. The implied heterosis effect could, therefore, be profound for Homo sapiens as a species from an evolutionary point of view. An additional important implication is that the overall genetic influences of parents on offspring's performance may be further decomposed into a conventional heredity effect and a heterosis effect that has been

  14. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-12-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  15. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  16. Student life - Fly on the wall approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah; Coghlan, Phoebe

    2015-08-26

    Imagine your grandmother was in hospital. How would you expect her to be treated? Would the nurse or doctor smile and ask her how she's feeling? Imagine what you would see if you were a fly on the wall.

  17. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M; Cohen, Itai

    2015-04-06

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional-integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  19. Evaluation of a commercial vacuum fly trap for controlling flies on organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Moon, R D

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial vacuum fly trap (CowVac, Spalding Laboratories, Reno, NV) in on-farm organic dairy production systems to control horn flies, stable flies, and face flies. As cows walk through the trap, flies are brushed off the face, flank, and back with hanging flaps and blown off the belly, udder, and legs from one side, and then vacuumed from the air into a chamber from vacuum inlets opposite the blower and above the cow. The study included 8 organic dairy farms during the summer of 2015 in Minnesota, and herds ranged from 30 to 350 cows in size. The farms were divided into pairs by location; during the first period of the summer (June to July), the trap was set up on 1 farm, whereas during the second period of the summer (August to September) the trap was sent to its paired farm. Farms were visited once per week to collect and count flies from the trap as well as count and record flies on cows. Bulk tank milk, fat, and protein production and somatic cell count were collected on farms during the entire study period. Data were analyzed using the GLM procedure of SAS (version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of farm, trap presence, housing scenario, and summer period. Horn fly numbers on cows were lower by 44% on farm in the presence of a trap (11.4 vs. 20.5 flies/cow-side) compared with the absence of a trap. Stable fly (5.4 vs. 7.1 flies/leg) and face fly (1.0 vs. 1.0 flies/cow) numbers were similar on farm whether the trap was present or absent on farms, respectively. Milk production was similar for farms with the trap (15.5 kg/d) compared to without (15.3 kg/d) the trap. Bulk tank milk, milk components, and somatic cell count were statistically similar in the presence and absence of the trap, so potential benefits of the trap for those measures were not evident at low fly populations observed during the study. The presence of a trap on farm

  20. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N; Bierer, Linda M; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress-related pathology.

  1. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  2. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  3. The fly's eye camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  4. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  5. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  7. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  8. Synchronised provisioning at the nest: parental coordination over care in a socially monogamous species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica P. van Rooij

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bi-parental care is very common in birds, occurring in over 90% of species, and is expected to evolve whenever the benefits of enhanced offspring survival exceed the costs to both parents of providing care. In altricial species, where the nestlings are entirely dependent on the parents for providing food until fledging, reproductive success is related to the capacity of the parents to provision the offspring at the nest. The degree to which parents synchronise their visits to the nest is rarely considered by studies of bi-parental care, and yet may be an important component of parental care, affecting the outcome of the reproductive attempt, and the dynamics of sexual conflict between the parents. Here we studied this aspect of parental care in the long-tailed finch (Poephila acuticauda, a socially monogamous estrildid finch. We monitored parental nest visit rates and the degree of parental visit synchrony, and assessed their effects on reproductive success (e.g., brood size, number of offspring fledged and nestling growth.The frequency of nest visits in a day was low in this species (<1 visit/h, but there was a high level of synchrony by the two partners with 73% of visits made together. There was a correlation between the proportion of visits that were made by the pair together and the size of the brood at hatching, although it was not related to the number of fledglings a pair produced, or the quality of those offspring. We suggest that nest visit synchrony may primarily be driven by the benefit of parents being together whilst foraging away from the nest, or may reduce nest predation by reducing the level of activity around the nest throughout the day.

  9. Transformations through Proximity Flying: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Holmbom

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Participation in extreme sports has been linked to personal transformations in everyday life. Descriptions of lived experience resulting from transformative experiences are limited. Proximity flying, a relatively new discipline involving BASE jumping with a wingsuit where participants fly close to solid structures, is arguably one of the most extreme of extreme sports. The aim of this paper, part of a larger phenomenological study on the lived experience of proximity flying, is to explicate the ways in which participating in proximity flying influences the everyday lives of participants. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to explicate the lived experience of six proximity pilots. An analysis of interview transcripts revealed three significant themes describing the lived experience of participants. First, experiences of change were described as positive and skills developed through proximity flying were transferable into everyday life. Second, transformative experiences were considered fundamental to participants’ perspectives on life. Third, experience of transformation influenced their sense of personal identity and facilitated flourishing in other aspects of everyday life. Participants were clear that their experiences in proximity flying facilitated a profound process of transformation which manifest as changes in everyday capabilities and behaviors, values and sense of identity.

  10. Eradicating tsetse flies: Senegal nears first victory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    After a four-year eradication programme including nuclear techniques, the Niayes region of Senegal is now almost free of the tsetse fly, which used to decimate livestock. “I have not seen a single tsetse fly for a year now,” said cattle farmer Oumar Sow. “This is in contrast to earlier, when they increased in numbers, especially during the cold season. The flies were really a nuisance to our animals and we had to carefully select the time for milking. Now, there is no problem with that.” The tsetse fly is a bloodsucking insect that kills more than three million livestock in sub-Saharan Africa every year, costing the agriculture industry more than US $4 billion annually. The tsetse fly transmits parasites that cause a wasting disease called nagana in cattle. In some parts of Africa the fly also causes over 75 000 cases of human ‘sleeping sickness’, which affects the central nervous system, and causes disorientation, personality changes, slurred speech, seizures, difficulty walking and talking, and ultimately death.

  11. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  12. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... commented that Hass avocados attached to trees are not hosts for the guava fruit fly (A. striata), or the... respect to Mediterranean fruit fly and South American fruit fly; we did, however, acknowledge that guava... proposed restrictions related to the movement of Hass avocados from areas where the guava fruit fly is...

  13. Relation of adiposity, television and screen time in offspring to their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Korenfeld, Yoel; Dengel, Donald R; Chow, Lisa S; Steinberger, Julia

    2013-09-03

    Few studies have examined the relations of adiposity and lifestyle factors in young offspring with their parents as children (parentschild) or at their current age (parentsadult). Therefore, we compared measures of adiposity and lifestyle in parentschild and parentsadult with their offspring. Two generations (one parent and his/her offspring) participated in this study: 234 parents from a previously established cohort and 382 offspring. Parentsadult and offspring underwent measurements for height, weight, waist circumference, % body fat, visceral fat, and lifestyle habits. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, obese based on age-specific BMI criteria. Mixed model linear regression analysis evaluated the associations of adiposity and lifestyle factors of parentschild and parentsadult with that of their offspring, adjusting for age, sex, race, and family membership. The prevalence of obesity was greater among offspring mean age 12.3 years compared to their parentschild mean age 12.6 years (18.4% vs 10.1%, ptelevision (TV) watching were similar between the two generations as children (p=0.80). Sixty percent of parents (as children and adults) and offspring reported more than 2 hours of TV/day. Offspring of parents who were overweight and obese as children had greater BMI (all p<0.001) than offspring of parents who were normal weight as children. For both parentadult and offspring, adiposity was greater with greater total screen time. Identifying high-risk families is important for early intervention of overweight, especially in children.

  14. 42 CFR 403.756 - Sunset provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions... effective. (c) Effects of sunset provision. Only those beneficiaries who have a valid election in effect...

  15. 42 CFR 421.5 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Scope, Definitions, and General Provisions § 421.5 General provisions... intention not to renew. [45 FR 42179, June 23, 1980, as amended at 54 FR 4026, Jan. 27, 1989] ...

  16. Effect of parental morphine addiction on extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in rat offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahele Assaee

    2004-01-01

    Findings: In male offsprings of sham control1, sham control2, test1 and test2 basal and electrical stimulated of extracellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus were: 0.67±0.04, 1.11±0.1, and in female offsprings were 0.47±0.06, 0.88±0.05 (n=5. The basal and stimulated extra cellular glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus was decreased in both test1 and test2 offsprings. It was less in test1 than test2 offsprings. The glutamate concentration of dentate gyrus in female offsprings of test1 group was less than that of the male offsprings. conclusion: The results suggest that parental morphine addiction may cause learning deficiency through reduction of extracellular glutamate concentration in dentate gyrus so the side effects of parental morphine addiction in offsprings must be considered.

  17. Paternal age at childbearing and offspring psychiatric and academic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M; Rickert, Martin E; Frans, Emma; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Almqvist, Catarina; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Advancing paternal age is associated with increased genetic mutations during spermatogenesis, which research suggests may cause psychiatric morbidity in the offspring. The effects of advancing paternal age at childbearing on offspring morbidity remain unclear, however, because of inconsistent epidemiologic findings and the inability of previous studies to rigorously rule out confounding factors. To examine the associations between advancing paternal age at childbearing and numerous indexes of offspring morbidity. We performed a population-based cohort study of all individuals born in Sweden in 1973-2001 (N = 2,615,081), with subsets of the data used to predict childhood or adolescent morbidity. We estimated the risk of psychiatric and academic morbidity associated with advancing paternal age using several quasi-experimental designs, including the comparison of differentially exposed siblings, cousins, and first-born cousins. Paternal age at childbearing. Psychiatric (autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, psychosis, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, and substance use problem) and academic (failing grades and low educational attainment) morbidity. In the study population, advancing paternal age was associated with increased risk of some psychiatric disorders (eg, autism, psychosis, and bipolar disorders) but decreased risk of the other indexes of morbidity. In contrast, the sibling-comparison analyses indicated that advancing paternal age had a dose-response relationship with every index of morbidity, with the magnitude of the associations being as large or larger than the estimates in the entire population. Compared with offspring born to fathers 20 to 24 years old, offspring of fathers 45 years and older were at heightened risk of autism (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.45; 95% CI, 1.62-7.33), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (HR = 13.13; 95% CI, 6.85-25.16), psychosis (HR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.35-3.20), bipolar disorder (HR = 24.70; 95% CI, 12

  18. Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jacobi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a major component of a healthy lifestyle in youth and adults. To identify determinants of this complex behavior is an important research objective in the process of designing interventions to promote physical activity at population level. In addition to individual determinants, there is evidence documenting familial influences on physical activity. However, the few studies that have addressed this issue with objective measures did not provide data on parent-offspring physical activity relationships throughout childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to assess familial correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. METHODS: We measured ambulatory activity in 286 French nuclear families (283 mothers, 237 fathers, and 631 children aged 8-18 years by pedometer recordings (Yamax Digiwalker DW 450 over a week. Correlations were computed with their 95% confidence intervals (CI for spouse pairs, siblings, mother-offspring, and father-offspring. Data were expressed as steps per day and computed both for the full recording period and separately for weekdays and weekends. RESULTS: The correlations were the highest between siblings (r=0.28, 95%CI: 0.17-0.38. Parent-offspring correlations were significant in mothers (r=0.21, 95%CI: 0.12-0.30, especially between mothers and daughters (r=0.24, 95%CI: 0.12-0.36 vs. r=0.18, 95%CI: 0.05-0.31 for sons, but were almost nonexistent in fathers. Correlations were generally higher on weekend days compared to weekdays. Mother-offspring correlations did not decrease with increasing age of children (r=0.17, 95%CI: 0.00-0.34 in 8-11-year-olds, r=0.20, 95%CI: 0.07-0.33 in 12-15-year-olds, and r=0.25, 95%CI: 0.07-0.39 in ≥16-year-olds. Finally, between-spouse correlations were significant only during weekend days (r=0.14, 95%CI: 0.01-0.27. CONCLUSION: Ambulatory activity correlated within families, with a possible mother effect. Mother-offspring correlations remained

  19. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  20. Parents' interest in genetic testing of their offspring in multiplex epilepsy families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminiti, Courtney B; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shostak, Sara; Goldsmith, Jeff; Sorge, Shawn T; Winawer, Melodie R; Phelan, Jo C; Chung, Wendy K; Ottman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate parents' interest in genetic testing of their offspring in families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy. Seventy-seven parents with affected offspring and 173 parents without affected offspring from families containing multiple individuals with epilepsy completed a questionnaire asking about their interest in genetic testing of their offspring. Interest in testing was ascertained in four scenarios defined by clinical utility and penetrance of the gene in the test (100% vs. 50%). Pairwise agreement in interest was assessed between parents for testing themselves versus their offspring, and between mothers and fathers for their offspring. Among parents with affected offspring, the proportion interested in genetic testing of offspring ("diagnostic testing") was 86% in the 100% penetrance, clinical utility scenario, and 71% in the 100% penetrance, no clinical utility scenario (p = 0.007). Among parents without affected offspring, comparable proportions interested in genetic testing of offspring ("predictive testing") were 74% and 53% (p < 0.001), and were significantly lower than in parents with affected offspring (clinical utility, p = 0.02; no clinical utility, p = 0.01). Interest in testing did not differ by gene penetrance. Parents' agreement in testing interest for themselves versus their offspring was "substantial" (90% agreement, κ = 0.72) for a test with clinical utility, and "almost perfect" for a test without clinical utility (94% agreement, κ = 0.88). Agreement in testing interest between mothers and fathers was "moderate" for a test with clinical utility (85% agreement, κ = 0.48,), and "fair" for a test without clinical utility (67% agreement, κ = 0.30). Interest in diagnostic genetic testing is strong among parents with offspring with epilepsy, particularly when the test offers clinical utility. Testing interest is lower for a diagnostic test without clinical utility, or for a predictive test in offspring at risk of developing

  1. 30 CFR 847.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES ALTERNATIVE ENFORCEMENT § 847.2 General provisions. (a) Whenever a court of competent jurisdiction enters a judgment against or convicts a person under these provisions... is unwarranted. (c) Each State regulatory program must include provisions for civil actions and...

  2. 24 CFR 201.16 - Default provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...

  3. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents : Gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman-Peeters, K.M.; Ormel, J.; van Sonderen, E.L.; den Boer, J.A.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hartman, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring

  4. Attractant for vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii, and cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Diptera: Drosophilidae et Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra; Lutovinovas, Erikas

    2009-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) to two dipteran species: the vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii (Drosophilidae), and the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Calliphoridae). The attractant for the former fly species was especially effective, as sticky traps containing 0.25 ml of MeSa captured (814 +/- 55) D. busckii flies/trap on average compared to (12 +/- 4) flies/trap in control traps. The mean capture of P. rudis [(42 +/- 4) flies/trap] was significantly higher in MeSa-baited traps compared to the control traps [(13 +/- 4) flies/trap]. The presence of MeSa in emissions of many fruits suitable for D. busckii feeding allows to attribute this attractant to kairomones. In case of P. rudis, MeSa should be attributed to synomones (compounds beneficial for both receiver and sender), because adult flies feeding on flowers act as pollinators. This is the first report on the field-active attractant for D. busckii and the second for P. rudis.

  5. Retention of Escherichia coli by house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) during pupal metamorphosis and eclosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2005-05-01

    Populations of Escherichia coli obtained by feeding larval house flies, Musca domestica L. and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), persisted through the pupal stage. The abundance of E. coli in house fly pupae increased initially then declined before adult emergence. Abundance of E. coli in stable fly pupae increased through pupal development and remained high. Infected stable fly pupal cases typically contained more E. coli than house fly pupal cases. A greater proportion of emerging adult house flies were infected with E. coli compared with stable flies; however, the abundance of E. coli on infected flies was similar between species. Adult flies contained 0.04-0.19% of the E. coli in the pupal cases. The proportion of infected house fly adults and the amount of E. coli on the infected flies were related to the levels of E. coli in the pupal cases; however, these relationships did not occur with the stable fly. Results suggest that retention of E. coli from larval to adult house flies could play a role in the transmission and spread of E. coli, whereas stable fly adults probably play a minor role in E. coli spread. However, pupae of both species have potential to act as reservoirs for E. coli.

  6. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  7. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Risk of Cerebral Palsy in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forthun, Ingeborg; Wilcox, Allen J.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in offspring. METHODS: The study population consisted of 188 788 children in the Mothers and Babies in Norway and Denmark CP study, using data from 2 population-based, prospective birth...... cohorts: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Prepregnancy BMI was classified as underweight (BMI BMI 18.5–22.9), upper normal weight (BMI 23.0–24.9), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), and obese (BMI ≥30). CP diagnoses were obtained from...... the national CP registries. Associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and CP in offspring were investigated by using log-binomial regression models. RESULTS: The 2 cohorts had 390 eligible cases of CP (2.1 per 1000 live-born children). Compared with mothers in the lower normal weight group, mothers...

  8. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  9. The impact of maternal obesity during pregnancy on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-12-15

    In the United States, approximately 64% of women of childbearing age are either overweight or obese. Maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with a greater risk for adverse maternal-fetal outcomes. Adverse health outcomes for the offspring can persist into adulthood, increasing the incidence of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma. Since these diseases have a significant inflammatory component, these observations are indicative of perturbation of the normal development and maturation of the immune system of the offspring in utero. This hypothesis is strongly supported by data from several rodent studies. Although the mechanisms of these perturbations are not fully understood, it is thought that increased placental inflammation due to obesity may directly affect neonatal development through alterations in nutrient transport. In this review we examine the impact of maternal obesity on the neonatal immune system, and potential mechanisms for the changes observed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Alcohol during pregnacu and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, a; Petersen, Janne; Grønbæk, M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  11. Alcohol during pregnancy and atopic dermatitis in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Petersen, Janne; Grønbaek, M

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that antenatal factors play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). However, little is known about the effects of maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy on the risk of AD in the offspring. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption......, time of onset, and doctor's diagnosis of AD in the offspring was obtained by interview at 18 months of age. The effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on the incidence of AD was analysed by Cox regression allowing for different effects of alcohol before (early infancy) and after 2 months (60...... days) of age. RESULTS: Alcohol during pregnancy was associated with a significant and dose-dependent increased risk of AD in early infancy. This effect was mainly seen in high-risk infants (two parents with allergic disease). Thus, the highest risk of AD in early infancy was seen in high-risk infants...

  12. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  13. Physical activity during pregnancy and language development in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jukic, Anne Marie Z; Lawlor, Debbie A; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In rodents, physical activity during pregnancy has been associated with improved learning and memory in the offspring. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (born in 1991-92) to investigate maternal physical activity during pregnancy and offspring...... language development. METHODS: At 18 weeks of gestation, women reported the hours per week they participated in 11 leisure-time physical activities and the hours per week spent in general physical activity (leisure, household and occupational). Caregivers completed a modified MacArthur Infant Communication....... RESULTS: Children of women in the two highest quintiles of leisure activity (compared with no leisure activity) were more likely to have high 15-month MacArthur scores (adjusted odds ratio 1.2 [95% confidence interval 0.9, 1.4] and adjusted odds ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.1, 1.7], respectively). Leisure activity...

  14. Alterations in offspring behavior induced by chronic prenatal cocaine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R F; Mattran, K M; Kurkjian, M F; Kurtz, S L

    1989-01-01

    Sperm-positive female Long-Evans hooded rats were dosed subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg/day cocaine or an equal volume of vehicle (0.9% sterile saline) from gestation day 4 (GD4) through GD18. Offspring were assessed for development of negative geotaxis, righting reflex, spontaneous alternation, and open field activity, and for adult behaviors including DRL-20 acquisition, water maze, visual discrimination, barbiturate sleep time, shuttlebox avoidance, footshock sensitivity, and tail flick latency. Cocaine dosing produced no significant effects on dam weight gain, any measure of litter size and weight, or early postnatal behavioral tests, but there were significant drug effects on development of spontaneous alternation, development of open field activity, DRL-20 acquisition, water maze performance, tail flick, and footshock sensitivity. These data suggest that chronic administration of a modest dose of cocaine during gestation in the rat alters a number of behaviors in the offspring.

  15. Sentinel and other mutational effects in offspring of cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    To date, no agent has been documented to cause germ cell mutation in human beings, with the possible exception of radiation causing abnormal meiotic chromosomes in testes. For studies in humans, mutation epidemiologists prefer the cohort approach, starting with an exposed population and looking for mutations that may be expressed in offspring as variants in health, chromosomes, proteins, or nucleic acids. Currently patients with cancer are the cohort exposed to the largest doses of potential mutagens, i.e., radiotherapy and drugs. In 12 large studies with over 825 patients and 1573 pregnancies, 46 (4%) of 1240 liveborns had a major birth defect, a rate comparable to that in the general population. One of these was a classic sentinel phenotype, i.e., a new sporadic case of a dominant mendelian syndrome. In collaboration with 5 U.S. cancer registries, we interviewed a retrospective cohort of 2383 patients diagnosed with cancer under age 20 years, from 1945 through 1975. Records were sought to verify major genetic disease, defined as a cytogenetic or single gene disorder or 1 of 15 isolated birth defects. In 2308 offspring of survivors, 5 had a chromosomal syndrome, 11 had a single gene disorder, and 62 had at least one major malformation. Among 4722 offspring of sibling controls, the respective numbers were 7, 12, and 127, nonsignificant differences. 7% of the parents of the offspring with possibly new mutations received potentially mutagenic therapy, compared with 12% of parents of normal children. Since pregnancy in or by cancer survivors is still a rare event, future efforts to document germ cell mutation may be best studied through international cooperation coupled with diverse laboratory measures of mutation

  16. Smoking during teenage pregnancies: effects on behavioral problems in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; DeGenna, Natacha; Day, Nancy L

    2007-07-01

    We prospectively examined the relationship between prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and child behavior in a birth cohort of 357 offspring of teenage mothers. PTE was defined as any exposure across pregnancy and, in separate analyses, exposure within each trimester. Outcomes included measures of behavior problems, activity, and attention. On average, the children were 6.4 years of age, 48% were females, and 69% were Black. Data on maternal tobacco and other substance use were collected prenatally and postnatally: 46% of the mothers smoked in the first trimester and 58% smoked 6 years later. Child urinary cotinine measured exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Stepwise multiple regressions were run. PTE predicted significantly increased offspring activity; impulsivity; and aggression, externalizing, and total behavior problems in step 1. PTE remained a significant predictor of increased activity when maternal psychological characteristics, home environment, and ETS were added. The results were similar when PTE was examined by trimesters, although later pregnancy tobacco exposure predicted the most behavioral outcomes. In the final model, PTE (all three trimesters) and PTE (second trimester) were significant predictors of increased activity and attention problems, respectively. Other predictors of child behavior included maternal anxiety, depression, hostility, and home environment. ETS was not a significant predictor of child behavior when PTE was considered. Smoking during pregnancy among adolescents is a significant predictor of increased activity and attention problems in their offspring after controlling for covariates in the prenatal and current environments. Smoking cessation interventions are recommended for this population to avoid the effects of PTE on the offspring of pregnant adolescents. This is particularly important because these mothers will likely become pregnant again and many will increase their level of tobacco use as they mature.

  17. Exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Fanzhen; Zhang Chenggang; Zhao Deshan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether there is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives and to probe into the possible mechanism giving rise to it, providing some clues to the study of the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension. Methods: Using 99 Tc m -DTPA as the imaging agent, authors performed rest and exercise scintirenography in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives [NOH, 31 cases, 14 males, 17 females; mean age: (23.2 ± 4.1) years], normotensive young off-spring of non-hypertensives [NON, 31 cases, 20 males, 11 females; mean age: (23.1±3.6) years], some of the hypertensive parents [21 cases, 5 males, 16 females; mean age: (53.0 ± 5.61) years] and old non-hypertensive subjects [10 cases, 6 males, 4 females; mean age: (53.7 ± 5.2) years]. The results were analyzed with the software of SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Results: Though all of the rest renal function indexes from NOH were within the normal range, there were significant differences between most of those indexes from NOH and those from NON, e. g., t p and MTT from NOH were significantly delayed than those from NON; exercise made these differences more significant, and after exercise, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and RI were significantly lower, and 20/P was significantly higher. There were 4, 5, 2 cases showing abnormal exercise scintirenography in NOH, hypertensive parents and old non-hypertensive subjects, respectively, but none in NON group. Conclusions: There is potential renal function decline in normotensive young offspring of essential hypertensives. The kidney may play an important role in the pathogenic and hereditary mechanism of essential hypertension

  18. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Maternal obesity surgery : effects in women, spouses and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bariatric surgery is an important treatment for the worldwide increasing epidemic of obesity. However, the effects of such surgery on offspring epigenetic profile and effects on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in women undergoing bariatric surgery and family members are essentially unknown. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible effects of maternal weight loss after bariatric surgery and effects on differences in maternal gest...

  20. Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, K N; Rickert, M E; Thornton, L M; Peat, C M; Baker, J H; Birgegård, A; Norring, C; Landén, M; Almqvist, C; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P; Bulik, C M; D'Onofrio, B M

    2017-02-01

    Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.

  1. Maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Edlow, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from both human epidemiologic and animal studies that prenatal and lactational exposure to maternal obesity and high-fat diet are associated with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. These disorders include cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, cerebral palsy, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, and eating disorders. This review synthesizes human and animal data linking maternal o...

  2. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early ? intrauterine ? environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will fi...

  3. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-01

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  4. Levels of maternal care in dogs affect adult offspring temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Pernilla; Wilsson, Erik; Jensen, Per

    2016-01-13

    Dog puppies are born in a state of large neural immaturity; therefore, the nervous system is sensitive to environmental influences early in life. In primates and rodents, early experiences, such as maternal care, have been shown to have profound and lasting effects on the later behaviour and physiology of offspring. We hypothesised that this would also be the case for dogs with important implications for the breeding of working dogs. In the present study, variation in the mother-offspring interactions of German Shepherd dogs within the Swedish breeding program for military working dogs was studied by video recording 22 mothers with their litters during the first three weeks postpartum. The aim was to classify mothers with respect to their level of maternal care and to investigate the effect of this care on pup behaviour in a standardised temperament test carried out at approximately 18 months of age. The results show that females differed consistently in their level of maternal care, which significantly affected the adult behaviour of the offspring, mainly with respect to behaviours classified as Physical and Social Engagement, as well as Aggression. Taking maternal quality into account in breeding programs may therefore improve the process of selecting working dogs.

  5. Pooled genotyping of microsatellite markers in parent-offspring trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirov, G; Williams, N; Sham, P; Craddock, N; Owen, M J

    2000-01-01

    We studied the extent to which genotyping of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms (SSRs) in pooled DNA samples can be used to predict differences in allele frequencies between parents and their affected offspring. We also developed a simple method of correction for the effects of stutter and differential amplification on the analysis of SSRs in pooled DNA samples based on widely available software. We genotyped individually eight polymorphic microsatellite markers in 110 parent-offspring trios affected with bipolar affective disorder (BP). Analysis of pooled DNA samples predicted very accurately the differences in individual allele frequency distributions between children and their parents. The mean error was stutter and differential amplification were performed. We show that if an individual allele is significantly preferentially transmitted from parents to affected offspring, the difference in the frequency of that allele would be sufficiently large to be detected with pooling in most situations. We propose recommendations for disequilibrium mapping with pooling in which both case-control samples and trios are used in an initial screen and markers are genotyped individually only if they satisfy very relaxed criteria for statistical significance. The use of case-control samples should reduce the false-negative rate as the differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls are twice as high in the presence of the same genetic effect. The use of trios will confirm or reject any suggested differences, thus reducing the false-positive rate that can be created by hidden population stratification.

  6. Infection by Schistosoma mansoni during pregnancy: Effects on offspring immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Vanessa Ribeiro Figliuolo; Sequeira, Danielly; Pyrrho, Alexandre

    2017-09-15

    About 25 million Brazilians live in areas at risk of contracting the disease caused by the trematoda Schistosoma mansoni, the schistosomiasis mansoni. Although the adult parasites inhabit the blood vessels, probably the main element responsible for the pathology of the disease are the eggs, whose deposition in the liver results in formation of granulomas and hypersensitivity mediated by CD4 T cells. In the course of infection, the profile of T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines released by immune cells is correlated with the extent of inflammation in the granuloma and with the disease severity. While a Th1 immune response favors the local inflammation and the disease progression, the Th2 immune response has protective character. Also during pregnancy, it is essential a fine adjustment of a Th1/Th2 in the maternal-fetal interface, which ensures the pregnancy progress with peculiar immune characteristics. In particular, the maternal exposure to antigens has been associated with their presence in fetal circulation. The exposure to intrauterine antigens can imply an immune tolerance of the fetus to such components. In turn, the transfer of antigens and antibodies from mother to offspring during breastfeeding is an important stage of maturation and capacitation of immune offspring in future infections against pathogens. This review aims to gather bibliographic data to assist in the understanding of immunological features printed on offspring of mothers infected with S. mansoni, which affect latter immune responses to related or unrelated antigens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal hypothyroidism may be associated with CHD in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Michael J; Thomas, Daina S; Hornberger, Lisa K; Hamilton, Robert M; Midodzi, William K; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-10-01

    This study tested whether mothers with maternal hypothyroidism have increased odds of CHD in their offspring, and examined the relationship between CHD, maternal thyroid function, and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk for foetal demise and prematurity and can have a negative impact on neurodevelopment. Prior studies have postulated a relationship between maternal thyroid function, CHD, and maternal nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. A cross-sectional case-control study was conducted over a 17-month period to obtain a history of maternal thyroid status and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Paediatric echocardiograms were evaluated for CHD by a blinded paediatric cardiologist. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between CHD and maternal hypothyroidism. Of the 998 maternal-child pairs, 10% (98/998) of the mothers reported a history of prenatal hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of CHD in the study sample was 63% (630/998). Mothers with a history of hypothyroidism were significantly more likely to have offspring with CHD compared with mothers without a history of hypothyroidism (72 versus 62%; p=0.04). The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CHD in offspring associated with reported maternal hypothyroidism was 1.68 (1.02-2.78). This study suggests that maternal hypothyroidism is a risk factor for the development of CHD. Further prospective investigations are necessary to confirm this association and delineate pathogenic mechanisms.

  8. rEnolase maternal immunization confers caries protection on offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, M; Trigo, G; Chaves, N; Fonseca, A J M M; Ribeiro, A; Tavares, D; Cabrita, A M S; Ferreira, P

    2011-03-01

    Therapeutic vaccination with Streptococcus sobrinus recombinant enolase (rEnolase) protects rats from dental caries. Here, we investigated the effect that maternal rEnolase vaccination before pregnancy had on the offspring's immune response to S. sobrinus oral infection and dental caries progression. Female Wistar rats were immunized by intranasal and subcutaneous routes with rEnolase adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant or similarly treated with the adjuvant alone (sham-immunized). Ten days after the last administration, the immunized females were paired with a male rat. The oral immune responses to S. sobrinus infection and dental caries in the offspring were evaluated. The results showed that pups born from rEnolase-immunized mothers had higher levels of rEnolase-specific salivary IgA and IgG antibodies (indicating a placental antibody transfer) and lower sulcal and proximal enamel caries scores than rats born from sham-immunized mothers. In conclusion, rEnolase maternal immunization before pregnancy provides offspring with protection against S. sobrinus-induced dental caries.

  9. Dietary protein deficiency in pregnant mice and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Richard M; Offiah, Godwin U

    2007-03-06

    Previous studies suggest an association between dermal contact hypersensitivity and preterm delivery. We hypothesized that dietary protein deficiency produces cell-mediated immune hypersensitivity in pregnant animals and their offspring akin to those known to produce tissue damage. We compared the effects of feeding a 20% protein diet (controls) to those of feeding a 10% protein (deficient) diet ad libitum to pregnant BALB/c mice. We measured dermal contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) by the increment in ear skin thickness (swelling) 72 h after immunization and parity by the number of viable pups delivered. Dams fed the protein-deficient diet ingested less food, gained less weight and delivered fewer viable pups than the dams fed the control diet. Greater DNFB-stimulated increment in ear skin thickness was found in the protein-deficient mothers and in their offspring than in the control mothers and their offspring. We conclude that dietary protein deficiency limits parity and induces immune hypersensitivity. These findings suggest the potential for dietary protein deficiency to activate a T-cell-mediated branch of the immune response that may put pregnant animals at risk for preterm delivery.

  10. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  11. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  12. Preliminary Study of Fly Ash Ceramic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herry-Poernomo; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary study of ceramic production process from two components ofwhich are fly ash and feldspar has been done. Aluminosilicate substancecontained in the fly ash is a basic material a former ceramic body, if itfired at the temperature of 1000 o C forms mullite (3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 ). Mulliteis a refractory material which is very stable at the temperature changing.This experiment studies the ceramic production process of two componentsnamely fly ash with particle size of o C.Steps of processes are making paste of fly ash and feldspar, making of greenpellets, and firing of pellets, physical analysis of ceramic including volumedecrease, lost ignition, porosity, density, water sorption, compressivestrength. The experiment result at firing temperature of 1000 o C were shownthat best composition at the weight ratio of fly ash to feldspar are 60/40and 50/50. It physical characteristic respectively are decrease of volume0.54 and 0.69 %, lost ignition = 11.98 and 11.78 %, porosity = 0.159 and0.155, density = 2.05 and 2.06 g/cm 3 , water sorption = 18.96 and 18.36 %,compressive strength = 24.82 and 24.79 kN/mm 2 . (author)

  13. Whole Genome Sequencing of the Braconid Parasitoid Wasp Fopius arisanus, an Important Biocontrol Agent of Pest Tepritid Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Geib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The braconid wasp Fopius arisanus (Sonan is an important biological control agent of tropical and subtropical pest fruit flies, including two important global pests, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, and the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis. The goal of this study was to develop foundational genomic resources for this species to provide tools that can be used to answer questions exploring the multitrophic interactions between the host and parasitoid in this important research system. Here, we present a whole genome assembly of F. arisanus, derived from a pool of haploid offspring from a single unmated female. The genome is ∼154 Mb in size, with a N50 contig and scaffold size of 51,867 bp and 0.98 Mb, respectively. Utilizing existing RNA-Seq data for this species, as well as publicly available peptide sequences from related Hymenoptera, a high quality gene annotation set, which includes 10,991 protein coding genes, was generated. Prior to this assembly submission, no RefSeq proteins were present for this species. Parasitic wasps play an important role in a diverse ecosystem as well as a role in biological control of agricultural pests. This whole genome assembly and annotation data represents the first genome-scale assembly for this species or any closely related Opiine, and are publicly available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Genome and RefSeq databases, providing a much needed genomic resource for this hymenopteran group.

  14. Entomopathogenic Fungi in Flies Associated with Pastured Cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2001-01-01

    Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the Entom......Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included...

  15. Fly ash utilization to ecology purpose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasae, T.; Kinugawa, M. (En-Tech Research Institute Inc. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Fly ash contains many elements necessary for plant growth. En-Tech Research Institute has a 100 ton/month fly ash granulation plant which produces 0.5-10mm diameter granules which are used in the cultivation of approximately 15,000 Onsidumu and Denpharae orchids in a 3,000 m[sup 2] greenhouse and as a soil improver for a 1,600m[sup 2] test lawn. The granules are also used as agricultural chemical adsorbents for drainage of the test lawn. Orchids cultivated using the fly ash granules are shipped to market as cut flowers regularly. There they fetch the same price or a higher price than orchids cultivated in the usual way. Good results have also been achieved with the soil improvement test and the adsorption test. Tests to obtain design data are being carried out on two golf courses in the Kumamoto Prefecture. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 7 photos.

  16. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Cuticular hydrocarbons of buffalo fly, Haematobia exigua, and chemotaxonomic differentiation from horn fly, H. irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Rudolf; Brown, Geoffrey W; Moore, Christopher J; Green, Peter E

    2005-10-01

    We determined the quantity and chemical composition of cuticular hydrocarbons of different strains, sexes, and ages of buffalo flies, Haematobia exigua. The quantity of cuticular hydrocarbons increased from less than 1 microg/fly for newly emerged flies to over 11 microg/fly in 13-d-old flies. The hydrocarbon chain length varied from C(21) to C(29), with unbranched alkanes and monounsaturated alkenes the major components. Newly emerged flies contained almost exclusively C(27) hydrocarbons. Increasing age was accompanied by the appearance of hydrocarbons with shorter carbon chains and an increase in the proportion of alkenes. 11-Tricosene and 7-tricosene were the most abundant hydrocarbons in mature H. exigua. Cuticular hydrocarbons of H. exigua are distinctly different from those of horn flies, Haematobia irritans. The most noticeable differences were in the C(23) alkenes, with the major isomers 11- and 7-tricosene in H. exigua and (Z)-9- and (Z)-5-tricosene in H. irritans, respectively. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis provides a reliable method to differentiate the two species, which are morphologically difficult to separate. The differences in cuticular hydrocarbons also support their recognition as separate species, H. exigua and H. irritans, rather than as subspecies.

  18. The Hungry Fly: Hydrodynamics of feeding in the common house fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Manu; Steele, Miles

    2010-11-01

    A large number of insect species feed primarily on a fluid diet. To do so, they must overcome the numerous challenges that arise in the design of high-efficiency, miniature pumps. Although the morphology of insect feeding structures has been described for decades, their dynamics remain largely unknown even in the most well studied species (e.g. fruit fly). Here, we use invivo imaging and microsurgery to elucidate the design principles of feeding structures of the common house fly. Using high-resolution X-ray microscopy, we record invivo flow of sucrose solutions through the body over many hours during fly feeding. Borrowing from microsurgery techniques common in neurophysiology, we are able to perturb the pump to a stall position and thus evaluate function under load conditions. Furthermore, fluid viscosity-dependent feedback is observed for optimal pump performance. As the gut of the fly starts to fill up, feedback from the stretch receptors in the cuticle dictates the effective flow rate. Finally, via comparative analysis between the house fly, blow fly, fruit fly and bumble bees, we highlight the common design principles and the role of interfacial phenomena in feeding.

  19. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  20. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  1. Does major depressive disorder in parents predict specific fears and phobias in offspring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Matthew G; Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Roizen, Erica R; Truong, Nhan L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Pine, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relationship between parental depression and phobias in offspring as well as links between childhood fears and risk for major depression. This study examines the relationship between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders in parents and specific fears and phobias in offspring. Three hundred and eighteen children of parents with lifetime MDD, anxiety disorder, MDD+anxiety disorder, or neither were psychiatrically assessed via parent interview. Rates of specific phobias in offspring did not differ significantly across parental groups. Specific fears were significantly elevated in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder relative to the other groups (MDD, anxiety disorder, and controls, which did not differ). We failed to find increased phobias in offspring of parents with MDD without anxiety disorder. Elevated rates of specific fears in offspring of parents with MDD+anxiety disorder may be a function of more severe parental psychopathology, increased genetic loading, or unmeasured environmental influences. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Increased metabolic risk in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachová, Zuzana; Bytoft, Birgitte; Knorr, Sine

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to investigate metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with offspring of non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: During 1993-1999, pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes in Denmark were...... with offspring metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adolescent offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes had a less favourable metabolic profile and higher frequency of prediabetes than the background population. Significant associations between these outcomes and maternal HbA1c levels in pregnancy...... prospectively reported to a central registry in the Danish Diabetes Association. Data included information on maternal demography, diabetes status and pregnancy outcome. We invited 746 eligible children from this cohort (index offspring) to a follow-up examination. Control offspring were identified through...

  3. Ductility Of fly ash - slag based reinforced geopolymer concrete elements cured at room temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh N.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductility of the flexural element is the main governing property for healthy performance of structural element. Although numerous factors contribute towards the ductility of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (RGPC elements, low calcium based fly ash and GGBS have chemical proportions which make RGPC develop significant ductility along with steel reinforcement – when mixed in an intelligent way satisfying structural and economic conditions. In the present research work influence of low calcium fly ash, GGBS, River sand, M-sand, Steel Grade, manufactured fibres and natural fibres are used to study the ductile behaviour of RGPC sections by load testing 51 under reinforced flexural elements. The study reveals that fly ash - slag based reinforced flexural elements behave in line with OPC based RCC elements. The provisions mentioned in Indian RC designer IS:456-2000 can be used to predict the flexural behaviour of reinforced geopolymer concrete elements. The average flexural ductility of these test specimens observed to lie in between 2 & 3.

  4. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  5. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  6. Gestational Protein Restriction Increases Cardiac Connexin 43 mRNA levels in male adult rat offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Rossini, Kamila Fernanda; Oliveira, Camila Andrea de; Rebelato, Hércules Jonas; Esquisatto, Marcelo Augusto Marreto; Catisti, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The dietary limitation during pregnancy influences the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. The mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of gestational protein restriction (GPR) in the development of the offspring hearts are not well understood. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GPR on cardiac structure in male rat offspring at day 60 after birth (d60). Methods: Pregnant Wistar rats were fed...

  7. Parenting behaviors associated with risk for offspring personality disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S

    2006-05-01

    Research has suggested that some types of parental child-rearing behavior may be associated with risk for offspring personality disorder (PD), but the association of parenting with offspring PD has not been investigated comprehensively with prospective longitudinal data. To investigate the association of parental child-rearing behavior with risk for offspring PD during adulthood. The Children in the Community study, a prospective longitudinal investigation. A community-based sample of 593 families interviewed during childhood (mean age, 6 years), adolescence (mean ages, 14 and 16 years), emerging adulthood (mean age, 22 years), and adulthood (mean age, 33 years) of the offspring. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. Ten types of parenting behavior that were evident during the child-rearing years were associated with elevated offspring risk for PD during adulthood when childhood behavioral or emotional problems and parental psychiatric disorders were controlled statistically. Parental behavior in the home during the child-rearing years was associated with elevated risk for offspring PD at mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Risk for offspring PD at both assessments increased steadily as a function of the number of problematic parenting behaviors that were evident. Low parental affection or nurturing was associated with elevated risk for offspring antisocial (P = .003), avoidant (P = .01), borderline (P = .002), depressive (P = .02), paranoid (P = .002), schizoid (P = .046), and schizotypal (Pparental behavior (eg, harsh punishment) was associated with elevated risk for offspring borderline (P = .001), paranoid (P = .004), passive-aggressive (P = .046), and schizotypal (P = .02) PDs. Parental behavior during the child-rearing years may be associated with risk for offspring PD that endures into adulthood. This risk may not be attributable to offspring behavioral and emotional problems or parental psychiatric disorder, and it may not diminish

  8. Maternal High-Fat-Diet Programs Rat Offspring Liver Fatty Acid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Seet, Emily L.; Yee, Jennifer K.; Jellyman, Juanita K.; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G.; Desai, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availa...

  9. Postnatal Cardiovascular Consequences in the Offspring of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Smoking and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1.6 packs/day, inhalation), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d subcutaneously), and bupropion (13 mg/kg twice daily orally) were assessed for fetoplacental weight, cardiac function, blood pressure, and vascular reactivity. Fetoplacental weights were decreased and spontaneous beating and intracellular calcium in neonatal cardiomyocytes were increased in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring; however, these effects were more accentuated in smoking followed by nicotine and bupropion offspring. Increased heart rate and decreased cardiac output, stroke volume, and left ventricular percent posterior wall thickening were observed in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring. The left ventricular mass was reduced in smoking and nicotine but not in bupropion offspring. Blood pressure was higher with decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation and exaggerated vascular contraction to angiotensin II in smoking and nicotine offspring, with more pronounced dysfunctions in smoking than nicotine offspring. Maternal bupropion did not impact offspring's blood pressure, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and vascular contraction. In conclusion, maternal nicotine intervention adversely affects offspring's cardiovascular outcomes, albeit less severely than continued smoking. However, bupropion causes cardiac derangement in offspring but does not adversely affect blood pressure and vascular function.

  10. Animal models of maternal nutrition and altered offspring bone structure – Bone development across the lifecourse

    OpenAIRE

    SA Lanham; C Bertram; C Cooper; ROC Oreffo

    2011-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the likelihood of offspring developing heart disease, stroke, or diabetes in later life, is influenced by the their in utero environment and maternal nutrition. There is increasing epidemiological evidence that osteoporosis in the offspring may also be influenced by the mother’s nutrition during pregnancy. This review provides evidence from a range of animal models that supports the epidemiological data; suggesting that lifelong bone development and growth in offspr...

  11. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A c...

  12. Fruit flies may face a nutrient-dependent life-history trade-off between secondary sexual trait quality, survival and developmental rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lindsey J; Simpson, Stephen J; Polak, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Optimal life-history strategies are those that best allocate finite environmental resources to competing traits. We used the geometric framework for nutrition to evaluate life-history strategies followed by Drosophila melanogaster by measuring the condition-dependent performance of life-history traits, including the morphology of male secondary sexual characters, sex combs. We found that depending on their rearing environment flies faced different forms of trait trade-offs and accordingly followed different life-history strategies. High-energy, high-carbohydrate, low-protein diets supported development of the largest and most symmetrical sex combs, however, consistent with handicap models of sexual selection these foods were associated with reduced fly survival and developmental rate. Expressing the highest quality sex combs may have required secondary sexual trait quality to be traded-off with developmental rate, and our results indicated that flies unable to slow development died. As larval nutritional environments are predominantly determined by female oviposition substrate choice, we tested where mated female flies laid the most eggs. Mothers chose high-energy, high-protein foods associated with rapid larval development. Mothers avoided high-carbohydrate foods associated with maximal sex comb expression, showing they may avoid producing fewer 'sexy' sons in favour of producing offspring that develop rapidly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Habitat structure influences parent-offspring association in a social lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Botterill-James

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parental care emerges as a result of an increase in the extent of interaction between parents and their offspring. These interactions can provide the foundation for the evolution of a range of complex parental behaviors. Therefore, fundamental to understanding the evolution of parental care is an understanding of the factors that promote this initial increase in parent-offspring association. Here, we used large outdoor enclosures to test how the spatial structure of high-quality habitat affects the occurrence of parent-offspring associations in a social lizard (Liopholis whitii. We found that the extent of parent-offspring association was higher when high-quality habitat was aggregated relative to when it was dispersed. This may be the result of greater competitive exclusion of adults and offspring from high quality crevices sites in the aggregated treatment compared to the dispersed treatment. Associating with parents had significant benefits for offspring growth and body condition but there were no concomitant effects on offspring survival. We did not find costs of parent-offspring association for parents in terms of increased harassment and loss of body condition. We discuss a number of potential mechanisms underlying these results. Regardless of mechanisms, our results suggest that habitat structure may shape the extent of parent-offspring association in L. whitti, and that highly aggregated habitats may set the stage for the diversification of more complex forms of care observed across closely related species.

  14. Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvi, Damaskini; Oulhote, Youssef; Weihe, Pal

    2017-01-01

    examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs...... circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific...... to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence....

  15. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  16. Parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk affect prey offspring behaviour and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-03-14

    Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown. We examined the effects of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on the response of 1-year-old prey (the carnivorous snail, Nucella lapillus ) offspring to current predation risk. We found that parental and embryonic risk experiences had largely independent effects on offspring performance and that these effects were context dependent. Parental experience with risk had strong impacts on multiple offspring traits in the presence of current risk that generally improved offspring performance under risk, but embryonic risk experience had relatively weaker effects and only operated in the absence of current risk to reduce offspring growth. These results illustrate that past environmental experiences can dynamically shape organism phenotypes across ontogeny and that attention to these effects is key to a better understanding of predator/prey dynamics in natural systems. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  18. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  19. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g...

  20. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  1. Calcium homeostasis in fly photoreceptor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J

    2002-01-01

    In fly photoreceptor cells, two processes dominate the Ca2+ homeostasis: light-induced Ca2+ influx through members of the TRP family of ion channels, and Ca2+ extrusion by Na+/Ca2+ exchange.Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is quantitatively insignificant. Both, the light-activated channels and

  2. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  3. Blow flies as urban wildlife sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Constanze; Merkel, Kevin; Sachse, Andreas; Rodríguez, Pablo; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2018-01-12

    Wildlife detection in urban areas is very challenging. Conventional monitoring techniques such as direct observation are faced with the limitation that urban wildlife is extremely elusive. It was recently shown that invertebrate-derived DNA (iDNA) can be used to assess wildlife diversity in tropical rainforests. Flies, which are ubiquitous and very abundant in most cities, may also be used to detect wildlife in urban areas. In urban ecosystems, however, overwhelming quantities of domestic mammal DNA could completely mask the presence of wild mammal DNA. To test whether urban wild mammals can be detected using fly iDNA, we performed DNA metabarcoding of pools of flies captured in Berlin, Germany, using three combinations of blocking primers. Our results show that domestic animal sequences are, as expected, very dominant in urban environments. Nevertheless, wild mammal sequences can often be retrieved, although they usually only represent a minor fraction of the sequence reads. Fly iDNA metabarcoding is therefore a viable approach for quick scans of urban wildlife diversity. Interestingly, our study also shows that blocking primers can interact with each other in ways that affect the outcome of metabarcoding. We conclude that the use of complex combinations of blocking primers, although potentially powerful, should be carefully planned when designing experiments. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  5. Autonomous formation flying in low earth orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amico, S.

    2010-01-01

    Formation flying is commonly identified as the collective usage of two or more cooperative spacecraft to exercise the function of a single monolithic virtual instrument. The distribution of tasks and payloads among fleets of coordinated smaller satellites offers the possibility to overcome the

  6. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  7. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  8. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and criminal offending among adult offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Background Although a number of previous studies have reported an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and externalising behaviour problems among offspring, it has been suggested that this relationship is spurious due to the failure of these studies to properly account for important confounding factors. Methods The relationship between MSP and adult criminal offending was examined using data from 3766 members of the Providence, Rhode Island, cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Information on MSP and most potential confounders was collected prospectively throughout pregnancy. In 1999–2000 all offspring had reached 33 years of age and an adult criminal record check was performed. Because previous research has been criticised for not properly accounting for confounding influences, our primary aim was to determine whether the MSP–criminal offending relationship held after efficiently adjusting for a wide range of sociodemographic and family background characteristics using propensity score methods. Results The association between MSP and adult criminal offending remained after controlling for propensity scores. Offspring of mothers who smoked heavily during pregnancy (≥20 cigarettes per day) had the greatest odds of an adult arrest record (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.62). Findings also suggest that MSP may be an independent risk factor for adult criminal histories marked by multiple arrests. Lastly, our findings show that the impact of MSP operates similarly across both genders. Conclusion Results from this study provide evidence of an association between heavy MSP and long-term criminal offending. Any causal association is likely to be weak to moderate in strength. PMID:21081311

  9. Female ornaments revisited - are they correlated with offspring quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeide, Jarle Tryti; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Janhunen, Matti; Kortet, Raine

    2013-01-01

    The evolution and signalling content of female ornamentation has remained an enduring challenge to evolutionary biologists, despite the fact that secondary sexual characters are widespread in females. While females usually invest significant amounts of their resources, including carotenoids, in offspring, all the resources allocated to elaborate ornamentation reduce resources available for other purposes. This may in turn constrain female fitness leading to dishonest female signalling. We review the literature for empirical studies on mutually ornamented species with conventional sex roles, by focusing on the association between female ornaments and quality of their offspring. We found 43 papers where 33 (77%) are bird-studies, nine (21%) are on fishes, and one (2%) is a lizard-study. Nine of these report negative, 14 non-existing, and 20 positive associations between female ornament and offspring quality. Eighteen of the bird studies (55%) show a positive association between the two traits investigated, whereas five (15%) of the studies report a negative association. The number of fish studies, although few, is skewed in the opposite direction with two (22%) and four (44%) studies supporting positive and negative association, respectively. A minority of studies on carotenoids-based ornaments reports a positive association (4 of 18 studies, or 22%) between the traits, which is low compared to studies on non-carotenoids-based ornaments (16 of 25 studies, or 64%). The above-mentioned relative large number of studies with negative association, especially common in studies on fishes and in carotenoids-based-ornaments, challenges the generality of the direct selection hypothesis to account for female fineries. This is important because this hypothesis seems to have strong support in recent literature on the topic. In the present paper, we also propose possible explanations for the observed differences between taxa and suggest directions and ideas for future research on

  10. Experimental gestational hypothyroidism evokes hypertension in adult offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sheyla Oliveira; Loureiro, Saulo Makerran Araújo; Alves, Iura Gonzalez Nogueira; Jesus, Camila Santos de; Santos, Patrícia Rabelo dos; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana dos; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Badauê-Passos, Daniel

    2012-09-25

    Gestational hypothyroidism is a prevalent disorder in pregnant women. We aimed to investigate the impact of experimental gestational hypothyroidism (EGH) on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) in the offspring of rats. EGH was induced with methimazole (MMI) 0.02% in drinking water from day 9 of gestation until birth. Sixty day old offspring from MMI-treated dams (OMTD, n=13) or water-treated dams (OWTD, n=13) had femoral arteries surgically assessed for the measurements of heart rate (HR), mean (MAP), systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). To investigate the balance of ANS, we established the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands of pulse interval (PI) and LF band of SAP spectrum. OMTD had increased MAP (130.2 ± 2.0 vs 108.8 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.001), SAP (157.3 ± 2.9 vs 135.7 ± 4.5mm Hg, p<0.001) and DAP (109.7 ± 1.9 vs 88.4 ± 2.6 mmHg, p<0.001) when compared to OWTD, and had lower HR (355.1 ± 8.9 vs 386.8 ± 9.2 bpm, p<0.05). After spectral analysis of PI and SAP, only LF band of SAP spectrum was higher (7.2 ± 0.8 vs 4.0 ± 0.6 mmHg(2), p<0.01) in OMTD under spontaneous condition. Despite bradycardia, EGH promotes spontaneous hypertension in 60 day old offspring, probably due to increased sympathetic modulation of vessels, which is suggested by the higher LF of SAP. These findings suggest a critical role of maternal THs in the development of fetal cardiovascular and autonomic nervous systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Duan, Chongli; Lummaa, Virpi

    2017-05-06

    In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making. Using survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again. Firstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention. Our study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of iron status and insulin resistance between non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, U.; Qureshi, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is positively correlated with body iron. It is unclear whether iron is a cause or an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus. Offspring of type 2 diabetics are insulin resistant as compared to those of the non-diabetics. The present study was designed to compare and correlate insulin resistance with iron parameters (including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood haemoglobin) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted on one hundred and twenty male subjects 20-40 years of age. They were divided into two groups, each group having 60 subjects. Group A included non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics, while Group B included non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Fasting blood sample was taken and examined for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, TIBC and ferritin. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Insulin resistance and iron parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics as compared to those of the non-diabetics. There was significant positive correlation (p=0.027) between insulin resistance and serum iron in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics. There was also significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and serum iron, transferrin saturation and haemoglobin in non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Conclusion: Non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics have iron load and insulin resistance, that predispose them to the development of type 2 diabetes. (author)

  13. Longevity of Fly Baits Exposed to Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Cox, David; Mullens, Bradley A

    2018-02-01

    Insecticidal fly baits are important tools for adult house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), control, especially on animal operations. Two house fly baits, containing either cyantraniliprole or dinotefuran, were tested on a dairy farm for attractiveness over time compared to a sugar control. Sticky trap and bucket trap house fly catches were recorded for each bait type at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h. After 1 wk of exposure to flies and field conditions, these 'aged' baits were tested against fresh baits for fly visitation in the field over 1 h. House flies from each bait type (aged and fresh) were collected and kept under laboratory conditions to assess mortality over 3 d. Average visitation of individual flies to each bait type (fresh) in the field was also evaluated. Sticky traps did not show significant fly catch differences among bait types over time, however bucket trap catches did show significant differences for cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait compared to sugar at 72 h and 168 h. No significant differences among fly visitation to aged or fresh baits were found. Fresh cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait resulted in greater fly mortality compared to controls, but not compared to aged toxic baits. Average house fly visitation time was greatest for sugar and cyantraniliprole bait. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. In the presence of moisture, fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a compound possessing cementitious properties. The reaction between lime and fly ash produces calcium silicate hydrates, which are respon- sible for development of strength in fly ash–lime in the form of bricks and blocks.

  15. Is advanced paternal age a health risk for the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence for adverse health effects in offspring of fathers of advanced age. First the evidence regarding fetal survival is addressed, and afterward we review the evidence regarding morbidity in children with older fathers. The adverse conditions most...... consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia. Finally, we consider the public health impact of the increasing paternal age...

  16. Substance abuse vulnerability in offspring of alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, M E

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.

  17. The generation of live offspring from vitrified oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gabriel Sanchez-Partida

    Full Text Available Oocyte cryopreservation is extremely beneficial for assisted reproductive technologies, the treatment of infertility and biotechnology and offers a viable alternative to embryo freezing and ovarian grafting approaches for the generation of embryonic stem cells and live offspring. It also offers the potential to store oocytes to rescue endangered species by somatic cell nuclear transfer and for the generation of embryonic stem cells to study development in these species. We vitrified mouse oocytes using a range of concentrations of trehalose (0 to 0.3 M and demonstrated that 0.1 and 0.3 M trehalose had similar developmental rates, which were significantly different to the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. As mitochondria are important for fertilisation outcome, we observed that the clustering and distribution of mitochondria of the 0.2 M cohort were more affected by vitifrication than the other groups. Nevertheless, all 3 cohorts were able to develop to blastocyst, following in vitro fertilisation, although developmental rates were better for the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts than the 0.2 M cohort (P<0.05. Whilst blastocysts gave rise to embryonic stem-like cells, it was apparent from immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR that these cells did not demonstrate true pluripotency and exhibited abnormal karyotypes. However, they gave rise to teratomas following injection into SCID mice and differentiated into cells of each of the germinal layers following in vitro differentiation. The transfer of 2-cell embryos from the 0.1 and 0.3 M cohorts resulted in the birth of live offspring that had normal karyotypes (9/10. When 2-cell embryos from vitrified oocytes underwent vitrification, and were thawed and transferred, live offspring were obtained that exhibited normal karyotypes, with the exception of one offspring who was larger and died at 7 months. We conclude that these studies highlight the importance of the endometrial environment for the maintenance of genetic stability and

  18. Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Trials of traps and attractants for Stomoxys spp. ( Diptera : Muscidae). J Med Entomol 32:283–289. Rosen L, Gubler D. 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect... Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus Author(s): Michael J. Turell, David J. Dohm, Christopher J. Geden, Jerome A. Hogsette, and...2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies ( Diptera : Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus 5a

  19. Vestibular schwannoma and fitness to fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Yoann; Raynal, Marc; Hunkemöller, Iris; Lepage, Pierre; Kossowski, Michel

    2010-10-01

    When a pilot is referred for vestibular schwannoma (VS), his or her fitness to fly may be questioned. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe a series of VS cases in a pilot population and to discuss their fitness to fly options. Between September 2002 and March 2010, the ENT/Head and Neck Surgery Department of the National Pilot Expertise Center conducted nearly 120,000 expert consultations for 40,000 pilots. We examined the files of 10 pilots who were referred to our 2 national experts for VS. At the time of the expert consultation, hypoacusis was present in nine cases (four with total deafness), tinnitus in one case, and vertigo in nine cases. In our series, only 2 of the 10 pilots experienced a negative impact on their fitness to fly. Decisions on fitness to fly were based on several factors: minimally disturbed audition, i.e., less than a 35-dB hearing loss with a good speech discrimination score; good balance, i.e., no reported difficulties; no spontaneous nystagmus recorded on videonystagmography (VNG); no postural deviation; and a normal head-shaking test. The delay and the VS's evolution between diagnosis and expert consultation are important because the selection of a treatment to control VS is critical in minimizing the possible associated complications. When a pilot is referred for VS, his or her fitness to fly is determined by the size of the tumor, balance, auditory status, and the follow-up results of these findings. The complications that may arise from VS treatments must also be considered.

  20. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  1. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... amend our domestic regulations to provide for the interstate movement of Hass avocados from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded...

  2. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... American fruit fly for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. \\2\\ Aluja, M., F. Diaz-Fleischer and J... of Agricultural and Resource Economics, in 2004 regarding how to offset price impacts from imported... Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  3. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  4. Effect of paternal alcohol and drug dependence on offspring conduct disorder: gene-environment interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Jacob, Theodore; Grant, Julia D; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Sartor, Carolyn E; Duncan, Alexis E; Heath, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Not only are substance-use disorders and externalizing disorders frequently comorbid, they often co-occur in families across generations. The current study examined the role of genetic and environmental influences in the relationship between paternal histories of drug dependence or alcohol dependence and offspring conduct disorder using an offspring-of-twins design. Participants were male twins (n = 1,774) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry, their offspring (n = 1,917), and mothers of the offspring (n = 1,202). Twins had a history of drug dependence, alcohol dependence, or neither. Based on the father's and his co-twin's drug-dependence or alcohol-dependence history and zygosity, risk groups were constructed to reflect different levels of genetic and environmental risk that were then used to predict offspring conduct disorder. After controlling for potentially confounding variables, the offspring of men with a history of drug dependence or alcohol dependence had significantly higher rates of conduct disorder, compared with offspring of men without this history. Offspring at higher genetic risk had higher rates of conduct disorder. High-risk offspring at lower environmental risk had lower rates of conduct disorder but only in the case of paternal drug-dependence risk. Lower environmental risk did not influence rates of offspring conduct disorder when the father had an alcohol-dependence history. Genetic risk associated with both paternal drug-dependence and paternal alcohol-dependence histories predicted offspring conduct-disorder risk, but only risk associated with paternal drug-dependence history was mitigated by having a low-risk environment. These results demonstrated a significant gene-environment interaction effect.

  5. Parental schizophrenia and increased offspring suicide risk: exploring the causal hypothesis using cousin comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, T; Lichtenstein, P; Sandin, S; D'Onofrio, B; Runeson, B; Långström, N; Larsson, H

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about suicide risk among offspring of parents hospitalized for schizophrenia and the mechanisms behind this association. We applied a nested case-control design based on linkage of Swedish population-based registers. Among 12- to 30-year-old offspring, we identified 68 318 offspring with suicidal behavior (attempted and completed suicide) and their parents. Five healthy control-parent pairs were matched to each suicidal case-parent pair and conditional logistic regression used to obtain odds ratios (ORs). Further, to disentangle familial confounding from causal environmental mechanisms, we compared the population-based suicide risk with the risk found within full-cousins and half-cousins differentially exposed to parental schizophrenia. Offspring of parents with schizophrenia had significantly increased suicide risk after accounting for socio-economic status, parental suicidal behavior and offspring mental illness [OR 1.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-1.85]. Suicide risks in offspring of schizophrenic mothers and fathers were similar in magnitude; so were risks across different developmental periods. Importantly, offspring suicide risk remained essentially unchanged across genetically different relationships; offspring of siblings discordant for schizophrenia had equivalent risk increases within full-cousins (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.66-2.31) and half-cousins (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.17-2.44). Parental schizophrenia was associated with increased risk of offspring suicidal behavior, independent of gender of the schizophrenic parent, and persisting into adulthood. The suicide risk in offspring remained at a similar level when comparing genetically different relationships, which suggests that at least part of the association is due to environmental mechanisms. These findings should inspire increased attention to suicidal ideation and prevention efforts in offspring of parents with schizophrenia.

  6. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Glejsted Ingstrup

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine if distress as a combined measure of anxiety, depression, and stress of the mother during pregnancy was associated with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002. At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy was not associated with childhood overweight at 7 years of age (adjusted OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96; 1.18. In analyses stratified on sex, a small tendency of overweight was seen in boys (OR 1.15 (0.99; 1.33, but not in girls (OR 0.98 (0.85; 1.13. Conclusions. Maternal distress during pregnancy appeared to have limited, if any, influence on the risk of overweight in offspring at 7 years of age.

  7. [Metabolic abnormalities in young offsprings of parents with essential hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel H; Rodeles, Luz; César, Lucía I; Ferini, Franco; Dorigo, Catalina; Musacchio, Héctor M

    2013-01-01

    The familiar history of hypertension in healthy young offsprings is associated with hyperinsulinemia, which could lead to increased serum cortisol, resulting in renal endothelial damage and the presence of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in healthy young offsprings of hypertensive parents, association between insulin levels, serum cortisol and microalbuminuria attending to its relationship with increased cardiovascular risk. We performed a cross-sectional correlational study in Santa Fe, Argentina, including 145 healthy individuals aged over 18 years, allocated to two groups: those with a history of essential hypertensive parents (study group) and those without such history (control group). We evaluated fasting serum insulin, cortisol, and microalbuminuria levels in the first morning urine. The mean age was 20 ± 2.9 years, and 58% were women. The study group included 48% (n = 69) of the sample. 4.8% had insulin resistance, microalbuminuria 13.8% and 52% hipercortisolinemia, with no significant differences in serum insulin, cortisol, or microalbuminuria between groups. No correlation was found between these variables. In this study there was no association between a history of first degree hypertension and impaired insulin or cortisol homoeostasis.

  8. Placenta previa and immediate outcome of the term offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal

    2016-10-01

    Immediate neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa is largely dependent on gestational age. We aimed to investigate whether placenta previa increases the risk for perinatal mortality and immediate morbidity of the offspring born at term. A population-based cohort study included all singleton pregnancies, with and without placenta previa, delivered at term. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics as well as immediate neonatal morbidity and mortality were compared. Deliveries occurred between the years 1991-2013 in a tertiary medical center. Multiple pregnancies, and fetal congenital malformations were excluded. During the study period 233,123 consecutive term deliveries met the inclusion criteria; 0.2 % of the babies were born to mothers diagnosed with placenta previa. Women with placenta previa were significantly older and more likely to have had a previous cesarean section. Pregnancies were more likely to be complicated with pathological presentations and cesarean hysterectomies. Babies born at term following pregnancies with placenta previa were more likely to weigh less than 2500 g (OR 2.78 CI 1.9-3.9, p placenta previa pregnancies involve higher maternal morbidity rates, term offsprings are not at an increased risk for immediate adverse outcome.

  9. Dietary Intake Influences Adult Fertility and Offspring Fitness in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Trent; Jhinku, Noel; Meier, Michael; Horsfield, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The burden of malnutrition, including both over- and undernutrition, is a major public health concern. Here we used a zebrafish model of diet-induced obesity to analyze the impact of dietary intake on fertility and the phenotype of the next generation. Over an eight-week period, one group received 60 mg of food each day (60 mg arm), while another received 5 mg (5 mg arm). At the end of the diet, the body mass index of the 60 mg arm was 1.5 fold greater than the 5 mg arm. The intervention also had a marked impact on fertility; breeding success and egg production in the 60 mg arm were increased 2.1- and 6.2-fold compared to the 5 mg arm, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of eggs revealed that transcripts involved in metabolic biological processes differed according to dietary intake. The progeny from the differentially fed fish were more likely to survive when the parents had access to more food. An intergenerational crossover study revealed that while parental diet did not influence weight gain in the offspring, the progeny of well-fed parents had increased levels of physical activity when exposed again to high nutrient availability. We conclude that dietary intake has an important influence on fertility and the subsequent fitness of offspring, even prior to breeding.

  10. 24 CFR 401.309 - PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PRA term and termination provisions... Agreement (PRA) § 401.309 PRA term and termination provisions; other provisions. (a) 1-year term with renewals. The PRA will have a term of 1 year, to be renewed for successive terms of 1 year with the mutual...

  11. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... may be amended as needed to meet management responsibilities for the area. ...

  12. 40 CFR 53.40 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 53.40 Section 53.40... PM10 § 53.40 General provisions. (a) The test procedures prescribed in this subpart shall be used to... curve specified in § 53.40(d) crosses the 50 percent effectiveness line. The candidate method passes the...

  13. 40 CFR 165.40 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 165.40 Section 165.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Refillable Container Standards: Container Design § 165.40 General provisions. (a...

  14. 24 CFR 5.321 - Lease provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.321 Lease provisions. (a) Lease provisions. (1) PHAs which have established pet... persons with disabilities: (i) State that tenants are permitted to keep common household pets in their...

  15. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...

  16. 40 CFR 35.6595 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6595 Contract provisions. (a) General... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract provisions. 35.6595 Section 35...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6512 - Provisioning expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisioning expense. 32.6512 Section 32.6512... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6512 Provisioning expense. (a... Specific Operations Expense. These costs are to be cleared by adding to the cost of material and supplies a...

  18. 29 CFR 779.501 - Statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Other Provisions Which May Affect Retail Enterprises Equal Pay Provisions... establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility...

  19. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provisions. 422.504 Section 422.504 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.504 Contract provisions. The contract between the MA organization and CMS must contain the...

  20. 10 CFR 9.103 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 9.103 Section 9.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations § 9.103 General provisions... required by law. Statements of views or expressions of opinion made by Commissioners or NRC employees at...

  1. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  2. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  5. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  7. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  8. Explosibility boundaries for fly ash/pulverized fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, A G; Amyotte, P R

    2002-05-27

    Incomplete combustion and subsequent fuel contamination of a waste stream can pose a serious explosion hazard. An example of this type of incident is the contamination of fly ash with unburned pulverized coal. The coal, if present in sufficient quantities in the mixture, can act as a fuel source for a potential explosion. Experiments were conducted in a 20l Siwek explosibility test chamber to determine the minimum fuel contamination of fly ash required to form an explosible mixture. A sample of fly ash from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) (Ont., Canada) was artificially contaminated with Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust (the surrogate used to represent unburned fuel dust). Additionally, the influence of fly ash particle size on the amount of fuel contaminant required to form an explosible mixture was examined. Fine and coarse size fractions of fly ash were obtained by screening the original sample of OPG fly ash. The results show that at least 21% Pittsburgh pulverized coal (or 10% volatile matter) was required to form an explosible mixture of the original fly ash sample and coal dust. The results also illustrate that fly ash particle size is important when examining the explosibility of the mixture. The fine size fraction of fly ash required a minimum of 25% coal dust (12% volatile matter) in the mixture for explosibility, whereas the coarse fly ash required only 10% coal dust (7% volatile matter). Thus, the larger the particle size of the inert fly ash component in the mixture, the greater the hazard.

  9. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Analysis list: FLI1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FLI1 Blood,Bone,Muscle + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedb...c.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/FLI1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Blood.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Bone.tsv,http://dbarchive....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/FLI1.Muscle.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml,http:

  11. On the rarity of observations of food provisioning by male dickcissels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Best, Louis B.

    2001-01-01

    Males of polygynous bird species typically provide less parental care to their offspring than males of monogamous species (Ketterson and Nolan 1994). Generally, in polygynous species, a male forfeits some potential reproductive success if he shifts his reproductive effort from mating with multiple females to parental care (Trivers 1972, Gubemick et al. 1993, Schleicher et al. 1993). In the polygynous dickcissel (Spiza americana), singing and foraging activities constitute much of a male's time-activity budget (Schartz and Zimmerman 1971, Finck 1984). Although male dickcissels are attentive to their nests and mates (e.g., nest protection and vigilance) females incubate the eggs and feed the young (Gross 1921). Herein, we describe an account of a male dickcissel feeding brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) young early in the breeding season, summarize and review previous reports of food provisioning by the male dickcissel, and discuss the rarity of this behavior in the dickcissel.

  12. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  13. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-08-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.

  15. Dam-to-offspring transmission and persistence of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius clones within dog families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Damborg, Peter Panduro; Guardabassi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic pathogen that causes mainly skin infections in dogs. Although vertical transmission of S. pseudintermedius strains from dam to offspring has been reported, the persistence of the dam's strains in offspring over long periods of time is virtually...

  16. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children...

  17. Effect of Emotion Management Training to Mothers on the Behavioral Problems of Offspring: Parents’ View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Gowdini

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion We conclude that the training intervention (especially, emotion management training for mothers who have male offspring with behavioral problems is beneficial not only for strengthening the parents to manage their emotions effectively but also for reducing behavioral problems in their offspring.

  18. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    Higher maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring adiposity; however the effect of maternal BMI on subsequent inflammatory concentrations among offspring is unexplored. The aim is to estimate the direct and indirect effects of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on C-Reactive protein (CRP...

  19. Parental Depression as a Moderator of Secondary Deficits of Depression in Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Swindle, Ralph; Robinson, Rebecca L.; Sutkowi, Anne; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether having a depressed parent intensifies the secondary deficits that often co-occur with offspring's depression symptoms. The sample was adult offspring of parents who had been diagnosed with depression 23 years earlier (N = 143) and demographically matched nondepressed parents (N = 197). Respondents completed mailed…

  20. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring up to 16 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Goodyer, Ian; Cooper, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the developmental risk pathway to depression by 16 years in offspring of postnatally depressed mothers. Method: This was a prospective longitudinal study of offspring of postnatally depressed and nondepressed mothers; child and family assessments were made from infancy to 16 years. A total of 702…

  1. Place aversion by morphine in offspring born of female morphine administered wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Manizheh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    This research was designed to study sexual differences in place conditioning induced by morphine in offspring born of female Wistar rats mated with drug-naïve males. Mothers were exposed to morphine during the 14(th)-16(th) days of gestational. Control dams were simply saline-injected. Female and male virgin offspring born of morphine-treated or saline-treated mothers were separately housed until become fully matured. A 3-day schedule of an unbiased conditioning procedure was used to the induce conditioning to morphine (2.5-7.5 mg/Kg, SC) in the offspring. According to the results, female offspring born of saline-administered mothers were morphine place-conditioned at lower doses of opioid (2.5 mg/Kg) in comparison to the males. An increase in locomotor activity in the females at 7.5 mg/Kg of opioid was also revealed. In contrast, administration of morphine (2.5-7.5 mg/Kg, SC), induced a significant aversion in either sexes of offspring born of morphine-exposed mothers. Moreover, female offspring of this category acquired more pronounced aversion at higher doses of morphine than males. In addition, a significant morphine-dose effect (7.5 mg/Kg, SC) on locomotor activity of these females' offspring was observed. This study may highlight sex differences in conditioning effects induced by morphine between offspring derived of morphine-treated mothers and those of saline-treated.

  2. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  3. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M; Visser, Marcel E; Groothuis, Antonius

    2016-01-01

    Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been largely

  4. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Darras, Veerle M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    Abstract Maternal effects are a crucial mechanism in a wide array of taxa to generate phenotypic variation, thereby affecting offspring development and fitness. Maternally derived thyroid hormones (THs) are known to be essential for offspring development in mammalian and fish models, but have been

  5. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  6. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  7. Intergenerational environmental effects: Functional signals in offspring transcriptomes and metabolomes after parental jasmonic acid treatment in apomictic dandelion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Verbon, Eline H.; Van Gurp, T.P.; Oplaat, C.; Ferreira de Carvalho, J.L.; Morse, Alison M.; Stahl, Mark; Macel, M.; McIntyre, L.M.

    2018-01-01

    Parental environments can influence offspring traits. However, the magnitude of the impact of parental environments on offspring molecular phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we test the direct effects and intergenerational effects of jasmonic acid (JA) treatment, which is involved in

  8. [Effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rats' offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Han, Chang-cheng; Sun, Xia; Peng, Liang; Niu, Yu-jie

    2006-07-01

    To explore the effects of prenatal exposure to low level lead on learning and memory of rat's offspring. The pregnant rats were randomizedly divided into 4 groups and provided with doubly evaporated water in the control group and 125, 250 and 500 mg/L lead acetate solution via drinking water in three exposed groups respectively during the pregnancy. The learning and memory ability of 21-day old and 60-day old offsprings were tested by the Morris water maze and the shuttling and avoiding dark box respectively. The blood and hippocampus lead concentrations of 1-day old and 21-day old offspring in the 3 lead-exposed groups were significantly increased compared with the control group (P memory ability of offsprings of the rats, and this kind of influence will continue till the offspring's maturity.

  9. Maternal diabetes and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Signe Holst; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal diabetes may be linked to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in the offspring. METHODS: We assessed the association between maternal pregestational or gestational diabetes and offspring risk of childhood ALL in a register-based study, including all singletons born...... in Denmark during 1996-2015 (n=1 187 482). RESULTS: Adjusted hazard ratios of childhood ALL were 2.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-6.51) for maternal pregestational diabetes and 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-2.98) for maternal gestational diabetes. Paternal diabetes did not alter offspring ALL risk, and we found...... no association between offspring ALL and later maternal risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless that absolute ALL risk among offspring of women with diabetes remains low, our findings suggest that characteristics of the diabetic intrauterine environment promote ALL development. This offers a setting for future...

  10. Maternal lipids in pregnancy are associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Theresia H; Lahti, Marius; Drake, Amanda J; Forbes, Shareen; Denison, Fiona C; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has long term implications for offspring health. Biological mechanisms underlying programming of the offspring HPA axis are poorly understood. We hypothesised that altered maternal metabolism including higher maternal obesity, glucose and lipids are novel programming factors for altered offspring HPA axis activity. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 54 children aged 3-5 years under experimental conditions (before and after a delay of self-gratification test). Associations of child cortisol responses with maternal obesity in early pregnancy and with fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol measured in each pregnancy trimester were tested. Higher levels of maternal triglycerides and total cholesterol throughout pregnancy were associated with increased offspring cortisol reactivity. The associations were independent of maternal obesity and other confounders, suggesting that exposure to maternal lipids could be a biological mechanism of in utero programming of the offspring's HPA axis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  12. Parental divorce, parental depression, and gender differences in adult offspring suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Keyes, Katherine; Hasin, Deborah

    2009-12-01

    Research suggests parental divorce during childhood increases risk of suicide attempt for male but not female offspring. The negative impact on offspring associated with parental divorce may be better explained by parental psychopathology, such as depression. We examined whether adult offspring of parental divorce experience elevated risk of suicide attempt, controlling for parental history of depression, and whether the risk varies by the gender of the offspring. Using the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), the sample consists of respondents who experienced parental divorce (N = 4895). Multivariable regressions controlled for age, race/ethnicity, income, marital status, and parental history of depression. Females living with their fathers were significantly more likely to report lifetime suicide attempts than females living with their mothers, even after controlling for parental depression. Findings suggest that childhood/adolescent parental divorce may have a stronger impact on suicide attempt risk in female offspring than previously recognized.

  13. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  14. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    looking for marijuana growing sites).59 These DHS and LE support missions account for 37 percent of CAP’s flying-hour budget. CAP uses the other 63...Achieving the CHP recurrent training and meeting the legal requirements of the FAA biennial flight review keeps CHP’s air division in line with PSAAC...MCAS’s volunteer pilots safely operate within the legal constraints imposed by Monterey County. In addition, the MCAS

  15. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  16. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  17. Impact of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal care and offspring development and behavior of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Woodside, Barbara; Felício, Luciano Freitas; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Damasceno, Débora Cristina

    2012-10-10

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of maternal mild hyperglycemia on maternal behavior, as well as the development, behavior, reproductive function, and glucose tolerance of the offspring. At birth, litters were assigned either to Control (subcutaneous (sc)-citrate buffer) or STZ groups (streptozotocin (STZ)-100mg/kg-sc.). On PND 90 both STZ-treated and Control female rats were mated. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were performed during pregnancy. Pregnancy duration, litter size and sex ratio were assessed. Newborns were classified according to birth weight as small (SPA), adequate (APA), or large for pregnancy age (LPA). Maternal behavior was analyzed on PND 5 and 10. Offspring body weight, length, and anogenital distance were measured and general activity was assessed in the open field. Sexual behavior was tested in both male and female offspring. Levels of reproductive hormones and estrous cycle duration were evaluated in female offspring. Female offspring were mated and both a GTT and ITT performed during pregnancy. Neonatal STZ administration caused mild hyperglycemia during pregnancy and changed some aspects of maternal care. The hyperglycemic intrauterine milieu impaired physical development and increased immobility in the open field in the offspring although the latter effect appeared at different ages for males (adulthood) and females (infancy). There was no impairment in the sexual behavior of either male or female offspring. As adults, female offspring of STZ-treated mothers did not show glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Thus, offspring of female rats that show mild hyperglycemia in pregnancy have fewer behavioral and developmental impairments than previously reported in the offspring of severely diabetic dams suggesting that the degree of impairment is directly related to the mother glycemic intensity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemoblastoses in offspring of radiation-hazardous industries workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Sosnina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in children have polyetiologic nature, including some contribution of parents’ exposure to radiation. The causal relationships between parental chronic preconceptive external gammairradiation and hematological malignancies in their children have been studied. Retrospective epidemiological study based on a “nested case-control approach” using matching method was carried out in the cohort of Ozyorsk pediatric population. “Case” is defined as a child under 15 years old with diagnosed hemoblastosis. The “control” group is the one without such a diagnosis. The controls were selected from the same Ozyorsk children’s cohort by matching cases on sex, birth year and parents’ age at children’s birth. Subgroups of children who are offspring of those occupationally exposed are distinguished. Calculation odds ratio (OR with 95 % confidence interval (CI is performed. There were 51 children under 15 years age diagnosed with hemoblastosis in Ozyorsk within 1949–2009. The control group included 197 health children. 29.4 % (15 children in the study group were offspring of people who had accumulated doses of preconceptive exposure, whereas in the control group the indicator is 43.1 % (85 children. The total doses of external gamma radiation on the parent’s gonad varied widely (2.1–3397.3 mGy in the study group and 0.5–2899.3 mGy in the control group. The average age of leukemia contraction was 6 years without regard to sex. Acute leukemia was a major contributor to the hemoblastosis structure (66.7 % of all cases. Analysis of the data showed no statistical relationship between preconceptional prolonged external gamma-radiation exposure in parents and oncohematological pathology in their offspring. OR indicator amounted 0.55 (0.28–1.07, among boys – 0.48 (0.19–1.22, among girls – 0.64 (0.25–1.65.

  19. HY Immune Tolerance Is Common in Women without Male Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierselhuis, Miranda P.; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Blokland, Els; Pool, Jos; Burlingham, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sex difference is an established risk factor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)-related complications like graft versus host disease (GVHD). CD8pos cytotoxic T cells specific for Y chromosome-encoded minor Histocompatibility antigens (HY) play an important role therein. Prior to HSC donation, female donors may encounter HY antigens through fetomaternal or transmaternal cell flow, potentially leading to the induction of HY-specific cytotoxic or regulatory immune responses. Whether HY priming occurs independent of parity, and whether HY priming is dependent on the presence of male microchimerism, is as yet unknown. Methods We investigated the presence of HY-specific regulatory T cells (Treg) and male microchimerism in 45 healthy women with a fully documented pregnancy and family history. HY peptide-induced linked suppression, a commonly reported functional feature of CD4pos and CD8pos Treg, was measured by trans vivo Delayed Type Hypersensitivity testing. As source of HY antigens, male microchimerism was analyzed by real-time PCR and defined by the presence of male DNA in at least one purified leukocyte cell type. Results HLA class I or class II restricted HY-specific Treg were detected in 26/42 (62%) women eligible for analysis. The prevalence of HY-specific Treg was significantly higher in women who had never given birth to sons than in women with male offspring (p = 0.004). Male microchimerism could be detected in 24 out of 45 (53%) women but did not correlate with the presence of HY specific Treg. Conclusions HY-specific Treg in women with male offspring have been described previously. Here we show for the first time that, in fact, HY specific Treg are more common in nulliparous women and in parous women with female offspring. Their presence is independent of the presence of male microchimerism. Whether HY-specific Treg presence in female stem cell grafts might decrease the GVHD incidence in male HSCT recipients needs to be

  20. HY immune tolerance is common in women without male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda P Dierselhuis

    Full Text Available Sex difference is an established risk factor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT-related complications like graft versus host disease (GVHD. CD8pos cytotoxic T cells specific for Y chromosome-encoded minor Histocompatibility antigens (HY play an important role therein. Prior to HSC donation, female donors may encounter HY antigens through fetomaternal or transmaternal cell flow, potentially leading to the induction of HY-specific cytotoxic or regulatory immune responses. Whether HY priming occurs independent of parity, and whether HY priming is dependent on the presence of male microchimerism, is as yet unknown.We investigated the presence of HY-specific regulatory T cells (Treg and male microchimerism in 45 healthy women with a fully documented pregnancy and family history. HY peptide-induced linked suppression, a commonly reported functional feature of CD4pos and CD8pos Treg, was measured by trans vivo Delayed Type Hypersensitivity testing. As source of HY antigens, male microchimerism was analyzed by real-time PCR and defined by the presence of male DNA in at least one purified leukocyte cell type.HLA class I or class II restricted HY-specific Treg were detected in 26/42 (62% women eligible for analysis. The prevalence of HY-specific Treg was significantly higher in women who had never given birth to sons than in women with male offspring (p = 0.004. Male microchimerism could be detected in 24 out of 45 (53% women but did not correlate with the presence of HY specific Treg.HY-specific Treg in women with male offspring have been described previously. Here we show for the first time that, in fact, HY specific Treg are more common in nulliparous women and in parous women with female offspring. Their presence is independent of the presence of male microchimerism. Whether HY-specific Treg presence in female stem cell grafts might decrease the GVHD incidence in male HSCT recipients needs to be investigated.

  1. 7 CFR 457.160 - Processing tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing tomato crop insurance provisions. 457.160... tomato crop insurance provisions. The Processing Tomato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and... polices: Processing Tomato Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  2. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-02-10

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and oviposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  3. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Mayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  4. MATERNAL EXPERIENCE OF ABUSE IN CHILDHOOD AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN ADOLESCENT AND ADULT OFFSPRING: A 21-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Chen, Ying; Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A; Koenen, Karestan C; Austin, Sydney Bryn

    2015-10-01

    Intergenerational effects of child abuse have been documented, but it is unknown whether maternal childhood abuse influences offspring mental health in adolescence or adulthood. To examine whether maternal experience of childhood abuse is associated with depressive symptoms in adolescent and young adult offspring, we linked data from two large longitudinal cohorts of women (N = 8,882) and their offspring (N = 11,402), and we examined three possible pathways by which maternal experience of abuse might be associated with offspring depressive symptoms: maternal mental health, family characteristics, and offspring's own experience of abuse. Offspring of women who experienced severe versus no childhood abuse had greater likelihood of high depressive symptoms (RR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.47, 2.16) and persistent high depressive symptoms (RR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.37, 4.44). Maternal mental health accounted for 20.9% and offspring's exposure to abuse accounted for 30.3% of the elevated risk of high depressive symptoms. Disparities in offspring depressive symptoms by maternal abuse exposure were evident at age 12 years and persisted through age 31 years. Findings provide evidence that childhood abuse adversely affects the mental health of the victim's offspring well into adulthood. As offspring exposure to abuse and maternal mental health accounted for more than 50% of the elevated risk of high depressive symptoms among offspring of women who experienced abuse, improving maternal mental health and parenting practices may reduce offspring risk for depressive symptoms in these families. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. House Fly (Musca domestica L. Attraction to Insect Honeydew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Y Hung

    Full Text Available House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the

  6. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time.

  7. The molecular mechanisms of offspring effects from obese pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.

  8. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, C; Henriksen, TB; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... Questionnaire (GHQ). RESULTS: We found an overall male to female ratio (sex ratio) of 1.03. There was an inverse dose response association (test for trend P ... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries....

  9. Psychological distress during early gestation and offspring sex ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to severe stress in early pregnancy is associated with a lower male to female ratio (sex ratio), but whether more moderate levels of psychological discomfort have the same kind of effect is unknown. In a population based follow-up study, we aimed to test whether psychological...... Questionnaire (GHQ). RESULTS: We found an overall male to female ratio (sex ratio) of 1.03. There was an inverse dose response association (test for trend P ... suggest that not only severe stress, but also more moderate and common levels of psychological distress, may decrease the sex ratio in the offspring. Stress during pregnancy is a likely candidate involved in the decreasing sex ratio observed in many countries. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  10. Observed heterospecific clutch size can affect offspring investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Jukka T; Seppänen, Janne-Tuomas; Nykänen, Inka L

    2012-06-23

    Optimal investment in offspring is important in maximizing lifetime reproductive success. Yet, very little is known how animals gather and integrate information about environmental factors to fine tune investment. Observing the decisions and success of other individuals, particularly when those individuals initiate breeding earlier, may provide a way for animals to quickly arrive at better breeding investment decisions. Here we show, with a field experiment using artificial nests appearing similar to resident tit nests with completed clutches, that a migratory bird can use the observed high and low clutch size of a resident competing bird species to increase and decrease clutch size and egg mass, accordingly. Our results demonstrate that songbirds can discriminate between high and low quantity of heterospecific eggs, and that social information can have long-term physiological consequences affecting reproductive strategies. Such behaviour may help animals to better adapt to changing environments and lead to convergent traits with competitors.

  11. Epigenetic status in the offspring of spontaneous and assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Natalie; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Hoad, Gwen; Horgan, Graham W; Hamilton, Mark; Haggarty, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Is DNA methylation in buccal cell DNA from children born following IVF (in vitro fertilization) and ICSI (intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection) different from that of spontaneously conceived children? DNA methylation in the imprinted gene, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN), was higher in children conceived by ICSI and in those born to women with the longest duration of infertility regardless of the method of conception. Fertility treatment is associated with a small but significant increase in the risk of a range of adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects and longer term sequelae, but the biological basis for this is unknown. A growing evidence base suggests that epigenetics may play a role in subfertility and the link between fertility and health. In this retrospective cohort study of children born between 2002 and 2008, we measured DNA methylation in paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2), SNRPN, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1) and the insulin gene (INS) in buccal cell DNA from children born following IVF (n = 49) and ICSI (n = 20) and compared them with a matched spontaneous conception group (n = 86). Participants were identified from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank and IVF and ICSI pregnancies were matched to spontaneous conception pregnancies on year of birth and maternal age at delivery. Only singleton pregnancies following fresh embryo transfer were included. DNA methylation was determined by pyrosequencing. Regression with adjustment for covariates was used to determine the effect of infertility on offspring DNA methylation. SNRPN methylation in the offspring was linked to fertility treatment in the parents. This effect was specific to children conceived using ICSI and was apparent in the comparison of ICSI versus spontaneous conception (1.03%; 95% CI 0.10, 1.97; P = 0.031), ICSI versus standard IVF (1.13%; 95% CI 0.04, 2.23; P = 0.043) and ICSI versus standard IVF and spontaneous

  12. Interactions of Socioeconomic Determinants, Offspring Sex Preference and Fertility Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sharp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using path anaysis and the 5% PUMS data of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, this study examines 1 the correlation between Chinese-American sex preference for children and their fertility behavior, and 2 the interaction between the sex preference and its socioeconomic determinants. Of normative and non-normative factors investegated in this study, offspring sex preference is the greatest stimulus to Chinese fertility. Of socioeconomic variables, women’s educational attainment plays a primary role in depressing the impact of son preference in addition to their increasing stay in the host society. However, these two factors do not work on their husbands in the same way, demonstrating men’s inflexible attitudes toward gender roles in the family and in society. Son preference exerts positive impact on American-Chinese fertility and prevent from further decline. Yet, the influence has been diminishing since 1990 as observed in this study.

  13. Hyperemesis gravidarum and long-term health of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Ahila; Derraik, José G B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2014-06-01

    Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is a very common occurrence, but the reported incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum (a more severe form of vomiting in pregnancy) is much lower, estimated to vary from 0.3-3.6%. Studies have shown that nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is associated with improved fetal outcomes, such as lower rates of miscarriage. However, there are limited data on outcomes associated with hyperemesis gravidarum, which have focused on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Recently, studies showed adverse health outcomes, such as a reduction in insulin sensitivity in childhood and increased incidence of psychological disorders in adulthood. The effects of hyperemesis gravidarum in the offspring need to be further examined throughout childhood, adolescence, and into adulthood, so that long-term disease risks can be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Birds bias offspring sex ratio in response to livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gina L; Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen; Thirgood, Simon J; Monaghan, Pat

    2011-12-23

    Livestock grazing, which has a large influence on habitat structure, is associated with the widespread decline of various bird species across the world, yet there are few experimental studies that investigate how grazing pressure influences avian reproduction. We manipulated grazing pressure using a replicated field experiment, and found that the offspring sex ratio of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, varied significantly between grazing treatments. The proportion of sons was lowest in the ungrazed and intensively grazed treatments and highest in treatments grazed at low intensity (by sheep, or a mixture of sheep and cattle). This response was not related to maternal body condition. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of avian reproductive biology to variation in local conditions, and support growing evidence that too much grazing, or the complete removal of livestock from upland areas, is detrimental for common breeding birds.

  15. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  16. Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øyen, Nina; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Leirgul, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes mellitus was identified by using the National Patient Register and individual-level information on all prescriptions filled in Danish...... pharmacies. Persons with CHD (n=16 325) were assigned to embryologically related cardiac phenotypes. The CHD prevalence in the offspring of mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus was 318 per 10 000 live births (n=232) in comparison with a baseline risk of 80 per 10 000; the adjusted relative risk...... for CHD was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 3.51-4.53). The association was not modified by year of birth, maternal age at diabetes onset, or diabetes duration, and CHD risks associated with type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly. Persons...

  17. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Keng-Hong

    2000-01-01

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  18. Perinatal undernutrition programmes thyroid function in the adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Moreno, Rosario; Racotta, Radu; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen; Quevedo, Lucía

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in early nutrition programme physiological changes in adulthood. In the present study, we determined the effects of undernutrition during gestation and lactation on the programming of thyroid function in adult rat offspring. Perinatal undernutrition was achieved by a 40% food restriction in female Wistar rats from the mating day to weaning. On postpartum day 21, the offspring of the control and food-restricted dams were weaned and given free access to a commercial diet until adulthood. The results showed that undernourished rats exhibited decreased 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels but had normal thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels at weaning; on day 90, these rats displayed a significant flip, exhibiting normalised T3 (total and free) and total T4 levels, but low free T4 and persistently higher TSH levels, which were maintained even on postnatal day 140. This profile was accompanied by a scarce fat depot, a lower RMR and an exacerbated sympathetic brown adipose tissue (BAT) tone (deiodinase type 2 expression) in basal conditions. Moreover, when a functional challenge (cold exposure) was applied, the restricted group exhibited partial changes in TSH (29 v. 100%) and T4 (non-response v. 17%) levels, a significant decrease in leptin levels (75 v. 32%) and the maintenance of a sympathetic BAT over-response (higher noradrenaline levels) in comparison with the control group. The findings of the present study suggest that undernutrition during the perinatal period produces permanent changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis with consequent low body weight and decreased RMR and facultative thermogenesis. We hypothesise that these changes predispose individuals to exhibiting adult subclinical hypothyroidism.

  19. Occurrence of insect kinins in the flesh fly, stable fly and horn fly-mass spectrometric identification from single nerves and diuretic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ronald J; Coast, Geoffrey M; Tichy, Shane E; Russell, David H; Miller, J Allen; Predel, Reinhard

    2002-11-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of single lateral abdominal nerves (LANs) demonstrate the presence of the insect kinin Musdo-K in the housefly Musca domestica, and identify heretofore unknown insect kinins in two other Dipteran species as Musdo-K in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and horn fly Haematobia irritans. The insect kinin native to the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata is identified as Drome-K. Musdo-K and Drome-K are identical save for the conservative substitution of Ser for Thr in position 2. The sequences of the insect kinins are, therefore, remarkably conserved throughout Dipterans. The in vitro Malpighian tubule fluid secretion activity of Musdo-K in the stable fly is similar to that in the housefly, whereas that of Drome-K is 30-fold more potent in the flesh fly than in the fruit fly. Given the structural identities of the kinins and CRF-like diuretic hormones of these Dipteran species, the housefly can serve as a model insect for the study of diuretic peptides and their functions in the stable fly and horn fly, both livestock pests.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M

    2012-05-01

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% [AI]), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.); house flies, Musca domestica L.; and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. Various rates and insecticide placement locations (top, middle, and bottom of manure) were evaluated in this study and all combinations of these variables reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated controls. The presence of deformed pupae indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Top, middle, or bottom application rates of 0.125, 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron onto manure samples, reduced adult horn fly emergence by > 90%. Middle and bottom application rates of 0.195, 0.25, and 0.375 g novaluron reduced adult house fly emergence >93%. All rates and placement combinations resulted in >98% reduction of adult stable fly emergence. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species along with the ease of use of a granular formulation, make this product an ideal candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program.

  1. Persistence of Escherichia coli in immature house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in relation to larval growth and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, K; Lysyk, T J; Selinger, L B

    2004-11-01

    The persistence of Escherichia coli in artificially fed larvae was examined for up to 48 h after ingestion by house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The rate of change in the E. coli load was similar for both species for up to 5 h after ingestion. Up to 48 h after ingestion, abundance of E. coli declined in immature house flies but remained constant in immature stable flies. When different E. coli concentrations were fed to larvae, the abundance of E. coli increased in stable fly larvae regardless of the initial concentration. The E. coli load in house fly larvae increased when larvae were fed a low concentration of bacteria, but it declined when larvae were fed a high concentration of bacteria. Survival of house fly and stable fly larvae averaged 62 and 25%, respectively, when reared on pure E. coli cultures. These observations suggest that house fly larvae digest E. coli and use it as a food source but stable fly larvae do not.

  2. 27 CFR 10.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.6 Administrative provisions..., advertisements, promotions, and other activities pertaining to its business subject to the Act conducted by, or...

  3. 7 CFR 248.24 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 248.24... information. FNS reserves the right to use information obtained under the FMNP in a summary, statistical or...

  4. 7 CFR 249.25 - Other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 249...) Statistical information. FNS reserves the right to use information obtained under the SFMNP in a summary...

  5. 19 CFR 171.55 - Notice provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6079 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and implementing regulations. (b) Notice provision. The... property and shall include a statement of the applicable law under which the property is seized and a...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7605 - Solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel... accordance with 225.7604, use the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all...

  7. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  8. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  9. Radioactivity aspects of Indian fly ash for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Behera, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash is a major component of solid waste material produced by the coal-fired thermal power plants. In India the total amount of fly ash produced per annum is around 60 million tons. However fly ash has a great potential for utilization in making industrial products such as cement, concrete mix, bricks as well as building materials, besides being used as a soil conditioner and a provider of macro and micro nutrients in agriculture. It can also be used as a material for mine fills. However, given the large amount of fly ash fly that accumulate at thermal power plants, their possible reuse and dispersion and mobilization into the environment of the various elements depend on climate, soils, indigenous vegetation and agriculture practices, hence there is a need to characterize the radioactivity of ash. This paper presents the results of a study of the radioactivity aspects of fly ashes and pond ashes from thermal power plants of India. (author)

  10. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Batsching

    Full Text Available Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state.

  12. Analysis list: Fli1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Fli1 Blood,Embryo + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Fli1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Fli1.Embryo.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Embryo.gml ...

  13. Prenatal allergen and diesel exhaust exposure and their effects on allergy in adult offspring mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have suggested that prenatal exposure to either allergens or air pollution may increase the risk for the development of allergic immune responses in young offspring. However, the effects of prenatal environmental exposures on adult offspring have not been well-studied. We hypothesized that combined prenatal exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus allergen and diesel exhaust particles will be associated with altered IgE production, airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity (AHR, and airway remodeling of adult offspring. Methods Following sensitization via the airway route to A. fumigatus and mating, pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to additional A. fumigatus and/or diesel exhaust particles. At age 9-10 weeks, their offspring were sensitized and challenged with A. fumigatus. Results We found that adult offspring from mice that were exposed to A. fumigatus or diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in IgE production. Adult offspring of mice that were exposed to both A. fumigatus and diesel exhaust particles during pregnancy experienced decreases in airway eosinophilia. Conclusion These results suggest that, in this model, allergen and/or diesel administration during pregnancy may be associated with protection from developing systemic and airway allergic immune responses in the adult offspring.

  14. Mild maternal stress disrupts associative learning and increases aggression in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L; Edmonds, E J; Henry, T B; Snellgrove, D L; Sloman, K A

    2015-05-01

    Maternal stress has been shown to affect behaviour of offspring in a wide range of animals, but this evidence has come from studies that exposed gestating mothers to acute or severe stressors, such as restraint or exposure to synthetic stress hormones. Here we show that exposure of mothers to even a mild stressor reduces associative learning and increases aggression in offspring. Female guppies were exposed to routine husbandry procedures that produced only a minimal, non-significant, elevation of the stress hormone cortisol. In contrast to controls, offspring from mothers that experienced this mild stress failed to learn to associate a colour cue and food reward, and showed a greater amount of inter-individual variation in behaviour compared with control offspring. This mild stress also resulted in offspring that were more aggressive towards their own mirror image than controls. While it is possible that these results could represent the transmission of beneficial maternal characteristics to offspring born into unpredictable environments, the potential for mild maternal stress to affect offspring performance also has important implications for research into the trans-generational effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A model for estimating the minimum number of offspring to sample in studies of reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph H; Ward, Eric J; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    Molecular parentage permits studies of selection and evolution in fecund species with cryptic mating systems, such as fish, amphibians, and insects. However, there exists no method for estimating the number of offspring that must be assigned parentage to achieve robust estimates of reproductive success when only a fraction of offspring can be sampled. We constructed a 2-stage model that first estimated the mean (μ) and variance (v) in reproductive success from published studies on salmonid fishes and then sampled offspring from reproductive success distributions simulated from the μ and v estimates. Results provided strong support for modeling salmonid reproductive success via the negative binomial distribution and suggested that few offspring samples are needed to reject the null hypothesis of uniform offspring production. However, the sampled reproductive success distributions deviated significantly (χ(2) goodness-of-fit test p value reproductive success distribution at rates often >0.05 and as high as 0.24, even when hundreds of offspring were assigned parentage. In general, reproductive success patterns were less accurate when offspring were sampled from cohorts with larger numbers of parents and greater variance in reproductive success. Our model can be reparameterized with data from other species and will aid researchers in planning reproductive success studies by providing explicit sampling targets required to accurately assess reproductive success.

  16. Maternal high fat diet alters skeletal muscle mitochondrial catalytic activity in adult male rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Anne Pileggi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A maternal high-fat (HF diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS respiratory complex subunits were supressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%, which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%. Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle.

  17. Maternal butyrate supplementation induces insulin resistance associated with enhanced intramuscular fat deposition in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Gao, Shixing; Chen, Jinglong; Albrecht, Elke; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2017-02-21

    Maternal nutrition is important for the risk of the offspring to develop insulin resistance and adiposity later in life. The study was undertaken to determine effects of maternal butyrate supplementation on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in the offspring skeletal muscle. The offspring of rats, fed a control diet or a butyrate diet (1% sodium butyrate) throughout gestation and lactation, was studied at weaning and at 60 days of age. The offspring of dams fed a butyrate diet had higher HOMA-insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. This was associated with elevated mRNA and protein expressions of lipogenic genes and decreased amounts of lipolytic enzyme. Simultaneously, enhanced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 and histone H3 lysine 27 modification on the lipogenic genes in skeletal muscle of adult offspring was observed. Higher concentration of serum insulin and intramuscular triglyceride in skeletal muscle of offspring from the butyrate group at weaning were accompanied by increasing levels of lipogenic genes and enrichment of acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27. Maternal butyrate supplementation leads to insulin resistance and ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle of offspring, indicating the importance of short chain fatty acids in the maternal diet on lipid metabolism.

  18. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone in rats affects offspring neurochemistry and behaviour in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed O Farid

    Full Text Available Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c. and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero.

  1. Mother-Offspring Signature Whistle Similarity and Patterns of Association in Atlantic Spotted Dolphins (Stenella frontalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Bebus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the degree of similarity between signature whistles of mother and offspring pairs in free-living Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis. As a means of qualitative evaluation, judges compared the time-frequency contour patterns of signature whistle spectrograms. We also evaluated quantitative measurements of whistle frequency and duration. All five female offspring produced signature whistles that were similar to their mothers’ whistles by a least one means of comparison, whereas two of the four male offspring produced signature whistles that were dissimilar from their mothers’ by both methods of comparison. However, statistically, male offspring were just as likely to produce signature whistles like their mothers’ as female offspring (p = 0.167. We compared whistle similarity between mothers and offspring to the degree of association for each pair. Offspring that most often associated with their mothers when they were four years of age had whistles that were more similar to their mothers’ whistles both qualitatively (r(4 = 0.92, p = 0.009 and quantitatively (r(4 = 0.92, p = 0.004. Because signature whistles are developed within a dolphin’s first year, our finding likely reflects the level of bond between mother and calf.

  2. Maternal periodontal disease in rats decreases insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakashi, Daisy J; Leal, Rosana P; Colombo, Natalia H; Chiba, Fernando Y; Garbin, Cléa A S; Jardim, Elerson G; Antoniali, Cristina; Sumida, Doris H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal disease during pregnancy has been recognized as one of the causes of preterm and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. Several studies have demonstrated that PLBW babies are prone to developing insulin resistance as adults. Although there is controversy over the association between periodontal disease and PLBW, the phenomenon known as programming can translate any stimulus or aggression experienced during intrauterine growth into physiologic and metabolic alterations in adulthood. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the offspring of rats with periodontal disease develop insulin resistance in adulthood. Ten female Wistar rats were divided into periodontal disease (PED) and control (CN) groups. All rats were mated at 7 days after induction of periodontal disease. Male offspring were divided into two groups: 1) periodontal disease offspring (PEDO; n = 24); and 2) control offspring (CNO; n = 24). Offspring body weight was measured from birth until 75 days. When the offspring reached 75 days old, the following parameters were measured: 1) plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); 2) insulin sensitivity (IS); and 3) insulin signal transduction (IST) in insulin-sensitive tissues. Low birth weight was not detected in the PEDO group. However, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, fructosamine, lipase, amylase, and TNF-α were increased and IS and IST were reduced (P PEDO group compared with the CNO group. Maternal periodontal disease may induce insulin resistance and reduce IST in adult offspring, but such alterations are not attributable to low birth weight.

  3. Like mother, like child: Offspring marital timing desires and maternal marriage timing and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arocho, Rachel; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the determinants of marital timing is critical because it has implications for marital functioning and divorce. One salient predictor of marital timing is youth's desires for marriage timing. To shine light on predictors of both desires for marital timing and the timing of marriage itself, we examine offspring marital desires and maternal marriage characteristics in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79) cohort and 1979 Child and Young Adult cohort (NLSY79-CYA; biological offspring of the women in the 1979 cohort). Analyses showed that maternal cohabitation postdivorce predicted decreased expectations to ever marry in offspring. Maternal age at marriage was positively associated with offspring desires for age at marriage, but only for those whose mothers had not divorced. Maternal marital age was significantly associated with the offspring's transition into marriage even when controlling for the offspring's desires for marriage timing, but neither maternal marriage age nor offspring desires for marital timing were associated with the timing of entrance into cohabitation, whereas maternal divorce was associated with earlier cohabitation. Our findings suggest that maternal marriage characteristics, particularly divorce, are significant predictors of millennials' desires for and experiences with romantic relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Maternal PTSD associates with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrner, Amy; Bierer, Linda M; Passarelli, Vincent; Pratchett, Laura C; Flory, Janine D; Bader, Heather N; Harris, Iris R; Bedi, Aarti; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Makotkine, Iouri; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    Intergenerational effects of trauma have been observed clinically in a wide range of populations, and parental PTSD has been associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in offspring. In studies of Holocaust survivor offspring, parental PTSD, and particularly maternal PTSD, has been associated with increased risk for PTSD, low basal urinary cortisol excretion and enhanced cortisol suppression in response to dexamethasone. Such findings implicate maternally derived glucocorticoid programming in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related consequences, potentially resulting from in utero influences or early life experiences. This study investigated the relative influence of Holocaust exposure and PTSD in mothers and fathers on glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring. Eighty Holocaust offspring and 15 offspring of non-exposed Jewish parents completed evaluations and provided blood and urine samples. Glucocorticoid sensitivity was evaluated using the lysozyme suppression test (LST), an in vitro measure of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in a peripheral tissue, the dexamethasone suppression test (DST), and 24-h urinary cortisol excretion. Maternal PTSD was associated with greater glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring across all three measures of glucocorticoid function. An interaction of maternal and paternal PTSD on the DST and 24-h urinary cortisol showed an effect of decreased glucocorticoid sensitivity in offspring with paternal, but not maternal, PTSD. Although indirect, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that epigenetic programming may be involved in the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related effects on glucocorticoid regulation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Tomulić Vehovec, Marjeta

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly...

  6. Obligatory provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloosters, W.

    2008-01-01

    To cover the expenses associated with decommissioning and disposal of their nuclear power plants, German nuclear power plant operators set aside a total of more than EUR 30 billion and entered the respective provisions into their balance sheets. One point of eminent importance in this regard is the question whether these provisions are adequate in amount and permitted under accounting and tax laws. The other point to be considered is whether the funds will be available reliably if and when needed. Against the backdrop of these issues, the practice and importance of making these provisions are described. This is followed by an outline of the basic accounting and taxation aspects. It is seen that obligations under public law can be the basis of financial provisions only if there is a obligation sufficiently concrete in terms of time and object. The following examination of applicable obligations under the Atomic Energy Act incumbent upon nuclear power plant operators with regard to decommissioning and disposal results in the finding that such obligations are only partly regulated in the Atomic Energy Act, and that specifications in terms of time and purpose are insufficient. If the national practice of making financial provisions is to be put on a reliable basis, it is recommended to express the law on decommissioning and its mode of financing in more concrete terms in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to unequivocal decommissioning and disposal obligations, the Atomic Energy Act should also incorporate regulations about financial provisions for decomissioning which are in need of more precise language. The present practice of making provisions is characterized by the risk that the funds necessary for planned decommissioning and disposal may not be available when needed. It is against this background that possible solutions reducing that risk are discussed. A recommendation is expressed to establish a public fund for decommissioning and disposal to which the

  7. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value......), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y....

  8. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  9. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  10. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  11. Geoenvironmental aspects of coal refuse-fly ash blends

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Allwyn J.

    1994-01-01

    The separate land disposal of coal refuse and fly ash presents difficulties throughout the Appalachian region, both in terms of disposal costs per acre and in terms of its potential environmental impacts on soil, ground water, revegetation, and slope stability. The purpose of this study was to determine how fly ash addition to coal refuse would impact on certain geotechnical properties of the refuse disposal piles, and whether the refuse-fly ash blends would be suitable as co-d...

  12. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2009-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digita...

  13. Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using High Energy Ball Mill. The smooth, glassy and an inert surface of the fly ash can be altered to a rough and more reactive state by this technique. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 hours. The sample ...

  14. A radoilogical evaluation of fly ash in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological consequences of using fly ash as a component of cement are discussed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of emanation coefficients and exhalation rates. The radon exhalation rate was found to be significantly lower in concrete containing fly ash than in ordinary concrete. Dose calculations suggest that the fly ash will contribute to a reduction in effec- tive dose equivalent due to the reduced radon exhalation rate. (Auth)

  15. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  16. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  17. Behavioral lateralization and optimal route choice in flying budgerigars.

    OpenAIRE

    Partha S Bhagavatula; Charles Claudianos; Michael R Ibbotson; Mandyam V Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Birds flying through a cluttered environment require the ability to choose routes that will take them through the environment safely and quickly. We have investigated some of the strategies by which they achieve this. We trained budgerigars to fly through a tunnel in which they encountered a barrier that offered two passages, positioned side by side, at the halfway point. When one of the passages was substantially wider than the other, the birds tended to fly through the wider passage to cont...

  18. A maternal high salt diet disturbs cardiac and vascular function of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Kana; Kagota, Satomi; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Wakuda, Hirokazu; Shinozuka, Kazumasa

    2015-09-01

    High salt intake is an environmental factor that promotes increased blood pressure. We previously demonstrated that high salt diet causes aggravation of hypertension and impaired vasodilation in response to nitric oxide (NO) in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which exhibit low sensitivity to salt in adulthood. Changes in offspring blood pressure and cardiovascular structures have been reported. However, it remains unclear to what extent a maternal high salt intake may affect cardiac and/or vascular function in offspring. Therefore, we investigated influence of exposure to a maternal high salt diet during gestation and lactation on offspring's cardiac and arterial functions in SHR. SHR dams were fed either a high salt diet or a control diet. After weaning, the offspring were fed the high salt diet or control diet for 8weeks. Compared with offspring of control diet-fed dams, at 12weeks of age, offspring of the high-salt diet-fed dams had lower blood pressure, heart rate, indices of both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and a decreased aortic vasodilation response to NO. Postnatal high salt intake did not affect blood pressure, vasodilatory response, or cardiac function in offspring of high-salt diet-fed dams. Neither maternal nor postnatal dietary salt altered levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, or angiotensinogen mRNA in serum and ventricle of the offspring. Exposure to high maternal dietary salt induces cardiac and vascular dysfunction in offspring. These results point to the possible importance of avoiding excess dietary salt during gestation and lactation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Association Between Parental Schizophrenia and Offspring Suicide: A Cousin Comparison approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sandin, Sven; Hultman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian; Långstöm, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the suicide risk among offspring of parents hospitalized for schizophrenia and elucidated the mechanisms behind this association. Methods We applied a nested case-control design based on a linkage of Swedish population-based registers. Among 12- to 30-year old offspring, we identified 22 850 suicide cases and their parents. For each case-parent pair we matched five healthy controls-parent pairs. All individuals were followed up to the end of 2004. We performed conditional logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios. To disentangle familial confounding from environmental mechanisms we also compared the population based suicide risk with the observed risk within full-cousins and half-cousins differentially exposed for parental schizophrenia. Results Offspring of parents with schizophrenia had a significantly increased risk of suicide after accounting for socioeconomic status, parental suicide and offspring mental illness (odds ratio 1.73 [1.47–2.04]). The suicide risks in offspring of schizophrenic mothers and schizophrenic fathers were similar in magnitude. The suicide risk was also similar across different developmental periods. The offspring of siblings discordant for schizophrenia showed comparable odds ratios within full cousins (odds ratio 2.02 [1.48–2.76]), and within half-cousins (odds ratio 2.03 [0.96–4.28]). Conclusions Parental schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk for offspring suicide. The suicide risk in offspring remained unchanged when comparing genetically different relationships, which indicate that parental schizophrenia acts directly through environmental mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of increased social support to offspring of parents with schizophrenia in order to prevent suicidal events. PMID:22703756

  20. Sex Dimorphism in Late Gestational Sleep Fragmentation and Metabolic Dysfunction in Offspring Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Methods: Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Results: Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Conclusion: Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. Citation: Khalyfa A, Carreras A, Almendros I, Hakim F, Gozal D. Sex

  1. Maternal high-fat-diet programs rat offspring liver fatty acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Emily L; Yee, Jennifer K; Jellyman, Juanita K; Han, Guang; Ross, Michael G; Desai, Mina

    2015-06-01

    In offspring exposed in utero to a maternal diet high in fat (HF), we have previously demonstrated that despite similar birth weights, HF adult offspring at 6 months of age had significantly higher body weights, greater adiposity, and increased triacylglycerol (TAG) levels as compared to controls. We hypothesized that a maternal HF diet predisposes to offspring adiposity via a programmed increase in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver and hence increased substrate availability for liver TAG synthesis. We further hypothesized that programmed changes in offspring liver fatty acid metabolism are associated with increased liver expression of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1). Female rats were maintained on a HF diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation. After birth, newborns were nursed by the same dam, and all offspring were weaned to control diet. Plasma and liver fatty acid compositions were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fatty acid C16 desaturation indices of palmitoleic/palmitic and (vaccenic + palmitoleic)/palmitic and the C18 desaturation index of oleic/stearic were calculated. Liver protein abundance of SCD-1 was analyzed in newborns and adult offspring. Plasma and liver C16 desaturation indices were decreased in HF newborns, but increased in the adult offspring. Liver SCD-1 expression was increased in the HF adult offspring. These data show that the maternal HF diet during pregnancy and lactation increases offspring liver SCD-1 protein abundance and alters the liver C16 desaturase pathway.

  2. Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Yu, Haifeng; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identify diagnostic risk factors of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (“high-risk offspring”). Method High-risk offspring aged 6-18 years (n=391) and demographically-matched offspring (n=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean interval 2.5 years; mean duration 6.8 years). Results High-risk offspring, as compared to community offspring, had significantly higher rates of subthreshold (hypo)manic (13.3% vs. 1.2%, pattention-deficit hyperactivity (30.7% vs. 18.2%, p=.01), disruptive behavior (27.4% vs. 15.3%, p=.03), anxiety (39.9% vs. 21.8%, p=.0002), and substance use disorders (20.0% vs. 10.1%, p=.008), but not unipolar major depressive disorder (major depression with no bipolarity; 18.9% vs. 13.7%; p=.10). Multivariate Cox regressions in the high-risk offspring showed that subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 2.29, p=.03), major depressive episodes (Hazard Ratio 1.99, p=.05), and disruptive behavior disorders (Hazard Ratio 2.12, p=.03) were associated with subsequent mania/hypomania. Only subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 7.57, passociated when analyses were restricted to prospective data. Conclusions Subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes were a diagnostic risk factor for the development of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, and should be a target for clinical assessment and future treatment research. Major depressive episodes and disruptive behavior disorders are also indications for close clinical monitoring of emergent bipolarity in high-risk offspring. PMID:25734353

  3. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  4. A developmental approach to dimensional expression of psychopathology in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Nozaleda, María Goretti; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Rodríguez-Toscano, Elisa; Arango, Celso; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; de la Serna, Elena; Espliego, Ana; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Romero, Soledad; Baeza, Immaculada; Sugranyes, Gisela; Moreno, Carmen; Moreno, Dolores

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this is to describe psychopathology, functioning and symptom dimensions accounting for subthreshold manifestations and developmental status in child and adolescent offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). The study population comprised 90 high-risk offspring (HR-offspring) and 107 offspring of community control parents (CC-offspring). Direct clinical observations and parental and offspring reports based on selected standardized clinical scales were used to assess offspring threshold and subthreshold diagnoses, symptoms and functioning. All outcomes were compared between the whole HR-offspring and CC-offspring samples and then by developmental status. After controlling for potential confounders, HR-offspring showed significantly poorer adjustment for childhood (r = 0.18, p = 0.014) and adolescence (r = 0.21, p = 0.048) than CC-offspring, as well as more emotional problems (r = 0.24, p = 0.001) and higher depression scores (r = 0.16, p = 0.021). As for differences in lifetime categorical diagnoses (threshold and subthreshold) between HR-offspring and CC-offspring, the prevalence of disruptive disorders was higher in pre-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 12.78 [1.45-112.42]), while prevalence of mood disorders was higher in post-pubertal HR-offspring (OR 3.39 [1.14-10.06]). Post-pubertal HR-offspring presented more prodromal (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), negative (r = 0.38, p = 0.002), manic (r = 0.22, p = 0.035) and depressive (r = 0.23, p = 0.015) symptoms than pre-pubertal HR-offspring, as well as more peer relationship problems (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), poorer childhood adjustment (r = 0.22, p = 0.044) and worse current psychosocial functioning (r = 0.27, p = 0.04). Externalizing psychopathology is more prevalent in pre-pubertal HR-offspring, while depressive and prodromal symptoms leading to functional impairment are more prominent in post-pubertal HR-offspring. Developmental approaches and

  5. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments.

  6. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  7. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  8. Adaptive Supervisory Engine for Autonomous Formation Flying GNC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying represents a critical enabling technology for future space missions, including NASA's Space and Earth Science...

  9. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  10. Sorption behaviour of some radioactive isotopes on treated fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Raouf, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    The uptake of the radioactive isotopes 134 Cs, 60 Co and 152 , 1 54 Eu from aqueous solutions on treated fly ash has been investigated in terms of the factors affecting the sorption using the batch method at room temperature (20 1 degree C). The selectivity order for the studied radioisotopes on the treated fly ash was found in accordance with their cationic charges, i.e., Eu 3+ > Co 2+ >> Cs + . Pyrolysis residue of domestic waste was investigated as an alternative sorbent and its sorption capability was compared with that of fly ash. The feasibility of using treated fly ash as a sorbent, has been assessed. 3 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spread of the spiraling white fly Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its parasitoids Encarcia species (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on horticultural plants in Northwest and Central Nigeria.

  12. Effect of administration of antibiotics peripartum to wistar rats on bile acid profiles in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement Thaarup, Ida; Roager, Henrik Munch; Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise

    2016-01-01

    whether perturbation of the maternal gut microbiota during pregnancy, induced by administration of either amoxicillin or vancomycin to pregnant rats, influenced bile acid profiles in the offspring. The dams were treated with antibiotics from 8 days before the dams gave birth and continued until weaning (4...... of antibiotic-treated rat dams with non-treated dams, we found that the antibiotic treatments significantly changed the bile acid profiles. However, no effect was seen in the offspring of the antibiotic-treated dams at any age. The bile acid profiles of the offspring did however change significantly with age...

  13. Offspring's Leukocyte Telomere Length, Paternal Age, and Telomere Elongation in Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S

    2008-01-01

    cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365), aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring......), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years) donors. Paternal age...

  14. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor moderates associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring behavioral disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ardesheer; Odgerel, Zagaa; Wickramaratne, Priya J; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a number of adverse offspring outcomes. In the present study, based on 209 offspring from a 3-generation family study of depression, we show that the effects of prenatal exposure on offspring externalizing psychopathology (conduct, substance use disorder) is more pronounced in the presence of lower-expressing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene variants. BDNF plays an important role in the development and survival of neural circuits. Individuals with low-expressing variants who are further exposed to prenatal tobacco smoke may be most vulnerable to a spectrum of behavioral disorders that depend on these circuits. PMID:27611068

  15. Flying Airplanes: Realizing Circadian Effects (FARCE)

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; Todd McElroy

    2009-01-01

    People differ in their diurnal (time-of-day) preferences—some are morning-types and others are evening-types. These differences are explored in a unique experiment design in which subjects are randomly assigned to produce paper airplanes at either 8:00 a.m. or 10:00 p.m. Our results show that evening-types at their more optimal time-of-day (10:00 p.m.) produce planes that fly statistically significantly farther than those produced by morning-types at their more optimal time-of-day (8:00 a.m.)...

  16. Bait Units for Collection of House Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, H. R.; Mulla, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lurtox™4 is a proteinaceous attractant for Musca domestica L. and other synanthropic Diptera (Mulla et al. 1973: Willson and Mulla 1973a) and is easily mixed with commercial poison sugar baits. The mixture of Lurtox and dichlorvos sugar bait (50:50 by wt) can be administered in measurable quantities into compact bait units where dead flies can be easily recovered for counting and for other studies. While developing Lurtox for control of Hippelates eye gnats, Mulla et al. (1973) found that moi...

  17. Experience of mating rivals causes males to modulate sperm transfer in the fly Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom A R; Lizé, Anne; Marcello, Marco; Bretman, Amanda

    2012-12-01

    Male responses to risk of sperm competition play an important role in sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the evolution of mating systems. Such responses can combine behavioural and physiological processes, and can be mediated through different components of the ejaculate such as sperm numbers and seminal proteins. An additional level of ejaculate complexity is sperm heteromorphism, with the inclusion of non-fertilising parasperm in the ejaculate. We now test the response to rivals in a sperm heteromorphic species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, measuring the behavioural response and sperm transfer and, crucially, relating these to short-term fitness. Males respond to exposure to conspecific rivals by increasing mating duration, but do not respond to heterospecific rivals. In addition, after exposure to a conspecific rival, males increased the transfer of fertilising eusperm, but not non-fertilising parasperm. Males exposed to a conspecific rival also achieve higher offspring production. This suggests that the evolution of parasperm in flies was not driven by sperm competition and adds to the increasing evidence that males can make extremely sophisticated responses to mating competition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  19. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  20. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown ...

  1. Biology of flying mammals. Allometry of flying animals; Tobu honyuruino seibutsugaku. Hiko dobutsu no allometry yori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogami, Y. [Ochanomizu University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1999-12-05

    This paper outlines the biology of flying mammals. About 3/4 of warm-blooded animals have the ability of flying. The upper limit of the size of flying animals have been explained with various models. According to a simple model assuming geometrical similarity and dynamic similarity, the minimum power required for horizontal flight is proportional to 7/6th power of the body weight, while the maximum power demonstrative in flying motion is proportional to the product of the weight percentage of the flight muscle by the workload of the muscle per unit weight by the 2/3rd power of the body weight. From this, 1.2kg is the upper limit of the body weight of bats. The power of the muscle per unit weight is substantially small compared with birds. In the case of homoiothermal animals having a closed blood vessel system, the small size increases load on the heart. This supposedly sets the lower limit of the size. The weight percentage of the heart of bats is approximately twice as much as that of other mammals, which presumably enabled miniaturization of bats. The muscle of reptiles generates an instantaneous force but lacks durability. It is inferred that the pterosaurs of the Cretaceous period had possibility of flight but that they had to spend much immobile time in recovering from fatigue. (NEDO)

  2. The mating competence of geographically diverse Leishmania major strains in their natural and unnatural sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Ehud; Akopyants, Natalia S; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Lawyer, Phillip; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Kauffmann, Florence; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Owens, Katherine; Fay, Michael; Dobson, Deborah E; Shaik, Jahangheer; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate stages of Leishmania are capable of genetic exchange during their extracellular growth and development in the sand fly vector. Here we explore two variables: the ability of diverse L. major strains from across its natural range to undergo mating in pairwise tests; and the timing of the appearance of hybrids and their developmental stage associations within both natural (Phlebotomus duboscqi) and unnatural (Lutzomyia longipalpis) sand fly vectors. Following co-infection of flies with parental lines bearing independent drug markers, doubly-drug resistant hybrid progeny were selected, from which 96 clonal lines were analyzed for DNA content and genotyped for parent alleles at 4-6 unlinked nuclear loci as well as the maxicircle DNA. As seen previously, the majority of hybrids showed '2n' DNA contents, but with a significant number of '3n' and one '4n' offspring. In the natural vector, 97% of the nuclear loci showed both parental alleles; however, 3% (4/150) showed only one parental allele. In the unnatural vector, the frequency of uniparental inheritance rose to 10% (27/275). We attribute this to loss of heterozygosity after mating, most likely arising from aneuploidy which is both common and temporally variable in Leishmania. As seen previously, only uniparental inheritance of maxicircle kDNA was observed. Hybrids were recovered at similar efficiencies in all pairwise crosses tested, suggesting that L. major lacks detectable 'mating types' that limit free genetic exchange. In the natural vector, comparisons of the timing of hybrid formation with the presence of developmental stages suggest nectomonads as the most likely sexually competent stage, with hybrids emerging well before the first appearance of metacyclic promastigotes. These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating.

  3. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Radomska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC. This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins.

  4. A review on the effect of fly ash characteristics and their variations on the synthesis of fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattimena, Oswyn K.; Antoni, Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-09-01

    There are more than four decades since the last 1970s where geopolymers concrete was first introduced and developed to use as a replacement to conventional concrete material which uses cement as a binder. And since the last two decades, geopolymers which utilized fly ash as aluminosilicate source material, i.e. fly ash based geopolymers, have been investigated. Many researchers present how to produce the best fly ash based geopolymer with a various source of constituent material as well as mixing formula to achieve exceptional concrete performance. Although there is a similar trend towards factors affecting the result of fly ash based geopolymer synthesis, there is still remain a wide range in mixture proportion. The considerable variation in fly ash characteristics as source material in the synthesis can very likely be one of the causes of this problem. This paper attempts to identify the effect of source material variation of geopolymer concrete, particularly which use fly ash as source material and focuses on the variation of its characteristics and the effects to properties of concrete. From the reviews it concluded that different sources (and even the same source, but different batch) of fly ash materials will give some different characteristics of the fly ash, where it would affect the synthesis process of the fly ash based geopolymer concretes.

  5. Effects of bromantan on offspring maturation and development of reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezhitsa, I N; Spasov, A A; Bugaeva, L I

    2001-01-01

    Bromantan (N-[2-adamantil]-N-[para-bromphenyl]amine) is an "actoprotective" drug widely used in Russia as a muscle performance-enhancing agent for sportsmen and as an immunostimulator in medicine. Experiments were conducted to determine whether this compound has adverse effects on the reproduction and development of offspring. Sexually mature female rats, weighing 180-200 g, were orally given bromantan at doses of 30 mg/kg (30-mg/kg group), 150 mg/kg (150-mg/kg group) and 600 mg/kg (600-mg/kg group) daily for 16 days, while the controls received the vehicle, amylaceous solution. Afterwards, treated females were mated with untreated males. The body weight change of the pregnant rats was monitored, as well as the length of gestation, litter size, sex ratio and number of stillborn. The offsprings were weighed and observed for external malformations, abnormalities of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes and open-field behaviour. Observation of rat dams revealed that their general state and activity in all groups did not differ significantly both during and after bromantan treatment. Bromantan had no adverse effects on body weight and gestation length of dams. Number of dams delivered per group did not differ from controls. There were stillborn rat pups in all litters, but the control group had less. One dam in the first group delivered a rat pup with a head hematoma. Litter size of the 30- and 600-mg/kg groups was decreased (by 34.9% and 44.2%, respectively) and increased in the 150-mg/kg group (by 45.1%, POpen-field testing (PND 40) resulted in an insignificant decrease of exploratory and locomotor behaviors for the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups. The number of grooming episodes was insignificantly decreased for the 30-mg/kg group and insignificantly increased for the 600-mg/kg group. In the passive avoidance testing, on the retention day (72 h later), entry latency for rat pups in the 30-, 150- and 600-mg/kg groups increased by 259.0%, 175.3% and 160

  6. Pilot oriental fruit fly management program in Guimaras island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Resilva, S.S.; Reyes, M.R.; Golez, H.G.; Covacha, S.A.; Bignayan, H.G.; Gaitan, E.G.; Zamora, N.F.; Maranon, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The pilot project on the integrated fruit fly management program based on sterile insect technique (SIT) was conducted in Guimaras island. The first island-wide male annihilation treatment (MAT) was implemented from February to October 1997. A total of 6 applications consisting of 525,534 pieces of lured particle board squares (PBS) were distributed in Guimaras both by aerial and ground applications. There was a significant reduction in fruit fly population indicating fruit fly suppression through MAT. However, MAT only reduces the male fruit fly density so many fruits were still found infested with fruit flies. Hence, biweekly releases of sterile flies were conducted from November 1997 to April 1998. About 91.74 million sterile pupae were sent by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to Guimaras. A total of 34,490,888 sterile flies were released by aerial applications and 12,632,163 sterile flies were released by ground applications. An increase in the S/N ratio was observed from 0.37 in December 1997 to 4.19 in April 1998. However, since the eradication phase was discontinued due to budgetary constraints, the required S/N ratio of more than 10 for a successful application of SIT was not achieved. A second series of MAT application were again conducted from May to September 1998. A total of 4 applications consisting of 357,650 pcs. of lured PBS were distributed throughout the island. Interestingly, the results of fruit fly density estimation before (1995) and after application (1998) of MAT and SIT using Lincoln method showed that the number of fruit flies per hectare was significantly reduced in all areas in Guimaras. Continues biweekly releases of 25 million flies therefore have to be undertaken to eradicate the remaining population. (Author)

  7. The fly eye: Through the looking glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Justin P

    2018-01-01

    The developing eye-antennal disc of Drosophila melanogaster has been studied for more than a century, and it has been used as a model system to study diverse processes, such as tissue specification, organ growth, programmed cell death, compartment boundaries, pattern formation, cell fate specification, and planar cell polarity. The findings that have come out of these studies have informed our understanding of basic developmental processes as well as human disease. For example, the isolation of a white-eyed fly ultimately led to a greater appreciation of the role that sex chromosomes play in development, sex determination, and sex linked genetic disorders. Similarly, the discovery of the Sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase pathway not only revealed how the fate of the R7 photoreceptor is selected but it also helped our understanding of how disruptions in similar biochemical pathways result in tumorigenesis and cancer onset. In this article, I will discuss some underappreciated areas of fly eye development that are fertile for investigation and are ripe for producing exciting new breakthroughs. The topics covered here include organ shape, growth control, inductive signaling, and right-left symmetry. Developmental Dynamics 247:111-123, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mechanics of the thorax in flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deora, Tanvi; Gundiah, Namrata; Sane, Sanjay P

    2017-04-15

    Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion. One such adaptation is the evolution of specialized myogenic or asynchronous muscles that power the high-frequency wing motion, in combination with neurogenic or synchronous steering muscles that control higher-order wing kinematic patterns. Additionally, passive cuticular linkages within the thorax coordinate fast and yet precise bilateral wing movement, in combination with an actively controlled clutch and gear system that enables flexible flight patterns. Thus, the study of thoracic biomechanics, along with the underlying sensory-motor processing, is central in understanding how the insect body form is adapted for flight. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Flying spin qualities testing of airplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Čedomir J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.

  10. Characterization and leaching of coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J. (University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-08-01

    Physical characteristics, chemical composition and leaching behaviour of a waste fly ash from a coal-fired power station are reported. Particle size distribution was studied by the following techniques; sedimentation in a liquid medium; sedimentation in an air flow; and Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam. Results obtained by the different methods are in good agreement. Mineralogical content and chemical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, electronic microprobe and X-ray fluorescence. Acid leaching of the samples was investigated, using the following strong acids in sequence: HCl+HNO[sub 3], H[sub 2]F[sub 2], HClO[sub 4]. Analysis of leachat by atomic absorption shows trace metals In, Tl, Ge, Cu, Ga, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Zn, Cr. In this work, fly ashes from a Spanish power plant are characterized according to the type of particles, size distribution and chemical composition by means of physical methods. Three particle size fractions are leached by acids and analysis of trace elements in the leaching liquor is carried out. The concentration of trace metals is somewhat higher in the particles of smallest size. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  12. Maternal Nutritional Status and the Risk for Orofacial Cleft Offspring in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapels, I.P.C.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Ocké, M.C.; West, C.E.; Horst, van der C.M.A.M.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Periconceptional folate and folic acid intake prevents orofacial clefts (OFC) in the offspring. It has been suggested that other nutrients also play a role. We investigated the preconceptional intake of macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, and cholesterol), vitamins (vitamin A,

  13. Incretin and glucagon levels in adult offspring exposed to maternal diabetes in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2015-01-01

    two groups exposed to maternal diabetes in utero: offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM; n = 163) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1DM; n = 146). Two reference groups were included: offspring of women with risk factors for GDM, but normoglycemia during pregnancy (O-NoGDM; n......CONTEXT: Fetal exposure to maternal diabetes is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) later in life. The pathogenesis of T2DM involves dysfunction of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), as well...... as hyperglucagonemia. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate circulating plasma levels of GLP-1, GIP, and glucagon during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in adult offspring of women with diabetes in pregnancy. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a follow-up study of 567 offspring, aged 18-27 years. We included...

  14. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in early pregnancy and school performance in 5-year-old offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noten, Anna M. E.; Loomans, Eva M.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Rotteveel, Joost; van Eijsden, Manon; Finken, Martijn J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Overt hypothyroidism in pregnant women is associated with a lower intelligence quotient in their children. More recently, subtle decreases in maternal thyroid function have also been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment in offspring. We tested the effect of hypothyroxinaemia during early

  15. Impact of prenatal hypoxia on fetal bone growth and osteoporosis in ovariectomized offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxian; Fan, Xiaorong; Tao, Jianying; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Wenna; Li, Lingjun; Li, Xiang; Ding, Hongmei; Sun, Miao; Gao, Qinqin; Xu, Zhice

    2018-03-07

    Prenatal hypoxia causes intrauterine growth retardation. It is unclear whether/how hypoxia affects the bone in fetal and offspring life. This study showed that prenatal hypoxia retarded fetal skeletal growth in rats, inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and down-regulated of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) signaling in fetal growth plate chondrocytes in vivo and in vitro. In addition, ovariectomized (OVX) was used for study of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Compared with the control, OVX offspring in prenatal hypoxic group showed an enhanced osteoporosis in the femurs, associated with reduced proteoglycan and IGF1 signaling. The results indicated prenatal hypoxia not only delayed fetal skeletal growth, but also increased OVX-induced osteoporosis in the elder offspring probably through down-regulated IGF1 signaling and inhibition of ECM synthesis, providing important information of prenatal hypoxia on functional and molecular bone growth and metabolism in fetal and offspring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian rhythm of autonomic activity in non diabetic offsprings of type 2 diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, A; Perciaccante, A; Paris, A; Serra, P; Tubani, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate, by heart rate variability (HRV) with 24-hours ECG Holter (HRV), the circadian autonomic activity in offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects and the relation with insulin-resistance. METHODS: 50 Caucasian offsprings of type 2 diabetic subjects were divided in two groups: insulin-resistant offsprings (IR) and non insulin-resistant offsprings (NIR). Autonomic nervous activity was studied by HRV. Time domain and spectral analysis (low frequency, LF, and high frequency, HF, provide markers of sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation when assessed in normalized units) were evaluated. RESULTS. Time domain showed a reduction of total SDNN in IR (p insulin resistance. The data of our study suggested that an autonomic impairment is associated with the familiarity for type 2 diabetes independently to insulin resistance and that an impairment of autonomic system activity could precede the insulin resistance. PMID:16197556

  17. Masculinization in Parents of Offspring With Autism Spectrum Disorders Could Be Involved in Comorbid ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Polderman, Tinca J C; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2017-09-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often have comorbid ADHD symptoms. ASD and ADHD are both associated with high intrauterine testosterone (T) levels. This study aims to investigate whether masculinization predicts inattention symptoms in parents, and in their ASD-affected offspring. The sample consisted of 32 parents with ASD-affected children (13 male, 19 female) and 32 offspring individuals (28 male, 4 female). Masculinization of parents was measured by 2D:4D finger ratio, and current T levels. Inattention in both parents and in their offspring was measured with behavior questionnaires. The results indicated that masculinized 2D:4D explains inattentive ADHD symptoms in ASD parents and in their offspring. These predictions are mediated by T and inattention symptoms of ASD parents, respectively. These findings suggest the existence of a masculinized endophenotype in ASD parents, which may be characterized by high attentional sensitivity to T effects.

  18. A quasi-experimental study of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Singh, Amber L.; Iliadou, Anastasia; Lambe, Mats; Hultman, Christina M.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is associated with lower academic achievement in offspring. The current study, which was based on all births in Sweden from 1983 through 1991, explored the possible causal processes underlying the association between SDP and offspring school grades and a standardized assessment of mathematic proficiency at age 15. The analyses compared relatives who varied in their exposure to SDP and who varied in their genetic relatedness. Although SDP was statistically associated with academic achievement when comparing unrelated individuals, the results suggest that SDP does not cause poorer academic performance, as full siblings differentially exposed to SDP did not differ in their academic scores. The pattern of results suggests that genetic factors shared by parents and their offspring explain significant variance in why offspring opposed to SDP have lower levels of academic achievement. Nevertheless, SDP impacts pregnancy-related outcomes. Reducing SDP, therefore, remains a major public health issue. PMID:20331655

  19. Assessing Variations in Developmental Outcomes Among Teenage Offspring of Teen Mothers: Maternal Life Course Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilchrist, Lewayne D; Beadnell, Blair A; Lohr, Mary Jane; Yuan, Chaoyue; Hartigan, Lacey A; Morrison, Diane M

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated potential heterogeneity in development among offspring (age 17) of teen mothers and maternal life course as correlates of variation. Using latent class analysis, subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified. Maternal standing in two life course realms (i.e., socioeconomic and domestic) was considered as a potential explanation for heterogeneity in offspring's development. Offspring reported on measures assessing their psychological, academic, and behavioral development. Teen mothers reported on measures of life course realms. Three subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified: on track (52%), at risk (37%), and troubled (11%). Findings suggest that economic hardship and number of pregnancies among teen mothers distinguish developmental patterns among teenage offspring, whereas teen mothers' educational attainment and marital status do not. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  20. Selection Component Analysis of Natural Polymorphisms using Population Samples Including Mother-Offspring Combinations, II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1981-01-01

    Population samples including mother-offspring combinations provide information on the selection components: zygotic selection, sexual selection, gametic seletion and fecundity selection, on the mating pattern, and on the deviation from linkage equilibrium among the loci studied. The theory...

  1. Power assessment for genetic association study of human longevity using offspring of long-lived subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Li, Shuxia

    2010-01-01

    and the proportional hazard model for generating individual lifespan. Family genotype data is generated using a genetic linkage program for given SNP allele frequency. Power is estimated by setting the type I error rate at 0.05 and by calculating the Armitage's chi-squared test statistic for 200 replicate samples...... the direct approach. It also has low power in detecting non-additive effect genes. Indirect genetic association using offspring from families with both parents as nonagenarians is nearly as powerful as using offspring from families with one centenarian parent. In conclusion, the indirect design can be a good......Recently, an indirect genetic association approach that compares genotype frequencies in offspring of long-lived subjects and offspring from random families has been introduced to study gene-longevity associations. Although the indirect genetic association has certain advantages over the direct...

  2. A maternal "junk-food" diet reduces sensitivity to the opioid antagonist naloxone in offspring postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugusheff, Jessica R; Ong, Zhi Yi; Muhlhausler, Beverly S

    2013-03-01

    Perinatal exposure to a maternal "junk-food" diet has been demonstrated to increase the preference for palatable diets in adult offspring. We aimed to determine whether this increased preference could be attributed to changes in μ-opioid receptor expression within the mesolimbic reward pathway. We report here that mRNA expression of the μ-opioid receptor in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) at weaning was 1.4-fold (males) and 1.9-fold (females) lower in offspring of junk-food (JF)-fed rat dams than in offspring of dams fed a standard rodent diet (control) (Pjunk-food diet results in early desensitization of the opioid system which may explain the increased preference for junk food in these offspring.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, M Pia; Koupil, Ilona; Byberg, Liisa

    2017-12-01

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring's body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex. Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Uppsala, Sweden. Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers. In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter's %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother's BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter's body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI-0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=-0·13, 95 % CI-0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=-0·54, 95 % CI-1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI-0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons. A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women's reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  4. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2015-03-08

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring

  5. Effects of Oral Maternal Administration of Caffeine on Reproductive Functions of Male Offspring of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwole, Eunice; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Oluwole, Omobola F; Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-12-20

    Caffeine was investigated for its possible fetal programming effects on reproductive function of male offspring. Sixty-five pregnant Wistar rats were grouped into four. Group 1 was control and received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated orally with 1.14, 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively. Each group was subdivided into four based on gestation days (GD) 1-7, 8-14, 15-21 and 1-21. The day of parturition was taken as postnatal day zero (0). Male offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 70. Parameters determined were: weight at birth, body weight at postnatal day 21 and 70, anogenital distance (AGD) index, sperm parameters, reproductive organ weight, histology and hormonal profile (testosterone, FSH and LH). Data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance. Level of significance was taken at PMale offspring belonging to caffeine treated dams showed dose dependent significant decreases in birth weight. Male offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 had a significant increase in their AGD index. Also, male offspring from dams treated with 1.14 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 8-14 had a significant increase in AGD index. Dams treated with 3.42 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 15-21, had a significant increase in the AGD index of their male offspring. The sperm motility of offspring from dams treated with 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine during GD 1-7 and GD 1-21 were significantly increased. Offspring of GD 8-14 and GD 15-21 dams treated with 3.42 and 5.70 mg/kg body weight of caffeine respectively, showed significantly reduced serum testosterone level. There was a significant decrease in the weight of testes of offspring from dams treated with caffeine during GD 8-14. Histological sections of testes of offspring from caffeine treated dams showed interstitial congestions, edema, reduced germinal epithelial height and detached basal membrane. Maternal caffeine exposure during different

  6. Maternal eating disorders affect offspring cord blood DNA methylation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmi, Nabila; Gaunt, Tom R; Relton, Caroline; Micali, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are chronic psychiatric disorders, common amongst women of reproductive age. ED in pregnancy are associated with poor nutrition and abnormal intrauterine growth. Increasing evidence also shows offspring of women with ED have adverse developmental and birth outcomes. We sought to carry out the first study investigating DNA methylation in offspring of women with ED. We compared cord blood DNA methylation in offspring of women with active ED ( n  = 21), past ED ( n  = 43) and age- and social class-matched controls ( n  = 126) as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Offspring of women with both active and past ED had lower whole-genome methylation compared to controls (active ED 49.1% (95% confidence intervals 50.5-47.7%), past ED 49.2% (95% CI 50.7-47.7.0%), controls 52.4% (95% CI 53.0%-51.0%)). Amongst offspring of ED women, those born to women with restrictive-type and purging-type ED had lower methylation levels compared to those of controls. Offspring of women with an active restrictive ED in pregnancy had lower whole-genome methylation compared to offspring of women with past restrictive ED. We observed decreased methylation at the DHCR24 locus in offspring of women with active pregnancy ED (effect size (ES) = - 0.124, p  = 6.94 × 10 -8 ) and increased methylation at the LGALS2 locus in offspring of women with past ED (ES = 0.07, p  = 3.74 × 10 -7 ) compared to controls. Maternal active and past ED are associated with differences in offspring whole-genome methylation. Our results show altered DNA methylation in loci relevant to metabolism; these might be biomarkers of disrupted metabolic pathways in offspring of ED mothers. Further work is needed to examine potential mechanisms and functional outcomes of the observed methylation patterns.

  7. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  8. Followup Audit of the European Theater C-9A Aircraft Flying Hour Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The audit objective was to review the flying hour program to determine the flying hours required, considering a redefined mission for the C-9A aircraft and the flying hours necessary to meet air crew...

  9. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  10. Paternal spatial training enhances offspring?s cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity in wild-type but not improve memory deficit in Alzheimer?s mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhouyi; Liu, Yanchao; Gao, Yuan; Tan, Lu; Liu, Enjie; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Gongping; Chen, Haote; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantl...

  11. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Alvaro; Hogsette, Jerome A; Coronado, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    From September 2001 through September 2002, house fly and stable fly pupae were collected weekly from three fly habitats at the University of Florida Research dairy in northcentral Florida and evaluated for parasitism. Varying parasitism percentages were observed throughout the study but they were not affected by temperature, precipitation or fly abundance. Of the 6,222 house fly pupae and 1,660 stable fly pupae that produced either a host fly or a parasitoid, 26.9% and 26.7% were parasitized...

  12. Sex dimorphism in late gestational sleep fragmentation and metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

    2015-04-01

    Excessive sleep fragmentation (SF) is common in pregnant women. Adult-onset metabolic disorders may begin during early development and exhibit substantial sex dimorphism. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunction induced by gestational SF in male mice would not be apparent in female littermates. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly in male and female offspring after late gestational SF or control sleep (SC). At 20 weeks, plasma leptin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, and insulin and glucose tolerance tests were assessed. Leptin and adiponectin, M1, and M2 macrophage messenger RNA expression and polarity were examined. Adiponectin gene promoter methylation levels in several tissues were assessed. Food intake, body weight, visceral fat mass, and insulin resistance were higher, and adiponectin levels lower in male but not female offspring exposed to gestational SF. However, dyslipidemia was apparent in both male and female offspring exposed to SF, albeit of lesser magnitude. In visceral fat, leptin messenger RNA expression was selectively increased and adiponectin expression was decreased in male offspring exposed to gestational SF, but adiponectin was increased in exposed female offspring. Differences in adipokine expression also emerged in liver, subcutaneous fat, and muscle. Increased M1 macrophage markers were present in male offspring exposed to SF (SFOM) while increased M2 markers emerged in SF in female offspring (SFOF). Similarly, significant differences emerged in the methylation patterns of adiponectin promoter in SFOM and SFOF. Gestational sleep fragmentation increases the susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in male but not in female offspring, most likely via epigenetic changes. Thus, sleep perturbations impose long-term detrimental effects to the fetus manifesting as sex dimorphic metabolic dysfunction in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Postmating sexual selection favors males that sire offspring with low fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Foged, Anne; Schilling, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Despite the costs of mating, females of most taxa mate with multiple males. Polyandrous females are hypothesized to gain genetic benefits for their offspring, but this assumes paternity bias favoring male genotypes that enhance offspring viability. We determined net male genetic effects on female...... results imply that sexually antagonistic adaptations have a major and unappreciated influence on male postmating fertilization success. Such genetic variation renders indirect genetic benefits an unlikely driver of the evolution of polyandry....

  14. Altered reward sensitivity in female offspring of cocaine-exposed fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Delaney K; Rice, Richard C; Martinez Rivera, Arlene; Donohoe, Mary; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M

    2017-08-14

    Recent rodent studies have demonstrated that parental cocaine exposure can influence offspring behavior, supporting the idea that environmental insults can impact subsequent generations. However, studies on the effects of paternal cocaine exposure are limited and multiple inconsistencies exist. In the current study, we behaviorally characterize the effects of paternal cocaine exposure in a C57BL/6J intergenerational mouse model. Male sires were administered cocaine hydrochloride (20mg/kg) or saline (0.01mL/g) once a day for 75days, and bred with drug naïve females twenty-four hours after the final injection. Offspring, separated by sex, were tested in a battery of behaviors. We found that paternal cocaine exposure altered sensitivity to the rewarding and stimulant effects of psychostimulants and natural reward (sucrose) in female offspring; female cocaine-sired offspring showed blunted cocaine preference using cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) at a low dose (5mg/kg), but displayed similar preference at a higher dose (10mg/kg) compared to saline-sired controls. Additionally, cocaine-sired female offspring exhibited higher psychomotor sensitivity to cocaine (10mg/kg) and amphetamine (2mg/kg) and consumed more sucrose. Cocaine-sired males exhibited increased psychomotor effects of cocaine and amphetamine. Male offspring also displayed an anxiety-like phenotype. No effect of paternal cocaine exposure was observed on depressive-like, learning and memory or social behavior in male or female offspring. Collectively, our findings show that paternal, chronic cocaine exposure induces intergenerational behavioral effects in male and female offspring with greatest impact on sensitivity to psychostimulants and sucrose in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of maternal exposure to social stress during pregnancy: consequences for mother and offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Paula J

    2013-01-01

    A suboptimal in utero environment, for example, as a result of maternal stress, can have detrimental effects on the pregnancy and long-term adverse 'programming' effects on the offspring. This article focuses on the effects of prenatal social stress on the mother, her pregnancy and the offspring, since these issues have ethological relevance in both animals and humans. The consequences of social stress exposure depend on when during pregnancy the stress occurs, and many of the effects on the offspring are sex specific. Social stress during early pregnancy tends to result in pregnancy loss, whereas stress exposure later in pregnancy, when the mother has already invested considerable resources in the foetuses, results in programmed offspring of low birth weight: a risk factor for various adulthood diseases. Neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in the offspring are particularly sensitive to foetal programming by prenatal stress, indicated by enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses and increased anxiety behaviour, which result from permanent changes in the offspring's brain. The dysregulation of HPA axis function may also interfere with other systems, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as there is evidence for alterations in steroidogenesis, reproductive potential and impaired reproductive/social behaviours in prenatally stressed offspring. Prenatal social stress also programmes future maternal behaviour, highlighting the potential for negative phenotypes to be transmitted to future generations. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy is transmitted to the foetuses and the foetal brain is programmed by prenatal stress and the potential to overwrite programming of the offspring are discussed.

  16. Effect of Maternal Obesity on Foetal Growth and Metabolic Health of the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal and placental conditions that are unfavourable for the embryo/foetus have long-lasting effects on different tissues and functions of the body, which may persist for life and, potentially, also be transmitted to the offspring. This review resumes current evidence on principle maternal and gestational conditions associated with unfavourable metabolic programming of the offspring, along with their mechanisms of action, either supposed or already proved.

  17. Maternal Antioxidant Supplementation Prevents Adiposity in the Offspring of Western Diet?Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sarbattama; Simmons, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the development of adiposity in the offspring. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Female Sprague Dawley rats were started on the designated diet at ...

  18. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  19. Maternal Distress during Pregnancy and Offspring Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Schou Andersen, Camilla; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft

    2012-01-01

    with offspring childhood overweight at age 7. Methods. We performed a cohort study using prospective data from 37,764 women and child dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). At a telephone interview at approximately 30 weeks gestation, the women reported whether they felt anxious, depressed......, or stressed. The 95 percentile for body mass index in an international reference defined childhood overweight at any given age. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. Results. The prevalence of overweight children at 7 years of age was 9.9%. Prenatal exposure to maternal distress during pregnancy...... was not associated with childhood overweight at 7 years of age (adjusted OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.96; 1.18)). In analyses stratified on sex, a small tendency of overweight was seen in boys (OR 1.15 (0.99; 1.33)), but not in girls (OR 0.98 (0.85; 1.13)). Conclusions. Maternal distress during pregnancy appeared to have...

  20. Small populations and offspring sex-ratio deviations in eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Miguel; Newton, Ian; Pandolfi, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    Stochastic variation of sex ratio has long been appreciated as a potential factor driving small populations to extinction, but it is not the only source of sex-ratio bias in small populations. We examined whether some consequences of sex allocation could affect extinction risk in small populations of size-dimorphic birds such as eagles. We report variations in sex ratio at fledging from a long-term study of a declining population of Spanish Imperial Eagles (Aquila adalberti). Nestling sex-ratio deviation apparently was mediated by age of breeders, whereas territory quality had no obvious effect. Adult-adult pairs produced the same proportion of both sexes in high- or low-density situations, but pairs with at least one member in nonadult plumage class produced more males. As the population declined over a period of years, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage increased; consequently, the proportion of fledgling males increased. However, when population density was high, the proportion of breeders with immature plumage decreased and more female offspring were produced. This relationship between population density, composition of breeder age, and fledgling sex ratios allowed us to make predictions of extinction risk due to nonstochastic deviations of sex ratio in small, declining populations. In the study population, on the basis of the Vortex simulation results, an estimated reduction of 42.5% in predicted mean time to extinction was attributed solely to biased sex ratio.